For Official Use Only
                  
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                                     EPA's Mission

The mission of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect human health and the
environment. This budget request reflects the tough choices needed for our nation's short- and
long-term fiscal health. The President directed EPA and other federal agencies to reduce funding
levels out of an understanding that the same sacrifices are being made by American  families
every day.  While this budget includes significant cuts, it is designed to  ensure that EPA can
effectively  carry out its core mission to protect public health and our environment, including
reductions of air and water pollution, ensuring the safety of chemicals, providing for the strong
enforcement of environmental  standards,  as  well as the cleanup of contaminated sites that
Americans  expect. It also reflects EPA's overarching commitment to science and our focus  on
the concerns of underserved communities and at-risk populations.

Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

The FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification requests $8.973 billion
in discretionary budget authority. This represents a reduction of approximately $1.3 billion from
FY 2010 enacted levels of $10.3 billion, EPA's highest funding level  since its creation.  As it
does every  year, EPA has worked to find efficiencies within our programs while protecting the
most  vulnerable in  our  communities,  maintaining  hard-won  momentum  in   improving
compliance, revitalizing key ecosystems and  following the science that will help the Agency
sustain progress and foster innovation.  For FY 2012, funding is maintained  for EPA's core
priorities, such as enforcement of the environment and public health protections.

While this budget includes significant cuts, such as a combined $947 million reduction to EPA's
Clean Water and Drinking Water Revolving Funds (SRFs), as with any  smart budget, EPA plans
to make targeted investments to ensure its effectiveness and efficiency in  protecting our health
and environment.  The FY 2012  Budget maintains funding to  update  the Clean Air Act's
standards and our efforts to assist in transitioning America  to a clean  energy economy.   It
continues the critical  work necessary for protecting and restoring America's waters.  This budget
seeks to  sustain progress in assuring the safety of chemicals in our products, our environment
and our bodies through strategic investments and new approaches.  It reflects a commitment to
close loopholes for big polluters, better ensuring that our federal laws are enforced effectively
and leverages new technologies to improve data processes, reducing the burden on states, tribes,
affected industry and the Agency.  It also focuses on community-level engagement to reach a
broader range of citizens.   Finally, it continues  to reflect our  core values  of  science and
transparency in addressing America's complex environmental protection challenges.

Although these  difficult choices  may  unfortunately  slow  the pace  of progress toward
performance measures established  in our  FY 2011-2015 Strategic Plan,  the FY 2012 budget

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maintains the fundamental mission of the Agency: to protect the health of the American people
and our environment.

Below are the FY 2012 funding points of focus:

Improving Air Quality and Supporting Action on Greenhouse Gas Pollution

EPA will continue to protect American families' health by enforcing the Clean Air Act's updated
air pollution standards that rein in big polluters  by cutting back on mercury, carbon  dioxide,
arsenic and other life-threatening  pollution  in the  air  we  breathe.  EPA will take  measured,
common-sense  steps  to address greenhouse gas (GHG)  pollution and  improve air  quality.
Taking these reasonable steps to update standards now  will allow the Agency to better protect
people's  health,  drive technology  innovation  for a  stronger  economy,  and  protect  the
environment cost-effectively.  In fact,  creating more sustainable materials and  products is an
opportunity for American innovators, investors, and entrepreneurs.

EPA  is requesting  $5.1 million in additional resources for Air  Toxics and $6.2  million in
upgrades to the National  Vehicle and  Fuel Emissions  Laboratory  (NVFEL).   Additional
resources for air toxics will be used to improve EPA's  air toxic monitoring capabilities and to
improve dissemination of information between and  among the various EPA offices, the state,
local and tribal governments, and the public.  Additional resources for the NVFEL will  begin to
address the anticipated more  than four-fold increase  in  the number  of vehicle and engine
certificates  EPA issues and the  much more challenging oversight  requirements for both the
vehicle/engine compliance program and  fuels programs due to the diversity of sophisticated
technologies.

EPA's FY  2012 budget requests $46 million for efforts aimed to reduce GHG pollution  and
address the Climate  and Clean Energy Challenge.  This includes the $25 million described below
for state grants  focused on developing the technical capacity for addressing GHG pollution in
their Clean Air Act permitting activities and an additional $5 million for related EPA efforts.  $6
million in  additional funding  is  included for the  development and  implementation  of new
emission standards that will reduce GHG pollution from passenger cars, light-duty trucks,  and
medium duty passenger vehicles. These funds also will  support EPA's assessment and potential
development, in response  to legal obligations,  of standards for other mobile sources.  Also
included is  $7 million for the assessment and  potential development of New Source Performance
Standards for several categories of major stationary sources through means that are flexible and
manageable for business.  Finally,  this amount includes  $2.5 million for priority measurement,
reporting and verification activities  related  to implementing the  Mandatory  GHG  Reporting
Rule, to ensure the collection of high quality data.
                                           11

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Protecting America's Water

Many of America's waterbodies are imperiled from a variety of stressors, and EPA will work to
confront the challenges from multiple angles - local and national, traditional and innovative. In
FY 2012, EPA will concentrate on a few targeted waterbodies. As part of the Administration's
long-term strategy, EPA is implementing a Sustainable Water Infrastructure Policy that focuses
on working with States and communities to enhance technical, managerial and financial capacity.
Important to the technical capacity will be enhancing alternatives analysis to  expand "green
infrastructure" options and their multiple benefits.  Future year budgets for the SRFs gradually
adjust, taking into account repayments, through 2016 with the goal of providing, on average,
about 5 percent of water infrastructure spending annually.  When coupled with  increasing
repayments from loans made in past years by states, the annual funding will allow the SRFs to
finance a significant percentage in clean water and drinking water infrastructure.  Federal dollars
provided through the SRFs will act as a catalyst for efficient system-wide planning and ongoing
management of sustainable  water infrastructure.   Overall, the Administration requests a
combined $2.5 billion for the SRFs. This request brings the four year total  for SRFs to nearly
$17 billion (FY 2009 - FY 2012).

EPA is  increasing resources to address upstream pollution resources in the Mississippi River
Basin.   The Mississippi River Basin  Program  is funded at $6.0 million  and will focus on
nonpoint source  program enhancements to spur water-quality improvement.  This is supported
by $600,000 for  enforcement activities in the Basin. Resources for the Chesapeake Bay Program
are increased by $17.4 million  to $67.4  million  to  support our  work under the President's
Executive  Order on  the  Chesapeake Bay,  for  implementing a strategy to restore Bay water
quality.  While funding has  gone down from 2010 levels, EPA  will also continue to lead the
implementation of the Great Lakes Restoration  Initiative, providing $350 million for programs
and projects  strategically chosen to target the most significant environmental problems in the
Great Lakes ecosystem.  Continuing efforts  in these and  other clean water  and  drinking water
projects  reflects a  commitment  to   leverage  Federal  agency  partnerships  to  strengthen
disadvantaged communities by reconnecting them with their waters and achieving community-
based goals.
                                           in

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Building Strong State and Tribal Partnerships

The mission of EPA is achieved through strong collaboration with states and tribes and reflects
the Agency's overarching commitment to  address the  legitimate  concerns of underserved
communities  and at-risk populations.  This  budget includes $1.2 billion  for State and Tribal
categorical grants, an  increase of $85 million, to support  States and  Tribes to implement their
environmental programs.   Our partners are working diligently to implement updated standards
under the Clean Air Act (CAA) and Clean Water Act (CWA) and need additional support during
this time of constrained state budgets.

The $306 million in State grant funding for air programs is above historical levels and necessary
to meet the additional  responsibilities associated with achieving air quality standards that better
protect people's  health and the environment. Increases for air grants include $25 million for
development  and  deployment of  technical  capacity  needed  to address GHG pollution  in
permitting  under  the CAA  and  $54 million  to  support  increased  state  workload  for
implementation of updated National Ambient  Air Quality Standards.

An additional $21 million is requested  for  Water Pollution Control (Sec 106) grants.  This
increase addresses issues that continue to degrade water  quality issues nationwide by supporting
states as they focus on the continued development of water quality standards, identification of
impaired waters, development of Total Maximum Daily Loads  for use in permit actions, and
targeted enforcement to address the most serious instances of noncompliance.  An additional $4
million  is requested  for Public  Water  Systems  Supervision (PWSS) grants  to  support
management  of  state  and  drinking water  system data.  This will  improve  transparency and
efficiency as it will replace the outdated Safe Drinking Water Information System/State Version
(SDWIS/State) and improve reporting and dissemination of drinking water system compliance
information.  $20 million is requested for the Tribal Multimedia Implementation grant program
in order to help tribes move beyond building the capacity  to plan, develop,  and establish
environmental protection programs under the  GAP program to implementation. This is intended
to advance negotiated  environmental plans and activities on a cooperative basis between tribes
and EPA, ensuring that tribal environmental priorities are adequately addressed.

Strengthening Enforcement and Compliance

The FY 2012 President's Budget includes  approximately $621  million for EPA's enforcement
and compliance assurance  program. EPA enforcement  programs face complex challenges that
demand both traditional and innovative strategies to improve our effectiveness and efficiency in
protecting  the health  of  American families.  Through  the Regaining  Ground:  Increasing
Compliance in Critical Areas initiative,  EPA will  begin to  harness the  tools of  modern
technology to address  some of these challenges and make EPA's Enforcement and  Compliance
Assurance program more efficient and effective.  EPA  will start using 21st century electronic

                                           iv

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reporting (e-reporting), monitoring tools, and market-based approaches to ensure a level playing
field for American businesses.

Maximizing the use of advanced data and monitoring tools will allow EPA to focus its limited
inspection and enforcement resources in  those areas where  they  are most effective or most
necessary.  These include complex industrial operations that require physical inspection,  cases
involving potentially significant harm to human health  or the environment, potential criminal
violations or repeat violators.  In FY 2012, EPA will begin to review  existing  compliance
reporting requirements to identify opportunities to use objective self-monitoring, self or third
party certification,  public accountability, advanced monitoring  techniques,   and electronic
reporting requirements.

EPA has focused on identifying where the most significant vulnerabilities exist, in terms of scale
and potential risk and proposes to increase oversight/monitoring of regulated high risk facilities
in order to better implement prevention approaches.  In  FY 2012,  as  part of the Regaining
Ground initiative, EPA will invest an additional $5 million to increase the number of inspections
at high risk facilities like  oil facilities  regulated under  the  Spill  Prevention, Control and
Countermeasures (SPCC) and the Facility Response Plan (FRP) regulations.  Funding will also
be used to develop and implement a third party audit program  for non-high risk SPCC facilities,
in order to improve the efficiency of targeting resources and inspectors at these facilities in the
future.

Enhancing Chemical Safety

America's citizens deserve to know the products they use are  safe.   To  sustain  progress in
assuring the  safety of chemicals in our products,  our environment and  our  bodies, EPA is
improving how it assesses the safety of chemicals in the environment and the marketplace. FY
2012 represents a crucial stage in EPA's approach for enhancing chemical safety. The program
has attained its 'zero  tolerance'  goal in preventing introduction  of unsafe new chemicals into
commerce but many 'pre-TSCA' chemicals already in commerce remain un-assessed.

In FY 2012,  EPA will continue with the transformation of its approach for ensuring chemical
safety.  EPA's approach will be  centered  on  increasing the  pace  in assessing  chemicals,
strengthening information management, taking  immediate  and lasting actions to eliminate or
reduce identified chemical risks, and developing proven safer alternatives.

