United States            Office of Water            EPA-840-B-99-001
                Environmental Protection      (4501F)                March 1999
                Agency                Washington, DC 20460

4>EPA      Water Drop  Patch  Program
                 GIRL SCOUTS-
                Girl Scout Council of the Nation's Capital
                4301 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
                Washington, D.C. 20008
                (202) 237-1670
                (202) 274-2160-TDD (Telecommunications
                Device for the Hearing Impaired)

           his Patch program was jointly developed by the Environmental Protection Agency
           and the Girl Scout Council of the Nation's Capital. The purpose of the program is
           to encourage girls to:

           4  Make a difference in their communities by becoming watershed and
              wetlands stewards

           A  Use their skills  and their knowledge to educate others in their community
              about the need to protect the  nation's valuable water resources

           A  Explore the natural world to gain an interest in science and math

           A  Use the Internet  as a source of information
                                                                 GIRL SCOUTS-
             Thanks to the passage of the Clean Water Act 25 years ago, America has seen much
              progress in cleaning up the nation's rivers,  lakes, streams, and coastal waters.  In
              1972, the Potomac River was too dirty for human contact, aquatic life in Lake Erie
                   was dying and Ohio's Cuyahoga River was so polluted, it caught fire. Many
                     rivers and beaches were little more than open sewers.  Conditions in these
                       and thousands of other waterbodies are much better today. The nation
                       has made tremendous progress  in addressing  pollution from sewage
                       treatment plants and industrial facilities.

                  Despite  these accomplishments, many  challenges remain, including threats
to human health.  Approximately 40 percent of monitored  waters fail to meet state water quality
standards,  which means that they do not support basic uses like swimming and fishing.  Al-
though wetlands  losses have slowed,  the nation continues  to lose about 100,000 wetlands acres
per year. A disturbing number of freshwater fish species are now threatened or endangered.

Many of the remaining pollution problems come from many different sources—not just from a
pipe.  Polluted runoff from  city and suburban streets, construction sites, and farms is the pri-
mary reason many of our waters are  not fishable or swimmable.  Tackling these problems will
not be easy.  But Girl  Scouts can help make a difference by becoming watershed stewards in
their communities.

Table  of Contents
   I.  Background Information
      1. Watersheds
      2. Nonpoint Source Pollution
      3. Wetlands and their Basic Characteristics
      4. Groundwater/Drinking Water

  II.  Patch Requirements
      Brownies (pages 6-7)
      Juniors (pages 6-7)
      Cadettes (pages 6-8)
      Seniors (pages 6-9)
 III.  Community Projects and Hands-on Activities
      1. Do's and Don'ts Around the Home (All Ages)
      2. Storm Drain Stenciling Project Guidelines (Cadettes <& Seniors)
      3. Low-Cost Biological Monitoring: the Stream Sentinel (Seniors)
      4. Stream Cleanup Guidelines (Cadettes <& Seniors)
      5. Streamwalk (Cadettes <& Seniors)
      6. Healthy Stream Critters (Cadettes and Seniors)
      7. Build Your Own Aquifer (Cadettes <& Seniors)

  IV.  Glossary
   V.  Resources

  VI.  Certificate of Recognition

  Background  Information
What is a  Watershed?
A watershed is a land area from which water drains
into a receiving body of water. Receiving bodies
of water can include  streams, lakes, wetlands, es-
tuaries, and groundwater. Watersheds come in dif-
ferent shapes and sizes, and local watersheds are
subwatersheds  (or subbasins) of larger, regional
ones. The  Potomac watershed, for example, is a
subbasin of the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed.

What is Nonpoint Source Pollution?
Unlike pollution from factories and sewage treat-
ment plants, nonpoint source pollution comes from
many different areas with no particular place of
origin.  It is caused by rainfall or snowmelt mov-
ing  over and through the ground. As the runoff
moves, it picks up and carries away natural and
human-made pollutants, finally depositing them
into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal  waters, and
even underground sources  of drinking water.
These pollutants include:

*  Excess fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides
   from farms, cities, and suburban streets
*  Oil, grease, and toxic chemicals from urban
   runoff and  energy production

*  Sediment from improperly managed construc-
   tion sites, crop and forest lands,  and eroding
*  Salt from irrigation practices and acid drain-
   age from abandoned mines
*  Bacteria and nutrients from livestock, pet
   wastes, and faulty septic systems

Acid rain and changes to stream flow, such as dams
and concrete channels, are  also sources of nonpoint
source pollution. Acid rain, much of which comes
from cars  and  power plants, is rich  in nitrogen,
which can overstimulate the growth of aquatic
weeds and algae.  This in turn can deplete  oxygen
and kill aquatic life. Channelization reduces the
ability of streams to assimilate or absorb waste and
disturbs fish breeding areas.
What is a  Wetland?
Wetlands are areas of land that are wet at least part
of the year. Wetlands are populated by plants well
adapted to grow in standing water or saturated
soils. There are many different types of wetlands,
including marshes, bogs, fends, swamps, prairie
potholes, and bottomland hardwood forests.  Wet-
lands may not  always appear to be wet. Many
dry  out for extended periods of time.  Others may
appear dry on the surface but  are saturated un-

What are the Basic
Characteristics  of  Wetlands?
Wetlands share  three basic characteristics: 1) hy-
drology (water), 2) hydric soils (soils that form due
to presence of water), and 3) hydrophytic vegeta-
tion (plants adapted to living in soils that  are  satu-
Wetland  Benefits
These complex ecosystems play an important role
in the health of our environment  and the quality
of our water.  Wetlands provide support for:

*  Fish and wildlife habitats

*  Complex food webs

*  Water absorption to reduce storm flooding and

*  Sediment traps

*  Erosion control

*  Water quality

*  Groundwater replenishment;
   maintaining  flows in streams
   by  releasing water during
   dry periods

*  Open space and aesthetic value

What  is
Beneath  the land's surface.
water resides in two general
zones, the saturated  and the
unsaturated.   The unsatur-
ated zone lies directly be-
neath the land surface, where
air and water fill in the pore
spaces between soil and rock
particles.  Water saturates the
zone beneath the unsatur-
ated zone in most cases.
The term "groundwater" refers to water in the satu-
rated zone. This water is an important natural re-
source and used for many purposes,  including
drinking  water, irrigation and livestock uses.

Half the water used in the United States for drink-
ing water comes from groundwater.

Surface water replenishes (or recharges) ground-
water when it percolates through the unsaturated
zone.  Therefore, the unsaturated zone plays an
important role in groundwater hydrology and may
act as a pathway for groundwater contamination.
Groundwater can move laterally and emerge at
discharge sites, such as springs on hill sides, or seep
in from the bottoms  of streams,  lakes, wetlands,
and oceans.  Therefore, groundwater affects sur-
face water quantity and quality because polluted
groundwater can contaminate surface  waters.
Conversely, some surface waters, such as wetlands,
hold flood waters and allow them to soak slowly
into the groundwater.  When wetlands are filled
or drained, groundwater may dry up.
         Oid You Know?
     Half the water used in the
     United States for drinking
          water comes from
    The Environmental  Protection  Agency is requiring water suppliers to  put
    annual  drinking water reports  in the hands of their customers. Between
    April and October  1999,  and  by July 1, thereafter, water suppliers  will
    be providing "Consumer Confidence Reports." These  reports, which will be
    issued  in utility bills, will  provide fundamental information, including,  for
    example, the source of  your local drinking water (lake, river, aquifer, or
    other source), its susceptibility to contamination, and the level or range of
    any  contaminants found.

Girl  Scout  Patch  Requirements
  Brownies—Do any four of the first nine requirements
  Juniors—Do any five of the first nine requirements
  Cadettes—Do any six of the first thirteen requirements
  Seniors—Do any seven of the twenty requirements
        Using the list of "Do's and Don'ts in the Home (pages 10 and 11) identify three to five
        things you and your family can do to prevent polluted runoff from your home and lawn.
        Develop a plan based on what you know your family has done in the past.  Share your plan
        with  your troop.

        Wetlands provide many benefits.  They help reduce flooding, sustain stream flow, filter pol-
        luted waters, provide habitat for wildlife, and support biological diversity.   Visit the new
        Wetlands Exhibit at the National Zoo or another wetland sanctuary  (see page 7).  Using the list
        on page 4,  how many wetland characteristics can you find?

I        Enter the international "River of Words" Poetry and Art contest.  The contest,  open to youth
        between the ages of 5  to  19, invites children to  explore and interpret their local watershed
        through the arts. To obtain an entry form or more information, contact International Rivers
        Network,1847 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94703;  Tel: (510) 848-1155 or download an entry
        form from the internet: www.irn.org/row/row.html

        The Chesapeake Bay is home to more than 27,000 species of plants and animals. How many
        kinds of wildlife can you identify that live in the Bay watershed (e.g., crabs, oysters, waterfowl
        and fish)? Why are underwater bay grasses (SAV) important?  Check your answers by calling
        the Chesapeake Bay Program Office at  1(800)YOUR-BAY or visit their web page at
        www.chesapeakebay.net/bayprogram/index.htm.  Click on "bay  and ecosystem."

        Go on a hike with your troop and  follow a local creek or stream.  Where does the stream
        ultmately drain? What does it pick up along the way? What happens when it rains? How
        does the stream change? What insects, birds, plant or aquatic life do you observe? Use a
        United States Geological Survey (USGS) map or draw your own to illustrate your local
        watershed. USGS maps can be obtained by calling  1(800)435-7627  (cost $4.00 each).   Share
        with  others what you have learned.

