United States
            Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Air and Radiation
     Spring 2008

A publication of the Coalbed Methane Outreach Program (CMOP)
       West Elk Mine Expansion  and Degasification  Plans Approved
         West Elk Mine (operated by Mountain Coal Com-
         pany) recently applied for and received approval
         for an expansion of its mining and methane
drainage operations in Gunnison County, Colorado.  The
deliberation over this planned expansion among several
federal agencies and other groups received considerable
local press coverage.  One of the key issues focused on
the fate of the additional methane that would be emitted
from the mine's degasification system.  This article sum-
marizes this process, which highlights the numerous barri-
ers that still affect many coal mine  methane (CMM) project
opportunities in the United States. As the debate over cli-
mate change legislation moves forward in the U.S. Con-
gress and awareness of greenhouse gas emissions in-
creases around the country, lawmakers, regulators, and
              non-governmental organizations (NGOs) will continue to
              focus more attention on CMM reduction opportunities.

              Expansion of West Elk coal mine
                 In 2006, Mountain Coal Company, an Arch Coal sub-
              sidiary, submitted a request to the Colorado Division of
              Reclamation, Mining and Safety to expand production and
              add methane drainage at its West Elk mine. The proposed
              Deer Creek Shaft and E Seam Methane Drainage Wells
              Project entailed drilling 168 methane drainage wells and a
              new 28-foot diameter ventilation and escape way shaft.
              Because the revision to the mining permit would require
              construction, operation, and reclamation on the surface of

                                                see WEST ELK, page 2
  In this issue...
  1   West Elk Mine Expansion and
     Degasification Plans Approved
  1   U.S. EPA Developing Green-
     house Gas Reporting Rule
  3   Methane to Markets Update
  5   EPA Launches Feasibility Stud-
     ies in China
  6   Proposed FY 2009 Presidential
  7   Update - Legislative Activity on
     the Hill
  8   New Publications
  9   CBM/CMMNews
  11  Upcoming Events

  Access documents electronically from
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    Notes, please go to our website
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    U.S. EPA Developing  Greenhouse Gas
                    Reporting Rule
        On December 26, 2007, President Bush signed the FY2008
        Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 110-161) which
        authorized EPA to "...develop and publish a draft rule not
later than 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act, and a final
rule not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act, to
require mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
above appropriate thresholds in all sectors of the economy...."   EPA
will use its authority under the Clean Air Act (Sections 114, 208) to
establish this program.
   This is an ambitious timetable but EPA is working toward the
deadlines. EPA is aware of existing methods for reporting already at
the federal and state levels and intends to build on those existing
approaches, rather than starting from scratch.
   Congress set a broad scope for this program, including reporting
of all six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide  (CO2), as well as more
potent gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O),
hydrofluorocarbons (MFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur
hexafluoride (SF6).  The program may include reporting by both
upstream fuel and chemical suppliers and as well as downstream
                                   see GHG REPORTING RULE, page 4

