United States Environmental Protection Agency
Pacific Southwest/Region 9
EPA-909-K-03-001/October 2003

Underground Storage Tanks	2
Aboveground Storage Tanks.
Used Oil	8
Class V Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Wells	11
Air Conditioning Units	14
Emergency Spill Response	17

In recent years, leaking fuel tanks and spills
at gas stations have contaminated drinking
water sources for nearby communities, and have
become costly for owners to clean up. This
handbook provides guidance for owners and
operators of gas stations on how to protect the
environment, comply with federal environmental
regulations, and save money by preventing the
need for costly cleanups and payment of legal
penalties. This guide is especially useful for
facilities on tribal lands and in U.S. territories,
where federal regulations are sometimes the only environmental rules in effect.

This handbook highlights five major areas of environmental management at gas stations:
underground storage tanks, aboveground storage tanks, used oil, vehicle waste disposal wells,
air conditioning units, and emergency spill response. Each section includes a brief introduction,
suggests good management practices, provides a checklist for compliance, and lists EPA contacts
for additional assistance.

If your facility does auto repair, you may also be interested in The Pollution Prevention Toolkit:
Best Environmental Practices for Auto Repair. This is a series of fact sheets plus a video,
available free of charge from EPA, showing the best ways for auto repair shops and fleet
maintenance facilities to prevent pollution. To order the free package, call  1-800-490-9198.
More information can be found at: www.epa.gov/region09/p2/autofleet
     This publication is intended to provide guidance on the federal regulations and should not he used to meet all
     owner/operator responsibilities. It is not a substitute for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations, nor is it
     a regulation itself. It does not impose legally binding requirements. It does provide information on compliance with
     important federal requirements applicable at gasoline service stations. For a comprehensive understanding, please
     refer to the Code of Federal Regulations, and note that local regulations may be more stringent than the federal
     regulations. Check with your local regulatory authority. If you are not sure who your regulatory authority is, you
     can find out by calling EPA's toll free hotline at 1 -800-424-9346.

     EPA does not endorse any companies or names that are mentioned or shown in this workbook or poster.
     Many of these pictures were taken on the Navajo Nation.

Underground Storage  Tanks
    Upper left: Installation of new USTs.
 Upper right: A UST inspection in progress.
      Lower right: Removal of leaking
        UST and contaminated soil.
An underground storage tank (UST) is a tank and any connected underground piping
that has at least 10 percent of its combined volume underground. Federal regulations
require owners/operators of USTs to have proper corrosion protection, spill and overfill
protection, a leak detection system and financial assurance for liability.

    Gasoline Service Station  Compliance Assistance Handbook  •   Underground Storage Tanks
                                                                                        Fill Pipe
Upper left: Keep your sumps empty and clean.
Upper center: Keep your spill buckets empty and clean.
Upper right: Test your Automatic Tank Gauge (ATG) to make sure
it is calibrated and working properly.
Lower left: Organize and maintain your records and documents.
Lower right: Example of overfill protection and automatic shutoff
device used during deliveries.
Good Management Practices:
    Organize and maintain necessary documents at your facility that include the following records:
       Financial assurance
       Valid tank and piping leak detection results
       Repairs and upgrades to tanks and piping system
       Installation of overfill protection (such as flapper valve, ball float, or high level alarm)
       Installation of corrosion-protected tanks and piping, if applicable
       Records of cathodic protection testing, if applicable
       Records of internal inspection for steel tanks, if applicable
    Keep spill buckets free of liquids and dirt. Check to see if your spill bucket is leak-free and
    Check all metal piping in contact with soil and water for corrosion protection.
    Check dispenser area and piping sumps for leaks. If any water or gasoline is present, remove it
    and dispose of it properly. Make any necessary repairs.
    Test your ATG system, if installed, to make sure it is properly calibrated and working.
    On-site staff should know how to operate the ATG and emergency shutoff valve.
    Facility should have a tank specifications chart available during deliveries.

