CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                ENDING JUNE 30, 1968

2..  Field evaluations. ...................... .

                       DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

             Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
Highlight statement	          1
Budget estimates compared to authorizations....................          6

Appropriation and activity

1 .  Grants 5

    (a)  Research and development ....... ............. ..... .....         lit

    (b)  Training ................ ........ .......... . ...... , ....         30

    (c)  State and interstate agency programs ..................         36

    (d)  Comprehensive basin planning. ..... ....... ...... ..... . .         Mt-

2.  Direct operations:

    (a)  Comprehensive planning, management^ and assistance, . . .         k5

    (b)  Research and development . . ' ...... ...... ......... .......         98

    ( c)  Regulation and enforcement. . . ................ .........        llU

    (d)  Construction grants administration. . .............. ....        121

    (e)  Administration............. ....... ..... ---- ...........        12^

BUILDINGS AMD FACILITIES. ...................'.......... ....... . ,        137

1.  Water pollution control and water quality standards
      laboratories ... ...... .....«...........*..................        139
1 .  Waste treatment works construction, ........................        1^

2 .  Appalachian regional development ...........................        15

                         DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

                            Highlight Statement

     The objective of the Federal water pollution control program is to
control and prevent pollution to assure an adequate supply of water suitable
in quality for public and industrial water supplies, propagation of fish
and aquatic life, wildlife, recreation, agriculture, and other legitimate
uses«  Accomplishment of this objective requires broad-based and effective
participation by all levels of government and others concerned.  Therefore,
in addition to carrying out its own direct authorities and programs, the
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration is deeply involved with the
encouragement and support of State and local pollution control efforts, and
with development of improved patterns of cooperation at Federal, State and
local levels„

     The Federal water pollution control program provides for a broad scope
of activities necessary to come to grips with the Nation's pollution control
problems.  These activities include programs such as regulation and enforcement,
research and development, technical assistance, training, pollution surveillance,
comprehensive basin planning and others.  In addition, the program provides
for financial assistance to;

     (a)  State and interstate pollution control agencies and planning
agencies to plan and carry out effective water pollution control programs;

     (b)  Local communities to construct needed treatment works;

     (c)  Public or private agencies, institutions, and individuals
to broaden the base of scientific participation in research; to develop
projects demonstrating new or improved water pollution control methods;
and to increase the professional and subprofessional manpower resources
needed in the water pollution control fields*

Current Status of Program

     Today, the national water pollution control effort stands at a major
turning point and at the threshold of major new accomplishments,,  This
results from widespread recognition and support by the Congress and Executive
Branch, by State and local governments and by the public at large of the
need to accelerate progress, if we are to reverse the long trend towards
deterioration of our water quality,

     At the Federal level, this new emphasis is reflected by the following
major actions:

     1.  Passage of the Water Quality Act of 19&5, providing major new
Federal authorities for controlling pollution and elevating the Federal
program from its previous status as a division within the Public Health
Service  by creating the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration as
an agency within the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare^

     2.  Issuance in Hovember 1965 of an Executive Order on "Preventions
Control and Abatement of Water Pollution by Federal Activities," providing
a greatly strengthened approach to setting the Federal house in order.

     3.  Issuance of Reorganization Plan Ho, 2 of 1966, providing for
transfer of the FWPCA to the Department of the Interior, thus strengthening
mechanisms for coordinating this program with other water resource
development activities.

     U,  Passage of the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966 which further
increased the Federal authorities and programs for controlling pollution
and greatly expanding financial support for States, communities, and others,

     As a result of these major actions, the Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration will be carrying out many new assignments and mandates in
1967 and 1968.  Many of its already existing programs, stemming from passage
of the basic legislation, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1956,
and subsequent amendments, will be continued and strengthened.  In addition,
the agency will have a major task in developing new programs and policies
and in integrating its now diverse authorities to assure the most effective
overall approach.  Further, major efforts are under way and will continue
for the development of the administrative activities to enable the agency
to meet its new responsibilities.

Hew Policies and Programs

     The Federal Government now has the legislative tools necessary to
reverse the deterioration of the Nation's waters.  Many of these tools
are now in use and working well.  During 1968, these programs will be
continued and newly authorized programs will be put into eTfect,

     In response to the legislative history of the 1966 Act, and to the
obvious need for such action, the major emphasis of the Federal program
will be directed toward putting pollution control on a basin-wide basis
to obtain orderly cleanup of entire stream systems.  Water quality
standards authorized by the Water Quality Act of 1965 will serve as the
keystone for scheduling abatement efforts in interstate river basins.
During 1967 and 1968, major attention at both State and Federal levels
will be directed towards developing these standards and initiating programs
to implement them.  Federal efforts will emphasize the integration of
Federal and State-local planning and abatement activities to meet and
maintain these standards.  It is anticipated that many States will also
establish standards for intrastate waters, which similarly will govern
pollution abatement efforts.  There will be vigorous application of Federal
requirements and guidelines to assure that basin planning grants, State and
interstate agency program grants, and municipal waste treatment works
construction grants are awarded and utilized in a planned, orderly manner to
achieve the desired goal«  This will require reorientation of many of the
procedures, regulations, and means of operation which existed prior to pas^Sr
of the 1966 legislation.

     At the same time that the reorientation of the program towards an
integrated basin-wide approach is proceeding, studies of training needs,
industrial waste incentives, and national costs of pollution control, as
authorized by the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966, will be providing
more accurate assessments of the adequacy of existing efforts relative
to the national need.  Recommendations stemming from these studies are
expected to contribute significantly to continued development and
improvement of the overall national program.

Administrative Developments

     Since its creation in December 1966 and its subsequent transfer
to the Department of the Interior, the Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration has been working towards establishment of an organization
which will most effectively and efficiently provide for carrying out
the Federal water pollution control program.  In addition to reorganization,,
the Administration was confronted with several significant problems related  .
to its establishment and transfer.

     At the time of the transfer of functions from the Public Health Service,
the program was staffed with over 300 Public Health Service commissioned
officers, many of whom held key positions.  In order to avoid the loss of
this reservoir of talent, the Water Quality Act of 1965 provided for
conversion to civil service status, at the option of the officer, generally
with no loss in pay or length of service for retirement purposes*  Notwith-
standing these inducements, about 50$ have converted or will convert«  For
various reasons, many of the key officers retired or elected to stay with
Public Health Service,  Therefore, in the past year the Administration has
had to seek qualified professionals to replace these officers arid fill other
key positions created as a result of the establishment of the agency.  Another
significant problem was to create capability for administrative support*  The
1967 budget did not anticipate the transfer of the Administration to the
Department of the Interior.  In the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
most of this support was provided by that Department both at headquarters and in
regional offices.  However, under the Department of the Interior, the
Administration has been required to establish and is proceeding generally to
develop, full-scale competencies essential for the support of programs.

     Therefore, the past months have -involved considerable effort toward
gearing up with the organizational, staffing, and administrative actions
necessary to support the agency's new and expanded mission®  These actions
are now well advanced and a sound administrative base has been established,,

Ant ic ipated Accompli shments in 1968

     1.  Water quality standards will be established for all significant
interstate and coastal waters and a system of surveillance for compliance
will be initiated.

     2.  Research and development activities will be accelerated with
particular emphasis on development of waste technology for all major sources

of waste.  The program will support 20 projects developing or demonstrating
new or improved methods for controlling storm and combined sewer pollution;
20 developmental or demonstration projects for advanced waste treatment
or joint waste treatment; 15 field evaluation or demonstration projects
in the area of preventing pollution by industry and 50 contracts for
developing new and improved methods for solving problems involving services
and control of pollution in other areas*

     3.  State and interstate agency water pollution control programs will be
strengthened through the proposed increase from $5 to $10 million in grants,
and through new and more effective policies for guiding the expenditure of
these funds.

     h.  The establishment of 20 grant-supported State and local basin
planning agencies whose efforts will be directed towards establishing a
strong institutional basis for basin-wide water quality management,,

     5.  Construction of needed municipal waste treatment projects will
continue through financial assistance provided by a $203 million grant

     6»  Federal efforts to get pollution control on a river basin basis
will have produced interim plans delineating immediate pollution control
needs for all major river basins«  Long-range comprehensive planning
efforts will be strengthened as well.  The Federal program will be administered
in accordance with these findings to assure that all Federal -activities are
directed toward accomplishing these goals.

     7«  Special studies of the national cost of water pollution control and
industrial waste treatment incentives will have been completed.

     8.  The training and manpower needs study to be completed at the end of
FY 196? will be used to determine State and local water pollution personnel
needs and the capability of Federal programs to meet them.  This study and
the water craft pollution study3 also to be completed at the end of FY 1967,
will be used as a basis for developing effective programs to meet the
respective needs.

     9.  A wide range of field investigations, such as enforcement and
technical assistance projects, needed for controlling and abating pollution
problems in various parts of the country will be advanced or completed.
The study of the nation's estuaries, which is designed to develop
recommendations for long-range protective programs, will be well advanced.,

    10*  Water pollution control and water- quality standards laboratories
will be fully staffed to conduct necessary research and pollution surveillance
and provide technical assistance and training.  The facilities involved are

the water pollution control regional laboratories at Athens, Georgia;  Ada,
Oklahoma; Corvallis, Oregon and College, Alaska, now in operation,  and the
National Water Quality Standards laboratory at Duluth,  Minnesota.   The
latter is still under construction but will be operational by the  end  of
June 1967.

    11.  All Federal agencies concerned are anticipated to take steps
to implement guidelines established for controlling pollution either from
Federal installations or as a result of Federal activities.

                                             DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                                   Federal Water Pollution Control Administration

                                     Budget Estimates Compared to Authorizations

     Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended

                                                           	FY 1967	FT 1968
                                                                                 NOA                          WA
     Section of Act                                        Authorization       Estimate Authoriza,tion       Estimate

     Section 5—Research, Investigations, Training,
       and Information
        Carry out all of Section 5 other than subsection (g)        Wot Applicable        $60,000,000    $37,220,000
         (d)—Develop and demonstrate under varied
                conditions research in three specified areas  $5,000,000     $4,010,000        a/
         (g)--Estuary studies...............................   1,000,000            ...     1,000,000        970,000

     Section 6—Research and Development Grants
        General authorization provided for the purposes
         set forth in entire section including contracts,...  20,000,000     20,000,000    20,000,000     10,000,000
         (a)(2)—Advanced waste treatment and joint
                  waste treatment...........................  20,000,000            »..    20,000,000     10,000,000
         (ID)—Industrial wastes.............................  20,000,000            ...    20,000,000     10,000,000

     Section 7—Grants for Water Pollution Control Program..   5,000,000      5,000,000    10,000,000     10,000,000

     Section 8--Grants for Construction....	 150,000,000    150,000,000   450^,000,000    200^000,000

          Rrtal.....................	 221,000,000    179^010,000   581,000,000    278,190,000

     a/  Included as part of the $60 million authorization for all of Section 5 activities.

Appalachian: Regironal
                                                                FY 1967
                                      FY 1968
Section of Act
Section 212—Construction Grants for Waste
Estimate Authorization
  Treatment Projects,
    3,000,000     3,000,000     6,000,000^  3,000,000
b/  Balance cf $6 million authorization with $3 million appropriated in fiscal year 1965.
cj  Authorization pending for fiscal years 1968 through 1969«

Water Supply &
Water Pollution

                                        DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR


                                 Water- Supply and Water Pollution Control
Appropriation, 1966, .......... ...... ............. ................     $Uf, 51^,000
Supplemental appropriation, 1966 ...... ........ ...... ... ..........         628,000
Second supplemental appropriation, 1965 (reappropriation) ........         820,000
       Total appropriation, 1966. . , ...... . . ..... . ............... .                                $145,962,000

Transferred to:
  "Operating expenses, Public Building Service,"
    General Services Administration ........ . ............ .........                                    -M3,U70
  "Salaries and expenses, Office  of Surgeon General,"
    Public Health Service, Department of Health,
    Education, and Welfare .................................... '. . .                                    -10,000
Comparative transfer to:
  "Salaries and expenses s Office  of General Counsel,"
    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare .................                                     -8,000
  "Buildings and" facilities," Federal Water Pollution
    Control Administration. ..... .............................. ...                                 -1,6UO,382
Comparative transfer from "Construction grants for waste
  treatment works" ....... ____ . ....... . 1 ................ . ..........                                   +870,750
       Total available , 1966 .......... ____ . . ____ . . ...............                                 ^5, 125, 898

       Total appropriation, 196?. .... ...... .... ....... ...........            '                   ^ 55 ,14-39>000

Comparative transfers from :
  "Construction grants for waste  treatment works". ...............                               «;. +393 129s 250
               — expanses , Office,  of  the-Seer-a-tary,
                £~^^^                             • • • — •

Transfer to:
  "Operating expenses, Public Buildings Service," General
    Services Administration	                                    -295,260
  "Salaries and expenses, Office of the Solicitor". ./£ ,/^-f......                                    -116,000

Transferred from "Salaries and expenses, Office of Field
  Administration," Department of Health, Education, arid
  Welfare	ff ./M*i.-	                                     +55,000
       Total available, 1967	'	                                  9^,261,990

         Summary of Increases and Decreases, 1968

                                                                   Base for 1968   Increase  1968
Grants:                                                                            /)
  Research and development                                      I '^-                >J/
    Decrease generally due to new obligational
      authority for 1967 and balances available
      from 1966 funds exceeding request for 1968	    $U8,6U8,250     -$9,678,250
    Support graduate and technical training grants	      3,5^-3,000        +9^7,000
  State and interstate agency programs
    Increase support as authorized by  Clean Water
      Restoration Act of 1966 	      5,000,000      +5,000,000
  Comprehensive basin planning
    Provide support to river basin planning agencies	             ...      +1,OOP,OOP    -2,731*250
Direct operations:
  Comprehensive planning, management, and assistance
    Accelerate implementation of  Clean Water
      Restoration Act of 1966  and initiate or
      expand selected technical studies for                         ,                «f
        •*•                                                        &*j/ *% J               j? *,--;•
      comprehensive river basin programs	/--fv   9,^-93,7^-0   '   +1,083,260
    Strengthen water quality standards development
      activity to further implement  Water Quality Act  of 1965.../*•"'    258,000  -/• ^'^"'+392,000

  Initiate comprehensive study of effects of
    pollution in estuaries directed by Clean Water                                  .
    Restoration Act of 1966	   - -           ...  ^   +970,000
  Staff operational laboratories to full complement and
    strengthen program direction for technical assistance..., <^W    2,8333000  v-»« +36U,000
  Provide pollution surveillance support for FWPCA
    activities and assistance to States and local
    agencies due to Water Quality Act of 1965 and                                 ,/
    Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966	  /33   i,UoU,000  I"*6 +582,000
  Expand technical and graduate training and initiate                             .  ,
    management internship program	  ^f     762,000  -i^7 +238,000
  Provide for undertaking economic and manpower evaluation
    studies required by the Clean Water Restoration                                >y,
    Act of 1966	  —          ...   •*'' +i-tOO,000
  Provide for positions authorized to be filled in  1967
    for control of pollution from Federal installations
    activity	    /f    680,000   "-'"'  +85,000
  Nonrecurring equipment costs	              ...       -850,000
  Partial or complete phase-out of three comprehensive,- ;%Bj»6$'                                  _  , &>                                   4^'
    project	              ...  *33  -776,000   +2,488,260

Research and development
  Strengthen program direction, complete staffing of                              ,t
    laboratories, and provide for accelerated field work	/7^    7,507,000 "»>  +2,315,000
  Accelerate contract effort	        1,600,000     +6,000,000
  Provide for adequate support for grants and contracts
    management	jto       57^,000 + '*   +lU2,000  ^9-^
  Nonrecurring equipment costs	              ...       -203,000   +8,25U,000

Regulation and enforcement
  Provide for compliance of water quality standards                                ,
    and administration of the Oil Pollution Control Act	  £fj  3,799,000  4 *}& +353,000

                                                                 l                   ''            -*
  Partial or complete phase-out of major investigatory           s**'             i**""           \
    projects	                 ...  ~^/5  -728,000
  Nonrecurring equipment costs	                 ...         -15,000  -/-«5 -390,000

Construction grants administration                                ^
  Provide for positions authorized to be filled in 196?....    //^   1,898,000   ~~     +8,000
  Nonrecurring equipment costs	                 ...         -22,000  „.,.   -lU,000

  Provide for strengthening executive direction for
    international activities and contract compliance                                ^»
    and equal employment opportunity	    -^     722,000   •"" f^ +170,000
  Increase administrative management to permit adequate                             ^
    support of program activities	   /ff    1,975,000   + ^"+735,000
  Strenthen regional office support to service field
    activities	    //U-      817,000  *3k>  +383,000
  Provide for public information activities in regional
    offices	    \J0      388,000    -^ <5  +65,000
  Credit civil service retirement fund for Public Health
    Service commissioned officers converted to civil                                              *,V"
    service status	                 ...        +350,000  ,f-/
  Ilcnrecurring equipment costs	                 ...         -98,000    +1^605,000

Cost reduction
  Nonrecurring 19^7 savings on employment deferral..	                                      -2,360,000
    TTet Increase, 1968	                                  f '  +6,852,010

    Budget estimate, 1968	                               ,?#&$ 101,11^.000

                                             DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                                   Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
                                      Water Supply and Water Pollution Control

                                               Analysis Toy Activities
Fiscal Year 1966 Fiscal Year 3.967
Grants :

Direct operations?
Comprehensive planning, management,

Unobligated balance lapsing. .,.««.»<, 	

IK 809, 527

10 , 158 , 017
5 , 839 , 318

.. 14.5,125,898
Total Pay Cost
Appropriation Supplemental
-- . » « « « « «
/15, 596,000 % ,
/ 9,760,000
/ 3/862,000
C 2^360,0003
' 55/^39,000 \
4 » *
« * »
« « «
-165,000 ,
+21, OQQ2J,
* * *
* « •
a/  Comparative transfer from "Construction grants for waste treatment works."
b/  Includes $1,655^6"l8 for field evaluation activities (acid mine drainage) reappropriated
      under "Buildings and facilities."
                             	Transfer from:	   	Transfer tot
c/                           Department of Health  Department of Housing   Office of
                             Education, & Welfare  & Urban Development S/  Solicitor
Comprehensive planning	        ...                 ...
Research and development	        ...                 ...
Regulation and enforcement	        ...                 ...
Construction grants administration        ...              50,000,
Office of General Services
Solicitor Administration
« « «
* » *
d/  Comparative transfer from "Salaries and expenses, Office of the Secretary/'

Water Supply and Water Pollution Control

         Analysis by Activities
; '

(b ) Training 	 *..«...»....«.»«.
(c; State and interstate
(d) Comprehensive basin

(a) Comprehensive planning,
management, and assistance ^.%-"/
(c) Regulation and
(d) Construction grants x^
(e) Administration* 	 	 	 	 	 , „ .\&2 %

Total 	 	 	 	 H,?.^
FY 1966

i ,406,372

FY 1967
/"- Available
ji>57 JLQl^OOO

/ '' " 15,431,000
<, '• 9,681,000
^f 3,799,000
/' ^ 1,898,000
: a 3.902,000

' ' 94,262,000
/] FY 1968
/"- '• Estimate
'$•/> 17,935,000
•--£/ 3,409,000
'/fS' 1,884,000
y?X 5.507.000

~~' 101,114,000
Increase (*)
Decrease (-)
Over 1967
+5 , 000 , 000
> * ' +2,488,000
-- • •• +8,254,000
y- 3 -390 , 000


j* .
y d r/ +6,852,000



Research and

(a)  Research and development grants
                                          Analysis by Activities
                                          FY 1966
 Storm and combined sewer...	„ <,     $870,750'

 Advanced waste treatment and joint
   treatment .,,. „ <»	.          ...

 Industrial wastes	          •..

 General	    8,209,655

 Unobligated balance lapsing	    	3_^5

      Total	'	    9,080,750
   FY 1967
$29, U2.
             FY  1968


               Increase (+)
               Decrease (-)
                Over 1967
$10,000,000    -$19,ii2,U50


          38,970,000       -9,678,250
 a/  Comparative transfers from "Construction grants for waste treatment works."

Storm and combined sewers;  FY 1-9&7, $29., 112,14-50 . FY 1968, $10,000,000;
Decrease, 19,11?,14-50.   The decrease consists of:

     $°.112,^50 of" obligations incurred from funds appropriated for
     l<-)()6 and $10,000,000 less in new obligational authority being
     proposed for 1968 than was appropriated for 1967.


     Section 6, (a)(l) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Amendments of 1966 (Clean Water  Restoration Act of 1966) authorizes
$20,000,000 annually for fiscal years 1966 through 1969 for grants
to public "bodies such as  States, municipalities, intermunicipal or
interstate agencies for the purpose of assisting in the development
of projects which will demonstrate new or improved methods of control-
ling the discharge into any waters of untreated or inadequately treated
sewage or other wastes from sewers which carry storm water or both
storm water and sewage or other wastes.  The Act authorizes grants of
up to 75 percent of the estimated reasonable cost of projects with no
dollar Limitation on individual grants.  Prior to passage of the
 ("lean Waters Restoration Act,  Federal participation was up to 50$.
Grants will "be used for investigation and evaluation of methods and
ideas ao determined to be necessary for successful accomplishment of
program objectives.  Methods believed to have potential as solutions
or partial solutions to the problem, but as yet untried, can be ade-
quately field tested.  In developing statements of work required for
individual grant  projects, emphasis will be placed on the construction
and operation of facilities which apply new or improved methods for
reducing pollution from storm or combined sewers.

     It should be noted that the  Clean Water Restoration Act  provides
that funds appropriated for this purpose can also be used for advanced
waste treatment and joint treatment and industrial waste activities,
including the use of contract authority.  However, it is the intent
that before such action is taken, these funds be used for storm
and combined sewer activity to the extent possible.

                             Program of Work

     The awarding of grants and/or  contracts will be continued in
accordance with the basic objectives.  By the end of 1968, there should
also be a preliminary indication of the type of nationwide remedial
program which would be necessary to alleviate the basic problem,

     In addition to the primary objectives, there will be additional
effort in studies and investigations in selected problem areas where
adequate knowledge does not exist.  Examples of areas in need of study
Include:   evaluation of the effectiveness of sewer separation in

,'icf.tiul ly reducing pollution;  improving sewer design; improved design
o I'  in lot structures arid catch basins; development of .systems analysis
unit control, methods; studies of.1 the economic, social and aesthetic
impact of sewer Reparation and use of alternative corrective measures;
and improved techniques of urban hydrolo^ic analyses.
     With the new 75% funding provision and the elimination of a
dollar ceiling on individual projects, it is anticipated that the
added impetus necessary to stimulate participation in the grant
program has "been provided.

                             Ac compli shments

     In 1966 considerable effort was devoted to developing program
policy guidelines and objectives.  One grant was awarded for the
construction of a dispatching system for control of combined sewer
losses in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota.

     In 1967  increased effort is being made to further stimulate the
demonstration grant feature of the program.  Emphasis is being placed
on the delineation of types of projects that are now known to require
evaluation to determine effectiveness and applicability on a nationwide
basis.  Included in this analysis is the need for investigating the
effectiveness of duplication or similar projects of various types under
different physiographical and climatological conditions in various
sections of the country.

     As of December 31> 1966, eight additional grants and ten contracts
•were awarded totalling over $9>08l,000.  Examples of grants awarded are
as follows:

Boston Metropolitan District

Detroit Board of Water Commissioners
Minneapoliu-St. Paul, Minnesota

Demonstrate use of short-term
 detention and disinfection

Demonstrate improved use of
 sewerage system storage
 capacity, remote control of
 regulation and optimized
 control of combined sewer

Construction of a dispatching
 system for control of combined
 sewer losses.

     Examples of contracts awarded:

     Recipient                                Purpose

American Public Worku Association,       Demonstrate pollution reduction
  Chicago, Illinoin                       "by means of better city cleaning

Melpar Trie.., 'Falls Church,, Virginia      Determine feasibility of
                                          utilizing "offshore" storage
                                          and treatment.

American Society of Civil Engineers,     Demonstrate feasibility and
  Cambridge, Massachusetts                economy of separating sanitary
                                          wastes and storm water by
                                          utilizing pressure conduits
                                          within existing combined sewers.

Rand Development Corp., Cleveland, Ohio  Demonstrate applicability of
                                          combustible filters for treat-
                                          ment of overflows.

Advanced war.to treatment and joint treatment:  FY 1967, $7,397,100;
I'1? IQ^BV $10,000,000.  Increase, $2,602,900.  The increase is to:

          Accelerate the level of grant activity to public bodies for
          developing projects or demonstrating new or improved methods
          in this area to a total program effort of $10,000,000,


     Section 6.(a)(l) provides for a new grant program which authorizes
$20,000,000 annually from 1967 through 1969 for grants to any State,
municipality, or intemunicipal or interstate agency for the purpose of
assisting in the development of any projects which will demonstrate
advanced waste treatment and water purification methods or new or
improved methods of joint treatment systems for municipal and industrial
wastes.  Grants, under this subsection, are not to exceed 75 percent of
the estimated reasonable cost.

     The use of the grant mechanism will greatly accelerate the development
and demonstration of practical means for treating waste waters to remove
the maximum possible amounts of pollutants leading to the application of
new and improved pollution control techniques including the benefits
resulting from repeated reuse of the Nation's waters at lowest cost.  This
will assist in minimizing the time lags between research findings and the
public benefits resulting from application of these findings.

     Research and development grants are also to be utilized to investigate
and develop processes for the joint treatment of municipal and industrial
wastes, including the economic aspects of such arrangements, and the
possibilities of using public facilities for treating wastes from industries.

                           Program of Work

     The need for new and improved methods of waste treatment and the need
Cor expanded Federal effort was recognized by the Federal Government some six
years ago x
     It Is anticipated that in 1968 design of facilities for grants awarded
in 1967 and early 1968 will "be completed.  Construction of first field
evaluation and demonstration facilities will be under way and, In some
eases, operation of experimental plants will be initiated.

     The 1968 estimate will support about 20 to 30 grants.


     In 1967? although no funds were appropriated for this purpose, the
program utilized the new provisions of the Clean Water Restoration Act
of 1966 which permit the utilization of storm and combined sewer funds
for this purpose in the event activity in the storm and combined sewer
area was not reaching expectations.  The total shown for 1967^ $7^397^100,
was utilized accordingly for 15 grants and contracts.
     Examples of grants made are as follows:

Santee County ¥ater District
  Santee, California
Government of the District of
  Columbia? Washington, D. C.
The Immediate objectives of the
project are to demonstrate on
full-scale that all pollution
in the effluent of a recently
constructed activated sludge plant
can be removed through biological,
mechanical, and chemical means so
that the effluents can then be used
even for body contact sports and
other recreational activities*  It
will, of course, also demonstrate
the elimination of bacteria and

To determine and optimize the
Improvement In solids, capture in
full-scale primary settlers produced
by addition of polyelectrolytes and
to determine the effect of waste
water flocculation on operational
efficiency and evaluate polyelectrolytes,
To demonstrate Increased efficiency
of pollutant removal at existing
treatment facilities.