        Create an attractive  wall mural about how water is used by coloring posters from the United
        States Geological Survey (USGS).  Call 1-800-435-7627 or send a fax to (303) 202-4693.
        (Posters are available in both color and black & white—the color version includes activities
        on the back).  Put up your mural where others in the  community can  see it.

Visit a local  aquarium to  see specimens of aquatic life.  Share your experiences with your
troop and family.  The Baltimore Aquarium (Pratt Street, Baltimore; (410) 576-3800) and the
National Aquarium in Washington, D.C. (14th and  Constitution, NW; (202) 482-2825) offer
some wonderful exhibits.

Visit a  local sewage treatment plant or water filtration plant to see how wastewater is
treated or drinking water is purified.    Look at the treated water as it is being discharged into
your river, stream or estuary.  Is it clear?  Does it stink?

Participate in a special wetlands activity during the month  of May to help celebrate American
Wetlands Month. Visit the Terrene Institute's Web  Page for more ideas for special wetland
activities at http://www.terrene.org/awm.htm.  Or call the Terrene Institute at (703) 548-
          Examples of  Wetlands and Wildlife Sanctuaries in  the
                      Washington,  D.C. Metropolitan  Area

                                  National Zoo Wetlands Exhibit
                                        Washington, D.C.
                                         (202) 673-4821

                         Discovery Creek Children's Museum of Washington
                                   Glen Echo Park, Washington
                                         (202) 364-3111

                                    Huntley Meadows Park
                                        Alexandria, VA
                                         (703) 768-2525

                                       Woodend Sanctuary
                                     Chevy Chase,  MD 20815
                                      (301) 652-9188 ext. 3008

                                   Jug Bay  Wetlands Sanctuary
                                       Lothian, MD 20711
                                         (410) 741-9330

                               Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge
                                          Lorton , VA
                                         (703) 490-4947

                                         Occoquan Bay
                                Woodbridge,  VA (open on weekends)
                                         (703) 490-4947

                                Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge
                                          Laurel,  MD
                                         (301) 497-5760
       Call to inquire about educational programs. Some may require reservations and admisson fees.

Work with your troop to organize a Storm Drain Stenciling Project in your neighborhood.
Produce and distribute a flyer or door hanger for local households to make them aware of
your project  and to remind them that storm drains dump directly into your local waterbody.
Guidelines for the project are on pages  12-13.

Go on a stream, wetlands, or lake walk and make observations and assessments of waterbody
conditions. See Page 16 for streamwalk guidelines. Call EPA's Region 10 Office at (206) 553-
1200 to request a teacher's guide, other manuals, and data collection sheets.

Do a display or presentation on groundwater and how pollutants threaten its purity.  Show
where your drinking water comes from. (Girl Scouts  can check  their family water utility bill
or visit EPA's web page  at www.epa.gov/surf2/locate/. Click on "Where does  my drinking
water come from?") Make an Aquifer Model (See Pages 28-29) part  of your presentation.

Design a "mock-up" of your watershed. Share it with younger groups. Use EPA's Locate Your
Watershed (www.epa.gov/surf) and Index of Watershed Indicators web sites (www.epa.gov/
surf/iwi/) or  resources list to create it.

Share your knowledge of water pollution with younger children, perhaps Daisy or Brownie
Girl  Scouts  or a local elementary school class.  Consider doing a presentation about the
Chesapeake  Bay. Discuss threats to the Bay, including excess nutrients and  habitat loss.
Highlight things that Girl Scouts and their families can do to protect water quality (e.g., Do's
and Don'ts  on pages 10  and 11)  Visit the  Chesapeake  Bay Program's web  page at
www.chesapeakebay.net/bayprogram/index.htm or call the Bay Office at 1(800)YOUR-
BAY. The web page has a set of slides and talking  points  you can  download.
Did you Know?
• The Chesapeake Bay  is an estuary where salt and fresh water mix.
• The Bay receives about half of its water volume from the Atlantic
  Ocean (salt water). The rest (fresh water) drains into the Bay
  from an enormous  64,000-square-mile drainage basin or water-
• The watershed includes parts of six states  (DE, MD, NY, PA,
  VA. and  WV) and  the District of Columbia.
• Ninety percent of  the fresh water entering the Bay comes from five
  major rivers: the Rappahannock, the Susquehanna (responsible for 50%),
  the Potomac, the James, and the York.
• The Bay  is the largest estuary in North America.
• The Bay  is home to 27,000  species of plants and animals.

        Work with troops in your service unit and your local gov-
        ernment  and  organize  a stream,  wetland  or  beach
        cleanup.   Consider joining the  annual  International
        Coastal Cleanup sponsored by the  Center for Marine
        Conservation (CMC) held every  September.   See re-
        sources list on pages 32-33. Be sure to follow safety guide-
        lines on page 14.

                4    Keep track of the kinds of trash collected.  If it is
               primarily coming  from  fast  food restaurants, consider
               working with local restaurant owners to put up signs encour-
               people not to litter in their community.

        4      If possible, separate the trash for recycling.  Have different colored bags for
        paper, plastic, glass, and aluminum

        4      Take before and after photos of your efforts.  Send them to a local  paper to
        publicize your efforts.

Create a Wildlife Habitat in your Backyard or Troop Meeting location.  Contact the Natural
Resources Conservation Service to obtain a free, 28-page booklet that outlines 10 conservation
projects for backyards  or neighborhoods.   Call 1-888-LANDCARE or download  a copy at
Find a watershed group active in your community (or in the Chesapeake Bay watershed) and
volunteer to help with a project (e.g., tree planting, oyster restoration project, etc.)  Use the
Environmental Protection Agency's Adopt Your Watershed Internet site (www.epa.gov/surf/
adopt) to find  a group  or see pages 32-33 for a list of some local organizations.

Sponsor a Groundwater Festival or Watershed Festival in Your Community to  raise aware-
ness about the importance of clean water and watershed protection.  (See list of resources on
pages 32-33).

Identify several women working in  water resource protection and invite them to come to
speak to your troop about their career.
        Become a Volunteer Water Quality Monitor.  Help collect quality data and build stewardship
        for your local waterbody. Attend a training workshop to learn proper monitoring techniques
        and safety rules (See resources list on pages 32-33).  Or  work with your troop to construct a
        "stream sentinel" and conduct biological monitoring at a local outfall, pond or lake (See
        page 15).
                                               Safety First!!!
        Any activities  in or near the  water  can  pose serious safety hazards.  Carefully read Safety-Wise
        pages 23,  86-88, 102,  and  109  before beginning  any of the  field activities  described in this  guide.
        Heavy  rubber  gloves are strongly recommended for  all cleanup activities.   Stream walks, debris
        cleanups, and water quality monitoring activities, including  the Stream Sentinel, require Council Approval.  Send
        the Request for Council Permission  Form to GSCNC  Program Department, 4301  Connecticut
        Avenue,  NW,  Washington,  D.C.  20008.

  Proiects  and   Activities
Do's and  Don'ts  Around  the  Home  (All  Ages)
When rain falls or snow melts, the seemingly small
amounts of chemicals and other pollutants in your
driveway, on your lawn and on your street are
washed into  storm drains.  In many older cities,
the stormwater runoff is not treated and runoff
flows directly into  rivers, streams, bays and lakes.
Pollutants in this runoff can affect fish and other
aquatic animals and make water unsafe for drink-
ing and swimming.

What can you do  to help protect  surface and
ground waters from polluted runoff? Start at home.
Take a close look at practices around your house
that might contribute to polluted runoff. The fol-
lowing are some do's and don'ts to help you be-
come part of the solution, instead of part of the

Household Products
*  Properly dispose of household hazardous waste.
   Many common household products (oven clean-
   ers and bleach, paint thinners, moth balls, char-
   coal lighters, wood stain, furniture cleaners, bug
   sprays,  and herbicides, etc.) contain toxic  ingre-
   dients. Carefully read labels to determine which
   products are hazardous.

*  Never pour unwanted household hazardous
   wastes on the ground or down the drain or toi-
   let. The chemicals will poison the soil and water.
   Take unwanted household chemicals to hazard-
   ous waste collection centers. Call your County
   Solid Waste Management Office to find out col-
   lection dates and times.

*  Select less toxic alternatives or use non-toxic sub-
   stitutes wherever possible. Baking soda, distilled
   white vinegar, lemon juice and ammonia, are safe
   alternatives to caustic chemicals. And they save
   you money.

*  Buy chemicals only in the amount you expect to
   use, and apply them  only as directed.
* Use low-phosphate or phosphate-free detergents.
  Excess nutrients overstimulate the growth of
  aquatic weeds and algae, which can deplete oxy-
  gen and kill aquatic life.

* Never indiscriminately spray pesticides, either in-
  doors or outdoors, where a pest problem has not
  been identified. Dispose of excess pesticides at
  hazardous waste collection centers.

* Recycle used oil  . antifreeze, and car batteries
  by taking them to service stations and other re-
  cycling centers. Never put used oil or other
  chemicals down stormdrains  or in  drainage
   Home Cleaning Products

   General, multi-purpose cleaner ( for
   ceramic tiles, linoleum, porcelain, etc.):
   Measure 1/4 cup baking soda, 1/2 cup white
   vinegar, and 1 cup ammonia into a container.
   Add to a gallon of warm water and stir until
   baking soda dissolves.