This  budget  request  includes  a  $16  million  investment   to  more  fully  implement the
Administrator's Enhancing Chemical Safety initiative by taking action to reduce chemical risks,
increase the pace of chemical hazard assessments, and provide the public with greater access to
toxic chemical information.  Funding will support  implementation of chemical  risk reduction

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actions that consider the impact of chemicals on children's health and on disadvantaged, low
income, and indigenous populations.  The additional funding will help to close knowledge and
risk management gaps for thousands of chemicals already in commerce by updating regulatory
controls and other actions that decrease potential impacts to human health and the environment.
EPA also will continue  promoting use of safer chemicals,  chemical management practices and
technologies to enable the transition away  from existing chemicals that present unreasonable
human health and environmental risks.

Supporting Healthy Communities

The  Environmental Protection  Agency,  along with  other federal  agencies, is committed  to
protect, sustain or restore the health of communities and ecosystems by  bringing together a
variety of programs, tools, approaches and resources directed to the local level.  A diversity of
perspectives  and experiences brings  a  wider  range of  ideas and approaches  and creates
opportunities for innovation.   Results  are  drawn  from both regulatory  mechanisms and
collaborative partnerships with stakeholders.  Partnerships with international,  Federal,  state,
tribal, and  local governments and non-governmental  organizations have long been a common
thread across EPA's programs.

The  FY 2012  budget  includes  a  $19.8  million  multidisciplinary  initiative for Healthy
Communities. It supports states and communities in promoting healthier school environments  by
increasing  technical  support, outreach and  co-leading Federal interagency  coordination and
integration  efforts.  It also provides resources to address air toxics within  at-risk communities
and to  support the important joint DOT/HUD/EPA outreach  and technical  assistance efforts to
encourage and facilitate sustainable development within communities.

EPA supports the America's  Great Outdoors (AGO) initiative to  develop  a community-based
21st century conservation agenda that can also spur job creation in the tourism and recreation
industries.  EPA will join the Department of the Interior, the Department of Agriculture, and the
Council on Environmental Quality to lead the coordinated  effort to leverage support across the
Federal Government to help community-driven efforts to protect and restore our outdoor legacy.
The area-wide planning  and community support focus of existing EPA programs and initiatives
like Urban Waters and Brownfields programs align well with the goals and  objectives of this
new initiative.

Maintaining a Strong Science Foundation

In FY  2012, EPA is restructuring our scientific research  program to be more  integrated and
cross-disciplinary,  allowing  our  scientific  work to be  more transformational.   EPA  is
strengthening its planning and delivery of science to more deeply examine our environmental
                                           VI

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and public health challenges and inform sustainable solutions to meet our strategic goals.  By
looking at problems from a systems perspective, this new research approach will create synergy
and produce more timely and comprehensive results beyond those possible from approaches that
are more narrowly targeted to single chemicals or problem areas. In FY 2012, we are requesting
a science and technology budget of $826 million. This amount includes increases to research on
endocrine disrupting chemicals,  green chemistry, e-waste and e-design, green infrastructure,
computational toxicology,  air monitoring, drinking water and Science, Technology, Engineering,
or Mathematics (STEM) Fellowships.

Science is - and must continue to  be - the foundation of all our work at EPA. Good science
leads to shared solutions;  everyone benefits from clean air and clean water.  Rigorous science
leads  to innovative solutions  to complex environmental  challenges.   Most of the  scientific
research increases will  support additional  Science to  Achieve  Results (STAR)  grants and
fellowships to make progress on  these research priorities and leverage the expertise of the
academic research community. This budget also supports the study of computational toxicology
and other priority research efforts with a focus on advancing the design of sustainable solutions
for reducing risks associated with environmentally hazardous substances.  Two million dollars is
also included to conduct a long-term review of EPA's laboratory network.
                                           vn

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Environmental Protection Agency
2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

Table of Contents - Resource Summary Tables

APPROPRIATION SUMMARY	3
   Budget Authority	3
   Full-time Equivalents (FTE)	4

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                             Environmental Protection Agency
            FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                              APPROPRIATION SUMMARY
                                        Budget Authority
                                     (Dollars in Thousands)


Science & Technology
Oil Spill Supplemental
Science & Technology

Environmental Program &
Management

Inspector General

Building and Facilities

Inland Oil Spill Programs

Superfund Program
IG Transfer
S&T Transfer
Hazardous Substance
Superfund

Leaking Underground Storage
Tanks

State and Tribal Assistance
Grants

SUB-TOTAL, EPA
Rescission of Prior Year
Funds
SUB-TOTAL, EPA
(INCLUDING
RESCISSIONS)
Recovery Act - EPM
Recovery Act - IG
Recovery Act -LUST
Recovery Act - SF
Recovery Act - STAG
Recovery Act Resources
TOTAL, EPA
FY2010
Enacted

$846,049.0
$2,000.0
$848,049.0

$2,993,779.0

$44,791.0

$37,001.0

$18,379.0

$1,269,732.0
$9,975.0
$26,834.0
$1,306,541.0

$113,101.0

$4,978,223.0

$10,339,864.0
($40,000.0)
$10,299,864.0





$0.0
$10,299,864.0

































FY 2010
Actuals

$817,677.7
$0.0
$817,677.7

$2,966,637.1

$42,238.8

$39,548.8

$16,904.4

$1,372,230.3
$9,337.9
$28,032.8
$1,409,601.0

$116,882.3

$4,392,447.4

$9,801,937.5
$0.0
$9,801,937.5
$22,237.5
$6,925.6
($4,299.0)
$5,190.3
$18,528.1
$48,582.5
$9,850,520.0

































FY 2011
Annualized
CR

$846,049.0
$0.0
$846,049.0

$2,993,779.0

$44,791.0

$37,001.0

$18,379.0

$1,269,732.0
$9,975.0
$26,834.0
$1,306,541.0

$113,101.0

$4,978,223.0

$10,337,864.0
($40,000.0)
$10,297,864.0





$0.0
$10,297,864.0

































FY 2012
Pres Budget

$825,596.0
$0.0
$825,596.0

$2,876,634.0

$45,997.0

$41,969.0

$23,662.0

$1,203,206.0
$10,009.0
$23,016.0
$1,236,231.0

$112,481.0

$3,860,430.0

$9,023,000.0
($50,000.0)
$8,973,000.0





$0.0
$8,973,000.0
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.  $40M rescission implemented in 2010 against PY funds. See appendix for more
detailed Recovery Act Information.
                                              3

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                             Environmental Protection Agency
            FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                             APPROPRIATION SUMMARY
                                   Full-time Equivalents (FTE)


Science & Technology
Oil Spill Supplemental
Science & Technology

Science and Tech. - Reim

Environmental Program &
Management

Envir. Program & Mgmt - Reim

Inspector General

Inland Oil Spill Programs

Inland Oil Spill Programs - Reim

Superfund Program
IG Transfer
S&T Transfer
Hazardous Substance Superfund

Superfund Reimbursables

Leaking Underground Storage
Tanks

WCF-REIMB

Rereg. & Exped. Proc. Rev Fund

Pesticide Registration Fund

Recovery Act Reimbursable: M&O

Recovery Act Reimbursable: S&T

Recovery Act Reimbursable: SF

Well Permit BLM

SUB-TOTAL, FTE CEILING

FY2010
Enacted

2,442.5

2,442.5

3.0

10,925.3

0.0

296.0

102.2

0.0

3,017.5
65.8
110.0
3,193.3

75.5

75.3

136.1

167.8

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

17,417.0












































FY 2010
Actuals

2,441.7
0.0
2,441.7

0.3

10,793.6

23.0

283.3

89.8

80.2

2,919.2
52.2
98.8
3,070.2

94.1

67.0

115.7

142.1

69.0

0.6

0.9

3.8

2.6

17,277.9












































FY 2011
Annualized
CR

2,442.5
0.0
2,442.5

3.0

10,925.3

0.0

296.0

102.2

0.0

3,017.5
65.8
110.0
3,193.3

75.5

75.3

136.1

167.8

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

17,417.0












































FY 2012
Pres Budget

2,471.2
0.0
2,471.2

1.5

10,851.9

0.0

300.0

119.0

0.0

2,899.7
65.8
106.4
3,071.9

50.7

64.3

126.6

145.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

17,202.1

Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan. $40M rescission implemented in 2010 against PY funds. See appendix for more
detailed Recovery Act Information.
                                              4

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Pesticide Registration Fund1

TOTAL, EPA
FY2010
Enacted

69.0

17,486.0





FY 2010
Actuals

0.0

17,277.9





FY 2011
Annualized
CR

69.0

17,486.0





FY 2012
Pres Budget

69.0

17,271.1
 Presentation of reimbursable FTE for this account should not be interpreted as counting against the Agency ceiling, but rather a
projection of reimbursable FTE to accurately and transparently account for the size of this program and the Agency
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan. $40M rescission implemented in 2010 against PY funds. See appendix for more
detailed Recovery Act Information.
                                                         5

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Environmental Protection Agency
2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents - Goal and Objective Overview

GOAL, APPROPRIATION SUMMARY	8
   Budget Authority	8
   Authorized Full-time Equivalents (FTE)	10
Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality	12
Protecting America's Waters	22
Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable Development	34
Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution	47
Enforcing Environmental Laws	55

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                              Environmental Protection Agency
             FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                          GOAL, APPROPRIATION SUMMARY
                                        Budget Authority
                                      (Dollars in Thousands)

Taking Action on Climate Change
and Improving Air Quality
Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Building and Facilities
State and Tribal Assistance
Grants
Inspector General
Hazardous Substance Superfund

Protecting America's Waters
Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Building and Facilities
State and Tribal Assistance
Grants
Inspector General

Cleaning Up Our Communities and
Advancing Sustainable
Development
Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Building and Facilities
State and Tribal Assistance
Grants
Leaking Underground Storage
Tanks
FY2010
Enacted
$1,130,427.9
$486,173.5
$286,884.9
$8,611.6
$339,655.5
$5,234.2
$3,868.2

$5,645,339.6
$1,202,988.5
$156,653.3
$5,924.4
$4,249,791.5
$29,981.8

$2,075,066.9
$358,305.3
$206,733.3
$7,695.3
$327,692.9
$112,155.8






















FY 2010
Actuals
$1,161,100.7
$487,910.3
$273,033.9
$9,322.0
$382,346.0
$4,447.5
$4,041.0

$4,989,963.6
$1,191,126.7
$151,713.0
$6,286.7
$3,603,724.5
$37,112.7

$2,232,328.3
$374,308.1
$203,209.3
$7,964.8
$363,451.3
$111,742.3






















FY2011
Annualized
CR
$1,130,427.9
$486,173.5
$286,884.9
$8,611.6
$339,655.5
$5,234.2
$3,868.2

$5,645,339.6
$1,202,988.5
$156,653.3
$5,924.4
$4,249,791.5
$29,981.8

$2,073,066.9
$358,305.3
$204,733.3
$7,695.3
$327,692.9
$112,155.8






















FY2012
Pres Budget
$1,130,919.3
$500,817.9
$280,583.9
$10,179.9
$328,943.9
$6,290.5
$4,103.3

$4,342,645.5
$1,034,492.8
$150,049.4
$6,849.6
$3,123,517.3
$27,736.3

$2,017,061.5
$358,810.2
$188,420.7
$8,255.4
$346,330.2
$111,586.0
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan. $40M rescission implemented in 2010 against PY funds. See appendix for more detailed
Recovery Act Information.

