United States      Solid Waste and
        Environmental Protection Emergency Response

        Agency	(5305W)	
                      EPA530-K-02-007I

                        October 2001
&EPA
RCRA, Superfund & EPCRA
Call Center Training Module
           Introduction to:
             Definition of Solid Waste and
              Hazardous Waste Recycling
                  (40 CFR 261.2 and 261.9)
                    Updated October 2001

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                                     DISCLAIMER

This document was developed by Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. under contract 68-W-01-020 to EPA.
It is intended to be used as a training tool for Call Center specialists and does not represent a
statement of EPA policy.

The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA s
regulations or policies. This document is used only in the capacity of the Call Center training and
is not used as a reference tool on Call Center calls.  The Call Center revises and updates this
document as regulatory program areas change.

The information in this document may not necessarily reflect the current position of the Agency.
This document is not intended and cannot be relied upon to create any rights, substantive or
procedural, enforceable by any party in litigation with the United States.
                     RCRA, Superfund & EPCRA Call Center Phone Numbers:

          National toll-free (outside of DC area)                        (800) 424-9346
          Local number (within DC area)                              (703) 412-9810
          National toll-free for the hearing impaired (TDD)                (800) 553-7672
                      The Call Center is open from 9 am to 5 pm Eastern Time,
                         Monday through Friday, except for federal holidays.

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                DEFINITION OF SOLID WASTE AND
                 HAZARDOUS WASTE RECYCLING
                               CONTENTS
1.  Introduction 	 1

2.  Regulatory Summary	 2
   2.1  Solid Waste Definition	 2
   2.2  Classification of Recycled Materials	 5
   2.3  Hazardous Waste Recycling Requirements	10

3.  Special Issues	18
   3.1  Refining Versus Reclamation	18
   3.2  Recycling Process Not Regulated	18
   3.3  Sham Recycling	18

4.  Regulatory Developments	19
   4.1  CRT Proposal	19
   4.2  Zinc Fertilizers	19

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                                      Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling -1
                            1.   INTRODUCTION
As mandated by Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),
EPA promulgated hazardous waste regulations in 1980 to ensure that wastes which
pose a threat to human health and the environment would be managed safely.  In
order to be regulated as a hazardous waste under RCRA, a material must first be
classified as a solid waste. After confirming that a material is a solid waste, the
generator of the solid waste must determine if it is a hazardous waste. The
important concept to remember is that hazardous wastes are a subset of solid wastes.
In other words, a material cannot be classified as a hazardous waste if it  is not within
the  universe of solid wastes.

This module explains the statutory and regulatory definitions of solid waste,
including the standards governing the recycling and management of specific types of
waste.

When you  have completed this module, you will be able to explain the  definition of
solid waste in 40 CFR 261.2, as well as its relationship to the definition of hazardous
waste in 261.3. You will also become familiar with the regulations governing the
recycling of hazardous wastes, found in  261.6 and Parts 266, 273, and 279.

Use the following  list of objectives to check your knowledge of this topic after you
complete the training session:

     Explain and cite the regulatory and statutory definitions of solid waste

     Cite  and use the table in 261.2 and the preamble to the January 4, 1985,
      Federal Register (50 FR 614)

     List and cite three use/reuse scenarios where the materials are not solid
      wastes and  state the requirement for documentation

     List the conditions under which hazardous waste-derived products may be
      excluded from regulation

     Discuss the  special recycling standards for use constituting disposal, precious
      metal recovery, and spent lead-acid batteries

     Discuss potential regulatory developments affecting the definition of solid
      waste and hazardous waste recycling.
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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 2 - Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling
                      2.  REGULATORY SUMMARY
Under RCRA Subtitle C, Congress granted EPA the authority to regulate hazardous
wastes. The principle objective of hazardous waste regulation is the protection of
human health and the environment.  RCRA regulation is also intended to
encourage the conservation and recovery of valuable materials. The definition of
solid waste under RCRA, which serves as the starting point for the hazardous waste
management system, reflects EPA's effort to obtain the proper balance between these
two underlying objectives.

According to RCRA regulations, a material must be defined  as a solid waste before it
can be considered a hazardous waste. The regulatory definition of solid waste,
found  in 261.2(a), encompasses the following materials: (1) materials that are
abandoned;  (2)  materials that are recycled; (3) materials that are inherently waste-
like; and (4) waste military munitions. Materials that do not fall within one of these
categories are not subject to Subtitle C regulation.

Materials that are recycled are a special subset of the solid waste universe.  When
recycled, some  materials may qualify for an exclusion from the definition of solid
waste and fall out of RCRA regulation or be subject to less-stringent regulatory
controls. Based on the material and the type of recycling,  the generator of a
recyclable solid waste must determine if  it is subject to reduced requirements or full
regulation.

