United States Environmental    Office of Water                       ,,  on in
                    Protection Agency           Office of Wastewater Management, 4204M
                    Clean Watersheds Needs  Survey

                    2008  Report to Congress
The EPA is submitting to Congress and publishing on its website the 15th Clean Watersheds Needs
Survey report, a comprehensive analysis of capital investments necessary to meet the nation's
wastewater and stormwater treatment and collection needs over the next 20 years.

The report documents a total need of $298.1 billion as of January 1, 2008. This total includes capital
needs for: publicly owned wastewater pipes and treatment facilities ($192.2 billion), combined sewer
overflow (CSO) correction ($63.6 billion), and stormwater management ($42.3 billion).

The Clean Watersheds Needs Survey (CWNS) 2008 is a collaborative effort between 47 states, the
District of Columbia, U.S. territories and EPA. From February 2008 through April 2009, states, the
District of Columbia, and U.S. territories collected and provided data for the report.

Needs in this report include the unfunded capital costs of projects as  of January 1, 2008 that:
      Address a water quality or a water quality-related public health problem existing as of
       January 1, 2008, or expected to occur within the next 20 years
      Meet the seven CWNS documentation criteria described in the report

Documentation criteria ensured the legitimacy of needs and the accuracy of cost and technical
information in this report. To meet the criteria, a description and location of a water quality or water
related public health problem, as well as site-specific pollution abatement measures with detailed cost
information, was required. Needs that did not meet these documentation criteria were classified as
unofficial cost estimates.

Communities across the country face significant challenges to sustaining water/wastewater
infrastructure. The report helps Congress and others effectively manage clean water infrastructure and
other pollution control needs. Congress uses the data to inform legislation; state environmental
agencies, legislatures, and governor's offices use the data to help administer environmental programs;
and academia and industry use the data to help with water quality research and technology support.

About the Clean Watersheds Needs Survey 2008 Report to Congress
The report documents an estimated national need of $298.1 billion; $187.8 billion is for wastewater
treatment and collection systems, $63.6 billion is for combined sewer overflow corrections, and $42.3
billion is for stormwater management.

The report documents a $43.4 billion (17 percent) increase (in constant 2008 dollars) in investment
needs over the 2004 CWNS report. The increase is due to a combination of improved reporting, aging
infrastructure, population growth,  and more protective water quality  standards.

In addition to the $298.1 billion in wastewater and stormwater needs, other documented needs for
nonpoint source pollution prevention ($22.8 billion) and decentralized/onsite wastewater systems

($23.9 billion) are included in an appendix to the report. These needs are not specifically noted for
inclusion in the report by section 516(B)l(b) of the Clean Water Act, and therefore are included only
in Appendix A of the report.  Out of the total documented needs of $344.8 billion in the report and
appendices, $334.5 billion is potentially eligible for Clean Water State Revolving Fund assistance,
and $81.5 billion is potentially eligible for assistance from EPA's Nonpoint Source Grants Program.

In addition to presenting needs, this report also summarizes technical information such as flows,
populations served, and treatment levels provided by facilities. The data in this report were
summarized from a comprehensive survey of more than 34,000 wastewater facilities and water quality

Wastewater Treatment Benefits
The wastewater treatment objectives of the Clean Water Act are designed to ensure that the nation's
waters are clean, fishable, and swimmable. At wastewater plants in thousands of communities around
the country, biological processes (secondary treatment) remove most of the organic matter in
wastewater, while advanced treatment processes such as filtration or UV irradiation remove additional
organic  matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, or toxins. Advanced treatment of wastewater minimizes negative
impacts such as damage to wildlife and ecosystems. The population provided with advanced
wastewater treatment has increased from 7.8 million people in 1972 to 113.0 million people in 2008.

If the needs specified in this report are met, the number of publicly owned wastewater treatment
facilities that provide biological treatment or more advanced treatment or that do not discharge to
surface waters is projected to increase by 6 percent from 14,625 to 15,451  over the next 20 years. The
population being served by those facilities is projected to increase by 26 percent. Overall, EPA
projects that a total of 15,618 facilities will serve a future population of 284.2 million people, or
79 percent of the U.S. population.

How to Get Additional  Information
The entire CWNS 2008 Report to Congress, as well as all data collected for the report, is available at
http ://www. epa.gov/cwns.
                              OFFICE OF WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT
                             US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                         1200 PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE, N.W. (MAIL CODE 4204M)
                                     WASHINGTON, B.C. 20460
                                     EPA 832-F-10-010; May 2010