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Inland Oil Spill Programs
Inspector General
Hazardous Substance Superfund

Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals
and Preventing Pollution
Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Building and Facilities
State and Tribal Assistance
Grants
Inspector General
Hazardous Substance Superfund

Enforcing Environmental Laws
Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Building and Facilities
State and Tribal Assistance
Grants
Leaking Underground Storage
Tanks
Inland Oil Spill Programs
Inspector General
Hazardous Substance Superfund

Sub-Total
Rescission of Prior Year Funds
Total

FY2010
Enacted
$16,022.6
$4,811.3
$1,041,650.5

$681,126.8
$446,916.7
$179,545.2
$10,007.5
$34,708.6
$2,659.6
$7,289.2

$807,902.7
$499,394.9
$18,232.2
$4,762.3
$26,374.6
$945.2
$2,356.4
$2,104.0
$253,733.0

$10,339,864.0
($40,000.0)
$10,299,864.0




























FY 2010
Actuals
$14,509.1
$4,491.9
$1,152,651.5

$671,424.4
$446,415.0
$171,878.5
$11,095.6
$34,675.7
$1,812.8
$5,546.8

$795,703.1
$489,114.6
$17,843.0
$4,879.7
$26,778.0
$841.0
$2,395.3
$1,299.5
$252,552.0

$9,850,520.0
$0.0
$9,850,520.0




























FY2011
Annualized
CR
$16,022.6
$4,811.3
$1,041,650.5

$681,126.8
$446,916.7
$179,545.2
$10,007.5
$34,708.6
$2,659.6
$7,289.2

$807,902.7
$499,394.9
$18,232.2
$4,762.3
$26,374.6
$945.2
$2,356.4
$2,104.0
$253,733.0

$10,337,864.0
($40,000.0)
$10,297,864.0




























FY2012
Pres Budget
$20,540.6
$5,906.8
$977,211.7

$702,542.3
$457,466.5
$188,244.1
$11,446.4
$34,755.5
$3,320.2
$7,309.5

$829,831.4
$525,046.6
$18,297.9
$5,237.7
$26,883.0
$895.0
$3,121.4
$2,743.2
$247,606.6

$9,023,000.0
($50,000.0)
$8,973,000.0

 Recovery Act funds are included in the goal totals above.  See Appendix for more details on Recovery Act funds.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan. $40M rescission implemented in 2010 against PY funds. See appendix for more detailed
Recovery Act Information.

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                           Environmental Protection Agency
           FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                        GOAL, APPROPRIATION SUMMARY
                            Authorized Full-time Equivalents (FTE)

Taking Action on Climate Change
and Improving Air Quality
Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Inspector General
Hazardous Substance Superfund
Envir. Program & Mgmt - Reim
Science and Tech. - Reim
WCF-REIMB
Recovery Act Reimbursable:
M&O

Protecting America's Waters
Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Inspector General
Envir. Program & Mgmt - Reim
WCF-REIMB
UIC Injection Well Permit BLM

Cleaning Up Our Communities and
Advancing Sustainable Development
Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Leaking Underground Storage
Tanks
Inland Oil Spill Programs
Inspector General
Hazardous Substance Superfund
FY2010
Enacted
2,735.4
1,879.5
769.0
34.6
18.4
0.0
3.0
30.9
0.0

3,501.9
2,793.0
484.3
198.1
0.0
26.4
0.0

4,483.9
1,707.0
555.0
69.9
84.9
31.8
1,932.6


























FY2010
Actuals
2,714.2
1,874.2
767.5
25.6
18.5
1.5
0.3
26.5
0.0

3,471.3
2,761.6
466.4
213.9
5.0
21.7
2.6

4,517.2
1,725.4
545.5
62.6
74.7
25.9
1,885.7


























FY2011
Annualized
CR
2,735.4
1,879.5
769.0
34.6
18.4
0.0
3.0
30.9
0.0

3,501.9
2,793.0
484.3
198.1
0.0
26.4
0.0

4,483.9
1,707.0
555.0
69.9
84.9
31.8
1,932.6


























FY 2012
Pres Budget
2,809.2
1,937.9
780.0
41.0
18.7
0.0
1.5
30.0
0.0

3,433.9
2,734.9
494.0
180.9
0.0
24.1
0.0

4,338.3
1,661.3
533.5
59.8
100.9
38.5
1,869.6
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                          10

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Envir. Program & Mgmt - Reim
Inland Oil Spill Programs - Reim
Superfund Reimbursables
WCF-REIMB
Recovery Act Reimbursable:
M&O
Recovery Act Reimbursable: S&T
Recovery Act Reimbursable: SF

Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and
Preventing Pollution
Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Inspector General
Rereg. & Exped. Proc. Rev Fund
Hazardous Substance Superfund
Envir. Program & Mgmt - Reim
Pesticide Registration Fund
WCF-REIMB

Enforcing Environmental Laws
Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Leaking Underground Storage
Tanks
Inland Oil Spill Programs
Inspector General
Hazardous Substance Superfund
Envir. Program & Mgmt - Reim
Superfund Reimbursables
WCF-REIMB

Total
FY2010
Enacted
0.0
0.0
75.5
27.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

2,692.5
1,908.2
543.0
17.6
167.8
21.9
0.0
0.0
34.1

4,003.2
2,637.6
91.1
5.4
17.3
13.9
1,220.3
0.0
0.0
17.6

17,417.0































FY2010
Actuals
4.1
80.2
85.0
22.8
0.6
0.9
3.8

2,741.0
1,883.5
576.4
10.4
142.1
18.3
10.8
69.0
30.4

3,834.3
2,548.9
85.8
4.4
15.1
7.5
1,147.7
1.5
9.1
14.2

17,277.9































FY2011
Annualized
CR
0.0
0.0
75.5
27.1
0.0
0.0
0.0

2,692.5
1,908.2
543.0
17.6
167.8
21.9
0.0
0.0
34.1

4,003.2
2,637.6
91.1
5.4
17.3
13.9
1,220.3
0.0
0.0
17.6

17,417.0































FY 2012
Pres Budget
0.0
0.0
50.7
24.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

2,706.4
1,912.6
572.6
21.7
145.0
22.3
0.0
0.0
32.3

3,914.3
2,605.1
91.1
4.5
18.1
17.9
1,161.3
0.0
0.0
16.2

17,202.1
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                                               11

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

              Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality

Reduce greenhouse gas emissions and develop adaptation strategies to address climate change,
and protect and improve air quality.

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES:
    •   Reduce the threats posed by climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and
       taking actions that help communities and ecosystems become more resilient to the effects
       of climate change.
    •   Achieve and maintain health-based air pollution standards and reduce risk from toxic air
       pollutants and indoor air contaminants.
    •   Restore the earth's stratospheric  ozone  layer and protect the public from the harmful
       effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
    •   Minimize unnecessary releases of radiation and be prepared to minimize impacts should
       unwanted releases occur.

                               GOAL, OBJECTIVE SUMMARY
                                     Budget Authority
                                   Full-time Equivalents
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)

Taking Action on Climate
Change and Improving Air
Quality
Address Climate Change
Improve Air Quality
Restore the Ozone Layer
Reduce Unnecessary Exposure to
Radiation
Total Authorized Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$1,130,427.9
$196,886.4
$872,147.1
$18,662.6
$42,731.8
2,735.4
FY 2010
Actuals
$1,161,100.7
$192,779.5
$906,658.7
$19,244.7
$42,417.8
2,714.2
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$1,130,427.9
$196,886.4
$872,147.1
$18,662.6
$42,731.8
2,735.4
FY2012
Pres Budget
$1,130,919.3
$252,854.4
$820,451.3
$18,159.7
$39,453.9
2,809.2
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$491.4
$55,968.0
($51,695.8)
($502.9)
($3,277.9)
73.8
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           12

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                                         Goall

              Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality

Reduce greenhouse gas emissions and develop adaptation strategies to address climate
change, and protect and improve air quality.

                                      Introduction

EPA has dedicated itself to protecting and improving the quality of the Nation's air to promote
public health and protect the environment.  Air pollution concerns are diverse and significant,
and include:  greenhouse gases (GHGs) and climate change, outdoor and indoor air quality,
radon, stratospheric ozone depletion, and radiation protection.

Since passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, nationwide air quality has improved
significantly.  Despite  this progress, about  127 million Americans (about 40% of the  US
population)  lived in counties with air that did not meet health-based standards for at least one
pollutant in 2009.  Long-term exposure to elevated levels of certain air pollutants has been
associated with  increased risk of cancer,  premature mortality, and  damage to  the  immune,
neurological, reproductive, cardiovascular, and respiratory  systems.   Short-term  exposure to
elevated levels of certain air  pollutants can exacerbate  asthma and lead to other adverse health
effects; additional impacts associated with increased air pollution levels include missed work and
school days.

Because people  spend much of their lives indoors,  the  quality of indoor air also is a major
concern.  Twenty percent of the population spends the day indoors  in elementary and secondary
schools, where problems with leaky roofs and with heating, ventilation,  and air conditioning
systems can lead to increased presence of molds  and other environmental allergens which can
trigger a host of health  problems, including asthma and allergies.  Exposure to indoor radon is
related to an estimated 20,000 lung cancer deaths each year.

The issues of highest importance facing the air  program over the next few years will be ozone
and particulate air pollution, interstate transport of air pollutants, emissions from transportation
sources, toxic air pollutants,  indoor  air pollutants (including radon), and  GHGs.   EPA uses a
variety of approaches to reduce pollutants in indoor and outdoor air.  The Agency works with
other federal agencies;  state, Tribal, and  local governments;  and international  partners and
stakeholders; and employs  strategies that include:   traditional regulatory tools; innovative,
market-based techniques; public- and private-sector partnerships; community-based approaches;
voluntary programs that promote environmental  stewardship; and programs that encourage cost-
effective technologies and practices.

EPA's air toxic  control programs are critical to EPA's continued progress in reducing public
health risks  and improving the quality of the environment.  EPA has been unable to meet many
of the statutory deadlines  for  air toxics  standards established  in the Clean Air Act due to
numerous unfavorable  court decisions,  inherent  management challenges, complexity of risk
modeling frameworks, and budget constraints over the past decade as resources have shifted to

Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           13

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managing criteria pollutants that pose  higher  overall health risks.  Lawsuits  over  missed
deadlines have in many cases set the Agency's  agenda, rather than  health and environmental
outcomes. Working with litigants and informed by analysis of air quality health risk data, EPA
is working to prioritize key air toxics regulations for completion in 2011 and 2012 that can be
completed expeditiously and that will address significant risks to the public health.

The supply and diversity of biofuels in America is growing every year, and a new generation of
automobile technologies, including several  new plug-in hybrids and  all-electric  vehicles, is
literally "hitting the road" this year.  Because EPA  is responsible for establishing the test
procedures needed  to estimate  the fuel economy  of new  vehicles,  and  for verifying car
manufacturers' data on  fuel economy,  the Agency  is investing  in  additional  testing and
certification capacity to ensure that new vehicles, engines, and fuels are in compliance with new
vehicle  and  fuel standards.   In particular,  compared  to  conventional vehicles,  advanced
technology vehicles like Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Battery Electric Vehicles
(EV) require additional testing.   Current electric vehicle dynamometer testing can occupy test
cells for several shifts, since the  current  test procedures require the vehicles run through their
entire battery charge.  Improved, shortened EV test procedures are under development by EPA.
PHEV  testing may actually consume   more time  than  EV  testing,  due  primarily  to the
requirement that PHEVs be tested in both  electric/electric assist mode and in hybrid mode.
Without testing PHEVs  in both modes, EPA cannot accurately determine PHEV fuel economy
and emissions compliance. The new standards for vehicle greenhouse gas emissions in particular
will require EPA to more  frequently verify car manufacturers' data for a  greater variety of
vehicle  engine technologies. To prepare for this workload, the Agency will continue its support
of the  multi-year National Vehicle and  Fuel  Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) modernization
effort.