This module discusses the criteria found  in the 261.2 definition of solid waste.  It
also explains the range of RCRA Subtitle C management standards for different
types of hazardous waste recycling, as dictated by 261.6 and  Parts 266, 273, and 279.
This range of management  from no regulation  to full regulation  is essentially
based on the type of recycling activity involved and the hazards posed, and
demonstrates EPA's intent to encourage  recycling while still protecting human
health and the  environment.
2.1   SOLID WASTE DEFINITION

The statutory definition of a solid waste is not based on the physical form of the
material, (i.e., whether or not it is a solid as opposed to a liquid or gas), but on the
fact that the material is a waste.  RCRA 1004(27) defines solid waste as:

      Any garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water
      supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility, and other
      discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, or contained
      gaseous  material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining,  and
      agricultural operations and from community activities.
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                   but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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                                       Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling - 3
The regulatory definition of solid waste, found in 261.2, is narrower than the
statutory definition. Under 261.2(a), a solid waste is any discarded material that is
not excluded by 261.4 (a) or that is not excluded by a regulatory variance.

Section 261.4 (a) specifically excludes certain materials from the definition of solid
waste, such as  domestic sewage and special nuclear material covered by the Atomic
Energy Act (see the module entitled Solid and Hazardous Waste Exclusions).
Materials listed in 261.4 (a) are not solid wastes and so cannot be further classified as
hazardous waste.  Other materials that would normally be classified as solid wastes
may qualify for exclusions from regulation if a generator petitions for a variance
from classification as a solid waste.

If a discarded material is not excluded by 261.4 or by a variance, it may meet the
definition of a solid waste. The basis of the solid waste definition is set forth in
261.2, which defines a solid waste as a material that is discarded by being
abandoned, inherently waste-like, recycled, or a military munition identified as  a
solid waste in 266.202.

ABANDONED

The term abandoned simply means thrown away.  Under 261.2(b), a material is
abandoned if it is disposed of, burned, or incinerated.  In addition, a material that is
stored prior to, or in lieu of, one of these activities, is also considered to be abandoned.
In addition to obvious examples  of abandonment, such as land disposal,  EPA also
includes activities such as incineration within the definition of the term (50 FR  627;
January 4,  1985).

INHERENTLY WASTE-LIKE

Some materials are always considered solid wastes under 261.2(d), even if they  are
recycled in some manner (i.e., they are considered to be inherently waste-like).
Because these materials  may pose a threat to human  health and the  environment
when they are recycled, they do not qualify for any recycling exemptions.  Examples
of inherently waste-like materials are the dioxin-containing listed wastes F020, F022,
F023,  F026 and  F028.  Hazardous waste meeting the F021 listing is also considered
inherently waste-like unless it is  used at the site of generation as an ingredient in a
product.

In addition, any secondary materials that are characteristic or listed hazardous
wastes are considered to be inherently waste-like when they are fed to a halogen acid
furnace. This provision was added to ensure that halogen acid furnaces, which  burn
some of the most toxic wastes generated in this country, would be regulated when
burning any type of hazardous waste (56 FR  7141; February 21, 1991).  Note, there is
an exception for certain highly brominated materials burned  in halogen acid
furnaces under certain conditions (261.2(d)(2)).
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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 4 - Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling
RECYCLING

A material is recycled if it is used, reused, or reclaimed (261.1(c)(7)). These three
terms have specific regulatory definitions.  A material is reclaimed if it is processed
to recover a usable product or if it is regenerated (e.g., regeneration of spent
solvents) (261.1(c)(4)). A material is used or reused if it is either employed as an
ingredient in an industrial process to make  a product (e.g.,  distillation bottoms from
one process used as feedstock in another process) or if it is employed as an effective
substitute for a commercial product (e.g., spent pickle liquor used as a sludge
conditioner in wastewater treatment) (261.1(c)(5)).

Some materials that are recycled are classified as solid wastes, while others are
exempt from regulation.  Section 261.2(c) designates as solid wastes certain materials
that are recycled in particular manners (i.e., used in a manner constituting disposal,
burned for energy recovery, reclaimed, and speculatively accumulated). Other
materials that are recycled through use or reuse of the material may qualify for
exemptions from the solid waste definition under 261.2(e).

MILITARY MUNITIONS

Over the years, the applicability of RCRA to military munitions has been the subject
of some controversy.  On February 12, 1997, EPA finalized a rule that specified when
unused and used military  munitions are considered discarded and become solid
wastes (62 FR 6622). Unused military munitions become solid wastes when the
munitions are removed from storage for disposal or treatment prior to disposal;
when the munitions are leaking or deteriorated so that they cannot be recycled or
reused; or when declared a solid waste by an authorized military official. Unused
munitions that are repaired, recycled, or reclaimed, are not  considered solid wastes,
nor are they considered solid wastes while in storage in demilitarization accounts
(e.g., scheduled for treatment or disposal).  Only when these munitions are finally
removed from storage for the purposes of disposal do they become solid wastes.