   Furniture polish: Use beeswax, or beeswax
   and olive oil. Or mix 2 teaspoons of lemon oil
   and 1 pint  of mineral oil in a spray can.

   Window Cleaner: 3 tablespoons of ammonia,
   1 taplespoon of white vinegar and 3/4 cup of
   water.  Put into a spray bottle.
Landscaping and  Gardening
*  Select plants with low requirements for water,
   fertilizers, and pesticides.

*  Preserve existing trees and plant trees and shrubs
   to help prevent erosion and promote infiltration
   of water into the soil.


*  Leave lawn clippings on your lawn so that nutri-
   ents in the clippings are recycled and less yard
   waste goes to landfills.

*  If your family uses a professional lawn care ser-
   vice, select a company that employs trained tech-
   nicians and minimizes the use of fertilizers and

*  Use compost and mulch  ( such as grass clippings
   or leaves) to reduce your need for fertilizers and
   pesticides. Compost is a  valuable soil conditioner
   which gradually releases nutrients to your lawn
   and garden. In addition, compost retains mois-
   ture in  the soil and thus helps you conserve wa-
   ter.  Information about  composting is available
   from your county extension  agent.

*  Spread  mulch on bare ground to help prevent ero-
   sion and runoff.

4  Limit fertilizer use. Over-fertilization is  a  com-
   mon problem, and the excess can leach into
   groundwater or contaminate  rivers or lakes.

4  Do not apply pesticides or fertilizers before or dur-
   ing rain. If they run off  into  the water, they will
   kill fish and other  aquatic organisms.

Water Conservation
Homeowners can significantly  reduce the volume
of wastewater discharged to home septic systems
and sewage treatment plants by conserving wa-
ter. If you have a septic system, by decreasing your
water usage you can help prevent your system
from  overloading and contaminating ground-
water and surface  water.

*  Use    low-flow  faucets,    shower   heads,
   reduced-flow toilet flushing equipment, and wa-
   ter saving appliances such as dish and clothes

*  Wash your car only when necessary; use a bucket
   to save water. Alternatively,  go to a commercial
   carwash that uses water efficiently and disposes
   of runoff properly.
           Oid You Know?
           One quart of oil can
     contaminate up to two million
        gallons of drinking water!
*  Use dishwashers and clothes washers only when
   fully loaded.

*  Take short showers  instead of baths and avoid
   letting faucets run unnecessarily.

*  Repair leaking faucets, toilets,  and pumps.

4  Do  not  over-water your lawn  or  garden.
   Over-watering may increase leaching of fertiliz-
   ers to groundwater.

4  When your lawn  or garden needs watering, use
   slow-watering techniques such as trickle irriga-
   tion or soaker hoses, such devices reduce runoff
   and are 20-percent more effective  than sprinklers.

Other Areas Where  You Can
Make a Difference
*  Clean up  after your pets. Pet waste contains vi-
   ruses and bacteria that can contaminate surface
   and groundwater.

4  Drive only when necessary. Driving less reduces
   the amount of pollution your car  generates. Cars
   and trucks emit tremendous amounts of airborne
   pollutants, which increase acid rain. They also de-
   posit toxic metals and petroleum byproducts into
   the environment.

*  Write or call your elected representatives to in-
   form them about your concerns  and encourage
   legislation to protect water resources.

4  Become involved  in local planning and  zoning in
   your community. That is where the decisions are
   made that  shape the  course of development and
   the future quality of the environment.

Storm  Drain Stenciling

Project  Guidelines
(Recommended for Cadettes  and Seniors)

A storm drain stenciling project consists of stencil-
ing a message next to the street drain reminding
people "Dump No Waste- Drains to River" with
the image of a fish. (Stencils are also available for
lake,  stream, bay, groundwater,  ocean or simply
"protect your water" with the image of a glass and
faucet.)  Steps  to consider when conducting a sten-
ciling project:

First, Call for Permission.   For public streets, call
the city or  County  Public Works  Department
(stormwater or road maintenance  division). In
some  cases, the  State  Highway Administration has
jurisdiction  (see adjacent box for help).  Public
Works will probably issue a  permit or letter of ap-
proval. They may even help by providing  storm
drain  maps,  traffic safety cones, flags and  vests.
Check to see if they prefer that you  stencil on the
side walk, or on the street next to the drain. For
some  drains  on private property (e.g., business or
apartment parking lots), get  the permission of the
property owner.

Consider Safety.  Especially when stenciling with
children, seriously consider traffic  safety issues
when  you select your  site. Neighborhoods are usu-
ally safer than  downtown city streets  (many
nonpoint sources go  down  storm drains in resi-
dential neighborhoods). Place traffic  safety  cones
and assign at least one person with a traffic  flag to
watch traffic at all times.

Prepare Materials.  Before  using stencils for the
first time, "weed" remaining letters from the die
cuts. This  avoids small plastic or oilboard pieces
washing into drains while you are stenciling.
"Stencil weeding" is a good activity for a short
training meeting before going out  to paint. For
painting, an aerosol can or traffic-zone latex paint
(without chlorofluorocarbons  (CFCs)  that harm the
ozone) is a good option. Some stencilers use a small
roller  or stencil
brush with recycled latex
based paints. Be careful that younger
stencilers do not apply the paint too thickly,
as it will run under the stencil or smear the letters.

Call the Media. Notifying the media of a stencil-
ing event can get your watershed protection mes-
sage out to the whole community.  Young  people
in the project enhance media photo opportunities.
Remember to take your own pictures, too.

        Help for Storm Drain
          Stenciling Projects

   Many   local  watershed  groups   and
   county  governments  offer  help  with
   stenciling projects. The Chesapeake Bay
   Foundation in Annapolis provides  sten-
   cils  on loan, guidelines  on how to con-
   duct a project, and  tips on who to con-
   tact to obtain permission. Call Heather
   Tuckfield  at  410-268-8816.

   The Friends of Four-Mile Run in Ar-
   lington County has  offered to  help Girl
   Scouts in  Virginia. The  Friends can help
   troops obtain necessary permission and
   can  help  with  press releases  and  com-
   munity brochures.  Call Don Waye at

   The Center  for  Marine  Conservation
   (CMC)  sponsors  a  "Million  Points of
   Blight" national  storm drain stencil-
   ing  campaign.  Call  Ron Ohrel at  (757)
   496-0920 to request  stencils on loan and
   project guidelines.    CMC's  address:
   1432 North  Great  Neck Road,  Suite
   103, Virginia Beach, VA 23454. (  fax

Avoid a Mess. Remind stencilers to wear old
clothes. Rubber gloves and protective eye gear are
helpful, as are  plastic bags worn over expensive
shoes.  Bring rags to cleanup unexpected paint on
your arms or fingers. Also include big litter bags
to bring back used gloves and rags as  well as any
garbage you pick up which otherwise could  go
down the  storm drain.  Paint spray can drift onto
nearby parked cars,  so bring a large box opened
flat to use as a shield around the stencil as you

Work in Teams of Four to Six. The team should
include a traffic look-out.   Another two  team
members  accompanied by an  adult may go to-
gether door-to-door explaining the watershed
drainage, your monitoring findings, local river fish
and wildlife, and actions neighbors can take to
avoid pollution ( see flyer information below).  Ro-
tate jobs for maximum enjoyment.

Tips for Applying Stencils. Scrub the  area briskly
with a wire brush and dust it off with a wisk broom.
Lay the stencil on the sidewalk or street next to the
storm drain.  If using spray paint, shake the can
and hold it about six to eight inches from the sten-
cil. Use a series of short back and forth motions to
spray one line at a time until the letters  are uni-
formly covered.  Do not use too much paint as it
will run underneath and blur the letters.  When
finished, carefully lift the stencil up off the  street.
It may take a little experience in the beginning to
adjust the  amount of paint.  After finishing all the
stenciling for the day,  lay the  stencils out flat to
dry in a warm place.  When the paint is completely
dry, gently roll the mylar stencils to chip off the
paint.  This works best if the paint does not build
up a thick layer between cleanings.

Prepare a Flyer or Doorhanger.  After stenciling a
message that tells neighborhood people what not
to do  (Dump No Waste), Girl Scouts can hand out
and discuss a flyer or  door hanger explaining:
 *  use fewer chemicals on lawns & gardens

 *  save household hazardous chemicals for collec-
   tion days  (give dates and location)

 *  pick up waste  that would otherwise wash down
   storm drains

 *  other stewardship opportunities

 Add local information for a sense of place:

 *  Where do neighborhood drains go—into  what
   river, bay, lake or aquifer

 *  If drains connect to combined sewer overflows
   (CSOs), how do they work?  What happens with
   overflows during storm water  events? (They go
   straight to the river.)

 *  Who lives near or in the river? (Names of local
   species of fish, birds, and other critters.)

 *  What restoration projects are underway to clean
   up or replant streamsides, build and  install bird
   or bat boxes, maintain local trails,  etc.