Spring 2008
Page 2
          Elk from page 1
  the Gunnison National Forest, the U.S. Forest Service
  (FS) was charged with evaluating the impact of the re-
  quest on public health and safety (such as impacts to live-
  stock foraging and riparian habitat) and on coal reserves
  development. In making a decision based on the request,
  the FS drafted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).
  U.S. EPA's regional office reviewed the EIS based on its
  authority under the National Environmental Policy Act
     The final EIS (August 2007) included an analysis of
  the methane that would be emitted from the proposed ven-
  tilation shaft and drainage wells. Methane is both a clean
  energy source and a potent greenhouse gas that contrib-
  utes to global warming if emitted to the atmosphere. Under
  the right circumstances, however, methane can be cap-
  tured from coal mines and utilized as productive energy or
  destroyed. Although past West Elk coal production has
  generated substantial CMM emissions, the final EIS did
  not include a detailed analysis of capture and use of the
  coal mine methane or flaring of the methane gas. With
  respect to these two  issues, the EIS cited issues with legal
  rights to use the gas  and concerns of the Mine Safety and
  Health Administration (MSHA).
     On August 17 and November 8, 2007, the Forest Ser-
  vice issued two Records of Decision (RODs) that together
  approved the drilling  and casing of up to 168 drainage
  wells located on up to 146 drilling pads, the installation  of
  degassing equipment, and the operation and maintenance
  of wells for methane  drainage while recovering coal in the
  E seam. It also approved  roads to all wells, except for
  eight to ten wells authorized under a coal lease issued
  after enactment of the 2001 Inventory Roadless Area
  (IRA) rule. The ROD  did not require Arch Coal to utilize or
  destroy methane emissions associated with the new ac-
     A Denver-based  NGO appealed the Forest Service
  decision on the grounds that methane destruction was not
  adequately considered as an alternative in the EIS. On
  February 13, 2008, the regional Forest Service office
  agreed that the ROD "failed to consider in detail an alter-
  native that utilized flaring  of methane" and reversed the
  decision, remanding  it back to the Forest Supervisor. The
  Forest Supervisor and his staff conducted further research
  and, based on input received from MSHA, considered but
  eliminated from detailed study the flaring of methane emis-
  sions as a viable alternative at this time. At press time, the
  November 8, 2007, decision by the Forest Service stands.
      Barriers to CMM Project Development on Federal
         The decision process for approving West Elk mine's
      degasification and expansion plans have highlighted sev-
      eral obstacles to CMM projects, especially those on U.S.
      federal lands. One such issue is the gas ownership or right
      to recover and use the methane.  The methane in a coal
      seam is legally considered to be separate from the coal
      estate itself and  must be leased separately. On federal
      lands, the gas lease must be obtained from the U.S. fed-
      eral government. According to the Bureau of Land Man-
      agement (BLM), a coal company does not have the legal
      right to utilize, for profit, the methane associated with its
      coal production at a coal mine on federal land unless it
      also maintains a lease for natural gas in the area. In the
      West Elk case, BLM was actively involved and has taken
      steps to nominate the associated  natural gas estate for
      lease, but this has not yet occurred.
         A second challenge in the West Elk case was associ-
      ated with surface disturbance issues on federally protected
      lands. The EIS for the West Elk proposal for mine and de-
      gasification expansion focused on the impact that CMM
      degasification operations would have on the land surface
      in protected areas designated as "roadless." If a CMM
      utilization project were also to be considered, gathering,
      compression, and transportation infrastructure would be
      difficult to site in an inventory roadless area. These sur-
      face restrictions, coupled with the extreme terrain and to-
      pography, would pose challenges for potential CMM pro-
      ject development.
         Finally, the issue of the potential for flaring the drained
      mine methane emerged in the West Elk case, and its po-
      tential use at other U.S. coal mines remains unclear. The
      West Elk mine proposal did not include flaring as an alter-
      native, but during the  official comment process the issue
      was raised that flaring of the methane (to reduce its green-
      house gas emissions) should be considered. In general,
      EPA's perspective is that when the  productive and eco-
      nomic utilization of coal mine methane is ruled out be-
      cause of site-specific conditions, destruction of the meth-
      ane through combustion (e.g., flaring) is a viable, second-
      best option to reduce GHG emissions. Although methane
      flares at coal mines have been successfully used at active
      underground mines in the United Kingdom, methane flares
      at active underground coal mine shafts are extremely rare
      (if present at all) in the United States.1  The U.S. Mine
      Safety and Health Administration  (MSHA), the agency that
      regulates underground coal mines for safety, does not
      have a clear policy regarding the permissibility of flaring at
                                         see WEST ELK, page 4
  1 EPA is not aware of any flares currently operating at active U.S. coal (or other) underground mines.

Spring 2008
Page 3
                                 Methane to Markets Update
  Coal Mine Methane Subcommittee Meeting in Italy
     Please join us 29-30 April 2008 in Sardinia, Italy, for
  an exciting and informative two days that will include:
     •   Proposals for country-specific strategies for pro-
         moting the recovery and use of coal mine meth-
     •   Discussion of effective ways to engage the private
     •   An update on the carbon market for coal mine
         methane projects
     •   A site visit to a Carbosulcis SpA coal mine
     Registration, more detailed meeting information, and a
  draft agenda is now available on the Methane to Markets
  website at www.methanetomarkets.org/events/2008/

  Successful CMM Recovery and Utilization Workshop
  in Poland
     An international workshop on coal mine methane
  (CMM) was hosted by the Central Mining Institute of Ka-
  towice, AGH University of Science & Technology, and the
  Mineral & Energy Economy Research Institute of the Pol-
  ish Academy of Sciences from 27-29 February 2008 in
  Szczyrk, Poland. The U.S. Environmental Protection
  Agency and the United Nations Economic Commission  for
  Europe assisted with the workshop design and implemen-
  tation.  The workshop was also sponsored by the Jastrze-
  bie Coal Company, a major Polish coal mining company,
  Lennetal Industrie Service GmbH from Germany, and
  MEGTEC Systems AB from Sweden. With over 100 par-
  ticipants, including one-third from outside Poland, the
  workshop addressed newly-developed technologies for
  coal mine methane drainage and utilization, project financ-
  ing options, and project management and integration.
  There was a comprehensive agenda for the two-day
  event. The workshop covered a wide range of technical
  and financial issues related to coal mine methane capture
  and use, including sessions on:
     •   Key aspects of a successful coalmine methane
     •   Current developments in methane degasification
     •   Methane production and gathering systems
     •   Use of CMM from methane drainage systems
         Field Trip to the Jastrzebie Coal Company's Pniowek Mine