          Recipient                             Purpose

City of Detroit, Department of        To screen, at pilot scale,  alternative
  Water Supply                        methods for achieving at least &0%
                                      phosphate removal, and to develop
                                      comparative design, operating, and
                                      cost data for systems.

                                      To develop and specify the optimum
                                      phosphate removal process for use
                                      at Detroit and to establish the
                                      necessary design and operating
                                      correlations for this system.

Green Bay Metropolitan Sewage         To determine the effectiveness of
  District, Green Bay, Wisconsin      design and operating parameters of
                                      alternative biological treatment
                                      processes and modifications for
                                      treating combined municipal and
                                      industrial (primarily paper mill)
                                      waste waters.  Pilot waste water
                                      treatment plants for each of the
                                      considered processes will be operated
                                      in parallel and the effluent quality,
                                      operating parameters, design variables,
                                      and cost relationships for each
                                      process will be established.  After
                                      the selection of the most promising
                                      process, a pilot plant will be
                                      designed and operated for a full
                                      year in order to demonstrate its
                                      performance and to generate cost data.

Industrial waste:  FY 196?, $2,6193700; FT 1968,  $10,000,000.   Increase,
$7,380,300.The increase is to:

          Accelerate the level of grants to persons for research and
          demonstration projects for prevention of water pollution by
          industry to a total program effort of $10,000,000.


     Section 6,(b) of the Act authorized $20,000,000 annually  from 1967
through 1969 for grants to persons for research and demonstration projects
for prevention of pollution of waters by industry including, but not limited
to, treatment of industrial waste.  A grant awarded under this subsection
of the Act shall not exceed $1,000,000 and shall not exceed 70 percent  of
the cost of the project.

     To eliminate a significant gap in water pollution control knowledge,
a research and development grant program directed to treatment and control
of industrial wastes was authorized by this Act.   Technical solution to one of
the most significant sources of pollution, industrial wastes,  can now be
vigorously pursued through this program.

                            Program of Work

     Grants will be utilized to determine in-plant process and operation
modifications as well as closed system possibilities for industry, approaching
a "no-waste" concept.  Where this is not possible, new developments in  waste
treatment will be researched and demonstrated through the cooperation of
specific industries.

     It- is anticipated that in 1968 design of facilities for grants
awarded in 1967 and early 1968 will be completed.

     Construction of first field evaluation and demonstration  facilities
will be under way and in some cases operation of first experimental plants
will be initiated.

     It is anticipated that the $10,000,000 will support 15-20 grants each
year.                            ;

                            Accompli shments

     In 1967, although no funds were appropriated for this purpose, the
program utilized the new provision of the Clean Water Restoration Act
of 1966 which permits the utilization pf storm and combined sewer funds
for this purpose in the event activity under that program was  not
developing as expected.  The total shown for 1967, $2,619,700,was utilized
for 10 grants.

     Examples of grants made are as follows:


The Mead Corporation
  Chillicothe, Ohio
Vahlsing Incorporated
  Easton, Maine

To determine effect of influent
quality on biological treatment
of pulp and paper wastes.

To evaluate potential of plastic
trickling filters alone and in
combination with brush-aerated
oxidation ditch, conventional
aerated lagoon and deep aerated

To achieve higher than conventional
biological oxygen demand removals
on kraft mill wastes.

To operate continuous pilot
treatment plant containing plastic
trickling filter, brush-aerated
oxidation ditch, conventional
aerated lagoon, deep aerated lagoons,
and two clarifiers in combinations
and evaluate possible efficiencies.

Demonstrate the feasibility of
treatment of potato processing wastes
using the activated sludge system^
feasibility of combining potato
processing waste with sugar beet
refining waste; and feasibility .
of three in-plant closed waste
water systems in the sugar beet '

The project will provide extremely
valuable data to both the potato
processing and beet sugar industry
and determine if a thirty million
dollar industrial complex of potato
and sugar beet processing and
residential community can exist
on a small stream as is presently
proposed and have clean water.


Caldwell Lace Leather Company
  Auburn, Kentucky
FMC Corporation
  Santa Clara, California

Demonstrate the feasibility of
treating complete tannery waste in
the only plant in America that tans
all three types of leather tannages
today—chrome, vegetable, and alum,
and to secure basic data for design
of full scale treatment plants for
any tannery.

Demonstrate reliable performance  /
of a revised Kehr Process employing
liquid-solids separation by a
system of high rate flotation—
densification of activated sludge

Demonstrate effectiveness of this
process for treating fruit
and vegetable cannery wastes
combined with domestic sewage.

Demonstrate performance of the
revised process with densified
return sludge solids on a dry
weight basis, thus effecting plant
economy by use of smaller tankage

Determine processing requirements
for application to a full-scale
treatment plant.

General:  FY 1967, $9,519,000; FY 1968, $8,970,000;  Decrease, $51*9,000.

A.  Demonstration grants

                     FY 1967                              Increase ( + )
                     Amount             FY 1968           Decrease (-)
                    Available           Estimate           Over 1967
                 No.       Amount   Ho.       Amount   No.        Amount

Continuations     30   $1,066,000    52   $2,500,000   +22   +$1,1*3**,000

New               1*0    1,983,000      	      -1*0    -1,983,000

     Total        70    3,01*9,000    52    2,500,000   -18      -51*9,000

     The decrease consists of:

     An increase of $.1,1*3!*,000 to continue supporting grants made in
prior years.

     A decrease of $1,983,000 since the estimate does not provide for
any new awards in 1968.


     Under Section 5. (a)(2) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
as amended, authorization is given for the award of grants-in-aid to
public or private agencies and institutions and to individuals for
demonstration projects not eligible under the programs authorized by
the new Section 6 of the Act.

     The program mission is to stimulate the application of research
findings and expedite the incorporation of new knowledge into water
pollution control practice.

     This program supports a wide range of projects, from the control
of lake eutrophication to the feasibility of comprehensive regional water
pollution control planning.  Demonstration projects accelerate the total
water pollution control effort by utilizing the resources and competencies
of organizations and individuals not ordinarily available.  Grantees
under this program normally provide matching funds.

     The principal results from demonstration grant support are:

     (a)  Technical  information—Demonstration projects develop new
information which is promptly disseminated.  This information is applied
in the water pollution control field to improve current treatment and
administrative practices.

     (b)  Technical competence—Demonstration grants provide opportunities
for the staff of grantee agencies to participate in the development of new
and advanced methods of water quality management.  These grants stimulate
interaction between engineers, scientists, administrators, arid the public
to "broaden and accelerate the water pollution control effort.

     Prior to the  Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966, grants under this section
covered areas now authorized under Section 6.  Grants in this area in
the future will be confined to projects not eligible under the Section 6.

                            Program of Work

     In 1968, active projects will be reviewed or visited by program
staff to obtain information on demonstration accomplishments not avail-
able through progress or terminal reports.

                             Ac compli shments

     In 1966 demonstration grants were awarded to hi. institutions and

     Examples of new demonstration grant awards in 1966 include:

(a)  Orange County Water District       "Reclamation of Waste Waters
     Santa Ana, California               for Injection Underground"

The purpose of this project is to reclaim waste waters for injection
underground in order to recharge fresh water aquifers and prevent salt
water intrusion.  Efficient and economical methods of accomplishing
this purpose are needed in many areas where natural ground water recharge    '
is limited and existing ground water sources are threatened by salt water

(b)  Department of Civil Engineering    "Effects of Domestic Pollution
     University of Notre Dame            Abatement on an Eutrophic
     South Bend, Indiana                 Lake"

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate changes in an eutrophic
lake when the source of pollution enrichment is removed.  The information
developed will be widely applicable to the reclamation of eutrophic lakes
for beneficial uses.

(c)  Department of Civil Engineering    "Cattle Feed Lot Waste Water
     University of Kansas                Treatment"
     Lawrence, Kansas

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate a process for treating
cattle feed lot waste water for reuse and pollution prevention.  The

development of such a process is necessary, since large cattle feed lot
operations are new and no effective process exists for treating these
hijjh-strongth wastes.
(d)  Delaware River Basin Commission
     Trenton, New Jersey
                         "Interstate Regional Planning
                          for Water Supply and Waste
The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of
comprehensive water pollution control planning for a rapidly growing
recreational area.  Effective planning involving a variety of agencies
is needed to develop and implement comprehensive river basin plans.
B.  Research grants
                     FY 196?
                       FY 1968
Amount   No,
                              Increase (+)
                              Decrease (-)
                               Over 1967
Amount   Wo.
Continuations    157   $U,139,000   1^3   $3,700,000   -lU    -$^39,000

New               90    2,331,000   10U    2,770,000

2U?    6,U70,000   21
     Although the total 1968 estimate is the same as that available in
1967, it will provide for supporting 10U new grants or lU more than
awarded for 1967.  This is due to the fact that the number of continuation
grants, i.e., commitments from prior years, for 1968 is less than supported
in 1967.


     Under Section 5. (a)(2) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
as amended, authorization is given for the award of grants-in-aid to
public or private agencies and institutions and to individuals for research

     The mission of the research grant programs is to broaden the base of
scientific participation in water pollution control research, expand such
activities throughout the nation, and bring new and imaginative ideas to
bear on problems in this field.

     The principal results of research grant support are to complement
and strengthen in-house and contract activity by bringing the specialized
capabilities and facilities of grantees to bear on the more basic and
fundamental scientific needs in pollution control.  The" most significant
technological developments often result from a better understanding of
the mechanisms of physical, chemical, and biological systems.  The

empirical approach to improYement of pollution control systems cannot
be relied upon to develop the new and improved methodologies and systems
needed for many of our current problems and most of tomorrow's problems.

     As a "spinoff" from this type of program, research grant support
develops the competence of professional personnel in the field of water
pollution control.  This practical training expands the resource of
manpower required in the water pollution control field.

                                     of Work
     The estimate for 1968 of $6,470,000 win support a total of 2^7
research projects, of which 1^3 are committed continuations (projects
awarded in prior years with an additional year of committed grant
support), and 10U for new research investigations „

     In 1968 the research program will place greater emphasis on program
development and review.  Potential grantees will be visited to stimulate
project development in the areas of primary importance to the Adminis-
tration, and to attract the efforts of new scientific and engineering
talents.  Active projects will be reviewed by program staff to obtain
information on research accomplishments not available through progress
or terminal reports.

                            Ac c omplishment s

     In 1966, 269 research projects supported by these grants utilized
the research competencies and facilities of investigators to study a
wide variety of research problems in engineering and scientific aspects
of water pollution control.

     Grants were awarded to 116 institutions and agencies in ku States,
the District of Columbia;, and 6 foreign countries.  A total of 1,173
professional staff and graduate students were engaged in the research
projects supported by these grants.  The personnel involved includes-
491 in fields of engineering, and 218 in physical science disciplines,
    in biological sciences, and 31 in social sciences.
     Also, in 1966, an  "index of ''Research Grant Publications and
Reports" was published.  The "index" includes a total of 5^5 references
to recent research findings.  This document has been widely distributed
to the scientific community as a source for retrieval of references to
technical literature which has resulted from research grant awards.

     Examples of new grant awards in 1966 include:

(l)  University of Arizona                "Rainstorm Debris Floods and
     Department of Watershed Management    their Relation to Water

The purpose of this project is to develop measures to prevent pollution
of water supplies from forest range watersheds in which excessive amounts
of vegetation have been removed by fire and destructive land uses.  This
research is needed to control pollution of water resources from land

(2)  Lehigh University                    "Thermal and Industrial
     Department of Biology                 Pollution of the Delaware

The purpose of this project is to provide essential information on the
effect of waste heat from a power plant and effluent from paper mills on.
aquatic life in a river.  This research is needed to evaluate the effect
of these discharges and to predict such effects on water quality
management in future planning,,

(3)  University Of Washington             "Reduction of Waste Water
     Department of Civil Engineering       Odors by Soil Filtration"

The purpose of this project is to determine the basic biological and
physical factors responsible for odor reduction.  This research is
directed to the practical application of information to improved design
and operation of soil filters.

     In 1967? the same level of professional and graduate student
participation supported by grants is anticipated.

     An updating of the research "index" is currently under way and is
expected to add more than kOO additional references to the total.

     As an additional accomplishment, many water pollution control
research grant projects have resulted in or lead to successful demon-
stration grant projects.  Examples of these are described below:
(l)  Research Grant--A, P0 Black, University of Florida, titled "A
comprehensive study of water coagulation," resulted in:  Demonstrat ion
Grapt—D. Tossey, City of Dayton, Ohio, titled "Tertiary treatment by
flocculation and rapid sand filtration", (involving aspects of

(2)  Research Grant--W. J. Oswald, University of California, titled
"Nutritional and disease transmitting properties of sewage grown algae,"
resulted in:  Demonstration Grant—Fischer, Beet Sugar Foundation,  Fort
Collins, Colorado, titled "Treatment of beet sugar wastes in facultative
and algae ponds."
(3)  Research Grant—J. Shapiro, Johns Hopkins University, Maryland,
titled "Reducing secondary effluent phosphorus concentration at sewage
treatment plants," resulted in:  Demonstration, Grant—G. Remus, City of
Detroit, Michigan, titled "Development of an optimum phosphate removal

Training Grants

(b)  Training grants
                                         Analysis by Activities
Training grants


Unobligated balance lapsing

FY 1966
FY 1967
FY 1968
t 1S *
Increase (+)
Decrease (-)
over 3-9J5.7
+947,000 '

Training grants:  FY 1967, $2,910,000;  FY 1968, $3,900,000;   Increase,
Cont inuat ions


                      FY 196T
65  $2,860,000

 1      50,000
                    FY 1968
        Amount   No.
66  $3,300,000

Ik     600,000
                  Increase ( + )
                  Decrease (-)
                   Over 196?
        Amount   No.
+13    +550,000
66  $2,910,000    80  $3,900,000   +1U   +$990,000
     The increase consists of:

     (l)  $550,000 to support an additional 13 new graduate and technical
          training grants.

     (2)  $UUO,000 to fund continuation of graduate training grants made
          in prior years
                             Need for Increase

     To meet the increasing demand for all the skills and specialties
needed in the water pollution control field, it is necessary to stimulate
training, not only in the professional field but also at the technical
level, through the development of new and improved institutional training

     To assist in achieving these needs an increase of $550,000 or a
total of $600,000 is proposed for new grants.  These funds will support
7 new grants to higher educational institutions to increase the resources
of professional manpower and 7 grants to technical schools, junior
colleges and similar institutions to increase the resources of subprofess-
ional manpower.

     The $Ui|-0,000 is primarily required to support the increasing level
of cost which normally occurs after the initial award.  After the first
year of the award, and most projects are generally programmed for five
years, the institution training budgets generally provide for additional
student participation, curriculum expansion, and essential training aids.
Therefore, to provide for the planned development of on-going training
projects, the additional funds requested are necessary.

   Under Section 5(a)(2) of the Federal-Water Pollution Control Act,
as amended, authorization is given for the award of grants-in-aid to
public and private agencies and institutions for training projects.

     The graduate training program is designed to increase the resource
of professional manpower required for scientific, technical and economic
management positions in water pollution control.  There is a critical
need for individuals having such training in government, industry, and
educat ional inst it ut i ons .

     Graduate training grants are awarded to educational institutions
to establish or expand advanced training in water pollution control,
Under this program institutions are encouraged to develop specialized
and multidisciplinary training of scientists, engineers, and administrators
in water quality management.  These grants provide funds to support
expansion and improvement of faculties, equipment, and trainee stipends
for graduate students participating in the training program,

Techn.ical training

     The technical training grant program is to increase the resource
of subprofessional manpower required for water pollution control activities,
These grants will develop the capabilities of appropriate institutions to
provide full time specialized technical training.  Awards normally will
be made to schools in localities where there is the most evident present
and future need for trained technicians and plant operators.

     The Nation's resource of trained manpower must be increased to
support rapidly expanding developments in waste water treatment and
water quality.  These manpower requirements cover a broad range of
professional and subprofessional levels.  In addition to highly trained
engineers and scientists, there is an immediate need for supporting
staffeof skilled engineering aides, scientific technicians, and treatment
plant operators,

     Technical training grants will complement graduate training grants
by extending training support to the level of subprofessional specialists,
Technical training grants will be awarded to technical schools, Junior
colleges, and similar institutions to establish or expand full time
training of new technical personnel in water pollution control.  These
grants will provide funds for teaching staff, equipment, and stipends to

                             Program of Work
     In 1968 emphasis will be placed on the establishment of new graduate
training projects at schools in geographical areas which currently do not

have training grant support.  The objective will be to strengthen the
academic  capabilities of educational institutions for specialized training
in the field of water pollution control, and to increase the number of
institutions participating.

     Also, in 1968 a new program of technical training grants will be
developed.  The program will be initiated with an estimated 7 new
technical training projects*  These projects will be designed to substan**
tially increase the Nation's resources of trained manpower needed to
support rapidly expanding developments in waste water treatment and
water quality management.

                            Accomnlishment s
     In 1966, training grants were awarded to 51 institutions in 36 states.
These graduate training programs provided for the support of 36^- graduate

     During 1966 a total of 92 trainees received advanced degrees at the
MS and Eh.D, levels.  Of these, 32 were Immediately employed in government,
26 in industry, and 2k in educational institutions.  The remaining 10
continued their education toward a higher degree.

     Examples of new training grant awards in 1966 include*

Michigan State University
Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife

University of Missouri
Department of Civil Engineering

Oregon State University
Dept, of Oceanography

Worth Texas State University
Dept. of Biology

University of Wisconsin
Dept. of Civil Engineering
"Graduate Training of Pollution

"Water and Waste Water

"Training of Estuarine Specialists
 in Water Quality'1

"Training of Water Quality
 Microbiologists "

"Water and Waste Water
 Control Engineering"
University of Pittsburgh
Laboratory of Field Biology
"Graduate Training in
Aquatic Ecology"

              FY 196?, $633,000;  FY 1968, $590,000;  Decrease, $1*3,000.
                         FY 196T
                                FY 1968
           Increase (•*•)
           Decrease (-)
            Over 1967
                    Amount   No.
Amount   No.


85 v

                                               -17       -914,000

                                               -17       -43,000
     The decrease consists of:
An increase of $51,000 to support additional stipend costs
anticipated in 1968 for fellowships awarded in prior years.

A decrease of $9^,000 due to a reduction in the number of new
fellowships awarded proposed for 1968 compared with 1967.
                             Need for Increase
     The $51,000 is to support a proposed increase in the stipend costs
for fellowships awarded in prior years.  In the past, the average cost per
fellowship  has been about $6,200.  However, due to increases in expenses
which must be borne by the recipient, agencies have increased awards
accordingly.  Therefore, the estimate proposes an increase to permit
awarding an average of about $7,000 per recepient, thereby making them
consistent with those awarded by other agencies.

     Under section 5(a)(U) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
as amended, authorization is given to the Secretary to establish and
maintain research fellowships in the Department with r;ur:h stipends and
allowances, including traveling and subsistence expon,s<:H, as ho may deem
necessary to procure the assistance of the most promising research fellow-
ships:  Provided, that the Secretary shall repoi't annually to the appropria-
tions committees of Congress on his operations under this paragraph.

     The mission of this program is to increase the number of scientists
and engineers qualified to conduct independent research in water pollution
control problems.

     Research fellowships are awarded to individuals for specialized
graduate and postgraduate research training in water pollution control.
Research fellowships support the intensive training of students in many
physicrl and biological disciplines and in fields of engineering.  These
awards provide funds for institutional costs of education, stipends for
fellows, and allowances for supplies.

                            Program of. Work

     In 1968, the research fellowship program will place greater emphasis
on. program development at institutions not now receiving research fellowship
awards.  These institutions will tie visited to stimulate participation in
this Administration's research fellowship program by attracting the efforts
of faculties not previously engaged in water pollution control related
     In 1966 fellowships were awarded to 113 individuals for research
training at Ifl institutions in 28 states and in one foreign country.

     During 1966^ graduate degrees were received "by 50 individuals
supported by this program.  These individuals were immediately employed
in educational institutions (38) } in industry (?)> and in government
agencies (5),

     Examples of new research fellowship studies arei

Institution                           Project Title

Michigan State University             "Economics of Water Resources and
Department of Civil Engineering        Waste Treatment"

University of Georgia                 "Study of a Pond System Utilizing
Department of Zoology                  a Pesticide Traced'

Northwestern University               "Water Pollution Abatement in the
Department of Economics                Pulp and Paper Industry"

Iowa State University                 "Waste Reclamation in a Sewage
Department of Botany                   Stabilization Pond"

State and Interstate
 Agency Program

     (o)  State and interstate agencyprograms

                                               Analysis by activities

                                              FY 1966       FY 196?
                                               Amount        Amount
                                              Available     Available

     State	    $U,552,2Ul     $U, 700,000

     Interstate agency	       257,286        300,000

     Unobligated balance lapsing	       190,^-73	...

          Total.	     5,000,000
                 FY 1968


Increase (+)
Decrease (-)
 Over 1967


5,000,000     10,000,000

State and interstate agency programs:   FY 1967, $5,000,000; FY 1968,
$10",000,000; Increase, $5",000,"000'.  The increase consists of:

          $5,000,000 for additional grants for supporting active water
          pollution control programs of which $U,300,000 is for States
          and $700,000 for interstate agencies.

                              Heed for Increase

     Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization have
ranidly increased the need for efforts by State and interstate agencies
t.p provide effective water pollution control programs.  Increases
in manpower and money must be made to provide needed technical and
administrative support„

     New provisions of the Water Quality Act of 1965 and the  'Clean Water
Restoration Act of 1966  present new and greater challenges.

     1.  Each State has indicated that they will establish water quality
standard;-, and an effective implementation plan by June 30> 1967.  In
addition, many States will establish water quality standards for intrastate
waters.  Carrying out the implementation plan will require substantial
increases in money and manpower.

     2.  In order to successfully participate in the reorientatiori of the
national antipollution effort to clean up and keep clean entire river
basins, the agencies will have to improve program planning, monitoring,
and other programs.

     3.  In order to implement an anticipated intensified grant program to
accelerate treatment plant construction, each State will have to increase
its workload in design, review, plant inspection, and—most important—
development of adequate training programs to meet the growing shortage
of trained plant operators.

     The increase of $5,000,000 is authorized by the  Clean Water
Restoration Act of 1966,

                                 ; Objective

     Section 7 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act provider, grants
for active participation by State and interstate agencies in water pollution
control programs.  These grants to State and interstate agencies enable
them to initiate or expand their activities in conducting field studies
of actual and potential water pollution, problems; establish water quality
standards and implementing plans; to establish monitoring systems to provide
current information on the quality of existing waters; to train technicians
and administrators as specialists in water resources planning and water pollution
control; to work with communities and Industries to effect abatement of
pollution; arid to assist municipalities in developing plans for the
installation of waste treatment facilities.

     Continued and increased financial assistance is important to the
States and interstate agencies in maintaining and improving their
expanded programs.  The State and interstate agencies are expected to
spend over $18 million of their own funds in 1968 as compared to an
estimated $12 million in 1966.

     In 1.967 the Act authorized $5 million for this purpose.  However,
in passing the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966^Congress increased
the authorization to $10 million for fiscal year 1968 through 1971.
Therefore, the request for 1968 is for $10,000,000, the full amount
authorized by the Act.  It provides $9,,000,000 for States and $1,000,000
for interstate agencies.  An accelerated program by the interstate agencies
is anticipated during this fiscal year and the increase of $700,000 will
enable them to participate more actively in the field of water pollution
control*  The tables showing allocations by States and interstate agencies

Allocations of Grant-in-Aid Funds for ¥ater Pollution Control
State or Territory
District of Columbia
$95 , 900
615 , 300 .
81, 400
405 ,800
over 1967

                            Allocations of Grant-in~Aid Funds for Water  Pollution Control—continued
State or Territory
New Hampshire
Hew Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
1967 1968
Allocations Allocations
over 1967

Allocations of Grant-in~Aid Funds _for Water Pollution Control—~continued
State or Territory
West Virginia
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands
Total -
Basis for allocation:
1. $12,000 basic grant
2f Remainders 2/3 population weight
4, 700, ooo

ed by per capita


over 1967

    1/6 population density
    1/6 No. of "wet" industries

                                         Alloca"tions "to Interstate Agencies
     New England Interstate Water
      Pollution Control Commission
        Connecticut     New Hampshire
        Massachusetts   Rhode Island
        Maine           New York

     Ohio Hirer Valley Water Sanitation
      Commission            .
Ohio   .
                            New York
                            West Virginia
yx    Delaware River Basin Commission
•  '      Delaware        .New Jersey
        New York        Pennsylvania

     Interstate Sanitation Commission
        New York        Connecticut
        New Jersey

     KLamath River Compact Commission
        Oregon          California

     Interstate Commission of the Potomac
      River Basin
        District of Columbia  Virginia
 4       Maryland       '       West Virginia



                                                                       1967           1968          Increase
                                                                    ^ill.oca.'fcipns, ^^A^locations      over

                                          Allocations to Interstate Agencies—continued
                                                      1966            1967           1968          Increase
                                                   Allocations     Allocations    Allocations      over 1Q67
        Bi-State Development Agency                     17,000          17,100         56,500          39,400
           Illinois        Missouri

        Tennessee River Basin Water Pollution
         Control Commission                             ,15,^00          15,300         50,100          3^,800
           Tennessee       Mississippi
           Kentucky                                    _ .__.......         ______        	          _________
             Total                                     300,000         300,000      1,000,000         700,000
        Basis for allocation I

          2/3 population wighted by per capita income
          1/6 population density
          1/6 number of "wet" industries

Basin Planning

Comprehensive basin planning grants s  FY 196?, -0-; FY 1968, $1,000,000;
Increase,$1,000,000.  The Increase consists of:

     $1,000,000 to provide grant support for 20 new basin planning agencies.

                           Heed for Increase

     The $1,000,000 requested is to provide grant support for 20 new basin
planning agencies anticipated to be organized and approved for the
purpose of developing an effective comprehensive water quality control
and abatement plan for a basin.  Congress recognized the need for local
institutional planning agencies by authorizing this new program when it
passed the  Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966.


     Section 3 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act provides for
grants not to exceed 50% to planning agencies if they adequately represent
State, interstate, local or international interests in the basin and if
they are capable of developing an effective comprehensive water quality
control and abatement plan^.for a basin,

     These grants are to financially assist each planning agency in
the development of a comprehensive pollution control and abatement plan
for the basin.  Each of these plans developed must be consistent with
applicable water quality standards established for the basin concerned.
The planning agencies are to recommend treatment works and sewer systems
for the most effective and economical means of collection, storage, treatment
and purification of wastes as well as methods to encourage both municipal
and industrial use of such works and systems.  The agencies will recommend
both maintenance and improvement of water quality standards within the
basin as well as a plan for adequately financing facilities necessary
in the execution of this maintenance and improvement.

     The financial assistance which these grants provide for will aid
in the conservation of interstate waters and tributaries thereof for
public water supplies, propagation of fish and aquatic life and wildlife,
recreational purposes, and agricultural, industrial and other legitimate

     Grants may be given to an approved agency for a period not to exceed
three years.                     ;

                            Program of Work

     In 1968 the total estimate of $1 million is anticipated to support
20 basin planning agencies.