 *  How can  community  members   help  with

 These guidelines  were adapted and reprinted
 with permission from Rhonda  Hunter,  the
founder  of Earthwater Stencils,  4425 140th
Avenue, SW, Dept.  V, Rochester, WA 98579-
 9703.   Phone:  (360)-956-3774. On the WEB
 at www.earthwater-stencils.com.   The  article
 was adapted from a story that appeared  in
 The Volunteer  Monitor  newsletter, Volume
 7, No.  2, Fall 1995.
4  recycle used oil at nearby listed locations

Stream/Beach  Cleanup  Safety  Checklist
(Cadettes and Seniors  only—should not be  done by Brownies  or Juniors)
Please read Safety Wise before beginning this activity
Before the cleanup...
4  Check with your local Department of Health or State
   Environmental Office about potential health con-
   cerns with the waterbody (e.g., pfiesteria, poor water
   quality, currents, mosquitos, rats, etc.)

*  Ask for necessary permission to cleanup at your
   site.  Make arrangements with the  appropriate
   local officials to let them know the location, days,
   and times of your cleanup so they can come haul
   away the trash.  They may be  willing to give a
   talk about the history, wildlife, or environmental

4  Make sure that someone knows  where, when, and
   for how long you will be  out.

*  Develop  a safety plan. Find out the location and
   telephone number of the  nearest phone.  Locate
   the nearest medical  center and write down direc-

*  Have each member of the cleanup team complete
   a permission slip and a medical form that includes
   emergency contacts, insurance information, and
   pertinent  health  information such as allergies,
   diabetes, epilepsy, etc.

*  Listen to weather reports. Never conduct  a
   cleanup if severe weather is predicted or a storm
   occurs while  at the site.

*  Have a first aid kit  handy. See  SAFETY WISE
   It's best if at least one team member has first aid/
   CPR training.
At the cleanup site  ...
*  Leave syringes and needles alone!  Notify some-
   one in charge and mark the spot with a flag or a
   large rock so someone can find it later.

4  Don't walk on unstable stream banks. This could
   be  dangerous as well as cause erosion.   Stay off
   dunes and  avoid nesting areas.

*  If you must walk across the stream, use a walk-
   ing stick because the stream bottom could be slip-
   pery, treacherous, and even contain deep pools.
   Do not attempt to walk across streams that are
   swift and above the knee in depth. These can be
   extremely  dangerous.

4  Look out for poisonous plants,  such as poison ivy,
   poison oak, sumac. These can cause rashes and
   skin irritation.

*  Watch for  wildlife—snakes,  ticks, hornets, and
   wasps. Also beware of large animals like dogs,
   alligators, snapping turtles, and farm animals.

*  Wear rubber gloves Hike dishwashing gloves)
   to protect hands and arms. Be careful  with bro-
   ken glass and rusty cans.

*  Always stay with a buddy. Teams of three or four
   are probably best.

*  If you see anything abnormal  (such as dead fish,
   oil spills, leaking barrels, and other pollution)
   contact your city or county environmental de-
   partment right away and report the nature and
   location of the problem.
   Suggested Items to  Bring or Wear

   Shoes or boots that offer coverage & support.
   Rubber gloves (like dishwashing gloves) to protect hands and arms.
   Safety vests (brightly colored)
   Large Plastic Bags
   Heavy sacks for sharp objects
   Medications (e.g. for  bee allergies, diabetes, if needed)
   Insect repellant
   List of emergency contacts, including a telephone number nearest to the site
   Cell Phone

Low-Cost Biological  Monitoring—
The  Stream  Sentinel
(Seniors only)
The device pictured at right costs less than one dol-
lar and is used by the city of Forth Worth Depart-
ment of Environmental Management (DEM) for
biological monitoring of storm drainage systems.
especially in outfalls. Outfalls are pools of water
located where a storm drain pipe discharges to sur-
face waters. The unit was originally designed by
former DEM staff John Falkenbury, and redesigned
by staff members Gene Rattan and Brian Camp.
who dubbed it the "stream sentinel." Basically, the
sentinel is a 2-liter plastic soft-drink bottle with
holes, attached to a Styrofoam float and tied to an
anchor (a brick).

The stream sentinel is placed in an outfall pool,
stocked with six fathead minnows, and checked
at regular intervals. (Fort Worth  DEM usually
checks their sentinels once or twice a week). If the
fish die, it is likely that a pollutant is present at
some time since the last check. If they don't die,
they are released after two weeks. The device can
be placed in any outfall that has enough water to
keep it afloat and can be left  in place indefinitely,
as long as it's restocked with fresh minnows every
two weeks. Rattan says, "If you don't see toxicity
after 2 months, you have a very good urban site.
If you don't see any toxicity after 6 months, you've
got an excellent urban site."

The big advantage of the stream  sentinel is that it
permits round-the-clock monitoring.  As Camp ex-
plains, "Storm drain pollution is mostly intermit-
tent and transitory, so the odds of identifying toxic
discharges with one-time sampling are  low. But
the fish stay in the water 24 hours a day."

Because the unit is so cheap and easy to make
and use, it has great potential for monitoring
groups and class  room teachers. It can be used in
creeks and ponds as well  as storm drain outfalls.
Fort Worth DEM staff raise their own fathead min-
nows, and they say this is the trickiest part of the
whole procedure. Most volunteer groups will
probably opt to obtain their minnows from a bait
This article was
reprinted and
adapted with
permission. It
appeared in The
Monitor Newslet-
ter, Vol. 7, No.
                 The Stream Sentinel

shop or local university biology department. If
fatheads are not available, Rattan says other min-
nows can be substituted, as long as they are not
too pollution tolerant, and not overly sensitive to
natural conditions in your area. A state or federal
wildlife agency should be able to suggest appro-
priate minnow species.

Troop leaders should read Safety Wise before be-
ginning this activity.  It is also recommended that
troop leaders visit the outfall beforehand.

An operational guide  on the stream sentinel  can
be downloaded from the Internet at  www.epa.gov/
earth Ir6/6wq/ecopro/watershd/monitrng/tools/
index.htm.  For additional information, contact
Gene Rattan, Fort Worth DEM, 5000  Martin Luther
King Fwy, Fort Worth, TX 76119;  817/871-5450.
(A limited number of videos are also available).
   Girl Scouts should contact their city
   or county environmental department
   if they suspect pollution. If the min-
   nows die, this indicates that a pollu-
   tion problem may be present. Possible
   causes: low dissolved oxygen, toxic pol-
   lution, or another waterbody stressor.

(Cadettes and Seniors)

Before the  Streamwalk
1.  We encourage you to contact local groups in-
   volved in environmental issues in your area.
   This serves two purposes: one, these groups
   may be able to provide you with information
   and background on your Streamwalk site; and
   two, you may be able to piggyback on some an
   existing program. Visit EPA's Adopt Your Wa-
   tershed web page at www.epa.gov/surf/adopt to
   find a  group in your watershed or see pages 32-
   33 for  a list of some local groups.

2.  Choose the  general area for your Streamwalk.
   It is strongly recommended that Troop Lead-
   ers visit the stream walk site in advance.  You
   may wish to collect data along a familiar stream,
   one that is close to your troop meeting location,
   or one that does not  cascade down  a steep
   mountain side. You may decide to do a series of
   streams in a watershed to collect baseline data,
   or to concentrate your efforts in areas suspected
   of being polluted.  It is  recommended  that
   streamwalks be done four times a year (once
   each season) at your site.

3.  Find a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topo-
   graphic  map of your area. These "topo" maps
   are an excellent resource  because they show
   such things  as buildings, elevations, water-
   ways and roads. Topo maps are useful for iden-
   tifying the latitude and longitude of your site.
   Help in defining longitude and latitude is  pro-
   vided  on Page 22.  We recommend a 7-1/2
   minute quad map (1:24,000 scale where 11
   inches = 4 miles), which are available at local
   sporting goods stores. The cost is approxi-
   mately $4. You may also find a copy to photo-
   copy at your local library,  or you can order
   them directly from USGS. For assistance, call
4.  Now, find your  specific Streamwalk site on
    the  topo map.  It will be easier for future
    streamwalkers to locate your site if it is near
    landmarks (roads, highways, and tributaries),
    especially those marked on the map. For pur-
    poses of Streamwalks, you will be characteriz-
    ing  100 feet in either direction from your site.
    You may do as many sites on the  stream as
    you wish, just be sure that sites are at least 200
    feet apart.

5.  Finally, pull out a copy of the Streamwalk sur-
    vey data form. It is best if you have gone
    through the form before you begin your Walk.
    You will use your map and one survey data
    sheet per Streamwalk site.

Note: Several citizen groups and agency representa-
tives workedwith EPA's Region 10 office (Seattle, Wash-
ington) to develop Streamwalk. It is intended to be an
easy to use screening tool for monitoring stream corri-
dor health.       " •

Streamwalk  Tips
Please consider the following precautionary tips:

•  Get the permission of landowners to cross any
   private land, posted or not. Do Not Enter Areas
   Without Permission. It is recommended that you
   use public access points (such as city/county/
   state parks and campgrounds).

•  Only record what you see, not what you have pre-
   viously seen. For example if you think fish are
   present but you can't see them, mark your sheet
   "no fish present."

•  Always work with someone.

•  Do not put yourself in danger to gather survey

•  Be careful of ticks, poison oak, nettles, insects.
   Bring repellent. Wear long pants and boots: wind
   breakers help to block nettles.

•  Watch out for dogs.

•  Do not drink the water—it is unsafe.
Do not walk on unstable banks; your footsteps
could speed erosion.

