vvEPA     Implementing the Lead Public
   SSS    Education Provision of the
   Protection Agency               —«          -^
              Lead and Copper Rule:
              A Guide For Community Water Systems
             (Original Document: Lead in Drinking Water Regulation:
    Public Education Guidance for Community Water Systems, EPA 816-R-02-010, June 2002)

      (Revised Document: Implementing the Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR,
       A Guide for Community Water Systems: EPA 816-D-07-0004, December 2007)
                                              DRAFT FOR REVIEW

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                                                         Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                         A Guide for Community Water Systems
Table of Contents
Objective and Organization
Introduction
Section 1: PE Requirements/Developing Your PE Program Plan
       Summary of Program Requirements
       Required Content of Public Education Materials
       Required Delivery Methods for Your Public Education Materials
       Consumer Confidence Report Required Information
       Developing Your Public Education Program Plan
               Public Education Flow Chart
Section 2: Designing an Effective Public Education Program
       Step 1: Know Your PE Requirements
       Step 2: Know Your Audience
               Sources of Information about your audience
       Step 3: Contact Your Community Partners
               Partnering with the public health community
               Partnering with the media
       Step 4: Prepare Your Messages
       Step 5: Identify Communication Channels to Get Your Message Out
       Step 6: Determine Your Outreach Material Needs
       Step 7: Update Your PE Program Plan
Section 3: Implementing Your Public Education Program
       Produce Your PE Materials
               Printed Materials
               Press  Release or Media Notices
               Material Templates
               Additional Materials
       Deliver Your PE Materials
               Bill Inserts
               Local Newspapers
               Radio and Television Stations
               Public Service Announcements
       Conduct Media Outreach
       Communicate Directly with the Public
               Public Meetings
       Conclude Your PE Activities at the End of the Exceedance
Conclusion
Appendix A: Frequently Asked Questions
Appendix B: Public Education Material Templates in English and Spanish
       Checklist for Implementing Your PE Program
       General Public Education Notice
       ListServ/Email Announcement
       Web Site Announcement
       Public Service Announcement
       Press Release
       Water Bill Statement/Insert
       Public Education Brochure
       Public Education Poster
       Consumer Notice of Tap Water Results
Appendix C: Contacts and Additional Resources
Appendix D: Lead and Copper Rule Public Education Requirements — Federal Regulatory Language
Appendix E: Lead and Copper CWS Public Education Fact Sheet
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                                                      Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                     A Guide for Community Water Systems
Objective  and  Organization
This guidance document explains the revised requirements for a lead Public Education (PE) program,
describes a practical approach for successfully carrying out a PE program on lead in drinking water, and
continues to serve as a tool to assist water suppliers with conducting a community-based, PE program
on lead in drinking water. The approach described here is based on our NPDWRs for lead and copper,
practical experience gained from implementing the PE requirements of the LCR, and principles of good risk
communication.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),  first issued this guidance document in July 1992.  Since that
time, EPA published minor revisions to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) for
lead and copper on January 12, 2000 (65 FR 1950). On October 10, 2007, EPA published an additional
set of short-term revisions and clarifications (72 FR 57782).  These most recent changes to the Lead
and Copper Rule (LCR) incorporate comments received from members of the National Drinking Water
Advisory Committee (NDWAC) Work Group on Public Education (WGPE), water systems, and States.
These groups have extensive experience implementing or overseeing public education (PE) programs.
The new rule requirements make changes to the content of the messages provided to consumers, how the
materials are delivered to consumers, and the timeframe in which materials must be delivered. The rule
changes still require water systems to deliver PE materials after a lead action level exceedance.  A summary
of the revised PE requirements for community water systems (CWS) is provided in Tables 1, 1A, 2, and 3 in
Section 1.

Under the authority of the Safe Drinking Water Act, EPA set the action level for lead in drinking water at
15 ppb. This means utilities must ensure that water from the customer's tap does not exceed this level in at
least 90 percent of the homes sampled (i.e. 90th percentile level). If the 90th percentile level does exceed
this limit, then the utility must take certain steps to correct the problem. One action a utility must take
following a  lead action level exceedance is to conduct public education (no public education is required if
only the copper AL is exceeded).

For utilities seeking to quickly identify the basic public education requirements after a lead action level
exceedance, we have developed a two page fact sheet summarizing requirements (Appendix E).

Many systems have already developed PE programs, but we believe that systems, both large and  small, will
find this document useful in understanding the modifications to the PE requirements resulting from the
most recent LCR changes in helping them to develop more effective PE programs..

The guidance manual is divided into the following sections:

*  Introduction provides a discussion of the health effects of lead, a brief history of the LCR regulations,
   and discusses the importance of conducting a thorough PE program that is grounded in strong risk
   communication principles.

*  Section I: PE Program Requirements summarizes requirements that water suppliers must meet
   to comply with the Federal regulations and  how the latest LCR rule changes have impacted these
   requirements.

*  Section II: Designing an Effective PE Program suggests practical steps a water system can take to plan a
   PE program prior to an exceedance.

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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
A Guide for Community Water Systems

n*  Section III: Implementing Your PE Program discusses how a water system can implement their PE
   requirements in the event of an exceedance; details tips for preparing materials needed to effectively
   communicate with the public; and provides practical tips on working with the media and communicating
   directly with the public.

This document contains five appendices:
>  Appendix A: Frequently Asked Questions about Lead in Drinking Water
t»-  Appendix B: PE Materials Templates
>  Appendix C: Contacts/Additional Sources of Information
n*  Appendix D: Lead and Copper Rule Public Education Requirements—Federal Regulatory Language
>  Appendix E: Lead and Copper CWS Public Education Fact Sheet
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                                                      Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                      A Guide for Community Water Systems


Introduction

Reducing lead in the environment is an important public health issue. Lead, a metal found in natural
deposits, is harmful to human health. The most common exposure to lead is swallowing or breathing in
lead paint chips and dust. However, lead in drinking water can also be a source of lead exposure. Lead is
used in some water service lines and household plumbing materials. Lead in water occurs through corrosion
of plumbing products containing lead. Lead can cause serious health problems if too much enters your
body from drinking water or other sources. It can cause damage to the brain and kidneys, and can interfere
with the production of red blood cells that carry oxygen to all parts of your body. The greatest risk of lead
exposure is to infants, young children, and pregnant women. Scientists have linked the effects of lead on the
brain with lowered IQ in children. Adults with kidney problems and high blood pressure can be affected by
low levels of lead more than healthy adults.  Lead is stored in the bones and it can be released later in life.
During pregnancy, the child receives lead from the mother's bones, which may affect brain development.
EPA has taken a number of actions to limit our total exposure to lead, such as phasing out the use of lead in
gasoline and banning lead based paint. As a result of EPA's actions and those of other government agencies,
total exposure to lead is  much lower today than in the late 1970s.

On June 7, 1991, EPA promulgated provisions to the maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs) and
NPDWRs for controlling lead and copper in drinking water (56 FR 26460). We modified this rule with four
technical amendments that were published in the Federal Register on July 15,  1991  (56 FR 32113), June
29, 1992 (57 FR 28785), June 30, 1994 (59 FR 33860), and minor revisions to reduce the reporting burden
were published on January 12, 2000 (65 FR 1950). Beginning in 2004, EPA conducted a national review of
implementation of the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) to determine if there was a national problem related to
elevated lead levels in drinking water.  Our review placed a focus on determining if the existing rule was being
effectively implemented by states and local communities and on identifying where additional guidance or
changes to the regulation were needed to improve implementation. During 2004, Congress held a number
of oversight hearings to  further investigate implementation of the LCR in the District of Columbia and the
nation.

On October 10, 2007, EPA published the latest changes to the LCR These revisions are intended to  better
ensure that at-risk populations receive information quickly and are able to act to reduce their exposure. It is
EPA's belief that these changes will also help water systems to better comply with the PE requirements.

The LCR  requires water suppliers to deliver water that is minimally corrosive, thereby reducing the
likelihood that lead and copper will be introduced into the drinking water from the corrosion of lead
and copper plumbing materials. In addition, it requires water suppliers to educate their customers about
specific measures that can be used to reduce lead levels in home drinking water caused by lead in household
plumbing  materials — the primary source of lead in drinking water.

The LCR  specifies that a water system must conduct a PE program on lead in drinking water if, during a
monitoring period, more than 10 percent of the tap water samples collected in accordance with 40 CFR
§141.86 of the regulations (i.e., the 90th percentile lead level) exceed the EPA "action level"  of 15 parts
per billion (ppb), or 0.015 milligrams of lead per liter of water (mg/L). Specific requirements regarding the
content and delivery of PE materials are contained in §141.85 of the regulation. Section 1 of this guidance
document details these requirements.

This guidance document presents practical steps and helpful tips for large and small systems to understand

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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
A Guide for Community Water Systems


their PE requirements under the LCR and to design and implement a community-based education program
on lead and drinking water that reaches all segments of the population. This guidance document provides
comprehensive information and includes required and suggested activities for conducting a successful
PE effort. Water systems should pay particular attention to Section 1 for the specific PE requirements in
the event of an exceedance. The key to reducing the health risks associated with lead in drinking water is
communicating these risks with those who most need to hear this information  and in the manner in which
they are used to receiving information. A good PE program equals good risk communication.
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                                                    Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                   A Guide for Community Water Systems
Section  1

PE Requirements/Developing Your PE Program  Plan

Conducting an effective Public Education (PE) program is essential if your system experiences a lead action
level exceedance. The Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) requires specific actions in the event of an exceedance
to inform the affected community about the risks associated with elevated lead levels (particularly to children
and expectant or nursing mothers), to provide information on what the water system is doing to address lead
in drinking water, and to advise the community on actions individuals  can take to reduce their chance of
exposure to elevated levels of lead in drinking water.

This section details the specific PE requirements under the LCR and presents basic steps in developing a
PE Program Plan. Sections 2 and 3 go into a greater level of detail on each step in the Program Plan and
strategies for implementing each step. Water systems, both large and small, should pay particular attention
to the requirements outlined in Section 1 in order to meet your obligations under the LCR (Appendix D of
this document provides a copy of the Federal regulatory language described in this document.)

Summary of Program Requirements

This document provides guidance to you, the public water supplier, regarding the PE requirements of
the LCR, as amended in 2007. Section 141.85 of the lead and copper rule regulations  contain specific
requirements regarding the content and delivery of your public education program. The tables below
highlight the changes to the PE requirements contained in §141.85 and other public information
requirements. Refer to pages 5-7 of this Section for complete program requirements.

Note: Water systems must submit all written public education materials to the state prior to delivery. The
state may require the system to obtain approval of the content of written PE materials  prior to delivery.
Table 1. Changes in the Public Education Requirements Resulting from the Lead and Copper
Rule Short-term Revisions and Clarifications
Revisions:
Applies to:
Content of Materials
Must alter language of previous public education according to the new text.
May use personalized language to discuss sources of lead and steps to reduce lead
in drinking water (previously pre-written text was required. Systems are now able
to develop own text within the guidelines that is applicable to local situation).
Must include language explaining what happened and what is being done.
Must include language providing contacts for more information.
Must include language explaining how to get water tested and lead in plumbing
components (low lead vs. lead free).
All water systems
All water systems
All water systems
All water systems
CWSs
Delivery of Public Education Materials
Must deliver printed materials meeting the content requirements to all bill paying
customers within 60 days after the end of the monitoring period in which the
exceedance occurred.
CWSs
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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
A Guide for Community Water Systems
Table 1. Changes in the Public Education Requirements Resulting from the Lead and Copper
Rule Short-term Revisions and Clarifications - (continued)
Revisions:
Must, no less than quarterly, provide information on or in each water bill as long
as the system exceeds the action level for lead after the end of the moitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred.* The message on the water bill must
include the following statement as written: "[Insert name of water system] found
high levels of lead in drinking water in some homes. Lead can cause serious health
problems. For more information please call [insert name of water system] of visit
[insert your Web site here.]
Must continue to include information in water utility bill every billing cycle while
still in exceedance of lead action level.
Must make a good-faith effort within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred to contact customers most at risk by
delivering materials to the contact list of organizations with an informational
notice encouraging them to pass the information along.
Must deliver materials that meet content requirements to local public health
agency and directly contact the agencies within 60 days after the end of the
monitoring period in which the exceedance occurred.
Must post material to water system's Web site within 60 days after the end of the
monitoring period in which the exceedance occurred.
Must submit press release to newspaper, television, and radio stations within 60
days after the end of the monitoring period in which the exceedance occurred.
Must repeat submission of press releases twice every 12 months while still in
exceedance of lead action level.
Must implement additional activities from one or more of the categories listed
within 60 days after the end of the period in which the exceedance occurred (See
Tables 2 and 3).
May distribute notices to every household served by system in place of providing
organizations with information to provide to their members.
Must repeat delivering printed materials, good-faith efforts, and outreach
activities every 12 months while still in exceedance of lead action level.
May receive extension from State on 60 day requirement if needed for
implementation purposed.
End of the monitoring period is September 30 of the calendar year in which
sampling occurs, or, if the State has established an alternate monitoring period,
the last day of that period.
Applies to:
CWSs
CWSs
CWSs
CWSs
CWSs serving a population
greater than 100,000
CWSs
CWSs
CWSs
CWSs serving 3,300 or
fewer people (previously
for CWSs serving between
501 and 3,300 people)
CWSs
CWSs
All water systems that
are required to conduct
monitoring annually or
less frequently
*Note: The message or delivery mechanism can be modified in consultation with the state. Specifically, the state may allow
 a separate mailing of PE materials to customers if the water system cannot place information on the water bills.


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                                                              Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                                A Guide for Community Water Systems
Table 1A. Other Lead and Copper Rule Public Information Requirements
Revisions:
Applies to:
Notification of Results - Reporting Requirements1
Must provide a consumer notice of lead tap water monitoring results to
all persons served by sampling sites.2
Must provide consumer notice as soon as practical, but no later than 30
days after system learns of tap monitoring results.
Must include the following information: results of lead tap water
monitoring, an explanation of the health effects of lead, list steps
consumers can take to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water, and
contact information for the water utility. The notice must also provide
the maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) and the action level (AL) for
lead and definitions for these two terms.3
Must be provided to all persons served at the site by mail or other
methods. This includes those who do not receive a water bill.
All water systems
All water systems
All water systems
All water systems
Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Requirements4
Every report must include the following lead-specific information: If
present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems,
especially for pregnant women and young children. Lead in drinking
water is primarily from materials and components associated with service
lines and home plumbing. [NAME OF UTILITY] is responsible for providing
high quality drinking water, but cannot control the variety of materials
used in plumbing components. When your water has been sitting for
several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by
flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for
drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your water, you
may wish to have your water tested. Information on lead in drinking
water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is
available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at http://www.epa.gov/
safewater/lead.5
A system may write its own statement in consultation with the state.
All CWSs
All CWSs
1See Appendix Cfor a template with language that meets the notification of results requirements.
2This must be done whether or not you have a lead action level exceedence.
3The MCLG is the level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs
 allow for a  margin of safety. The action level (AL) is the concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers
 treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow.
4This information must be included in the CCR whether or not the CWS has had a lead action level exceedence.
5For CWSs that have a lead action level exceedence, the new required language is in addition to what the system is required
 to report in the CCR.
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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
A Guide for Community Water Systems
I.   Required Content of Public Education Materials
Your PE notices are required to begin with the following statement:
   Important Information about Lead in Your Drinking Water
   [Insert name of water system] found elevated levels of lead in drinking water in some homes/buildings. Lead can
   cause serious health problems,  especially for pregnant women and young children. Please read this information
   closely to see what you can do to reduce lead in your drinking water.
In addition to this statement, your PE notices are required to include, and in the order presented, the
topics in bold and the mandatory language noted in italics. Additional information under the topics
must be addressed in your PE materials, however, the specific content and wording is flexible. (Appendix B
contains a template for a PE notice with the required content as well as suggested EPA language. Additional
information for developing statements may be found at EPA's Lead Web site at www.epa.gov/lead).

>  Health  Effects of Lead
Lead can came serious health problems if too much enters your body from drinking water or other sources. It can
cause damage to the brain and kidneys,  andean interfere with the production of red blood cells that carry oxygen
to all parts of your body. The greatest risk of lead exposure is to infants, young children, and pregnant women.
Scientists have linked the effects of lead on the brain with lowered/Q in children.  Adults with kidney problems
and high blood pressure can be affected by low levels of lead more than healthy adults.  Lead is stored in the bones
and it can be released later in life.  During pregnancy, the child receives lead from the mother's  bones,  which may
affect brain development.

>  Sources of Lead
   • What is lead?
   • Where does the lead in drinking water come from?  Include information on home/building plumbing
     materials and service lines that may contain lead.
   • What are other important sources of lead in addition to drinking water? (e.g., paint)

>  Steps you can take to reduce your exposure to lead in your water
   • You must include a recommendation on running water to flush out the lead.1
   • You must explain concerns with using hot water and specifically caution against the use of hot water for
     baby formula (because lead dissolves  more easily in hot water).
   • You must tell customers that boiling  water does not reduce lead levels.
   • You must discuss other options customers can take to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water,  such as
     alternative sources or treatment of water.
   • You must suggest that parents have their child's blood tested for lead.
   • You must tell customers how to get their water tested.
   • You must discuss lead in plumbing components and the difference between low lead  and lead free.
1 Consider conducting a study to determine the appropriate system specific flushing time. Consult with the state before designing or beginning
a study. For example, a study may consist of collecting tap samples at different flushing time durations from a statistically significant number of
taps. In addition, use a sample size that is different than the sample size used for the 90th percent calculation to avoid study samples from being
included in the 90th percent calculation.

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                                                       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                       A Guide for Community Water Systems
*  What happened? What is being done?
   • Why are there high levels of lead in my drinking water (if known)?
   • What are you (the water system) doing to reduce the lead levels in homes in this area?
   • Does your system have lead service lines? How can a consumer find out if their home has one? Is there a
     program to replace it? Are there any special incentives offered?
   • Your system may also want to provide information on the history of lead levels in tap samples: have
     they declined substantially over time? Have they been low and risen recently? Is there a known reason
     for any change?


>•  For more information
Call us at [Insert Number] or (if applicable) visit our Web site at [Insert Web site Here].  For more information
on reducing lead exposure around your home/building and the health effects of lead, visit EPA's Web site at www.
epa.gov/lead, or contact your health care provider.


   • We recommend you include the name of your system and the date that the information is being
    distributed, along with the state water system ID, somewhere on the notice.