2.  Direct operations
(a) Comprehensive planning, management

Comprehensive basin programs. ..........
Water quality standards development . . . .
Estuary studies 	 	

Control of pollution from Federal
Unobligated balance lapsing 	
, and assistanc
Analysis by
FY 1966
/; Amount
Vf 3,065,000
/J9 1,936,000
^^ 1,000,000
/2. 1400,000
"r/ % 750,000
* • •

Increase (+)
Decrease (-)
Over 1967
** **:i +390,000
* 7 o +970 , 000
•*•/-,£ +232,000
^-fl +532,000
^jy +238,000
y/2^ +1400,000
- - - +70,000
a * *
Total ............................. .    10,989,2U8
                                                               15, ii-30,

Basin Program

Comprehensive basin programs
                                     Analysis by activities

Program direction and basin
planning assistance 	
Wat PIT r^sou^ces project" 	
Comprehensive projects ...*...
FY 1966
/{, Available
....?*' $878,000
. ..;"'' U35,000
..??' 5,359,397.
FY 1967
/i,. Available
"• ' $822,000
fr/ 718,000
^d 7,953,7^
/,-> < Estimate
/""t $1 ,1^5,000
i4 769,000
&1 7,236,000
Increase (+)
Decrease (-)
Over 1967
- •" +$323,000
-33 -717,7^0
               Total	6,672,397  ?-5  9,^93,7^0  ^9,150.000

                                                       I'   '
 Program direction and basin planning assistance:   FY 196?,  $822,000;
 FY 1968;  $l,lU5,000;  Increase,  $323,000.The  increase consists  of:
 ,,•••/    '              ??*?**'
'"      (l)   An increase of $336,000 to provide for basin planning  assistance
           and grant management  activities  for  a total program of $1,1^5,000.

      (2)   A decrease  of $13,000 for nonrecurring equipment  costs.

                              Weed for Increase

      An increase of $105,000 and 33 positions  is requested  to meet the
 increased workload anticipated  as a result of  the  'Clean Water Restoration
 Act of 1966.   The Act instituted a new grant  program which provides
 financial assistance  to agencies established for the purpose of  developing
 and planning a comprehensive water quality control action program for a
 specific  river basin.  New Federal responsibilities  in administering this
 grant program will include technical advice and assistance  to basin agencies
 in organizing and planning, review and evaluation  of proposed basin planning
 activities, and administration  of grant funds. The  basic FWPCA  position
 will be one of providing assistance and encouragement in establishment of
 planning agencies, and guidance and review of  applications  for planning
 grants to assure that only useful and productive activities will be funded.

      A considerable amount of activity is  expected even prior to the
 establishment of basin agencies and receipt of applications for  grants.
 Agencies  in the formulative phase will undoubtedly be requesting advice and
 assistance concerning means of  proceeding. In addition, those already
 established will also seek aid  in specialized  aspects of plan development.
 Federal guidance and  participation in the  new  planning grant program will be
 met to the extent possible by utilization  of all existing  staff  available.
 However,  due to commitments and schedules  for  coordinated  Interagency River
 Basin Planning under  the Water  Resources Council and for other Federal
 comprehensive program activities under Section 3.(a) of the Act, and because
 of incomplete geographic coverage by such  projects,  additional staff is
 needed to meet this problem.

      An additional $231,000 is  requested for positions authorized to be
 filled in 1967 and related costs.


      Section 3 of the Act provides for the development of  comprehensive
 water pollution control programs; for studies  of the need and value of
 storage in Federal reservoirs for regulation of streamflow  for the purpose
 of water  quality control; and for financial assistance to basin  planning
 agencies.  The latter provision was added  by the   Clean Water Restoration
 Act of 1966.

     The legislative history underlying passage of the  Clean Water
Restoration Act of 1966   places an important mandate on the Federal Water
Pollution Control Administration to orient pollution control in the United
States towards a basin-wide basis.  Effective planning will be essential
to assure that the massive Federal investment in the costs of abating
pollution provided for in the Act will yield optimum returns in cleaning
up entire stream systems.  The comprehensive program activity will be
the focal point for this effort.

     The specific objectives are as follows:

     (a)  Provide a comprehensive guide to pollution control actions—both
immediate clean-up needs and long-range preventive measures—necessary in
each major river basin.  The extent and nature of Federal planning activities
necessary to accomplish this will be related to the extent to which State
and local planning activities are making a contribution in the basin

     (b)  Participate in Federal interagency water resource planning, as
coordinated and scheduled by the Water Resources Council.

     (c)  Guide, assist and encourage the activities of State-local basin
planning agencies.

     (d)  Advis'e Federal construction agencies concerning the need for
and value of storage for quality control in Federal reservoirs.
                               Program of Work

     This activity includes headquarters direction of the program  and
establishment of a small staff planning competence in each regional office
which will have responsibility for spearheading reorientation of the
program towards the basin-wide approach as mandated by the 1966 legislation,
This will involve emphasis on developing outlines of basin-wide pollution
control action programs which can be implemented immediately, on providing
technical guidance to basin planning agencies, and on relating State-local
planning efforts to Federal planning.  These staffs will strengthen and
complement the more detailed technical work of the individual comprehensive
projects.                          '

     A considerable amount of effort will be devoted to encouraging the
format ion of planning agencies, providing assistance in their formation,
reviewing applications of basin planning agencies to determine need for
and adequacy of proposed planning activities, and providing assistance in
planning.  Grant,1-. wilJ be awarded and administered in accordance with the
provisions of the- Act and prescribed regulations.  Proposals for grants
wiJl l>c reviewed carefully to eliminate unnecessary studies and to evaluate
adequacy or inadequacy of others.

     In most basins State and local planning efforts may not be organized
for some time to come.  In such cases, the Federal program must spearhead
the planning task on its own in order to put pollution control on a basin
basis in the shortest possible time.

     Headquarters activities will involve program review and guidance, and
development of new policies and methods to accomplish the objective of
basin-wide control programs.  As a special technical effort, there will be
a continuing attempt to perfect mathematical procedures for simulating
water quality responses and for testing the cost and effectiveness of
pollution control measures.  This is the technology which led to development
of the Delaware Estuary Program.  Headquarters will provide problem solving
backup to individual comprehensive projects and instruct and guide field
personnol in the application of new computer programs and systems analysis

     Thir, activity will also provide necessary reviews and comments on
water and related land resource development proposals in project reports
under Interagency Review Procedures and Executive Order 11288.         ,
                              .  *.f^.            ^ k.?f>*'
Water resources projects:  FY 196?, $718,000; FY 1968, $769,000;
Increase, $51,000.Theincrease consists of:

     (l)  An increase of $70,000 for positions authorized to be filled in
          1967 and related costs for a total program of «|>7o9j000.

     (2)  A decrease of $19,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs.


     Advise Federal construction agencies concerning the need for and value
of storage for water quality control in Federal reservoirs as provided by
Section 3.(b) of the Act.

                               Program of Work

     Studies will continue to be carried out for Federal construction
agencies concerning need for and value of storage for quality control in
reservoirs.  This will include assembling information on the physical,
economic and demographic environment, water use and waste production,
present uses, and estimating the; 'ways in which these are expected to
change in the future.  Based on the anticipated future waste treatment,
available streamflows and assimilative capacity, the need for storage to
maintain water quality necessary for possible beneficial u:.;es is determined.
Benefits resulting from proposed quality control are determined directly
or by alternative cost procedures.  The information is assembled in a
report for use of the construction agencies in formulation of their reports
on water resources development.

     In 1968 it is anticipated that approximately 50 projects will be
studied.  Over the past 5 years the FWPCA has carried out 183 studies
for the Corps of Engineers and 66 studies for the Bureau of Reclamation.
These studies have recommended inclusion of storage for water quality
control in projects.  The recommended storage would result in annual
benefits of $27,681,300 per year.
Comprehensive projects;  FY 196?, $7,953^TI1-0; FY 1968, $7,236,000;
Decrease, $717? 7^0 .  The decrease consists of:
. y-' "                            .JSfri
      (l)  An increase of $677,000" for on-going comprehensive projects and
          initiating action programs in two others for a total program
          of $7,236,000.
      (2)  A decrease of $685,7^0/!for three projects partially phasing
          out (Chesapeake Bay-Susquehanna, Columbia and Great Lakes -
          Illinois River Projects).   ' •         o!|s-           ' 5? p";

      (3)  A decrease of $709,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs.

                             Heed for Increase

     An increase of $112,000 and 33 positions is requested to provide for
accelerating planning activities in two comprehensive.,. projects recently  f^^f
inTtiated^Ifew England (1967) and Upper Mississippi (1967) — and initiate
two new ones — Middle Atlantic and Western Gulf.  An additional $565,000
is requested for/positions authorized/to be filled in 1967 and related costs.
               4,. •                  •?,,.•«*'

     The individual comprehensive projects will continue to provide the
basis for undertaking detailed technical planning studies of complex
pollution and hydrologic situations, to participate in Jnteragency water
resources planning, including work with the river basin commission established
under thn Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 , and providing the solid
factual base which will both guide the overall Federal pollution control
eft'ort in each basin concerned, and for effectively reviewing basin
planning agency proposals.

     For the purpose of establishing comprehensive projects, the Nation
liar, been divided into 20 major river basins.  (See map on page  6l) .
Projects were under way in 13 of the basins in 196?.  The enforcement project
in the Colorado Basin is also providing comparable data for that basin.
In 1967 the efforts of these projects were reoriented to emphasize the
need to develop basin-wide action programs which could be implemented
immediately through the use of grant funds and other authorities in the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act, and which could also serve for review
of water quality standards for interstate waters prepared under the Water

Quality Act of .1965.  In addition, there will be a need for selected
detailed long term technical studies required to develop optimal solutions
1'or complex pollution situations.  These will be done simultaneously with
development of interim action plans to meet obvious and immediate abatement

     By 1968 reorientation of project activities to completely reflect
the new demands of the 1966 legislation is expected to have been accomplished.
Pending accomplishment of this, funding and staffing proposals have been
minimized consistent with overall need to emphasize the basin approach as
rapidly as possible.

     Through 196? the program has projects covering the following major
river basins:

          Arkansas-Red Eiver
          Great Lakes-Illinois River
          Delaware Estuary
          Central Pacific
          Lower Mississippi
          Upper Mississippi
          New England

     In 1968 it is proposed to initiate, at a minimal level, projects
encompassing the Middle Atlantic and Western Gulf Basins.

Middle Atlantic Basin

     The majority of the population relies on the surface water resources
of the area for water supply; however, groundwater serves a great many of
the smaller municipalities.  Increases in municipal and industrial water
use, together with continued reliance on the capacity of area streams to
assimilate a large proportion of the resultant wastes, have created a trend
of water quality degradation in many watersheds.

     Emphasis in this first year will be on detailed planning of future
project needs to promote reversal in quality degradation trends in critical,
watersheds.  Tho project also will assume FWPCA responsibilities in
development of the North Atlantic Region Type I Coordinated Comprehensive
Framework Survey.

Western Gulf

     The State of Texas is preparing a State-wide plan for development of
its water resources for the maximum benefit of the State, and recognized
that water quality is of major importance to the success of the development.
The plan will include proposals for extensive water impoundments, transbasin
transfers, and will identify anticipated future water requirements including
those for the maintenance of water quality.  In addition, the Corps of
Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Soil Conservation Service
are proceeding with detailed planning for impoundment and diversion
structures.  Because of the immediate need to influence this planning,
a very important part of our comprehensive program will be to evaluate
the effects of various water resources development schemes on water
quality and on pollution control requirements.

                           Comprehensive Projects

                     Program of Work and Accomplishments

Arkansas-Red River

     The report on the investigation of salt-pollution control needs,
conducted in cooperation with the Corps of Engineers, was completed
in 196^.  The Texas legislature has established the Red River Authority,
which has brought about the leveling of 21,000 oil./well brine pits.
Oklahoma has issued "no pit orders" in several areas of southwest
Oklahoma with comparable results.

     The Public Works Committee of the Senate directed the Corps to
investigate possible methods of reducing contributions of natural
brines.  A pilot test has successfully controlled one source that was
adding 500 tons of brine per day to the Red River.  The Corps is
proceeding to obtain authorization for construction of control structures
on other brine sources, estimated to total $271 million.  The project
is participating in developing these plans.

     Statistical analysis of alternative monitoring programs to determine
required frequencies of stream sampling and methods of data treatment
necessary to evaluate brine pollution abatement will be complete by
the end of 196?.

Great Lakes-I111nois River Basins

     Through 196? accomplishments include:

     1.  Completion of investigations in lake Erie, lake Michigan and the
Illinois River Basin.  The comprehensive plan for pollution control of the
Illinois .River Basin already is undergoing partial implementation by the
agencies affected.  Moreover, the study of this basin provided the factr,
needed f
U. G. Supreme Court in the Lake Michigan water diversion litigation between
Illinois and other Great Lakes States.  Reports to the Department of Justice
have been prepared and have been introduced as evidence, along with expert
testimony by project personnel in this litigation.

     P.  Conduct of intensive studies of the Lake Ontario and Lake Huron
Basins.  Project schedules call for completion of the development of
comprehensive plans by 1968.

     3.  A plan for the study of the Lake Superior Basin.  Water quality
deterioration caused by eutrophication, combined sewer discharges, channel
dredging for nagivational purposes, land runoff, and diversion of water from
the lakes and wastes and flood waters away from the lakes (all highlighted
by recent enforcement conferences) are some of the difficult problems that
this project ban had to deal with in a timely manner.

     h.  Support for Federal enforcement actions.  Data collected from the
Lake Michigan studies have been used in the preparation of a report on the
interstate pollution of the Calumet area.  This report was the basis of
Federal action in the Calumet Enforcement Conference held at Chicago on
March 29, 1965, in which interstate pollution from Indiana to Illinois,
arid from Illinois to Indiana was established.  The project is also providing
extensive technical, support to the conferees to assist in carrying out the
recommendations of the conference.  In addition, data collected from the
Lake Erie studies have been used in preparation of a report on the interstate
pollution and Ohio intrastate pollution of Lake Erie and its tributaries.
Thin report was the basis for Federal action in the lake Erie Enforcement
Conference, called at the request of Governor Rhodes of Ohio, and included
the States of Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York.  The
conference, held in Cleveland, on August 3-6 and reconvened in Buffalo on
August 10-1P, 196'?, resulted in determination of interstate pollution
al'f'icting all of the above States and a significant determination that this
pollution war, the result of discharges of nutrients to Lake Erie by
municipalities and industry.

     By 1968 a large part of the comprehensive water pollution control program
for the Great Lakes-Illinois River Basins will be complete.  Assessing water
quality improvements, stimulating improvement in waste treatment facj 1 itie-r;,
monitoring the quality of municipal and industrial waste effluents and
lntru.sUi.to waters to tie into the water quality standards surveillance.' network,
wi'J'l IK- programmed in the lake Michigan-Illinois Rivr and Lake Erie Basin,';,

Chesapeake Bay-Susquehanna River Basin

     The project, in 1967, has reached two different points in its activities
in each of its principal subareas.

     In the Susquehanna Basin, inventory of existing information and
Intensive field investigations in each area, except that related to
pollution from mine drainage, are essentially complete.  Interim
reports are being completed in 1967.  These reports will delineate
the current situation and recommend action for control of pollution
to satisfy the; requirements of present and short-term goals in these
streams.  They will be sufficient to guide management action to
control pollution from community and industrial waste sources except
in the case of mine drainage pollution.  In 1968 the staff will develop
recommendations for action to meet the long-range requirements for
quality control in the Susquehanna River Basin.

     In the Chesapeake Bay, activities through 1967 have primarily been
concerned with pollution problems in the Potomac River Basin.  Inventory
and field investigations are proceeding in the remainder of the study
area  with principal emphasis upon the James River Basin.  A significant
element in the project's effort in the Chesapeake area has been the
development of mathematical models to simulate and predict the effects
oi' waste discharge upon the quality of the water in the tidal and
e;.;tuarine segments of these river systems.  An interim report for the
Interagency Task Force on the Potomac River includes data and inter-
pretations developed by this project.

     Pressures for concentrated action and reports in the Potomac
Ban in, including the special study of the Rock Creek r>ubbaidn, has
'•urtailed the activities in the remainder of its study area.

     In 1.968 the project will continue its cooperative work with other
I1'* doral agencies in the North Atlantic Region Type I Coordinated
Comprehensive Framework Survey and a windup of the Susquehanna River
Basin Type II Detailed Survey.  Water quality management programs will
be completed for the Susquehanna River Basin, the James River Basin
and the Potomac River Estuary.  Investigations will be under way in the
York Ri.ver Basin and in the remaining estuarine and near-shore areas
of the Chesapeake Bay.  Emphasis will continue on determining what
corrective actions are required to clean up the Potomac.

Delaware River Basin

     Major emphasis ol' the project has been shifted from field investigations
to computer analysis and cost of-.various water pollution control programs.
A.I 1 field work was completed in 1966 and activities were' begun on the forma]
.•omptlation of the comprehensive program for water pollution control.  The
report on the water pollution control needs in the Delaware Estuary was
released in 1S'67> and is forming the principal basis for formulating water
quality standards.  This project has been outstanding in its application
of systems analysis techniques to water quality management in a complex
river basin.  Its high speed mathematical model  has been used to provide
the forecast information required to combat the problems created by the
drought conditions in the Northeastern States.

('olumli-i.'i Kiver Basin

     In 19^7 pollution control programs will have been developed in the
majority ol.' the subbasins.  The construction of municipal waste treatment
faeiILtifS in the Pacific Northwest is approaching an overall biochemical
oxygen demand reduction of 60-70%.  Major industrial waste treatment
improvements are currently being designed in the Willamette, Snake,
Walla Walla, and Yakima river basins.  The Columbia River Basin Project
has stimulated State and local interest in industrial waste treatment
in these basins.

     What can be accomplished in pollution control within the concepts
of comprehensive program development was well demonstrated by this
project's handling of the Willamette River water quality emergency
in August 1965.  The fall salmon run, very important to commercial arid
sports fishermen, was seriously threatened that year by low dissolved
oxygen in the river as a result of abnormally low runoff conditions in
the basin.  By combining the few existing water quality monitors and a
mathematical model of stream quality responses to flow and pollution
loads, the Columbia River Basin Project foresaw the critical quality
conditions.  Interested agencies were assembled and informed of the
situation and of the alternate courses of action.

     Consensus was reached on an optimum combination of actions and on
each agency's participation.  Monitoring equipment and a computer were
put to work together with short-range forecasts of streamflow and
quality to seek day-by-day reservoir releases from power storage that
accommodated the salmon run and at the same time minimized the reduction
in power revenues that would have otherwise occured.

Southeastern River Basins

     The project, in its three years of operation, has sparked an
awareness of water pollution control planning in the Southeast.  A
number of committees have been established in different geographical
areas to implement the plans.  Detailed planning is underway in

     Many streams in the Southeast are unique in the dearth of factual
Jata on pollution loads and stream quality  on which to establish
water quality  standards and develop action programs.  In 196?, major
emphasis is on obtaining this essential information and on defining
immediate pollution control needs throughout the project area.
Economic base  studies are complete or under way for all portions of
the project area, and breaking down basin-wide projections and
application of data to specific water supply and pollution control
rcquiromont:: :i.ro under way.

Ohio River Ban in

     By the end of 19673 comprehensive planning activities will be well
under way for most subbasins in the project areas, and interim reports
will have been completed for several of the subbasins.  Much of the project
resources has been directed to cooperation with other Federal agencies in
the Ohio River Basin Type I Coordinated Comprehensive Framework Survey
and the Wabash and Kanawha Type II Detailed Surveys.  Concurrently, the
project's activities in Appalachia have been reoriented and accelerated to
meet the requirements of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers for water resource
studies under the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965.  The Ohio
project has been responsible for most of the water pollution control studies
in Appalachia, since 66 percent of the counties in that region are in the
Ohio Rivnr Basin.

     As of September 1966, industries and communities were planning to
spend $'j8j million for waste treatment in the Ohio Basin.  The legislation
passed by the Commonwealth of Kentucky, July 1, 1966, reflected the influence
of preliminary findings of the projects with respect to needs for municipal
and industrial water supply storage in Federal reservoirs.

     The project has cooperated with Ohio and Pennsylvania by furnishing
water quality data on Mahoning and Great Miami River to assist them in
establishing water quality criteria.  This involved changes in field
survey schedules to obtain the desired information.

     In 1968 the project will continue its cooperative work with other
Federal agencies in winding up the Wabash and Kanawha Type II Detailed
Surveys.  Activities required by the Appalachian Regional Development Act
will be completed.  By the end of the year, plans for controlling present
and future pollution will be developed in about one-half of the Upper Ohio
.River Basin and interim reports will be in preparation for the Wabash,
Miami and Little Miami River Basinr,.  Financial support will be provided
to other Federal agencies for ground water, aquatic life and recreation

Hudson Champlain and Metropolitan Coastal

     During 1965 and 1966 the project experienced intensified impetus
in the need for water pollution control in this region.  Several
activities and circumstances arose which made it necessary for the
project to actively participate in such programs and adopt them as
part of its program.  The Northeast drought, an enforcement conference
on the Hudson River, and the passage of a large bond issue by the
State of New York have made it evident that the project will be faced
with an increased water pollution control activity from now on.

     Evaluation of existing data has been completed and field study programs
have been initiated throughout the area with particular emphasis on
metropolitan waters; laboratory facilities have been developed to support
field activities; and economic studies, water use studies, industrial
waste surveys and upland freshwater area studies have been initiated.
Mathematical models of stream quality response to alternative pollution
controls of the Hudson and Hackensack Rivers are complete.  Special
attention has been given to combating northeast drought problems.

Missouri-Souris-Red Rivers

     Through 196? major project effort has been devoted to cooperation
with other Federal agencies in the Missouri River Region Type I Coordinated
Comprehensive Framework Survey.

     Primary pollution control emphasis was on the Kansas River and Red
River of the Worth.  A program office to serve the northeastern portion
of the project area was opened in North Dakota.  Mathematical models of
stream quality response have been developed for these basins as a basis for
effective water quality management.  Evaluation of the impacts of various
management schemes under the Garrison Diversion Project in North Dakota
is especially important to land and water development.

Central Pacific.

     This project was begun in 1966.  Initially work was concentrated on
the pressing problem related to the disposal of agricultural waste water
from California's Great Central Valley.  As the special agricultural
waste drainage investigation was concluded in 196?, the project launched
selective inventory and hydraulic study programs in the San Joaquin Valley,
Sacramento Valley, and southern California.  Studies were begun in
southern California of the interrelated pollutional and hydraulic problems
of recharging groundwater with treated municipal wastes.

     In 1968 the project will continue cooperative work begun in 196? with
other Federal agencies in the California Region Type I Coordinated
Comprehensive Framework Survey.  Also, during 1968, study of the San
Francisco Bay-delta area will be completed and mathematical models for
analysis of alternative water quality management schemes will be under
preparation.  Examination of biological responses to nutrient enrichment
and pesticide pollution will be continued.

Lower Mississippi River

     The technical assistance project on the lower main stem was phased
into the development of a comprehensive water pollution control program
for the lower Mississippi River Basin at the end of 1966.  In 196? the
staff, equipment and facilities, as well as much of the information
developed in connection with the technical assistance study of pesticide
pollution, provided a ready-made nucleus for the comprehensive project.

     In 1967? the project was oriented along lines to serve the following

     1.  Correcting obvious sources of pollution.

     2.  Serving as a resource on the standards provisions of the
Act and carrying out Federal responsibility for surveillance, investigation
and recommendation of enforcement action where necessary.

     3.  Planning and implementing those activities which would present
practicable programs for the continuous protection and enhancement of
the water resources in the program area.

     k.  Coordinating the water quality control aspects connected with the
Corps of Engineers or other civil works projects with the clean river
approach to basin planning and operations.

     Top priority has been given to the main stem and tributaries from
Cairo, Illinois, to Helena, Arkansas because of the immediacy of need,
public concerns, and construction grant applications.

     In 1968 emphasis will be on the Red-Ouachita-Atchafalaya Rivers
to accommodate scheduled requirements relative to the navigation ajnd
coordinated interagency planning on the Red River below Dennison Dam.

New England River Basins

     During 19673 activities included evaluation of existing data and
formulation of work plans, completion of work arrangements with other
Federal and State agencies and formation of coordinating committees.

     In 1968 an action program will be developed for immediate implementation
and selected technical studies determined and initiated as needed.  A
substantial portion of project resources will be'devoted to continuing
cooperation with other Federal agencies in the North Atlantic 'Region
Type I Coordinated Comprehensive Framework Study and the Connecticut
River Basin Type II Detailed Survey.

Upper Mississippi River

     This project was initiated in 196? and utilized residual r.taff f'rota
the Twin Cities-Upper Mississippi River Enforcement Project an the latt'-r
phases out.  Project activity during this first year of operation involved
primarily providing technical support to implementing the stream quality
standards provision of the Act, identifying immediate pollution Control
needs, and detailed planning for subsequent course of the project.

     In "1968, the project will continue its cooperative work begun in
1966 with othf.T Federal agenc.fgs in winding up'the Upper Mississippi
River Region Type I Coordinated Comprehensive Framework Survey.  Selected
field investigations will be initiated in the headwaters area of the
basin.  The need and scope of these studies will be determined by the
program developed in 196?.

                                                 Comprehensive Projects
                                                 (dollars in thousands)

                                                                                                   Increase (-)
                                                1966             1967        /)      1968            Decrease (-)
                                        if-: -    Actual    :'     Estimate      T; *   Estimate            Over 1967

      Arkansas-Red..	f   $95      9       $125       9      $125
      Chesapeake-Susquehanna	*	 ^w   706     •^r      856      ,* i      703         - / ?      -151
      Columbia	,	....,»*••   3^2      ^       UU2       , y      359         -/*/•      -53
      Great Lakes-Illinois River	tfo 1,665     /i%    1,53^       ,-      1,081+         -33     -^3
      Delaware	 //   153      '<*      151       A-       151
      Ohio..	o	$%,   819     ''^o    1,155       A?C-   1,166           . „      +11
      Southeastern	 +?   563      -^-/      902      ,^/      779            ~ -    -123
      Hudson-Champlain	 .^"7   657      ^-?    1,005       /•  '      955            --     -50
      Central Pacific	 /*   192       If      1+12       •• A     U80            - -    +66
      Missouri.,	".	/o   16?       Z-&      571       ,?/     5^0            - -     -31
      Lover Mississippi	      ...       ^a     37!+        - -     372            - --     -2
      Upper Mississippi	      ...       /«•     227       /t     188          y- ^      -39
      New England	      ...         f      200       ; '     27k          + / °      +7i|
      Western Gulf	      ...               ...        7       30          ^7      +30
      Middle Atlantic	      ...               ...        7     •  30           - T      +30
                     Total	    5,359         "   7,95^       " ''    7,236         '^     -~1:



Water Quality

Water quality standards development:  FY 1967? $258,000;  FY 1968 f
$6U8,000;  Increase,/ $390, 000.  The increase consists of:
     (l)  An increase of $392,000 to meet the full impact of the
          water quality standards provisions of
     (2)  A decrease of $2,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs.