         • Financing options
         !  I Ventilation air methane (VAM)
         • Project integration and execution
         • Roundtable on barriers to implementation
         • Flaring and abandoned mine methane
         The presentations delivered at the workshop are avail-
      able at www.imf.net.pl/node/28 and the program is avail-
      able at www.imf.net.pl/node/26
         Currently, there are 33 active coal mines in Poland, 29
      of which are classified as gassy.  Twenty of the mines are
      equipped with methane drainage systems and 14 of them
      are utilizing the produced CMM.  The CMM/CBM re-
      sources of Poland are estimated  to be between 350 billion
      cubic meters (Bern) and 1,300 Bern, with an exploitable
      gas resource of 95 Bern. Approximately 250 million cubic
      meters (MMcm) of methane was  recovered from the mines
      in 2006, representing about 30% of the total emissions of
      851 MMcm. The number of coal mines  in Poland has de-
      creased over the past two decades.  From 1989 - 2005,
      Poland closed 83% of their older coal mines (mostly by
      merging),  but only ~19% of the gassy mines were shut.
      This means that the share  of gassy coal mines in Poland
      has been increasing and provide significant opportunities
      for CMM project development.

                                     see M2M UPDATE, page 4

Spring 2008
Page 4
   GHG Reporting Rule^   ;, e
   emitters. Congress provided flexibility and discretion to
   EPA in writing the rule, particularly in determining
   appropriate thresholds and the frequency of reporting.
       EPA welcomes stakeholder input and plans to
   reach  out to stakeholders through information sharing
   sessions as well as public meetings.
       Further information and current activities related to
   the GHG Reporting Rule will be posted on the EPA
   website soon. The site will be updated as more
   information and materials become available. &
         USEA Workshop on CMM in China
        CMOP is working with the United States Energy
        Association (USEA) to develop a workshop in
    China called "Coalbed Methane and Coal Mine Meth-
    ane Power Generation." The four-day event is part of
    the U.S. China Natural Gas Training series funded by
    the United States Trade and Development Agency
    (USTDA). The training will take place in Dalian City,
    Liaoning Province from May 28 to 31, 2008.
       Sessions (conducted in English with Chinese
    translation) will cover:
       >   Opening remarks by EPA and China's Na-
          tional Development and Reform Commission
       >   CMM resource assessment, planning, and
       >   Methane drainage techniques; and
       >  The  use of CMM for power generation.
       The entire natural gas training series is being
    organized for China's National Development and Re-
    form Commission (NDRC), but other interested par-
    ties can attend. A fee of $40 will apply to non-NDRC
    attendees and can be paid during in-person registra-
    tion on May 27,  2008. Registration and background
    information can  be found on the USEA website at:
    Check back soon on the USEA and CMOP websites
    for venue details. To learn more about event spon-
    sorship opportunities, contact Marjorie Jean-Pierre at
    mjean-pierre@usea.org or 1-202-312-1230.
               Elk from page 2
       coal mines. The Forest Supervisor's final decision to
       uphold approval of West Elk's proposed expansion and
       degasification plans (which does not require the mine
       to consider flaring) was based at least in part on this

       Next Steps
          Methane is not regulated as a pollutant under the
       Clean Air Act, and its mitigation is not mandated by
       existing federal law. Nonetheless, a number of U.S.
       coal mining companies have been voluntarily engaged
       in coal mine methane recovery and utilization projects
       that generate significant profits, while substantially re-
       ducing U.S. coal mine  methane emissions. In 2006,
       U.S. coal mines captured and recovered over 46 billion
       cubic feet (Bcf), equivalent to 19 million metric tonnes
       of CO2 equivalent.  The West Elk ROD process re-
       vealed to law makers, regulators, and the public the
       obstacles that can stymie such environmentally-friendly
       and economically-sound activities. As a result, the will
       to address some of these obstacles is stronger than
       ever. EPA's Coalbed Methane Outreach Program
       (CMOP) plans to collaborate with sister agencies such
       as MSHA,  FS, and BLM to make it easier and more
       straightforward for a coal mine to reduce its GHG emis-
       sions voluntarily. &
       M2M Update from page 3
       Four New Countries Join the Methane to Markets
           Mongolia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Pakistan
       have become members of the Methane to Markets
       Partnership.  Both Mongolia and Pakistan have coal
       resources. Joining the M2M program will enable these
       countries to benefit from the methane recovery experi-
       ence of companies and institutions in other Partner
       For additional info visit:
       www.methanetomarkets.org  ©