II.     Required Delivery Methods for Your Public Education Materials

Tables 2 and 3 provide a summary of the required PE activities and the timing of their implementation,
depending on system size. (Appendix B contains templates for all of the types of required notices and the
required content).
 Table 2. Required Methods of Delivery for Small (<3,300 customers) Community Water Systems
                     Requirement
                  Timing1
 Deliver printed materials (pamphlets, brochures, posters) to
 all bill paying customers
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
 Deliver public education materials to the following facilities
 and organizations that are served by the system that are
 most likely to be visited regularly by pregnant women and
 children:2
 1.  Local public health agencies3
 2.  Public and private schools or school boards
 3.  Women Infants and Children (WIC) and Head Start
    programs
 4.  Public and private hospitals and medical clinics
 5.  Pediatricians
 6.  Family planning clinics
 7.  Local welfare agencies
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
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       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
       A Guide for Community Water Systems
Table 2. Required Methods of Delivery for Small (<3,300 customers) Community Water Systems
(Continued)
Requirement
Make a good faith effort to locate the following
organizations within the service area and deliver materials
that meet the content requirements, along with an
informational notice that encourages distribution to all
potentially affected customers or users. The good faith
effort to contact at-risk customers may include requesting
a specific contact list of the organizations from the local
public health agencies, even if the agencies are not located
within the water system service area:4
1 . Licensed childcare centers
2. Public and private preschools
3. Obstetricians-Gynecologists and Midwives
Provide information on or in each water bill (no less than
quarterly or state can approve a separate mailing)5'6
Submit press release to newspaper, television, and radio
stations7
Implement additional Public Education activities8
Timing1
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
Each billing cycle for as long as the system
exceeds the lead action level
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
        1 State can allow activities to extend beyond the 60-day requirement if needed for implementation purposes; however, this
         extension must be approved in writing in advance of the 60-day deadline.
        2 To obtain a list of organizations in your area, contact your local public health agency.  Additional informational resources
         of associations and licensing agencies of these organizations are listed in Appendix C.
        3 Systems are required to contact their Local Public Health Agencies directly (either in person or by phone).
        4For further clarification of a good faith effort, systems should consult with their primacy agency.
        5State may allow a separate mailing if the water system cannot place information on the water bill.
        5Systems may add additional pages (e.g.,  public education brochure) to the Consumer Confidence Report if timing is
         appropriate. However, it may be rare that timing will coincide, given that the CCR must contain compliance data collected
         in the previous calendar year and the report must  be provided to consumers no later than July 1  (i.e., the report issued by
         July 1, 2007 contains  compliance data collected in calendar year 2006).
        7State may waive this requirement as long as the system distributes notices to every household served by the system.
        8 See Table 4 for a listing of the additional required activities for small systems.
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                                                              Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                               A Guide for Community Water Systems
 Table 3. Required Methods of Delivery for Large (>3,300 customers) Community Water Systems
                          Requirement
                   Timing1
 Deliver printed materials (pamphlets, brochures, posters) to all bill
 paying customers
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
 Deliver public education materials to the following organizations
 that are located within your service area, along with a cover letter
 encouraging distribution to all potentially affected customers or
 users:2
 1. Local public health agencies3
 2. Public and private schools or school boards
 3. Women Infants and Children (WIC) and Head Start programs
 4. Public and private hospitals and medical clinics
 5. Pediatricians
 6. Family planning clinics
 7. Local welfare agencies
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
 Make a good faith effort to locate the following organizations
 within the service area and deliver materials that meet the content
 requirements, along with an informational notice that encourages
 distribution to all potentially affected customers or users. The
 good faith effort to contact at-risk customers may include
 requesting a specific contact list of the organizations from the
 local public health agencies, even if the agencies are not located
 within the water system service area:4
 1. Licensed childcare centers
 2. Public and  private pre-schools
 3. Obstetricians-Gynecologists and Midwives
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
 Provide information on or in each water bill (no less than quarterly
 or state can approve a separate mailing)5'6
Each billing cycle for as long as the system
exceeds the lead action level
 Post material on the water system's Web site (for systems serving
 > 100,000 individuals)
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
 Submit press release to newspaper, television, and radio stations
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
 Implement additional Public Education activities7
Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
period in which the exceedance occurred and
repeating once every 12 months
1 State can allow activities to extend beyond the 60-day requirement if needed for implementation purposes; however, this
 extension must be approved in writing in advance of the 60-day deadline.
2 To obtain a list of organizations in your area, contact your local public health agency. Additional informational resources of
 associations and licensing agencies of these organizations are listed in Appendix C.
3 Systems are required to contact their Local Public Health Agencies directly (either in person or by phone).
4 For further clarification of a good faith effort, systems should consult with their primacy agency.
5State may allow a separate mailing if the water system cannot place information on the water bill.  See Appendix B for the
 requred water bill language.
5 Systems may add additional pages (e.g., public education brochure) to the Consumer Confidence Report if timing is appropriate.
 However, it may be rare that timing will coincide, given that the CCR must contain compliance data collected in the previous
 calendar year and the report must be provided to consumers no later than July 1 (i.e., the report issued by July 1, 2007 contains
 compliance data collected in calendar year 2006).
7 See Table 4 for a listing of the additional required activities for large systems.
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       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
       A Guide for Community Water Systems
      In addition to the activities described previously that are required for all community water systems, there are
      requirements that affect water systems depending on their size.  Small systems (serving <3,300 individuals)
      are required to conduct one (1) additional activity listed in Table 4. Large systems (serving >3,300
      individuals) are required to conduct three (3) activities from one,  two, or three of the general categories listed
      in Table 4.  Systems should verify with their primary agency to ensure fulfillment of all requirements.
Table 4. Required Methods of Delivery for Community Water Systems to Choose From1
Categories
Public Service Announcements
Paid Advertisements
Display Information in Public Areas
Email to Customers
Public Meetings
Delivery to Every Household
Individual Contact with Customers (targeted contact)
Provide Materials Directly to Multi-family Housing
Other Methods Approved by the State
Example Activities
Radio and Television PSAs
Newspaper, transit, or movie theater ads
Community and health centers
Local sporting events
Grocery stores
Laundromat bulletin boards
Libraries
Faith-based organizations
Community listservs
Utility Web site (for small systems serving < 3,300)2
Post on local government Web sites

Town hall meetings
PTA meetings
Doorknob hangers, mailing to all consumers
Phone trees
Calls to individual consumers/households
Targeted mailings to at-risk populations
Posters, flyers

       1 Appendix B contains customizable templates for PE materials that may be used to meet these requirements.
       2 Large Systems must conduct this activity (see Table 3).
12


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                                                          Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                          A Guide for Community Water Systems

                                                                              	

In addition to the required PE activities above, all CWSs must include a statement about lead, health
effects language, and ways to reduce exposure in every CCR released to the public. Flexibility is given to
CWSs to write its own educational statement, but only in consultation with the Primacy Agency.

Please note, this new  requirement applies to all CWSs irrespective of whether they have had a lead action
level exceedence.

For CWSs that have a lead action level exceedance, the new required language (see below) is in addition
to what a system is required to report in the CCR.

The following language meets this new CCR requirement:

If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young
children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines  and
home plumbing.  [Name of utility] is responsible for providing high quality drinking water, but cannot control
the variety of materials  used in plumbing components. When your water has been sitting for several hours,
you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using
water for drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about lead in your drinking water, you may wish to  have
your water tested. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize
exposure is available form the Safe Drinking Water Hotline or at http://www. epa.gov/safewater/lead.
                                                                                                           13

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       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
       A Guide for Community Water Systems
       IV.     Developing Your Public Education Program  Plan

       Meeting the requirements outlined above will require a good deal of effort on the part of a water system to
       implement the required activities, and within the required timeframe.  The most effective way to implement
       these requirements it to develop a PE Program Plan in advance of an exceedance.  This plan will help you
       determine what activities you will want to undertake during your routine monitoring and what you will
       need to do to implement your required PE activities in the event of an exceedance.

       The flowchart below lists seven recommended steps for designing and implementing your PE Program
       Plan. Each step corresponds to a more detailed description included in Sections 2 and 3 of this guidance
       document.  Page 26 includes a simple checklist of actions you may wish to conduct as you design and
       execute your PE Program Plan.
       Public  Education Flow Chart
                 Conduct Monitoring Activities

                           1
                 In the Event of an Exceedance

                    i
             Continue Monitoring

                    1
             Conclude PE Once   „
             Exceedance Has Ended
      Design Your PE Program

              1
      Know Your PE Requirements
              i
      Know Your Target Audience

              i
   Contact Your Community Partners

              1
       Prepare Your Messages

              i
 Identify Your Communication Channels

              i
'Determine Your Outreach Material Needs
              i
     Update Your PE Program Plan

              i
     Implement Your PE Program
             Communicate with the Public
                                   Conduct Media Outreach
       *Note: A water system may discontinue delivery of public education materials when the system has met the lead action level during the most
       recent six month monitoring period.
14


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                                                      Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                      A Guide for Community Water Systems

> Step 1: Know Your PE Requirements
  Refer to pages 8-12 of this Section to review the required content and delivery mechanisms for your PE program.

* Step 2: Know Your Target Audience
  Knowing who is in your target audience is an important first step.  This will help guide your efforts to
  craft messages and materials, develop effective partnerships, and determine how (and through whom)
  to deliver these message and materials for maximum impact. (See Pages 17-18 to learn more about
  identifying your target audiences).

^ Step 3: Contact Your Community Partners
  Once you know your requirements and who you will be contacting, develop partnerships with key
  members of your community who will help you distribute your messages and materials and who serve
  as an information source in your community (e.g. local health department).  You should educate these
  partners about your PE requirements and PE program, ask them for advice on how to reach your target
  audiences, and let them know what assistance they can provide, such as quickly reaching the community
  and providing input in planning your PE program.  Please note that systems are required under
  the LCR to make direct contact with their local health departments.  (See Pages 18-21 to learn
  more about identifying and working with your community partners).  Appendix Ccontains additional
  information for contacting local community partners.

> Step 4: Prepare Your Messages
  After identifying your audience and resources and talking with your community partners, you should
  identify the messages and most effective activities and delivery methods to reach your audiences. Pages
  8-10 provide specific information on the delivery methods you are required to conduct.  Consider the
  education level of your audience and use the templates in Appendix B to customize your PE materials
  (and keep in mind the required content detailed on Pages 8-9). Preparing templates ahead of time will
  help make compliance within the standard timelines more feasible.  (See Page 21 to learn more about
  preparing your messages).

> Step 5: Identify Your Communication Channels
  Knowing what messages and delivery methods you will likely be targeting, you can contact the
  appropriate channels to prepare for implementation. This should include developing a list of media
  outlets and contacts for distributing press releases, documenting posting requirements for Web sites, and
  determining contact information for placing advertisements or submitting public service announcements.
  Work with the community partners you established in Step 3 to enlist their assistance in  reaching
  high-risk groups, specific ethic or cultural groups, or other target audiences.  (See Pages 22-23 to learn
  more about communication channels). Appendix C contains additional information for identifying
  communication channels.

> Step 6: Determine Your Outreach Material Needs
  Identify what materials you will need and what processes you will need to put in place  to produce them
  quickly.  You should determine how  many copies of materials you will need, the costs for producing
  materials, the amount of time printers will need to produce materials, and contact information for
  printers, web designers, and others who will assist you in materials preparation.  (See Pages 23-24 to learn
  more about planning your outreach material needs).

*• Step 7: Update Your PE Program Plan
  Periodically, you should review and update your PE Program Plan. This should include updating all
  contacts, talking with your community partners to confirm their willingness and ability to assist you
  in the event of an exceedance, and determining  if any new methods or ideas for reaching your target
  audiences are available to you.  All resources and prices associated with creating and producing your PE
  outreach materials should also be checked and updated.
                                                                               (DRAFT FOR REVIEW     15

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      Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
      A Guide for Community Water Systems
      Section 2

      Designing an Effective Public  Education  Program

      This section describes the recommended steps you should consider in planning your public education (PE)
      program. These steps can help you design your PE program to ensure that, should your system experience
      an action level exceedance, you will be ready to implement PE activities quickly and effectively. Your PE
      Program Plan should be part of your system's larger communications plan (i.e. incorporate with your public
      notifications, boiling water advisories, communication planning, etc.) While the PE requirements vary
      somewhat by system size, the steps and tips presented below are applicable to all water systems, large and
      small.
      This section is organized around the following key steps:
      >•  Step 1: Know Your PE Requirements
      *  Step 2: Know Your Audience
      >•  Step 3: Contact Your Community Partners
      *  Step 4: Prepare Your Messages
      >•  Step 5: Identify Your Communication Channels
      *  Step 6: Determine Your Outreach Material Needs
      >•  Step 7: Update Your PE Program Plan

      Creating an effective PE program requires careful planning
      and timely execution. Increasingly, the public expects service
      providers to share health risk information in a timely and
      effective way.  Prompt and thorough communication allows
      the public to understand a health risk issue and take action
      to minimize their personal risk until the risk is resolved.
      Risk information should be clear, thoughtful, and should be
      delivered in a manner that meets the needs of all members of
      your community. Waiting until a lead action level exceedance
      has occurred to plan your program and materials creates an
      unnecessary burden on your system and may result in rushed
      and less effective communications with your community.

      Step 1:  Know Your PE Requirements
TIP: An effective PE Program
equals effective risk
communication

There are several guidelines for effective risk
communication that should be considered
when designing a PE campaign.
>  Take the initiative in providing
   information to your community.
>  Plan your efforts in advance and evaluate
   them upon completion.
>  Listen to your community members and
   acknowledge their concerns.
>  Be a reliable source of information.
   Provide honest,  accurate, and
   comprehensive information.
>  Partner with trusted sources in your
   community.
>  Provide timely and accurate information
   to the media.
>  Always speak with a consistent voice.
   Designate one point of contact that can
   respond to the public and the media.
>  Make PE materials easy to read and
   understand for people with differing
   educational levels.
      Section 1 of this guidance document outlined the required activities, content, and delivery mechanisms
      water systems must implement in the event of a lead action level exceedance.  Water systems are required
      to communicate with their primacy agency when an exceedance is identified. As part of your planning, you
      should identify the contact at the primacy agency for consultations on PE requirements. Review pages 5-13
      to understand your PE requirements and see Appendix D for the Federal regulatory language.
16


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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                A Guide for Community Water Systems
            TIP: Research your audience in
            advance to understand any unique
            requirements they may have.
            >  What languages are spoken in
               your service area?
            >  Within each language
               community, what percentage
               of people is also proficient in
               English?
            >  Are there large numbers of
               people in your service area with
               low literacy levels?
            >  Are low-literacy groups
               "clustered" in certain zip codes
               or neighborhoods?
            >  What sources of information do
               these groups trust?
Once you have reviewed your PE program requirements, the next
step is to determine the audience(s) for your PE program activities.

Identifying your key audiences and their information needs is,
perhaps, the most important step that you can take when planning
your program. The size, location, and cultural composition of your
audiences will have a direct effect on the design of your program
— from the educational materials you use to how you distribute
information. Effective risk communication requires that important
messages reach those who need to hear them when they are ready
to hear them and in a way they can understand. In some cases,
effectiveness is determined by the person communicating the message
(i.e., using health care providers to educate expectant mothers) while
in other cases, effectiveness is determined by the way the information
is presented (i.e. through direct mailings, mass media, etc.).
Whatever the case, understanding your audience and their needs
is essential for determining how and where to deliver information
that educates, promotes desired behaviors and actions, and creates
confidence in your system's ability to  deal with an exceedance.

Below are some of the audience segments that you must reach out to when conducting your PE Program.
*  General public. This includes everyone in your service area that may be affected by an action level
   exceedance.
>•  High-risk Groups. Those particularly vulnerable to lead in drinking water exposure include children
   6 years of age and younger, infants, and pregnant women. Your PE program should target agencies and
   organizations that serve high-risk groups, deliver materials and messages that make the risks clear, and
   provide actionable  recommendations for how to protect oneself and ones children from the risks of lead
   in drinking water.
*  Different Language Communities. If significant proportions of the population in your community
   speak languages other than English, you must provide education materials on lead in  drinking water in
   the appropriate language (s).
>•  Low-literacy Audiences. Some individuals in your community may possess limited reading skills.  To
   reach these individuals, print materials must be written as simply and concisely as possible and should
   contain graphical representations of key messages and actions. Low-literacy groups  are more likely to rely
   on non-print forms of communication, such as TV or radio Public Service Announcements (PSAs), to
   receive information about critical health topics.
>•  Non-bill Paying Customers. Some people who drink your system's water may not receive a water bill
   (e.g., commuters working within the water system area, but living outside of it; residents in multi-unit
   dwellings who may not pay for water; restaurant owners who use the water for cooking, etc.) and your
   system needs to establish delivery mechanisms to reach these individuals.
                                 FOR

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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
A Guide for Community Water Systems
                ';:"

U.S. Census Bureau
To find information on the languages spoken in your area, see the U.S. Census Bureau's Web site, http://
factfinder.census.gov. The census database includes information about literacy levels, what languages besides
English are spoken at home, and the level of English proficiency. (English proficiency is important, because
if a group tends to speak a language at home, but is also able to read and understand English, a notification
in a second language may not be necessary.) You should also be able to find out the number of people who
speak each language.

Local Media
Your local media is a good source of information about your community. It is the media's job to know the
community inside and out. Media outlets have an economic need to understand how to reach various
segments of the audience and typically have a mission to serve the community. These two goals mean that
they are likely to know the various audience segments in your community and have contacts with key leaders
within the community who have strong relationships or access to a specific subgroup. Since you should
establish relationships with your media anyway (Step 3), one way to create media allies is to recognize their
knowledge and ask them for valuable information about your service population.

Community and Ethnic Group Leaders
Community and ethnic group leaders can help you understand the audience  segments you serve and learn
about the communication channels each segment uses and trusts. These grassroots groups  have a high level
of contact with target  demographic groups and tend to be trusted by them. Establish and maintain working
alliances with these grassroots organizations so that if you need to quickly disseminate a message about the
drinking water in the future, you already have channels in place to reach your diverse audience. This can
demonstrate your concern for the community they serve and establish a level of trust that will increase the
likelihood that they will assist you when needed.

Cultural and ethnic interest groups, churches/ mosques/ synagogues, and multicultural centers are in touch
with the needs and concerns of specific racial, religious,  or ethnic groups, including people who may not
speak or read English. Leaders of such groups may enjoy greater trust among their constituents than water
system spokespeople.
Health Care Providers
Health care providers, hospital and nursing home directors, and social
service providers are a first source of information for many people,
especially vulnerable populations. Health professionals are likely to
be asked  questions when there is an issue related to the drinking
water. Establishing relationships with these professionals in advance
of an action level exceedance and providing them with information
on your water system's plans when an exceedance  occurs will help
them educate their customers and allay their concerns. Appendix C
contains  more information on identifying these resources within your
community.
TIP: As you explore the resources
in your community and establish
relationships with potential allies,
remember to ask about the key
local media that each audience
segment looks to for information.
For example, many communities
have multiple non-English radio
stations, cable access television
shows, and local public radio
stations that may appeal to your
various audience segments.


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                                                          Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                          A Guide for Community Water Systems
Now that you understand your PE program requirements
and know your audiences, you should assemble your
communication or outreach team and establish community
partnerships. You may already have a communications
team or person(s) that can be utilized to implement the PE
program.  Water systems that seek assistance from a variety of
community partners to inform PE efforts and to design PE
programs are more successful at implementing effective PE
campaigns than those that do not. A diverse team comprised
of community members representing the public, private,
and civic sectors can provide your water system with: access
to a wide  range of community resources; understanding of
the community's audience segments and the best ways to
reach them; and ready-made communication channels that
you can access in the event of an exceedance.

These groups can make unique and important contributions
to your PE program. Government officials lend credibility
and authority and can draw attention to the program.
Government agencies offer a variety of specialized services
and technical expertise from  mobilizing community
resources  and media involvement to providing expertise
on the health effects of lead.  Schools are one of the best
conduits in any community for reaching parents of young
children. Community service organizations can distribute
information to high-risk targeted groups; civic groups can
offer valuable volunteer assistance; and the private sector can
underwrite program costs as well as distribute and explain
information about lead in drinking water to high-risk
targeted groups.
Form your planning team and meet with them regularly to help you
take action on the remaining steps presented below.

In addition to the members of your communication or outreach
team, consider creating partnerships with two important groups
within your community: the public health community and the
media. These groups are essential avenues for quickly reaching
the public. Enlist their assistance in planning your PE program
so that they will be ready to assist your efforts should you have an
exceedance.