                             Need for Increase

     $130,000 and 20 positions will permit the activity to meet the
additional work load anticipated as a result of the Water Quality Act
of 1965.  The resources must be increased to provide for:

     (l)  Immediate and effective review of standards submitted by
the States.

     (?)  Submitting recommendations to the Secretary for his approval,

     (3)  Initiating the establishment of standards where applicable.
A heavy work load will be caused by the need to hammer out specific
problems posed by the individual waters and the present lack of
criteria upon which Federal values will be based.
          Reviewing new and existing scientific and technical information
for standards decision making purposes.

     (5)  Participating in establishment of adequate surveillance of water
quality standards.

     (6)  Initiating programs to provide continuing technical policy
assessment of standards in light of new technological information and
new water uses.

     (7)  Directing the compilation of existing water quality data on
interstate waters, when needed, to establish base line information.

     (8)  Investigating and reporting on the States of implementation
and compliance of water quality standards of the various State and
Federal agencies for the purpose of upgrading the water quality as
well as preventing pollution before it starts.  Assist the States in
revision of standards and implementation plans, and give guidance in
the enforcement programs.

     (o')  Coordinating ami administering the activities of the Kational
TcK-hni en! Advisory Committees.

     (10)  Preparation of reports based on the findings and recommendations
of the National Technical Advisory Committees.

     (11 )  Initiating a program to develop a library of scientific and
technical information appropriate for standards decision making
purposes and to make this information available to the States and
other Federal agencies tinder a continuing program of assistance.

     (in)  Establishing effective liaison with all water resources agencies
State and Federal, and all agencies involved with water quality and

     An additional $262,000 is requested for positions authorized
to be filled in 196? and related costs.

     This program has the highest priority because water quality
standards will establish the goals and objectives for water pollution
control on interstate waters and will, in large part, guide both
Federal and State abatement programs.  The establishment of standards
involves breaking new ground with many difficult technical and
policy issues to be resolved.  Establishment and maintenance of
standards will be a continuing process with periodic revisions and
improvements as necessary.  However, what is done in the initial
years will be extremely important in laying the ground for subsequent
efforts .

     The r:e standards are not being established for use primarily as an
enforcement, tool but as an additional tool for the Secretary and State
and local agencies to guide their overall abatement programs and
encourage preventive control.

     Generally, the water quality standards provisions call for the
following:                        ,

     (l)  Within one year from date of enactment, each State must file
with the Secretary a letter indicating its intent of establishing
standards by June 30, 1967-

     (l"1)  Standards established by the State must be approved by the
Secretary .

     (3)  If a State does not act either by filing a letter of intent
or subsequently establishing approved standards., the Secretary could.,
after a conference with an interested parties , publish Federal water
standards for a particular interstate stream or portion of it.  The
State would still have 6 months to establish its own standards, subject
to the approval of the Secretary, before promulgation by the Secretary.
After promulgation., a Governor may request a hearing within 30 days by
a board dominated neither by the State nor Federal Governments ,
          Once standards are established either by State or Federal
action, any violator of a standard has six months to conform.  If
they do not conform, court action can be instituted to force compliance.

     (5)  The Secretary may. on his own initiative or at the request of
a Governor, institute .enforcement proceedings against any polluter
violating established standards.
     (6)  Provisions are also included for revising standards consistent
with the needs of the State either on the Secretary's initiative or at
the request of a Governor »

                             Program of Work

     Standards submitted by the States will be reviewed and recommendations
concerning their approval made to the Secretary of the Interior.  As
many of the States are expected to submit their standards close to the
deadline of June 30, 19^7^ a heavy work load in reviewing standards is
anticipated for the first half of the fiscal year,

     Federal action will be initiated to establish standards for those
interstate streams and coastal waters where unsatisfactory or no
standards have been submitted by the States.

     Assure that all new scientific and technical information will be
evaluated and incorporated into the decisions made with respect to
approved standards.  During 1968 this will involve reviewing and
evaluating a heavy backlog of information whic has not been done
since the publication of "Water Quality Criteria" in 1963.  This
activity also will involve continuing the work of the National
Technical Advisory Committees.
     Participate in design and evaluation of a monitoring system to
assure adequate surveillance for compliance with water quality standards.

     Initiate a program to provide a continuing technical policy
assessment of water quality standards for achieving desired results in
pollution control.  Since this is a new endeavor, careful attention
will have to be given to its effectiveness in achieving the desired

objectives of pollution control.  It is anticipated that such evaluation
will demonstrate the need for certain review and improvements.  It is not
anticipated that any specific reviews will be initiated in 1968, Sf> soon
after the initial establishment of standards.  However, the ground work
must be initiated during this fiscal year.

     Provide for the conduct of stream surveys to obtain water quality
data in interstate streams where existing quality data is not available.
The need for this activity will be documented by the supporting data
submitted by the States with their standards.  The data obtained by this
activity will establish base line information from which the established
standards can be applied.

     Initiate a program of periodic reports on the status of compliance
with water quality standards and the implementation plans to achieve
water quality standards which have been developed by the States.  These
reports will be prepared by regional personnel and will be developed
for each major river basin,  To meet this anticipated effort,additional
staff is necessary both at headquarters and in the field.

                             Ac c ompli s hments

     During 1966 the Administration's basic policies with respect to
standards were formulated, the guidelines for establishing water quality
standards were promulgated to the States and others concerned, and
technical assistance was provided to a number of States.  In 19&7 there
is a heavy workload involved in providing technical and policy guidelines
to the States.  Five national technical advisory committees have been
established and are developing reports on the current status of knowledge
concerning water quality requirements for public water supply, agriculture,
recreation and aesthetics, industrial water supplies, and fish, aquatic
life and wildlife.

     In 196? there is a heavy workload involved in reviewing preliminary
water quality standards submitted by State water pollution control agencies
The reviews involve the determination of the adequacy of proposed water
quality criteria for interstate streams and the plan for implementing the
water quality standards.

     A plan for monitoring waste discharges  in. interstate streams is being
developed as a part of the nationwide water quality standards effort.  The
monitoring plan will provide for the coordination of State and Federal

Estuary Studies

Estuary studies;  FT 1967, -0-) FY 1968 £ $970,000; Increase/1 $970,000.
The Increase consists of:

          $970,000 to implement a study of estuaries as provided
          for by the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966.

                           Heed for Increase

     $970*000 and 20 positions are proposed for implementation of
Section 5Cg)(l) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  This
will provide for staffing headquarters and field activities to direct
and coordinate information collection and necessary field studies,
support of agreements .with other Federal ageneies., 'and contracts
with other groups for specific inputs needed for a comprehensive
report development.

     Although limited, preliminary work in this area was done in 1967
as part of the regular activities of the Administration's Technical
Services Program, fhe increase proposed specifically for this purpose
is essential for completion of a comprehensive study of the effects
of pollution in estuaries by November 1969* as directed by the Water
Pollution Control Act.

                               Objective  .

     Section 5(g) (l) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
provides for a comprehensive study of the effects of pollution in
estuaries,  Fais endeavor will be in cooperation with the Departments
of Army and Agriculture, Water Resources Council and any other appro-
priate Federal, State, interstate or local public leaders and private
organizations, institutions and individuals,

     Specifically, the Act provides for the following:

     1.  Developing a comprehensive study of the effects of pollution,
including sedimentation, in the estuaries and estuarine zones of the
United States.

     2.  Determining the effects of pollution in these estuarine
areas on fish and wildlife, sport and commercial fishing, recreation,
water supply and water power, and other beneficial uses.
     3.  Considering the effect of demographic trends, exploitation
of mineral resources and fossil fuels, land and industrial development
navigation, flood and erosion control and other uses of estuarine
zones upon the pollution of waters therein.

     4.  Identifying the problems and are$s where further research
and study are required as determined from investigations of repre-
sentative estuaries and estuarine zones.

     5.  Recommendations for a comprehensive national program for
the preservation^ study, use and development of estuaries of the
Nation and the respective responsibilities which should be assumed
by Federal,, State and local governments and by public and private
interests shall be delineated.

     The Act also provides that a final report will be submitted
to Congress no later than November 1969.  To achieve this purpose,
the Act specifically authorizes $1 million annually through 1969.

                            Program of Work

     In 1968 the main thrust of the program is expected to be made
through the use of extensive FWPCA contracts with a consortium of
technical institutes, public and private agencies and organizations,
recognized national experts, etc.  This consortium will have a
combined capability to assess the extent and impact of the significant
aspects of pollution and its effects on the ecological, economic, and
demographic factors associated with estuarine zones throughout the
United States.  Similarly, a companion effort will involve the other
Federal agencies which have over the years initiated important investi-
gations having relationship to water quality in the estuarine
environment.  We would expect to glean valuable inputs from these
sources through the mechanism of an interagency task group.

     Supplementing these efforts will be selected investigations of
particular pollution problems amenable to clear definition and control
in representative estuarine areas in the United States using FWPCA
field operations in the selected areas as the primary technical


       Technical assistance

FY 1966
/• - .'- Available
Technical assistance;  FY 1967? $2,833,000; FY'1968^1 $3,065,000; Increase/
$232,000.The increase consists of:
                                /ep«4.            ^
     (l)  An increase of $36,GOO/5for program direction for a total
          program of $803,000.
                                 /J' fO&.
     (2)  An Increase of $321,000*for regional laboratory staffing for
          a total program of $1,883,000.

     (3)  A decrease of $83,000 for special project activities primarily
          phasing out the Charleston Harbor-Cooper River project in 196?.

     (4)  A decrease of $42,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs.

                           Heed for Increase

     Program direction;  An increase of $26,000 and 10 positions is
proposed to augment the headquarters staff for the purpose of strength-
ening the Administration's technical assistance activities.  The
additional resources are needed to provide adequate direction and
coordination of the Administration's efforts in such areas as:
(l) technical assistance to State water pollution control agencies
on water quality standards, and (2) the implementation of the study
of water craft pollution, as. provided under the Clean Water Restoration
Act of 1966.

     Moreover, expansipn of field activities, particularly those conducted
through the regional laboratories, must be directed and coordinated on
a national basis, in order that program resources are most effectively
utilized in providing engineering and scientific assistance or information
to all concerned.  An additional $10,000 is requested for positions
authorized to be filled in 1967 and related costs.

     Laboratories;  $256,000 and 58 positions are needed to staff regional
laboratories to increase the resources available for providing assistance
and consultation and to respond quickly and efficiently to the solution of
existing or imminent water pollution problems on location in the areas
serviced.  Emphasis will be on application of existing knowledge to solve
specific problems.  The increase proposed is for the following laboratories
               Ada, Oklahoma         ~7s,   .-    $55,000
               Athens, Georgia       /*/        64,000
               Corvallis, Oregon      /<-'        64,000
               College, Alaska        /A/        73,000
                                     "ft       256,000

     The increases will provide for  staffing these facilities
up to their full complement.  An additional $65>000 is requested for
positions authorized to be filled in 1967 and related costs.


     Section 5 provides for encouraging, cooperating with and rendering
assistance to other appropriate public authorities, agencies, and
institutions, private agencies and institutions, and individuals.
The activity, therefore, is the heart of the Federal-State-regional-
local cooperative approach to water pollution control problems.
Activities range from letter responses to requests for information
on major project investigations involving several years.

     Expert consultations and field investigations, as necessary, are
provided on specific local and regional water pollution problems
by regional offices, field laboratories, the Sanitary Engineering
Center, and the headquarters staffs.

     The regional water pollution control laboratories planned or
constructed will greatly increase the resources available for providing
on-the-spot assistance and consultation,  The technical assistance
staff in these laboratories will be able to respond quickly and
efficiently to the solution of existing or imminent water pollution
problems on location in the areas serviced by the laboratories.
Many requests for technical assistance have already been received by
the field laboratories.

     In contrast to the research activities at these field laboratories,
where the basic objective is to develop new and broader understandings
concerning a problem area, technical assistance investigations will
emphasize the application of existing knowledge to solve specific
problems.  Technical assistance primarily involves identifying the
nature of the problem, recommending application of known methods and
techniques to solve the problem, or if these are not available,
recommending acceleration of efforts either through research or other
means for developing appropriate methods for solving the specific
problem,  The primary objective of such instructions is not to develop
new understandings of the basic relationships involved, although this
might result as a by-product,

                            Program of Work

     The 1968 program will provide for strengthening program direction
and for scheduling and coordinating laboratory activities.  Particular
emphasis will be given to supporting the need of the water quality
standards provision of the Water Quality Act.

     As a result of additional laboratory staffing, capability to
respond quickly and efficiently with on-the-spot assistance in the
solution of specific local and regional water pollution problems
will be greatly increased.


     Examples of technical assistance rendered through the calendar
years 1965 and 1966 are as follows:

     (l)  To the State of Maine:  An evaluation of eutrophieation
and its causes in Lake Sebasticook, and measures to be taken to control
the rate of eutrophication and improve the recreational useability
of the lake.

     (2)  To Hew York State:  In relation to the Hew York City water
shortage, an evaluation of the economic alternatives for meeting the
water supply shortage and preventing future water shortages.

     (3)  To the State of California:  State Department of Public
Health on investigation of diarrhea outbreak at Riverside, California;
provided laboratory methods which resulted in isolation of causitive
organism from sewage,
          To State of Georgia:  Investigated with the State and other
Federal agencies the potential effects of pulp and paper mill wastes
on oysters, other shellfish and fin fish in the Sapelo Sound area.

     (5)  To U. S. Army Corps of Engineers:  Conducted study and prepared
report on the effects of impoundment on water quality on Tuttle Creek
and Wilson Reservoirs, Kansas.

     (6)  To municipality of Blacksburg, South Carolina:  Consultation
on taste and odor problem,

     (7)  To the State of Arizona:  Consultation with State Health
Department regarding radium removal from community water supply;
laboratory support in the form of radium 226 analyses were provided.

     (8)  To the Delaware River Basin Commission:  Consultation
involving radiological stream standards, their significance and
interpretation .

     (9)  To the City of Portland, Maine:  Provided consultative services
relative to the location of. a proposed ocean outfall, for disposal of
municipal and industrial wastes.

    (10)  To State of Uevadaj  Surveyed Las Vegas Wash and Las Vegas
Bay — arm of Lake Mead — to evaluate the fertilizing effect of municipal
and industrial wastes on the creation of aquatic plant nuisances.

     During fiscal years 1966 and 19&7 significant steps also were
taken toward improving our effectiveness and capacity for conducting
intensive investigations and providing "basic on-the-spot assistance
to Federal, State, and local agencies, and others concerned with
water pollution control.  The growth of the program during this period
was directed primarily at developing and staffing technical assistance
activities in the new water pollution control laboratories.

     Recreation and water quality studies are being conducted to
either (l)  evaluate the deterioration in water quality, if any, that
results from the intensive use of a watershed and reservoir for
recreational purposes, (2)  evaluate the feasibility of utilizing
treated waste water for recreational purposes, or (3)  determine how
best to eliminate poor water quality conditions that interfere with
recreational uses of water.  Two existing studies in each of these
areas will continue in 1968.

     The Pearl River Project in Jackson, Mississippi is concerned with
the first objective—potential quality changes resulting from intensive
recreational use of a reservoir.  In 1968 the post impoundment study
of the reservoir will continue, with a report on special nutrient
(nitrogen and phosphorus) studies within the drainage basin scheduled
for completion.

     A study is being conducted as a joint technical assistance-
research project concerned with the poor water quality conditions of
Lake Shagawa, Ely, Minnesota which interferes with recreational use
of the water.  Study of the lake's eutrophlcation problem will continue
in 1968.

Recreation and water quality

     The most significant accomplishment of our recreation and water
quality studies has been the Santee Recreation Project.  This project
was designed to determine in the field the optimum procedures necessary
to manage water quality through a waste treatment and water reclamation
system supplying water for recreational lakes.  The project resulted
from the need of the San Diego County and California State Health
authorities for information about the presence of viruses in reclaimed
waters when the Santee County Water District proposed to use its well-
treated effluent water for recreational lakes.  The extent of the studies
incorporated in the final project was broadened to include, along with
virus identification, related chemical, physical, and bacteriological
pollution indicators as well as an epidemiological record.  Separate
studies of hydrology, vector control, fish propagation, and aquatic
biology also were set up to make more effective use of correlating data
obtained originally for the virus study.

     Hie Santee recreational lakes were created to provide a recreational
facility using reclaimed water from the community's own sewage treatment
plant.  The lakes nave been used since 1961 for several recreational
purposes, starting with activities that were limited to picnicking and
boating and then progressing through a "Fish for fun" program to a
general fishing program which was only limited during the spawning season,
A special area adjacent to one of the lakes was then used for swimming
during the summer of 1965.

     The Santee Recreation Project has demonstrated the feasibility
and social acceptability of using water reclaimed from sewage as a
supply for recreational lakes.  The study has further determined that
with the treatment provided at Santee, the recreational lake waters
did not contain measurable virus concentrations even though virus
isolations were made from all samples of raw sewage and from 96 percent
of samples of secondary effluent,  When additional treatment was provided
to meet the water quality standards of outdoor swimming pools, the
reclaimed water was used safely for swimming.  The public acceptance of
this swimming program by more than 3*200 registrants has created
national recognition of the project.

     It also was demonstrated that nutrients could be controlled to
create a balanced chain of producers and consumers that have supported
seven types of fish.  The study has shown, however, the necessity for
controlling the enrichment process for continued fish propagation,

     In another area of recreation and water quality, the study of
the Ross R. Barnett Reservoir in Jackson, Mississippi (Pearl River
Project) afforded us the opportunity to compile water quality data
prior to impoundment, thereby permitting direct comparison between
preimpoundment and after impoundment water quality.  Of particular
importance is the quality change, if any, developing from extensive
recreational use of the reservoir,

     The summer of 19^5 was the first recreational season after full
impoundment and offered the first opportunity to evaluate the effects
of intensive use.  Studies to evaluate the effect of power boats on
water quality, treatment and/or disposal of sanitary waste and refuse,
the effect of concentrated swimming, and the effect of nutrient sources
on the biological quality of the reservoir 'Were continued during the
1966 recreational season,

Klamath River Basin Study

     This study encompasses two principal problems:  (l)  the effects
of pesticides and other contaminants from agricultural land drainage
on the Tule Lake and Lower Klamath Lake national Wildlife Refuges, and
(2)  an algae nuisance problem in the Upper Klamath Lake and Klamath

     The scheduled program for 1968 will consist of a continuation of
the biological pollution surveys and application of biological data to
a computer program for analysis that will reveal water quality trends
and permit evaluations,leading to recommendations on agricultural
land management and basin water management changes, to improve water
quality and reduce or avoid pollution damage.  Studies needed for
verification of a computer program will be conducted in an effort to
make the mathematical simulation of the Lost River system completely
verified and operational.

     During 1965 and 1966 the study conducted chemical and biological
investigations in the Lost River Subbasin in cooperation with the Oregon
State Sanitary Authority.  Other Federal agencies were utilized to
provide monitoring of flows, exploration of the effects of pesticides
on selected wildlife, and the effects of pesticides on plants and
soils.  The program is developing a statistically reliable measurement
to peak and mean concentrations of pesticides and water-nutrient
accounting system.  By the end of 1967 some of the information will be
acquired to permit computer analyses by a mathematical model of past,
present, and proposed practices of water management in the Klamath
River Basin.

Tampa Bay project

     A field project to determine the cause of obnoxious odors along
the western side of Hillsborough Bay—an arm of Tampa Bay—and., to evaluate
the Corps of Engineers' hurricane barrier proposals for Hillsborough
Bay, from the standpoint of possible effect on- water quality, was begun
in 1967.

     Activities during this first year consisted of establishing physical
facilities for the study and initial field work in the bay area.

     During 1968 there will be a continuation of studies to determine
the cause of obnoxious odors along the^ western side of Hillsborough
Bay.  Field studies and report preparation are scheduled for completion
by the end of 1968^  '  "__ '_                  ' ~ "~ "      "   '  __'"__   '".'._."	


Pollution surveillance ; FY 196?? $1,^04,000; FY 1968 /> $1,936,000;
                  1   ®ae increase consists ©f;
     (l)  An increase of $582,000 for acceleration and pollution
          surveillance activities for a total program of $1,936,000.

     (2)  A decrease of $50,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs.

                            Heed for Increase

     $502,000 and 56 positions are necessary to expand the national
system of water quality compliance monitoring activities and associated
laboratory support involving the full spectrum of chemical, physical,
biological, and radiochemical analyses.  The Act, as amended, directing
the establishment of water quality standards on interstate streams will
require a substantial expansion in the number of monitoring stations
and support services.

     At present, 139 stations are in operation with analytical work
performed at a central national facility located in Cincinnati and
at four operational regional laboratories.  Because of the many
uncertainties associated with the proposals _ about to be received ___
from the States for approval by the Secretary, it is impossible at
this time to accurately .estimate the eventual requirements for Federal
monitoring as contrasted to State monitoring.  However, in order to
satisfy anticipated technical assistance requests by the States, .and
to permit the Secretary to act quickly if the States fail to comply
with the provisions establishing water quality standards, the program
must be prepared to meet a wide variety of potential situations.
These will vary frora. ^relatively simple periodic grab sampling activi-
ties to continuous monitoring with highly sophisticated efuipment.
Further, at any given location, the array of variables which require
monitoring may vary greatly.

     The budget increase requested in 1968 results principally from
the staffing needs involved in locating, installing, and maintaining
new stations, as well as associated analytical laboratory support, data
validation, and evaluation.  Of the 56 positions requested for the next
year, 20 positions will be located' in regional offices and laboratories
to install and support new stations.  Wherever possible, water quality
analyses will be conducted on site or at the four regional laboratories
in operation..  The remaining 36 positions will be located at the central
laboratory in Cincinnati which will service those areas not serviced by
regional laboratories.

     The Cincinnati facilities will conduct complex analyses requiring
specialized equipment.  Most of these particularly complex analyses are
required to enable field staffs of the FWPCA to detect, identify and

measure specific industrial pollutants.  These are primarily petroleum
materials and the many synthetic organic compounds and associated wastes
produced Toy chemical manufacturing plants and used widely throughout
American industry.  Once water quality standards are set and violations
occur, the agency will need to trace the pollutants responsible to their

     The designation and approval of water quality standards for the
various streams in the country will "bring about situations in which
pollution is defined as a violation of the standards.  The laboratory
analyses provided by the FWPCA as evidence of the violation of the
standard must be of unquestioned validity.  Similarly, the data from
laboratories of the States must be comparable among themselves and
with FWPCA data.

     The budget increase will make it possible to provide a modest
laboratory analysis validation program to meet the requirements of the
administration.  Special attention will be given to intralaboratory
quality control.  Further, an interlaboratory quality control program
will be initiated involving those State "arid ©tHer"'Federallaboratories with
whom FWPCA will be working.  Appropriate means will be taken to stimulate
the production of professionally certified and validated procedures.

     Special efforts will be made to assure that data produced* either
by on-site monitors or from '.any one of the various laboratories concerned
in this program, will "be stored in the central" computer of the Depafiansnt
of the Interior in such a manner that prompt access and evaluation will
assure prompt followup action under the compliance and enforcement
provisions.  An additional $80,000 is requested for positions authorized
to be filled in 1967 and related costs.


     Intelligence on the sources, kinds, and amounts of pollutants and
their effects on water quality and water uses is essential to an effective
water pollution control program.  To meet these needs, the program plans,
develops, and coordinates mission-oriented activities for the collection,
evaluation and dissemination of water quality data and related information.
The basic authority for these broad activity areas is found in Section
5 (c) of PL 84-660, as amended.  Specific service functions are occasioned
by the needs of other FWPCA units and technical assistance requested by
State and interstate agencies authorized under other sections of the Act.
Intradivision activities and technical services are conducted in support
of or as an integral part of four major programs of the Administration:
development of comprehensive water pollution control basin programs;
water quality standards and plans for implementation; oil pollution control 5
and enforcement actions.  In addition, the products and services of the

program are used in a broad sense throughout the entire field of water
pollution control at all levels of government and by all persons and
organizations involved in supporting water pollution control activities,

                             Program of Work

     To secure accurate and timely data and information on a national
and regional "basis as a service function to aid other FWPGA technical
programs, and as a technical assistance function to assist State and
interstate pollution control agencies, the program will pursue the
following work items during 1968:

     (l)  Water quality compliance system— A flexible system of water
quality monitoring stations, including "both laboratory analyses at a
centralized laboratory facility and in-stre&Hl- analyses via automatic
monitoring equipment, will be expanded in support of the four major
PWPCA programs noted above.

     (2)  Specialized analytical services and instrumentation—Expert
professional analytical services  and highly specialized analytical
equipment will be made available through the centralized laboratory.
Also, the continued development, installation, and operation of
appropriate automatic water quality sensing and transmitting instru-
ments will be provided.

     (3)  Analytical quality control—The reliability of laboratory
and field analytical results in the Administration will be assessed
and assured.  This will include the field testing of new laboratory
analytical procedures, and the initiation of a complementary program
with State and interstate agencies.

     (*0  Facilities construction and statistics—Current information
on the status of water and waste treatment facilities and related
statistics, including fishkills, will be obtained on a national basis.

     (5)  Data_operations, evaluation and control—A computerized system
for the timely storage, retrieval, processing, and analysis of neces-
sary water quality data and related statistics will be provided and

     (6)  Pollution intelligence units at the field level—The service
functions of the surveillance program at field level offices and
laboratories will be provided with basic staff components.


Water pollution compliance services

     The Water Quality Compliance System currently includes 13! regular
and 8 special category stations.  Water quality data are being collected
and analyzed either automatically or manually on a continuing basis.  In
the absence of a regional laboratory* those analyses which cannot economi-
cally be performed on-site are conducted at the centralized laboratory
in Cincinnati.

     Raw laboratory data secured through the Compliance System are made
available via STORET printouts to State, interstate, and Federal agencies.
State water pollution control agencies are currently utilizing these
data in their efforts to develop the water quality criteria required, as
prescribed by the Act.  To the extent practicable, the data are also made
available to industries and universities.

     The data are under continuous evaluation to signal the occurrence
of new pollution sources and abatement of historical pollution.  A
statistical treatment and selected publication of Compliance System
data are approaching completion and will be distributed as rapidly as
possible, particularly to State and interstate agencies concerned with
developing water quality criteria and implementation plans.

Specialized analytical services and instrumentation

     During 1966 and 196~7 the specialized analytical support services
program demonstrated its ability to completely analyze and identify
the components of complex industrial waste streams in support of
technical investigations. An example was the thorough study of a plant
producing pesticides.  This program will continue to provide expert
consultative services within the Administration  and to State and
interstate agencies as resources permit.

     In addition, this activity installed automatic water quality
monitoring systems, prepared technical specifications and. operating
manuals, and provided technical consultation to State, interstate and
Federal agencies.

     The Potomac Water Pollution Monitoring System, currently consisting
of four automatic transmission stations connected to a central data
logging facility via telemeter lines, was designed and installed.  The
data logging stations at the John Kerr Dam, Roanoke River, Virginia and
at Rome, Georgia, Coosa River, and at other locations were modernized.

     Consultation and guidance were provided to the International Joint
Commission, Federal agencies, and several FWPCA comprehensive basin
programs and enforcement projects requiring automatic monitoring and/or
transmission systems.