Used military munitions become solid wastes when they are buried or landfilled on-
site, or when they are removed from their landing spot for subsequent management
(storage, reclamation, treatment, or disposal) off-range.  Note that munitions that
have been used for their intended purpose  (e.g., fired munitions or munitions used
in training exercises) are  not considered solid wastes when  they land on a firing
range,  because landing on the ground is part of their intended use (rather than
disposal). Once these military munitions are collected and  sent off-site for further
management, however, they become solid and potentially hazardous wastes.
Standards applicable to military munitions are codified in Part 266, Subpart M.
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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                                      Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling - 5
2.2   CLASSIFICATION OF RECYCLED MATERIALS

As stated above, one way a material may meet the definition of a solid waste in
261.2 is if it is recycled in a certain manner.  When a material is recycled, its
regulatory  classification (i.e., whether or not it is a solid waste,  and potentially a
regulated hazardous waste) depends on two factors: first, what type of secondary
material is  being recycled; and second, what type of recycling is occurring.  The
following discussion describes the three types of recycling regulated in 261.2(c), and
notes the various exclusions associated with specific types of secondary materials
when they are recycled in certain ways.  Depending on these determinations, a waste
destined for recycling may or may not be regulated.

SECONDARY MATERIALS

A secondary material is a material that potentially can be a solid and  hazardous
waste when recycled (50 FR 616; January 4, 1985). Used or residual waste-like
materials are called secondary materials and are divided into five groups.  Table 1 of
261.2(c) lists five types of secondary materials: spent materials, sludges, by-products,
commercial chemical products, and scrap metal.  All waste-like materials fit into
one of these five secondary material categories, which  are discussed below.

Spent Materials

Spent materials, as defined in 261.1(c)(l), are those used materials that can no
longer serve the purpose for which they were produced without undergoing
regeneration, reclamation, or reprocessing.  Examples  include spent solvents, spent
activated carbon, spent catalysts, and spent acids (50 FR 624; January 4, 1985).

Sludges

A sludge is any solid, semisolid, or liquid waste generated from a wastewater
treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control device (e.g.,
baghouse dust). Table 1 contains two sludge categories: those sludges listed on the F
or K lists (e.g., F037 petroleum refinery oil/water/solids separation sludge), and
those exhibiting a hazardous characteristic under Part 261, Subpart C.

By-Products

A by-product as defined in 261.1(c)(3) is a material that is not one of the primary
products of a production process and is not solely or separately produced by the
production process.  An example is a distillation column bottom.  A by-product is a
catch-all term, and includes most wastes that are not spent materials or sludges (50
FR 618;  January 4, 1985).  There are two types of by-product categories in Table 1:
those listed (e.g., wood preserving wastewaters  K001), and those exhibiting a
hazardous  characteristic.
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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 6 - Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling
Commercial Chemical Products

Commercial chemical products (CCPs) include unused chemical intermediates, off-
specification variants, and spill or container residues, as defined in 261.33 (e.g.,
unused sodium cyanide). The definition of CCP, which is also part of the hazardous
waste identification process for P- or U-listed wastes, is expanded for the purposes of
defining a material as a solid waste. For this purpose, the term CCP also includes
chemicals that are not listed in 261.33 but exhibit a hazardous characteristic (e.g.,
off-specification jet fuel) (50 FR 14219: April 11, 1985), as well as other unused
commercial products that exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste, even though
they are not commonly considered chemicals (e.g. unused circuit boards, unused
batteries).

Scrap Metal

Scrap metal is defined as bits and pieces of metal parts that are worn or superfluous
(e.g., scrap turnings and wire)  (261.1(c)(6)).  This term also includes products made
of metal that become worn  out such as scrap automobiles and radiators (50 FR 624;
January 4, 1985). Excluded  scrap metal (processed scrap metal, unprocessed home
scrap metal, and unprocessed prompt scrap metal)  is not a secondary material
because it is excluded from the definition of solid waste under 261.4(a)(13).

TYPES OF RECYCLING

There are three types of recycling activities over which EPA currently asserts
jurisdiction: use constituting disposal, burning waste fuels,  and reclamation.
As stated previously, to determine whether a material is a solid waste, you
must determine what kind of material is being recycled. Once the type of
secondary material (e.g., spent material, sludge, or  scrap metal) is known, the
manner in which it is recycled will determine whether or not the material is
a solid waste and therefore  potentially regulated as a hazardous waste. A
fourth type  of recycling, direct use/reuse, is not regulated under RCRA.