 ' -•  i's  . :. •;.;* vniKlii tlf's
Collaborating with public health officials is crucial to developing
an effective PE effort.  Different parts of the health department,
Suggested PE Community
Partners (see Appendix C for
more information)

>  City, county, and State government
   officials including representatives of the
   city, county, or municipal council; the
   mayor's, city administrator's, or county
   commissioner's office

>  City or county government agencies
   including the public affairs, health, and
   environmental protection departments,
   and local agencies responsible for lead
   screening programs

>  Representatives of the local public school
   system

>  Representatives of public hospitals and/or
   clinics

>  Representatives of community
   organizations that the LCR  requires water
   systems to reach out to in the event of an
   exceedance (see Page 9 for a list of these
   organizations)

>  Members of civic groups such as the
   Chamber of Commerce, neighborhood
   associations, and local chapters of
   community service organizations

>  Private sector leaders such  as child care
   centers, health care providers, health care
   facilities or clinics,  and hospitals
         TIP: Because of their interactions
         with your target audiences, local
         health professionals need to
         understand how a lead action
         level exceedance affects their
         constituents and patients. Public
         health officials may know the most
         effective channels for reaching
         your community's health providers.
         Discuss this in advance so that you
         are not trying to find every child
         and maternal health clinic, doctor,
         and nurse in your community at the
         same time that you are trying to
         solve an exceedance problem.
                                                                                    DRAFT FOR REVIEW
                                             19

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       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
       A Guide for Community Water Systems


       including maternal and child health, community health, environmental health, and other sections, can assist
       in developing your materials and conducting effective outreach. Local public health agencies often know
       how to reach specific segments of your target audience because they may have had to conduct a similarly
       targeted outreach campaign before. Connecting your PE campaign effort to the health department's lead
       poisoning prevention, water quality, and broader environmental programs, can seed the kind of holistic lead
       education program that communities require. Lead in drinking water is one possible source of exposure, but
       there are many other sources and the public needs to think about lead health risks from every source, not
       just what could be in the water.

       Remember that the public health community is a much larger group than just the local government
       agencies. Local universities, community based organizations, health care providers and insurers, nurse
       practitioners, and many others create the network of care that surrounds your community. You should try to
       access as many of these organizations as you can to determine the most effective communication channels and
       outreach tactics for your PE campaign. The more allies  you have, the better. Appendix C contains additional
       information for identifying community partners.

       Chances are that public health officials who regularly work on lead issues already have lists of contacts
       of health care providers, schools, child care organizations, and social service providers with close ties to
       women, infants, and children in your community. Learn from
       what they already know. Explain your role in monitoring for and
       communicating about lead and educate  health officials  and others
       about how lead enters drinking water, how the water system monitors     media learn about the services
                                  G                     J                  your system provides and to recruit
                                                                    TIP: Be on the lookout for
                                                                    opportunities to help your local
                                                                           them as allies in your PE efforts.
                                                                           One successful approach is to host
                                                                           an annual media day where you
                                                                           can offer tours, explain how your
                                                                           system operates, and explain your
                                                                           lead monitoring program.  The
                                                                           more informed your local media is
                                                                           about your water system, the more
                                                                           accurate and positive they will be
                                                                           when covering an exceedance and
                                                                           conveying information to your public.
for it, and steps one can take to minimize lead exposure.

Develop a relationship and response plan with your local health
department so that you have an agreed upon process for sharing
information about lead in drinking water risks and communicating
with the public. Consumers may call the health department for
information about the health risks described in your PE materials;
if you coordinate in advance, you can ensure that, regardless of who
they call, your public hears consistent messages that will help them
understand the risks and how to manage them. The latest LCR
revisions require that water systems must have direct contact with
public health officials  in the event of an exceedance.  Establishing and maintaining relationships with these
individuals as you plan your program will make it easier to work with these individuals in the event of an
exceedance.

.                    tL : -'.-•  .".;•
Your local media (print, radio,  and television) can be a powerful ally in planning and executing your PE
program.  More than any other communication channel, the media can rapidly reach a large number of
people with educational messages. Although working with the media may be challenging at times, planning
ahead will help you to quickly  and effectively engage them should you have an exceedance.  (See Section 3
for information on working with the media during an exceedance).

Designate one person on your  staff to serve as a liaison to the media. Media outlets will need to know who
they can speak to about  an exceedance and any ramifications for the public. In the event of an exceedance,
all media inquiries should be directed to the media spokesperson. This will ensure that messages coming
20           FOR

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                                                        Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                        A Guide for Community Water Systems
from your water system are consistent and contain accurate information. As part of your system's community
relations efforts, your spokesperson should meet regularly with local editors or station managers for both
small and large media outlets. You should identify and meet with reporters or segment producers that deal
with environment, health, and water issues to educate them about the water system, why and how you
monitor the water quality, and what your program will do if a lead action level exceedance or other kind of
violation occurs. The more information you can provide up front, the less likely the media will be to make
errors in their coverage.

Ask your media contacts what kind of information about water quality issues they would find valuable in
case of an exceedance and prepare draft materials for the media in advance. If you make it easy  for the media
to cover your story correctly, they are more likely to do so. If you base your draft media materials on input
from the media themselves, when it is time to finalize your materials and distribute them as part of your PE
campaign, the media is more likely to help you get your message out and to reinforce your messages.

Finally,  as part of your planning for media engagement, identify individuals in your community (e.g. public
health officials, scientists, experts from local universities, etc.) who can serve as experts for the media to
contact. These individuals should be very familiar with issues related to lead in drinking water—preferably
they are members of your team who you have educated thoroughly about your lead monitoring program
and who know your commitment to  safeguarding the public health, steps individual customers can take to
protect against  lead health risks, your PE campaign plan, and your
plan for solving the problem.
       4:
Now that you have identified your target audiences and determined
what specific communication needs they might have, the next step is
to prepare your PE messages. For drinking water-related issues, the
public is most likely to be interested in:
*  Health and safety implications. (Is my family's health in danger?)
>•  Simple advice and guidance. (What should I do to stay safe?)
*  Practical implications, such as potential service interruptions.
   (How will this affect my daily life?)
Effective messages
should:
>  Be clear and concise.
>  Be compelling, encourage
   action, and explain how to take
   action.
>  Communicate the risks from all
   sources of lead with a particular
   emphasis on drinking water.
>  Meet the communication needs
   of your entire community (See
   Step 2).
You do not have to wait for an exceedance to begin preparing your
messages. The required PE language (as detailed in Section 1) considers the public's risk communication
needs, but your system will want to customize your communications to convey actions you are taking as
a system to address the exceedance.  Developing your key messages and
identifying materials to distribute to the public (Step  5) will ensure that,
should an exceedance occur, you will be ready to deliver materials that
educate your public, empower people to take action to protect their health,
and build trust between you and your community.
When you think about preparing messages, consider that doing so also
allows you to train spokespersons, build Web pages, draft press releases, and
create fact sheets, brochures, and other required materials before you ever
have to deal with an exceedance. Keep in mind that Section 1 contains
information about the messages your PE materials are required to
contain.
        TIP: Effective risk
        communication requires
        that any member of the
        affected public should
        know who to contact for
        more information and
        how they can learn more
        about lead in drinking
        water and lead health
        risks.
                                                                                        FOR
                                   21

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       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
       A Guide for Community Water Systems
       Step 5: Identify Communication Channels to
       Get Your Message Out

       The next step after determining what messages you will use in
       your PE Program is to identify what mechanisms you will use to
       get your messages out to your target audiences.

       As part of your PE program, water systems that have lead action
       level exceedances are required to reach out to organizations that
       regularly interact with young children, infants, and pregnant
       women (See Section 1). This requirement is designed to
       help water systems find communication channels, or conduit
       organizations, through which they can distribute materials and
       educational messages to ensure that critical information reaches
       the most vulnerable populations as quickly as possible. You
       should assemble a list of organizations, contacts, and distribution
       plans to ensure that, when you need to implement your PE
       campaign, the pathways for sharing your information and
       reinforcing your messages are already in place.
                                                                 Remember: To reach vulnerable populations
                                                                 with information about lead, water systems
                                                                 are required to conduct targeted outreach
                                                                 to:

                                                                 >   Local public health agencies

                                                                 >   Public/private schools or school boards

                                                                 >   WIC/Head Start centers

                                                                 >   Public/private hospitals and clinics

                                                                 >   Pediatricians and pediatric nurse
                                                                     practitioners

                                                                 >   Family planning clinics

                                                                 >   Local welfare agencies

                                                                 Water systems are requireed to make
                                                                 a good faith effort to contact targeted
                                                                 outreach to:

                                                                 >   Licensed childcare centers

                                                                 >   Public and private pre-schools
                                                                        >  Obstetricians-Gynecologists and
                                                                           Midwives
Many of the organizations that may serve as communication
channels should already be on your PE team. Those
organizations that may play a role in the event of an exceedance
and who are not on your team will need some specific
information from you as you are establishing the relationship.
Make sure all of the partners you expect to work with know:
    >• What to expect if an action level exceedance occurs.
    * What to do with the materials that you provide them.
    >• How to reach the key person/s responsible for your drinking water PE program.
                                                                        Appendix C contains additional information
                                                                        on how to locate these organizations
        Tips for Planning Your Messages and Outreach

        Identify Key Organizations.  Identify those organizations in your community that meet the required and
        recommended list of organizations.

        Assemble Your List and Be Ready for Action.  At least once per year, update your list of target organizations.
        Include the name of a contact person at each school, hospital, clinic, child care provider, social service, or other
        organization through which you plan to distribute your PE materials. Make sure you have the address, phone number,
        email, and any contact information you need to quickly reach these organizations.

        Assemble a spreadsheet or database to manage organizational contact information. In addition to managing the contact
        information for your conduit organizations and community partners, you may also want to include the name of the
        target population you expect that organization to help you reach. Having such a system can prove useful if you have
        an exceedance: you can use it to print mailing labels; organize a phone tree; and track your efforts to reach vulnerable
        populations, various language communities, and non-bill paying customers.

        Learn  from the Professionals and Recruit Advocates. Meet with your local health department officials and ask
        them about the most effective means of communicating to target populations in your community (see Step 3).

        Educate and Learn from Your Advocates. Explain why lead is something you monitor, how you monitor, what you
        are required to do in the event an exceedance, how they can help you  and why they should care to help you, what they
        can expect to receive from you in the event of an exceedance,  and what you would like them to do. Ask them  what they
        have found to be effective methods for sharing health risk information with your target audiences.
22


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                                                        Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                        A Guide for Community Water Systems


In addition to the organizations you are required to conduct outreach to, EPA strongly recommends that
water systems also contact:
>•  Maternity programs/birthing classes                >•  Women's shelters
*  Teen parent programs                             *  Family/general practices and nurse practitioners
>•  Parent teacher organizations                       >•  Institutes of higher education
*  Parent support organizations                       *  Local non profit health groups

In addition to these organizations that have access to high-risk populations, EPA recommends reaching out
to conduit organizations that can help you to reach non-bill paying and other target audiences including:

*•  Citizen's assistance offices to request that they place your materials in their lobbies or waiting rooms;
>•  Health insurers who can include your messages in their regular communications to their provider
   network and members;
*•  Outlets that accept government payment for goods and services, such as supermarkets that take food
   stamps or WIC coupons;
>•  Low income/HUD housing where you can place posters; and
*  Non-profit organizations, such as soup kitchens, religious organizations, and others, that provide services
   to people who may not receive a water bill.

You should also share key information and messages with all of your employees. Your system's employees are
all ambassadors for the system  as they go about doing their work. Keeping them well informed is critical, as
they will get questions and should be prepared to address issues from your customers.

It is ideal to establish relationships and mechanisms for sharing information with such conduit organizations
before an action level exceedance occurs. By coordinating with these groups, you can establish a ready-to-go
plan for communication, build understanding of why information about lead in drinking water is important
and why young children, infants, and pregnant women need to know about lead in drinking water, and
prepare staff at these organizations to discuss lead health risks.

Step 6: Determine Your  Outreach  Material Needs

The next step you should take  in designing your PE program is determining what materials you will provide
and how you will make them available. As you are identifying how best to  reach your target audiences, keep
in mind any production processes that will need to occur between
the time  you finalize your materials and the time they are ready for
distribution.
   Identify approximately how many copies of brochure, pamphlets,
   and posters you will need to print for quick distribution. Be sure
   to make extra copies of all materials should you need to distribute
   several mailings during the exceedance.
   Determine if your system has the capability, to quickly generate
   these materials and in the needed quantities.
   Consider financial needs and resources of outreach activities, (i.e.
   buying space in the newspaper).
TIP: When considering the need
for materials for multiple language
audiences, plan ahead for translation
help. If you can establish contacts
with institutions and people who can
translate notices into other languages,
you can ask them to support your
planning efforts by translating your
draft materials. If possible, get all of
the required messages translated in
advance so if you have an exceedance,
you can simply fill in the final
information required to complete
your notices and send them to print.
                                                                                        FOR            23

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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
A Guide for Community Water Systems
                                                                     TIP: When preparing your materials,
                                                                     keep in mind the variety of
                                                                     customers that you serve and their
                                                                     unique needs (Step 2). For example,
                                                                     your audience research will tell you if
                                                                     you have a large Hispanic population
                                                                     in your service area. You may learn
                                                                     from your partner organizations that
                                                                     many Hispanics in your community
                                                                     listen to specific radio stations,
                                                                     watch certain television programs,
                                                                     read particular periodicals, and
                                                                     convene at specific locations.
*  Identify vendors in your community that can quickly reproduce
   the materials that you need and regularly check in with them to
   ensure that they can meet your needs.
>•  Negotiate an agreement with printers ahead of time so that you are
   not forced to negotiate your terms when you are under pressure to
   meet a deadline.
*  Ask your community partners if they have the capability to assist
   you with preparation and production of materials.

Assemble additional materials you may want to distribute with your
PE materials, such as fact sheets and other supporting materials on
the health effects of lead. These materials are available at no-cost
from EPA's Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1(800) 426-4791 or EPA's Web site at http://www.epa.gov/
safewater/lead/index.html. In the event of an action level exceedance, you will already have the explanatory
materials your consumers may ask for after receiving your notices. EPA's materials are updated periodically
so check the Web site regularly to make sure that you have the most recent versions. The Hotline also
can provide phone numbers for state laboratory certification offices where consumers can get a list of labs
certified to conduct lead testing.

                                                 	

During the course of your monitoring activities (and if there is no exceedance), you should update your PE
Program Plan periodically.  Contact all of your community partners (if you have not done so on a regular
basis) and determine if you have correct contact information. Update any material templates you have
created (with any new information on corrosion control or other activities undertaken by your water system
to control lead  in drinking water). Contact all of the printers and vendors that you will use to produce your
materials in the event of an exceedance. Update your local public health agencies and providers about your
lead  program and any activities you are taking to reduce lead and monitor drinking water supplies.  Finally,
contact your local media to update them on your efforts and to address any questions they may have about
your systems' monitoring or corrosion control activities.

By keeping your plan updated and maintaining regular contact with your community partners and the
media, you will ensure that,  should you have an exceedance, you will have all of the mechanisms in place to
quickly and effectively respond with your PE program.


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                                                     Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                    A Guide for Community Water Systems
Section 3

Implementing Your  Public Education  Program

A lead action level exceedance triggers the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) requirements for Public Education
(PE) and establishes a timeline for performing required activities. In most cases, your PE activities must
be implemented within 60 days of the action level exceedance. See Section 1 to review the specific
requirements for PE if you have an exceedance.
Section 2 of this guidance document outlined the suggested steps you
should take to design your PE program, prior to an exceedance. In
this section, key activities for implementing your PE program are
presented. These activities include:

*  Produce Your PE Materials

*  Distribute Your PE Materials

*  Conduct Media Outreach

*  Communicate Directly with the Public

*  Conclude Your PE Activities (at the End of the Exceedance)
TIP: It is important to remember
that education programs can
only be effective when they
are administered over time.
Competing demands for
people's attention—information
overload—can be a significant
impediment to understanding.
Therefore, you should meet the
initial PE requirements as soon as
possible and pace your additional
PE activities over several months
to ensure that your public has
multiple opportunities to receive
your messages.
                                                                                   FOR
                                25

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      Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
      A Guide for Community Water Systems
      The checklist below provides the key activities your program will need to take in order to effectively
      implement the PE requirements and reach your key audiences. Refer to Appendix B for a checklist you can
      tear out and use as you complete your activities.
        Checklist for Implementing Your PE Program

        S  Notify your primacy agency of an action level exceedance triggering your PE program.

        S  Notify your system's decision maker (owner or president) of the exceedance.

        S  Review your PE requirements (Section 1) and the timeline for delivering PE materials (see
            Tables 2 or 3 on Pages 8 or 9).

        •S  Notify your communication or outreach team of the exceedance and enlist their assistance
            in implementing your plan.

        S  Inform all of your employees about your activities so that they can respond to customer
            questions or issues.

        •S  Implement your phone tree and contact your conduit organizations to let them know that
            an exceedance has occurred  and that you will be sending them  materials for distribution.

        S  Update your PE material templates with information on the exceedance, actions you are
            taking to address it, and any other relevant information.

        •S  Work with translators to finalize materials for multiple language audiences.

        •S  Prepare mailing labels for conduit organizations and other dissemination mechanisms.

        •S  Duplicate your pamphlets, flyers,  posters, or other printed materials and prepare to deliver
            them to your conduit organizations.

        S  Meet with representatives from your local health agency (in person or  by phone) to alert
            them to the exceedance and provide them with materials they can distribute to the public.

        •S  Send a press release to your  local media outlets (print, TV, and radio).

        •S  Reach out to your established media contacts and work with them to distribute your key
            messages.

        S  Coordinate with your spokesperson/spokespeople to conduct media interviews.

        S  Document your PE activities  and report back to your primacy agency on completion of
            activities as required.

        S  Update your system's Web site (if applicable) to include PE materials and key messages for
            the public.

        •S  Schedule and conduct public meetings as needed.

        •S  Continue to conduct your monitoring activities as required.

        •S  Notify the public when the action  level exceedance has ended.
26

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                                                          Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                           A Guide for Community Water Systems
A critical first step in implementing your PE program in
the event of an exceedance is to produce the materials
you have determined in your planning that you will need
to distribute to your target audiences. The following
information will help you finalize your materials in
accordance with the LCR requirements and prepare
them for quick delivery to your conduit organizations
and your community.



See Section 1 for a reminder of the LCR requirements
for content for PE materials.

Appendix B provides template pamphlets with the
mandatory language systems must provide to their
customers. Note that electronic fill in the blank versions
of these materials are available on the internet at www.
epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html for
systems to update and customize the documents with
their system-specific information.

?₯'DiS            €-ir
Water systems are required to provide two press releases per
year for the duration of the exceedance. (See Section 1).

Your press releases should be brief informational
notices that are ready to be  distributed to local
press representatives. Always include the name and
phone number of an informed contact so that media
representatives can obtain more information and cover
the issue more fully than presented in a news release. (A
sample press release template is provided in Appendix
B). When conducting your planning, ask your media
contacts what would make a press release stand out to
them and what they are most likely to publish so that
you can plan ahead to secure media coverage  in the event
of an exceedance.
Tips for Creating PE Materials
That Work

>  Place the most important information
   first.  Most readers only read the top half
   of printed materials and focus on large
   text such as headings and bolded text. The
   most important information, especially
   instructions to protect consumers' health,
   should be placed on the top half of the
   notice in large print. Smaller type is
   appropriate for less critical elements.

>  Limit wordiness. A question and answer
   or heading and subheading format is
   easy to read and guides readers to the
   information that is likely to concern them.
   Risk communication studies have shown
   that when dealing with potential health
   risks, people become emotional and have
   difficulty processing information. The
   best way to help the public understand
   your messages is to communicate a
   limited number of messages and to strive
   for consistency of messaging across all
   communications media. If people hear your
   few, simple messages over and over again,
   they are more likely to accurately estimate
   their risks and to take the right steps to
   manage them.

>  Use graphics, such as photographs  or
   drawings, to illustrate your messages.
   Wherever possible, provide an image that
   describes the actions the public should take
   to protect themselves from potential health
   risks.

>  Highlight the name of your system,
   especially where  people in your area are
   served by more than one water system. You
   may also want to prepare a map showing
   the area you serve, especially if it extends
   beyond city limits. You may want to print
   materials on your system's letterhead
   which, coupled with the material's title, will
   help people recognize that it is important.
                                                                                     DRAFT iFOR
                                                 27

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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
A Guide for Community Water Systems


            ;'
Appendix B contains templates for a variety of public education materials that your system can use to support
your efforts. These  templates include:

*  Water Bill Insert Statement                    > Print Advertisement
>  Brochure                                     * Listserv or Web site Announcement
>  Poster                                        > Public Service Announcement (text for a
*•  Press Release                                   radio or television PSA
                                                * Consumer Notice of Tap Water Results


Table 5 contains a list of suggested materials that may be useful in conducting additional PE outreach
activities.