Spring 2008
Page 5
                       EPA  Launches Feasibility Studies in China
        The United States Environmental Protection Agency
        (EPA) has launched three full-scale feasibility stud-
        ies in China that will assess the technical and eco-
  nomic viability of implementing coal mine methane (CMM)
  utilization projects at specific mine sites.  EPA will provide
  technical expertise and tools to conduct the necessary
  analyses, which are scheduled to be completed by early
     These projects support the goals of the Methane to
  Markets Partnership.  EPA's assistance is also part of the
  U.S. commitment to help develop up to 15 coal mine meth-
  ane (CMM) projects under the second U.S.-China Strate-
  gic Economic Dialogue (SED).
     EPA has already partnered with two companies in
  China to conduct these studies:
     >   Sakel Coal, a consortium of two U.S. companies
         and the Hebi Coal Administration , was formed to
         develop the CMM resources of six mines in the
         Hebi coal mining area (located in China's central
         Henan Province). The feasibility study will be con-
         ducted by EPA contractor Advanced Resources
         International. This project is estimated to reduce
         GHG emissions by up to 250,000 metric tons of
         CO2e each year, equivalent to removing up to
         45,000 passenger vehicles from the roads each
         year. This feasibility study is also considered a
         "Flagship Project" under the Asia-Pacific Partner-
         ship on Clean Development and Climate Coal Min-
         ing Task Force.
     >   Songzao Coal Mining and Electricity Company,
         wholly owned by Chongqing Energy Investment
         Group.  The feasibility study will be conducted by
         EPA contractor Raven Ridge Resources. Based
         on a preliminary assessment, estimated emissions
         reductions from this project are 60 to 100 million
         cubic meters (2.1 to 3.5 million cubic feet)  of
         methane a year, equivalent to between 0.8 and
         1.4 million metric tons of CO2e avoided per year.
         This is equivalent to removing up to 250,000 pas-
         senger vehicles from roads each year.
     A site for the third feasibility study, to be conducted by
  Advanced Resources International, has not yet been se-
     A feasibility study is a critical step in developing a
  CMM project and includes the following components:
             an analysis of methane resource data,
             a market assessment for the produced methane,
             an evaluation of degasification and methane utili-
             zation technologies,
             a technical analysis with preliminary engineering
             design work,
             an estimate of project capital and operating costs,
             a full economic and financial analysis with cash
             flow projections.
         Annual Coal Production and Methane Liberated
                    at Coal Mines in Hebi
              2002 2003  2004 2005 20O6 2007 2008 2009 2O10

          Annual Coal Production and Methane Liberated
          at Songzao Coal and Electricity Company Mines
 Annual Coal Production

-Annual Volume of Methane Liberated
              2002 2003 2004 2005  2006  2007 2008 2009 2010

                                                                                see FEASIBILITY STUDIES, page 10

Spring 2008
Page 6
                        Proposed FY 2009 Presidential Budget
        President Bush's $3.1 trillion fiscal year (FY) 2009
        budget request to Congress includes funding for
        several programs and agencies related to coal
  mining and coal mine methane.
     The proposed budget for the U.S. Environmental
  Protection Agency is $7.14 billion, slightly lower than the
  FY 2008 request of $7.2 and the $7.5 billion budget en-
  acted by Congress. The president requests $938.6 million
  in FY 2009 for EPA's Clean Air and Global Climate
  Change programs, which aim to improve air quality, re-
  duce human and environmental health risks and reduce
  greenhouse gas intensity by enhancing partnerships with
  businesses and other sectors. This request is an increase
  from the $910.4 million requested for FY 2008, but is lower
  than the $971.7 million enacted by Congress. EPA's FY
  2009 proposed budget includes the following:
     >   $4.4 million for the Methane to Markets program,
         which promotes methane recovery and use at
         landfills, coal mines, oil and natural gas facilities,
         and biological waste management. This request is
         identical to the request made in FY 2008.
     >   $5 million to support the Asia Pacific Partnership
         on Clean Development and Climate's international
         efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The
         proposed Asia-Pacific funding is the same level
         requested for FY 2008.
     The president requested $25 billion in overall FY 2009
  funding for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), up
  from the $24.3 billion requested in the FY 2008 budget
  and the $23.9 enacted by Congress. The president's re-
  quest includes the following:
     >   $156 million to fund DOE's restructured approach
         to funding the FutureGen project, which aims to
         demonstrate cutting-edge carbon capture and
         storage (CCS) technologies at multiple commer-
         cial-scale Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle
         clean coal power plants.
         >  $85 million to support the Clean Coal Power Initia-
            tive, an increase over the $73 million requested
            last year.
         >  $407 million for advanced coal research and de-
            velopment activities, including $149 million for
            Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships that
            are charged with studying the injection of up to
            one million tons of carbon dioxide into geologic
         The president has requested $53.1 billion to fund the
      Department of Labor in FY 2009, including $332  million
      for the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA),
      which oversees all active mines. For coal mine safety and
      health, MSHA's proposed budget calls for $145 million, a
      drop from the $154.7 million enacted for FY 2008.
         For the Department of the Interior (DOI), the presi-
      dent's budget request calls for $10.7 billion in FY 09 fund-
      ing.  This budget includes the following:
         >  For the Office of Surface Mining (OSM), the
            budget includes:
            •   $298.4 million in Abandoned Mine Land  (AML)
                Reclamation grants to states and tribal gov-
            •   $30.8 million for abandoned mine reclamation
         >  The proposed Bureau of Land Management  (BLM)
            FY 2009 budget request is $1.002 billion, including
            $35 million to fund the Mining Law Administration