Use Constituting Disposal

Directly placing wastes or products containing wastes on the land is
considered to be use constituting disposal (261.2(c)(l) and 50 FR 627; January
4, 1985). If, however, direct placement of a CCP on the land is consistent with
its normal use (e.g., pesticides), then the material is not regulated as a solid
waste (261.2(c)(l)(ii)).  For  example, heptachlor can potentially be a P-listed
waste. This pesticide is not regulated as a solid waste, however, when it is
used as a pesticide.
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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                                       Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling - 7
Burning Waste Fuels

Burning hazardous waste for energy recovery and using waste to produce a fuel are
both covered under burning waste fuels (261.2(c)(2) and 50 FR 630; January 4, 1985).
CCPs that are themselves fuels are not considered solid wastes when burned,
however, since burning is consistent with the product's intended use
261.2(c)(2)(ii)).  For example, off-specification jet fuel is not a solid waste when it is
burned for energy recovery because it is itself a fuel.

Reclamation

As discussed above, reclamation is the regeneration of wastes or recovery of usable
materials from wastes (e.g., regenerating spent solvents in a solvent still).  Wastes
are regenerated when they are processed to remove contaminants in a way that
restores them to their usable condition (50  FR 633; January 4, 1985).

Use/ Reuse

The direct use or reuse of a secondary material without prior reclamation  is also a
form of recycling.  Section 261.2(e)(l)  provides exclusions from the definition of
solid waste for materials that are directly used or reused in one of the following
ways: used or reused as an ingredient, used or reused as a product substitute, or
returned to the production process.

  Used As An Ingredient

   If a secondary material is directly used as an ingredient in a production process
   without first being reclaimed (e.g., carbon tetrachloride still bottoms used in
   producing tetrachloroethylene), then that material is not a solid waste
  Used As A Product Substitute

   If a secondary material is used as an effective substitute for a commercial product
   without first being reclaimed (e.g., hydrochloric acid by-product from chemical
   manufacturing used by the steel industry for pickling steel), it is exempt from the
   definition of solid waste (261.2(e)(l)(ii)).

  Returned To The Production Process

   When a material is returned to the original production process from which it
   was generated, it is not a solid waste (261.2(e)(l)(iii)).  This exclusion only
   applies if the material is used as a raw material or feedstock in the production
   process and if it is not reclaimed prior to its reintroduction into the system  (e.g.,
   emission control dust returned directly to a primary zinc smelting furnace). The
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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 8 - Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling
   material does not have to be returned to the exact unit, but may be returned to
   any unit associated with the production of a particular product (50 FR 619, 640;
   January 4, 1985). Material returned to a secondary process must be managed
   without  placement on the land.

There are certain situations where use or reuse of a material without prior
reclamation is still considered to be management of a solid waste. Section 261.2(e)(2)
designates as solid  wastes the following materials, even if they are used or reused
directly:  materials used in a manner constituting disposal;  materials burned for
energy recovery, used to produce a fuel, or contained in fuels; materials
accumulated speculatively; and dioxin-containing wastes considered inherently
waste-like (F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, and F028). For example, an F002 spent
solvent is used in the  formulation of a pesticide,  without prior  reclamation.  While
this particular waste is recycled without reclamation (a condition of 261.2(e)(l)), it
would not qualify for the exclusion because the manner in which it is recycled is one
of the activities listed in 261.2(e)(2).

SPECULATIVE ACCUMULATION

Certain materials are exempt from the definition of solid waste  in 261.2 when
destined for recycling  (see Table 1). In order to ensure these materials are actually
recycled, EPA established a provision in 261.2 that penalizes facilities that recycle
insufficient  amounts of these  materials.  This provision designates as solid  wastes
certain materials that are  accumulated speculatively. A material is accumulated
speculatively if it has no viable market (50 FR 634; January 4, 1985) or if the  person
accumulating the material cannot demonstrate that 75  percent or more of the
material  is recycled in  a calendar year, commencing on January 1 (261.1(c)(8)). For
example, on December 15, 1991, a facility generates 200 kg of D008 sludge, a
characteristic sludge that  is normally excluded from the definition of solid waste
when reclaimed. The facility has this entire quantity of D008 sludge in storage on-
site on January 1, 1992.  If by the end of that calendar year (December 31, 1992), less
than 75 percent  (i.e., less than 150 kg) of the sludge has been reclaimed or sent off-
site for reclamation, the sludge has been accumulated speculatively and  no  longer is
excluded from the definition of solid waste. Once it is a solid waste, it must be
managed as a hazardous waste since it exhibits a characteristic.  In other words,
while providing incentives for recycling by excluding certain hazardous  wastes from
the definition of solid waste, EPA is ensuring that legitimate quantities of the waste
are being recycled rather than simply being stored to avoid regulation.
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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                                          Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling - 9
                                         Table 1