Fact sheets - Provide basic, objective, detailed information on an issue or topic. Fact sheets can provide
information about the problem, recommended consumer actions, health risks, actions being taken, and
treatment goals. Fact sheets should be easily understood by the broadest spectrum of audiences.

Tip sheets and brochures - Outline specific actions residents should take. They should be clear, concise,
and present the action steps in a simplified manner.

Talking points - Give water system representatives and expert spokespeople  tips on communicating
about the exceedance and the treatment process. The talking points highlight key messages that should be
delivered to the target audience in a clear and effective manner.

Charts and illustrations - Visuals can help to  convey complex messages that may be difficult to understand
or to communicate  textually.  Examples include: the incidence of elevated lead levels in homes with and
without lead service lines, and the relative numbers of homes in each category; and a "source to tap"
representation of how water gets from the source to customers' taps.

Fliers - If you plan  to host public meetings, fliers can be used to  publicize upcoming meetings and other
events. They should be translated into the most common  languages spoken among the target audience.

Technical/medical  materials - Doctors, nurses, clinic workers, and other health care professionals may
prefer technical information about the potential health effects of lead in drinking water.

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                                                          Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                           A Guide for Community Water Systems
                  PE
Once you have produced your PE materials, the next step is to deliver them through the various conduit
organizations and communications channels that you identified in your program design (See Section 2, Step 6).
Table 5. Suggestions for Materials in Various Communications Venues
Materials
Fact sheets
Tip sheets
Talking points
Press releases
Charts and
illustrations
Fliers
Public service
materials
Technical/ medical
materials
Communication Routes
* Insert in media press kits
* Include in conduit organization mailings
* Hand out at public meetings
»• Include in conduit organization mailings
»• Hand out at public meetings
* Use for press events
* Use at public meeting presentations
* Provide to utility telephone receptionists or others taking calls from the public
»• Issue in advance of press events and public meetings
* Provide as graphics to television stations and print media
* Display and distribute as handouts at public meetings
* Use in briefing slides or display as posters for press events and public
meetings
»• Distribute in advance of public meetings
* Distribute PSAs to radio and television stations and print media
* Include in conduit organizations mailings
* Distribute at public meetings
»• Distribute to community leaders and health care professionals
Bill
Many CWSs periodically enclose special information notices or
inserts in their customers' water bills. If you already provide this
service, you may choose to dedicate a particular notice to the topic
of lead in drinking water. Bill inserts are relatively inexpensive to
produce — especially if you already have a regular notice service. If
you do not currently provide such a service, you can use the notice
provided in Appendix B.
 TIP: Remember that people who
 live in apartment complexes or other
 housing units where the water bill
 is paid by a landlord or a supervisor
 will not be on your mailing list.
 The landlord or supervisor for such
 buildings should be mailed extra bill
 inserts for distribution to residents.
 &f,#ll
CWSs must deliver information two times in a 12 month period to editorial departments of the major
daily and weekly newspapers circulated throughout the community. Newspapers are always in search of
newsworthy items and will often publish feature articles based on a news release or coverage of a press
conference. You should use all major daily and weekly newspapers to get your message delivered.

                       "..  '. --...•'. ":i
Radio and television stations are a prime source of information
for most people. Radio and television news programs often feature
brief spots based on a press release or coverage of a press conference.
The stations also broadcast brief PSAs as a community service. In
addition, they feature news briefs, special interest features, and talk
shows on local issues of interest. Large CWSs should promote radio
TIP: Under the LCR, small systems
(serving 3,300 or fewer people) are no
longer required to deliver PSAs. Check
with your State Primacy Agency to be
sure that you are exempt from this
requirement.
                                                                                    DRAFT FOR

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       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
       A Guide for Community Water Systems
       and television coverage of lead in drinking water issues as an effective way to get the message delivered to a
       mass audience at no cost.


       Section I4l.85(b) of the regulation specifies the minimum content of the public education language to
       be broadcast to customers.  A PSA can be broadcast on either radio or television. A PSA is very brief (e.g.,
       20 seconds) and can provide far-reaching, low-cost publicity for your program. A pre-taped or written
       announcement can be provided to radio stations; the text for a video spot or an actual videotaped message
       can  be provided to television stations.

       The regulations encourage CWSs to submit PSAs to five radio or television stations with the largest
       audiences in the community. These announcements must be repeated every six months for as long as the
       system continues to exceed the lead action level.
                                                                          TIP: Whenever possible, visit your media
                                                                          contacts in person to request coverage.
To help disseminate your PE messages, call on your established
media contacts who already understand your mission to inform and
protect the public.  When you pitch messages to newspapers, TV,
or radio outlets, clearly explain what information you are trying to communicate and why. Explain to the
media in clear and open terms what you are required to do to communicate about an action level exceedance
and make it easy for them to identify the most important information, including information that led to
detection of the action level exceedance, the populations most at risk from elevated lead levels in drinking
water and potential health effects, actions consumers can take to reduce their risks, and actions your water
system is taking to address the problem. The easier you make it for the media to accurately cover your story,
the more likely you are to get the results you want.

When you send press releases or notices to radio and TV stations and newspapers, write "PRESS RELEASE
FOR DRINKING WATER NOTICE" at the top of the notice to emphasize its importance and ensure that
it will be printed or aired in a timely manner.
         TIP: In addition to sending the required press releases
         or notifications, consider:
         >   Offering a spokesperson to be interviewed on
            the air. Ideally, you have identified and prepped
            spokespeople to understand your program and
            how to deal with the pressures associated with
            an interview, so that they will seem calm (and not
            evasive or defensive).
         >   Writing a draft story or an op-ed for the newspaper
            and providing a completed draft to an editor.
         >   Providing radio and television programs with talking
            points, sources for impartial information (such as
            links to the EPA or CDC Web-based information
            on lead), contacts at the health department, and
            suggestions of people they can interview for a story.
         >   Providing statistics, charts, graphics (photographs,
            video footage, drawings, maps) along with your
            text to make it easy for different types of media to
            broadcast your story.
                                                    Don't be upset if a media story isn't exactly as
                                                    you would want it, but politely tell a reporter if a
                                                    significant piece of information is wrong or missing
                                                    so that they can get the correct information out to
                                                    the public.

                                                    If a newspaper will not publish a story or press
                                                    release, you may want to consider buying space
                                                    to print the notice in its entirety, though it is not
                                                    required. You should buy an advertisement as close
                                                    to the front of the paper as possible and make it large
                                                    enough that people will easily see it. Your initial
                                                    planning should have determined if this may be a
                                                    concern and if you should budget for purchasing
                                                    advertisement space.
30


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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                 A Guide for Community Water Systems
   Tips for Working with the Media
   >   Be truthful and up-front about local water
      quality issues and the exceedance.
   >   Don't be defensive when answering
      questions.
   >   Answer questions as well as you can, but
      don't be afraid to say that you need to check
      on something if there is a question you can't
      answer (and once you find the information,
      quickly report back on what you've found).
   >   Keep in mind that reporters are not familiar
      with State or Federal requirements for safe
      drinking water - avoid technical jargon!
   >   Provide additional sources of information
      (for instance, referrals to State contacts, local
      experts, or EPA fact sheets).
   >   Be sensitive to the fact that reporters may  be
      working on tight deadlines.
   >   Provide a list of the elements that the media
      must address to adequately inform the public
      about potential risks and how to manage
      them.
Effective PE campaigns can minimize the chances of
overreaction to an action level exceedance and can help
focus your community's attention on the source of a
problem. A robust PE campaign that explains what an
exceedance means and the specific steps you are taking
to address the issue can be an excellent public relations
tool. Such a campaign will  help to create a partnership
between you and your customers that demonstrates your
commitment to providing safe water and reduces the
prevalence of the "us versus them" mentality.

Quickly distributing the required and recommended
materials to  all your target populations will help reduce
the chance that people will become  alarmed and overreact
to information about an exceedance. If you have planned
your distribution of materials through communication
channels and partners effectively and established close
relationships with conduits, your materials should reach your
community prompdy and educate them about the issue.


In addition to distributing  messages and materials to your community, public meetings are an effective
avenue for directly communicating with your audiences about the exceedance and your activities to address
it. Well advertised public meetings  provide a forum where the public can ask questions and meet individuals
responsible for addressing the lead issue. Many public meeting formats and styles are available.  A few
options are described below.

Speakers' forums feature formal presentations  by a speaker or group of speakers, with questions taken
during or after their presentations. This format ensures that the message is specific and that everyone
receives the same message, and offers the greatest control over the content, flow, and outcome of the event.
However, it  allows limited interaction with the audience, with the exception of a brief question and answer
period, and therefore restricts the amount of public feedback received.

In round table discussions, the public is given an opportunity to present their opinion or ask questions in a
facilitated discussion. This format can be a facilitated open dialogue among all participants, or small group
discussions between members  of the public with facilitators or experts moderating the conversations. Like
testimony, round table discussions can offer a great deal of interaction and opinion sharing, and are a good
way to gauge public opinion.  Likewise, planners have little control over the content. All participants may
not receive the same message, especially where multiple conversations take place simultaneously.

Open houses are a one-on-one information exchange format, where experts sit at tables or booths and the
public is invited to talk to them, share their concerns, and ask questions.  Written materials can  be available
for the public to take with them. In this informal format, the public can  "digest" what  they want, either a
brief, direct  answer to a question or detailed information. All participants do not receive  the same message
(i.e., what they learn depends on what they ask). While there is no way to anticipate the  content of topics
                                 FOR
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       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
       A Guide for Community Water Systems
       raised, this approach offers more control than
       other open fora because the exchange is one-on-
       one,  not across a large group.

       Availability sessions combine structured
       speakers fora and open houses.  Prior to formal
       presentations,  speakers are available to talk to
       people and answer questions. The structured
       presentations offer an opportunity to disseminate
       the message  as planned. The one-on-one
       interaction supplements the formal information
       exchange by giving citizens an opportunity to ask
       questions or speak to an involved party about their
       concerns.  This dialog also can help the speakers
       anticipate questions or concerns that may be raised
       in front of reporters and a large audience.

       Conclude Your PE Activities  at the
       End of the Exceedance

       Your public education program is required to
       provide ongoing messages until the action level
       exceedance has ended.  This continued education
       effort will keep your public informed about  any
       continuing issues related to lead in drinking water
       and keep them abreast of progress your system
       is making toward resolving the problem. Once
       the issue has been resolved, continue to provide
       the public information about lead in drinking
       water. Your Consumer Confidence Reports will
       provide you an opportunity to provide ongoing
       education to your customers about the importance
       of addressing lead in drinking water and your
       program's monitoring and education activities.
       (See Section 1  for required language for use  in
       CCRs.)

       After the exceedance has ended, conducting
       follow-up testing can help to ensure that the
       messages in your materials were received as
       intended and that all target audiences understood your materials. The results of such an analysis can help
       mold future efforts and guide you on areas where you may want to refine your planning.

       Media surveys can assess how well the information was reported by television and radio stations and the
       press. Media coverage can be monitored by reviewing the Web sites of local media outlets, or purchasing
       the services of media surveillance  firms.  Relevant information includes the frequency of stories, the media
       through which they were reported, and the content of the stories (e.g., whether the most important facts
       were covered or if any erroneous information was reported).
Considerations for Public Meetings

Meeting planning is an involved process that requires
many detailed steps.

>  Public meetings should be held as soon as possible
   following an exceedance. The availability of
   newsworthy information generates public interest
   and increases the likelihood of a high turnout at
   meetings. Proper spacing of the meetings over time
   is important to keep the media and public interested
   in the issue.

>  Scheduling of public meetings should take into
   consideration other events that could pose conflicts,
   such as the school calendar (e.g., start of school,
   vacations), other community meetings, holidays, or
   other events of importance to the target audience.

>  Meeting site selection should be based on attracting
   the greatest  variety of interested audience segments.
   Meetings should be geographically distributed
   throughout the community. Selecting locations
   that are convenient to large numbers of people in
   certain groups can increase interest and  boost media
   coverage geared to those groups.

>  Proper publicity is a crucial planning step for each
   public event, because a high turnout is needed to
   ensure the widest distribution of the message.  A
   few outreach considerations for public meetings are:
   •  Where target populations are clustered in a
      few apartment communities, meeting notices
      should be posted on bulletin boards, in hallways,
      laundry rooms, and other public areas; placed
      as advertisements or articles in community
      newsletters; or be advertised through mailings to
      each apartment.
   •  Local elected officials should be invited, and
      receive "courtesy calls" in advance of any public
      advertising.
   •  Translators should be provided at meetings  held
      in areas with significant non-English  speaking
      populations. Provide sign-language interpreters
      for the hearing impaired.
32


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                                                      Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                      A Guide for Community Water Systems

Polling citizens can directly gauge their opinion of the outreach by determining citizens' awareness of the
exceedance, how they perceived the information, where they received the information, and if they were
satisfied with and could understand it.  The telephone is the most common polling avenue, however, phone
polls should be undertaken and interpreted with caution, as the subjects of a phone survey may not include
low income residents with no telephone (door-to-door surveys are an option in these areas). Pollsters should
be able to speak all of the languages represented in the service area.  Your conduit organizations should be
surveyed as well.


Conclusion

The steps outlined in this guidance document and the tips provided are designed to provide you with all
of the background you need to design and implement an effective PE program. Following the guidance
provided will allow you to reach out to all members of your community, including those that are the most
vulnerable to adverse health effects from lead exposure, with messages and delivery methods that meet your
community's diverse communication needs. The partnerships you create with your local media, public
health community, and other key partners can serve as important ties for all of your work, regardless  of
whether your system experiences an exceedance.  Most importantly, the guidance provided in this document
establishes an effective framework for communicating with your public about the many issues your water
system addresses.
                                                                                      FOR           33

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    Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
               A Guide for Community Water Systems
              Appendix A
Frequently Asked Questions
                         FOR

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FOR

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                                                         Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                          A Guide for Community Water Systems
      is      • •-            "   "!!
Lead is not usually found in water that comes from wells or water treatment plants. More commonly lead
can enter drinking water when the water comes in contact with plumbing materials such as lead pipes or
lead solder, or when it comes in contact with faucets, valves, and other components made of brass (brass may
have lead in it). This interaction is referred to as corrosion.

Even though your public water supplier may deliver water that meets all federal and state standards for lead,
you may end up with elevated lead levels in your drinking water because of the plumbing in your home.

       is                                        it?
Our water system  is working to educate the public about steps for reducing exposure to lead in drinking
water and the health risks associated with exposure to lead.  In addition, our water system is conducting
a number of activities aimed at reducing high lead levels and possible exposures.  For example [insert
information on your system's corrosion control program; lead service line replacement efforts; and/or other
activities you are undertaking to reduce lead in drinking water in your community.]
f1  "" '. ' ••"     I dO tO       - • ";.  .
Flush your pipes before drinking, and only use cold water for cooking and drinking. The more time water
has been sitting in your home's pipes, the more lead it may contain. Anytime the water in a particular
faucet has not been used for six hours or longer, "flush" your cold-water pipes by running the water until it
becomes as cold as it will get. This could take as little as five to thirty seconds if there has been recent heavy
water use such as showering or toilet flushing.  Otherwise, it could take two minutes or longer. Your water
utility will inform you if longer flushing times are needed to respond to local conditions.  Please note that
flushing may not be effective in high-rise buildings.
Use only water from the cold-water tap for drinking, cooking, and
especially for making baby formula. Hot water is likely to contain higher
levels of lead.

You may also consider using a lead reducing filter tested and certified by
an independent third party for such ability per the standards set by NSF
International.
TIP: If you are considering
replacing lead containing plumbing
fixtures, keep in mind that
plumbing fixtures labeled lead-free
may have up to 8% lead. However,
plumbing fixtures labeled National
Sanitation Foundation (NSF)
certified may only have up to 2%
lead.
              •-•.'""  ""•  """.'
Lead is a toxic metal that is harmful to human health when it is ingested or inhaled. The greatest risk it to
infants, young children, and pregnant women.  Small amounts slow down normal mental development in
growing children and alter the development of other organs and systems. The effects of lead on the brain
are associated with lowered IQ in children. Adults with kidney problems and high blood pressure are more
likely to be affected by low levels of lead than the general population.  Lead is stored in the bones allowing
it to be released even after exposure stops. The presence in bone increases the concern for exposure at all
points of the life cycle.
* Note: These questions and answers are provided to water systems to help address the types of questions that may arise from customers during
implementation of a PE Program. This information or the language above should not be used as a substitute for the mandatory content required
under the LCR, as outlined in Section 1.
                                                                                                          37

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      EPA estimates that 10 to 20 percent of human exposure to lead may come from lead in drinking water.
      Infants who consume mostly formula prepared with tap water can receive 40 to 60 percent of their exposure
      to lead from drinking water.
      No, boiling water does not remove lead. Boiling water can concentrate lead levels and increase the amount of
      lead in water.
      Boiling water will concentrate lead levels, which can increase the amount of lead in the water. Always flush
      your faucet and use water from the cold water tap when making formula.
      Hot water dissolves lead more quickly than cold water and is therefore more likely to contain greater
      amounts of lead. Never use water from the hot water tap for drinking, cooking, or making baby formula.
      Some faucet and pitcher filters can remove lead from drinking water. If you use a filter, be sure to get one
      that is tested and certified by an independent third party per the standards developed by NSF International.
      Be sure to maintain and replace a filter device in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions to protect
      water quality.
      Each home should be tested separately for lead. Lead usually gets into drinking water through contact with
      plumbing materials such as lead pipes or lead solder, or faucets, valves, and fixtures made of brass (brass
      contains some lead). Since each home has different plumbing pipes and materials, test results are likely to be
      different for each home.
      Yes. EPA recommends testing your water for lead by a certified laboratory; lists are available from your state
      or local drinking water authority. Testing costs between $20 and $100. Since you cannot see, taste, or smell
      lead dissolved in water, testing is the only sure way of telling whether there are elevated levels of lead in your
      drinking water. You should be particularly suspicious if your home has lead pipes (lead is a dull gray metal
      that is soft enough to be easily scratched with a house key), if you see signs of corrosion (frequent leaks,
      rust-colored water, stained dishes or laundry), or if your non-plastic plumbing is less than five years old. Your
      water supplier may have useful information, including whether the service connector used in your home
      or area is made of lead. Testing is especially important in high-rise buildings where flushing may not be
      effective.
      The action level for lead has been set at 15 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present
      technology and resources, this is the lowest level to which small and medium-size water systems can be
      reasonably required to control this contaminant should it occur in drinking water at their customers home
      taps. Our water system is required to notify the public when our test results show levels of lead above the 15
      ppb action level in > 10% of samples collected.
38

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Replacing pipes and fixtures containing lead with lead-free pipes and fixtures is the best way to ensure your
water will not contain lead. In addition, be sure to clean all water outlet screens regularly to remove small
sediments that may contain lead.
For more information, visit  ! >  • ,;• >;•,:;n  ' ;.,•>.,. or call EPA's Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-
4791. Your state or local public health department will also be able to provide information about lead.
                                                                                                        39

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                                           Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                       A Guide for Community Water Systems
                                                       Appendix B
                        Public  Education  Material Templates*
                        * Checklist for Implementing Your PE Program
                        * General Public Education Notice
                        > ListServ/Email Announcement
                        > Web site Announcement
                        * Public Service Announcement
                        > Water Bill Statement/Insert
                        > Press Release
                        > Brochure
                        > Poster
                        >> Consumer Notice of Tap Water Results
'Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html
                                                                    FOR

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FOR

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                                                    Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                   A Guide for Community Water Systems
  Checklist for Implementing Your PE Program

  D  Notify your primacy agency of an action level exceedance triggering your PE program.