Underground Storage Tanks  •  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
       Checklist For Compliance
       The following checklist will help you manage your USTs. Always contact your local authority
       for further compliance.
             Submit a signed Notification Form
             7530-1 for Underground Storage Tanks
             to EPA and tribal/local environmental
             agencies (where applicable) 30 days
             prior to a new tank installation or
             changes in tanks or piping.
             You must have passing leak detection
             results for your tanks at least every
             30 days. Common leak detection
             methods  for tanks include automatic
             tank gauging, statistical inventory
             reconciliation (SIR), and inventory
             control with tank tightness testing.
             Maintain monthly records for the
             previous 12 months.
             You must also have leak detection
             results for your piping. For pressurized
             piping systems, this includes an annual
             operation test of the automatic line
             leak detector and either an annual line
             tightness test or leak detection tests at
             least every 30 days. Remember to keep
             these test results as records.
             Demonstrate that each tank has spill
             and overfill protection that is in good
             working order.
             All metallic components (such as tanks,
             piping, joints) in contact with soil must
Steel tank with sacrificial anode (bottom) as
corrosion protection.
       have corrosion protection. Remember
       to keep records of cathodic protection
       testing and internal lining inspections
       (if you use these methods for
       corrosion protection).
   I	I You must have financial assurance to
       cover cleanup costs of potential soil
       and groundwater contamination.
   I	I During temporary or permanent
       closure of USTs, tanks must follow
       proper closure requirements. Notify
       EPA and tribal/local authorities at least
       30 days in advance if you plan on
       permanently closing your tanks.

   For general UST information refer to:
   www.epa.gov/oust or contact EPA's
   Call Center at 1-800-424-9346. You may
   also contact the EPA Region 9 UST
   program staff at 415-972-3367.

Aboveground Storage Tanks
Another common method for storing fuels at service stations is the use of
aboveground storage tanks (ASTs). Any AST holding petroleum products or used
oil may be regulated under the Clean Water Act because releases can contaminate
surface waters. Single tanks with an aboveground storage capacity of more than
1,320 gallons or combined aggregate storage in containers of 55 gallons or
greater totaling more than 1,320 gallons are subject to the federal Oil Spill
Prevention, Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) regulations.

Aboveground Storage Tanks  •  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
                                                                      X  A
    Upper left: Good example of secondary containment.
         Upper right: Good example of security fencing.
             Lower right: Routinely check tank, valves,
                    hoses, and piping for any leaks.
       Good Management Practices

          Provide corrosion protection for ASTs and any buried piping. Options include elevating
          tanks, resting tanks on continuous concrete slabs, installing double-walled tanks, or
          cathodically protecting the tanks and piping.
          To prevent rainwater from filling containment areas, you may need to cover the tank with
          a roof structure.
          To prevent evaporative losses and moisture condensation, you may want to paint tanks a
          reflective color, as shown in the above photos.
          Regularly check the dispenser hoses and piping for any leaks (a common problem).
          On-site staff should be trained to handle emergencies, such as leaks or explosions.

                Gasoline Service Station Compliance Handbook  •  Aboveground Storage Tanks
Checklist For Compliance
The following checklist will help you manage
your aboveground storage tanks. Always contact
your local authority for further compliance.
       Develop and implement a Spill
       Prevention, Control and
       Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan if the
       combined capacity of your ASTs is
       greater than 1,320 gallons. The SPCC
       Plan must be certified by a Professional

       All ASTs should have a secondary
       means of containment capable of
       holding 100%  of the largest tank
       capacity plus sufficient room to hold
       stormwater/rain water. Options include
       either having double-walled tanks;
       berms, dikes, or vaults; or leak-proof
       retention ponds or holding basins.

       If a loading "rack" is present, tank
       loading and unloading procedures must
       have some form of secondary
       containment sufficient to  account for
       the largest compartment of the delivery
       truck. If there is no "rack" present, there
       must be general drainage  control to
       prevent a release during delivery.