Spent Materials
Sludges listed in
40 CFR 261.31
or 261.32
Sludges
exhibiting a
characteristic
By-products
listed in 40 CFR
261.31 or
261.32
By-products
exhibiting a
characteristic
Commercial
Chemical
Products listed in
40 CFR 261. 33
Scrap Metal
other than
excluded scrap
metal (see
261.1(c)(9))
Use Constituting Disposal
261.2(c)(l)
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES*
YES
Energy Recovery/ Fuel
261.2(c)(2)
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES**
YES
Reclamation
261.2(c)(3)
YES
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
YES
Once the type of secondary material and the recycling method are known, you can determine whether
the material will be a solid waste according to 261.2(c) and therefore possibly a hazardous waste.
Materials that are solid wastes when recycled in a particular manner are marked with a "YES" in that
column; materials that are not solid wastes when recycled in that manner are marked with a "NO."
*  Commercial products are not solid wastes when applied to the land if that is their normal use.
* * Commercial products are not solid wastes when burned for energy recovery if they are already fuels
   or normal constituents of fuels.
DOCUMENTATION OF CLAIMS

A person claiming that a waste is not a solid waste or that a waste is conditionally
exempt from regulation (e.g., because it is recycled in accordance with 261.2(e))
must be prepared to demonstrate that the conditions for the exclusion are being met.
In the case of an enforcement action, generators must provide documentation
supporting their claim, such as proof the material is being reused in a production
process or that there is a known market for the material (261.2(f)).
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                      but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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 10 - Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling
SUMMARY OF SOLID WASTE DEFINITION

A solid waste is a material of any physical form (e.g., contained gas, solid, or liquid)
that is being discarded by meeting any of the following conditions:

    The material is abandoned via disposal or incineration

    The material is inherently waste-like (e.g., dioxin-containing wastes)

    The material is recycled in specific ways that are considered waste
     management (i.e., burning for energy recovery, reclamation, use constituting
     disposal)

    The material is a military munition identified as  a solid waste in 266.202.

In summary, if a material has been  classified as a solid waste (thus not meeting any of
the solid waste exclusions or exemptions), the next step in the hazardous waste
identification process is to determine  if the solid waste meets the definition of a
hazardous waste.
2.3   HAZARDOUS WASTE RECYCLING REQUIREMENTS

RCRA Subtitle C has jurisdiction over hazardous waste recycling.  Hazardous wastes
that are recycled are known as recyclable materials. When a material is classified as
a solid waste because  it is recycled (and does not qualify for any exemptions in
261.2(e)) and it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, 261.6 and 261.9 are used
to determine the level of regulation placed on the waste and the recycling activity.
These standards range from no  regulation to full regulation, with the amount of
regulation depending on the type of material and manner of recycling (see Figure 1).
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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                                    Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling -11
                                   Figure 1
    ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE RECYCLING REQUIREMENTS
         Is hazardous waste
      recycling activity listed in
           /261.6(a)(2)?
                NO
         Is hazardous waste
      recycling activity listed in
           /261.6(a)(3)?
                NO
         Is hazardous waste
       recycling activity listed
          in/261.6(a)(4)?
                NO
        Is hazardous waste
         being exported or
        imported fom OECD
          countries for the
       purposes of recovery?
                NO
        Fully regulated under
       ^261.6(b), (c), &(d)
YES
YES
YES
YES
 Subject to special
 standards under
 Part 266, Subparts C-H
 and applicable provisions
 in Part 270 & Part 124
 (i.e., permitting).
 Recyclable material
 exempt from regulation
 See Part 279,
 Used Oil Standards
See Part 262,
Subpart H
The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                  but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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 12 - Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling
SPECIAL RECYCLING STANDARDS IN 261.6(a)(2)

The recyclable materials listed in 261.6(a)(2) are subject to regulation under Part 266,
which provides special standards for hazardous wastes recycled in certain ways.
These materials include the following:

     Recyclable materials used in a manner constituting disposal (Subpart C)

     Recyclable materials from which precious metals are reclaimed (Subpart F)

     Spent lead-acid batteries that are being reclaimed (Subpart G)

     Hazardous waste burned for energy recovery (Subpart H).

Use Constituting Disposal

Part 266, Subpart C, regulates recyclable materials that are placed on the land either
directly or after mixing with other materials. This type of reuse of a recyclable
material is regulated as land treatment or landfilling when the material being
applied to the land is a hazardous  waste or contains a hazardous waste. The Agency
regulates the placement of hazardous secondary materials on the land due to the
similarity of this practice to simple land disposal.

Under 266.20(b), commercial hazardous waste-derived products are not regulated
when recycled by application to the land, provided the products meet the following
three conditions: (1) they are made for the general public's use;  (2) they have
undergone a chemical reaction so as to be inseparable by physical means; and (3)
they meet applicable Part  268 land disposal  restrictions treatment standards.
Examples of such products may include asphalt and cement. Also, commercial
fertilizers produced from  mixing recyclable material containing nutrients or
micronutrients with other ingredients are exempt from regulation if they meet the
Part 268 land disposal treatment standards for each recyclable material they contain.
Zinc-containing fertilizers produced from hazardous waste K061 for the general
public's use, however,  are not subject to regulation and thus are not required to
meet Part 268 treatment standards. If a material does not meet the conditions in
266.20(b), it must be managed as a hazardous waste when applied to the land, a
result that effectively prohibits placement on the land in anything but a hazardous
waste landfill.