  D  Notify your system's decision maker/s of the exceedance.

  D  Review your PE requirements (Section 1) and the timeline for delivering PE materials (see
      Tables 2 or 3 on Pages 8 or 9).

  D  Notify your communication or outreach team of the exceedance and enlist their assistance
      in implementing your plan.

  D  Inform all of your employees about your activities so that they can respond to customer
      questions or issues.

  D  Implement your phone tree and contact your conduit organizations to let them know that
      an exceedance has occurred and that you will be sending them materials for distribution.

  D  Update your PE material templates with information on the exceedance, actions you are
      taking to address it, and any other relevant information.

  D  Work with translators to finalize materials for multiple language audiences.

  D  Prepare mailing labels for conduit organizations and other dissemination mechanisms.

  D  Duplicate your pamphlets, flyers, posters, or other printed materials and prepare to deliver
      them to your conduit organizations.

  D  Meet with representatives from your local health agency (in person or by phone) to alert
      them to the exceedance and  provide them with materials they can distribute to the public.

  D  Send a press release to your local media outlets (print, TV, and radio).

  D  Reach out to your established media contacts and  work with  them to distribute your key
      messages.

  D  Coordinate with your spokesperson/spokespeople to conduct media interviews.

  D  Document your PE activities and report back to your primacy agency on completion of
      activities as required.

  D  Update your system's Web site (if required) to include PE materials and key messages for
      the public.

  D  Schedule and conduct public meetings  as needed.

  D  Continue to conduct your monitoring activities as required.

  D  Notify the public when the action level  exceedance has ended.
'Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html


                                                                            DRAFT FOR          43

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                                  Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                            A Guide for Community Water Systems
Spanish language templates are under development
                                                      FOR

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FOR

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                                                         Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                         A Guide for Community Water Systems
                 i?«f •$"* • •    f" >1, « !  '  ^r!
                  wi i.J   **  *   ,s, * I *  i  *
The following language meets the revised PE requirements under the 2007 short-term revisions and clarifications
to the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR).  Your notice must include the topic areas in bold below. Anything in
italics under each topic area is required language and cannot be changed while anything in regular text must be
covered, but you may use either the suggested language or your own words to cover the subject.

Your notice must begin with the following opening statement (though you have the option to include a title of
the pamphlet or brochure of your choosing):
[Insert name of water system] found elevated levels of lead in drinking water in some homes/buildings.  Lead can cause
serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and children 6 years and younger. Please read this notice closely
to see what you can do to reduce lead in your drinking water.

This notice is brought to you by [insert the name of your water system]. State Water System ID# [insert your
water system's ID number] Date [Insert the date distributed]
Lead can cause serious health problems if too much enters your body from drinking water or other sources. It can
cause damage to the brain and kidneys, andean interfere with the production of red blood cells that carry oxygen to
all parts of your body. The greatest risk of lead exposure is to infants, young children, and pregnant women. Scientists
have linked the effects of lead on the brain with loweredIQ in children. Adults with kidney problems and high blood
pressure can be affected by low levels of lead more than healthy adults.  Lead is stored in the bones and it can be released
later in life.  During pregnancy, the child receives lead from the mother's bones, which may affect brain development.
Lead is a common metal found in the environment. Drinking water is one possible source of lead exposure.
The main sources of lead exposure are lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust or soil, and some plumbing
materials. In addition, lead can be found in certain types of pottery, pewter, brass fixtures, food, and cosmetics.
Other sources include exposure in the work place and exposure from certain hobbies (lead can be carried on
clothing or shoes).

New brass faucets, fittings, and valves, including those advertised as "lead-free," may contribute lead to drinking
water.  The law currently allows end-use brass fixtures, such as faucets, with up to 8 percent lead to be labeled
as "lead free."  However, plumbing fixtures labeled National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) certified may only
have up to 2 percent lead.  Consumers should be aware of this when choosing fixtures and take appropriate
precautions.

[Insert utility specific information describing your community's source water - e.g. "The source of water from
XX Reservoir does not contain lead" or "Community X does not have any lead in its source water or water mains
in the  street."] When water is in contact with pipes [or service lines] or plumbing that contains lead for several
hours, the lead may enter drinking water.  Homes built before  1986 are more likely to have plumbing containing
lead. New homes may also have lead; even "lead-free" plumbing  may contain  some lead.

EPA estimates that 10 to 20 percent of a person's potential exposure to lead may come  from drinking water.
Infants who consume mostly formula mixed with lead-containing water can receive 40 to 60 percent of their
exposure to lead from drinking water.
Don't forget about other sources of lead  such as lead paint, lead dust, and lead in soil. Wash your children's
hands  and toys often as they can come into contact with dirt and dust containing lead.
'Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html

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       1.  Run your water to flush out lead.  Run water for 15-30 seconds [or insert a different flushing time
          if your system has representative data indicating a different flushing time would better reduce lead
          exposure in your community and if the State Primacy Agency approves the wording] or until it becomes
          cold or reaches a steady temperature before using it for drinking or cooking, if it hasn't been used for
          several hours. This flushes lead-containing water from the pipes.
       2.  Use cold water far cooking and preparing baby formula. Do not cook with or drink water from the hot water
          tap; lead dissolves more easily into hot water. Do not use water from the hot water tap to make baby formula.
       3.  Do not boil water to remove lead. Boiling water will not reduce lead.
       4.  Look for alternative sources or treatment of water.  You may want to consider purchasing bottled
          water  or a water filter.  Read the package to be sure the filter is approved to reduce lead or contact NSF
          International at 800-NSF-8010 or www.nsKorg for information on performance standards for water
          filters. Be sure to maintain and replace a filter device in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions
          to protect water quality.
       5.  Test your water for lead. Call us at [insert phone number for your water system] to find out how to get
          your water tested for lead.  [Include information on your water system's testing program.  For example,
          do you provide free testing?  Are there labs in your area that are certified to do lead in water testing?]
       6.  Get your child tested. Contact your local health department or healthcare provider to find out how you
          can get your child tested for lead if you are concerned about exposure.
       7.  Identify if your plumbing fixtures contain lead.  New brass faucets, fittings, and valves, including those
          advertised as "lead-free," may contribute lead to drinking water. The law currently allows end-use brass
          fixtures, such as faucets, with up to 8% lead to be labeled as "lead free." Visit the National Sanitation
          Foundation Web site at www.nsKorg to learn more about lead-containing plumbing fixtures.

       Wihui'C iHdupened? What is Beii1.'  \*  ''ins?
       [Insert information about how and when the exceedance was discovered in your community and provide
       information on the source(s) of lead in the drinking water, if known.]
       [Insert information about what your system is doing to reduce lead levels in homes in your community.]
       [Insert information about lead service lines in your community, how a consumer can find out of they have a
       lead service line, what your water system is doing to replace lead service lines, etc.]
       [Insert information about the history of lead levels in tap water samples in your community. For example,
       have they  declined substantially over time? Have they been low and risen recently? Is there a known reason
       for any lead level changes?]
           Vlhore mi win	rt
       Call us at [Insert Number] or (if applicable) visit our Web site at [insert Web site Here]. For more information
       on reducing lead exposure around your home/building and the health effects of lead, visit EPA's Web site at www.
       epa.gov/lead or contact your health care provider.

       [We recommend you include the name of your system and the date that the information is being distributed,
       along with the state water system ID, somewhere on the notice.]
48

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                                                        Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                        A Guide for Community Water Systems
Many communities, neighborhood councils, and conduit organizations serving specific audiences in your
community maintain listservs or electronic bulletin boards where information important to the community
can be posted. The following language meets the revised PE requirements under the 2007 short-term
revisions and clarifications to the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR). Your announcement must include the
topic areas in bold below. Anything in italics under each topic area is required language and cannot be
changed while anything in regular text must be covered, but you may use either the suggested language or
your own words to cover the subject.
[Insert name of water system] found elevated levels of lead in drinking water in some homes/buildings. Lead can
cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and children 6 years and younger.  Please read this
notice closely to see what you can do to reduce lead in your drinking water.

This notice is brought to you by [insert the name  of your water system]. State Water System ID# [insert
your water system's ID number]  Date [Insert the date distributed]
Lead can cause serious health problems if too much enters your body from drinking water or other sources. It can
cause damage to the brain and kidneys, andean interfere with the production of red blood cells that carry oxygen
to all parts of your body. The greatest risk of lead exposure is to infants, young children, and pregnant women.
Scientists have linked the effects of lead on the brain with lowered/Q in children. Adults with kidney problems
and high blood pressure can be affected by low levels of lead more than healthy adults.  Lead is stored in the bones
and it can be released later in life.  During pregnancy, the child receives lead from the mother's bones, which may
affect brain development.
Lead is a common metal found in the environment. Drinking water is one possible source of lead exposure.
The main sources of lead exposure are lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust or soil, and some
plumbing materials.  In addition, lead can be found in certain types of pottery, pewter, brass fixtures, food,
and cosmetics.  Other sources include exposure in the work place and exposure from certain  hobbies (lead
can be carried on clothing or shoes).

New brass faucets, fittings, and valves, including those advertised as "lead-free," may contribute lead to
drinking water. The law currently allows end-use brass fixtures, such as faucets, with up to 8 percent lead
to be labeled as "lead free." However, plumbing fixtures labeled National Sanitation Foundation (NSF)
certified may only have up to 2 percent lead. Consumers should be aware of this when choosing fixtures and
take appropriate precautions.

[Insert utility specific information describing your community's source water - e.g. "The source of water
from XX Reservoir does not contain lead" or "Community X does not have any lead in its source water or
water mains in the street."] When water is in contact with pipes [or service lines], and plumbing containing
lead for several hours, the lead  may enter drinking water. Homes built before 1986 are more likely to have
plumbing containing lead.  New homes may also have lead; even "lead-free" plumbing may contain some
lead.

EPA estimates that 10 to 20 percent of a person's potential  exposure to lead may come from drinking water.
Infants who consume mostly formula mixed with lead-containing water can receive 40 to 60 percent of their
exposure to lead from drinking water.
'Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html
                                                                                  V ., :"  :.  .' .  •.•  •••.••     49

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      Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
      A Guide for Community Water Systems


      Don't forget about other sources of lead such as lead paint, lead dust, and lead in soil. Wash your children's
      hands and toys often as they can come into contact with dirt and dust containing lead.

      Steps you can take to reduce your exposure to lead in your water
      *  Run your water to flush out lead. Run water for 15-30 seconds [or insert a different flushing time if
         your system has representative data indicating a different flushing time would better reduce lead exposure
         in your community and if the State Primacy Agency approves the wording] or until it becomes cold or
         reaches a steady temperature before using it for drinking or cooking, if it hasn't been used for several
         hours.  This flushes lead-containing water from the pipes.
      >  Use cold water for cooking and preparing baby formula.  Do not  cook with or drink water from the
         hot water tap; lead dissolves more  easily into hot water. Do not use water from the hot water tap to make
         baby formula.
      >  Do not boil water to remove lead. Boiling water will not reduce lead.
      >•  Look for alternative sources or treatment of water. You may want to consider purchasing bottled
         water or a water filter.  Read the package to be sure the filter is approved to reduce lead or contact NSF
         International at 800-NSF-8010 or             for information on  performance standards for water
         filters.  Be sure to maintain and replace a filter device in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions
         to protect water quality.
      *  Test your water for lead.  Call us at [insert phone number for your  water system] to find out how to  get
         your water tested for lead if you are concerned about exposure.
      >  Get your child tested.  Contact your local health department or healthcare provider to find out how you
         can get your child tested for lead if you are concerned  about exposure.
      >  Identify if your plumbing fixtures contain lead. New brass faucets, fittings, and valves, including those
         advertised as "lead-free," may contribute lead to  drinking water. The law currently allows end-use brass
         fixtures, such as faucets, with up to 8% lead to be labeled as "lead free." However, plumbing fixtures
         labeled National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) certified may only have up to 2% lead. Consumers should
         be aware of this when choosing fixtures and take appropriate precautions.
       [Insert information about how and when the exceedance was discovered in your community and provide
       information on the source(s) of lead in the drinking water, if known.]
       [Insert information about what your system is doing to reduce lead levels in homes in your community.]
       [Insert information about lead service lines in your community, how a consumer can find out of they have a
       lead service line, what your water system is doing to replace lead service lines, etc.]
       [Insert information about the history of lead levels in tap water samples in your community. For example,
       have they declined substantially over time? Have they been low and risen recently?  Is there a known reason
       for any lead level changes?]
       Call us at [Insert Number] or (if applicable) visit our Web site at [insert Web site Here].  For more information
       on reducing lead exposure around your home/building and the health effects of lead, visit EPA's Web site at
       www.epa.gov/lead or contact your health care provider.

       [We recommend you include the name of your system and the date that the information is  being distributed,
       along with the state water system ID, somewhere on the notice.]
      'Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html
50    DRAFT FOR

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                                                    Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                   A Guide for Community Water Systems


Web  Site Announcement Template
Large community water systems (serving greater than 100,000 people) are required to provide a Public
Education notice on their Web site. The following language can serve as an announcement on the Web site,
but to meet the revised PE requirements under the 2007 short-term revisions and clarifications to the Lead
and Copper Rule (LCR), large CWSs should include a link to their General Public Education Notice, which
includes all of the required language.  Refer to page X of this Appendix for the General Public Education
Notice template.
  IM ~:   •."•
  [Insert name of your water system] found elevated levels of lead in drinking water in some homes/
  buildings in our community. Lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and
  children 6 years and younger. Please read the following notice [insert link to Public Education Notice]
  closely to see what you can do to reduce lead in your drinking water and to learn what [Insert name of
  your water system]  is doing to address this problem.

  Call us at [insert your water system phone number]  for more information Date [Insert the date posted]

  [Provide your system's General Public Education Notice here or link to it within your Web site.]
                                                                                  FOR           51

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      Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
      A Guide for Community Water Systems
      The latest revisions to the LCR do not require water systems to produce Public Service Announcements.
      However, Public Service Announcements are one of the additional activities that large and small water
      systems can produce to meet the additional PE requirements (see Table 3). Although you should include the
      following information, which is consistent with the PE requirements under the 2007 short-term revisions
      and clarifications to the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), the media outlets may opt to not include all of the
      information. Note: Mandatory language which must be included as written is in italics.
      [Insert name of water system] found elevated levels of lead in drinking water in some homes/buildings in our
      community. Lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and children 6 years and
      younger.

      Lead is a common metal found in the environment. Drinking water is one possible source of lead exposure.
      The main sources of lead exposure are lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust or soil.

      The following are some of the steps you can take to reduce your exposure to lead in your water including:

      > Run your water for 15-30 seconds to flush out lead.  [Or insert a different flushing time if your
         system has representative data indicating a different flushing time would better reduce lead exposure in
         your community and if the Primacy Agency approves the wording]
      + Use cold water for cooking and preparing baby formula.
      > Do not boil water to remove lead.

      Call [insert name of your water system] at [insert number] or (ifapplicable) visit our Web site at [insert Web site
      Here] to find out how to get your water tested for lead or for more information. For more information on reducing
      lead exposure around your home/building and the health effects of lead, visit EPA's Web site at
      or contact your health care provider.

      This notice is brought to you by [insert the name of your water system]. State Water System ID# [insert
      your water system's ID number] Date [Insert the date distributed]
      'Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html
52     ••'. •:>•<••    • ,• •.',

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                                                        Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                         A Guide for Community Water Systems
 •-....          I   ,,  . .,    ...    ,„„ I „ , „„
 •'  1 ••  ".-;-  .  '•  I'•-*"-     ••  III III jf .HI., I '•
The revisions to the LCR PE require systems to provide two press releases per year during a lead action
level exceedance. For small systems, if no media outlets are available that serve the population served by the
system, the Primacy Agency can waive this requirement. The following template contains information that
is consistent with the LCR requirements.  Providing local information, quotes from a local water system and/
or public health official, and information about actions your system is taking to address the exceedance can
help the media to accurately convey information about the exceedance and your system's action steps.  Please
note, media outlets may choose not to include  all of the information that you provide in your Press Release.
Note: Mandatory language which must be included as written is in italics.
Recent drinking water quality monitoring conducted by [insert name of water system!community] has found
elevated levels of lead in drinking water in some homes/buildings in [insert name of community or area served
by your water system]. Although the primary sources of lead exposure are lead-based paint and lead-
contaminated dust or soil, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that 10 to 20 percent of a
person's potential exposure to lead may come from drinking water.

[Insert name of community] is concerned about the health of their residents because lead can cause serious
health problems if too much enters your body from drinking water or other sources, especially for pregnant women
and children 6 years and younger. It can cause damage to the brain and kidneys, and can interfere with the
production of red blood cells that carry oxygen to all parts of your body. Scientists have linked the effects of lead on
the brain with lowered /Q in children. Adults with kidney problems and high blood pressure can be affected by
low levels of lead more than healthy adults.  Lead is stored in the bones and it can be released later in life. During
pregnancy, the child receives lead from the mother's bones, which may affect brain development.

[Insert information about what happened and what is being done? You may wish to include information
about the exceedance and the history of lead levels in tap water samples in your community.  For example,
have they declined substantially over time? Have they been low and risen recently? Is there a known reason
for any lead level changes? Explain the steps being taken to reduce lead levels, such as corrosion control
treatment and/or lead service line replacement.]

There are steps you can take to reduce your exposure to lead in your water:
*•  Run your water to flush out lead. Run water  for 15-30 seconds or until it becomes cold or reaches a
   steady temperature before using it for  drinking or cooking, if it hasn't been used for several hours. This
   flushes lead-containing water from the pipes.
>  Use cold water for cooking and preparing baby formula.
*  Do not boil water to remove lead. Boiling water will not reduce lead.
»•  Look for alternative drinking water  sources or treatment of water. You may want to consider
   purchasing bottled water or a water filter.
*  Test your water for lead. Call us at [insert phone number for your water system] to find  out how to get
   your water tested for lead.
*•  Get your child tested. Contact your local health department or healthcare provider to find out how you
   can get your child tested for lead if you are concerned about exposure.
*  Identify if your plumbing fixtures contain lead.
'Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html
                                                                                                        53

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       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
       A Guide for Community Water Systems


       There are several action that [insert name of water system of community] are taking to address this lead in
       drinking water concern.   [Insert a quote from a water system official letting the public know what actions
       the system is taking to address the lead action level exceedance or insert a list of action steps.]


       Call [insert name of your water system] at [insert number] or (ifapplicable) visit [insert name of your water
       system ] Web site at [insert Web site Here] to find out how to get your water tested for lead or for more information
       on steps [insert name of your water system] is taking to address the lead action level exceedance. For more
       information on reducing lead exposure around your home/building and the health effects of lead, visit EPA's Web
       site at                   or contact your health care provider.


       [We recommend you include the name of your system and the date that the information is being distributed,
       along with the state water system ID, somewhere on the notice.]
54

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                                                     Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                     A Guide for Community Water Systems
Water  Bill Language/Insert Template

The following paragraph includes language that meets the LCR PE requirements and must be included in
water bill notification in the event of a lead action level exceedance.  Please note, the following statement
may be placed directly on the water bill itself or included as an insert.
         iR>W'Cifrji,sjui              Oft, ,SK:KJ' N,K&y> IM  • .:•     ; -.

  [Insert name of your water system] found high levels of lead in drinking water in some homes. Lead can cause
  serious health problems. For more information, please call [insert name and phone number of water system]
  or visit [insertyour Web site].
'Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html


                                                                                    FOR            55

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            Implementing The Lead Public  Education  Provision of the LCR:
            A Guide for Community Water Systems
            Public   Education   Brochure
                replace  a filter device in accordance with the
                manufacturer's instructions to protect water
                quality.

                5. Test your water for lead. Call us at [insert
                phone number for your water system] to find out
                how to get your water tested for lead. [Include
                information  on  your   water
                system's testing program.  For
                example, do you provide free
                testing?  Are there labs in your
                area that are certified to do lead
                in water testing?]