      For additional information:
      The president's FY 2009 budget request is available  at:
      Information on the President's FY 2009 budget request for
      EPA: www.epa.gov/ocfo/budget/index.htm tf
                           What do you want to know about?
     If you have suggestions or requests for future CBM Extra content, please drop us a line.
                          Jemelkova.Barbora@epa.gov or Somers.Jayne@epa.gov

Spring 2008
Page 7
                                     COALBED METHANE EXTRA
                          Update - Legislative Activity on the Hill
        The remainder of the second
        session of the 110th Congress
        has potential for important leg-
  islative activity related to climate
  change. Several bills that would im-
  pose a mandatory cap-and-trade
  emissions reduction program have
  already been introduced. On Decem-
  ber 5th, the Senate Environment and
  Public Work Committee voted 11 -8 to
  favorably report the Lieberman-
  Warner Climate Security Act (S.
  2191). This is the first greenhouse
  gas (GHG) cap-and-trade bill that has
  ever been voted out of a Congres-
  sional committee.
                            U.S. EPA recently analyzed the
                         economic and GHG impacts of S.
                         2191 and found that relative to the
                         reference case scenario, S. 2191
                         would reduce U.S. GHG emissions by
                         about 40 percent in 2030 and by
                         about 56 percent in 2050. Compared
                         to historical emissions, emissions un-
                         der S. 2191 would be approximately
                         11  percent lower than 1990 levels in
                         2030 and 25 percent lower than 1990
                         levels in 2050. According to EPA's
                         analysis, the electricity sector pro-
                         vides the greatest source of emis-
                         sions reductions, largely through an
                         expansion of nuclear power and de-
                               ployment of carbon capture and stor-
                               age (CCS). With enabling technolo-
                               gies widely available, electricity prices
                               are projected to increase 44 percent
                               by 2030 and 26 percent by 2050.
                                  The Energy Information Admini-
                               stration (EIA) is likely to make the
                               results of its analysis of S. 2191 avail-
                               able to the public by mid- to late-April.
                                  Several other cap-and-trade pro-
                               posals have been introduced in the
                               110th Congress. Table 1 summarizes
                               the major proposals.  Figure 1 illus-
                               trates the GHG emission targets of
                                      see LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITY, page 8
                     Table 1. Economy-Wide Cap-and-Trade Proposals in the 110  Congress
   Lieberman -
   (S. 2191)
   Bingaman -
   (S. 1766)

   McCain -
   (S. 280)

   Sanders -
   (S. 309)

   Kerry -
   (S. 485)

   (H.R. 620)
  (H.R. 1590)
   Scope of Coverage
Economy wide - upstream for transport
fuels & natural gas; downstream for
large coal users; separate cap for HFC
Economy wide - upstream for natural
gas & petroleum; downstream for coal
Economy wide - upstream for transpor-
tation sector; downstream for electric
utilities & large sources

Economy wide - not specified
Economy wide - not specified

Economy wide - upstream for transpor-
tation sector; downstream for electric
utilities & large sources

Economy wide - not specified
                                               2010-2019 Cap    2020-2029 Cap
4% below 2005 level
in 2012
2012 level in 2012
2004 level in 2012
2010 level in 2010
2% per year reduc-
tion from 2012-2020
2010 level in 2010
2004 level in 2012
2009 level in 2010
2% per year reduc-
tion from 2011-2020
19% below 2005
level in 2020
                  2006 level in 2020
                  1990 level in 2020
1990 level in 2010