                            Major FY  2012 Investment Areas

Air Toxics

In FY 2012, EPA will invest $6.1 million  in several activities that support the air toxics program.
$3.1 million will be targeted at improvements in monitoring capabilities on source-specific and
ambient bases. These funds will also improve the  dissemination of information  between and
amongst the various EPA offices, the state, local and tribal governments, and the public.   The
remaining $2.9 million of this investment will be used for enhancing tools such as the National
Air Pollution Assessment (NAPA), National  Air Toxic Assessment (NATA),  BenMAP, and Air
Facility System (AFS), which will also improve monitoring capabilities.  EPA anticipates that
this investment will substantially increase the Agency's ability to meet aggressive court ordered
schedules to complete rulemaking activities, such  as standards to address the refining sector
where 25 rules must be acted upon in the fiscal year.  This investment will also assist the Agency
in its work to complete  or develop an additional 150 rules in FY 2013 that  are under legal or
statutory deadlines.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           14

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Support for State Air Quality Management

EPA  is  investing an additional  $77 million  in  state assistance grants to support NAAQS
implementation and greenhouse gas permitting.  Specific increases include $25 million to assist
in permitting greenhouse gas emissions sources.  These funds will develop and deploy to states
the technical capacity needed to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in permitting under
the Clean  Air Act.   An additional $52  million  will support increased  state workload for
implementation of updated National Ambient Air Quality Standards.  This investment includes
requested funding of $15  million  for additional state air monitors,  as required  by the revised
NAAQS.   The request also includes an additional $37.0  million to support  state activities,
including revising state implementation plans  (SIPs)  and  developing models  and emissions
inventories needed for multi-state air quality management strategies.

                     Major FY 2012 Disinvestments and Reductions

In order to promote fiscal responsibility EPA is also making the tough choices, including:

    •   In the face of significant budget constraints, EPA has made the difficult budget decision
       to not propose new DERA grant funding in FY 2012.  During this time, the program will
       continue to support already on-going projects funded through DERA and stimulus funds,
       adding to  the tremendous  public health  benefits associated with the program that have
       resulted from significant reductions in air pollution, particularly in our cities and around
       our  ports and transportation hubs.

    •   Discontinuing the Climate Leaders program  as large businesses find assistance with their
       energy-saving and GHG reducing actions through private entities.

    •   Reducing  funding  for the Indoor Air program's partnership and outreach to external
       stakeholders and for the Radiation and Indoor Environments laboratories.

                                     Priority Goals

EPA has established two Priority Goals to improve the  country's ability to measure and control
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The Priority Goals are:

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions:  Mandatory Reporting Rule
    •   By June 15, 2011, EPA will make publically available 100 percent of facility-level GHG
       emissions  data submitted to EPA in accordance with the GHG Reporting Rule, compliant
       with policies protecting Confidential Business Information (CBI).

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions:  Light Duty Vehicles
    •   In 2011, EPA, working with DOT, will  begin implementation of regulations designed to
       reduce the GHG emissions from light duty  vehicles  sold in the US  starting with model
       year 2012.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           15

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In FY 2012, EPA will continue to track progress towards its Priority Goals and will update goals
as necessary and appropriate.

                                   FY 2012 Activities

Reducing GHG Emissions and Developing Adaptation Strategies to Address Climate Change

Climate change poses risks to public health, the environment, cultural resources, the economy,
and quality of life. Many effects of climate change are already evident and some will persist into
the future regardless of future levels of GHG emissions.  Climate change impacts include higher
temperatures and may lead to more stagnant air masses which are expected to  make it more
challenging to achieve air quality standards for smog in many regions of the country, adversely
affecting public health if areas cannot attain or maintain clean air. Another example is that a rise
in sea level or increased precipitation intensity may increase flooding, which could affect water
quality if large volumes of water transport contaminants and overload storm and wastewater
systems.   In order to protect public  health and the environment, EPA and air and water quality
managers at  the  state, tribal, and local  levels must  recognize and consider the challenge a
changing climate poses to their mission.

Responding to the  threat of climate change  is one  of the  Agency's top priorities.    EPA's
strategies to address climate change  support the President's GHG emissions reduction goals.  We
will  work with partners and stakeholders to  provide tools and information related to GHG
emissions and impacts, and will reduce GHG emissions domestically and internationally through
cost-effective, voluntary programs while pursuing additional regulatory actions as needed.

In FY 2012, the Agency will begin some  new areas of activity, expand some existing strategies,
and discontinue others.

   These efforts include:

   •  Implementing  new standards to reduce emissions from cars and light-duty trucks  for
       model years  2012 through 2016, extending that program to model year 2017 and beyond,
       and creating a  similar program to reduce GHGs from medium- and heavy-duty trucks for
       model years  2014-2018.
   •  Establishing permitting requirements for facilities including utilities and refineries that
       emit large amounts of GHGs to encourage design and construction of more efficient and
       advanced processes that will  contribute to a clean energy economy.
   •  Promulgating New Source Performance Standards for greenhouse gases for the electric
       utility generation and refinery sectors.
   •  Implementing  voluntary programs that reduce  GHGs through the greater use of energy
       efficient technologies and products.
   •  Implementing  a national system for reporting GHG emissions; implementing permitting
       requirements for new and modified facilities that emit substantial  amounts of GHGs.
   •  Working with Congress  on options for cost-effective legislation  to  promote a clean
       energy future and address GHG emissions.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           16

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    •   Developing  a comprehensive  report to Congress on black carbon that will provide a
       foundation for evaluating future approaches to black carbon mitigation.
    •   Identifying  and assessing substitute  chemical and ozone-depleting substances  and
       processes for their global warming potential.
    •   Educating the public about climate change and actions people can take to reduce GHG
       emissions.

Improving Air Quality

Clean Air

Addressing outdoor air pollution and the interstate transport of air pollution are top priorities for
the Agency.  Elevated levels of air pollution are linked to thousands of asthma cases and heart
attacks, and almost 2 million lost school or work days.  EPA recently strengthened the national
ambient air quality  standards (NAAQS) for lead, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, is in the
process of reviewing the particulate matter and carbon monoxide standards, and is reconsidering
the 2008 ozone  standard.   Over the  next  few years, EPA will work with states and Tribes to
designate areas where the air does not meet these standards, and develop and implement plans to
meet the NAAQS.  In FY 2011, EPA plans to finalize the Transport Rule, which is  expected to
be implemented in FY 2012.  This rule will reduce power plant emissions that drift across the
borders of 31 eastern states and the District of Columbia.  The new transport rule, along with
local and state air pollution controls,  is designed to help areas in the eastern United  States meet
existing health standards for ozone and particulate matter.  As EPA addresses these pollutants,
the Agency also is working to improve the overall air  quality management system and address
the air quality challenges  expected over the next 10 to 20 years.  This includes working with
partners and  stakeholders to develop comprehensive air quality strategies that address multiple
pollutants and consider the interplay between air quality and factors such as land use, energy,
and transportation.

Mobile  sources  (including light-duty and  heavy-duty  vehicles;  on-road vehicles and off-road
engines; as well as  ships, aircraft and trains) contribute a substantial percentage of the nation's
pollution burden. EPA addresses emissions from motor vehicles, engines, and fuels through an
integrated strategy that combines  regulatory approaches that take advantage of technological
advances  and cleaner and higher-quality  fuels  with voluntary  programs that reduce vehicle,
engine,  and equipment activity and emissions. Future regulatory activity includes proposing  Tier
3 vehicle and fuel standards in FY 2012 in response to  the May 2010 Presidential Directive and
new on-board diagnostic requirements for non-road diesel engines.  In the fuels area, EPA is
working with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and others to implement regulations to increase
the amount of renewable fuel blended into gasoline.

Air Toxics

As part of the investment in air toxics, EPA will work with affected communities to address risks
and track progress, with additional emphasis on communities that may be disproportionately
impacted by  toxic air emissions.  The Agency will continue to work with state and local air
pollution control agencies and community groups to assess and address air toxics emissions in

Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                            17

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areas of greatest concern, including where the most vulnerable members of our population live,
work, and go to school. EPA is implementing a sector-based strategy to develop rules that will
achieve the greatest reductions in risks from air toxics, provide regulatory certainty for sources,
and meet the statutory requirements of the Clean  Air Act.  The sector-based strategy  and the
investment in FY 2012 will assist EPA in addressing 25 rules in the refining sector that are under
legal deadlines and various Risk Technology Reviews (RTR) that are under legal deadlines.

This strategy includes:

•  Prioritize rules for  large stationary sources of air toxics, providing  the greatest opportunity
   for cost-effective  emissions reductions; including  petroleum  refining; iron  and  steel;
   chemical  manufacturing; utilities;  non-utility  boilers;  oil and  gas; and  Portland  cement.
   Emissions from every one of these seven key  categories occur  in areas where there is the
   potential to disproportionately affect minority communities.
•  Reduce air toxic emissions from chemical plants  and refineries.   While many chemical and
   refining  emission points are well understood, some sources, such as  leaks from  process
   piping, startups and shutdown, malfunctions, flaring, and wastewater are more  difficult to
   characterize, and may not be sufficiently controlled.
•  Provide better information to communities through monitoring, including  facility fence line
   and remote monitoring, and national assessments.
•  Involve other related organizations and stakeholders in planning and implementation.
•  Improve data collection  both through  efforts directed by OAR  and through  enhanced data
   collection during enforcement activities.

Indoor Air

The Indoor Air Program characterizes the risks of indoor air pollutants to human health including
radon,  environmental triggers of asthma, and tobacco smoke; develops techniques for reducing
those risks;  and educates the public about indoor air quality (IAQ) actions they can take to
reduce their risks from IAQ problems. Often the people most exposed to indoor air pollutants
are those most susceptible to the effects—the young,  the elderly, and the chronically ill.  In FY
2012, funding will be reduced for partnership and outreach support with external stakeholders
and the Radiation  and Indoor Environments National Laboratory  (R&IE), and the Tools for
Schools program will be eliminated.  Despite these  reductions, EPA will continue to educate and
encourage individuals,  local  communities,  school officials, industry,  the health-care community,
Tribal programs, and others  to take action to reduce health risks in indoor environments such as
homes,  schools, and workplaces.   Outreach includes national public awareness  and media
campaigns, as well as  community-based outreach  and education.  EPA also uses technology-
transfer to improve  the design,  operation,  and  maintenance of buildings - including schools,
homes, and workplaces - to promote healthier  indoor air.  The focus  of all these efforts  is to
support communities' and state and  local  agencies' efforts to address indoor  air quality health
risks.

The Radon Program promotes action to reduce the public's  risk to indoor radon (second only to
smoking  as a cause of lung  cancer).  In FY 2012,  EPA will reduce  regional support for Radon
Program  outreach,  education, guidance, and technical  assistance. Despite these reductions, this

Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           18

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non-regulatory program will continue to encourage and facilitate national, regional,  state, and
Tribal programs and activities that support initiatives targeted to radon testing and mitigation, as
well as to radon resistant new construction.  Funding is maintained for the State Indoor Radon
Grant Program, which provides categorical grants to develop, implement, and enhance programs
that assess and mitigate radon risks.  In FY 2011, EPA launched a new radon initiative with other
federal agencies  to significantly increase attention to radon  testing,  mitigation and public
education opportunities within each agency's sphere of responsibility.  Implementation of these
strategies will be pursued in FY 2012.