                6. Get your child  tested.  Contact your local
                health department or healthcare provider to find
                out how you can get your child tested for lead, if
                you are concerned about exposure.

                7. Identify if your plumbing fixtures  contain
                lead.  New brass  faucets, fittings, and valves,
                including those advertised  as "lead-free," may
                contribute lead  to  drinking water. The law
                currently allows end-use  brass fixtures,  such as
                faucets,  with  up  to 8%  lead to be labeled as
                "lead free." However, plumbing fixtures labeled
                National Sanitation  Foundation (NSF) certified
                may  only have  up to  2% lead.  Consumers
                should be aware of this when choosing  fixtures
                and take appropriate precautions.
                          WHAT HAPPENED?
                        WHAT IS BEING DONE?

                [Insert information about how and when the
                exceedance   was   discovered   in  your
                community and provide information on the
                source(s) of lead  in  the  drinking water, if
                known.]
                                                 [Insert information about what your system
                                                 is doing to reduce lead levels in homes in your
                                                 community.]
                                                 [Insert information about lead service lines in
                                                 your community, how a consumer  can find
                                                 out of they have a lead service line, what your
                                                 water system is doing to replace lead service
                                                 lines, etc.]
                                                 [Insert information about the history of lead
                                                 levels in   tap  water  samples  in  your
                                                 community. For example, have they declined
                                                 substantially over time? Have they been low
                                                 and risen recently? Is there a known reason
                                                 for any lead level changes?]
        FOR MORE INFORMATION
 Call us at [Insert Number] or (if applicable) visit
 our Web site at [insert Web site Here]. For more
 information on reducing lead exposure around
 your home/building  and the health effects of
 lead, visit EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/lead,
 or contact your health care provider.

 [We recommend you include the name of your
 system and the date that the information is being
 distributed, along  with the state water system
 ID, somewhere on  the notice.]
            Lead
                 in
    Dr  in   kin  g
         Water
                 The   United   States   Environmental
                 Protection  Agency  (EPA)  and  [insert
                 name  of  water  supplier  here]  are
                 concerned  about lead in your drinking
                 water.  Although most homes have very
                 low levels of lead in their drinking water,
                 some homes in the  community have lead
                 levels above the EPA action level of 15
                 parts  per  billion   (ppb),  or   0.015
                 milligrams of lead per liter  of water
                 (mg/L).   Under  Federal law we  are
                 required to have a program  in place  to
                 minimize lead in your drinking water by
                 [insert date when corrosion control will
                 be completed for your system].

                 This program includes:
                 1. Corrosion  control treatment (treating
                 the water to make it less likely that lead
                 will dissolve into the water);
                 2. Source water treatment (removing any
                 lead  that is in the water at the  time it
                 leaves our treatment facility); and
                 3. A public education program.

                 We  are also required to replace the
                 portion of each lead service line that we
                 own   if the  line  contributes  lead
                 concentrations of more than 15  ppb after
                 we have completed  the comprehensive
                 treatment program.   If you have any
                 questions about how we are carrying out
                 the requirements of the lead regulation
                 please give us a call at [insert water
                 system's phone number here].

                 This brochure also  explains the  simple
                 steps you can take to protect yourself by
                 reducing  your  exposure  to  lead   in
                 drinking water.
                                                Important Information about Lead in Your
                                                Drinking Water
                                                [Insert name of water system] found elevated
                                                levels of lead in drinking water in some
                                                homes/buildings. Lead can cause serious health
                                                problems, especially for pregnant women and
                                                young children. Please read this information
                                                closely to see what you can do to reduce lead in
                                                your drinking water.
                                                      HEALTH EFFECTS OF LEAD

                                                Lead can  cause serious health problems if too
                                                much enters your body from drinking water or
                                                other sources. It can cause damage to the brain
                                                and  kidneys,  and  can   interfere  with  the
                                                production of red blood cells that carry oxygen
                                                to all parts of your body.  The greatest risk of
                                                lead exposure is to infants, young children, and
                                                pregnant women. Scientists have linked the
                                                effects of lead on the brain with  lowered IQ in
                                                children. Adults with kidney problems and high
                                                blood pressure can be affected by low levels of
                                                lead more than healthy adults. Lead is stored in
                                                the bones and it can be released later in life.
                                                During pregnancy, the child receives lead from
                                                the mother's bones, which may affect  brain
                                                development.
                                                          SOURCES OF LEAD

                                                Lead  is  a  common  metal  found  in  the
                                                environment.  Drinking  water is one possible
                                                source of lead exposure. The main sources of
                                                lead  exposure are lead-based paint and lead-
                                                contaminated  dust or soil,  and some plumbing
                                                materials. In  addition,  lead  can be found in
                                                certain types  of pottery, pewter, brass fixtures,
                                                food,  and cosmetics.  Other  sources  include
                                                exposure in the work place and exposure from
certain hobbies (lead can be carried on clothing
or shoes).

New  brass  faucets,  fittings,  and  valves,
including those  advertised as "lead-free," may
contribute  lead to drinking water.  The  law
currently allows end-use brass fixtures, such as
faucets, with up to 8 percent lead to be labeled
as "lead  free."  However,  plumbing  fixtures
labeled National Sanitation Foundation (NSF)
certified may only have up to 2 percent lead.
Consumers should be  aware  of this when
choosing   fixtures   and   take   appropriate
precautions.

[CWS  - Insert utility  specific  information
describing your community's source water - e.g.
•'The source of water from XX Reservoir does
not  contain lead" or "Community  X does not
have any lead in its source water or water mains
in the street."] When water is in contact with
pipes   [or  service   lines],  and  plumbing
containing lead for several hours, the lead may
enter drinking water. Homes built before 1986
are  more likely to have plumbing containing
lead. New homes may also have lead; even
"lead-free" plumbing may contain some lead.

EPA estimates  that  10  to 20  percent  of a
person's potential  exposure to lead may come
from drinking  water. Infants who  consume
mostly  formula  mixed with lead-containing
water can  receive 40 to 60 percent of their
exposure to lead from drinking water.
Don't forget about other sources of  lead such as
lead paint, lead dust, and lead in soil. Wash your
children's hands and toys  often  as  they can
come into contact with dirt and dust containing
lead.
   STEPS YOU CAN TAKE TO REDUCE
  YOUR EXPOSURE TO LEAD IN YOUR
                WATER

1. Run your water to flush out lead. Run water
for 15-30 seconds [or insert a different flushing
time  if  your system  has representative  data
indicating a different flushing time would better
reduce lead exposure in your  community and if
the  State  Primacy  Agency   approves  the
        wording] or  until it becomes cold or
               reaches a steady temperature
f   ' «St  before using it for drinking
               or cooking, if it hasn't been
       gjrli  used for several hours.  This
               flushes lead-containing water
               from the pipes.
2.  Use cold water for cooking
and preparing baby formula.
Do not  cook with or drink
water from the hot water  tap:
lead dissolves more easily  into
hot water. Do not use water
from the hot water tap to make
baby formula.
3.  Do not boil water to remove lead. Boiling
water will not reduce lead.

4. Look for alternative sources or treatment of
water. You may want to consider
purchasing bottled water or a
water filter. Read the package to
be sure the filter is approved to
reduce  lead   or   contact  NSF
International at 800-NSF-8010 or
www.nsf.ora  for information on
performance standards for water
filters. Be sure to maintain and
            'Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html
56
DRAFT FOR REVIEW

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                                                                                                   Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                                                                               A Guide for Community Water Systems
Public   Education   Poster
                                [Insert name of water system] found elevated levels of lead in drinking water in some homes/buildings. Lead can cause serious
                                health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Please read this information closely to see what you can
                                do to reduce lead in your drinking water.
                                    Health Effects of Lead
                             Lead can cause serious health problems
                             if too  much enters  your  body  from
                             drinking water or other sources.  It can
                             cause damage to  the brain and kidneys.
                             and can interfere  with the production of
                             red blood cells that carry oxygen to all
                             parts of your body. The greatest risk of
                             lead exposure  is  to  infants,  young
                             children, and pregnant women. Scientists
                             have linked  the effects of lead on the
                             brain with lowered IQ in children. Adults
                             with kidney problems and  high  blood
                             pressure can be affected by low levels of
                             lead more than healthy adults. Lead is
                             stored in the bones and it can be released
                             later in life. During pregnancy, the child
                             receives lead from the mother's bones.
                             which may affect brain development.
                             Lead is a common metal  found in the
                             environment.  Drinking  water is  one
                             possible source  of lead exposure. The
                             main sources of lead exposure are lead-
                             based paint and lead-contaminated dust
                             or soil, and some plumbing materials. In
                             addition,  lead can be found in certain
                             types of pottery, pewter, brass fixtures.
                             food,   and  cosmetics.  Other sources
                             include exposure in the work place  and
                             exposure  from certain hobbies (lead can
                             be carried on clothing or shoes).

                             New brass faucets, fittings, and valves.
                             including those advertised as "lead-free,"
                             may contribute lead to  drinking water.
                             The law  currently allows end-use brass
                             fixtures, such as faucets, with up to  8
                             percent lead to be labeled as "lead free."
                             However,  plumbing  fixtures  labeled
                             National  Sanitation  Foundation (NSF)
                             certified may only have  up to 2 percent
                             lead. Consumers should be aware of this
                             when   choosing  fixtures   and   take
                             appropriate precautions.

                             [CWS-Insert utility specific information
                             describing your  community's  source
                             water - e.g. 'The source of water from
                             XX Reservoir does not contain lead" or
                             "Community X does not have any lead in
                             its source water or water mains in the
                             street."] When water is  in contact with
                             pipes  [or service  lines], and  plumbing
                             containing lead  for  several hours,  the
                             lead may enter  drinking water. Homes
                             built before 1986 are more likely to have
                             plumbing containing lead. New homes
                             may also  have  lead; even "lead-free"
                             plumbing may contain some lead.

                             EPA estimates that 10 to 20 percent of a
                             person's potential exposure to lead may
                             come from drinking water. Infants who
                             consume  mostly  formula  mixed  with
                             lead-containing water  can receive 40 to
                             60 percent of their exposure to lead from
                             drinking water. Don't forget about other
                             sources of lead such as lead paint, lead
                             dust,  and lead  in  soil.  Wash your
                             children's hands and toys often as they
                                                                    can come into contact with dirt and dust
                                                                    containing lead.
Steps You Can Take to Reduci
  Exposure to Lead in Water
1. Run your water to flush out lead. Run
water for  15-30 seconds  [or  insert  a
different flushing time if your system has
representative data indicating a  different
flushing time would better  reduce lead
exposure in your community and if the
State  Primacy  Agency  approves  the
      ^)     wording]   or  until   it
    f  4 .    becomes cold or reaches a
        J  steady temperature before
            using  it  for drinking  or
                  cooking, if it hasn't
                  been   used   for
                  several hours. This
                  flushes      lead-
                  containing    water
                  from the pipes.

2.  Use  cold water for cooking and
preparing  baby formula. Do not cook
with or drink water from the hot water
tap; lead dissolves more easily  into hot
water. Do  not use  water from the hot
water tap  to make
baby formula.

3. Do not boil water
to   remove   lead.
Boiling  water  will
not reduce  lead.

4.  Look  for  alternative  sources  or
treatment  of water.  You may  want to
consider purchasing bottled water or a
water filter. Read the package to be sure
the filter is approved to reduce lead or
contact NSF International at 800-NSF-
8010 or www.nsf.org for information on
performance  standards  for water filters.
Be sure to maintain and replace a filter
device  in   accordance   with   the
manufacturer's  instructions  to  protect
water quality.

5.  Test your water for lead. Call us at
[insert phone number  for  your  water
system] to find out how to
get your  water  tested for
lead.  [Include  information
on  your  water  system's
testing    program.     For
example,  do you provide free  testing?
Are there  labs  in  your area  that  are
certified to do lead in water testing?]

6.  Get your child tested. Contact your
local  health department or healthcare
provider to find out how you  can get
your child tested  for lead, if  you are
concerned about exposure.

7.  Identify if your plumbing  fixtures
contain lead. New brass faucets, fittings.
and valves, including those advertised as
:lead-fiee,"  may  contribute   lead  to
drinking water. The law currently allows
end-use brass fixtures,  such as faucets.
with up to  8% lead to be labeled as "lead
free."  However,   plumbing   fixtures
                                       labeled National Sanitation Foundation
                                       (NSF) certified may only have up to 2%
                                       lead. Consumers should be aware of this
                                       when   choosing  fixtures   and  take
                                       appropriate precautions.
                                              What happened?
                                             Vhat is being don<
                                     [Insert information about how and when
                                     the exceedance  was  discovered in your
                                     community and provide information on
                                     the source(s) of lead in the drinking
                                     water, if known.]
                                                                                                          [Insert information  about  what  your
                                                                                                          system is doing to reduce lead levels in
                                                                                                          homes in your community.]
                                     [Insert information about lead service
                                     lines   in  your  community,  how  a
                                     consumer  can find out of they have a
                                     lead service line, what your water system
                                     is doing to  replace lead  service  lines.
                                     [Insert information about the history of
                                     lead levels in tap water samples in your
                                     community.  For  example,  have they
                                     declined substantially over time? Have
                                     they been low and risen recently? Is there
                                     a known reason  for any  lead level
                                     changes?]
                                           For More Information
                                     Call  us  at  [Insert  Number]  or  (if
                                     applicable) visit our Web site at [insert
                                     Web site Here]. For more information on
                                     reducing  lead exposure  around  your
                                     home/building and the health effects of
                                     lead,   visit   EPA's  Web   site  at
                                     www.epa.gov/lead,  or  contact  your
                                     health care provider.

                                     [We recommend you include the name of
                                     your  system  and the  date that the
                                     information  is being distributed,  along
                                     with  the   state  water   system  ID.
                                     somewhere on the notice.]
* Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html
                                                                                                                                                DRAFT FOR REVIEW
                                                                                                                   57

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       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
       A Guide for Community Water Systems
       Dear (Consumer's Name),
       [Insert name of your water system] appreciates your participation in the lead tap monitoring program. A lead
       level of [insert data from the laboratory analysis of the sample collected-make sure the value is in pbb] was
       reported for the sample collected on [date] at your location, [insert address of customer].

       1, We are happy to report that your result as well, as the 90th percentile value for our water system, is below
       the lead action level of 15 parts per billion.

       What Does This Mean?
       Under the authority of the Safe Drinking Water Act, EPA set the action level for lead in drinking water at
       15 ppb.  This means utilities must ensure that water from the customer's tap does not exceed this level in
       at least 90 percent of the homes sampled (90th percentile value). The action level is the concentration of a
       contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow. If
       water from the tap does exceed this limit, then the utility must take certain steps to correct the problem.
       Because lead may pose serious health risks, the EPA set a Maximum  Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of
       zero for lead.  The MCLG is the level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or
       expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.

       What Are The Health Effects of Lead?
       Lead can cause serious health problems if too much enters your body from drinking water or other sources.  It can
       cause damage to the brain and kidneys, andean interfere with the production of red blood cells that carry oxygen
       to all parts of your body. The greatest risk of lead exposure is to infants, young children, and pregnant women.
       Scientists have linked the effects of lead on the brain with lowered/Q in children.  Adults with kidney problems
       and high blood pressure can be affected by low levels of lead more than healthy adults. Lead is stored in the bones,
       and it can be released later in life.  During pregnancy, the child receives  lead from  the mother's bones, which may
       affect brain development.

       What Are The Sources of Lead?
       The primary sources of lead exposure for most children are deteriorating lead-based paint, lead-
       contaminated dust, and lead-contaminated residential soil. Exposure to lead is a significant health concern,
       especially for young children and infants whose growing bodies tend to absorb more lead than the average
       adult.  Although your home's drinking water lead levels were below the action level, if you are concerned
       about lead exposure, parents should ask their health care providers about testing children for high levels of
       lead in the blood.

       What Can I Do To Reduce Exposure to Lead in Drinking Water?

       * Run your water to flush out lead.  If water hasn't been used for several hours, run water for 15-30
         seconds [or insert a different flushing time  if your system has representative data indicating a different
      'Customizable versions of these templates are available for download at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/compliancehelp.html

58     ' •-'::'  ::~- '  •..•••. ••••. '

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                                                       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                       A Guide for Community Water Systems

   flushing time would better reduce lead exposure in your community and if the State approves the
   wording] or until it becomes cold or reaches a steady temperature before using it for drinking or
   cooking,. This flushes lead-containing water from the pipes.
>   Use cold water for cooking and preparing baby formula.
>  Do not boil water to remove lead.
>  Look for alternative sources or treatment of water.
>  Test your water for lead.
>  Identify if your plumbing fixtures contain lead.

For More Information
Call us at [insertyour water system's phone number].  For more information on reducing lead exposure around
your home and the health effects of lead, visit EPA's Web site at                   call the National Lead
Information Center at 800-424-LEAD, or contact your health care provider.

-------
      Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
      A Guide for Community Water Systems
                                                        ";   , _,                             be

                                                        ,: -. •,

      Dear (Consumer's Name),
      [Insert name of your water system} appreciates your participation in the lead tap monitoring program. A lead
      level of [insert data from the laboratory analysis of the sample collected-make sure the value is in pbb] was
      reported for the sample collected on [date] at your location, [insert address of customer].

      2.  We are happy to report that your result was below the lead action level of 15 parts per billion.  However,
      the 90th percentile value for our system was above the lead action level.

      What Does This Mean?
      Under the authority of the Safe Drinking Water Act, EPA set the action level for lead in drinking water at
      15 ppb.  This means utilities must ensure that water from the customer's tap does not exceed this level in
      at least 90 percent of the homes sampled (90th percentile value). The action level is the concentration of a
      contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow. If
      water from the tap does exceed this limit, then the utility must take certain steps to correct the problem.
      Because lead may pose serious health risks, the EPA set a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of
      zero for lead. The MCLG is the level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or
      expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.

      We are taking a number of steps to correct the problem.  We will begin sampling for lead every 6 months so
      we  can closely monitor the lead levels in our water system.  Your continued participation and  support in our
      lead tap monitoring program is very important.  In addition, we will initiate a Public Education campaign
      to ensure our customers know about the action level exceedance, understand the health effects of lead, the
      sources of lead and actions they can take to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water. We will also monitor
      our source water, initiate controls to reduce the corrosivity of our water (corrosive water can cause lead to
      leach from plumbing materials that contain lead) and initiate lead service line replacement.

      What Are The Health Effects of Lead?
      Lead can cause serious health problems if too much enters your body from drinking water or other sources.  It can
      cause damage to the brain and kidneys, and can interfere with the production of red blood cells  that carry oxygen
      to all parts of your body.  The greatest risk of lead exposure is to infants, young children, and pregnant women.
      Scientists have linked the effects of lead on the brain with loweredIQ in children. Adults with kidney problems
      and high blood pressure can be affected by low levels of lead more than healthy adults. Lead is stored in the bones,
      and it can be released later in life. During pregnancy, the child receives lead from the mother's bones, which may
      affect brain development.
      What Are The Sources of Lead?
      The primary sources of lead exposure for most children are deteriorating lead-based paint, lead-contaminated
      dust, and lead-contaminated residential soil. Exposure to lead is a significant health concern, especially
      for young children and infants whose growing bodies tend to absorb more lead than the average adult.
60

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                                                       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                       A Guide for Community Water Systems

Although your home's drinking water lead levels were below the action level, if you are concerned about lead
exposure, parents should ask their health care providers about testing children for high levels of lead in the
blood. Lead is rarely found in source water, but enters tap water through corrosion of plumbing materials.
Homes built before 1986 are more likely to have lead pipes, fixtures and solder.

What Can I Do To Reduce Exposure to Lead in Drinking Water?

>•  Run your water to flush out lead.  Run water for 15-30 seconds [or insert a different flushing time if
   your system has representative data indicating a different flushing time would better reduce lead exposure
   in your community and if the State approves the wording] or until it becomes cold or reaches a steady
   temperature before using it for drinking or cooking, if it hasn't been used for several hours.  This flushes
   lead-containing water from the pipes.
>   Use cold water for cooking and preparing baby formula.
>   Do not boil water to remove lead.
>  Look for alternative sources or treatment of water.
>  Test your water for lead.
>  Identify if your plumbing fixtures contain lead.