1990 level in 2020
2.5% per year
reduction from

1990 level in 2020
1990 levels in 2020
5% per year reduc-
tion from 2020-
                                           2030-2050 Cap
71% below 2005 level in 2050
                 1990 level in 2030
                 President may set long-term target
                 >60% below 2006 level by 2050 contin-
                 gent upon international effort
20% below 1990 level in 2030
60% below 1990 level in 2050

27% below 1990 level in 2030
53% below 1990 level in 2040
80% below 1990 level in 2050

                                   3.5% per year reduction from 2030-2050
22% below 1990 level in 2030
70% below 1990 level in 2050

5% per year reduction from 2030-2050
80% below 1990 levels in 2050
  Source: Modified from Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Comparison of Economy-Wide Cap-and-Trade Proposals in the 110
        (January 2008) www.pewclimate.org
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Spring 2008
Page 8
                                         New Publications!
  CMOP Publishes Revamped Re-
  port on CMM Upgrading Technolo-
      In its new report, Upgrading
  Drained Coal Mine Methane to Pipe-
  line Quality (PDF), (26 pp, 379K) the
  Coalbed Methane Outreach Program
  (CMOP) provides an overview of gas
  upgrading technologies that can be
  used to remove contaminants typi-
  cally found in coal mine methane
  (CMM). This report provides several
  examples of successful technology
  installations in operation at coal
  mines today. The report's appendix
  contains profiles of vendors with com-
  mercially-available technologies as
  well as technologies in the demon-
  stration and R&D phases. The report
  can be found on the CMOP website,
  along side other resources (click on
  "Implementing a Project" under
  "Documents"): www.epa.gov/cmop/
Draft 2008 "Inventory of U.S.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and
Sinks" Available
    The U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency has issued a draft of its
annual report that analyzes sources
of greenhouse gas emissions, Inven-
tory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emis-
sions and Sinks: 1990-2006.
    The major finding in this year's
draft report is that overall emissions
during 2006 decreased by  1.5 per-
cent from the previous year. This de-
crease was due primarily to a  reduc-
tion in carbon dioxide emissions as-
sociated with fuel and electricity con-
sumption. Total U.S. greenhouse gas
emissions in 2006 were about 7,202
million metric tons of CO2 equivalent
based on emissions of carbon diox-
ide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro-
fluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and
sulfur hexafluoride. Overall, emis-
sions have grown by 14.1 percent
from 1990 to 2006 while the U.S.
economy has grown by 59 percent
over the same period.
More information: www.epa.gov/

United States Coalbed Methane
    The Energy Information Admini-
stration's coalbed methane resources
map and data (including a spatial
data file of thelOO gassiest U.S. un-
derground coal mines) are now
posted  on the EIA website and are
downloadable at:
maps/maps. htm#Top
  Legislative Activity.
  page 7
  the various proposals, according to
  analysis by the Pew Center on Global
  Climate Change. These legislative
  proposals include coverage of the six
  major greenhouse gases (carbon
  dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, per-
  fluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons,
  and sulfur hexafluoride).
      U.S. EPA has also conducted
  analyses of the economic impacts  of
  S. 1766 and S.280. See
  economicanalyses.html C
        -Historical U.S. emissions (EPA, 199G-2005I
        -Business-as-usual projection (AE02007)
        -Sanders-Boxer/ Waxman
        -Bingaman-SDecter policy
     Source: Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Comparison of Economy-Wide Cap-and- Trade Proposals in the 110th Congress (January 2008)
                                        Figure 1. Illustration of Total U.S. GHG Emissions Targets in Legislative Proposals
                                                         Courtesy of the Pew Center on Global Climate-www.pewclimate.org

Spring 2008
Page 9
     CBM/CMM  News
  China's Coalbed Methane Re-
  sources Make News
      An article appearing in Busi-
  nessWeek (3 January 2008) empha-
  sizes the importance of coal to China
  and discusses the country's efforts to
  take advantage of coalbed / coal
  mine methane by using it to power
  steel mills, heat homes, and fuel pub-
  lic buses and taxis.  Until recently,
  most Chinese coal mines have simply
  released coal mine methane (CMM)
  directly into the atmosphere. The
  Chinese government has set an am-
  bitious target to increase coalbed
  methane (CBM) use from 3% of the
  country's total natural gas consump-
  tion in 2006,  to  10 billion cubic me-
  ters, or 10%  of total gas use, by
  2010. The article highlights the nu-
  merous Chinese policies initiated in
  the past 18 months, designed to
  achieve this goal.
      According to the  article, in the
  past year or so foreign investment in
  China's CBM and CMM industries
  has skyrocketed. The Kyoto Protocol
  has created financial incentives for
  Chinese power plants to switch from
  coal to coal mine methane, since they
  are eligible for carbon credits under
  the Clean Development Mechanism
  (COM).  China's CBM industry is cur-
  rently constrained by the existing
  pipeline infrastructure capacity. Until
  pipelines are built connecting natural
  gas fields in Central and Western
  China to cities along the coast, coal-
  bed methane companies must com-
  press or liquefy methane and ship it
  as liquefied natural gas (LNG) or
  compressed  natural gas (CNG) to
  gas stations and other customers.
BusinessWeek, 3 January 2008