       Buried piping must be protectively
       wrapped and/or coated to prevent
       corrosion, and periodically tested for
       structural integrity.

       Routinely monitor ASTs to ensure
       they are not leaking. Areas to inspect
       include tank foundations, connections,
       coatings, tank walls, and piping systems.
       The new SPCC rule requires combining
       tank inspection with integrity testing
       based on industry standards.
Wrong: This AST has inadequate secondary containment,
and no way to prevent vehicles from hitting it.

   I	I  Control drainage from diked
       containment areas with manually
       controlled valves. Any discharge
       should be inspected for petroleum
       and chemicals prior to disposal.

   I	I  Provide adequate security including
       fencing and lighting. Tank valves
       must be closed and locked when not
       operating. Starter controls must be
       closed and locked when not operating,
       and accessible only to  authorized
   I	I  Oil handling employees must be
       trained in proper handling of oil and
       applicable pollution control laws, rules
       and regulations. Training records must
       be maintained for at least three years.
   For general AST and SPCC information
   refer to: www.epa.gov/oilspill or contact
   EPA's Call Center at 1-800-424-9346.
   You may also  refer to the EPA Region 9
   Web site: www.epa.gov/region09/waste/

Used  Oil
                                                                 Containers for used
                                                                 oil should be clearly
                                                                 labeled, as shown
                                                                 here. Extra care
                                                                 should be taken to
                                                                 avoid spillage shown
                                                                 by floor stains.
If your facility changes oil on vehicles or accepts used oil from your community, you must
follow the federal standards for the management of used oil. These standards require
your shop to comply with basic storage requirements. Used oil should be stored only
in containers and tanks that are in good condition (free of any visible leaks, structural
damage, or deterioration). Containers, aboveground tanks, and fill pipes that transfer
used oil into underground storage tanks all need to be clearly marked with the words
"USED OIL" to prevent mixing of used oil with other materials.

                       Gasoline Service Station Compliance Assistance Handbook  •  Used Oil
         Containers must be in
           good condition and
              clearly labeled.
Good Management Practices

   When changing oil, set up equipment—such as a drip table or screen table with a used oil
   collection bucket—to collect oil dripping off parts. Place drip pans underneath vehicles that
   leak fluids.
   Used  oil filters should be drained, crushed, and stored in a container that is labeled "Used Oil
   Filters." Most oil filters can be recycled. This process exempts filters from being considered
   hazardous waste.
   If your facility is storing used oil destined for recycling in underground storage tanks (USTs),
   you must follow UST regulations. Refer to the UST section, p 2-4.

Used  Oil  •  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
      Checklist For Compliance
      The following checklist will help you manage your used oil. Always contact your local
      authority for further compliance.
             Keep used oil storage tanks and
             containers in good condition; label
             tanks and containers with the words
             "USED OIL."

             When changing oil, set up equipment,
             such as a drip table or screen table, to
             collect oil dripping off parts.

             Oil filters should be drained (for 24
             hours) and crushed prior to recycling
             or disposal. It is good practice to
             label storage containers as "USED OIL

             Immediately clean up any oil spills or
             leaks to the environment.

             Do not mix used oil with hazardous
             waste (such as gasoline or solvents),
             or else it will have to be managed
             as hazardous waste, which is more
             costly and cannot be recycled. Used oil
             should be separated from other wastes
             and stored in leak-free containers
             labeled "USED OIL."

             Used oil generated by a shop may
             be burned on site in a commercial
             space heater. Also, used oil may be
             sent to a burner for energy recovery.
   Contact local authorities to determine
   requirements and obtain necessary

LJ If shipping used oil off site to be
   burned, you must obtain an EPA
   identification number by calling the
   EPA Region  9 RCRA Notification
   Switchboard at 415-495-8895.