For More Information
Call us at [insertyour water system's phone number]. For more information on reducing lead exposure around
your home and the health effects of lead, visit EPA's Web site at                   call the National Lead
Information Center at 800-424-LEAD, or contact your health care provider.

-------
Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
A Guide for Community Water Systems
 ;', ?,    •;  :"•'•'.;  <;  •••   <•    " -  •'• •/',,    •• •   vi " :

 1,  ..I.'  •'.'.,.     ' ,,«'' V«''t[ •.'',' v,". ,».,.  .'i, ri,i'' in, i,,,,;

 Dear (Consumer's Name),
 [Insert name of your water system] appreciates your participation in the lead tap monitoring program. A lead
 level of [insert data  from the laboratory analysis of the sample collected-make sure the value is in pbb] was
 reported for the sample collected on [date] at your location, [insert address of customer].

 3. Your result is greater than the lead action level of 15 parts per billion. However, the 90th percentile value
 for our water system was below the lead action level.

What Does This Mean?
 Under the authority of the Safe Drinking Water Act, EPA set the action level for lead in drinking water at
 15 ppb. This means utilities must ensure that water from the customer's tap does not exceed this level in
 at least 90 percent of the homes sampled (90th percentile value). The action level is the concentration of a
 contaminant which,  if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow. If
 water from the tap does exceed this limit, then the utility must take certain steps to correct the problem.
 Because lead may pose serious health risks, the EPA set a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of
 zero for lead. The MCLG is the level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or
 expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.

 Your lead level may be due to conditions unique to your home, such as the presence of lead soldier or brass
 faucets, fittings and valves that may contain lead. Our system works to keep the corrosivity of our water as
 low as possible (corrosive water can cause lead to leach from plumbing materials that contain lead) and there
 are actions you can  take to reduce exposure. We strongly urge you to take the steps below to reduce your
 exposure to lead in drinking water.
What Are The Health Effects of Lead?
 Lead can cause serious health problems if too much enters your body from drinking water or other sources.  It can
 cause damage to the brain and kidneys, andean interfere with the production of red blood cells that carry oxygen
 to all parts of your body.  The greatest risk of lead exposure is to infants, young children, and pregnant women.
 Scientists have linked the effects of lead on the brain with lowered/Q in children.  Adults with kidney problems
 and high blood pressure can be affected by low levels of lead more than healthy adults. Lead is stored in the bones,
 and it can be released later in life.  During pregnancy, the child receives lead from  the mother's bones, which may
 affect brain development. If you are concerned about lead exposure, you may want to ask your health care
 provider about testing children to determine levels of lead in their blood.

What Are The Sources of Lead?
Although most lead exposure occurs when people eat paint chips and inhale dust, or from contaminated soil,
 EPA estimates that  10 to 20 percent of human exposure to lead may come from lead in drinking water. Lead
 is rarely found in source water, but enters tap water through corrosion of plumbing materials. Homes built
 before 1986 are more likely to have lead pipes, fixtures and solder. However, new homes are also  at risk: even
 legally "lead-free" plumbing may contain up to 8 percent lead. The most common problem is with brass or
 chrome-plated brass faucets and fixtures which can leach significant amounts of lead into the water, especially
 hot water.

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                                                       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                        A Guide for Community Water Systems

What Can I Do To Reduce Exposure to Lead in Drinking Water?

>  Run your water to flush out lead.  If water hasn't been used for several hours, run water for 15-30
   seconds [or insert a different flushing time if your system has representative data indicating a different
   flushing time would better reduce lead exposure in your community and if the State approves the
   wording] or until it becomes cold or reaches a steady temperature before using it for drinking or cooking.
   This flushes lead-containing water from the pipes.
>   Use cold water for cooking and preparing baby formula. Do not cook with or drink water from the
   hot water tap; lead dissolves more easily into hot water. Do not use water from the hot water tap to make
   baby formula.
>   Do not boil water to remove lead.  Boiling water will not reduce lead.
>   Look far alternative sources or treatment of water.  You may want to  consider purchasing bottled
   water or a water filter. Read the package to be  sure the filter is approved to reduce lead or contact NSF
   International at 800-NSF-8010 or             for  information on performance standards for water
   filters.
>   Test your water for lead.  Call us at [insert phone number for your water system] to find out how to get
   your water tested for lead.  [Include information on your water system's testing program.  For example, do you
   provide free testing? Are there labs in your area that are certified to do lead in water testing?]

For More Information
Call us at [insertyour water system's phone number]. For  more information on reducing lead exposure around
your home and the health effects of lead, visit EPA's Web  site at                  call the National Lead
Information Center at 800-424-LEAD, or contact your health care provider.

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       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
       A Guide for Community Water Systems
         , '• ,  "   '   . •, '  ,  '    •      ,  ',.;.,  r  '>  '   ',-'.,•,

         •• j    •  • '     ; ;'.    .  •'«    i'  .• "     ',   ,'   '   	

      Dear (Consumer's Name),
      [Insert name of your water system] appreciates your participation in the lead tap monitoring program. A lead
      level of [insert data  from the laboratory analysis of the sample collected-make sure the value is in pbb] was
      reported for the sample  collected on [date]  at your location, [insert address of customer].

      4, Your result is greater than the lead action level and the 90th percentile value for our water system is also
      greater than the lead action level of 15 parts per billion.

      What Does This Mean?
      Under the authority of the Safe Drinking Water Act, EPA set the action level for lead in drinking water at
      15 ppb. This means utilities must ensure that water from the customer's tap does not exceed this level in
      at least 90 percent of the homes sampled (90th percentile result). The action level is the concentration of a
      contaminant which,  if exceeded, triggers treatment or other requirements which a water system must follow. If
      water from the tap does exceed this  limit, then the utility must take certain steps to correct the problem.
      Because lead  may pose serious health risks,  the EPA set a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal  (MCLG) of
      zero for lead. The MCLG is the level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or
      expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety.

      We are taking a number of steps to correct the problem. We will begin sampling for lead every 6 months so
      we can closely monitor the lead levels in our water system. Your continued participation and support in our
      lead tap monitoring program is very important.  In addition, we will initiate a Public Education  campaign
      to ensure our customers know about the action level exceedance,  understand the health effects of lead, the
      sources  of lead and  actions they can take to reduce exposure to leads in drinking water. We will also monitor
      our source water, initiate controls to reduce the corrosivity of our water (corrosive water can cause lead to
      leach from plumbing materials that contain lead) and initiate lead service line replacement.

      Although we are taking  action to reduce lead levels, your elevated lead level may also be due to conditions
      unique to your home, such as the presence  of lead soldier or brass faucets, fittings and valves that may contain
      lead. Our system works to keep the corrosivity of our water as low as possible (corrosive water can cause lead
      to leach from plumbing materials that contain lead) and there are actions you can take to reduce exposure.
      We strongly urge you to take the steps below to reduce your exposure to lead in drinking water.

      What Are The Health Effects of Lead?
      Lead can came serious health problems if too much enters your body from drinking  water or other sources.  It can
      cause damage to the  brain and kidneys, andean interfere with the production of red blood cells that carry oxygen
      to all parts of your body.  The greatest risk of lead exposure is to infants, young children, and pregnant women.
      Scientists have linked the effects of lead on the brain with lowered IQ in children. Adults with kidney problems
      and high blood pressure can be affected by low levels of lead more than healthy adults. Lead is stored in the bones,
      and it can be released later  in life. During pregnancy, the child receives lead from the mother's bones,  which may
      affect brain development. If you are concerned about lead exposure, you may want to ask your  health care
      provider about testing children to determine levels of lead in their blood.
64

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                                                       Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                       A Guide for Community Water Systems

What Are The Sources of Lead?
Although most lead exposure occurs when people eat paint chips and inhale dust, or from contaminated soil,
EPA estimates that 10 to 20 percent of human exposure to lead may come from lead in drinking water. Lead
is rarely found in source water, but enters tap water through corrosion of plumbing materials. Homes built
before  1986 are more likely to have lead pipes, fixtures and solder. However, new homes are also at risk: even
legally  "lead-free" plumbing may contain up to 8 percent lead. The most common problem is with brass or
chrome-plated brass faucets and fixtures which can leach significant amounts of lead into the water, especially
hot water.

What Can I Do To Reduce Exposure to Lead in Drinking Water?

»»  Run your water to flush out lead. If water hasn't been used for several hours,  run water for 15-30
   seconds [or insert a different flushing time if your system has representative data indicating a different
   flushing time would better reduce lead exposure in your community and if the State approves the
   wording] or until it becomes  cold or reaches a steady temperature before using it for drinking or cooking,.
   This flushes lead-containing water from the pipes.
>  Use cold water for cooking  and preparing baby formula. Do not cook with or drink water from the
   hot water tap; lead dissolves more easily into hot water.  Do not use water from the hot water tap to make
   baby formula.
J>  Do  not boil water to remove lead. Boiling water will not reduce lead.
>  Look for alternative sources or treatment  of water. You may want to consider purchasing bottled water
   or a water filter.  Read the package to be sure the  filter is approved to reduce lead or contact NSF
   International at 800-NSF-8010 or             for information on performance standards for water
   filters.
»»  Test your water for lead. Call us at [insert phone number for your water system] to find out how to get
   your water tested for lead.  [Include information on your water system's testing program. For example, do you
   provide free testing? Are there labs in your area that are certified to do lead in water testing?]
>  Identify if your plumbing fixtures contain lead. New brass faucets, fittings, and valves, including those
   advertised as "lead-free," may contribute lead to drinking water.  The law currently allows end-use brass
   fixtures, such as faucets, with up to 8% lead to be labeled as "lead free." Consumers should be aware of
   this when choosing fixtures and take appropriate  precautions.

For More Information
Call us at [insertyour water system's phone number]. For more information on reducing lead exposure around
your home and the health effects of lead, visit EPA's Web site at                   call the National Lead
Information Center at 800-424-LEAD, or contact your health care provider.
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            Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                      A Guide for Community Water Systems
                      Appendix C
Contacts and Additional Resources
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                                                                 A Guide for Community Water Systems
Federal Informational Sources
   EPA's Web site on Lead:
   EPA's Web site on Lead in Drinking Water:
   EPA's Web site on Reducing Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Day Care Centers:
   safewater/schools.
   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web site on Lead:
   National Lead Information Center Hotline: (800) 424-LEAD
   EPA's Safe Drinking Water Hotline: (800) 426-4791
State Drinking Water  Informational Sources
Alabama
Alabama Department of Environmental
Management, Water Supply Branch
Phone: (334) 271-7700
Web site: www.adem.state.al.us/WaterDivision/
Drinking/D WMainI nfo .htm

Alaska
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation,
Division of Environmental Health, Drinking Water
and Wastewater Program
Phone: (907) 269-7647
Web site: www.dec.state.ak.us/eh/dw/

Arizona
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality,
Drinking Water Section
Phone: (602) 771-2300
Toll-free Phone: (800) 234-5677
Web site: www.azdeq.gov/environ/water/dw/index.
html

Arkansas
Arkansas Department of Health and Human
Services, Division of Engineering
Phone: (501) 661-2623
Web site: http://www.healthyarkansas.com/eng/
index.html
California
California Department of Health Services, Division
of Drinking Water and Environmental Management
Phone: (916)449-5600
Web site: www.dhs.ca.gov/ps/ddwem/srf/needs_
survey/default, htm

Colorado
Colorado Department of Public Health and
Environment, Water Quality Control Division
Phone: (303) 692-3500
Web site: www.cdphe.state.co.us/wq/index.html

Connecticut
Connecticut Department of Public Health,
Water Supplies Section
Phone: (860) 509-7333
Web site: www.dph.state.ct.us/BRS/Water/DWD.
htm

Delaware
Delaware Health and Social Services, Division of
Public Health, Environmental Evaluation Branch,
Office of Drinking Water
Phone: (302) 741-8630
Web site: www.dhss.delaware.gov/dhss/dph/hsp/
odw.html
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Florida
Florida Department of Environmental Protection,
Drinking Water Section
Phone: (850) 245-8336
Web site: www.dep.state.fl.us/water/drinkingwater/
index.htm

Georgia
Georgia Department of Natural Resources,
Environmental Protection Division,
Water Resource Branch
Phone: (404) 675-6232
Web site: www.gadnr.org/epd/Documents/wpb.
html

Hawaii
Hawaii Department of Health, Environmental
Management Division
Phone: (808) 586-4258
Web site: www.hawaii.gov/health/environmental/
water/sdwb/index.html

Idaho
Idaho Department of Environmental Quality,
Division of Environmental Quality, Drinking Water
Program Phone: (208) 373-0291
Web site: www.deq.idaho.gov/water/prog_issues/
drinking_water/overview. cfm

Illinois
Illinois EPA, Division of Public Water Supplies
Phone: (217) 785-8653
Web site: www.epa.state.il.us/water/

Indiana
Indiana  Department of Environmental
Management, Office of Water Management,
Drinking Water Branch
Phone: (317) 232-8670
Web site: www.in.gov/idem/compliance/water/
drinkingwater/compeval/index.html
Iowa
Iowa Department of Natural Resources,
Water Supply Program
Phone: (515)725-0282
Web site: www.iowadnr.com/water/drinking/index.
html

Kansas
Kansas Department of Health and Environment,
Bureau of Water, Public Water Supply Section
Phone: (785) 296-5500
Web site: www.kdheks.gov/pws/

Kentucky
Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection,
Division of Water, Water Supply Branch
Phone: (502) 564-3410 ext. 552
Web site: www.water.ky.gov/dw/

Louisiana
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals,
Office of Public Health, Center for Environmental
and Health Services, Safe Drinking Water Program
Phone: (225) 342-9500
Web site: www.dhh.louisiana.gov/offices/?ID=238

Maine
Maine Department of Human Services,
Drinking Water Services
Phone: (207) 287-2070
Web site: www.maine.gov/dhhs/eng/water/

Maryland
Maryland Department of the Environment,
Water Supply Program
Phone: (410) 537-3702
Web site: www.mde.state.md.us/Programs/
WaterPrograms/Water_Supply/index.asp

Massachusetts
Massachusetts Department of Environment, Drinking
Water Program
Phone: 617-292-5770
Web site: www.mass.gov/dep/water/drinking.htm
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Michigan
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality,
Drinking Water and Radiological Protection
Division
Phone: (517) 335-4176
Web site: www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-33
13_3675—,00.html

Minnesota
Minnesota Department of Health, Drinking Water
Protection Section
Phone: (651) 201-4700
Web site: www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/water/
index.html

Mississippi
Mississippi State Department of Health,
Division of Water Supply
Phone: (601) 576-7518
Web site: www.msdh.state.ms.us/msdhsite/_
static/44,0,76. html

Missouri
Missouri Department of Natural Resources,
Division of Environmental Quality,
Public Drinking Water Program
Phone: (800) 361-4827
Website: www.dnr.mo.gov/env/wpp/index.html

Montana
Montana Department of Environmental Quality,
Public Water Supply Section
Phone: (406) 444-4400
Web site: www.deq.state.mt.us/wqinfo/pws/index.
asp

Nebraska
Nebraska Department of Health and Human
Services, Environmental Health Services Section,
Public Water Supply Program
Phone: (402) 471-2306
Web site:www.hhs.state.ne.us/enh/pwsindex.htm
Nevada
Nevada Bureau of Health Protection Services,
Division of Environmental Protection,
Bureau of Safe Drinking Water
Phone: (775) 687-9520
Web site: http://ndep.nv.gov/bsdw/index.htm

New Hampshire
New Hampshire Department of Environmental
Services, Land Resource Management Division
Phone: (603) 271-3503
Web site: www.des.state.nh.us/dwspp

New Jersey
New Jersey Department of Environmental
Protection, Division of Water Supply,
Bureau of Safe Drinking Water
Phone: (609)292-5550
Web site: www.state.nj.us/dep/watersupply/

New Mexico
New Mexico Environmental Department,
Drinking Water Bureau
Phone: (877) 654-8720 (Toll-free)
Web site: www.nmenv.state.nm.us/dwb/dwbtop.
html

New York
New York Department of Health,
Bureau of Public Water Supply Protection
Phone: (800)458-1158
Web site: http://newyorkhealth.gov/nysdoh/water/
main.htm

North Carolina
North Carolina Department of the Environment
and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section
Phone: (919)733-2321
Web site: www.deh.enr.state.nc.us/pws/index.htm

North Dakota
North Dakota Department of Health,
Drinking Water Program
Phone: (701)328-5211
Web site: www.health.state.nd.us/MF/dw.html
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      Ohio
      Ohio EPA, Division of Drinking and Ground
      Waters
      Phone: (614) 644-2752
      Web site: www.epa.state.oh.us/ddagw/

      Oklahoma
      Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality,
      Water Quality Division
      Phone: (405) 702-8100
      Web site: www.deq.state.ok.us/WQDNew/

      Oregon
      Oregon Department of Human Services, Health
      Division, Drinking Water Program
      Phone: (971) 673-0405
      Web site: www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/dwp/

      Pennsylvania
      Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
      Protection, Bureau of Water Supply and
      Wastewater Management
      Phone: (717) 787-9637
      Web site: www.depweb.state.pa.us/watersupply/
      cwp/view.asp?a= 1251 &Q=448745&watersupplyNa
      v=|30131|

      Puerto Rico
      Puerto Rico Department of Health,
      Water Supply Supervision Program
      Phone: (787)767-8181
      Web site: www.salud.gov.pr/Pages/default.aspx

      Rhode Island
      Rhode Island Department of Health,
      Office of Drinking Water Quality
      Phone: (401) 222-6867
      Web site: www.health.state.ri.us/environment/dwq/
      index.php

      South Carolina
      South Carolina Department of Health and
      Environmental Control, Bureau of Water
      Phone: (803) 734-5300
      Web site: www.scdhec.net/water/html/dwater.html
                                                 South Dakota
                                                 South Dakota Department of Environment and
                                                 Natural Resources
                                                 Phone: (605) 773-3754
                                                 Web site: www.state.sd.us/DENR/des/drinking/
                                                 dwprg.htm

                                                 Tennessee
                                                 Tennessee Department of Environment and
                                                 Conservation, Division of Water Supply
                                                 Phone: (615) 532-0191
                                                 Web site: www.state.tn.us/environment/dws/

                                                 Texas
                                                 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality,
                                                 Water Supply Division
                                                 Phone: (512) 239-4671
                                                 Web site: www.tceq.state.tx.us/nav/util_water/

                                                 Utah
                                                 Utah Department of Environmental Quality,
                                                 Division of Drinking Water
                                                 Phone: (801) 536-4200
                                                 Web site: www.drinkingwater.utah.gov/

                                                 Vermont
                                                 Vermont Department of Environmental
                                                 Conservation, Water Supply Division
                                                 Phone: 802-241-3400
                                                 Toll-free: 800-823-6500
                                                 Website: www.vermontdrinkingwater.org/

                                                 Virginia
                                                 Virginia Department of Health,
                                                 Office of Drinking Water
                                                 Phone: (804) 786-5566
                                                 Web site: www.vdh.virginia.gov/DrinkingWater/
                                                 Consumer/

                                                 Washington, DC
                                                 DC Department of Health, Environmental Health
                                                 Administration, Water Quality Division
                                                 Phone: (202) 535-2190
                                                 Web site: http://doh.dc.gov/doh/cwp/
                                                 view,a,1374,Q586624,dohNav_GID,1811,.asp
                                                 *  EPA Web site on  Lead in DC Drinking Water:
                                                    http://www.epa.gov/dclead/
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Washington
Washington Department of Health,
Division of Drinking Water
Phone: (360) 236-3100
Web site: www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/dw/

West Virginia
West Virginia Department of Health and Human
Services, Environmental Engineering Division
Phone: (304)558-6715
Web site: www.wvdhhr.org/oehs/eed/

Wisconsin
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources,
Bureau of Drinking Water and Groundwater
Phone: (608) 266-2621
Web site: www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/water/dwg/

Wyoming
Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality,
Water Quality Division
Phone: (307) 777-7781
Web site: http://wdh.state.wy.us/PHSD/lead/index.
html
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      Resources to Locate Organizations in Your Service

      Area

      For a list of organizations in your service area, waters systems should consult with their local public health
      agency first, as they may have lists of the following organizations in your area.  However, the Web sites below
      have directories where you can input your location to find surrounding organizations.