     Technical publications include "Specifications for an Integrated
Water Quality Data Acquisition System," "Specifications for Slow Speed
Telemetry," and "A Program Guide to Automated Instrumentation for Water
Pollution Surveillance."  Activities of the type noted above will "be
pursued on a continuing "basis. In addition, attention will "be directed
to modernizing the organic chemical sampling devices at existing
monitoring stations.

Analytical quality control

     To assure that the accuracy and precision of all stream quality
data collected as part of the Water Quality Compliance System will "be
acceptable to all regulatory "bodies, a modest ..analytical quality control
program was initiated during 1966.  During 1967 "the selection and
publication of tentative agency methods will "be initiated.  Various
organization support questions are currently in the process of resolution.
In addition to laboratory quality control programs to assure compatibility
within the Administration, a modest interlaboratory quality control
program will be initiated among State, interstate and Federal agencies
collecting data needed in water pollution control activities.  A split-
sample testing program will be initiated on an interlaboratory basis
during 1967.

Facilities construction and statistics

     Periodic publications including "Pollution-Caused Pish Kills" were
printed and distributed.  Similarly, national data on the financing and
construction of sewage collection and treatment facilities were collected,
analyzed and published.  The biennial inventory of "Municipal Water
Facilities, Communities of 25,000 Population and Over," as of January 1966,
was undertaken and will be published during 1967.  In addition, a revised
national inventory of municipal waste facilities will be initiated in
the latter half of 1967.

Data operations, evaluation and control

     In the field of data operations control, the STORET I sy«tem was
strengthened and STORET II was developed and made operational.  Statis-
tical and summary computer programs for both storage and retrieval
subsystems were developed and are being implemented.  Reprogramming of
the STORET system, in anticipation of late 19^7 use of the Department's
360/65 computer center, was initiatear arid will be completed.  Concurrently,
methods and programs to provide better operating efficiency and expansion
of the STORET system are under development.  In addition, map coding,
consulting services, specialized programming, manuals development and
training of personnel will be pursued on a continuing basis.

Staffing of pollution intelligence units in the field laboratories

    Modest staffing was initiated at four operating field laboratories,
Corvallis,' Oregon; Athens, Georgia; Ada, Oklahoma; and College, Alaska
to extend services by providing specialized support to specific basin
programs.  This initial staffing has made noteworthy contributions in
the fields of aquatic biology and automatic water quality data monitoring
instrumentation at the regional level.


                                         Analysis fry Activities
Technical	........,..»..*.....,...».,*


Management internship.......................

draining grants administration,,	,.,„  7

     Total	** ~/7
FY 1966
• o *
FY 1967
, Amount
- "• Available •
••* x $399,000
> 247,000
// 0,0,6.000
FY 1968
/ B^.lTTIftlift
••/> $477,000
00 350,000
/o 57,000
// 116.000
Increase (+)
Decrease (-)
Ovep 1967
* /"/ +$78,000
•* ^° +103,000'
Technical trainingi  FY 196?,f1 $399,000; FY 1968, $lj-77,000; Increase,-"
$78,000.  The increase consists of:

     An increase of $78,000 to support staffing in regional locations
     for -a total technical training program of $^77*000.

                           Heed for, 3fo,creasre!

             and. 1^ positions are proposed for staffing the regional
laboratories and the national training center activity in Cincinnati,
Ohio.  Currently the staff in regional facilities has been limited to
the extent that the program has been confined to identifying and
assessing training needs and developing courses.  Although selected
courses have been held, staff is inadequate to schedule a full array of
needed courses.  In addition to direct training, increased consultation
and assistance is needed to be given to the States for training of -waste
treatment operators.  Efficient utilization of waste treatment plants
will help reduce pollution.

     Additional resources are also needed at Cincinnati for technical and
administrative support of the regional laboratories and developing new
courses to meet changing technology and personnel needs.  The proposed
increase will provide three positions each in Ada, Oklahoma; Athens,
Georgia; Corvallis, Oregon, one for College, Alaska and a nucleus staff
of four positions for Cincinnati, Ohio.  An additional $3^fOOO is requested
for positions authorized to be filled in 1967.


     Provide for the training in technical matters relating to causes,
prevention, and control of water pollution to personnel of public agencies
and other persons with suitable qualifications in accordance with Section
5(a) of the Act.

     In carrying out this objective the program provides students and
professionals across the nation with the latest in scientific and technical
information for the study and control of water pollution.  It provides
basic instruction and advanced professional training to Federal, State and
local water pollution specialists; industrial representatives; waste water
treatment plant operators; and university personnel.  It not only raises
the professional standards of water specialists but also puts the latest
research knowledge into their hands almost as soon as it is available, thus
reducing the customary time-lag between research and application.

     Training is conducted in various locations to serve specific needs.
The main training center is located in Cincinnati, Ohio.  Here, training

of a national scope is offered to both Federal and non-Federal agencies
and students, including foreign students, concerned with the problem and
treatment of water pollution.  Advice and assistance is provided States,
foreign representatives and others in developing their own training
programs.  The Center also provides continuing in-service training for
Administration employees and develops new courses to meet changing technol-
ogy and personnel needs,

     To meet local requirements, training is conducted through regional
laboratories.  These facilities extend to the area of service training, which
was formerly offered only at Cincinnati and tailor it to the special water
problems in each area.  In addition to in-service training and assistance
to local, Federal and non-Federal specialists, the laboratories also
provide consultation and assistance to the States in the training of waste
treatment plant operators.  This is a specialized and highly important
function, since the optimum utilization of Federally financed sewage
treatment plants requires a specially trained crew,

                                      of  ok
     In 1968, the training staff in all the laboratories currently in
operation will be increased.  As training needs become identified and
properly assessed in all regions? a full array of scheduled courses will be
taught at each water pollution control laboratory,  Additional technical
and nonprofessional personnel will be needed;  This will require an increase
in the amount of technical and administrative backup and support services
coming from the Cincinnati staff.  During 1966% a fully developed schedule
of courses will be conducted at the Corvallis, Oregon; Ada, Oklahoma, and
Athens, Georgia laboratories.  The special needs of the Alaska area should
be known by this time with requirements for training spelled out and train-
ing begun at this laboratory,

     These developments in the training activity and staffing of the
laboratories and Cincinnati apcounts for the proposed increase.

     The following reflects the number of persons estimated to receive
training by locations

                                        1967            1968

     Cincinnati, Ohio                    -1^0             600
     College, Alaska                      70              90
     Ada, Oklahoma                       150             350
     Corvallis, Oregon                 •  150             350
     Athens, Georgia                      50_            350

                                         870         .  1,740

     In 1966, the training program continued its activities by providing
new and more specialized training courses and services at Cincinnati and
by developing two new training activities in Ada, Oklahoma and Corvallis,
Oregon,  The Cincinnati facility offered a curriculum of 15 courses over
31 weeks in all technical areas of water pollution control; namely, chemistry,
biology, microbiology, and engineering*  During the latter part of the year,
training courses were offered for the first time in two of three regional
laboratories where training facilities had been set up.

     During 1966, persons receiving training in the professional categories
mentioned totalled 318 while approximately 40 additional persons, represent-
ing a number of foreign countries,were involved in the training effort.
Specialized training was provided,as requested to meet their requirements.
Included in the number of persons receiving training is a substantial segment
of our own professional staff in the Water Pollution Control Administration,

     In 1967* training will continue at Cincinnati, Ma and Corvallis and
will be initiated in other regional laboratories as they become staffed,
New courses will continue to be developed in response to the changing and
expanding knowledge provided through research.  With the passage of the
Water Quality Act of 1965 and the requirement for establishment of stream
standards by July 1, 1967, the training program also must provide specialized
courses in the area of automatic field instrumentation for water quality

     An expanded program will provide training to approximately 400-^50
persons at the Cincinnati laboratory.  Also, at our current rate, we expect
to provide training to about ko to 50 foreign personnel which may represent
as many as ten foreign countries.  At both Ada, Oklahoma and Corvallis,
Oregon, training will be provided to approximately 300 persons through each
                           *2<3fa'3'           • 30 fe*.                +/of*s.,
Graduate training;  FI 1967^ $2Vf,OOOj FT 1968^ $350,000; Increase/
$103,000,The increase consists of:

          $103,000 for graduate studies in institutions of higher learning.

                             Heed for Increase

          $103,000 and 10 positions are requested to support training
of FWPCA personnel at the graduate levels.  Hew legislation resulting
in changes in program concept or emphasis, expansion of complex programs^and
rapid technological advances resulting in new research techniques and
methods, all impose staffing requirements for highly specialized professional
and scientific personnel for which recruiting experience indicates there

are insufficient qualified candidates available to meet immediate or
long-range needs of the Administration.  Graduate level training provides
an opportunity for the Administration to select technical and scientific
personnel with high potential for professional development to undertake
graduate studies in specialized areas identified as the most critical
to the program needs of the Administration,

     The proposal represents a nominal increase which will permit the
Administration to support a total of 30 professionals in 1968.


     To provide developmental opportunity in highly specialized areas,
for selected technical and scientific personnel with high potential, to
assist in meeting critical program staffing requirements that cannot
be met through normal recruitment resources.

     Selected employees are assigned to universities each year for
specialized resident study at the graduate level.  These assignments
increase the number of key personnel with advanced training and provide
for the development of highly specialized skills, primarily in shortage
categories.  Most of those who have completed such assignments have
progressed to more advanced duty assignments than those held before
their training.  One of the major benefits obtained from the program
is the ability to combine work experience in the field of water pollution
control with a sound educational program at the graduate levels.

                              Program of Work

     Responsible officials of the Administration have been requested
to review program needs and identify the categories of training which
they consider should be supported during Fiscal Year 1968.  Based on
plans for future expansion, changes in program concept or emphasis,
significant changes in organization, functions, research methods, etc.,
they will determine the most critical training needs of the Administration
to provide the current  or planned work force with  the  needed  technical,
scientific, or professional skills, knowledges, or abilities to meet
these changes.  On the basis of these recommendations, a long-term
graduate training program will be developed for F¥" 1968 and nominations
will be solicited for applicants whose planned graduate program is
related to the critical needs of the Administration.  It is anticipated that
the number of applicants applying will be significantly higher than that  of
previous years.

     It is very evident that the expansion and conceptual changes in the
highly complex programs of the Administration are creating a critical need
for personnel with highly specialized skills that we will be unable to
meet through normal recruitment outside the Administration.  Persons of
the type needed are in shortage categories in the labor market and are
much in demand.

     These factors, therefore, make it more apparent than ever before
that the Administration must have a planned graduate training program
to develop in our own staff the critical skills and knowledges needed
to effectively carry out our mission,

                              Accompli shment s

     In 1966 a total of 6l candiates submitted requests for long-term
graduate training to be conducted during 1966.  Of this group, a training
committee recommended that 32 be considered.  From this group, the
Administration supported 9 candidates,  Eight were commissioned dorps
personnel and one was a civil service employee.  Some of the programs under-
taken by candidates and their placement upon completion of the training

     (a)  Sanitary engineering with a minor in water resources and
chemical engineering at Oregon State University,  Placement was made
in the research division at the Corvallis laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon,

     (b)  Sanitary engineering with a minor in bacteriology at the
University of Wisconsin,  Training was completed September 1966 and
placement was made in the research division at Duluth laboratory,
Duluth, Minnesota,

     (c)  Sanitary engineering with minors in chemical engineering,
chemistry, biochemistry, statistics and operations research at the
University of California.  Placement in the Southeast Water Laboratory
in Athens, Georgia as a supervisory sanitary engineer.

     Of the eight commissioned Corps personnel completing their schooling,
seven decided to convert to divil service positions and remain with the

     Applications were received from 35 candidates for long-term
graduate training in 1967*  The FWPCA Training Committee considered
the  applications and selected 20 candidates who were recommended for
participation in the program.  These selections were approved by the
Commissioner and the Department.

     Since the Administration was to be faced with the problem of filling
a number of hard-to-fill vacancies resulting from the transfer of
commissioned corps personnel back to PHS, the program has been particularly
beneficial this year.  Of the 20 candidates selected for training, 17
were commissioned officers.  Their selection for long-term training was
the  key factor which affected their decision in converting to civil
service positions in the Administration.  This factor also affected the
decision of a number of other commissioned officers who wanted to be
assured that long-term training opportunities would be available in
future years before deciding to convert to civil service status.

      Some examples of the programs of study which were approved In
1967 and recommended for 1968 that will greatly assist the Administration
in meeting critical needs are as follows:

     (a)  Study of the application of mathematical techniques to water
quality models, hydrology, mathematical analysis of data, and advanced
waste treatment methods.

     (b)  Advanced sanitary engineering program which includes water
resources engineering, applied chemistry of water and waste water,
water purification and treatment, industrial waste treatment, industrial
bacteriology and microbiology.

     (c)  Studies in systems analysis, statistics, water resource
economics and regional science combined with seminars and opportunities
for independent research.  This study will greatly assist in the design
and analysis of complex, large-scale environmental systems.

     (d)  Studies in advanced chemistry with emphasis on organic
chemistry.  Will aid in the study of organic contaminants which is
becoming an increasingly important area in water pollution study.

     (e)  Advanced training in computer technology and systems analysis
for engineering and other professional or scientific personnel.  Recruit-
ment efforts have failed to produce qualified candidates to fill positions
in the field of systems design, development and analysis.  There is no
indication that the condition of the labor market will improve during the
next several years.  In view of the Administration responsibility for the
far-reaching program of designing, developing, improving, testing and
installing systems and techniques for  the storage,  retrieval, and
processing of water quality, inventory, and other related data collected
on streams, open bodies of water, etc., it is essential that steps be
taken to produce the skills and knowledges needed.

     (f)  Advanced training in economics for sanitary engineer.  The
combination of economic and engineering skills is difficult to obtain.
In spite of extensive efforts to recruit candidates with these skills
in the current labor market, applicants   have not been available to
meet the critical needs of the organization.

     (g)  Advanced training of scientific or professional personnel
in planning, economics, and public administration.  To effectively
carry out the many complex and changing programs of the Administration,
it is essential that skilled personnel ¥ho are capable of developing
institutional arrangements for implementing pollution control programs
be available.  This requires a sufficiently broad background in
planning, economics and public administration.  By providing scientific
or professional personnel with advance training in the management
field, the combination will contribute significantly to accomplishment
of future program objectives.

     The program of training and development for the interns will provide
for (l) orientation to the functions and responsibilities of the Federal
Government, the Department and the various components of the Administration;
(2)  rotational assignments in the areas of financial management, personnel
management, contracting, grants management, management systems, general
services and other appropriate areas to familiarize participants with the
principal administrative and staff management activities of the Administration;
(3) substantive work experience within one or more of the above areas to
which an intern may be assigned upon completion of training.  All assignments
will be designed to provide individually tailored progressive learning exper-
ience which will equip each trainee to assume higher level administrative
and managerial type assignments.

     In addition, interns will participate in other appropriate elements
of related training such as periodic seminars, selected after-hour
academic courses at local colleges and universities, in-service courses
(technical and nontechnical), and any interagency courses as available.
The length of the program may vary from one year to 18 months depending
on the types of assignments in each of the above-mentioned areas.
Assignments may include tours of duty at the regional and field activity
level as well as at headquarters.
                                        ,tr*.              /ff*s-
Training grants administration;  FI 1967? $116,000; FY 1968? $116,000;
no change.


     Generally, the objective is to effectively and efficiently administer
the training grant programs,i.e., fellowships and'training grants. In this
connection it performs the following:

     (a)  Assists applicants in the development of grant proposals;
     (b)  Receives and reviews completed grant applications;
     (c)  Recommends approved applications for award;
     (d)  Authorizes payment of funds;
     (e)  Develops and applies policies and regulations;
     (f)  Evaluates progress and terminal reports;
     (g)  Provides statistical and scientific reports on grant programs;
     (h)  Develops information on the status of training for program
     (i)  Maintains liaison with the scientific community to coordinate
training grant programs.

                              Program _of Work

     In addition to performing the functions mentioned under Objective
for 165 grants, program administration will be expanded in the following

     (a)  Efew program initiation.  In 1968 a new program of technical
training grants will be developed providing for 7 new technical training
projects.  Awards will primarily be made for projects which are designed
to substantially increase the nation's resource of trained manpower to
support rapidly expanding developments in waste water treatment and water
quality management.
     (b)  Program development.  Potential grantees will be visited to
stimulate project development in the areas of primary importance to the
     (c)  Program review.  Active projects will be reviewed or visited by
program staff to develop information on training accompliehments not
available through progress or terminal reports.


     In 1966, the graduate training grant and research fellowship
program provided specialized water pollution control training for
522 graduate students,  lk-2. trainees and fellows completed advanced
courses of study.  Of those completing advanced degrees, 60$ received
the M. S. degree while 40$ of the advanced degrees were at the Ph.D.

     In 1967 > the program expects about the same level of activity as
was experienced in 1966.

Management internship :   FY 196?, -0-; FY 1968? $57,000;  Increase,/! $57,000.
The increase consists of:

          $575000 for a new training program.

                              Heed for Increase

     An increase of $57jOOO and 10 positions is proposed  to establish
a management internship program.  New legislation not only demands  an
acceleration of program activities of the Administration, but also  a
major change in program concept in several major areas such as compre-
hensive planning, grants management, program planning and budgeting.
These conceptual changes have created a requirement for additional
administrative or managerial personnel with academic backgrounds in
such areas as economics, business administration or mathematics, to
provide appropriate staffing to respond to the program changes.  In
addition, the continual shortage of professional personnel requires
a restructuring of positions to get full utilization of scientists  and
engineers in the professional aspects of their work and delegate
administrative and managerial responsibilities to nonprofessional staff
to the extent possible.   To assist in meeting the increased demand  for
competent, high-level administrative and managerial personnel, also
difficult to recruit, it is proposed to introduce  young  staff members who
have demonstrated a high potential for professional growth to the Admin-
istration's operations and train them to assume higher level assignments.


     To bring into the Administration on a regular, planned basis,  a
number of young staff members who have been selected through a sound
evaluation process and identified as showing high potential for growth
and development in the managerial and administrative fields.

     The Management Intern program will facilitate the impact of management
trainees into the Administration on a systematic basis.  The program will
provide for a planned base of work experience and supplemental training
designed to provide an accelerated and balanced training  and development
program to prepare the selected interns for increasing responsibilities
in the management field.

                              Program of Work

     Participants in the program will be selected from the management
intern registers compiled as a result of.the Federal Service Entrance
Examination.  Others could be appointed if they are carefully screened
to assure that their abilities and potential match the high standards
established in the Civil Service Commission's management  intern examination.

Economic and

                                                        -u /  •
Economic and manpower evaluation:  FY 1967, -0-; FY 1968^ $^00,000;
Increase,* $1+00,000.The total increase consists of:
        + t'i- |3"S .
     Funding necessary to carry out studies required by the Clean  Water
     Restoration Act of 1966.

                              Heed for Increase

     The Act provides for five basic studies for which reports must be
submitted to Congress.  These are as follows:

     1.  A detailed estimate of the cost of carrying out the provisions
of the Act over the next five years.

     2.  A comprehensive study of the economic impact on affected units
of government  of cost of installation of treatment facilities.

     3.  A comprehensive analysis of the national requirements for and
the cost  of treating municipal, industrial and other effluent to attain
such water quality standards as established by this Act or applicable
State laws. (Reports on these first three studies due to Congress no later
than January 10, 1968.)

     k.  A study to determine need for additional trained State and
local personnel to carry out programs assisted by this Act and means of
using existing Federal training programs to train such personnel.
(Report due to the President and Congress no later than July 1, 196?.)

     5.  An investigation and study of methods of "incentives" to assist
industry  in the construction of waste  treatment facilities and other
works to  abate pollution.  (Report due to Congress not later than
January 30? 1968.

     Generally, studies 1 and h will be carried out with existing resources.
However,  the other three studies aa* more complex, and require the need
of special competencies and more extensive cooperation on the part of other
Federal,  State and local agencies and organizations.  Therefore, $!+00,000
is requested to finance 12 positions, consultants, .and costs of acquiring
the assistance of other agencies and organizations.  In view of the short
period of time involved in meeting the reporting dates in 1967> some
activity  in these areas will also be initiated with existing resources.


     As required by Sections 16 and 18 of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act, as amended, provide Congress with the basis for evaluating
authorized programs, development of new programs, and the  information
necessary for  authorizing appropriations beginning with fiscal year 1969?
report  on additional training need and use of existing Federal training
programs, and  recommendation for providing incentives to industry to
reduce  or abate pollution by industry.

                              Program of Work

     The detailed estimate costs study (Study l) will be made by utilizing
the agency's programming, planning and budgeting activities, in addition to
other existing resources, throughout the organization.  The study will be
designed not only to encompass Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
needs but also those of State and interstate agencies and other planning
agencies for carrying out the provisions of the Act.  The studies of the
need for additional training of State and local personnel and use of existing
Federal training programs (Study h) will be conducted in cooperation with
all agencies concerned and reports submitted to Congress by July 1, 196? •

     The studies regarding economic impact on affected units of government
of the cost of installing treatment facilities (Study 2) and the national
requirements for and the cost of treating municipal, industrial, and other
effluents to attain the established water quality standards (Study 3)
must be finished and a report and recommendations made to the Congress
by January 10, 1968.  Studies 1, 2, and 3 will cover the five-year period
beginning July 1, 1968.

     Study 2 will determine the amount of the funds required by State
and local governments to meet their share of the costs of waste treatment
and how these funds will be raised.  Also, it will estimate the effect on
tax levels, debt limits, interest rates, borrowing policy, user charges,
and other public facility programs.  An important aspect will be to reveal
whether State and local laws and regulations impede the financing prospects
or affect interest rates.

     Study 3 will involve analyzing existing estimates of total costs of
treatment facilities to determine their basis and validity.  A new estimate
will be prepared, taking into account obsolescence rates, upgrading of
treatment, extension of service to new areas and to industry, and improvement
in process and performance in light of new standards and water quality goals.

     During 196? and 1968, an appraisal of present practices of financing
treatment works will be completed, including determination of the extent
of borrowing, the use of service charges, property taxes, and other means.
The extent of industrial waste treatment in municipal systems and the
pricing methods and amounts of revenue obtained from this source also
will be determined.

     Estimates of the investments required for other public  facilities to
be financed by the same governments will be obtained from the Joint Economic
Committee of the Congress, the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental
Relations, and the National Planning Association to evaluate the competition
for funds and the probable effect.  An evaluation also will be made of the
probable effect on local business taxes and service charges to estimate the
reaction of business firms to the cost burdens.

     These data and other information will be analyzed and conclusions
drawn.  The final report with recommendations will be prepared for
transmittal to the Congress.

     Study 5 requires an investigation and study of "incentives" to assist
industry in the construction of waste treatment facilities and other works
to abate pollution.  The study must cover tax incentives as well as other
forms of financial aid.  The Secretary of the Treasury and other appro-
priate agencies must be consulted.

     An analysis will be made of the extent to which industry took advantage
of tax credits and the accelerated depreciation now provided in present tax
law.  This analysis will examine the situation for treatment facilities
both for the suspension period and for the time prior to the suspension

     An analysis of State experience under their laws will also be made.

     An advisory group of consultants will be established for the major
industry categories of heavy polluters and specific questions formulated
for study by the consultants.

     An estimate of the number and geographic location of "marginal"
manufacturing plants from the economic and market standpoint will be
made in regard to waste treatment financing problems.  The estimate will
include the kind of problem, the size of the operation, the location by
State and basin, and the relation to market and the nature of the
"marginal" condition.  The Department of Commerce and the Treasury
Department will be especially involved.

     Comparisons will be made as to the probable levels of waste treatment
investments by industrial sector and by size and age of manufacturing
plant and the level of capitalization.  These comparisons will also be
made with other capital costs and expenditures, including plant expansion
and advertising.  Probable effects on prices and profits will be estimated.

     Rates of technological change.in production processes in the heavy
polluting industry categories will be estimated by size of plan and scale
of investment and rate of" profit and percent of market.

     Extent and rate of plant relocation among heavy polluters will be
estimated and the increase in plant size and concentration in existing
areas will also be determined.  These estimates, as well as estimated
technological change, will be made in con-junction with the Department of
Commerce and industry consultants.

     Particularly difficult industrial waste treatment, problems will be
identified by industrial sector and geographic area and the costs of
treatment and possibility of research gains will be estimated.

     These data and findings will be analyzed and conclusions and
recommendations drawn and a report transmitted to the Congress
 by January 1Q,  1968.


Control of pollution from Federal installations;  FY 1967? $680,000;
FX 1968,^ $750, 000; Increase>$70,000.  The increase consists of:
     (l)  An increase of $85,000 for positions authorized to be filled
          in 1967 for a total program of $750,000.

     (2)  A decrease of $15,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs.


     Executive Order 11288 requires that Federal departments, agencies,
and establishments, through prevention, control, and abatement of
water pollution from their activities, shall provide leadership in the
nationwide effort to improve water quality that is the stated purpose
of the Water Pollution Control Act (33 U,S»C. 466).  The Order places
heavy  responsibilities upon the Department for ensuring that its objectives
are met and for providing the necessary technical assistance to Federal
agencies in developing adequate methods and facilities for treating
wastes from their activities that are hazardous to health or substantially
harmful to domestic animals, fish, shellfish, or wildlife.

     The Order requires positive action of each department, agency,
and establishment, and further requires their cooperation with the
Secretary of the Interior and with State and interstate agencies and
municipalities in preventing and controlling water pollution.  Construction
and operating plans for waste treatment facilities must take into account
water quality standards established under the Water Pollution Control Act.

     The Department has direct responsibilities in the following
specific areas i

     (l)  Hew and existing facilities and buildings;  Consult in the
development of plans for measures to prevent or abate water pollution;
review essential features of proposed control and treatment measures and
advise on their adequacy and effectiveness; inspect existing treatment
facilities for adequacy.

     (2)  Federal water resources projects;  Review plans for Federal
water resources development projects.  Within 90 days of submission
of each plan, the department is directed to prepare a report of its
potential impact on water quality', including any changes considered
necessary in the design, construction, and operation of the projects.

     ( 3 )  Facilities or operations supported by Federal loans, grants
or contracts;  Provide technical assistance to Federal agencies in the
required review of their loan, grant, or contract practices to determine
the  extent to which water pollution control standards 5 similar to those
set  forth in the Order for direct Federal operations , should be adhered
to by borrowers, grantees, or contractors.

     (1)-)  Pollution from vessel operations;  Recommend appropriate
water pollution control measures for corrective action and implement
the resulting requirements in the operation of Federally-owned vessels.