Be alert for spawning areas (redds)  in the stream.
Do not walk on them. They will look like a round
or elliptical area of clean gravel about 1-3 feet long.
During fall through spring, when redds are evi-
dent, try not to walk in the stream. In the sum-
mer, if you are careful, the stream  bed might be
the easiest route for conducting your streamwalk.
Be aware that the stream bed can be very slip-
pery, uneven, and unpredictable.

Do not attempt to walk across  streams that are
swift and above the knee in depth. You can be
swept away in an instant!

Be careful of streamside vegetation - disturb it as
little as possible.

If for any reason you feel uncomfortable  about
the stream conditions or surroundings, please
stop your Streamwalk. You and your safety are
much more valuable than the Streamwalk!
    Recommended list of items  to  take  along:

    Photocopies of topo map of stream to be walked
    Comfortable rubber boots
    Snag and thorn-proof clothing that is appropriate for the weather
    Clip board with waterproof cover
    Streamwalk data forms
    Two pencils
    Folding ruler or tape measure
    Camera and film in waterproof bag
    Leather gloves
    First Aid Kit (SEE SAFETY WISE for what to include)
    Cell Phone
    If you are away from urban or residential areas, the following are also recommended for safety:
    Extra clothes in a waterproof bag
    Fire starter (candle and cheap lighter)
    Flashlight and extra batteries
    Global Positioning Device

   Instructions for  Filling  out Streamwalk Survey Data Sheets

f   /~£ slow are directions on how to fill out the Streamwalk Survey Data sheet. Please read these thoroughly
V^./'Cx before you begin your walk. If, while conducting your Streamwalk, you are not able to determine what
   the response should be, or if the question itself is unclear, just leave that space blank—but don I stop your walk.
  Remember this is not a test, there are no right or wrong answers. Walks can be done along the stream—you
   do not need to enter the water. Please read Safety Wise before beginning this activity.

   Give the stream name, county and state of your site, preferably as it appears  on the topo map. Note: there
   are some streams that are unnamed, in these cases you can  indicate the  stream, lake or water body into
  which your streamflows  and the name and number of the topo map. If you want to share your informa-
  tion with a local or state environmental agency,  it is useful to include the longitude and latitude of your
   site(s).  Computing this may  present a challenge.  See pages 22-23.

  The concern with weather relates to amount of rainfall which potentially can  affect flow, clarity and amount of
  water in a stream. Weather/rainfall reports are available in the daily newspaper or by calling the local weather
   service. Definitions of weather conditions established by the Weather Service are:
  Rain -  1/3" in 24 hours - light steady rainfall.
   Showers - 1/3" -  1"  in 24 hours, intermittent and variable in intensity.
   Storm - 1" or more rain in 24 hrs, usually accompanied by winds.
   Stream Description                                                      ^™

   Depth and Width Measurements
   This information will give a description of the stream water at your site. Please indicate if your response
   is estimated or measured.  Remember, it is best to estimate if taking measurements will disturb habitat,
   require that you wade in deep water, or disturb stream banks. Do not attempt to cross in high flows. If it
   feels even  slightly unsafe, do not try it at all.  Please read Safety Wise.

   Water Clarity
   The clearness of the water is observed to determine if sediment pollution is entering the  stream. Cloudy or
   different colored water  can be a result of natural processes or of land use in the surrounding watershed.
   Sediments  can adversely affect habitat conditions such as food, health of fish,  and breeding environment
   for macroinvertebrates.  In some areas, grey or white water can be  a result  of natural processes such as
   glacial  sources for streams.

   Water Flow: Pools & Riffles
   The variety of flow in relation to depth creates habitat to support fish and invertebrate life. This variety can
   be seen by looking for pools and riffles. Pools are  deeper than adjacent areas.  They provide feeding, resting
   and spawning areas for  fish. Riffles and/or runs are flows swift in comparison to surrounding areas. Riffles
   are shallow and  fast water, runs are deep and fast  water and pools are slow and deep water.

   Stream Channel Cross-section Shape
   Please check the box which matches the shape of the stream channel. If you are unable to see the shape of
   the bottom and banks, please estimate. You can base your estimate  on the flow of water. The slower the
   water in the middle  of the stream, the flatter the bottom.

Stream Bottom (substrate)
Indicate the most common type of material on the stream bottom.
Silt/clay/mud: This substrate has a sticky, cohesive feeling. The particles are fine. The
spaces between the particles hold a lot of water,  making the sediments behave like
Sand (up to 1 inch): Sand is made up of tiny particles of rock.  It feels wonderful
Gravel (.1- 2 inches): A gravel stream bottom is made  up of stones ranging from
tiny quarter inch pebbles to rocks of about 2 inches.
Cobbles (2-10 inches): The majority of rocks on this type of stream bottom are
between 2 and 10 inches. The average size is about that of a  grapefruit.
Boulders (greater than  10"):  Most of the rocks on the  bottom will be large,
greater than 10 inches.
Bedrock: This kind of stream bottom is solid rock.

Width  of Natural Streamside Corridor
The  streamside corridor,  riparian area or zone of influence are terms that  describe the natural  veg-
etated area on either side of the stream. It, along with the stream, forms the habitat of the  river. It
includes vegetation that shades  the water, holds the  soil in place, adds nutrients to the stream in the
form  of leaves and during flooding, and provides habitat for streamside wildlife.  Estimate as best
you can width of the corridor at your site.   Indicate with an "x" on the bar graph the width. Note:
Left and right are based  on looking  down  stream. If the vegetation is  pasture or landscaped, this is
not a natural state, so  mark "o."

Streamside Vegetation
A description of the presence and type of streamside vegetation provides much information about the
stream due to its important role  in molding  the stream environment.  Vegetation acts as a filter for  sedi-
ment and  pollution coming in from  the near land. It provides  habitat for the many creatures  that are
dependent  on and influence the stream.  Branches, logs and leaves  enter the stream from this region.
Vegetation also provides shade, which keeps  the watercool. On the data  sheet mark all the categories that
Conifer: A cone bearing, evergreen tree or shrub (e.g. a pine  tree)
Deciduous: A tree which sheds its  foliage at the end of the growing season
Small  trees or Shrubs: Either conifers or deciduous bushes less than 20 feet high.
Grasses: Any of numerous  plants with narrow leaves, jointed stems  and spikes or clusters of incon-
spicuous flowers.

Overhead Canopy  (Stream Cover)
This is the amount of vegetation that overhangs  the  stream. It focuses on several important values of
streamside  vegetation: offering protection and refuge  for fish and other  organisms, shading the stream
and keeping the water cool, and providing"launching" areas for insects that might fall into the river.
Estimate as best you can,  about how  much of the river is overhung by vegetation, whether it be grasses,
shrubs or trees. Please  check the category that is appropriate for the current condition of your site. For
example, if in the winter  there are no leaves on  the trees in your segment, you might check 0-25%.
However, in the summer when the trees have leaves, you might check 50 - 75%.

Artificial Bank Protection
This category includes such streamside modification as riprap (a retaining wall built of rocks or concrete)
and bulkheads. It may also include placed wrecked  auto bodies, refrigerators, and  washing machines.
People in the past have thought that such modifications helped stabilize stream banks. Unfortunately, not
only do they drastically degrade habitat for stream side and instream dwellers, they can cause bank
erosion in flood conditions. Mark the categories which best describe  the condition  of the stream bank
within your 500 foot segment.

Presence of Logs or Woody Debris in Stream
Logs and woody debris (not twigs and leaves) can slow or divert water to provide important fish habitat
such as pools and hiding places. So please mark the  general amount of logs
and woody debris in the stream. DO NOT REMOVE  LOGS OR DEBRIS.

Organic Debris in Stream
The presence of other organic matter in the stream can be both good and bad.  If
there are dumped grass clippings, it is not good for stream health. On  the other
hand, naturally  failing leaves  and twigs can be beneficial.

Fish in Stream
Can you  see any fish? Mark it down! If you know what kind of fish it is, note  that in the space  next to the
question. If you think there are fish but you cannot see  them, mark "no."

Adjacent  Land Uses
Adjacent land use has a great impact on the quality and state of the stream and riparian areas.  Enter a "1"
if the land use is present and a "2" if it is  clearly impacting the stream. If you cannot determine  the type of
housing, industry or development, please make your best estimate.
This section is  designed to get information about potential problem conditions at your Streamwalk site.
Enter a "1" if the condition is present and "2" if it is severe.

Stream Banks
Natural  plant  cover degraded: Indicate if stream side vegetation is trampled, missing, or replaced by
landscaping or cultivation.
Banks collapsed/eroded: Note if banks  or parts of banks have been washed away or worn down.
Banks artificially modified: Indicate if banks have been artificially modified by construction or place-
ment of rocks,  wood or cement supports or lining.
Garbage or junk adjacent to stream: Indicate if human-made materials are present.

Stream Channel
Mud/silt/sand on bottom/entering stream:  Excessive mud or silt entering the stream and clouding the
water can interfere with fishes' ability to sight potential prey. It can also clog fish gills and smother eggs
in spawning areas on the  stream bottom. Mud/silt/sand can be an indication of poor construction prac-
tices  in the  watershed; where runoff coming off the site is not adequately contained. It can also be a
perfectly normal occurrence, especially if, for example,  a muddy bottom is found along a very slow-
moving segment or a wetland. Use your best judgement.