Stratospheric Ozone - Domestic and Montreal Protocol

EPA's stratospheric ozone protection program implements the provisions of the Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1990 (the Act) and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone
Layer (Montreal Protocol), continuing the control and reduction of ozone depleting substances
(ODS) in the U.S. and lowering health risks to the American public.  As ODS and many of their
substitutes  are also potent GHGs, appropriate control  and reduction of these substances also
provides  significant benefits for climate protection.   The  Act provides for a phase out of
production and consumption of ODS  and requires controls on their  use, including banning
certain emissive  uses, requiring  labeling to inform consumer choices, and requiring sound
servicing practices for the  use of ODS  in  various  products  (e.g.,  air conditioning and
refrigeration).  The Act  also  prohibits  venting  ODS or  their substitutes,  including  other
Fluorinated gases (F-gases) such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). As a signatory to the Montreal
Protocol, the U.S. is committed to ensuring that our domestic program is at least as stringent as
international  obligations and to regulating and enforcing its terms domestically.  In  FY 2012,
EPA will focus its work to ensure that ODS production and import caps under the Montreal
Protocol  and Clean Air Act continue to be met.

Radiation

In FY 2012, EPA will continue to work with other federal agencies, states, Tribes, stakeholders,
and international  radiation protection organizations to develop and use voluntary and regulatory
programs, public information, and training to reduce public exposure to radiation. Responding to
advances in uranium production processes and mining  operations, the Agency is updating its
radiation protection standards for the uranium fuel cycle, which were developed over 30  years
ago, to ensure that they  continue to be protective  of public health and the environment.  In FY
2012, EPA's Radiological Emergency Response Team (RERT), a  component of the Agency's
emergency response structure, will continue to ensure that it maintains and improves the level of
readiness to support federal radiological emergency response and recovery operations under the
National  Response Framework (NRF) and the National  Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution
Contingency Plan (NCP).
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           19

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Research

In FY 2012, EPA is strengthening its planning and delivery of science by implementing a more
integrated research approach that looks at problems systematically instead of individually. This
approach will create synergy and yield benefits beyond those possible from approaches that are
more narrowly targeted to single chemicals or problem areas. EPA is realigning and integrating
the work of twelve of its base research programs into four new research programs (further
described in the Highlighted programs section of the appendix):

   •  Air, Climate, and Energy
   •  Safe and Sustainable Water Resources
   •  Sustainable and Healthy Communities
   •  Chemical Safety and Sustainability

The  new Air, Climate and Energy (ACE) program (Figure  1) integrates existing EPA research
programs on environmental and human health impacts related to air pollution, mercury, climate
change, and biofuels.  Protecting human  health and the environment  from the  effects of air
pollution and climate change, while sustainably meeting the demands of a growing population
and economy, is critical to the well-being of the nation and the world. As we explore emerging
technologies to reduce emissions, we are challenged by uncertainties surrounding  human health
and environmental risks from exposure to an evolving array of air pollutants. This multifaceted
environment reflects the interplay  of air quality, the changing climate, and emerging energy
options.   By  integrating air, climate and energy  research EPA will  conduct research to
understand the  complexity of these  interactions and provide models  and tools  necessary for
communities and for policy makers at all levels of government to make the best decisions.

The  ACE research program is working with partners from across  EPA, as well  as  applicable
external stakeholders, to identify the critical science questions that will be addressed under three
major research themes.

   •  Theme 1:  Develop and evaluate multi-pollutant, regional, and  sector-based approaches
       and advance more cost-effective and innovative strategies to reduce air emissions  that
       adversely affect atmospheric integrity.
   •  Theme  2:   Assess  the impacts of atmospheric pollution,  accounting for interactions
       between climate change, air quality, and water quality.
   •  Theme 3: Provide environmental modeling, monitoring, metrics,  and  information needed
       by communities to adapt to the impacts of  climate change.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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Figure 1: This illustrates the
EPA Research budget under
the FY 2012 Budget Request,
which includes 4 new
integrated programs and
continues 2 programs.  The
new integrated Air, Climate
and Energy Research program
will address EPA Strategic
Plan Goal 1: Taking Action on
Climate Change and Ensuring
Air Quality. This budget
structure will maximize the
effectiveness and efficiency of
EPA's new integrated,
transdisciplinary approach to
research, which will catalyze
innovative,  sustainable
solutions to the problems
being addressed by our
research partners.
  RESEARCH:

EPA Labs, Centers*
 Program Offices
INTEGRATED RESEARCH
  RESEARCH:

External Research
   Partners
In FY 2012, the ACE research program will study the generation, fate, transport, and chemical
transformation of air emissions to identify individual and population health risks. The program
will incorporate air, climate, and biofuel research to ensure  the  development of sustainable
solutions and attainment of statutory goals in a complex multipollutant environment.  The ACE
program will conduct research to better understand and assess the effects of global change on air
quality, water quality, aquatic ecosystems, land use (e.g. for biofuel feedstocks), human health
and social well being  and  will  conduct systems-based  sustainability  analyses that  include
environmental,  social and economic dimensions.  Research will also determine how the use of
new and existing biofuels will affect critical  ecosystem services and human health.  The goal of
this work is to  explore how modified behaviors and technology designs could decrease the
potential  impacts of biofuels.   EPA will continue to leverage the success of  the Science to
Achieve Results (STAR) grants program, which supports innovative and cutting-edge research
from scientists  in academia through  a competitive  and peer-reviewed grant process that is
integrated with EPA's overall research efforts.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                              Protecting America's Waters
Protect  and restore our waters to ensure that drinking water is safe, and that aquatic ecosystems
sustain fish, plants and wildlife, and economic, recreational, and subsistence activities.

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES:
    •   Reduce human exposure  to  contaminants in drinking water,  fish and shellfish,  and
       recreational waters, including protecting source waters.
    •   Protect  the quality of rivers, lakes,  streams, and  wetlands  on a watershed basis,  and
       protect urban, coastal, and ocean waters.
                               GOAL, OBJECTIVE SUMMARY
                                      Budget Authority
                                    Full-time Equivalents
                                    (Dollars in Thousands)

Protecting America's
Waters
Protect Human Health
Protect and Restore
Watersheds and Aquatic
Ecosystems
Total Authorized
Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$5,645,339.6
$1,837,338.4
$3,808,001.2
3,501.9
FY 2010
Actuals
$4,989,963.6
$1,614,421.0
$3,375,542.5
3,471.3
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$5,645,339.6
$1,837,338.4
$3,808,001.2
3,501.9
FY2012
Pres Budget
$4,342,645.5
$1,369,962.1
$2,972,683.4
3,433.9
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($1,302,694.1)
($467,376.3)
($835,317.8)
-68.0
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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                                          Goal 2

                               Protecting America's Waters

Protect  and restore our waters to ensure  that drinking water  is safe,  and that aquatic
ecosystems  sustain fish, plants and wildlife, and economic,  recreational, and subsistence
activities.

Introduction

While much progress  has  been  made, America's waters  remain  imperiled.  From  nutrient
loadings and stormwater runoff to invasive species and drinking  water  contaminants,  water
quality  and enforcement programs face complex challenges that demand both traditional and
innovative strategies.  EPA will work hand-in-hand with states and tribes to develop nutrient
limits and intensify our work to restore and protect the quality  of the nation's  streams, rivers,
lakes, bays, oceans, and aquifers. We will also use our authority to protect and restore threatened
natural  treasures such as the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Gulf of Mexico;  to
address our neglected urban rivers; to ensure safe drinking water; and, to reduce pollution from
nonpoint and industrial dischargers.  EPA will continue to work on measures to address post-
construction runoff,  water-quality  impairments  from surface mining,  and  drinking  water
contamination.

Recent  national surveys1 have found that our waters are stressed by nutrient pollution, excess
sedimentation,  and degradation of shoreline vegetation, which affect upwards of 50 percent of
our lakes and streams.   The rate at which new waters are listed for water quality impairments
exceeds the pace at which restored waters are removed from the list. For many years, nonpoint
source pollution, principally nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediments,  has been recognized as the
largest remaining impediment to improving water quality.  However, pollution discharged from
industrial, municipal, agricultural, and stormwater point sources continue to  cause a decline in
the quality  of  our waters.   Other significant contributors include  loss  of habitat and habitat
fragmentation, and hydrologic alteration.

To continue making progress, the Agency needs effective partnerships with the states, tribes and
communities.    We  will continue  the increased  focus  on  communities,  particularly  those
disadvantaged  communities  facing  disproportionate impacts  or  having  been  historically
underserved.

As part of the  Administration's long-term strategy, EPA is implementing a  Sustainable Water
Infrastructure Policy that focuses on working with States and Communities to enhance technical,
managerial  and  financial  capacity.   Important to the technical  capacity will be enhancing
alternatives analysis to expand "green infrastructure" options and their multiple benefits.  Future
year budgets  for the State Revolving Funds (SRFs) gradually  adjust,  taking  into  account
1 U.S. EPA, 2006. Wadeable Streams Assessment: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Streams. EPA 841-B-06-002.
Available at http://www.epa.gov/owow/streamsurvey. See also EPA, 2010. National Lakes Assessment: A Collaborative Survey
of the Nation 'sLakes. EPA 841-R-09-001. Available at http://www.epa.gov/lakessurvey/pdf/nla chapter0.pdf.

Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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repayments, through 2016 with the  goal  of providing, on average, about 5 percent of water
infrastructure spending annually. When coupled with increasing repayments from loans made in
past years by states, the annual funding will allow the SRFs to finance a significant percentage in
clean water and drinking water infrastructure.   Federal dollars provided through the SRFs will
act as a catalyst for efficient system-wide  planning and ongoing management of sustainable
water infrastructure.  Overall, the Administration requests a combined $2.5 billion for the SRFs.

                            Major FY 2012 Investment Areas

Water Quality

The Section  106 grant program supports  prevention and control measures that improve water
quality.  In FY 2012, EPA is requesting a total additional investment of $21 million in Section
106 funding of which $18.3 million will strengthen state and interstate programs to address Total
Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), nutrient and wet weather issues. Approximately $2.7 million of
the additional funding will be directed to  eligible tribes to meet funding needs  for tribal water
quality programs.

Drinking Water

In FY 2012,  an additional $5.2 million is  being requested to replace obsolete and expensive to
maintain drinking water information system technology, support state data management, develop
the capability to post drinking water compliance  monitoring data on a secured internet portal,
facilitate compliance monitoring data collection and transfer, and improve data quality. EPA, in
concert with  states, is working to collect and display all compliance monitoring data as  part of
the Drinking Water Strategy. This increase will also be used to replace SDWIS-State, reducing
state need to keep individual compliance databases.

                     Major FY 2012 Disinvestments and Reductions

    •   Reducing funds for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program, while continuing
       federal support for safe drinking water, will result in fewer new projects.

    •   Reducing funds for  the Clean  Water  State Revolving Fund, while  continuing  federal
       support clean water infrastructure, will result in fewer projects.

    •   Reducing funds for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, while maintaining a significant
       investment in activities such as sediment cleanup and habitat restoration.

    •   Reducing funds for state Nonpoint  Source  grants will result in 100 to 150 fewer projects
       as compared to 716 projects funded in FY 2010.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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                                     Priority Goals

EPA has established two Priority Goals to improve water quality.  The Priority Goals are:

   Improve Water Quality: Chesapeake Bay
   •   Chesapeake Bay watershed states (including the District of Columbia) will develop and
       submit approvable Phase I watershed implementation plans by the end of CY 2010 and
       Phase II plans by the end of CY 2011  in support of EPA's final Chesapeake Bay Total
       Maximum Daily Load (TMDL).

   Improve Water Quality: Drinking Water Standards
   •   Over the next two years, EPA will initiate review/revision of at least 4 drinking water
       standards to strengthen public health protection.

In FY 2012, EPA will continue to track progress towards its Priority Goals and will update goals
as necessary and appropriate.

FY 2012 Activities

EPA has identified core water program activities within its safe and clean water programs in FY
2012 to highlight three  of the Administrator's priority areas: Urban Waters, the Drinking Water
Strategy, and Climate Change.