                            Program of Work

     During 1968, as other departments, agencies, and establishments
make increasing use of the assistance provided by the Department,
large volumes of work are anticipated in the following major areas:

     (l)  Advise Federal agencies on water pollution control standards
and water pollution control needs, effective plant operation and
maintenance, laboratory analyses, and recordkeeping;

     (2)  Provide information on water pollution control needs in the
initial stages of planning for new installations or projects, review
and advise on essential features of control and treatment measures
proposed for new and existing facilities and projects, and inspect
existing treatment facilities for adequacy;

     (3)  Review plans submitted by other agencies for proposed water
resource development projects and report the potential impact of such
projects on water quality, including recommended changes where
deemed necessary;
          Maintain an updated comprehensive study of the problem of
water pollution within the United States caused by the operation of
vessels,  recommend  appropriate  preventive  or  corrective  action,
and implement resulting requirements in the operation of Federally-
owned vessels; '

     (5)  Provide technical assistance to other Federal agencies in
determining the extent of water pollution control standards to be
applicable to those activities in the United States which are supported
by Federal loans, grants, or contracts; encourage and assist agencies
in prescribing, by regulations, loan, grant, and contract practices
designed  to reduce water pollution, and review the results accomplished
thereunder and recommend appropriate preventive or corrective action;

     (6)  Organize, coordinate, and conduct periodic inspections of
Federal installations;

     (7)  Advise agencies on the preparation and submission of annual
progress  reports, coordinate and review such reports, and prepare
such other periodic reports as from time to time may be needed;

     (8)  Establish, as needed, additional guidelines to supplement
those parts of the already approved general guidelines which may need
clarification; and

     (9)  Establish a systematic and continuing evaluation of activities
and resources to ensure maximum effectiveness in providing assistance
to other agencies, enforcement of required standards with respect to
Federal activities, and the reduction,to the lowest possible level and
at the earliest possible date,of pollution caused by Federal operations
and activities.

                            Ac complishments

     During 1966 and 19&7; the program reviewed and evaluated plans
from sixteen agencies for improvements needed to prevent or abate
water pollution from new or existing buildings and facilities under
their control.  In accord with prior agreements, there was forwarded
to the Bureau of the Budget, on September J} 19^6, an evaluation and
recommendation for approval of those projects with highest priorities.
Valuable assistance and recommendations were furnished during consul-
tations in preliminary and early planning stages of many other projects.

     When complete reports have been received for FY 19^7 > it is
estimated that the Department will have reviewed the adequacy of existing
waste treatment procedures and facilities at more than IjlOP. Federal
installations.  A considerable proportion of these reviews involved
on-site inspection of treatment methods.  Related conferences with
responsible officials permitted the Department to establish lines of
communication with other agencies that will facilitate the cooperation
and coordination that is required under both the Executive Order and
the Water Pollution Control Act,

     Although the review of water resource development projects, which
is required under Executive Order 11288, is not a fully developed
program, there was considerable coordination between the Department
and agenpies initiating these projects.  Much of this cooperative effort
took place during the initial development stages of project planning.
Participation was reported in 110 projects,

     As required by the Executive Order, the heads of Federal agencies
conducted a review of loan, grant, or contract practices to determine
the extent water pollution standards,similar to those required for
direct Federal operations,could be applied to borrowers, grantees,
and contractors.  These reports are now being evaluated.  While some
technical assistance has been provided other agencies, this program is only
partially developed and is expected to be a major activity during 1968.

     A comprehensive report on water pollution caused by vessels in
the United States required under the Executive Order, was completed
and submitted.  This study,with its recommendations for preventive or
corrective action, is expected to provide a basis for meeting the
requirement of the  Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966  that a report
be submitted to the Congress by July  1, 1967.

     Guidelines to assist Federal agencies to accomplish their responsi-
bilities under the Executive Order are nearing completion.    These
guidelines establish uniform procedures that will govern the joint
efforts of this Department and other Federal agencies in meeting the
requirements of the Order.

     Reports and informational materials were supplied the Natural
Resources and Power Subcommittee of the Committee on Government

            Research and development
                                                 Analysis by Activities
Program direction	»... 3 3  $266,283

Direct and contractual research	 .v " 5,245,721

Grants and contracts management	,... v» /

Unobligated balance lapsing	

     Total	".	.". : 6,573,056
FY 1966
FY 1967
/, • $564,000
,-M 8,543,000.
£f 574,000
» 9 •
FY 1968
/".-•- Estimate
fa $777,000
Iti 16,453,000 ,
?# 705,000
» * *
Increase (+)
Decrease ( - )
Over 1967
y^j" +$213,000
- //I +7,910,000
^/^ +131,000
• « *
                                                                                     17,935,000    ^^+8,254,000

Research and development


     The solution for water pollution problems will require the
application of existing techniques plus the development of new and
improved techniques through research.  Research  and development
activities generally go through a series of steps ranging from explora-
tory experiments through laboratory research, field evaluation, and
demonstration.  In the past, efforts have been mainly in laboratory
research and there has been a recognized deficiency in the application
of research findings.  The application of research findings requires
that someone undertake the construction and operation of new type
facilities which are often very expensive and which is associated with a
greater risk of failure than with processes which are already proven
in practice.  The construction of remedial facilities, in water
pollution control, is the responsibility, to a considerable extent,
of local authorities who may have limited financial resources.  Often
these authorities feel that they cannot afford the risk associated with
trying new methods.  It may very well be in the best public interest
for the Federal Government to design, construct, and operate full-
scale facilities to develop and demonstrate new ways of pollution
control.  Such facilities could be built in cooperation with existing
or new municipal installations or at Federal installations.  Examples
of full scale projects which may have to be built to assure an effec-
tive water pollution control program are:

     (l)  Latest techniques of waste treatment.

     (2)  Methods to control nitrates and phosphates and other nutrients
which cause fertilization of lakes resulting in objectionable algae
growths; also included are procedures for removing these nutrients from
lakes and streams.

     (3)  Methods for handling, conditioning, treatment and disposal of
impurities removed from waste systems.

     (k)  Systems for waste water'purification and reuse including
ground water recharge.

     (5)  New processes for industrial waste treatment and control to
serve as models to industry and State regulatory authorities on how
pollution can be reduced and controlled in an economical manner.

     (6)  In-stream treatment methods.

     (7)  New instruments for surveillance and operational control.

     (8)  Methods for control of pollution from combined and storm sewers.

     (9)  A total waste management program in a model river basin includ-
ing construction of needed facilities.

    (10)  Methods for water conservation.

    (ll)  Control of irrigation return flows and acid mine drainage.

    (12)  Methods for joint treatment of municipal and industrial wastes.

     The described program of work will require major increases in
funding to permit the initiation of such projects by grants on a matching
fund basis, and by contracts.  It is necessary that the most competent
talent is made available in order to carry out research and development
programs effectively.  As was pointed out in the report "Steps Toward
Clean Water" to the Committee on Public Works, United States Senate,
January 1966:

          "It further appears eminently appropriate and desirable
     that the competencies and expertise of private industry be
     enlisted in these important research areas.  To this end, the
     Subcommittee believes the Secretary should make broader use
     of the contract and grant authorities provided in this Act."
                           ,s. ? /»*"              $& fe?.               v '' '.  '
Program direction;  PY 196?,A $56^,000; PY 1968/ $777,000; Increase/i
$213,000.The increase consistfof:

     (l)  An increase of $228,000 to strengthen and accelerate planning
          and direction of all research and development activities for
          a total program of $777,000,

          A decrease of $15,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs.

                            Need for Increase

     Twenty-five positions and $138,000 are requested for program
direction including the Office of the Assistant Commissioner for
Research and Development, the Division of Research, and the Division
of Engineering Development to effectively plan, direct, maintain the
proper balance between, and evaluate the expanded grant, in-house and
contract research and development attack on the national problem of
water pollution.

     Over 650 scientists, engineers and supporting staff are to be
located at laboratory and field facilities.  Every effort is made to
maintain the highest degree of technical and administrative competence.
Adequate program direction is required to:

     (l)  Assure intra and inter/program development and coordination.

     (2)  Make effective use of senior scientific and program competence „

     (3)  Interagency coordination of research and development efforts.

     (if)  Review of field activities.

     An additional $$0,000 is requested for positions authorized to be
filled in 1967.
Direct and contractual research:  FY 196?^ $8,5^3,000; FY ±968 /" $16,453,000;
Increase^/$7,910,000o  The increase consists of:
     (l)  An increase of $2,087,000 to accelerate laboratory and field
          research activities for a total program of $8,853,000.

     (2)  A total of $7,600,000 for research contractual activity
          representing total effort proposed for 1968 for this purpose.

     (3)  A decrease of $177 5 000 for nonrecurring equipment cost,,

     (k)  A decrease of $1,600,000 for nonrecurring research contractual
                            Need for ' Increase
Laboratory activity
         positions and $551jOOO sxe requested to accelerate laboratory
research and development effort in three areas:  waste treatment technology,
water quality requirements and water pollution control technology being
conducted at the water pollution control and water quality standards

     This request will provide for the full complement of research   /J    « -
staff in the new laboratories and .additional resources for Cincinriati,
Ohio.  The new facilities are as follows:

                           Athens , Georgia     „? /
                           Ada, Oklahoma       ,? 5       ,7 ^ , ,
                           Corvallis , Oregon   ^ 0      -/ 1
                           College, Alaska
                           Duluth, Minnesota

     All but one of these facilities have already been constructed and
are operational.  The laboratory at Duluth, Minnesota -is now under
construction and is expected to be completed before the end of fiscal
year 1967.

Field activity

     Directly related to the above accelerated laboratory research and
development effort is the capability to investigate, evaluate, and
experimentally apply treatment and control technology in field pilot
plants, evaluation plants, and prototype facilities at such locations
as Pomona, California; Lebanon, Ohio; Ely, Minnesota, and the upper
Potomac estuary.  To carry out these essential field activities dealing
with the source and fate of pollutants, the effects of pollution, in-
stream or in-lake pollution control techniques, pollution control at
the source, and control and treatment of municipal, industrial and    VA/--
agricultural wastes, will require 62 positions and $803 jQJDOJLnc lading  / '-,'
$500,000 for mobile pilot plants, sampling equipment, and control*     ••  '
application equipment (e.g., chemical feeders, controllers, tanks,    -
mixers, and aerators, necessary instrumentation including versatile *
mobile laboratories).  It is anticipated that these funds will support
10 projects in this area.                                             '

     An additional $733>QOO is requested for positions authorized to'
be filled in 196? in these areas.                                   Cr  .

Contractual activity

     The total of $7,600,000 is proposed to sustain contracts of a
research and development nature.  These contracts require the application
of highly specialized personnel and equipment and facilities having a
high value over a short period of time, but of limited value as a long-
time, capital investment.  The contract mechanism will be used for
laboratory investigations and pilot-scale research projects which
involve a large degree of uncertainty and which are primarily aimed
at determination of feasibility.  The latter are not the type of pro-
jects that municipalities and private corporations will readily sponsor
with matching funds under the grant procedure due to the large degree
of risk as to future self-benefits.  In addition, there are research
and development areas such as eutrophication control, control of rural
run-off, boat pollution, etc.,(those not eligible for funding under -
Sec. 6(b_)) that will receive support with these funds.

     The utilization of contracts in the above areas will greatly
facilitate the realization of our program objectives through a supple-
mentation of our already extended in-house research undertaking and
will provide the necessary ingredients to deal effectively with the
critical time factor.  The research and development contracting
mechanism enables us to utilize the best professional skills in the
entire scientific and engineering community to accomplish our research
and development objectives within the time frame imposed upon us.

       and. ff f^SS^SSA&JSPSiSSSSSSS& *  ^ 1967s1 $57^,000; P]T 1968^ $705, 000 3
                                  consists of j
     (l)  An increase of $1^2,000 to provide for an increased workload
          in the research and development grant and contracts program
          for a total program of $705,000,

     (2)  A decrease of $11,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs,

                             Heed, for Increase

     The ma^or research and development activities of FWPCA are carried
out through grant and contract mechanisms.  The accelerated attack by
means of grants and contracts on the national problem of water pollution
resulting from the Clean Water.  Restoration Act of 1966 will require
an additional 15 positions and $62,000 for grants and contracts management
and administration.  It is essential in this area not only to process,
review and award grants and contracts, but also to technically monitor
each project and to assess progress and accomplishments.  Approximately
50-60 new contracts and 50 new grants will be awarded,  The requested
increase in positions will be adequate to meet this contemplated rise in
the number of grants and contracts.  An additional $80,000 is requested
for positions authorized to be filled in 1967,

     While there remains much to "be accomplished in defining and charac-
terizing the problems of pollution, it is the prime objective of the
program to solve water pollution problems.  Priorities must be adjusted
so that the more critical problems receive prompt and effective research
attention.  Many sources of pollution already have been identified
including:  municipal and industrial wastes including thermal pollution;
combined sewer overflows, storm sewer flows, wastes from boats and ships,
household, or isolated small systems; non-sewered run-off j animal feedlot
and drainage wastes; agricultural run-off and irrigation return flows,;
water pollution resulting from acid mine drainage, mining, petroleum
and gas exploitation, construction projects and forest management;
quality changes in impoundments; accelerated and natural nutrient
additions; rainout and fallout; and natural pollution and salt water
intrusion.  These sources of pollution take on increasingly menacing
proportions when viewed against the unprecedented population and
industrial growth and concentration, revolutionary new manufacturing
and processing technologies, and changing land uses.  A more concerted
effort for solving problems must be carried out.  More coordination and
program control must be executed in dealing with pollution problems
without throttling the initiative and creativity of the researchers.

     The capability of our scientific and engineering technology, as
applied to both existing and emerging pollution problems  must be expanded
rapidly if the line is to be held in preventing further pollution and if
this Nation is to move ahead in pollution control.

     At present, in-house research efforts are conducted in temporary
facilities at Duluth, Minnesota, and Narragansett, Rhode Island, and
at operational regional water pollution control laboratories in Ada,
Oklahomaj Athens, Georgiaj College, Alaska,* Corvallis, Oregon, and at
Cincinnati, Ohio.  In this fiscal year, a new emphasis will be placed
on research and development work at various field sites and pilot
plants or facilities outside the laboratories.  Each laboratory
is being developed as a focal point for a designated research effort.
Such centralization of research effort in staffing and specialized
facilities promotes more effective utilization of senior research
personnel and a higher degree of competence and productivity.  Where
possible, areas of research requiring similar skills and equipment
are grouped in the same laboratory.

     Congress has recognized the need for a substantially increased
effort and they have authorized and appropriated funds to construct
research facilities.  It is estimated that to achieve our program
objective—the solution of identified pollution problems—an orderly
expansion in 1968 and a continuing offensive against emerging and
highly complex yet-to-be defined problems must be achieved through
an increase in program direction and in-house research staffing.

     1968 represents the most significant year in the research and
development program for water pollution control.  Full recognition has
been made of the necessity to accelerate both the research and development
aspects and application of new processes, devices, and methodologies to
the actual solution of water pollution problems by means of pilot plants,
field evaluations, and demonstration plants.  The existing plans for the
research and development program have called for an engineering evaluation
and demonstration approach within the total framework of research and
development activities.  Legislative restrictions have previously
prevented full implementation of this activity.  Hew legislation (the
Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966) amending the Water Pollution Control
Act removed some of this restriction illustrating Congressional recognition
of immediate program implementation.  Legislative authority for this key
segment of the research and development activity is to be found in Section
5 and Section 6 of Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended.

     The in-house research activity is authorized within the framework
of Section 5 of the Act and is implemented through the programs con-
ducted at the regional water laboratories, the national water quality
research laboratories at Duluth and Narragansett, and a number of
pilot plant sites around the country.

     General contract authority is provided in Section 5 of the Act
with private and public agenices.  Research grants and research and
development grants to public and private agenices are authorized under
Section 5 and Section 6,  Grants in Section 6 are limited to advanced
waste treatment and joint treatment of municipal and industrial wastes,
storm and combined sewers, and industrial waste treatment and control.
They have limitations with respect to type of grantees, maximum dollar
amounts and matching fund provisions.

     The research and development effort conducted within the scope
of the authorization provided for in Section 5 will provide the
framework upon which the program of Section 6 is to be built.  The
laboratory and pilot-scale preliminary research and development
activity prerequisite to the large-scale testing and full-scale
field evaluation and demonstration under Section 6 is to be conducted
under Section 5-  The research carried out under Section 5 will,
therefore, complement and be a necessary adjunct to the work conducted
under Section 6.

                             Program, of Work

     The utilization of research contracts and grants on specific
problems to supplement our in-house research effort greatly facilitates
accomplishment of program objectives within the critical time factor
facing water pollution research and enables us to acquire professional
research services not as readily available through direct employment.
Specifically, the new -legislative authority provides for a cooperative
effort of unprecedented magnitude between the Federal water pollution
control program in research and development and the efforts of the
other public and private agencies of the national research establish-
ment including universities, governmental and other public bodies,
industries, and individuals.  The program of work for 1968 has been
designed to utilize the potential benefits of cooperative research
to the fullest extent.

     The program of work for 1968 is set forth under the following

     (l)  Waste treatment technology,

     (2)  Water quality requirements, and

     (3)  Water pollution control technology..

Waste treatment technology

     Research will "be conducted to improve existing methods and develop
new methods for effective removal of pollutants.  Through research on
the operations and processes of treatment}more economical design and
operation of treatment facilities will result.

     Research on advanced waste treatment is a special aspect of this
overall problem.  A major goal of this research effort is to develop
and demonstrate practical means for treating waste waters to remove
the maximum possible amounts of pollutants to permit repeated reuse.
of the Nation's waters.

     The program is concerned with the development of technology for
the separation of a variety of contaminants from water and disposal
of these contaminants in ways that will not degrade water quality.
The techniques which are showing promise include adsorption, electro-
dialysis, coagulation and sedimentation, chemical precipitation,
reverse osmosis, and various "biological treatment systems for removal
of nutrients, etc.

     Some of these processes are already approaching the stage where
they must be subjected to field evaluation.  They must be tested and
demonstrated at full scale in actual practice in order to provide
the operational and economic data necessary to ensure that the pro-
cesses may be used with a high degree of reliability and assurance.
Cooperative field studies also are underway and more are planned to
develop these same treatment techniques for the renovation of waste
waters for reuse.

     The Committee on Water Resources Research, Federal Council for
Science and Technology, has listed the area of waste treatment research
as having top priority in terms of water pollution research to meet
national needs.  The success of the national program in water pollution
control depends to a large measure on the success of the advanced waste
treatment research program.

     The 1968 program goals further provide for an increased effort
in the area of treatment of industrial wastes and the necessary
research and development to provide for compatible or joint municipal-
industrial waste treatment facilities.

     The contaminants removed from waste waters cannot "be disposed
of by discharge into surface streams or underground aquifers since
this approach yields no alleviation of water pollution problems.
Means for the permanent (nonpollutional) disposal of separated water
contaminants, i.e., treatment process sludges, residues and concen-
trates, must "be developed simultaneously and in conjunction with new
and improved waste treatment processes.

     Four general categories of disposal methods exist:  (a) conver-
sion to innocuous form;  e.g., incineration, wet oxidation (destruction
of organic compounds fay exposure to high temperature and pressure),
or "biological degradation (consumption of concentrated waste materials
by bacteria or algae);  (b) dumping the concentrates into designated
waste reservoirs (e.g., specially constructed and sealed basins,
natural waste sinks such as certain desert areas, or even remote areas
of the oceans);  (c) injection into very deep underground formations
or either natural or artificial cavities in the earth;  (d) recovery
for beneficial reuse.  Combinations of these four methods will often
provide the optimum solution to a specific disposal problem.  One
very promising combination approach now under development involves
anaerobic digestion (conversion to innocuous form), spreading on
disturbed land such as abandoned strip mines (dumping), and use of
the material to fertilize, condition, and restore soil values and,
in turn, to prevent pollution from silt and acid mine drainage
(beneficial use).

     Included in this category is the development of the most effec-
tive and economical disposal processes to meet a whole range of disposal
requirements.  The development and improvement of sludge handling,
conditioning, and preconcentration techniques are also included.

¥ater quality requirements

     New wastes, particularly synthetic chemicals, are being discharged
into waters where they appear as discrete pollutants,either singly or
in combination.  Many are extremely persistent and stable in water and
resist removal by conventional water and waste treatment methods.  Some
cause obnoxious tastes and odors in drinking water; others are toxic
to fish and aquatic life or taint fish flesh; and far too little is
known of their toxic effect on humans.

     Typical of the studies to be carried out are those designed to
determine (a) the effects of pollutants on fish and other aquatic
life;  (b) effects of treated wastes on quality of streams, lakes,
and ground waters;  (c) eutrophication, and (d) water quality require-
ments for such uses as industrial, agricultural, municipal and recrea-
tional supplies.

     The water quality standards provision of the 1965 amendments
to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act adds particular import-
ance to this category of research.  Findings of the national water
quality laboratories at Duluth and Narragansett will provide the
scientific information used in the establishment, review, and
improvement of water quality standards.  For^this reason, advanced
staffing has "been authorized for the National Marine Water Quality
Laboratory at Marragansett, Rhode Island. The staff is housed in
leased facilities.

Water pollution control technology

     There are two broad categories of waste discharges.  One can "be
collected and conveyed to a central place (municipal sewage, urban
storm drainage, and most industrial wastes).  The other cannot "be
collected and conveyed to a central place and,, therefore, must "be
controlled "by techniques other than waste treatment.  Methods for
elimination of wastes at their source or other nontreatment methods
for water quality control must be developed for acid mine drainage,
natural' and oil field brines, pollution from land drainage, etc.  The
Federal Council for Science and Technology, Committee on Water Resources
Research, has identified "Causes and Effects of Water Pollution from
Rural Lands" as a priority research item.

     In an attempt to apply new technology to the solution  of the
problem of accelerated  eutrophication, two pilot projects have been

     Large quantities of impurities are discharged into streams and
lakes through runoff from street washings and flushing of creek beds
during rainstorms and immediately thereafter.  Many cities have combined
sewer systems which simultaneously carry this storm runoff and both
domestic sewage and industrial wastes.  Methods must be developed to
prevent pollution from storm and combined sewer discharges.  Research
in hydraulics and feasibility investigations of a variety of proposed
engineering solutions are being conducted.

     The control of pollution contributions from industrial sources
will be investigated in terms of process and plant operation  modifi-
cations .

     Where pollution control by treatment or elimination at the source
is not practicable and in the case of.drainage from urban and agri-
cultural land surfaces for which control may not be feasible, because
of the impracticability of collecting the waste, protection of the

water resource may "be accomplished by providing additional dilution
water; that is, control is achieved "by" regulating stream flow with pre-
viously impounded water to reduce the concentration of pollutants to
tolerable levels.  The influence of impoundments on water quality must
"be determined.  Biological transformations of nitrogen, the effects
of photosynthesis on the dissolved oxygen resources, the rate of iron
and manganese "buildup and thermal stratification are included in the
factors which must "be studied.

     Conservation of water in domestic and industrial use can "be an
important means toward water pollution control and as such, research
will "begin on development of new techniques and devices for recycle
and reuse of water and for reducing volume requirements for industrial
and domestic water uses "by process, equipment, or appliance changes.
These research and development programs must "be continued and expanded
in order to determine practical solutions and engineering feasibility
data for application throughout the Nation,

     Bacic to a successful research program is the development of
methodology for sampling, concentrating, identifying, measuring and
monitoring physical, chemical and "biological substances present in
waters and wastes.  Present methodology for sensing the presence and
measuring quantities of significant pollutants remains inadequate.
By necessity, a program to develop and apply analytical methods to
adequately assess water pollution problems, determine the origin of
pollutants, predetermine chronic toxic effects and methods for assessing
the pollution potential and removability of pollutants must "be a con-
tinuous effort for a water pollution research program.  Chemicals
must "be measured in concentrations of parts per "billion or less.  Im-
proved quantitative measurement of viral and "bacterial organisms will
permit more effective surveillance of water quality to prevent the
spread of infectious diseases from pollution sources.  Rapid and
improved methods for detection and measurement of pollution from
human and animal wastes must "be developed.  Efforts will continue on
the development and application of new techniques for the detection
and measurement of pesticides, herbicides, and other new synthetic
contaminants and for the differentiation of man-made wastes from
natural contaminants that occur in streams.  Methods are needed to
measure the pollutional characteristics of new wastes where traditional
parameters no longer apply—methods which will accurately measure the
effects of new pollutants on water quality and suitability for use.
Methods are needed also for some of the older wastes and for natural
pollutants, the pollutional effects of which have not been fully

     The sources and fate of pollutants -must be determined.   There are
four major objectives to this aspect of the program.

     (l)  With the development of the necessary scientific methodology,
specific sources and magnitudes of water pollutants must be  established;
for example, rural runoff and storm and combined sewer discharges.

     (2)  The pathways of pollutants from source to stream,  ground water,
lakes, and marine environments must be charted.

     (3)  The fate of pollutants in fresh and marine  water environments,
coastal waters, and soils must be established and their persistence
and degradability measured.
         The mechanics of the dispersal of effluents into surface,  ground,
and coastal waters and soil must be determined as well as the feasibility
of mitigating ' their pollutional effects by proper and controlled disposal.

     In 1968 particular emphasis will be given to pollution from rural
runoff and industrial sources.  The urban runoff problem will also  be
investigated as part of our studies under the storm and combined sewer
program.  ¥e anticipate that our efforts to determine the pathways  of
pollutants --our second program objective above — will be continued at
a constant level.  Work on objectives three and four — the fate of
pollutants in water and soil and the dispersal of effluents, respec-
tively- -will be increased.

     Research emphasis on the control of pollution in cold climate
environments will be significantly increased in 1968 with the additional
staffing proposed for the Alaska Laboratory.

     With the greatly increasing demand for water by municipalities,
industries, agriculture and in recreational pursuits, it has became mandatory
to develop planning techniques and socioeconomic evaluation methods to
permit optimum use and reuse of our water resources.  For a commodity
which is absolutely necessary for the life processes and an essential
raw material in almost every industrial manufacturing operation, the
existing method of cost allocation and pricing of water must be examined and
overhauled:, ' arid new ones developed.  Existing laws and institutions for
regulating the use of water must be reevaluated.  The techniques of systems
analysis are applicable to the problems of water supply, river basin pollu-
tion control, and benefit evaluation, but these techniques must be  extended
and research performed to develop new methodology to incorporate
the vast complexities of the Nation's water resources use characteristics.

     In order to ensure the most effective and efficient conduct of our
research and development program to achieve optimum "water pollution control
and to permit optimum water resource management, Improved methods must be
developed for collecting, evaluating, and processing pertinent water data
and information.



     Research programs at laboratories at Ma, Oklahoma; Corvallis, Oregon;
Athens, Georgia; College, Alaska; Duluth, Minnesota,  and Narragansett,
Rhode Island, were initiated.

Waste treatment technology

     (l)  Powdered carbon adsorption, electrodialysis, solids removal by
coagulation, and precipitation of dissolved nutrients have shown promising

     (2)  Pilot-scale facilities at Washington, D. C. for nutrient
removal and improved suspended solids removal are currently under construction.

     (3)  Removal of phosphates through modification of conventional
biological treatment plants has been identified as being technically feasible.

     (if)  The feasibility of effective and efficient disposal of sludges
from treatment processes on strip mines was indicated by laboratory

     (5)  The conceptual design of facilities and selection of a site for
the full-scale field evaluation of the granular regenerable carbon adsorp-
tion waste treatment process were completed.

Water quality requirements

     (l)  Test procedures for biodegradability of detergents and verification
of biodegradability of new detergents were developed.

     (2)  The cause of certain fish kills through a previously unknown
mechanism has been discovered.

Water •pollution control technology

     (l)  Artificial destratification of impoundments has been demonstrated
on a pilot-scale basis.