Artificial Stream modifications. Please note if the stream water has been dammed, dredged, filled, or
channelized through culverts or if other large scale activities such as log removal are apparent.
Algae/scum floating/covering rocks:  Evidence of algae (very tiny plants that can color the water green or
can resemble seaweed) or scum in the water can point to a problem such  as an upstream source adding
too much nutrient (fertilizer) to the water.
Foam or sheen: This is a bit of a tricky category because this type of thing can be naturally occurring or a
problem. For example, an iridescent or shiny sheen on the water might be from rotting leaves or  it might
be from some upstream pollutant. If you are  not sure, mark it on the checklist.
Garbage or junk in stream:  This is your chance to  point out very straightforward problems: litter, tires, hot
water heaters, car bodies, and garbage  dumps.

Organic debris  or garbage: The purpose is  to determine if the stream is being used as a dump site for
materials which would not be present naturally. Debris can be anything from  a pop can to vegetation
brought from outside the stream corridor.
Livestock in  or  with unrestricted access to stream: Are livestock present or is there an obvious path that
livestock use to get to the water from adjacent fields?  Is there  stream-side degradation caused by access?
Actively discharging pipes: Are there pipes with visible openings dumping fluids or water into the  stream?
Please note, even though you may not be able to tell where they come from  or what they are discharging.
Other pipes: Are there  pipes which  are entering the stream? Please mark even if you  cannot  find  an
opening or see  matter being discharged.
Ditches. Are there ditches,  usually draining the surrounding  land, which lead into  the  stream?

    Sick  Stream  Symptoms
    Shiny Surface or  Rainbow colors - If you see  rainbow color on the water's surface or if you smell oil
    (  a gas station smell), then oil might be polluting your stream.  Oil can come from a pipeline leak, a storm
    sewer or illegal dumping.  Oil kills fish and can make kids who play in the water sick.
    Green Water  - Too much algae. Algae are small plants that are found in the water.  Fertilizers from farms
    and lawns can get into streams and cause too  much algae to grow.  When algae break down, oxygen is used
    up and fish don't have enough oxygen.
    Brown or Muddy Water- Too much dirt or sediment in the  water. Dirt clogs fish gills to fish can't
    breathe.  Dirt kills stream critters when it settles to the bottom and buries them.  Dirt blocks light to under-
    water plants, and they die too.
    Orange Water - Orange water can indicate  the presence of iron  in the water.  Iron can be  naturally present
    where the soils are high in iron.  This is not a pollution problem.  However, orange water can meant that the
    water is acid from runoff from mining activities.  Acid water kills fish and other stream life.
    Foam or Suds - Some foam or suds in the stream is natural. If you see foam in the stream that is more
    than three inches tall, looks like bubble bath and doesn't break apart easily, detergent may be in the stream.
    Soap can  come from people's homes,  factories or car washes. Soap harms stream critters because it breaks
    the surface tension of the water and insects,  like water striders, sink and drown.
    Strange  Odors- A chemical smell can mean harmful chemicals are polluting your stream.  A rotten egg
    smell can mean sewage is getting into the  stream from  cows, sewage treatment plants, or  people's homes.
    Sewage or chemicals can make people and animals  sick.

    Reprinted with permission from Izaak Walton League Save Our Streams Program

Instructions  for Defining  Latitude  and

Latitude and longitude are defined in degrees, minutes
and seconds. There are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 min-
utes in a degree. The symbols are as follows ° = degree, '=
minute and " =seconds. The following example may help
you determine the  Latitude and Longitude for your Walk.


Look  at the right side  (upper or lower corner) under the
map name, or the second of two numbers separated by
"x", to find the width scale (longitude) of the map:

1) If "7.5 Minute  Series," enter 450.
   Your Work
   If "15  Minute Series," enter 900.
   If "7.5x15" Minute  Series," enter 900.
   If "15x30 Minute Series," enter 900.

2) Using  a ruler, measure the width of your map
   east to west (exclude borders).

3) Divide #1 by #2 to the nearest whole number

4) Enter the Longitude located in the lower
   right hand corner.

5) Using  a ruler, measure (centimeters)  from
   your site, straight across, to the right hand side
   of the  map.

6) Multiply #5 by #3  (to the nearest whole number).

7) Convert #6 to minutes and seconds by dividing by 60.
   Your whole number after  division is the number of
   minutes, and the remainder is the number of seconds.
   (Do not use a calculator.) For example, 215 can be
   dividedby 60 three times. 215-180=35. So 215 converts

8) Add #4 to #7.

The Answer for #8 is the Longitude of your site.
 7.5 x 15 Minute Series















i i
_j- —

• -




_ _
_ ._
_ ._
_ _
_ ._

               (question*! 2)
        (question #4)



        (300 with
        33 left
        over, or


Look at the right side (upper or lower corner) under the map name, or the second of two numbers sepa-
rated by "x", to find the height scale (latitude) of the map:
9)  If "7.5 Minute Series," enter 450.
    If "15 Minute Series," enter 900.
    If "7.5x15" Minute Series," enter 450.

10) Using a ruler, measure the length of your map
    north to south (exclude borders).

11) Divide #9 by #10 to the nearest whole number

12) Enter the Latitude located in the lower
    right hand corner.

13) Using a ruler, measure (centimeters) from
    your site,  straight down, to the bottom
    of the map.

14) Multiply #13 by #11 (to the nearest whole number).

15) Convert #14 to minutes and seconds by dividing by 60.
    Your whole number after division is the number of
    minutes, and the remainder is the number of seconds.
    (Do not use a calculator.) For example, 215 can be
    dividedby  60 three times. 215-180=35.  So 215 converts

16) Add #15 to #12.

The Answer for #16 is the Latitude of your site.
Your Work



            sec/cm  45
                    (180 with
                    36 left
                    over, or



Site  Survey  Data  Sheet  (Complete One  Sheet per Site)
  Stream name:
  Troop Name:
  Contact Name:
  Site (name, description or number):
                                   "  N
                                   "  N
                                                                     (See instructions
                                                                     on pages 22-23.)
  Weather  (see instructions on page 18)

  I—I  Clear    I—I  Overcast     I—I  Rain    I—I  Showers     I—I   Storm
  Stream Description   (see instructions on pages 18-20)
  1.  Depth:
feet   I—I  measured (at site)     I—I  estimated

feet   I—I  measured (at site)     I—I  estimated
  2.  Clarity:  Does water appear    I—I  Clear    I—I  Cloudy

  3.  Water Flow: (check  all that apply):     Q  Pools    Q  Riffles    Q  Runs
  4.  Stream Channel Cross-Section Shape: (at site)

Site  Survey  Data Sheet (Complete One Sheet per  Site)
   .  Stream bottom: (check the most common)
          s~\ i  t~\ r  i               s~\ 111   //^   i /~ov
Q  Clay/Mud
Q  Sand (up to .1")
Q  Gravel (.1-2")
Q  Cobbles (2 - 10")
Q  Boulders (over 10")
Q  Bedrock (Solid)
  5.  Width of Natural Streamside Corridor: (average)
     Left looking downstream: 	Feet      Right looking downstream:
  6.  Streamside Vegetation:
                                 None/Sparse   Occasional   Common
     Conifers                         Q           Q         Q
     Deciduous                       I	I           I	II	I
     Small trees and Shrubs (<20')        Q           Q         Q
     Grasses                          Q           Q         Q

     Vegetation appears    I—I  natural      I—I cultivated

  7.  Extent of Overhead Canopy:
     Q 0-25%    Q 25-50%    Q  50-75%    Q  75-100%

  8.  Extent of Artificial Bank Protection:
     Q 0-25%    Q 25-50%    Q  50-75%    Q  75-100%
  9.  Presence of Logs or Large Woody Debris in Stream:
     I	I  None    I	I Occasional    I	I  Common

  10. Presence of Other Organic Debris in Stream:
     I	I  Occasional     I	I   Common

  11. Any fish present?
     Q  Yes    Q   No

  Other Comments?

Site Survey Data Sheet (Complete One Sheet per Site)
Adjacent Land Uses
(see instructions on page 20)
Check "1" if present, "2" if clearly impact-
ing stream:
1 2 Residential
Q Q Single family housing
Q Q Multi-family housing
Q Q Commercial development
Q Q Light industry
Q Q Heavy industry
Q Q Road/bridge construction
Roads, etc.
Q Q Paved roads or bridges
Q Q Unpaved roads

Construction Underway on:
Q Q Single family housing
Q Q Multi-family housing
Q Q Commercial development
Q Q Light Industry
Q D Heavy Industry

Q Q Grazing land
Q Q Feedlots or animal holding
D D Cropland

Q Q Mining or gravel pits
Q a Logging
Q Q Recreation
(see instructions on pages 20-21)
Check "I" if present, "2" if impact seems
1 2 Stream banks
Q Q Natural stream side cover
Q Q Banks collapsed/eroded
Q Q Banks artificially modified
Q Q Garbage/junk adjacent to
Stream channel
Q Q Mud, silt, or sand
in or entering stream
Q Q Artificial stream modifications
(dams, channels, culverts, etc.)
Q Q Algae or scum floating or
coating rocks
Q D Foam or Sheen
D D Garbage/junk in stream

Q Q Organic debris (garbage,
grass clippings, etc.)
Q Q Livestock in or with
unrestricted access to stream
Q D Actively discharging pipe(s)
Q Q Other pipe(s) entering
Q Q Ditches entering
Other Comments?