The  National  Water Program will continue to place  emphasis on  watershed  stewardship,
watershed-based  approaches,  water efficiencies,  and best practices  through  Environmental
Management Systems.  EPA will specifically focus on green infrastructure, nutrients, and trading
among point sources  and non-point sources for water quality upgrades. In FY 2012, the Agency
will continue advancing the water  quality monitoring initiative  and a water  quality standards
strategy under the Clean Water Act, as well  as important rules and activities  under the  Safe
Drinking Water Act.  Related efforts to improve monitoring and  surveillance will help advance
water security nationwide.

In FY 2012, the Agency will begin some new  areas of activity, expand some existing strategies,
and discontinue others.

Drinking Water

To help achieve the Administrator's  priority to protect America's waters, in FY 2012, EPA will
continue to implement  the new Drinking Water Strategy, a new approach to  expanding public
health protection for drinking water.  The Agency will focus on regulating groups of drinking
water contaminants,  improving water treatment  technology, utilizing the authority of multiple
statutes where  appropriate,  and,   expanding  its  communication with  states,  tribes  and
communities to increase confidence in the quality of drinking water.

During FY 2012, EPA, the states, and  community  water systems will build on past successes
while working toward the FY 2012 goal of assuring that 91 percent of the population served by

Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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community  water systems  receives  drinking  water that meets  all  applicable health-based
standards.  States carry out a variety of activities, such as conducting onsite sanitary surveys of
water systems and working with small systems to improve their capabilities. EPA will work to
improve implementation by  providing guidance,  training, and  technical assistance;  ensuring
proper certification of water system operators; promoting consumer awareness of drinking water
safety; and  maintaining  the  rate of  system  sanitary surveys and  onsite reviews to promote
compliance with drinking water standards.

To help ensure that water is  safe to drink and because  aging drinking water infrastructure can
impact  water quality,  EPA  requests  $990 million to continue EPA's commitment for the
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund. This request will fund new infrastructure improvement
projects for public drinking  water  systems.  EPA will, in concert with the states, focus this
affordable, flexible financial  assistance to support utility compliance  with  safe drinking water
standards.  EPA will also work with utilities to promote technical, financial, and managerial
capacity as  a  critical means  to meet  infrastructure  needs,  and further enhance  program
performance and efficiency.

Homeland Security

EPA has a major  role in supporting the  protection of the nation's  critical  water infrastructure
from terrorist threats.  In FY 2012, EPA will continue efforts towards protecting the nation's
water infrastructure.   In  FY  2012, the Agency  will provide technical  support to the existing
Water  Security Initiative (WSI) pilots, assist in  conducting outreach efforts to migrate lessons
learned from the pilots to the water sector, and develop and execute an approach to promote
national voluntary adoption of effective and sustainable drinking water contamination warning
systems.  The  FY 2012  request  includes $7.3  million for WSI pilot  support and evaluation
activities, as well as  dissemination of information and transfer of knowledge.  Additionally, the
FY 2012 request includes $1.3 million for Water Laboratory Alliance for threat reduction efforts.

Clean Water

In FY  2012, EPA will continue to collaborate with states and tribes to make progress toward
EPA's clean water goals. EPA's FY 2012 request includes a total of $444 million in categorical
grants for clean water programs. EPA will implement core clean water programs and promising
innovations  on a watershed basis to  accelerate  water quality improvements.  Building on 30
years of clean water successes, EPA, in conjunction with states  and tribes, will  implement the
Clean Water Act by  focusing on TMDLs and National Pollutant Discharge  Elimination System
(NPDES) permits built  upon scientifically sound water  quality standards,  technology-based
pollutant discharge limits, effective water monitoring, strong programs for controlling nonpoint
sources of pollution, stringent  discharge permit programs,  and revolving fund capitalization
grants to our partners to build, revive, and "green" our aging infrastructure.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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                          WQ-8a
       # of TMDLs that are established or approved by EPA
       [Total TMDLs] on a schedule consistent with national
                     policy (cumulative)
  50000
                                        I Annual Target
                                        I End-of-Year Results
         2006
               2007
                     2008   2009
                                 2010
The Agency's FY 2012 request continues the monitoring initiative begun in 2005 to strengthen
the nationwide monitoring  network and complete  statistically-valid surveys  of the  nation's
waters.   The results  of these efforts  are  scientifically-defensible water  quality data  and
information essential for cleaning up and protecting the nation's waters.  Progress in improving
coastal and ocean waters documented in the National Coastal Condition Report,  will focus on
assessing coastal  conditions, reducing vessel discharges, implementing coastal nonpoint source
pollution programs, managing dredged  material and supporting international marine pollution
control. EPA will continue to provide annual capitalization to the Clean Water State Revolving
Fund  (CWSRF) to enable EPA partners to improve wastewater treatment, non-point sources of
pollution, and estuary revitalization. Realizing the long-term benefits derived from the CWSRF,
EPA is continuing our CWSRF commitment by requesting $1.55 billion in FY 2012.

By integrating sustainable community efforts and urban water quality efforts, EPA  plans to assist
communities, particularly underserved communities, in restoring their urban waters. EPA  will
help communities become active participants in restoration and protection by helping to increase
their awareness and stewardship of local urban waters.  Safe and clean urban waters can enhance
economic,  educational,  recreational, and social  opportunities.    By  linking  water  quality
improvement activities to these  community priorities and partnering with  federal,  state, local,
and non-governmental partners, EPA will help to sustain local commitment  over the longer time
frame that  is required for water quality improvement.  In FY 2012, EPA will provide grants to
reconnect communities with their local urban waters and engage them in local restoration efforts.
Focus areas may  include: promoting green infrastructure to reduce contaminated, urban runoff;
promoting volunteer monitoring; and tailoring outreach to communities. As  urban  waters impact
large populations in both urban and upstream areas, this grants program will offer visibility to
innovative  approaches  for water  quality  improvement  that can be adapted  in surrounding
communities, thus promoting replication of successful practices.

EPA will continue to address climate change impacts to water resource programs as well as to
mitigate  greenhouse gas emissions  resulting from water  activities by building  capacity to
consider climate change as core missions under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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Act are implemented.  Climate change will exacerbate water quality stressors such as stormwater
and nutrient  pollution and could  add new stressors  such as those related to the expanding
renewable energy development.  WaterSense, Climate Ready Estuaries, Climate Ready Water
Utilities and Green Infrastructure are examples of programs that will help stakeholders adapt to
climate change in FY 2012, and programs targeted at vulnerable populations will be increasingly
important.  Efforts to incorporate  climate  change considerations into key programs will help
protect water quality as well as the nation's  investment in  drinking  water and wastewater
treatment infrastructure.

Geographic Water Programs

The Administration has launched numerous cross-agency collaborations to promote coordination
among agencies toward  achieving Presidential priorities, which include a suite of large aquatic
ecosystem  restoration efforts.  Three prominent examples of this  kind of  cross-agency
collaboration for EPA are cooperative restoration efforts in the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay
and the Gulf of Mexico.  These  three large water bodies have been  exposed to substantial
pollution over many years and a coordinated federal response is critical for maintaining progress
on environmental priorities.  Coastal estuaries and wetlands are also vulnerable.  Working with
stakeholders, EPA has established  special programs to protect and restore each of these unique
resources.

EPA's ecosystem  protection programs  encompass a  wide  range of approaches that  address
specific at-risk regional areas and larger categories of threatened systems, such as urban waters,
estuaries, and wetlands.  Locally generated pollution, combined with pollution carried by  rivers
and streams and through air deposition, can accumulate in these ecosystems and degrade them
over  time.   EPA  and  Federal partners  will  continue  to coordinate with  States,  Tribes,
municipalities, and industry to restore the integrity of imperiled waters of the United States.

Great Lakes:

EPA is providing $350 million in funding for ecosystem restoration efforts for the Great Lakes,
the largest freshwater system in the world.  This EPA-led interagency effort to restore the  Great
Lakes focuses on priority environmental  issues  such as  contaminated sediments and toxics,
nonpoint source pollution, habitat degradation and loss, and invasive species.
To restore  and protect this national treasure, the Obama  Administration developed the  Great
Lakes Restoration  Initiative  (GLRI).   Led by  EPA,  the  GLRI  invests in  the  region's
environmental and public health through a  coordinated interagency process.  Principal  agencies
involved in the GLRI are USD A, NOAA, HHS, DHS, HUD, DOS, DOD-Army, DOI, and  DOT.
In FY 2012, EPA will  continue to lead the implementation  of the  Great  Lakes Restoration
Initiative, implementing  both federal projects and  projects  with states, tribes, municipalities,
universities, and other organizations.  Progress will continue in each of the  GLRI's five  focus
areas  through implementation of  on-the-ground actions.   The  GLRI  provides the  level  of
investment and the interagency coordination required  to successfully  address these five issues
across the region.  The initiative will specifically target work to restore beneficial uses in  Areas
of Concern, including Great Lakes  Legacy Act projects, nearshore work,  and  habitat restoration,
prioritizing delistings of Areas of Concern.

Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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The initiative identifies $350 million for programs and projects strategically chosen to target the
most significant environmental problems in the Great Lakes ecosystem, a $125 million decrease
from FY 2010,  the first year of the initiative.  The initiative will implement the most important
projects  for Great Lakes Restoration  and achieve visible results.  FY 2012 activities  will
emphasize  implementation and include grants to  implement the Initiative by funding  states,
tribes and other partners. EPA expects substantial progress within each of the Initiative's focus
areas by focusing on the following actions within them:

•  Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern: EPA  is working closely with non-Federal
   partners to  address beneficial use impairments in areas of concern including Great Lakes
   Legacy Act clean-ups of contaminated sediments.

•  Invasive Species:  GLRI has supported priority Asian Carp work including^ the installation of
   structures by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (USAGE) at the electric barrier  site to
   reduce the risk of bypass by Asian carpj and Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and Illinois
   Department of Natural Resource efforts to detect and remove Asian Carp from the system.
   As needed, GLRI will invest in additional efforts to keep Asian Carp from becoming
   established  in the  Great Lakes while continuing to address  Invasive Species -priorities such
   as  the  development  of Ballast Water Treatment technologies;  assistance to  states  and
   communities in preventing the introduction of invasive  species and controlling existing
   populations; establishing  early  detection  and  rapid  response  capabilities;  and  the
   implementation of Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plans by the FWS partnership.

•  Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source: Targeted watershed  plan implementation will be
   undertaken  by EPA, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources  Conservation
   Service (NRCS), FWS, USGS, state programs, and tribal governments. Additionally, GLRI
   funds have  been marked for NRCS to work directly with agricultural producers in specific,
   high  priority watersheds to install conservation practices on their operations to reduce soil
   erosion and non-point source nutrient loading to waters of the Great Lakes Basin.

•  Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration: GLRI funding has been targeted for
   FWS efforts to fund projects related to species and habitat management such as restoring
   wetlands, improving the hydrology of Great Lakes tributaries, reforesting habitats, reducing
   impacts  of invasive  species, and creating  and/or improving  corridors between habitats.
   Additionally, NRCS supports habitat restoration and protection efforts of agricultural lands
   through the programs such as the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program

•  Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships:
   EPA's National Coastal Condition  Assessment will  provide a framework and organization
   for a Comprehensive Great Lakes Coastal  Assessment that will establish baseline conditions
   of environmental quality and variability of the near-shore waters, bottom substrate, and biota.
   All  agencies will participate  in the Great  Lakes  Accountability  System  where  partner
   agencies will report quality controlled information regularly  on GLRI progress in meeting the
   objectives and targets of this Action Plan.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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EPA expects to reach a target of 23.9 using a 40.0 scale for improving the overall ecosystem
health of the Great Lakes by preventing water pollution and protect aquatic systems.  Also by FY
2012, EPA expects to have removed 26 beneficial use impairments from AOCs within the basin.