Wall Street Banks Establish The
Carbon Principles
    Three of the world's leading fi-
nancial institutions announced the
formation of The Carbon Principles,
climate change guidelines for advi-
sors and lenders to power companies
in the United States. These Principles
are the result of a nine-month inten-
sive effort to create an approach to
evaluating and addressing carbon
risks in the financing of electric power
    Citigroup Inc., J.P. Morgan
Chase & Co., and Morgan Stanley
say they expect a federal green-
house-gas-emissions cap in the next
few years that will make conventional
coal-fired power plants riskier invest-
ments.  Given the current uncertainty,
the banks plan to make conservative
assumptions as they screen power-
plant financing requests. Under the
Carbon Principles, the banks will re-
quire companies applying for coal-
fired power-plant financing in the U.S.
to show they've evaluated energy-
efficiency and renewable-energy op-
tions and found them insufficient. As
for proposed coal plants, the banks
will seek evidence that the plants are
designed with the capacity to capture
and store underground their future
carbon-dioxide  emissions, or that the
plants will be able to charge high
enough electricity rates to pay for
extra emission allowances.
    For additional information see
Citigroup's press release issued 4
February 2008 at:
Environmental Capital (WSJ Blog), 4
February 2008 blogs.wsj.com/

Trade Group Expects Record Coal
Demand in 2008
    The National Mining Association
expects 1.16 billion tons of coal to be
mined this year in the U.S., topping
the 1.15 billion tons mined last year
and 2 million tons shy of the produc-
tion record set in 2006.
Greenwire, 24 January 2008
www.greenwire.com  (subscription

International Coal Price Predicted
to Hit Record
    Merrill Lynch has raised its  fore-
casts for contract prices of coal for
power plants and steel mills in 2008,
predicting that prices will jump by as
much as 200 percent, after recent
supply disruptions resulted in a  se-
vere global shortage. The bank pre-
dicted that contract prices for coking
coal, used to make steel, will  reach a
record high of $300 a tonne, a three-
fold rise from last year, due to recent
supply disruptions from Australia,
China, and South Africa, combined
with powerful Asian demand.
    Brokerage Goldman Sachs JB
Were predicted that prices for coking
coal and thermal coal would reach
$200 a tonne and $130 a tonne, re-
Reuters, 7 March 2008
32348920080307?sp=true  W

Spring 2008
Page 10
                                        SAVE THE DATE!
   2008 U.S. CMM Conference
   28 - 30 October 2008
   Omni William Penn Hotel
   Pittsburgh, PA

       U.S. EPA is pleased to
   announce this year's U.S. Coal Mine
   Methane Conference. After a
   successful 2007 conference in St.
   Louis, the EPA's Coalbed Methane
   Outreach Program (CMOP) aims to
   bring you a bigger and better event
   in 2008 with an in-depth look at new
   projects, project updates, industry
   forecasts, new technologies, and
       We'll also take discussions
   about coal mine methane out of the
   conference room and into the  field,
   with a can't-miss field trip to a
   nearby Consol Energy/CNX Gas site
   to observe its advanced
   degasification and methane recovery
   This year's conference takes
place at the Omni William Penn
Hotel, a luxury hotel in downtown
Pittsburgh close to many of the city's
best attractions. EPA  has secured a
limited number of rooms at the
government per diem  rate - currently
$108.00 per night - for the
conference. To make  your
reservations, simply call 1-800-THE-
OMNI, and mention the U.S. Coal
Mine Methane Conference to
receive this special rate.
   Look for more details, agenda,
and registration information for the
2008 U.S. Coal Mine Methane
Conference, soon to be posted
online atwww.epa.gov/cmop/conf/
index.html. You may also e-mail
meetings@erg.com for more
information about the event.