       Healthy  Stream Critters   (Cadettes  <&  Seniors)
    This activity can  be done in conjunction with the Streamwalk. Be sure to observe the
     Streamwalk tips  (page 17) and Safety-Wise Manual before conducting this activity.
       here is a whole world of life in rivers and lakes. Some of the tiny animals living in the water are
       benthic, meaning they live in the bottom of the waterbody. Some are MACROINVERTEBRATES
because they are large and easy to see (macro) and because  they have no backbone (invertebrate). The
most common of these creatures include insects, clams,  snails,  crayfish, and worms. Some live their whole
lives in the water, and other leave the water as adults to feed and reproduce.

Macroinvertebrates are important as food to all the creatures living in the water.  Some are considered by
scientists to be indicator  species and are a way of telling whether or not a river or lake is polluted. In
rivers,  macroinvertebrates live attached to rocks and plants where there is  fast-flowing water. They are
good indicators of water quality because they do not move around and are  easy to collect. The moving
water gives them food and oxygen. If the stream is polluted, there is less food and oxygen for the aquatic
macroinvertebrates. If the water has  pollutant-intolerant macroinvertebrate  species in  it, that  is a good
indication  that  the  water is clean and  of high quality. If there  are mostly pollutant-tolerant
macroinvertebrates in the water, there is a chance that the water is polluted and only those types  of species
can survive. Below are a few examples of macroinvertebrates that are  very sensitive to pollution.
                                Larvae  ^
  Nymph        Adult
       ft iyjj PAoiimwpiwrJ q
Nymph     Adult

                                  Larvae      Adult
    Girl Scout Troops interested in conducting biological stream monitoring may want to contact the Izaak
    Walton League of America (IWLA) at 1-800-BUG-IWLA  to find out about training, workshops, and organi-
    zations active in their watershed.  The Save Our Streams Monitor's Guide to Aquatic Macroinvertebrates,
    by Loren Larkin Kellogg (IWLA, 1992 ($5) may be a useful resource. In addition, Troops may want to
    contact their State Biologist. A list  of State contacts is  available  on the Internet at http://www.epa.gov/
    owow/monitoring/bio/toc.htm or by  calling the  National Service Center for Environmental Publications
    at 1-800-490-9198. Ask for EPA Publication # 230-R-96-007.

                            Build  Your  Own  Aquifer
BACKGROUND:  Many communities obtain their drinking water from underground sources called
aquifers. Water suppliers or utility officials drill wells through soil and rock into aquifers to obtain  ground-
water  to supply the public with drinking water. Home owners who cannot  obtain their drinking water
from a public water supply will have their own private wells drilled on their property. Unfortunately.
groundwater can become contaminated by harmful chemicals, including household chemicals such as
lawn care products, paints,  and cleaners; agricultural fertilizers and pesticides; and oil.  These chemicals
can percolate down through the soil and rock and  into the aquifer—and eventually the well.  Such con-
tamination can pose a significant threat to human health. The  measures that must be taken by well own-
ers and operators to either protect or clean up contaminated aquifers are  quite costly.

NOTE: This demonstration should follow a troop discussion on potential sources of pollution
to drinking water supplies.

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate how water is stored  in an aquifer,  how groundwater can become
contaminated, and how this contamination ends up in the drinking water well.  Ultimately,
students should get a clear understanding of what  happens above the ground can
potentially end up in the drinking water below  the ground.
*   1  6"x8" clear plastic  container that is at least 6-
    8" deep (shoe box or small aquarium)
*   1  Ib. of modeling clay or floral clay
*   2  Ibs. of white play  sand
*   2  Ibs. of aquarium gravel (natural color if pos-
    sible) or small pebbles (As any small rocks may
    have a powdery residue on them, you may
    wish to rinse them and dry on a clean towel
    prior to use. It is best if they do not add cloudi-
    ness to water.)
*   1  drinking water straw
*   1  plastic spray bottle (be  sure the stem that ex-
    tends into the bottle  is clear)
*   1  small piece (3 x 5)  of green  felt
*   1/4  cup of powered  cocoa
*   red  food coloring
*   1  bucket of clean  water  and  small cup to dip
    water from bucket
*   scotch tape

1.   To one side  of the container place the small
    drinking water straw, allowing approximately
    1/8 of an inch clearance with the bottom of
    the container. Fasten the  straw directly against
    to the  long side of the container with a piece of
    tape. Explain to the students that this will rep-
    resent  two separate well functions later in pre-
    sentation (if  not placed at this time, sand will
    clog the opening).

2.   Pour a layer of white  sand completely cover-
    ing the bottom of the clear plastic container,
    making it approximately  1 "  deep. Pour water
    into the sand, wetting  it  completely, but there
    should be  no standing water on top of sand.
    Let students  see how the water is absorbed in
    the sand, but remains around the sand particles
    as it is stored in the ground and ultimately in
    the aquifer.

3.   Flatten the modeling clay (like a pancake)  and
    cover  of the sand with the clay (try to press
    the clay into  the three sides of the container in
    the area covered). The clay represents a "con-

fining layer" that keeps water from passes
through it. Pour a small amount of water onto
the clay. Let the students see  how the water
remains on top of the clay, only flowing into
the sand below in areas not covered by the clay.

Use the aquarium  rocks to form the next layer
of earth. Place the  rocks over the sand and clay.
covering the entire container. To one side of
your container, slope the rocks,  forming a high
hill and a valley. Now pour water into your
aquifer until the water in the valley is even with
your hill.  Let girl  scouts see the water around
the rocks that is stored within the aquifer.  They
will also notice a "surface" supply of water (a
small lake) has formed. This will give them a
view of both the ground and surface water sup-
plies  which can be used  for drinking water

Next, place the small piece of green felt on top
of the hill. If possible, use a little clay to  se-
curely fasten it to the sides of the container it

Using the cocoa, sprinkle  some on top of the
hill, while explaining to students that the co-
coa represents  improper  use of lawn chemi-
cals or fertilizers, etc.

Use the food coloring and put a few drops into
the straw, explaining to students that often old
wells are  used to  dispose of farm chemicals,
trash and used motor oils. They will see that it
will color the sand in the bottom of the con-
tainer. This is one way pollution can spread
through out the  aquifer over time.
                                                    8.    Fill the spray bottle with water.  Now make it
                                                        rain on top of the hill and  over the  cocoa.
                                                        Quickly students will  see the cocoa (fertilizer/
                                                        pesticide) seep down through the felt and also
                                                        wash into the surface water supply.

                                                    9.   Take another look at the well you  contami-
                                                        nated. The  pollution has probably spread fur-
                                                        ther. Now remove the top of the spray bottle
                                                        and insert the stem into the straw, depress the
                                                        trigger to pull  up the water from the well.
                                                        (Water will  be colored and "polluted.") Explain
                                                        that this is the  same  water a drinking water
                                                        well will draw up  for them to drink.

Algae: A chlorophyll containing plant rang-
ing from one to many cells in size, that lives
in fresh or salt water.

Anadromous. Fish that return from salt water
to fresh water to spawn (e.g., salmon,  steel-

Aquatic Insect: Insect species whose larval
and/or juvenile forms live in the water.

Aquifer: Any underground geological forma-
tion containing water.

Bedrock: Unbroken solid rock, overlain in
most places by  soil  or rock fragments.

Benthic: Bottom-dwelling.  The plant and
animal life whose habitat is the bottom of a
sea,  lake, or river.

Channelized: The straightening  and deepen-
ing of streams.  Channelization reduces the
ability of the stream to assimilate waste and
disturbs  fish breeding areas.

Clarity. The clearness of the water in the

Conifers: A cone-bearing Evergreen tree or
shrub (a  pine tree for example).

Cover:   Overhanging or instream structures
(such as  tree roots,  undercut streambanks, or
boulders) that offer protection from preda-
tors, shelter from strong currents, and/or

Current: The velocity (speed) of the flow (of

Deciduous: A tree which sheds its foliage at
the end of the growing season.

Ecosystem: The interacting system of a
biological community (plants,  animals) and
it's non-living environment.

Effluent. The wastewater from a municipal
or industrial  source that is discharged into
the water.
Erosion: The wearing away of the land
surface by wind or water.

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency.

Filling:  The process of depositing dirt and mud
in marshy areas(wetlands) or in the water to
create more land. Filling disturbs natural eco-
logical cycles.

Gradient: The slope or steepness of the stream.

Groundwater. The supply of freshwater  under
the earth's surface in an aquifer or soil.

Habitat:  The specific environment in which an
organism lives and depends on  for food and

Headwaters: Small creeks at the uppermost
end of a stream

system, often found in the mountains, that con-
tribute to larger  creeks and rivers.

Mass Wasting. Downward movement of dry
soil and  rock caused by gravity (often called
slides or avalanches).

Monitor: To measure  a  characteristic, such as

condition, dissolved oxygen, or fish popula-
tion, over a period of time using uniform  meth-
ods to evaluate change.

Nonpoint Source Pollution: "Diffuse" pol-
lution, generated from  large areas with no
particular point of  pollutant  origin, but
rather from many individual places. Urban
and agricultural areas generate  nonpoint
source pollutants.

Nutrient:  Any  substance, such as fertilizer,
phosphorous,  and  nitrogen   compounds,
which enhances the growth of plants and ani-

Point Source Pollution: A discharge of water
pollution to a stream  or other body of water,
via an identifiable pipe,  vent, or culvert.

