Section 609 of the  Clean Air Act:
Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning
   Protecting the Ozone Layer
   The stratospheric ozone layer shields the Earth from the sun's harmful
   ultraviolet radiation. Emissions of certain synthetic chemicals - including
   chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons
   (HCFCs) - that are commonly used as refrigerants,  solvents, and
   insulating foams destroy the ozone layer and have created an  "ozone
   hole" over the South Pole.

   In addition, many of these ozone-depleting substances (ODS), as
   well as their substitutes - including hydrofluorocarbons (MFCs) - are
   greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. The purpose of this
   fact sheet is to help understand the requirements of the motor  vehicle air
   conditioning (MVAC) Program.

   Environmental Impact of Motor Vehicle Air  Conditioners
   Older model MVACs used CFC-12 (also known by various trade names,
   such as Freon ). When CFCs leak from MVACs into the atmosphere,
   strong radiation in the atmosphere will break the molecules apart and
   release chlorine atoms, each of which can destroy over 100,000 ozone

   MVACs can also have serious impacts on climate. For example,
   the global warming potential (GWP) of CFC-12 is approximately
   10,000 times greater than that of carbon dioxide,  a greenhouse gas
   that contributes to climate change. Since the mid 1990s, MVACs use
   HFC refrigerant (R-134a) that do not deplete the ozone layer, but do
   have high GWP that is approximately 1,400 times greater than carbon
   dioxide. In the U.S., vehicle air conditioners consume over 7 billion
   gallons of gasoline every year, emitting over 58 million metric tons
   of carbon dioxide. Refrigerant leakage adds the equivalent of  over
   50 million metric tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere each year.

   Because of the potential damage that refrigerants can do to the
   environment, Section 609 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) directs EPA to
   establish requirements to prevent the release of refrigerants during
   the servicing of MVACs and  MVAC-like appliances and to require
   recycling of used refrigerants. MVAC-like appliances are mechanical
   vapor compression, open-drive compressor appliances used to cool the
   driver's or passenger's compartment of a non-road vehicle, including
   agricultural and construction vehicles.
        608 vs. 609
        MVAC (609)
Passenger cars
    MVAC-like (609 or 608)
Off-road vehicles
      Non-MVAC (608)
Aircraft - passenger & cargo
Refrigerated trailers
Ship/boat - passenger & cargo
                                                                      * lfR-22, then 608

Venting Prohibition
Section 608 of the CAA prohibits venting any ODS refrigerant, or substitutes for an ODS
refrigerant, into the atmosphere. This prohibition on venting has been in effect since the early

Section 609 Regulatory Requirements: Motor Vehicle Air-Conditioning
                  SALES RESTRICTION
              Section 609 prohibits the sale
                of small cans (less than
            20 pounds) of CFC-12 to anyone
                other than an EPA-certified
          AND CERTIFICATION       fc^
   Technicians repairing or servicing CFC-12 or
   HFC-134a MVACs must be trained and certified
    by an EPA-approved organization. Certification i
         obtained by passing an EPA-approved
     MVAC service shops must
      maintain records of the
     names and addresses of
      facilities to which the
    refrigerant they recover is
    sent. Service shops are also
    required to maintain records
      (on-site) showing that all
       service technicians are
       properly certified and must
       c e rtify to E PA th at th ey own
        approved equipment.
  Section  609
When refrigeration and
air-conditioning equipment
enters the waste stream, th
 final person in the disposal
 chain must remove (or make
 certain that their customers
 have removed) refrigerants
 prior to appliance disposal.
                            EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATION
                     jk         REQUIREMENTS
                     MVAC service shops must certify to EPA
                  that they have acquired and are properly using
                approved refrigerant recovery equipment. Service
                   shops must also verify that each person using
                     the  equipment has been properly trained and
                         APPROVED EQUIPMENT
                    Technicians repairing or servicing
                    MVACs using CFC-12 or HFC-134a
                     must use refrigerant recovery
                      equipment that is approved
                             by EPA.
  EPA Ozone Layer Protection Website:
  EPA Section 609 Website:
 Additional Resources

        EPA Phaseout of Ozone-Depleting Substances Website:
        Approved equipment information website:
                      EPA Stratospheric Ozone Information Hotline: 1-800-296-1996
         United States
         Environmental Protection
                                               EPA 430-F-10-039