Contact EPA's Call Center toll-free at
1-800-424-9346 for additional information
about used oil management

Class  V Motor  Vehicle
Waste Disposal  Wells
                                                Floor drains in
                                                service bays might
                                                lead to a Class V
                                                (Five) Motor Vehicle
                                                Waste Disposal Well.
Your facility may be using a Class V Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Well if there is a
floor drain on site. Floor drains that are not connected to a sewer line are considered
Class V Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Wells if used to receive fluids from vehicle repair
or maintenance activities (this includes drainage from car wash stations). In order to
protect drinking water, federal requirements prohibit using existing motor vehicle waste
disposal wells, unless the owner and operator seeks a waiver and obtains a permit
from EPA and local authorities, if applicable. Constructing new motor vehicle waste
disposal wells is prohibited nationwide, due to the risk of polluting groundwater.

Class V Motor Vehicle Waste  Disposal Wells  •  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
       Use of dry wells should be avoided, due to the risk of contaminating groundwater.
       Good Management Practices

          Facility managers should know if floor
          drains lead to a municipal sewer line, to a
          surface discharge, to a leakproof sump, or to
          a shallow injection well. Facility managers
          should obtain the diagrams for all the
          existing underground construction at their
          facility to track the transport of these fluids.
          Facility managers should know all sources
          of fluids that flow onto or originate from
          their property, including rain, snow, fuel,
          motor vehicle fluids, and wastewater from
          bathrooms and sinks.
          "Dry shop" practices minimize the risk of
          polluting water. For more information,
          go to: www.epa.gov/region09/p2/autofleet/
          or www.ccar-greenlink.org/
Facility managers should use best
management practices, such as dry shop
technologies, waste minimization, and
employee education. These activities are
described more fully in the EPA
publication, Small Entity Compliance
Guide: How the New Motor Vehicle Waste
Disposal Well Rule Affects Your Business.
This can be found at www.epa.gov/

Gasoline Service Station Compliance Handbook   •  Class V Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Wells
 Checklist For Compliance
 The following checklist will help you manage your motor vehicle waste disposal wells.
 Always contact your local authority for further compliance.
       All owners and operators of Class V
       motor vehicle waste disposal wells
       must provide to the EPA
       Underground Injection (UIC)
       program the following inventory
            Facility name and location
            Legal contact
            Nature of injection activity
            Operating status of injection well
        Class V wells must not endanger or
        contaminate any underground source
        of drinking water.

        Establishment of new motor vehicle
        waste disposal wells is prohibited.

        Use of existing motor vehicle waste
        disposal wells is banned unless a
        permit is obtained.
For more information:
Contact the Safe Drinking Water Hotline
at 1-800-426-4791. You can also get well-
specific fact sheets and other information
on Class V injection wells, including
information on the  Class V Rule from the
EPA Web site: www.epa.gov/safewater/
        Owners and operators must notify
        the UIC Program Director at the
        applicable regulatory agency at least
        30 days before closing an existing
        motor vehicle waste disposal well.

Air  Conditioning  Units
                                                     When air conditioning
                                                     units are repaired,
                                                     they must be
                                                     serviced by an EPA-
                                                     certified technician.
If your facility services motor vehicle air conditioning units, you may be subject to Clean
Air Act regulations. Many motor vehicle air conditioners (MVACs) contain refrigerants with
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and similar chemicals, which damage the Earth's protective
stratospheric ozone layer if released to the air. Regulations require that refrigerants be
removed from motor vehicles using U.S. EPA-registered equipment. Technicians must
be certified to service air conditioning units. You must sell the refrigerant you collect to
a reclamation facility so that it can be purified for reuse.

          Gasoline Service Station Compliance Assistance Handbook  •  Air Conditioning Units
                Upper: Follow accepted procedures for
            changing fittings and labeling refrigerants in
                   AC units that have been retrofitted.
               Lower:  Facilities must use EPA-approved
                              recycling equipment.
Good Management Practices
   Leaky air conditioners should be repaired rather than just "topped off" with additional
   refrigerant. Such repairs prolong system life, reduce emissions, and conserve existing
   supplies of CFCs, which can no longer be legally manufactured or imported.