Under 266.21, the management of these recyclable materials prior to being used in a
manner constituting disposal is fully regulated as hazardous waste management.
Generators and transporters of these materials, therefore, are subject to Part 262
(generator) and Part 263 (transporter) regulations, and to RCRA 3010 notification
procedures for obtaining EPA identification numbers. Under 266.22, facility owners
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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                                      Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling -13
and operators who are not the ultimate users of the materials are also subject to
notification requirements and applicable Parts 264/265 facility standards.

Owners or operators of facilities that use recyclable materials in a manner
constituting disposal are subject to RCRA 3010 notification and applicable Parts
264/265 facility standards.  Products meeting the requirements under 266.20(b) as
described above are the sole exception.

In addition to the above regulations on use constituting disposal, additional
restrictions may apply to the placement of hazardous waste on the land.  The
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) amended RCRA 3004(1)
to prohibit use of waste oil, used oil, or other materials contaminated with
hazardous waste (other than waste hazardous for ignitability only) for dust
suppression or road treatment.  This prohibition was effective November 8,  1984
(266.23(b) and 279.82).

Precious Metal Reclamation

Subpart F of Part 266 applies to recyclable materials from which precious  metals are
recovered (i.e., gold, silver, platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium, and
ruthenium).  Generators, transporters,  and storers of recyclable materials intended
for precious metal recovery are subject to notification under RCRA 3010 and
manifest requirements under Part 262,  Subpart B (for generators), 263.20 and
263.21  (for transporters), and 265.71 and 265.72  (for storers).

While  hazardous wastes that will be reclaimed for their precious metal content are
exempt from much of the Subtitle C regulations, these materials lose any applicable
exemptions if they are accumulated  speculatively, and become subject to  all
applicable requirements under Parts 262 and 264/265. The provisions barring
speculative accumulation are set out in 266.70(c).  To document that speculative
accumulation is  not occurring, generators  must keep records showing the volume
of materials on hand at the beginning  of the calendar year, the amount of materials
generated or received during the calendar year, and the amount of waste remaining
at the end of the calendar year.

Although the storage of recyclable materials that will be reclaimed for their precious
metal content is not normally subject to Subtitle  C regulation, under 260.40 and
260.41, the Regional Administrator may regulate storage of precious metal wastes on
a case-by-case basis if the wastes are not being stored safely. This case-by-case
regulation subjects the generator or storer/recycler to 261.6(b) and (c) (full
regulation) rather than Part 266, Subpart F.
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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 14 - Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling
Spent Lead-Acid Battery Reclamation

Part 266, Subpart G, covers spent lead-acid batteries that will be reclaimed. These
provisions apply only to spent lead-acid batteries.  Under Subpart G, the
requirements focus on storage of the batteries by persons who reclaim the batteries.
Persons who generate, transport, regenerate, collect, and/or store spent lead-acid
batteries without reclaiming them are not subject to hazardous waste regulation.

According to 266.80(b), owners or operators of facilities that store spent batteries
before recycling are subject to 266.80(b)(l)-(4). Storers must comply with 3010
notification, and all applicable provisions in Part 264/265, Subparts A through L.
The exceptions are 264.13 (waste analysis plan) and 264.71 and 264.72 (use of the
manifest requirements).  The permitting requirements of Parts 270 and 124 are also
applicable.

Burning Hazardous Waste

Part 266, Subpart H, governs hazardous waste burned for energy recovery in boilers
and industrial furnaces as defined in 260.10. Originally, these units were
considered to be exempt recycling units (50 FR 631; January 4, 1985). EPA
determined, however, that there was a need for regulatory action to control this type
of burning.  The Agency promulgated these regulations on February 21,  1991 (56 FR
7134).  In addition, on September 30, 1999, EPA published the MACT (Maximum
Achievable  Control Technologies) Final Rule which promulgated emission
standards for hazardous  waste burning cement kilns and lightweight aggregate kilns
(LWAKs) (64 FR 52827).  These requirements are  presented in the  module entitled
Hazardous Waste  Combustion.

EXEMPT RECYCLABLE MATERIALS IN 261.6(a)(3)

Certain recyclable  materials are exempt from hazardous waste regulation under
261.6(a)(3) when recycled in specific ways. These materials are exempt from the
notification requirements of RCRA 3010, 40 CFR Parts 262 through 266, and Parts
268, 270, and 124.  All of these materials meet the  definition of a solid waste and
hazardous waste, but are not required to be managed as hazardous  wastes if recycled
according to the provisions in 261.6(a) (3).