Chesapeake Bay:

Increased funding for the Chesapeake Bay will support Bay watershed States as they implement
their plans to reduce nutrient and sediment pollution in an unprecedented effort to restore this
economically important ecosystem.  President Obama's 2009 Executive Order (EO) tasked a
team of federal agencies to draft a way forward for protection and restoration of the Chesapeake
watershed.  This team—the Federal Leadership Committee (FLC) for the  Chesapeake Bay—is
chaired by the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and includes senior
representatives from the departments  of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Homeland  Security,
Interior and Transportation.

The FLC developed the Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.,
which was released in May 2010.  Work that has taken place under the EO can be categorized
according to the Goal Areas and Supporting Strategies identified in the EO  Strategy, specifically
around its four "Goal Areas" of work:

•  Restore Water Quality: Examples of efforts in this area include: EPA issuance of a TMDL
   for nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment to meet water quality  standards; USDA development
   of suites of conservation practices to improve water quality  and targeting of technical and
   financial assistance in high-priority watersheds; EPA/DOI/NOAA research and partnerships
   to address toxic pollutant contamination in the Bay.

•  Restore Habitat:  Examples of efforts in this area include: the partnership among USFWS,
   NOAA, USGS, NRCS,  FHWA, and NPS to restore and enhance wetlands  and to conduct
   supporting research; the partnership among USDA, USFS, and USFWS to  restore riparian
   forest buffers; work by USFWS, NOAA, and NRCS to restore historical fish migratory
   routes; and work by Federal agencies  in general, including USFWS, USGS, NOAA, EPA,
   USAGE, NRCS, and USFS, to strengthen science support for habitat restoration.

•  Sustain Fish and Wildlife:  Examples  of efforts in this area include: work by NOAA and the
   U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USAGE) to restore native oyster habitat and populations;
   NOAA's work to  rebuild the  blue crab population target; work by USFWS, USFS, and
   NOAA to restore brook trout, black duck,  and other species; NRCS's work to support the
   establishment and  protection of terrestrial habitat on private lands; the partnership among
   NOAA,  USAGE,  USFWS,  USGS, states and  local organizations to strengthen science
   support to sustain fish and wildlife.

•  Conserve Land and  Increase  Public Access:   Examples of efforts  in this area include:
   collaboration among DOI, USDA, NOAA, DOT, DOD, states and local agencies  on the
   launch of a Chesapeake Treasured Landscape Initiative; work by NPS,  USFWS, USDA,
   NOAA, USGS, DOT, and HUD on coordinated conservation actions, watershed-wide GIS-
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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   based land conservation targeting system, and developing integrated transportation, land use,
   housing and water infrastructure plans for smart growth.

The $67.4 million Chesapeake Bay program FY 2012 budget request will allow EPA to continue
to implement the President's  Executive Order  (E.O.)  on Chesapeake  Bay Protection and
Restoration, to implement the  Chesapeake  Bay  Total  Maximum  Daily Load  (TMDL),  to
facilitate coordination of goals  and activities of  federal,  state and  local  partners in  the
Chesapeake Bay watershed, to  support the Chesapeake Bay jurisdictions  in implementing the
TMDL, to assist  program partners in their protection and restoration efforts, to increase the
accountability and transparency of the program, to continue responding to oversight reports, and
to address other priority initiatives as they arise.

The Chesapeake Bay TMDL, the nation's largest and most complex TMDL, will necessitate
significant  scientific,  technical, and programmatic support to states and local jurisdictions in
developing and implementing the most appropriate programs for meeting  their responsibilities
under the TMDL allocations.  EPA has engaged multiple programs and offices to provide the
regulatory, legal, enforcement, and technical support necessary to meet these challenges.

EPA is committed  to its ambitious long-term goals of 100 percent attainment of dissolved
oxygen standards in waters of the Chesapeake Bay and 185,000 acres of submerged aquatic
vegetation  (SAV).  Along with its federal and state partners, EPA has stated its intention to
establish two-year milestones for all actions needed  to restore water quality, habitats, and fish
and shellfish.

Other Geographic Programs:

In FY 2012 EPA will continue cooperation with federal, state and Tribal governments and other
stakeholders toward achieving the national goal of no net loss of wetlands under the Clean Water
Action Section 404 regulatory  program.   The FY 2012  budget  request for NEPs and coastal
watersheds is  $27.1 million to help accomplish a target of 100,000 acres protected or restored
within National Estuary Program study areas.

After the recent catastrophe from the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, President Obama signed
Executive Order  13554 which  established the Gulf Coat Ecosystem Restoration  Task Force,
chaired by EPA Administrator Jackson.  The Task Force will serve as the  Federal lead in Gulf
Coast restoration, building off of the tremendous early efforts of the Working Group, the Gulf of
Mexico Alliance, and others, while working to assist the Deepwater Horizon  NRD  Trustee
Council.   The Trustee Council  will focus on  restoring, rehabilitating, or replacing the natural
resources damaged by the oil spill, while the Task Force and its Federal  agency partners will
focus their individual efforts  on the broader  suite  of impacts afflicting the Gulf Coast region.
The Task Force will provide a broad vision and strategy to guide federal cooperative efforts to
address the degradation of this region and to reverse longstanding problems that have contributed
to its decline.

The Executive Order tasked the  Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force with developing a
Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration  Strategy within one year.  The  Strategy will

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identify major policy areas where coordinated Federal-state action is necessary and will also
consider existing  restoration  planning efforts in the  region  to  identify planning  gaps and
restoration needs, both on a state-by-state basis and on a broad regional scale, setting milestones
and performance indicators by which to measure progress of  the long-term restoration effort.
This strategy, combined with the NRD restoration plan,  will likely serve to inform  Federal
investments in ecosystem restoration in the Gulf region over the next decade.  EPA will  provide
assistance to other federal, state, and local partners to ensure that the  water, wetlands, and
beaches will be restored, and the surrounding communities will be revitalized.

As a complement to the Agency's actions in the immediate Gulf coast, EPA's Mississippi River
Basin  program  will  address excessive nutrient loadings  that  contribute  to water  quality
impairments in the basin and, ultimately, to hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico. Working
with the  Gulf Hypoxia Task  Force, Gulf of Mexico Alliance  and other states  within  the
Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basins, and  other federal agencies, EPA will help  target efforts
within 2-3 critical watersheds to implement effective strategies that can yield significant progress
in addressing nonpoint source nutrient pollution.

Research

In FY 2012, EPA  is strengthening  its planning  and delivery  of  science by implementing an
integrated research  approach that looks at problems systematically  instead of individually. This
approach  will allow EPA to  consider a broader  set of issues and objectives while bridging
traditional scientific disciplines.  EPA is realigning and integrating the work of twelve of its base
research programs into four new research programs (as discussed further in the Goal 1 overview
and appendix):

   •   Air, Climate, and Energy
   •   Safe and Sustainable Water Resources
   •   Sustainable and Healthy Communities
   •   Chemical Safety and Sustainability

EPA will use these integrated research programs to develop  a deeper understanding  of our
environmental challenges and inform sustainable solutions to meet our strategic goals.   In FY
2012,  the Agency  proposes to realign elements of the Water Quality  and Drinking Water
research programs into the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research (SSWR) Program.

Increased demands, land use practices, population  growth, aging infrastructure, and  climate
variability, pose challenges to our nation's water resources.  Such competing interests require the
development of innovative new solutions for water resource managers and  other decision
makers. To address these challenges, EPA research will  enable the following in FY 2012:

   •   Protection and restoration of watersheds to provide water quality necessary  for sustained
       ecosystem health.

   •   Treatment technologies and  management strategies needed to ensure water  is  safe  to
       drink.

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    •   Water infrastructure capable of the sustained delivery of safe water, providing for the
       removal and treatment of wastewater consistent with its sustainable and safe re-use, and
       management of stormwater in a manner that values it as a resource and a component of
       sustainable water resources.

The new SSWR research program will address and adapt to future water resources management
needs to ensure that natural and engineered water systems have the capacity and resiliency to
meet current and future water needs to support the range of growing water-use and ecological
requirements.

Through the SSWR program, the research program is investing  an additional $6.1 million to
address potential  water supply  endangerments associated  with  hydraulic  fracturing (HF).
Congress has urged EPA to conduct this research, which supports the Agency's efforts to ensure
the protection of our aquifers.  The Agency proposes to conduct additional case studies on a
greater number of geographic and  geologic situations to  reflect the range of conditions under
which HF operates, and on FTP practices that will help more fully  characterize the  factors that
may lead to risks to public  health.  In addition, the Agency will develop models to assess risk to
water resources based on geologic, geographic, hydrologic,  toxicological  and biogeochemical
factors and thus support identification of situations that could be more susceptible to infiltration
from hydraulic fracturing fluids.

Within the SSWR program, green infrastructure research will continue to  assess, develop, and
compile scientifically rigorous tools and models that will be used  by EPA's Office of Water,
states, and municipalities.  EPA will continue to leverage the success of the Science to Achieve
Results (STAR) grants program,  which supports innovative and  cutting-edge research  from
scientists in academia through a competitive and peer-reviewed grant process that is integrated
with EPA's overall research efforts.
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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

           Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable Development

Clean up communities, advance sustainable development, and protect disproportionately
impacted low-income, minority, and tribal communities. Prevent releases of harmful substances
and clean up and restore contaminated areas.

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES:


    •   Support sustainable, resilient, and livable  communities by  working with local, state,
       tribal, and  federal partners to  promote smart growth, emergency  preparedness and
       recovery  planning,  brownfield  redevelopment,  and the  equitable  distribution  of
       environmental benefits.

    •   Conserve resources and  prevent  land  contamination by reducing waste generation,
       increasing recycling, and ensuring proper management of waste and petroleum products.

    •   Prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional releases of contaminants and clean up
       and restore polluted sites.

    •   Support federally-recognized tribes to build environmental  management capacity, assess
       environmental conditions and measure results, and implement environmental programs in
       Indian country.
                              GOAL, OBJECTIVE SUMMARY
                                     Budget Authority
                                   Full-time Equivalents
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)

Cleaning Up Our Communities
Promote Sustainable and Livable
Communities
Preserve Land
Restore Land
Strengthen Human Health and
Environmental Protection in
Indian Country
Total Authorized Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$2,075,066.9
$522,238.6
$273,342.2
$1,198,659.5
$80,826.6
4,483.9
FY2010
Actuals
$2,232,328.3
$556,970.1
$273,545.2
$1,316,495.2
$85,317.7
4,517.2
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$2,073,066.9
$520,238.6
$273,342.2
$1,198,659.5
$80,826.6
4,483.9
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$2,017,061.5
$504,464.9
$264,903.3
$1,133,624.1
$114,069.2
4,338.3
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($58,005.4)
($17,773.7)
($8,438.9)
($65,035.4)
$33,242.6
-145.6
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                                         GoalS

           Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable Development

Clean up communities, advance sustainable development, and protect disproportionately
impacted low-income, minority, and tribal communities. Prevent releases of harmful
substances and clean up and restore contaminated areas.

                                      Introduction

Land is one of America's most valuable resources and EPA strives to clean up communities to
create a safer environment for all Americans.  Hazardous and non-hazardous wastes on the land
can migrate to the air, groundwater and surface water, contaminating drinking water supplies,
causing acute  illnesses or chronic diseases, and threatening healthy ecosystems in urban, rural,
and suburban areas.  EPA will continue efforts to prevent and reduce the risks posed by releases
of harmful  substances  to land;  to clean up  communities; to  strengthen state  and Tribal
partnerships; and to expand the conversation on environmentalism and work for environmental
justice.   The  Agency also will  work to advance  sustainable development and  to  protect
disproportionately impacted low-income, minority,  and Tribal  communities through outreach
and protection efforts for communities historically underrepresented in EPA decision-making.