     (2)  A chemical method for detecting human and animal wastes was


Waste treatment technology

     (l)  Reverse osmosis pilot facilities will be designed and installed
(in cooperation with the Office of Saline Water) for treatment of irrigation
return flows and acid mine wastes.

     (2)  Pilot facility for phosphate removal by modified biological
treatment will be constructed and operated.

     (3)  Pilot plant investigations of powdered activated carbon
adsorption, electrodialysis, ion exchange, and reverse osmosis will be

     (if)  Nitrogen removal by soil treatment and by biological nitrifieation-
denitrification will be evaluated.

     (5)  Effectiveness of new disinfection methods on waste water
organisms will be determined.

     (6)  Pilot plant for disposal of biological sludges for recovery,
revegetation, and pollution control of strip-mined areas will be installed.

     (7)  The design and construction of a variety of pilot-arid full-scale
advanced waste-treatment facilities for both municipal and industrial wastes
has been  initiated under the new Research and Development Grants authority.

Water quality requirements      ;

     (l)  Additional water quality requirements to help establish
standards for fish and aquatic life in fresh and salt water environments will
be determined,,

     (2)  Research to produce improved, techniques for measuring pollution
effects will be continued.

     (3)  Work will continue on development of a generalized short-term
bioassay test to aid in establishment of water quality standards for
many pollutants,,

     00  Environmental test chambers to demonstrate effects  of
pollution on receiving bodies of water, including ecological  changes
will be constructed.

Water •pollution control technology

     (l)  Pilot field facility for eutrophication control will be

     (2)  Effectiveness of chemical poUyelectrolytes for pollution
control in streams will be studied.

     (3)  Pilot project on artificial reaeration of surface waters as
a water quality control technique will be initiated.

     00  Various industrial waste control methods will be explored.


(c)  Regulation and enforcement
                                        Analysis by Activities
FY 1966

                                                   FT  196?
                                     Available /=,-  Available

Enforcement	^^  $3,132,357 J& $3,799,000

Unobligated balance lapsing	       2kO,6k3	.j.^

     Total	O?/   3,373,000  ,?6|  3,799,000
    FY 1968
-   Estimate

Increase (+)
Decrease (-)
 Over 1967

v?  -$390,000

Regulation and enforcement;  FY 196?,* $3,799,000;  FY 1968 /$ 3, ^09, 000;
Decrease, ^$390, 000.  The decrease consists of:
       + 3
     (l)  An increase of $33^, 000 /if or program direction for a total
          program of $1,783,000.
                                   ~4'& r^ •
     (2)  A net decrease of $713,000/?for major investigatory projects in
          connection with enforcement actions partially or totally
          phasing out leaving a total program of $1,626,000.

     (3)  A decrease of $11,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs for
          program direction.

                              Need for Increase

     $2^3,000 and U6 positions are requested for direction to enable the
program to implement provisions of the Water Quality Act of 1965 and the
Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966.  The provisions of the 1965 Act provide
that water quality standards be established either by State or Federal action.
As Federal standards, they are enforceable by Federal enforcement action.  If
violators of the standards are not abated by State enforcement action, the
Secretary may on his own initiative, in the case of violations with interstate
effects, or on the request of a Governor in the case of violations with only
intrastate effects, request the Attorney General to institute court action.
Prior to such request the Secretary must notify the violator(s) and provide
a period of at least l80 days for voluntary compliance.  In view of the technical
aspects involved in these kinds of actions, special staff competence is necessary
to initiate, process and fully document these cases.  The program must have this
capability to meet any and all such requirements.  The extent to which these
kinds of situations will occur is difficult to predict.                  ,,/ „„,,, }
                                                                .( it !•••*• °f~'"
     The 1966 Act transferred the Administration of the Oil Pollution Control
Act, 192^, from the Secretary of the Army to the Secretary of the Interior.
It also extended the jurisdiction to include all inland navigable waters not
heretofore subject to the provisions of this Act.  Since this is a new
responsibility, the estimate proposes additional resources to enable the
Administration to effectively carry out the provisions of this Act.

     An additional $91,000 is requested for positions authorized to be
filled in 1967.


     Section 10 of the Act provides for Federal enforcement authority and
measures to be applied to restore the maximum number of water uses through
the abatement and control of pollution of interstate or navigable waters,
which endangers the health or welfare of any person, to support and cooperate
with State and interstate agencies in the exercise of their enforcement
authority to abate and control water pollution; and to" enforce the abatement
of violations of water quality standards established for interstate waters.
Encouragement is provided for cooperative aetivitleg by the States relating to
prevention and control of water pollution, including enactment of improved
State laws and compacts between States.


     Federal enforcement jurisdication extends to the abatement of pollution
of Interstate or navigable waters which endangers the health or welfare of
any person, and, as provided in the Water Quality Act of 1965, the abatement
of discharges of wastes in violation of established water quality standards
for interstate waters.  The enforcement authority and procedures are
invoked at State request and, under certain circumstances, on Federal
responsibility and initiative without State request.  Application of the
enforcement authority is accomplished in a specified three-stage procedure;
conference, public hearing, and court action.  Each successive stage is
resorted to only if the previous one has not been effective.  In the
interim periods between the second and third stages, every encouragement
is provided to the States for obtaining compliance under their own

     The initial enforcement procedure—the informal conference between
State and Federal authorities to explore the nature of the pollution
situation, the delays encountered, and to agree, if possible, on
required remedial measures and the schedule for their installation, has
been notably satisfactory.  It should be noted that, out of a total of
forty initiated actions, it has been necessary to advance to the public
hearing stage in only four instances, and only a single ultimate court
action  involving the City of St. Joseph, Missouri.  The forty actions
to date have been taken in as many separate geographic areas.  Forty-
one States and the District of Columbia are parties to these actions.
The actions involve approximately 1,070 municipalities, 1,260 industries,
and will affect some 75000 miles of rivers, plus large areas of lakes
and bays.  Remedial facilities built, under construction, or scheduled
as a result of agreements reached to date, under these actions, will total
about $10.2 billion.

     Water quality standards, established by the States for their
interstate waters in accordance with the Water Quality Act of 1965 or
otherwise Federally promulgated, are Federally enforceable.  Violations
are abatable through direct court action, except that a stipulated 180
days are afforded for obtaining voluntary compliance before actual
initiation of the court action.  It is intended to provide every
encouragement to the State authorities to obtain compliance under their
own measures in this area of enforcement as well as in pollution

     In addition to the enforcement authority under the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act, Section 211 of the Clean Water Restoration Act
of 1966 transferred the administration of the Oil Pollution Control
Act, 192U,from the Secretary of the Army to the Secretary of the
Interior.  It also extended jurisdiction to not only include portions
of the sea within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States
and all inland waters navigable in fact in which the tide ebbs and
flows, but to encompass all inland navigable waters.   An additional
requirement provides that persons discharging or permitting discharge
of oil must remove it or pay costs for its removal.  Violators under
this Act are subject to fine or imprisonment or both.

     In administering this Act, the Secretary may, with the consent
of the Commandant of the Coast Guard and the Secretary of the Army,
make use of their personnel, equipment, organization, and agencies
and of Army Corps of Engineers, Customs, and Coast Guard personnel
in its enforcement, as well as persons under his jurisdiction.

                               Program of Work

     The national commitment to abate, prevent, and control water
pollution and restore the cleanliness of our waters is expressed in
its final sense through the enforcement activity.  In line with
administration and Congressional mandates, the enforcement authorities
provided in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and the Oil
Pollution Control Act will be applied, when applicable,to:

     (l)  abate long-standing pollution situations of a serious nature
which endanger the health or welfare of any person;

     (2)  ensure compliance with established water quality standards
for interstate waters; and

     (3)  control and prevent the dumping or spillage of oil from
boats or vessels.

     It is anticipated that enforcement action will be initiated to
abate pollution of interstate or navigable waters invoked at State
requests or on the basis of reports, studies, or surveys indicating
the need for Federal action.  Compliance with violations of water
quality standards and of the Oil Pollution Control Act will be
enforced, to obtain voluntary compliance, where possible, and through
court action wherever required.  This will be initial experience in
these areas of enforcement.

                               Ac c ompli shment s

     In 1966 three new enforcement actions were instituted to abate
pollution of interstate or navigable waters and additional conference
sessions and meetings of conferees ,were conducted in continuance of
previously initiated enforcement actions.

     Initial conference sessions were held in regard to the pollution
situations of:

     1.  Lake Erie (Michigan-Indiana-Ohio-PennsylYania-Mew York)
The first session of the conference was held August 3-5, 1965, and the
second session was held August 10-11, 1965.  Recommendations for
remedial action were unanimously adopted by the conferees.  A technical
committee was also established to evaluate water quality problems
in Lake Erie.

     2.  Red River of the North (Minnesota-North Dakota)
The conference was held September 28-30, 1965, at Fargo, North Dakota,
and further meetings among the conferees were held January 18 and
March h, 1966.  A program for remedial action was established.

     3.  Hudson River (New York-New Jersey)
The conference was held September 28-30, 1965, in New York City.  The
conferees agreed on a program for remedial action  and a schedule to
put this into effect was established.

     Additional sessions of three conferences initiated prior to
FY 1966 were reconvened.  These conferences concerned the Lower
Columbia River, the Calumet Rivers and southern end of Lake Michigan,
and the South Platte River.

     1.  Lower ColumbiaRiver (Washington-Oregon)
The first session of this conference was held September 10-11, 1958,
and the second session was held September 3-^-s 1959-  All municipal
sewage is now being treated and disinfected, and recommendations for
industrial waste treatment have been issued.  A third session of the
conference was held on September 8-9, 1965.  Recommendations for the
treatment of industrial wastes and a time schedule were unanimously

     2.  Grand Calumet River, Little Calumet River, Wolf Lake, and
         Lake Michigan (Indiana-Illinois)
The first session of the conference was held March 2-9, 1965-  A
schedule for remedial action was established and is being put into
effect with the advice of the technical committee.  A technical
session of the conference was held January k, 1966.  The conferees
met in Executive Session on January 31 and February 1, 1966, and
agreed on water quality criteria and a time schedule for control
of industrial waste discharges.

     3.  South Platte River (Colorado)
The first session of the conference was held October 29, 19^3? at
Denver, Colorado.  A study project was established to investigate
sources of pollution.  A second session of the conference was held
on April 27-28, 1966, where the report of the South Platte River
Enforcement Project was presented to the conferees.  To allow the
newly established Colorado Water Pollution Control Commission
sufficient time to evaluate the Federal report and develop a program
for implementation of remedial measures and a time schedule, the
conferees agreed to the reconvening of the conference at a later date.

     In addition, the conferees to the conferences of Lake Erie
and the Missouri River, Omaha area, held meetings in 1966.  The
meeting of the conferees on Lake Erie was held June 22, 1966; and
a progress evaluation meeting for the Missouri River, Omaha area,
conference was held on March 29, 1966.

     In 1967 to date, three new actions have been instituted by the calling
of conferences.  These conferences concerned the Chattahoochee River
(Georgia-Alabama) held July lU-15, 1966^ Lake Tahoe (California-Nevada)
held July 18-20, 1966; and  Moriches Bay and the eastern section of Great
South Bay (Long Island, Hew York) held September 20-21, 1966.  The conference
on Moriches Bay and the eastern section of Great South Bay was the first to
be held under the shellfish provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act, as amended.

     At both the conferences on the Chattahoochee River and Lake Tahoe,
remedial programs and time schedules were established.  At the conference
on Moriches Bay and the eastern section of Great South Bay, a coordinating
committee was established, on the conferees' recommendation, to develop a
comprehensive, detailed program for remedial action, including time
schedules, to effect a solution to the total water pollution problem in
the conference area.  This conference will be reconvened in six months
to evaluate the report of the coordinating committee and adopt a uniform
plan and time schedule for pollution abatement.

     Ten additional conference sessions of on-going actions will be
scheduled, including four which have entailed enforcement study projects
for which final reports will be completed.

     In some of the areas where enforcement actions are instituted, a
wide range of complex technical issues must be resolved before a schedule
of abatement and control measures can be developed.  Extensive on-site
studies are conducted to develop the information necessary to establish
a sound basis for water quality control programs in such cases, or an
active post surveillance activity to assure that the measures for abating
pollution are installed and are eliminating the pollution problem.  The
number of these situations cannot be predicted.

     Through 1967, major on-site investigations or surveillance activities
as a result of enforcement actions are under way in 11 areas. (See table
on following page.)

     In administering the Oil Pollution Act of 192^, arrangements will
be made with the Coast Guard, Army and Customs regarding their role
under this Act.

                                                Regulation and Enforcement
(dollars in thousands)
Investigatory Projects Resulting from Enforcement Actions
1966 1967 1968
/^s Actual /-i ? Estimate , -,s Estimate

South Platte 	
Twin Cities/Upper Mississippi. ».

. . S? $686
. . 5- "- 259
. . / f 203
. . «JV 210

. . /s 117
..3 ^0
. . AT 208
9 79

,. 's 71
* • •-* • * •
. . ?.-// 2,018
^-'L $681
7 100
^/ 176
AO 150
/ o 89
v? 1*7
/6 150
- • 2,339
/9 $1^58
7 100

         (d )   Construction grants  administration
                                                 Analysis by Activities

                                             FT  1966          FI  1967                           Increase (+)
                                             Amount        ,    Amount         :    KT 1968         Decrease (-)
                                       '"    Available    /".->•:  Available    /   ,  Estimate         Over 1967

         Program direction	,../A7  $1,406,372    /!*' $1,898,000   / ^' $1,884,000        - '   -$14,000

         Unobligated balance lapsing  ,....      122,628        	._,_._        	...       - ~    	,_._._

              Total	//J  1,529,000    /ff  1,898,000    /ff 1,884,000        —    -14,000

             grants ada3.niatration.t  JT 1967,  $1,898,000j  |"X 1968^
            Decrease.,  f 14,000.   The decrease consists of r

     (l)  An increase of $8,000 for positions authorized to be filled
          for 1967 and related coati for a total program of $1,884,000.

     (2)  A decrease of $22,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs,


     The primary responsibilities of this activity are to administer and
evaluate the effectiveness of the waste treatment works construction
grants program under Section 8 of the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act, as amended.

                            Program of Work

     Administration of the program includes reviewing and processing
applications, making grant offers, reviewing plans and specifications,
authorizing bid advertising, reviewing bids and approving award of
contracts, inspecting construction, processing grant payments, conducting
performance audits, and fulfilling collateral responsibilities relating
to programs dealing with prevailing wage, anti-kickback, contract work
hours standards and civil rights requirements.  Effectiveness of the
program is measured through the volume of contract awards, population
served, water quality improvement, reduction in backlog and other factors.

     One of the provisions of the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966
was the removal of grant dollar limitations beginning July 1, 1967.  It
is expected that this will stimulate larger cities to begin construction
of needed sewage treatment facilities and will result in larger, more
complex projects.  While the number of projects which could be supported
from the appropriation could be fewer, these projects will actually
require more staff time for processing and'administration because of their
scope and complexity,

     The 1966 Amendments also provide for reimbursement for the
construction of any treatment works initiated after June 30} 19^6,
in advance of the availability of funds for a grant.  Such projects
must be approved by the Secretary and must comply  with all the provisions
of the Act just as if the project had been approved pursuant to
Section 8 and adequate funds had been available to make a grant.  These
reimbursement projects will increase the work load.

     In addition to the administration of grants under the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act, this program has the added responsibility
of reviewing and certifying all the sewer loans and grants awarded
by the Economic Development Administration and the Department of
Housing and Urban Development.

     The above-mentioned factors, together with the shift of emphasis
to larger, more complex projects, wiH, it is expected, render
meaningless the previous experience with unit required time per
project administered.  She increased grant funds and reimbursement
provisions will, at a minimum, require a staff equivalent to that now


      (e)  Administration
                                                Analysis by Activities
*' s>- s"
Executive direction and coordination.....

FY 1966
2, 35!*, 1*88
FY 1967
, Amount
/V:; Available /-.-
./J $722,000 ^/
/77 1,975,000 ,l¥ff
//^ 817,000 Ad
-'° 388,000 ^
FY 1968
/ 2,659,000
Increase (+)
Decrease (-)
Over 1967
^ // +$1**0,000
,j **
'? 7 J +68U,000
/w€ +368,000
V z +63,000
      Civil Service Retirement

        Fund *........»...*...«.
      Unobligated balance lapsing.
           Total.......................„... X ..    3,715,226


Executive Direction
 and Coordination

Executive direction^and coordination;  FY 1967^ $722,000; FY 1968^
$862,000; IncreaseJ$140,000.The increase consists of: .
                   /•>'"  •  '
                 -f /* |"~ *
     (l)  An increase of $170,000 for international and contract
          compliance and equal opportunity responsibilities.

     (2)  A decrease of $30,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs.

                            Heed for Increase

     $37>000 and 3 positions are proposed to provide for the increasing
involvement of the program in the international aspects of water pollution.
Water pollution is a matter of growing concern the world over.  Other
countries have much to learn from the United States in this field, and
we have much to learn from them.  There is an increasing need for more
effective exchange of technical and scientific knowledge so that we and
other countries can benefit from advances in water pollution control
wherever they occur.  The increase proposed for this function, conducted
on a very limited scale in the past, would help fulfill an important and
growing need.

     $8l,000 and 12 positions are proposed for Contract Compliance and
Equal Employment Opportunity responsibilities.  Heretofore, the majority
of the functions comprising these responsibilities were assumed and
staffed for by the immediate Office of the Suregon General of the U. S.
Public Health Service.  How the responsibilities are vested in the
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.  They originate from Title
VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (non-discrimination in the provision of
services or benefits under Federally-assisted programs) and Executive
Order 112*1-6 (equal employment opportunity - in Federal employment; in
employment by contractors of the Federal government; and in contractor
employment by recipients of Federal assistance).  Both Title VI of the
Civil Rights Act and Executive Order 11246 have been implemented by
Department of Interior Manual issuances which delegate the principal work
responsibilities for carrying out the directives of the Act and Executive
Order to constituent Bureaus.  In light of these delegations, and of
our expanded grant and  contract programs, it is proposed to adequately
staff headquarters and  establish specific staff for this purpose in
regional offices.

     An additional $52,000 is requested for positions authorized to be
filled in 1967 and related costs.


     Executive direction and coordination cover the 9verall leadership
and direction of the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

Activities included are the establishment of policies, goals and objec-
tives; the development and issuance of plans, regulations and directives;
the distribution of resources; the evaluation of the accomplishments of
the Administration in terms of the specified goals and objectives; the
performance of special studies and analyses necessary to make reports to
the Congress and the development of water quality standards.

     This activity includes the Office of the Commissioner, Office of
Program Plans  and Development, Office of Legislative Liaison and the
Water Pollution Control Advisory Board which was established in accordance
with Section 9 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.
     Office of theCommissioner  includes the Commissioner, Deputy
Commissioner and related staffs, which provides overall direction,
supervision and coordination of the Administration's total program.

     Office of ProgramPlans and Development, headed by an Assistant
Commissioner, coordinates and evaluates the development and accomplishments
of the Administration's plans, programs and budget in terms of goals and
objectives; in addition, coordinates the development of water quality

     Office ofLegislative Liaison coordinates the preparation, review
and transmission of legislative material and responds to Congressional

     Water Pollution Control Advisory Board advises, consults with and
makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior on matters of
policy relating to the activities and functions of the Secretary under
the Act.  The board is composed of the Secretary or his designee, who
shall be chairman, and nine members appointed by the President.  Reorgani-
zation Plan No. 2 of 1966, transferred the board to the Department of the
Interior and added the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare as a
board member.  The nine appointed members must be selected from represent-
atives of various State, interstate and local governmental agencies, of
public and private interests concerned with water pollution, and of
organizations and groups interested in water pollution prevention and

                              Program of Work

     Continue providing overall leadership and direction, establish
policies, plans, regulations and directives as needed, coordinate
implementation of new legislation passed-in calendar year 1966.  Increasing
emphasis will be placed on the quantification of agency output objectives
and cost effectiveness studies.  The continued objective will be to make
possible more incisive and far-reaching program analyses and reviews than
has been the case previously.

                             Ac compli shments

     In fiscal years 1966 and 1967,a great deal of time and effort was
devoted to problems related to the reorganization of the agency;
regional boundaries were established and regional directors appointed;
a program review procedure was developed; an information reporting
procedure was established; systems planning for laboratory operations
was initiated; work was done on interagency groups such as the Water
Resources Council and the Interagency Committee on Oceanography;
guidelines for water quality standards were established, and extensive
assistance was provided to the States, at their request, in the development
of the standards.


Administrative management:  ¥1 1967/*$1,975,000; FI 1968, $2,659,000;
Increase, \/ $684,000.  The increase consists of:
     (l)  An increase of $307,000 to support the establishment of
          full fiscal services and strengthen general services to
          meet increased workload.

     (2)  An increase of $428,000 for central computer services.

     (3)  A decrease of $51,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs.

                            Heed for Increase

     $113,000 and 35 positions are requested to enable the Administration
to provide fiscal services to programs of the Administration.  These
fiscal services include accounting, payrolling and voucher examination.
In 1967 these services are being provided by the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare.  Current plans are to have this responsi-
bility shifted from Department of Health, Education, and Welfare by
July 1, 1967*  The Administration is formulating plans for this
shift.  In an endeavor to minimize costs, the plan is to see if these
services can be provided through reimbursable arrangements with another
agency.  Pending such determination, no provision has been made in 1967
to fully staff for this purpose.

     In view of the time involved in budget process, in the event the
Administration must develop this competency and self-sufficiency, the
increase proposed is necessary.  It should be pointed out that if the
July 1 date is to be met, and the Administration must provide these
services itself, staff will have to be recruited, trained, and ready
to take on these responsibilities prior to that date.  Therefore, to
accomplish this, vacant positions and related funds will have to be
diverted from other activities, pending approval of the 1968 estimate.

     An additional $32,000 and 10 positions are requested for general
services activities.  Since the level of employment for the Administration
early in 1967 was below that estimated for the previous year and optimum
1967 employment would not be attained before June 30, 19^7 proposed
staffing of these activities was;reduced accordingly.  Therefore, the
proposed increase for 1968 is necessary to achieve maximum administrative
competency and self-sufficiency to provide full support for the program
level authorized for 19^7, a*id the increased work load that will be
generated as a result of the proposed program increases for 1968.

     An additional $162,000 is requested for positions authorized to be
filled in 1967 and related costs.

         ,000 is requested for data processing costs associated with the
use of the Department's IBM computer center.  The Administration proposes
to utilize this center to meet many of its data processing needs.   As a new
agency with a rapidly increasing need for program information, a substantial
requirement for such service is anticipated.

     In the administrative area, activities identified to date needing
this kind of service are accounting, budgeting, personnel administration
and property accountability.

     In the program areas, the increasing interest in water quality
problems by other Federal agencies (a total of 28) and the necessity
to work with the same basic data, in most instances, indicate the
advisability and economic practicality of establishing a central water
quality data system.  The Division of Pollution Surveillance, FWPCA,
currently has an operating databank system (STORET) which?  with modifi-
cations, can fulfill this need.  FWPCA plans to continue the development
of this system and operate it as a central storage and retrieval
system for nationwide water quality data.  Therefore, the request is
necessary to finance FWPCA cost for these purposes in utilizing this
center in 1968.


     The administrative management support activity's principal objective
is to facilitate the attainment of program missions.  This is accomplished
through close administrative alignment with program components and includes
support activity in the field of personnel management, financial management,
management systems analysis, facilities management and general services.

                             Program of Work

     In 1968 all activities will be fully self-reliant to provide the
necessary services to the Administration's programs, and adequate guidance
and coordination of administrative support activities in the field.


     During 1966, activities were directed toward  the separation of
administrative support activity from the Public Health Service to the
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration in the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare.  This involved the establishment of an
administrative competency in the areas of management support cited above.
Reorganization Flan Ho. 2 of 1966 transferred the Federal Water Pollution
Control Administration from the Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare to the Department of the Interior.  This transfer necessitated
a recasting of the administrative support activity to conform to the
policies and procedures of the Department of the Interior.  During 1967^
a gradual pullout from Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
support to an independent competency will be accomplished.

Regional Offices

Regional offices;  FY 1967^ $817,000; FI 1968, $1,185,000; Increase,
$368/000.  The increase consists of:

     (l)  An increase of $383*000 for strengthening regional offices
          direction and administrative support.

     (2)  A decrease of $15,000 for nonrecurring equipment costs.

                            Meed for Increase

     $10lf,000 and 36 positions are requested for administrative support
in regional offices.  In 1967 staffing was minimal, as in administrative
management support, in line with the rate  of employment to be achieved
by June 30, 1967-  Administrative support includes providing services
in varying degrees for personnel, fiscal management, and general services.
Services are provided to regional office programs and personnel, laboratories,
and field projects.  The 1968 request provides for increasing this  staff
to adequately service regional personnel, including program personnel
increase for 1968.

     An additional $279>000 is requested for positions authorized to be
filled in 1967 and related costs.


     Supervise,  direct, coordinate, and provide administrative support
for all field activities and functions.

     The Administration established nine regional offices on a major
river basin basis.  These are as follows:

         Area Served                  Locationof Regional Office

       1.  Northeast                   Boston, Massachusetts
       2.  Middle Atlantic             Charlottesville, Virginia
       3-  Southeast                   Atlanta, Georgia
       k.  Ohio  Basin             .     Cincinnati, Ohio
       5«  Great Lakes                 Chicago, Illinois
       6.  Missouri Basin              Kansas City, Missouri
       7.  South Central               Dallas, Texas
       8.  Southwest                   San Francisco, California
       9.  Northwest                   Portland, Oregon

     All personnel and functions in the regional offices, laboratories,
and field projects are under the supervision and direction of the
Regional Director and are provided various levels of administrative
support in the areas of personnel, fiscal management,"and general  services.

                             Program of Work

     In 1968 the regional offices will be fully staffed to provide
the necessary direction and supervision, and will "be self-sufficient
and able to provide programs with appropriate administrative support.


     In 1967 a regional office organization with administrative staffing
patterns and delegations of authority has been established.  A gradual
phase out of service support functions from the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare regional offices is being accomplished as FWPCA
capability develops.

Public Information

                            JQ f>°S '            $&/^ '              •*- &f
organizations in the development of more effective public information
programs.  It is the focal point through which the general public,
press, radio, television, magazines, and other media are assisted in
obtaining factual information about Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration's mission, activities and objectives.  It also provides
for writing, editing,, and clearing of all technical publications.

                             Program of ¥ork

     In 1968,, the Office of Public Information will continue to increase
the public's awareness of the facts about water pollution, its prevention
and control; will produce a wide variety of printed and visual materials;
will provide nationwide coverage through regional information offices;
and will provide technical writing and editing services to headquarters
and the regions.