Pool: An area of relatively deep slow water in
a stream that offers shelter to fish.

Quality Control (QC): The  system of checks
that are used to generate excellence, or quality,
in a program  (a monitoring program for ex-
ample. QC asks if we are doing things right).

Quality Assurance (QA). Quality Assurance
is the larger system to see that QC is main-
tained. A asks if we are doing the right things
(in our case are we monitoring the right things
to detect changes in water quality).

Reach.  A stream  section with fairly homoge-
neous characteristics.

Redd.  Shallow depression in the streambed
gravel in which a female salmonid deposits her

Riffle: A  shallow, gravely area of streambed
with swift  current. Used  for spawning by
salmonids and other fishes.

Riprap: A sustaining wall built of rocks.

Riparian Area: An area, adjacent to and along
a watercourse, which is  often vegetated and
constitutes a buffer zone between the nearby
lands and the watercourse.

Run: A stretch of fast smooth current, deeper
than a riffle.

Runoff: The portion of rainfall, melted  snow,
or irrigation water that flows across ground
surface and eventually returned to streams.
Runoff can pick up pollutants from the  air or
the land and carry  them to streams, lakes, and

Salmonid: Fish that are members of the family

Salmonidae: includes salmon, trout, char, and

Sediment:  Fine  soil or mineral particles that
settle to the bottom of the water or are sus-
pended  in the water.
Stormwater Runoff: Water that washes off the
land after a rainstorm. In developed water-
sheds it flows off roofs and pavement into
storm drains which may feed directly into the
stream;  often carries concentrated pollutants.

Substrate: The material that makes up the bot-
tom layer of the stream, such as gravel, sand,
or bedrock.

Stream  Corridor:  A perennial or intermittent
stream,  it's lower  and upperbanks.

Stream Mouth: The beginning of a stream,
where it empties into a lake, ocean, or another

Suspended Sediments: Fine material or soil
particles that remainsuspended by the cur-
rent until deposited in  areas of weaker cur-
rent. They create turbidity and, when depos-
ited, can smother fish  eggs or alevins. Can
be measured in a laboratory as "Total  Sus-
pected Solids" (TSS).

Topographic:  The configuration of a surface
area including its relief, or relative elevations,
and the position of its  natural and man-made

V.S.G.S.: U.S. Geological Survey.

Wetlands. Wetlands are lands where satura-
tion with water  is the dominant factor deter-
mining  the nature of soil development.  They
also  can be  identified by unique
plants which have adapted to oxy-
gen-deficient (anaerobic) soils. Wet-
lands influence stream  flows and
water quality.

Zoning: To designate, by
ordinances, areas of land
reserved and  regulated
for specific uses, such as
residential, industrial, or
open space.

Learn about Your Watershed
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Locate
Your Watershed  (www.epa.gov/surf), Index of
Watershed  Indicators  (www.epa.surf/iwi)  &
Adopt  Your  Watershed  (www.epa.gov/surf/
adopt) Web sites.  Through these on-line services.
you  can locate your watershed and discover its
condition  and the partnerships that are working
to protect  it.  Use Adopt Your Watershed Internet
Database  (www.epa.gov/surf/adopt) to find out
about watershed groups active  in your commu-
nity. If you do not have Internet access, you can
call 1-888-478-2051.

National Water Quality Inventory. 1996 Report to Con-
gress.  Published by EPA, this report includes de-
tailed information  about the  condition of the
nation's waters. Available by calling the National
Service Center for Environmental Publication and
Information (NCSEP) at 1-800-490-9198 or by
faxing a request to (513) 891-6685. EPA841-R-97-

Get Involved in a Local Watershed Project
Examples  of groups that maintain extensive lists
of volunteer opportunities throughout the Chesa-
peake Bay:

1)  The Anacostia Watershed Society (AWS) Call
    301-699-6204 or visit the AWS Web Page at
    http:\\www.anacostiaws.orgor.  (Select the
    button "volunteer action schedule)"

2)  The Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) is also
    looking for volunteers of all  ages to help with
    oyster restoration and other projects.  Call
    410-268-8816 or visit the CBF Web Page at

3)  The Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay (ACB)
    Call 804-775-0951 or visit ACB's Web Page at
    http://www.acb-online.org/involve.htm  for
    an extensive list of volunteer opportunities in
    the Bay area.
Wetlands Information
Call   the   Wetlands   Hotline
1-800-832-7828 (Fax 703-525-0201)
to obtain free fact sheets, coloring
books, and other useful materials on
Visit EPA's Wetlands KIDS Web PAGE with lots
of fun projects and links to other sites and activi-
ties.    http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/wetlands/

The Izzak  Walton League,707 Conservation
Lane,Gaithersburg,  MD  20878 (1-800-BUG-

Bill Nye " the Science Guy" Video on Wetlands.
Available  from the Disney Corporation.

River of Words Poetry and Art Contest
Visit River of Words Web Page or call below to
get contest details, entry forms & tips:
International Rivers  Network
Attention: ROW Contest
PO Box 4000-J
Berkeley, CA 94704  USA
Tel: 510-433-7020 (voice mail) Fax: 510-848-1008
email: row@irn.org;  Internet: http://www.irn.org

Cleanups/International Coastal Cleanups
Call the Center for Marine  Conservation's toll-free
hotline 1-800-CMC-Beach  or visit the CMC Web
Page—www.cmc-ocean.org—for   information
about sponsoring a beach  cleanup or participat-
ing in the annual International  Coastal Cleanup
every September.

Turning the Tide on Trash: A Learning Guide on Ma-
rine Debris.  Learn about marine debris and spon-
sor a local cleanup of marine of other water de-
bris (free).  Call NSCEP at 1-800-490-9198,
1-513-489-8190, 1-513-489-8695  (fax).  Ref.
EPA842-B-92-003.   On  the   web  at  http://

Volunteer Monitoring
Several local organizations sponsor training on
water quality monitoring in Maryland, Virginia
and the District of Columbia, including:

1) Maryland Save Our Streams 1-800-448-5826

2) Audubon Naturalist Society (DC)

3) Virginia Save Our Streams 540-377-6179

4) Izaak  Walton League of America (IWLA)
   1-800-BUG-IWLA (www.iwla.org/SOS/)

The following publications by IWLA may also be
useful.  Call 1-800-BUG-IWLA to order:

1) Save Our Streams Monitor's Guide to Aquatic
   Macroinvertebrates, by Loren Larkin Kellogg
   (IWLA, 1992)

2) Save Our Streams Volunteer Trainer's Handbook,
   by  Karen Firehock (IWLA, 1994)

3) Hands on Save Our Streams, the Save Our Streams
   Teacher's Manual for Grades One Through Twelve,
   by  Karen Firehock (IWLA, 1995)

Environmental Protection Agency's Getting Started
in Volunteer Monitoring. EPA  841-B-98-002.
www.epa.gov/owow/.  Call (202)
260-7040 if you do not have Internet access.

The Volunteer Monitor Newsletter, www.epa.gov/

EPA's Volunteer Monitoring  HomePage

Wetlands.  Lake  and Stream Walk Manuals
Call US EPA's Region 10 Office at (206) 553-1200.
Also ask for the "Teacher's Guide to Streamwalk."
Wetland and Lake Walk Manuals and survey
sheets are available on the Web at www.epa.gov/
OWOW/wetlands/wqual.html#Volunteer.  Click
on "Wetlands  Walk Manual and Supplement
Worksheets" under Volunteer Monitoring.
Groundwater Protection
EPA's  Groundwater/Drinking Water Web Page
at  www.epa.gov/ogwdw/kids/index.html  has
great science projects that can be downloaded.

Groundwater Festival
The Groundwater Foundation has a "how-to"
book called "Making Waves:  How to Put on  a
Water Festival."  To order "Making Waves" or to
receive additional information on their Children's
Groundwater Festival, contact the Groundwater
Foundation at info@groundwater.org  or  call

Walk Your Watershed  Festival
The Water Environment Federation (WEF) has  a
step-by-step guide to hosting a Watershed Festi-
val.  Available from WEF at 1-800-858-4844. Order
No. ZS1603WW ($8.00 each)
Water Use/Wetlands Posters:
To order, specify poster titles and grade levels.
or write:
U.S. Geological Survey, Branch  of Distribution
Box 25286                    	
Denver Federal Center
Denver, CO 80225
Telephone: 1-800-435-7627
Nonpoint Source Pollution
EPA's Nonpoint Source Kids
Web  Page:  www.epa.gov/
Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay Fact  Sheet on
Nonpoint  Source  pollution  www.epa.gov/

This is not a complete list of available resources
and mention of these products does not constitute
endorsement by EPA. Visit the Adopt Your Water-
shed (www.epa.gov/surf/adopt) or Office of Wa-
ter web page (www.epa.gov/ow) for a more com-
plete list or call toll-free 1-888-478-2051.

                    Application for Troop Recognition
Watershed or Waterbody Name:
Troop Name:
Contact Person/phone:
Number of G\r\ Scouts:  	
Brief  Description of Troop Activities: (100 words  or  less). Should demonstrate an
ongoing commitment to the protection or restoration of  a watershed.
Project Highlights/Successes:
               Return to: Patty Scott, Adopt Your Watershed Project
           US EPA, 401 M Street, S.W. (4501F), Washington, D.C. 20460