      >•  Local Public Health Agencies
         Contact your state or local county government
         National Association of County and City Health Officials, Local Public Health Agency Index
         http://lhadirectory.naccho.org/phdir/
      *  Public and Private Schools or School Boards
         US Department of Education, Institute for Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics
         http://nces.ed.gov/globallocator/
      >•  Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and Head Start programs
         US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, WIC State Agency Contacts
         www.fhs.usda.gov/wic/Contacts/ContactsMenu.HTM
         US Department of Health and Human Services, Head Start Locator
         http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/HeadStartOrBces
      *  Public and Private Hospitals and Medical clinics
         Contact your local health agency
      >•  Pediatricians
         American Academy of Pediatrics Referral Service www.aap.org/referral/
         American Board of Pediatrics www.abp.org/ABPWebSite/
      >  Family Planning Clinics
         Contact your local health agency
      >•  Local Welfare Agencies
         Contact your local health agency
      *  Licensed childcare centers
         National Child Care Association www.nccanet.org/search_members.asp
      >•  Public and private preschools
         US Department of Education, Institute for Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics
         http://nces.ed.gov/globallocator/
      *•  Obstetricians-Gynecologists and Midwives
         American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Physician Lookup
         www.acog.org/member-lookup/
         American College of Nurse-Midwives www.midwife.org/find.cfm
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Regulatory Publications
Environmental Protection Agency, 40 CFR 141 and 142 - Drinking Water Regulations; Maximum
   Contaminant Level Goals and National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Lead and Copper; Final
   Rule (72 FR 57782, October 10,2007). This Federal Register Notice and further information is available
   at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/index.html.

Guidance Documents
"Lead and Copper Rule:  A Quick Reference Guide for Schools and Child Care Facilities that are
   Regulated Under the Safe Drinking Water Act." US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water,
   Washington, DC. October 2005, EPA 816-F-05-030. This document is available at
   http://www.epa.gov/safewater/schools/.

"Lead and Copper Rule: A Quick Reference Guide." US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water,
   Washington, DC. March 2004, EPA 816-F-04-009. This document is available at
   http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/.

"Lead in Drinking Water Regulation:  Public Education Guidance." US Environmental Protection Agency,
   Office of Water, Washington, DC.  June 2002, EPA 816-R-02-010. This document is available at
   http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/.

"Lead and Copper Monitoring and Reporting Guidance for Public Water Systems." US
   Environmental Protection Agency,  Office of Water, Washington, DC. February 2002, EPA
   816-R-02-009. This document is available at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/.

"How to Determine Compliance with Optimal Water Quality Parameters  as Revised by the Lead and
   Copper Rule Minor Revisions." US Environmental Protection Agency,  Office of Water, Washington, DC.
   February 2001, EPA 815-R-99-019. This document is available at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/.

"Lead and Copper Rule: Summary of Revisions." US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Drinking
   Water, Washington, DC. April 2000, EPA-815-R-99-020. This document is available at
   http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/.

Public Information and Fact Sheets
 "Water Health Series: Filtration Facts." US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington,
   DC. September 2005,  816-K-05-002. This document is available at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/.

"Is There Lead in my Drinking Water?" US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington,
   DC. February 2005, EPA 816-F-05-001. This document is available in  English and Spanish at
   http: //www. epa. gov/safewater/lead/leadfactsheet. html.

"Controlling Lead in Drinking Water for Schools and Day Care Facilities:  A Summary of State Programs."
   US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. July 2004, EPA-810-R-04-001.
   This document is available at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/.
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      "Tap Into Prevention: Drinking Water Information for Health Care Providers." US Environmental
         Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. August 2004, EPA 816-C-04-001. This video is
         available in DVD and VHS format at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/healthcare/index.html.

      "Water on Tap: What you Need to Know." US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of
         Water, Washington, DC. October 2003, EPA 816-K-03-007. This document is available in English,
         Spanish and Chinese at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/wot/index.html.

      "Is There Lead in the Drinking Water?: You Can Reduce the Risk of Lead Exposure from Drinking Water in
         Educational Facilities" US Environmental Protection Agency,
         Office of Water, Washington DC. April 2002, 903-FO1-002. This document is available at
         http: //www. epa. gov/safewater/lead/.

      "Drinking Water from Household Wells." US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water,
         Washington, DC. January 2002, EPA 816-K-02-003. This document is available at
         http://www.epa.gov/safewater/privatewells/booklet/index.html.

      "Comprehensive Lead and Copper Rule Training." US Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water
         Academy, Washington, DC. January 2001. This presentation is available at
         http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lcrmr/.

      "Children and Drinking Water Standards." US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water,
         Washington, DC. December 1999, 815-K-99-001. This document is available at
         http: //www. epa. gov/safewater/kids/kidshealth/.

      "Drinking Water and Health: What  You Need to Know!" US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of
         Water, Washington, DC. October 1999, EPA 816-K-99-001. This document is available in English and
         Spanish at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwh/index.html.

      "Lead and Your Drinking Water: Actions You Can Take to Reduce Lead in Drinking Water." US
         Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. June 1993, EPA 810-F-93-001.
         This document is available in English and Spanish at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/Pubs/leadl.html.


      "Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children." Center for Disease Control and
         Prevention, Atlanta, GA. August 2005. This document is available at
         http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/publications/pub_Reas.htm.

      "Managing Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Young Children: Recommendations from the Advisory
         Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention." Center for Disease Control and Prevention,
         Atlanta, GA. March 2002. This document is available at
         http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/CaseManagement/caseManage_main.htm.

      "Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning: Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials."
         Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA. November 1997. This document is available at http://www.cdc.
         gov/nceh/lead/guide/guide97.htm.
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                                                        Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                         A Guide for Community Water Systems



Additional Publications

"Assisting Schools and Child Care Facilities in Addressing Lead in Drinking Water." American Water Works

   Association, Denver, CO. 2005. This document is available at http://www.awwa.org/Publications/index.

   cfm?navItemNumber= 1418.
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     Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
              A Guide for Community Water Systems
              Appendix D
 Lead and Copper Rule Public
   Education Requirements—
Federal Regulatory Language
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                                                    Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
                                                                   A Guide for Community Water Systems


Lead and  Copper Rule Short-Term  Revisions and

Clarifications  that  Relate to Public Education

Requirements

,-•-•'  , Public                                  	in'i'liiiiStoring

All water systems must deliver a consumer notice of lead tap water monitoring results to persons served by
the water system at sites that are tested, as specified in paragraph (d) of this section. A water system that
exceeds the lead action level based on tap water samples collected in accordance with §141.86 shall deliver
the public education materials contained in paragraph (a) of this section in accordance with the requirements
in paragraph (b)  of this section. Water systems that exceed the lead action level must sample the tap water of
any customer who requests it in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(a) Content of written public education materials.

  (1) Community water systems and Non-transient non-community water systems. Water systems must
  include the following elements in printed materials (e.g., brochures and pamphlets) in the same order as
  listed below.  In addition, paragraphs (a)(l)(i) through (ii) and (a)(l)(vi) must be included in the materials,
  exactly as written, except for the text in brackets in these paragraphs for which the water system must
  include system-specific information. Any additional information presented by a water system must be
  consistent with the information below and be in plain language that can be understood by the general
  public. Water systems must submit all written public education materials to the State prior to delivery.
  The State may  require the system to obtain approval of the content of written public materials prior to
  delivery.

   (i) IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT LEAD IN YOUR DRINKING WATER [INSERT
   NAME OF WATER SYSTEM] found elevated levels of lead in drinking water in some homes/buildings.
   Lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and young children. Please read
   this information closely to see what you can do to reduce lead in your  drinking water.

   (ii) Health  effects of lead. Lead can cause serious health problems if too much enters your body from
   drinking water or other sources.  It can cause damage to the brain and kidneys, and can interfere with
   the production of red blood cells that carry oxygen to all parts of your body. The greatest risk of lead
   exposure is to infants, young children, and pregnant women.  Scientists have linked the effects of lead
   on the brain with lowered IQ in children. Adults with kidney problems and high blood pressure can be
   affected by low levels of lead more than healthy adults. Lead is stored in the bones, and it can be released
   later in life. During pregnancy, the child receives lead from the mother's bones, which may affect brain
   development.

   (iii) Sources of Lead.
       (A) Explain what lead is.
       (B) Explain possible sources of lead in drinking water and how lead enters drinking water.  Include
          information on home/building plumbing materials and service lines that may contain lead.
       (C) Discuss other important sources of lead exposure in addition to drinking water (e.g., paint).
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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
A Guide for Community Water Systems
   (iv) Discuss the steps the consumer can take to reduce their exposure to lead in drinking water.
       (A) Encourage running the water to flush out the lead.
       (B) Explain concerns with using hot water from the tap and specifically caution against the use of hot
           water for preparing baby formula.
       (C) Explain that boiling water does not reduce lead levels.
       (D) Discuss other options consumers can take to reduce exposure to lead in drinking water, such as
           alternative sources or treatment of water.
       (E) Suggest that parents have their child's blood tested for lead.

   (v) Explain why there are elevated levels of lead in the system's drinking water (if known) and what the
   water system is doing to reduce the lead levels in homes/buildings in this area.

   (vi) For more information, call us at [INSERT YOUR NUMBER]  [(IF APPLICABLE), or visit our Web
   site at [INSERT YOUR WEB SITE HERE]]. For more information on reducing lead exposure around
   your home/building and the health effects of lead, visit EPA's Web site at http://www.epa.gov/lead or
   contact your health care provider.

  (2) Community water systems. In addition to including the elements specified in paragraph (a)(l) of this
  section, community water systems must:

   (i) Tell consumers how to get their water tested.

   (ii) Discuss lead in plumbing components and the difference between low lead and lead free.

(b) Delivery of  public education  materials.

  (1) For public water systems serving a large proportion of non-English speaking consumers, as determined
  by the State, the public education materials must contain information in  the appropriate language(s)
  regarding the importance of the notice or contain a telephone number or address where persons served
  may contact the water system to obtain a translated copy of the public education materials or to request
  assistance in the appropriate language.

  (2) A community water system that exceeds the lead action level on the basis of tap water samples collected
  in accordance with §141.86, and that is not already conducting public education tasks under this section,
  must conduct the public education tasks under this section within 60 days after the end of the monitoring
  period in which the exceedance occurred:

   (i) Deliver printed materials meeting the content requirements of paragraph (a) of this section to all
          bill paying customers.

   (ii)   (A)  Contact customers who are most at risk by delivering education materials that meet the
       content requirements of paragraph (a) of this section to local public health agencies  even
       if they are not located within the water system's service area, along with a cover letter
       that encourages distribution  to all the organization's potentially affected customers or community
       water system's users. The water system must contact the local public health agencies directly by
       phone or in person. The local public health agencies may provide a specific list of additional


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                                                     Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
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    community based organizations serving target populations, which may include organizations outside
    the service area of the water system.  If such lists are provided, systems must deliver education
    materials that meet the content requirements of paragraph (a) of this section to all organizations on
    the provided lists.

    (B) Contact customers who are most at risk by delivering materials that meet the content
    requirements of paragraph (a) of this section to the following organizations listed in 1 through 6
    that are located within the water system's service area, along with a cover letter that encourages
    distribution to all the organization's potentially affected customers or community water system's
    users:

            (1) Public and private schools or school boards.
            (2) Women Infants and Children (WIC) and Head Start programs.
            (3) Public and private hospitals and medical clinics.
            (4) Pediatricians.
            (5) Family planning clinics.
            (6)  Local welfare agencies.

    (C) Make a good faith effort to locate the following organizations within the service area and deliver
    materials that meet the content requirements of paragraph (a) of this section to them, along with an
    informational notice that encourages distribution to all potentially affected customers or users.  The
    good faith effort to contact at-risk customers may include requesting a specific contact list of these
    organizations from the local public health agencies, even if the agencies are not located within the
    water system's service area:

            (1) Licensed childcare centers
            (2) Public and private preschools.
            (3) Obstetricians-Gynecologists and Midwives.

(iii) No less often than quarterly, provide information on or in each water bill as long as the system
exceeds the action level for lead. The message on the water bill must include the following statement
exactly as written except for the text in brackets for which the water system must include system-specific
information: [INSERT NAME  OF WATER SYSTEM] found high levels of lead in drinking water in
some homes. Lead can cause serious health problems. For more information please call [INSERT NAME
OF WATER SYSTEM] [or visit (INSERT YOUR WEB SITE HERE)]. The message or delivery
mechanism can be modified  in consultation with the State; specifically, the State may allow a separate
mailing of public education materials to customers if the water system cannot place the information on
water bills.

(iv) Post material meeting the content requirements of paragraph  (a) of this section on the water system's
Web site if the system serves  a population greater than 100,000.

(v) Submit a press release to newspaper, television and radio stations.

(vi) In addition to paragraphs (b)(2)(i) through (v) of this section, systems must implement at least
three activities from one or more categories listed below. The educational content and selection of these
activities must be determined in consultation with the State.
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Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
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        (A) Public Service Announcements.
        (B) Paid advertisements.
        (C) Public Area Information Displays.
        (D) Emails to customers.
        (E) Public Meetings.
        (F) Household Deliveries.
        (G) Targeted Individual Customer Contact.
        (H) Direct material distribution to all multi-family homes and institutions.
        (I) Other methods approved by the State.

   (vii) For systems that are required to conduct monitoring annually or less frequently, the end of the
   monitoring period is September 30 of the calendar year in which the sampling occurs, or,  if the State has
   established an alternate monitoring period, the last day of that period.

  (3) As long as a community water system exceeds the action level, it must repeat the activities pursuant to
  paragraph (b)(2) of this section as described in paragraphs (b)(3)(i)  through (iv) of this section.

  A community water system shall repeat the tasks contained in paragraphs (b)(2)(i), (ii)  and  (vi) of this
  section every 12 months.

  A community water system shall repeat tasks contained in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section with each
  billing cycle.

  A community water system serving a population greater than  100,000 shall post and retain  material on a
  publicly accessible Web site pursuant to  paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section.

  The community water system shall repeat the task in paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section twice every 12
  months on a schedule agreed upon with the State. The State can allow activities in paragraph (b)(2) of this
  section to extend beyond the 60-day requirement if needed for implementation purposes on a  case-by-case
  basis; however, this extension must be approved in writing by the State in advance of the 60-day deadline.

  (4) Within 60 days after the end of the monitoring period in which the exceedance occurred (unless it
  already is repeating public education tasks pursuant to paragraph (b)(5) of this section), a non-transient
  non-community water system shall deliver the public education materials specified by paragraph (a) of this
  section as follows:

  Post informational posters on lead in drinking water in a public place or common area  in each of the
  buildings served by the system; and

  Distribute informational pamphlets and/or brochures on lead in drinking water to each person served
  by the non-transient non-community water system. The State may  allow the system to  utilize electronic
  transmission in lieu of or combined with printed materials as long as it achieves at least the  same coverage.

  For systems that are required to conduct monitoring annually or less frequently, the end of the monitoring
  period is September 30 of the calendar year in which the sampling occurs, or, if the State has established an
  alternate monitoring period, the last day of that period.
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  (5) A non-transient non-community water system shall repeat the tasks contained in paragraph (b)(4)  of
  this section at least once during each calendar year in which the system exceeds the lead action level. The
  State can allow activities in (b)(4) of this section to extend beyond the 60-day requirement if needed for
  implementation purposes on a case-by-case basis; however, this extension must be approved in writing by
  the State in advance of the 60-day deadline.

  (6) A water system may discontinue delivery of public education materials if the system has met the lead
  action level during the most recent six-month monitoring period conducted pursuant to §141.86. Such a
  system shall recommence  public education in accordance with this section if it subsequently exceeds the
  lead action level during any monitoring period.

  (7) A community water system may apply to the State, in writing, (unless the State has waived the
  requirement for prior State approval) to use only the text specified in paragraph (a)(l) of this section in lieu
  of the text in paragraphs (a)(l) and (a) (2) of this section and to perform the tasks listed in paragraphs (b)
  (4) and (b)(5) of this section  in lieu of the tasks in paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section if:

   (i) The system is a facility, such as a prison or a hospital, where the population served is not capable of or
   is prevented from making improvements to plumbing or installing point of use treatment devices;  and

   (ii) The system provides water as part of the cost of services provided and does not separately charge for
   water consumption.

  (8) A community water system serving 3,300 or fewer people may limit certain aspects of their public
  education programs as follows:

  With respect to the requirements of paragraph (b)(2)(vi) of this section, a system serving 3,300 or fewer
  must implement at least one  of the activities listed in that paragraph.

  With respect to the requirements of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)  of this section, a system serving 3,300 or fewer
  people may limit the distribution of the public education materials required under that paragraph to
  facilities and organizations served by the system that are  most likely to be visited regularly by pregnant
  women and children.

  With respect to the requirements of paragraph (b)(2)(v)  of this section, the State may waive this
  requirement for systems serving 3,300 or fewer persons as long as system distributes notices to every
  household served by the system.

(c) Supplemental  monitoring and  notification of results.
A water system that fails to  meet the lead action level  on the basis of tap samples collected in accordance
with §141.86 shall offer to  sample the tap water of any customer who requests it. The  system is not required
to pay for collecting or analyzing the sample, nor is the system required to collect and analyze the sample
itself.

(d) Notification of results.

  (1) Reporting requirement. All water systems must provide a notice of the individual tap results from lead
  tap water monitoring carried out under the requirements of §141.86 to the persons  served by the water
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      Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
      A Guide for Community Water Systems

       system at the specific sampling site from which the sample was taken (e.g., the occupants of the residence
       where the tap was tested).

       (2) Timing of notification. A water system must provide the consumer notice as soon as practical, but no
       later than 30 days after the system learns of the tap monitoring results.

       (3) Content. The consumer notice must include the results of lead tap water monitoring for the tap that
       was tested, an explanation of the health effects of lead, list steps consumers can take to reduce exposure
       to lead in drinking water and contact information for the water utility. The notice must also provide the
       maximum contaminant level goal and the action level for lead and the definitions for these two terms from
       §!4l.l53(c).

       (4) Delivery. The consumer notice must be provided to persons served at the tap that was tested, either
       by mail or by another method approved by the State. For example, upon approval  by the State, a non-
       transient non-community water system could post the results on a bulletin board in the facility to allow
       users to review the information. The system must provide the notice to customers at sample taps tested,
       including consumers who do not receive water bills.
      Lead  and Copper Rule  Short-Term  Revisions and
      Clarifications that Relate to Consumer Confidence
      Reports (CCR)

      ;:'     ' ,

       Every report must include the following lead-specific information:

       (1) A short informational statement about lead in drinking water and its effects on children. The
       statement must include the following information:

       If present, elevated levels of lead can cause serious health problems, especially for pregnant women and
       young children. Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with
       service lines and home plumbing.  [NAME OF UTILITY] is responsible for providing high quality
       drinking water, but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components. When your
       water has been sitting for several hours, you can minimize the potential for lead exposure by flushing your
       tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking or cooking. If you are concerned about
       lead in your water, you may wish to have your water tested.  Information on lead in drinking water, testing
       methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline
       or at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/lead.

       (2) A system may write its own educational statement, but only in consultation with the State.
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    Implementing The Lead Public Education Provision of the LCR:
              A Guide for Community Water Systems
              Appendix E
      Lead and Copper CWS
Public Education Fact Sheet
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