  We look forward to seeing you in
   Feasibility Studies.   /  e5
      The results of the technical analyses will be summarized along
   with project implementation recommendations in a comprehensive
   final report.
      China is the world's largest coal producer and has significant op-
   portunity to recover and utilize coal mine methane emissions as a
   clean energy source.  The U.S. and China have worked collaboratively
   together since the early 1990s to promote the development of CMM
   recovery and utilization projects. In 1994, EPA and China established
   a Coalbed  Methane Clearinghouse, operated by the China Coal Infor-
   mation  Institute (CCII) within the State Administration of Worker Safety
   (SAWS). EPA continues to support the Clearinghouse in their efforts
   to advance CMM development in China.  The U.S. and China continue
   to work together through the Methane to  Markets Partnership to ad-
   vance coal mine methane recovery in China.  Both the Sakel Coal and
   Songzao Mine sites were featured as project opportunities at the 2007
   Partnership Expo in Beijing, China (www.methanetomarkets.org/
   events/2007/all/expoprojects.htm). tf?
                                                                          CMOP Contacts
                              Address inquiries about the Coalbed Methane
                              Extra or about the USEPA Coalbed Methane
                              Outreach Program to:
                              Pamela Franklin
                              Phone: 202-343-9476
                              E-mail: franklin.pamela@epa.gov
                              Barbora Jemelkova
                              Phone: 202-343-9899
                              E-mail: jemelkova.barbora@epa.gov
                              Jayne Somers
                              Phone: 202-343-9896
                              E-mail: somers.jayne@epa.gov
                              Our mailing address is:
                              US Environmental Protection Agency
                              Coalbed Methane Outreach Program, 6207J
                              1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
                              Washington, DC 20460

Spring 2008
Page 11
                                Upcoming CBM/CMM Events
   6th Annual CoalTrans China
   14-15 April 2008
   Beijing, China
   Website: www.coaltrans.com/default.asp?

   Miningworld Russia
   16-18 April 2008
   Crocus Expo
   Moscow, Russia
   Website: www.primexpo.ru/mining/eng

   2008 AAPG Annual Convention
   20 - 23 April 2008
   San Antonio, Texas
   Program themes include Hydrocarbons from Shale & Coal
   Website: www.aapg.org/sanantonio/

   North American Coalbed Methane (NACBM) Spring
   29 - 30 April 2008
   Hilton Garden Inn - Southpointe
   Canonsburg, Pennsylvania
   Contact: K. Aminian
   Email: khaminian@mail.wvu.edu

   Methane to Markets Coal Subcommittee Meeting
   29 - 30 April 2008
   Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy
   Website: www.methanetomarkets.org/events/2008/coal/

   Coal Prep 2008
   29 April - 1 May 2008
   Lexington Center
   Lexington, Kentucky
   Website: coalaggprepshow.com/CoalPrep2008/Public/

   Carbon Expo
   7 - 9 May 2008
   Cologne, Germany
   Website: www.carbonexpo.com/

   2008 Coalbed and Shale Gas Symposium
   19-23 May 2008
   The University  of Alabama Bryant Conference Center
   Tuscaloosa, Alabama
   Website: www.coalbed.ua.edu/

   USEA - U.S. EPA - USTDA Workshop: CBM Power
   28-31 May 2008
   Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China
   Contact: Marjorie Jean-Pierre
   Email: mjean-pierre@usea.org
   Website: www.usea.org/natural-gas-training/index.htm
      12th U.S. / North American Mine Ventilation Sympo-
      9-11 June 2008
      The University of Nevada, Reno
      Reno, Nevada
      Website: www.unr.edu/ventsymp2008/

      China Clean Coal Summit 2008
      26-27 June 2008
      Shanghai, China
      Contact: Boris Xiong
      Telephone: +86 21 6247 8898
      Email: boris.xiong@merisis-asia.com

      CMM Recovery and Utilization Workshop
      16-17 July 2008
      Guiyang, Guizhou, China
      Contact: Katie Scott
      Email: kscott@gzcmm.org
      Website: www.gzcmm.org/

      7th European Coal Conference
      26-29 August 2008
      Lviv, Ukraine
      Contact: Dr. Andriy Poberezhskyy
      Phone: (0322) 635-047
      Email: igggk@mail.lviv.ua
      Website: www.iggcm.org.ua

      2008 Asia Pacific Coalbed Methane Symposium
      22-24 September 2008
      Brisbane, Australia
      Website: www.uq.edu.au/apcbm2008/

      MINExpo International 2008
      22-24 September 2008
      Las Vegas Convention Center
      Las Vegas, Nevada
      Phone: 630-434-7779
      Email: minexpo@heiexpo.com
      Website: www.minexpo.com

      The 25th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Confer-
      29 September - 2 October 2008
      The Westin Convention Center
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
      Website: www.engr.pitt.edu/pcc/2008%20Conference.htm

      2008 U.S. CMM Conference
      Sponsored by EPA's Coalbed Methane Outreach Program
      28 - 30 October 2008
      Omni William Penn Hotel
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
      Email:  meetings@erg.com
      Website: www.epa.gov/cmop/conf/index.html