Air Conditioning  Units  •   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
       Checklist For Compliance
       The following checklist will help you manage motor vehicle air conditioning units.
       Always contact your local authority for further compliance.
             It is illegal to vent and release
             CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and any R-12
             replacement to the atmosphere.
             These chemicals must be recovered
             during servicing.

             If performing maintenance on motor
             vehicle air conditioning equipment,
             you must have documentation
             proving that you and your facility are
             certified by an EPA-approved testing

             Recovery equipment must be
             registered with EPA.

             Recover and/or recycle refrigerants
             during the servicing and disposal of
             motor vehicle air conditioners and
             refrigeration equipment.

             After removal and collection,
             refrigerant must be sold to a
             reclamation facility so that it can
             be purified, unless your facility has
             the capacity to recycle the refrigerant
             back into the original vehicle or into
             another serviced vehicle.
I	I If refrigerants are recovered and sent
   to a reclamation facility, the name
   and address of that facility must be
   kept on file.

I	I In addition, when servicing units that
   use alternative non-ozone-depleting
   substances, you are still required to
   use certified equipment and be a
   certified technician.

Additional information is available
through the toll-free Stratospheric
Ozone Information  Hotline:
1-800-296-1996. You may also
go to www.epa.gov/ozone

Spill   Response
For any explosions or major petroleum spills, immediately contact
the National Response Center at 800-424-8802.

                     If any release from an underground storage tank (UST) or
                     aboveground storage tank (AST) is suspected, the owner or operator
                     must report the release within 24 hours. Short-term actions should
                     also be taken immediately to stop the release and ensure that there is
                     no threat to public safety, human health, or the environment.

Short-Term Actions
   Take immediate action to safely stop and contain the release.
   Report the release to the National Response Center, EPA and your local regulatory authority
   within 24 hours.
   Make sure the release poses no immediate hazard to human health and safety by removing
   explosive vapors and fire hazards. Your fire department should be able to help or advise you
   with this task. You must also make sure you handle and dispose of contaminated soil properly
   so that it poses no hazard (for example, from vapors or direct contact).
   Remove petroleum from the UST or AST system to prevent further release into the environment.
   Find out how far the petroleum has moved and begin to recover the leaked petroleum (such
   as product floating on the water table). Report your progress and any information you have
   collected to EPA and your local regulatory authority no later than 20 days after confirming
   a release.
   Investigate if the release has impacted the soil and subsurface environment.
   This investigation must determine the extent of contamination both in soils and
   groundwater. You must report to EPA and your local regulatory authority what you have
   learned from an investigation of your site according to the schedule established by the
   regulatory authority. At the same time, you must also submit a Corrective Action Plan
   explaining how you plan to clean up the site.
      National Response Center: 800-424-8802

                                                                                PACIFIC SOUTHV£ESJ/-
                                                                       ' Indian Reservations, Colonies, and Rancherias
                                                                             • Major Metropolitan Areas
                                                                                          IQDl	150
EPA's Pacific Southwest Region includes the states of Arizona, California, Hawaii and Nevada; 147 tribal nations and communities;
and Pacific islands that are U.S. territories or to which the U.S. has ongoing commitments. Map shows boundaries of states,
counties, and tribal lands.
                              U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                              Pacific Southwest/Region 9 Contacts
                                     U.S. EPA Pacific Southwest/Region 9
                                             75 Hawthorne St.
                                          San Francisco, CA 94105
                           Phone inquiries: 415-947-8000 or 866-EPA-WEST (toll free)
                                       Email inquiries: r9.info@epa.gov
                                         EPA Web site: www.epa.gov
                              For Pacific Southwest issues: www.epa.gov/region09