Industrial Ethyl Alcohol

Industrial ethyl alcohol that is reclaimed is exempted from RCRA  Subtitle C
regulation because the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms already regulates it
from the point of generation to redistillation (261.6(a) (3) (i) and 50 FR 649; January 4,
1985).
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                   but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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                                      Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling -15
Scrap Metal

Scrap metal other than excluded scrap metal that is disposed of or reclaimed is a
solid waste under the definition of hazardous waste (261.2); however, it is
exempted from Subtitle C regulation when it is reclaimed (261.6(a) (3) (ii)).  As was
mentioned earlier, scrap metal is defined as bits and pieces  of metal parts or metal
pieces that may be bolted together with bolts or soldering,  which when worn or
superfluous can be recycled. Examples of scrap metal are scrap automobiles, machine
turnings, pieces of wire, sheets of metal,  and scrap radiators (50 FR 624; January 4,
1985).  When these materials are recycled to recover their metal content, they are
exempted from regulation.

Waste-Derived Fuels from Refining Processes

Fuels produced by refining oil-bearing hazardous wastes, along with normal process
streams at a petroleum refining facility, are exempt under 261.6(a)(3)(iii) if such
wastes resulted from normal petroleum refining, production, and transportation
practices.  For these wastes to be considered to be "refined," they must be inserted
into a part of the process designed to remove contaminants; this would typically
mean insertion prior to distillation.  Consequently, if a facility takes an oil-bearing
hazardous waste and processes  it without distillation to produce a fuel, the resulting
fuel is not covered by this exemption.

Waste-Derived Fuels and Oils That Are Not Refined

Fuels produced at a petroleum refinery from oil-bearing hazardous wastes that are
introduced into the refining process after the distillation step, or that are
reintroduced in a process that does not include distillation, may also be exempt
under 261.6(a) (3) (iv) (A) and (B).  Since these hazardous waste do not undergo a
distillation step that would ensure contaminant removal, the resulting fuel  must
meet the used oil specifications in 266.40(e) to meet this exemption.

Oil that is reclaimed from oil-bearing hazardous wastes generated by petroleum
refining, production, and transportation practices is exempted under 261.6(a)(3)(iv)(C).
This exemption applies to oil that is burned as a fuel without reintroduction into  the
refining process,  provided it meets the used oil specifications in 266.40(e).

MANAGEMENT STANDARDS FOR RECYCLING IN  261.6(b), (c) AND (d)

Recyclable materials that do not meet an exemption or  that are not subject to special
requirements are regulated under 261.6(b), (c), and (d).  Generators and
transporters of recyclable materials that are solid and hazardous wastes  are subject to
the same regulations as other generators and transporters of hazardous waste.
Facilities that store these materials prior to recycling are subject to the applicable
TSDF standards.  As discussed below, however, the recycling process itself is  not
subject to regulation.

  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                   but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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 16 - Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling
Generators and Transporters

Generators of recyclable hazardous wastes are required to follow all the applicable
requirements of Part 262 (261.6(b)).  Likewise, transporters of recyclable materials
must comply with Part 263 standards.

Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities

Owners or operators of facilities that store hazardous materials prior to recycling are
subject to all of the requirements of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities
(261.6 (c)). In other words, storage is fully regulated.  Pursuant to 261.6(c)(2),
however, if the recyclable material is not stored before reuse or recycling but put
immediately into the reuse/recycling unit, a storage permit or interim status may
not be necessary. The facility must only obtain an EPA ID number and comply with
the manifest requirements under 265.71-265.72 and 265.76.

An important component to 261.6(c)  is that while storage of a hazardous waste is
regulated, the recycling process itself is generally exempt from RCRA regulation,
including permitting requirements.  (The one exception  is that the unit may have to
comply within some air emission regulations that are discussed below.) State
hazardous waste regulations and other federal or state environmental laws or
regulations may be applicable.

As mentioned above, the recycling units are potentially  subject to air emission
standards, if located at a permitted or interim status treatment, storage, or disposal
facility (261.6(d)). Part 264/265, Subparts AA and BB, require air emission controls
for specific units  that manage waste with a  minimum organic content.  If recycling
units meet these criteria, the units would need to comply with the appropriate
regulations. The  Subpart CC air emissions standards  do  not apply to recycling units.

MANAGEMENT STANDARDS FOR USED OIL AND UNIVERSAL WASTE

There are two additional categories of wastes that have special recycling regulations.
The first category is used oil sent for recycling. When recycled, used oil is subject to
the standards found in Part 279 (261.6(a) (4)). Universal wastes comprise the second
category of wastes subject to special standards.  Hazardous waste batteries, hazardous
waste pesticides that are recalled or sent to a collection program, hazardous waste
thermostats, and  hazardous waste lamps are subject to the standards of Part 273
(261.9) when recycled or disposed.

Used Oil

Used oil represents a rather unusual case. Because EPA  introduced a new used  oil
management program in 1992 to replace the existing standards, there are
overlapping sets of regulations. Under the  existing program,  which EPA

  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                   but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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                                      Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling -17
promulgated in 1985, used oil burned for energy recovery is subject to the standards
of Part 266, Subpart E. Under the new program, used oil being recycled in any
manner is subject to the standards of Part 279 (261.6(a) (4)). The relationship
between these two programs and the used oil management requirements are
discussed in detail in the module entitled Used Oil.