     Public information is involved to some extent in all FWPCA
activities, and these cover a wide range.  For example, in 1966, the
Administration awarded 900 grants to communities for construction of
waste treatment works, 155 research grants, ^0 demonstration grants; and
6k training grants; Administration officials made 180 formal presen-
tations before scientific, technical, and general audiences; 150
articles about water pollution were written and published by Administration
officers in technical, semi-technical and general magazines; 200
information presentations were made by Administration officers.  The
public information function is also extensively involved in activities
originating outside the FWPCA.  News stories throughout the country
occurred at the rate of some 5;000 per month; public, congressional and
White House inquiries and requests for information materials came in
at the rate of about 1,000 a week; stories on water pollution were
featured in Life, Saturday Evening Post, Hew York Times, Wall Street
Journal, AP and UPI syndicates, and numerous others; ABC and CBS did
documentary programs on the problem as did several local television
stations; television industry contributed public service time to television

     In 1967, the following major steps will be achieved:  Three of our
nine regional information offices, which are to provide specific information
about conditions and activities in specific parts of the country, will be
in operation; a documentary motion picture on water pollution, highlighting
the role of the FWPCA in combating water pollution will be produced; new
publications telling the story of FWPCA and its role in water pollution
control for use in answer to inquiries about our program and in other
informational activities will be in print; a new Scientific and Technical
Editorial Services Branch, which includes writing, e'diting, and clearing
of all technical publications throughout FWPCA will be in operation; a new
and effective reporting service drawing on the resources of the regional
offices is in operation; a completely new and more substantive campaign of
public information and education will be proposed to the Advertising Council*

  Civil Service
Retirement Fund

Civil Service Retirement Fund;  FY 196?, -0-;  FY 1968, $350,000;
Increase, $350,000.The total increase is to:

     Permit the Administration to fulfill a provision
     of the 1965 amendments regarding payment to the civil
     service retirement fund for each Public Health Service
     commissioned officer converting to civil service status.

                            Need for Increase

     The Water Quality Act of 1965, which established the Federal Water
Pollution Control Administration, has a special provision with respect
to Public Health Service commissioned officers then employed with the
program who decided to resign their commission and transfer to civil
service status.

     In addition to other inducements for retaining these professionals,
the Act provided that funds would be deposited to the credit of the civil
service retirement fund on behalf of and to the -credit of each trans-
ferring officer in an amount equal to that which the individual would be
required to deposit in this fund to cover the years of service credited
to him.  The Act also provided that these funds would be deposited within
two years after the date of an officer's transfer.

     As of now 151 officers have been converted with the maximum number
anticipated to be l60.  It is estimated that total cost of meeting the
requirements of this provision for these officers will be $600,000.
Since the Act gives two years from date of transfer to make these deposits,
we are requesting funds at this time to pay the civil service retirement
fund for only the 93 officers that transferred prior to July 1, 1966,
The remaining requirements are programmed for fiscal year 1969.

                                             ITEMI2LATION OF ESTIMATE
   Department of the Interior
   Appropriation Title; Water Supply and Water Polled:
 Federal Wat^er Pollution Coptrol J'^^T'istratiop.
     Estimate      Estimate       Increase (+)
	1967	1968  	Decrease (-)
   Program and Financing
     Total Obligations. ...........	.	 .$41,273,955
     Comparative transfer to/from other accounts.,,.*.-».    777,632
     Transfer to:
       "Operating expenses, Public Buildings Service."
         General Service Administration.	,»     48,470
       "Salaries; and expenses, Office of the Surgeon,
         General," Public Health Service, Department
         of Health, Education, and Welfare.....	,     -10,000
       "Salaries and expenses, Office of the Solicitor"
     Transferred from "Salaries and expenses, Office
       of Field Administration," Department of
       Health, Education, and Welfare....*....*.....»,        .,.

     Unobligated balance available, start of year»«»»»   -820,000
     Unobligated balance lapsing,..	..............  3.851.943

     Appropriation.,....«»,..»,....«............»»..„. 45,l42,000

   Obligations by'objectsi
     11  Personnel compensation,„	12,549,851
     12  Personnel benefits*».»,	  1,495,062
     21  Travel and transportation of persons....,..,»  1,233,813
     22  Transportation of things*	,.    244,^52
     23  Rent, communica'tions? and utilities	„«,,»    865,351
     24  Printing and reproduction,	    310,58^
     25.1  Other services                               1,372,155
           Research contracts                             398,000
     25.2  Services of other agencies                   3,215,134
  $91,902,000  $101,114,000
   55,4-39,000   101,114,000


                     ^ 55,ooo


    Itemization of Estimate—continued

Obligations by objects : continued

hi Grants, subsidies $ and contributions,..,,

,„,.. 9l6, 1*4-3
„.... 1,514-6,608
,,.., 26»878
, ...«17,099,659
,.„, 41,273,955
1,7614- .000
: * |* f
« * «
101,1114-, ooo
Increase (+)
Decreaa^ ( -}

*.« •

Buildings and

                                        DEPARTMENT OF THE UTTERIOR

                              FEDERAL WATER POLLUTIOH COKEROL ADtottSTRATION

                             	Buildings and Facilities	
Appropriation 1967	                     $4, 624,000
Reappropriation, Department of Health., Education, and Welfare Act, 1967*««                     +1,655*618
Unobligated balance transferred from "Buildings and facilities," Public -
  Health Service	                     +8,433,173

     Total available for obligation	                     14,712,791

Decreases (1967)
  Water pollution control and water quality standards laboratories	   $9,751* 303
  Field evaluations	.".	    4,929,6l8       -14,680,921

     Subtotal	,	                         31,870

Increases (1968)                                                              •
  Water pollution control and water quality standards laboratories	                     +1,920,000

     Total available for obligation	                      1,951,870

     Less:  Unobligated balance from 1967	                        -31,870

     Budget estimate 1968	                      1,920,000

                                               Buildings and Facilities

                                                Analysis "by Activities
                                                                  Fiscal Year 1968
                                             Amount   Unobligated
                                           Available    Balance
                                              196T     From 1967
                                           	  Total Available
                                                  1968 Compared
                            Budget      Total      to Total        Page
                           Estimate  Available  Available 1967  Beference
      1.  Water pollution control and
            water quality standards
      2.  Field evaluations.

$9,783,173      $31,870  $1,920,000  $1,951,870     -$7,831,3P3

 h, 929, 618 _ ... _ ... _ ... _ -^,929,618
31,870   1,920,000   1,951,870     -12,760,921

1.  Water pollution control and water quality standards laboratories;
FY 1958, $1,920,000.:

     The request will provide the following:

     a.  Equipment.	 $1,000,000

     The provision of equipment suitable to the needs of the programs
being undertaken at the laboratories is of vital importance.  Because
of the complexity of some of the research to be performed, it will be
necessary to acquire some relatively sophisticated equipment.

     Research and investigations of the amount,, type, and effect of
the nearly infinite variety of synthetic organic chemicals discharged
to surface and ground waters, for example, cannot proceed without the
complex equipment necessary for accurate  and rapid chemical analysis.
Similarly, research Involving effects of the great number and variety of
synthetic organic contaminants in the water environment harmful to
aquatic life and detrimental to other water uses cannot be properly
evaluated in terms of water quality criteria without appropriate equipment.
Measure of the long and chronic effects of pollutants on aquatic life
also requires adequate equipment.  While initially expensive, this modern
analytical equipment Is absolutely essential to the mission of these

     The same situation applies to the other types of research and
investigations required for an effective attack on the water pollution

     Current estimates of equipment needs were developed for each
laboratory on the basis of the proposed research, technical assistance,
and training programs.  The needs, therefore, are compatible with
operational requirements.  The following is a distribution of needs by

                                      	Equipment Requirements	
                                       •   ;       "         Requirement
                                      Appropriated           1968	
     College, Alaska                     $155,000             $98,000
     Ada, Oklahoma                        295,000             202,000 S:
     Corvallls, Oregon              .      285,000             200,000 N
     Athens, Georgia                  P  1|10,000             200,000;-
     Ann Arbor, Michigan            w    150,000                 ...
     Boston, Massachusetts                150,000                 ...
     Narragansett, Rhode Island           250,000                 ...
     Dulutn, Minnesota                    510,000	   300,000 *'

          Total                         2,^05,000           1,000,000

     Where the facilities are completed^ such ai those located at College,
Alaska j Ada, Oklahoma j Corvallls, Oregon and Athens , Georgia, provision
of equipment is essential in order that the personnel in these facilities
can effectively and efficiently conduct their activities .  In the case
of the Duluth laboratory, now under construction, the requirements are
based on the construction schedule and the long lead-time involved in the
procurement of some of this equipment .

     b ,  Repairs and improvements ..............................   $920, 000

     Installation of special systems, provision of additional storage
space, and modifications and improvements are necessary for the facilities
completed or to be completed in the near future .  These include such
items as:

     (l)  Raw lake water supply system at the Duluth, Minnesota laboratory
necessary to the conduct of water quality standards research.  Ordinary
water service to the laboratory is provided from the City of Duluth
municipal system.  A source of natural-state water, free from chlorine and
treatment additives, is needed for experiments involving aquatic animal
and plant life.  The estimated cost of this system is $300,000.

     (2)  Storage and maintenance facilities for field equipment at Ada,
Oklahoma; Corvallis, Oregon! and Duluth, Minnesota at an estimated cost
of $200,000.  Such facilities  will be of economical construction, with
minimum utilities, for unloading, storing, maintaining and repairing boats
and other field equipment and vehicles.

     (3)  Modifications, repairs, and improvements in the  main building
of the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio will
require $350,000.  The transfer of this facility from the Public Health
Service to the Federal ¥ater Pollution Control Administration will involve*""'
major alterations and modifications to relocate and consolidate technical
program activities now located outside the Center building.  Funds are
included for an electrical survey, roof repairs, and other Items to improve1
maintenance and operation of the building.
          Miscellaneous items to Improve maintenance and correct operating
deficiencies at Athens, Georgia and College, Alaska at an estimated cost
of $70,000.  Included are extension of equipment penthouse roof, additional
perimeter fencing, cooling tower piping modifications, and a glasffwaaher at
Athens | chilled -water system modificationa, and steam heating study at College «

                     Basis for Construction Program

     Section 5(e) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act provides:

     "The Secretary shall establish, equip, and maintain field laboratory
and research facilities, Including, "but not limited to, one to "be located
in the northeastern area of the United States, one In the Middle Atlantic
area, one in the southeastern area, one in the midwestern area, one In
the southwestern area, one in the Pacific Northwest, and one In the
State of Alaska, for the conduct of research, investigations, experiments,
field demonstrations and studies, and training relating to the prevention
and control of water pollution.  Insofar as practicable, each such
facility shall "be located near institutions of higher learning in which
graduate training in such research might be carried out."

     In addition to the seven Initially authorized in 1966, Congress
authorized three more to "be located at Columbia, Missouri; Vicksburg-
Jaekson,, Mississippi areaj and Stevens Point;, Wisconsin.

     Water pollution control field facilities are necessary because:

     (l)  Water pollution control field activities require readily
accessible, substantial, and highly technical laboratory support for
activities involving development of a comprehensive program for water
pollution control, enforcement of pollution abatement, collection of
basic data, and technical assistance to State and local agencies.
Technical training for Federal, State, and local water pollution control
personnel Is also provided at these facilities.

     (2)  Each region has its own unique water uses and related pollution
problems which require intensive research.  However, in some cases the
findings developed In one region can also be applied to those other regions
where similar uses of water exist or are developing.

     During 1966, four laboratories were completed.  These Include the
facilities at Athens, Georgia] Ada, Oklahoma! Corvallis, Oregon and
College, Alaska.

     In addition to regional water pollution control laboratories, in 19^3
the Congress authorized the construction of two national water quality
standards laboratories to conduct necessary research for determining water
quality standards for salt and fresh water.  In light of the Water Quality
Act of 1965, which provides for the establishment of standards, the research
effort In or through these facilities becomes highly Important.  These
facilities are located in Narragansett, Rhode Island and Duluth, Minnesota,

     The construction of the Duluth laboratory was started in early 1966
with completion estimated for July 1967•  Construction of the laboratory
at Narragansett Is anticipated to start In 1967•

     The following table reflects the funding status of all these facilities:


                                          Cost Estimates Through 19
    Water Pollution Control
Sq. Ft.
College, Alaska
Ada, Oklahoma
Corvallis, Oregon
Athens, Georgia
Boston, Massachusetts
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Middle Atlantic
Columbia, Miss0tu?i
Vicksburg-Jackson, Mississippi
Stevens Point, Wisconsin
Water Quality Standards
Narragansett, Rhode Island
Duluth, Minnesota

« « »
« 0 a
« o e
« » 0


* « «
« a •
» * »
• • *



a • «
. 1,619,000
» * •
9 • «
• ft »
a » «

" 1,846,140^

19 , 745 , 000""^
-*"-,x y \ ^^f y \s\s\s
              New obligational authority requested.
    a/  Excludes repairs and improvements.
    b/  Planning and construction costs.
    c/  Excludes construction costs for four new laboratories  preveiously authorized by Congress.

2.  Field evaluations:  FY 1968, no funds proposed.

     (a)  Acid mine drainage demonstration program

     This program is jointly carried out with other agencies of the
Department.  The purpose is to determine the most effective and reasonably
priced methods for control of acid mine drainage pollution and to evaluate
those methods.  This pollution is destroying fisheries and recreational
values, creating unsightly esthetic conditions, making water treatment
more costly and discouraging new industry in affected areas.  The ultimate
objective is to obtain information that will permit making adequate and
valid legislative recommendations of control measures applicable within
entire drainage basins affected by acid mine drainage.

     At the present time,the program is actively involved in having
measures installed at a site near Elkins, West Virginia; evaluating and
planning for demonstration activity at sites near Slippery Rock, Mocanaqua,
and Altoona, Pennsylvania.  Through 196?? Congress has appropriated
$U,570,000 for installation of control measures.  Of this total, $1,6^0,382
has been used for the Elkins site with the balance of $2,92956l8 to be
used as needed at all the sites involved.

     The program includes such things as the installation of masonry
seals and lined channels, drilling and grouting of rock strata with various
substances, forcing collapse of abandoned mine galleries, application of
gaseous and liquid chemicals to immobilize exposed sulfides, reshaping
the land surface, compacting soil over subsidence areas and along spoil-
banks, building and sealing ponds, applying various mulches and other
amendments to the soil, seeding in cover crops for soil stablization, and
planting shrubs and trees.

     Planning and evaluation for demonstration activity is well advanced
at the Mocanaqua site.  Included in the planning for this site are evaluation
of a variety of material and techniques, for preventing the entry of surface
water into abandoned workings and the in-situ (in place) neutralization of
acid mine water.

     The nature of the program and the absence of this type of experience
makes it impossible to estimate the full cost of these demonstration
projects.  Each site is different in size and characteristics and will
require different scopes and types of control measures to be installed.
Therefore, until a site is fully investigated and evaluated and plans are
formulated, total costs cannot be predicted.

     (b)  Evaluation of advanced waste treatment processes

     An objective of the program is to develop new advanced waste treatment
processes.  Broadly, the goal is to develop a new arsenal of treatment

tools which will permit the reuse of water through a range of processes.
These processes range from recharge of ground waters with treated waste
effluents to the complete conversion of waste waters for deliberate
recirculation in municipal or industrial water systems.

     As new advanced waste treatment processes are developed, they must,
of necessity, be operated in the field through construction of field
evaluation plants of a size sufficient to allow final development and
assessment under full or nearly full-scale conditions.  It is only after
such field evaluation units are constructed and operated that the necessary
costs, performance, and engineering design data become available for
subsequent use by the general public.

     Through fiscal 1967, $2,000,000 has been appropriated for this
purpose.  Although to date none of these funds has been used, it is
planned that by the end of fiscal year 196? several select projects
will be undertaken.  It is proposed that future requirements for this
purpose will be met under the research and development grant and contract
program authorized by the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966.

                                                ITEMEZATION OF ESTIMATE

     Department  of the Interior                                  Federal Water Pollution  Control Administration

     Appropriation Title;   Buildings and Facilities	

                                                            Actual       Estimate       Estimate   Increase (+)
     	1966	196T	1968      Decrease (-)

     Program and Financing

      Total obligations...	... $4,166,185    $14,680,921      $1,951,870   -$12,729,051
      Comparative transfer from other accounts	 -4,166,185             ...             ...            ...
      Unobligated balance  transferred from "Buildings
        and facilities," Public Health  Service	        ...      -8,433AT3             •••     +8,14-33,173
      Unobligated balance  brought forward	        ...             ...         -31,870        -31,870
      Unobligated balance  carried forward	  	._._.	+31,870	.A.	-31,870

            Appropriation	,	        ...      4,624,000      1,920,000     -2,704,000
            Reappropriation	        ...      1,655,618             ...     -1,655,618
    Obligations by objects:

    22  Transportation of things	      3,195          5,000          4,000          -1,000
    23  Rent, communications, and utilities	      I>8l5          2,000          2,000
    24  Printing and reproduction	      4,334             ...             ...
    25  Other services	    232,586        690,000         20,000        -670,000
    26  Supplies and materials	     10,010          6,000          5,000          -1,000
    31  Equipment.........	«.	    124,130      1,975,000        920,000      -1,055,000
    32  Lands and structures....	  3,7901115     12,002.,921	1,000.,870     -11,002,051
         Total obligations....		  4,166,185     14,680,921      1,951,870     -12,729,051

Grants for Waste
Treatment Works

                                            DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR


                                   Construction Grants for Waste Treatment Works
   Appropriation 1967 ............................................ . ........... . ................  $173, 000, 000
   Unobligated balance from prior years ................... ...... .............. . ...............   +51, 202, 6l^
   Comparative transfer to "Water supply and water pollution control" . ......... . ........ . .....   -39, 129, 250
   Lapsing  from  prior year appropriations ........................ . ......................... ...    -1, 77*1, 877

        Total  available for obligation [[[   183,298,^87

   Decreases (1967)
     Appalachian regional development ..... ........ ...... ........ ... .............. ..... ..... ...    -1, ^t-3, 875

        Subtotal ....... . [[[   l8l,85l|., 612

   Increases (1968)  •
     Waste  treatment  works construction [[[   +6

                               Construction Grants for Waste Treatment Works

                                          Analysis by Activities
                                                    Fiscal Year 1968
  Amount   Unobligated
Available    Balance         Budget
   1967     From 1967	Estimate
             	  Total Available
                          1968 Compared
                Total       to Total        Page
              Available   Available 1967  Reference
1.  Waste treatment works
      construction	  $178,854,612  $44,998,487  $200,000 ,,000  $244,998,487     +$66,143,875
2.  Appalachian regional
 , ¥13,875
-1,443,875     155
     Total.	   183,298,487   44,998,487   203,000,000   24-7,998 .,487

                               Construction Grants for Waste Treatment Works

                                  Hew Obligational Authority "by Activity
                                                                FY 1967
                                                 1966           Amount            FY 1968      Increase (+)
   Activity                                     Actual         Available          Estimate      over
1.  Waste treatment works construction..  $121,000,000      $150,000,000      $200,000,000     +$50,000,000

2.  Appalachian regional development ....   _ ._._. _ 3,000,000 _ 3,000,000 _ ...

     Total new obligational authority. .»   121,000,000       153,000,000       203,000,000      +50,000,000

     The 1968 estimate of $203,000,,000 is for grants to construct municipal
waste treatment works.  The estimate includes $200,000,000 to carry out
provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, and
$3,000,000 for grants under the Appalachian Regional Development Act.

1.  Waste treatment works construction:  FY 1967, $150,000,000;
FY 1968, $200,000,000; Increase, $50,000,000.

     The total estimate is to continue stimulating the construction or
upgrading of waste treatment plants to eliminate the discharge of untreated
or inadequately treated municipal sewage into the Nation's waterways.


     The program is designed to help bring water pollution from munici-
palities under control by achieving a rate of construction which will
overcome the unmet backlog of needed facilities] keep pace with needs
for new facilities resulting from population growth; and keep pace with
needs to replace facilities which become obsolescent because of age,
technical advancement, or population relocation.  The 1966 annual survey
of municipal waste treatment needs conducted by the Conference of State
Sanitary Engineers reports that 1,285 communities presently discharging
raw sewage require new plants for the treatment of waste; an additional
1,69^ cities and towns with existing treatment plants require new or
enlarged facilities because of obsolescence, or because of insufficient
treatment or capacity; and 2,66l unsewered towns require sewer systems as
well as sewage treatment plants.  While the number of communities discharging
inadequately treated sewage increased markedly during the past year, this
increase can be attributed to a need for upgrading treatment facilities
from primary to the more complete secondary treatment.  The estimated
total cost of this reported backlog of 5}6ko projects, to serve a population
of 37 million, is $2.6 billion for treatment plants, interceptors,
outfall sewers, and other ancillary works.  However, it has become
increasingly clear that this backlog estimate is extremely conservative.
Based on a study of the needs of the 100 largest cities, indications
are that the minimum backlog is at least twice that reported by the
State agencies or approximately $5*2 billion.

     If, in the meantime, we are to bring pollution under control by 1972,
an average national expenditure of approximately $1.9 billion annually
is necessary.  Of this, $350 million will be required to replace facilities
which become obsolescent and $270 million will be necessary to provide
for population growth.  An additional $1.3 billion annually would be
required to overcome the backlog, allowing for the increasing cost of
construction in the interim.

     Section 8 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act was amended
by the Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966 to authorize appropriations

of $150 million for fiscal year 1967, $^50 million for fiscal year 1968,
$700 million for fiscal year 1969, $1 billion for fiscal year 1970, and
$1.2 billion for fiscal year 1971 > for grants to aid in the construction
of municipal waste treatment facilities in order to prevent the discharge
of untreated or inadequately treated sewage or other waste into any waters.
These funds are to be apportioned to the States and other jurisdictions
according to a formula prescribed in the statute.

     The Act further authorized grants of 30$ of the estimated reasonable
cost of construction of necessary waste treatment works without dollar
limitations.  The 30$ grant limitation may be increased to ^0$ if the
State agrees to pay 30$ of the estimated reasonable cost of all projects
receiving Federal funds from the same allocation.  The 30$ limitation
may also -be increased to 50$ if enforceable water quality standards have
been established for the waters into which the project discharges and
the State agrees to pay not less than 25$ of the estimated reasonable
cost of all projects receiving Federal funds from the particular allocation,.
The amount of a grant may be increased 10$ if a project is certified as
being in comformity with a comprehensive plan developed by an official
State3 metropolitan or interstate planning agency.  Thus, if all conditions
are met, the total grant award can be as high as 55$ of the total cost
of construction.

     The 1966 Amendments also provide that in the case of any project on
which construction was initiated after June 3°, 1966, which was approved
by the appropriate State agency and which the Secretary finds meets the
requirements of Section 8 but which is constructed without Federal
assistance, the allotments for construction grants for any fiscal year
ending before July 1, 1971» shall also be available to make payments for
reimbursement of State or local funds to the extend that financial
assistance could have been provided if the project had been approved
pursuant to Section 8 and adequate funds had been available to make a grant.
In the case of a project on which construction was initiated after June
30, 1966, and which was constructed with Federal assistance but the amount
of assistance was a lesser percent of the cost of construction than was
allowable pursuant to Section 8, payment and reimbursement of State or
local funds is permitted to the extent that assistance could have been
provided if adequate funds had been available,,  The same provisions apply
for such retroactive grants as apply if the grant is being made for
future construction,,

     Congress clearly recognized the problems of the larger cities in
obtaining significant financial assistance in the construction of needed
sewage treatment facilities.  The removal of dollar limitations of $102
million, or $4.8 million in the case of-multimunicipal projects, together
with the added incentive of aigher grant percentages with certain
specified State participation, will stimulate many of these larger cities
and metropolitan areas to move ahead with construction.  It is anticipated

                     Allocations of Grant-in~Aid Funds for Waste Treatment Works Construction
Sta,te or Territory
District of Columbia
Maine '
over 1^967
599, 150

                    .Allocations of Grant-in-Aid Funds for Waste Treatment Works Construction—continued
S"te$fce of Territory"
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
Kssr York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Rhode Island '
South Carolina
South Dakota
,AJLloca,t ioj^s
3, 09)4., 100
over 196?

               Allocations of Grant**in~Aid Funds fey Waste Treatment Works  Construction ~~ continued
State or Territorv
West Yirginia
Puerto Rico
Yirgin Islands
All ocsrb Ions
over 1,967

2.  Appalachian regional development i   FY 1967, $3,000,000;  FY 1968,
$3,000,000; Ho change „

     The $3 million proposed for 1968 is to continue providing additional
support for constructing needed sewage treatment plants in the Appalachian

     Section 212 of the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965
authorized $6 million for grants for the construction of sewage treatment
works in the Appalachian region.  Grants are made in accordance with  the
provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, without
regard to appropriation authorization ceilings or to allotments among the
States „  The $6 million initially authorized has been appropriated — $3 •-
million late in fiscal year 1965 and $3 million for fiscal year 1967*  As
of January 1967s awards totalling $2,186,793 have been approved or were
pending approval, with the balance anticipated to be used by June 30, 1967.

     Although funds for the initial authorization have been appropriated,
legislation now pending before the Congress will extend the Appalachian
Regional Development Act and provide for an increase in the authorization,
Therefore, the $3 million proposed for 1968 is contingent on passage  of
this legislation.

     The merits of these grants are evident by the fact that many of  the
communities receiving aid under this program would have been prevented
from proceeding with their projects because of the full utilization of
State entitlements under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act»  Still,
sewage problems are widely manifest in the Appalachian region with over
800 communities having unmet sewage treatment needs.  It is estimated
that it will cost over $200 million to construct these needed sewage
treatment facilities which are vital to protect health, attract industry,
and develop the recreational potential of the Appalachian area*

                            Allocation by_ State

                                  AppragrJat.ed,      Proposed       Total

     Alabama Si,                     , $643,80^       $321,902      $965,706
     Georgia st,                       330,786        165,393       496,179
     Kentucky^                      190 833        190,833       381,666
     Maryland M                       226,626        113,313       339,939
     Hew York  w«                      392,044        196,022       588,066
     North Carolina «a                 374,286        187,143       561,429
     Ohio «*.                          409,504        204,752       614,256
     Pennsylvania ««                 1., 715, 137        762,152     2,477,289
     South  Carolina**                314,046        157,023       471,069
     Tennessee s*                      526,744        263,372       790,116
     Virginia MP                      315,126        15?, 563       472,689
     West Virginia ts..-.               -J^^O^        2§£L532
          Total                     £Z000J000


                                                           OF ESTIMATE

     Department of the Interior                                  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration

     Appropriation Title;  Construction Grants for Waste Treatment Works	

                                                            Actual       Estimate       Estimate   Increase (+)
     	1966	1967	1968     Decrease (-)

     Program and Financing

       Total obligations	   $119,634,830   $138,300,000   $198,000,000  +$59,700,000
       Comparative transfer to "Water supply and
         water pollution control".....'	       +870,750    +39,129,250            ...   -39,129,250
       Unobligated balance lapsing	       +930,537     +1,774,877         .   • • •    -1,774,877
       Unobligated balance brought forward	31,638,73!    -51,202,6l4    -44,998,487    +6,204,127
       Unobligated balance carried forward	    +51,202,614    +44,998,487    +49,998,487    +5,000,000

          Appropriation	,.    14-1,000,000    173,000,000    203,000,000   +30,000,000

     Obligations by objects:

     41  Grants, subsidies, and contributions.***..    119,634,830    138,300,000    198,000,000   +59,700.000

          Total obligations		.	    119,634,830    138,300,000    198,000,000   +59,700,000