Universal Waste

On May 11, 1995 (60 F_R 25492), EPA promulgated regulations which streamline the
collection of certain  hazardous wastes. The rule, known as the "Universal Waste
Rule," creates special management standards in Part 273 for hazardous waste
batteries, hazardous waste pesticides that are either recalled or collected in waste
pesticide collection programs, and hazardous  waste thermostats. Section 261.9
requires that these wastes be managed under Part 273, regardless of whether they are
sent for disposal or for recycling. The rule also contains provisions for adding other
wastes to the universal waste system. On July  6, 1999 (64 FR 36466), EPA published a
final rule which added hazardous waste lamps  to the universal waste regulations in
Part 273.  Examples of common universal waste lamps include fluorescent, high
intensity discharge,  neon, mercury vapor high-pressure sodium, and metal halide
lamps (273.9).
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                    but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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 18 - Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling
                           3.   SPECIAL ISSUES
Some areas of the solid and hazardous waste recycling regulations can be difficult to
master.  The topics discussed below are often misunderstood by callers and should
be thoroughly understood by Information Specialists.
3.1   REFINING VERSUS RECLAMATION

There is often uncertainty about when a reclamation process is complete and when
the recycled material is a final product rather than a partially reclaimed material.
Sometimes a product must be further purified to be sold or used, and this is viewed
as refining or purification of the product, and not reclamation.  When in doubt, the
generator must consult the appropriate EPA Regional or authorized state personnel.
3.2   RECYCLING  PROCESS NOT REGULATED

In general, the actual recycling activity and treatment prior to recycling are not
regulated. Thus, only storage prior to such recycling is regulated.  If the waste is not
stored prior to recycling, the recycler only needs to notify of the activity and comply
with the use of the manifest when receiving shipments of recyclable  materials from
off-site (261.6 (c) (2)).
3.3   SHAM RECYCLING

For all recycling activities, the premise is that legitimate reclamation or reuse is
taking place.  To encourage recycling, EPA subjects these activities to reduced
regulation. Some facilities, however, may claim that they are "recycling" a material
in order to avoid being subject to RCRA regulation, when in fact the activity is not
legitimate recycling.  Therefore, EPA has established guidelines for what constitutes
legitimate recycling and has described activities it considers to be "sham recycling."
Considerations include whether the secondary material is effective for the claimed
use, whether the secondary material is used in excess of the amount necessary, and
whether or not the facility has maintained records of the  recycling transactions
(Memo, Lowrance to Regions; April 26, 1989).
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                   but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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                                     Definition of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Recycling -19
                  4.    REGULATORY DEVELOPMENTS
The definition of solid waste has changed substantially since the promulgation of
the original RCRA regulations in 1980, and continues to evolve as EPA gathers
more information about solid waste management and recycling. Currently, EPA is
considering amending several aspects of the solid waste regulatory scheme.
4.1   CATHODE RAY TUBES AND OTHER ELECTRONIC
MATERIAL

Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) are the display components of televisions and computer
monitors.  A typical CRT is composed of specialized glass that often contains lead to
protect the user from X-rays inside the CRT.  Color CRTs often fail the TCLP for lead,
thus subjecting them to hazardous waste regulations when discarded.  Non-CRT
electronic  materials could also be subject to hazardous waste regulations when
discarded  if they exhibit a hazardous characteristic.  However, whole used circuit
boards are considered scrap metal when sent for reclamation, and therefore exempt
from regulation under RCRA.  In addition, shredded circuit boards are generally
excluded from the definition of solid waste (62 FR 25998; May 12, 1997 and 63 FR
28559; May 26, 1998).  In late 2001, EPA plans to propose streamlined management
requirements for CRTs that are recycled.
4.2   ZINC FERTILIZERS

On November 28, 2000, EPA proposed to revise the existing regulations that apply to
recycling of hazardous wastes to make zinc fertilizer products (65 FR 70954). This
proposal would establish a more consistent regulatory framework for the recycling
of hazardous waste into fertilizer products, and establish conditions for excluding
hazardous secondary materials from the definition of solid waste. Specifically, the
Agency proposed two conditional exclusions from the definition of solid waste for
secondary materials that are recycled to make zinc micronutrient fertilizers or zinc
fertilizer ingredients.  The first proposed exclusion will allow generators of
secondary materials and manufacturers of waste-derived zinc fertilizers to take
advantage of reduced storage, transportation, and notification requirements. The
Agency also proposed to set  new standards for hazardous waste-derived fertilizers
based on contaminant levels that can be readily achieved using common
manufacturing practices. EPA is currently evaluating public comment on this rule.
  The information in this document is not by any means a complete representation of EPA's regulations or policies,
                   but is an introduction used for Call Center training purposes.

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