In FY 2012, EPA will continue to work collaboratively with state and Tribal partners to prevent
and  reduce exposure to  contaminants.  Improved compliance  at high risk oil  and chemical
facilities through rulemaking  and  increased  inspections  will  help prevent  exposure by
encouraging compliance with environmental regulations. This is another focus of the FY 2012
investments.   In order to address  exposures to  releases that have already occurred and/or will
occur in the  future,  EPA will continue  implement the  Integrated Cleanup Initiative (ICI)
program. The purpose of ICI is to coordinate the relevant tools available in each of the clean-up
programs in order to  accelerate the pace of cleanups in the most effective and efficient manner to
appropriately  service communities.   These efforts will be supported by sound scientific data,
research, and cost-effective tools that alert EPA to emerging issues and inform Agency decisions
on managing materials and addressing contaminated properties.

Improving a community's ability to  make decisions that affect its environment is at the heart of
EPA's community-centered work.  Challenging and complex  environmental problems, such as
contaminated  soil, sediment, and groundwater that can cause human health concerns, persist at
many contaminated  properties.  The burden of a  single  blighted and contaminated site, or
multiple blighted and contaminated sites concentrated within an  area, can weigh down an entire
community. Oftentimes, there is no  obvious reuse for a contaminated property and communities
struggle with what will happen at the site.  This dilemma results in long-term environmental and
economic community distress.   As multiple sites are often connected through infrastructure and
geographic location,  approaching  the assessment and cleanup needs  of the entire area can be
more effective than focusing on individual sites in isolation of the surrounding area.

Many communities across the  country  regularly face risks posed by intentional and accidental
releases of harmful substances into the environment.  EPA and its state partners issue, update, or

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maintain RCRA permits for approximately 2,500 hazardous waste facilities. In addition, there
are over 1,627 sites total on NPL nationwide.  Contaminants at these hazardous waste sites are
often complex  chemical mixtures affecting multiple environmental media.   In  other words,
operations at a  site may have contaminated groundwater, surface water, and soil,  at times also
impacting indoor and outdoor air quality. The precise impact of many contaminant mixtures on
human health remains uncertain; however, substances commonly found at Superfund sites have
been linked to a variety of human health problems, such as birth defects, infertility, cancer, and
changes  in neurobehavioral functions.  In FY 2012, EPA will continue its work to  cleanup,
redevelop, and revitalize contaminated sites.

There is a critical need for the  Agency  to  increase its  capacity to prevent and respond to
accidental releases of harmful substances, including  oil spills, by developing clear authorities,
training  personnel,  and providing proper  equipment.   Recent spills and  releases at  oil and
chemical facilities have resulted in human injuries and deaths, severe environmental damage, and
great financial loss.  The BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill disaster resulted in 11 deaths,
millions  of  gallons  of spilled  oil, and untold environmental damage.   Likewise,  accidents
reported  to EPA by  the current universe of Risk Management Program (RMP) facilities have
resulted  in over 40  worker deaths, nearly 1,500 worker  injuries, more than 300,000 people
sheltered in place,  and more than $1 billion in on-site and  off-site damages.  EPA will increase
its capacity for compliance monitoring and inspections at these facilities in FY 2012.

                            Major FY 2012 Investment Areas

Regaining Ground:  Increasing Compliance in High Risk Oil and Chemical Facilities

The Oil  Spill program helps  protect U.S. waters  by effectively  preventing, preparing for,
responding to, and monitoring oil spills.  EPA also works  with state and local  partners through
the State and Local  Prevention and Preparedness Program to help  protect the public and the
environment from catastrophic releases of hazardous substances that occur at chemical facilities.
EPA currently conducts over 550  inspections at chemical  facilities per year (approximately 5
percent  of the universe of RMP facilities in non-delegated states) and 1,100 SPCC inspections
and 250 FRP inspections and  drills at oil facilities per year (0.2 percent of the universe of
640,000  SPCC facilities, 6 percent at  FRP  facilities).  In FY 2012, the Agency will expand its
current prevention activities at high risk oil  and chemical facilities by investing $1 million and 5
FTE to increase oversight of high risk chemical facilities;  $5.1  million and 16 FTE to increase
inspections of high risk oil facilities;  and $1.4 million and 1  FTE to improve compliance and
develop a new database as part of leveraging technology to enhance EPA's compliance efforts
under the Regaining Ground: Increasing Compliance in Critical Areas initiative.

Support for Tribes

As the largest single source of EPA funding to tribes, the Tribal General Assistance Program
(GAP) provides grants to build capacity  to  administer environmental programs  that may be
authorized by EPA in Indian country.   These grants provide technical assistance  in  the
development of programs to address  environmental  issues on  Indian lands.   An $8.5  million
increase to funding for GAP grants will build tribal capacity and assists tribes in leveraging other

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EPA and  federal funding to  contribute towards a higher  overall level of environmental and
human health protection.

Many  tribes  have  expressed the need  to  start implementing  high priority environmental
programs, but GAP funding may only be used for capacity building.  Increasing GAP grant
funding will  allow tribes to continue to develop  stronger, more sustainable environmental
programs, while allowing more tribes  to  take advantage of  the  new multi-media  tribal
implementation  program.    The  $20  million  investment  in   a  new  multi-media  tribal
implementation grant program will support tribes in addressing individual tribe's most serious
environmental needs through the implementation of environmental programs  and projects, an
ongoing top priority for both tribes and the Agency.

                     Major FY 2012 Disinvestments and Reductions

In order to promote fiscal responsibility EPA is also making the tough choices, including:

•  Reducing FTE and funding for waste minimization activities as the program is redirected to
   sustainable materials management and existing  efforts aimed at promoting the reduction,
   reuse and recycling  of municipal  solid waste and industrial materials are discontinued or
   scaled back.

•  Reducing resources devoted to Regional response activities under the Superfund Emergency
   Response and Removal  program, continuing to focus on encouraging PRPs to conduct
   removal  actions and looking for ways to  find  efficiencies and lessen the impact  of the
   reduction.

•  Reducing Federal Facilities and Restoration Program work at  non-NPL sites cleaned up by
   other federal agencies and focusing efforts on meeting statutory oversight responsibilities at
   federal NPL sites.

•  Reducing Superfund remedial construction funding which may have the effect of postponing
   new remedial construction starts, slowing down  the pace of ongoing construction projects,
   and delaying certain site assessment and characterization projects. EPA is exploring program
   efficiencies that may be achieved to limit the impact of this reduction.

•  Decreasing funding for the Agency's homeland security response and preparedness program
   while maintaining the current  level of preparedness.

                                     Priority Goal

EPA has established a Priority Goal to highlight progress made  under the Brownfields Area-
Wide Planning Pilot Program. The Priority Goal is:

•  By 2012 EPA will have initiated 20 enhanced Brownfields community level projects that will
   include a new area-wide  planning  effort to benefit under-served and economically
   disadvantaged communities. This will allow those communities to assess and address a single

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    large or multiple Brownfields sites within their boundaries, thereby advancing area-wide
    planning to enable redevelopment of Brownfields properties on a broader scale.  EPA will
    provide technical assistance, coordinate its enforcement, water and air quality programs, and
    work with  other  Federal  agencies,  states, tribes  and local  governments to implement
    associated targeted environmental improvements identified in each community's area-wide
    plan.

EPA awarded Brownfields Area-Wide Planning assistance to 23 pilot communities in FY 2011.
Consistent with EPA's Priority Goal commitment, throughout FY 2012 the 23 pilot communities
will continue to use the grant and/or direct contract assistance they received from EPA to initiate
development of a brownfields area-wide plan and determine the next steps and resources needed
to implement the plan.  In FY 2012, EPA will continue to track progress towards its priority
goals and will update goals as necessary and appropriate.

                                   FY 2012 Activities

Work under this Goal supports 4 objectives: 1) Promote Sustainable and Livable Communities,
2) Preserve Land;  3)  Restore Land;  and  4) Strengthen Human  Health and Environmental
Protection in Indian Country.   It is also supported by science and research to enhance and
strengthen these objectives.

Promote Sustainable and Livable Communities

In FY 2012, EPA  will continue  to use several approaches to promote sustainable, healthier
communities and protect vulnerable populations and disproportionately  impacted low-income,
minority, and tribal  communities.  The Agency especially is concerned about threats to sensitive
populations, such as children, the elderly, and individuals with chronic diseases.

Brownfields:

EPA's Brownfields program supports states,  local  communities, and Tribes in their efforts to
assess  and  clean up potentially  contaminated  and lightly  contaminated  sites within  their
jurisdiction. This support includes emphasis and participation in Administration-wide initiatives
such as the America's Great Outdoors (AGO) initiative (promoting urban parks and greenways)
and the Partnership  for Sustainable Communities (supporting area-wide planning for sustainable
redevelopment).  EPA will provide technical assistance for Brownfields redevelopment in cities
in transition which are areas  struggling with high unemployment as a result of structural changes
to their economies.  In addition, the Brownfields program  works closely  with  EPA's Smart
Growth program to address  critical issues  for Brownfields  redevelopment, including land
assembly, development permitting issues, financing, parking and street standards, accountability
to uniform systems of information for land use controls, and other factors that influence the
economic viability of Brownfields redevelopment.  The best practices, tools, and lessons learned
from the smart growth program will directly  inform and assist EPA's efforts to increase  area-
wide planning for assessment, cleanup, and redevelopment of Brownfields sites.
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Smart Growth:

The Agency's Smart Growth Program works across and within EPA and other federal agencies
to help communities grow in ways that strengthen their economies, protect the environment, and
preserve their heritage.  This program focuses on streamlining, concentrating, and leveraging
state and federal assistance in places with the greatest need.  By concentrating and leveraging
federal and state resources in  areas with  specific  needs, EPA hopes to create an  inviting
atmosphere for economic development on which urban, suburban, and rural communities can
capitalize.  In FY 2012, EPA will continue  its strong support for the Federal  DOT, HUD, and
EPA Partnership for Sustainable Communities, promote smart growth, and  provide green
building technical assistance to states and local communities. EPA will also continue to develop
additional tools to best assist communities, particularly those that are disadvantaged or have been
adversely  impacted  by  contamination  and environmental  degradation,  in   implementing
sustainable community strategies and approaches.

Environmental Justice:

EPA is committed to ensuring environmental justice regardless of race, color, national origin, or
income. Recognizing that minority and/or low-income communities frequently may be exposed
disproportionately  to environmental harm  and  risks,  the Agency works  to  protect these
communities  from adverse  health and environmental effects and to ensure they are given the
opportunity to participate meaningfully in environmental decisions, including clean-ups.  In FY
2012, EPA's  Environmental  Justice (EJ)  program will intensify its efforts  to incorporate
environmental justice considerations in the rulemaking process.  An ongoing challenge for EPA
has been to develop  rules that implement existing statutory authority while working to reduce
disproportionate exposure and impacts from  multiple sources.  In FY 2012, the EJ program will
work to  apply  effective  methods  suitable for decision-making involving  disproportionate
environmental health impacts on minority,  low-income, and  Tribal populations. EPA is also
working on technical guidance to support the integration of EJ  considerations in analysis that
support EPA's actions.

Community Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE):

In FY 2012, EPA will continue its successful and innovative Community Action for a Renewed
Environment  (CARE) program  to assist distressed communities in addressing  critical human
health and environmental risks.  Since its launch in 2005, the CARE program has awarded 91
grants to communities  across 39 states to address key  environmental  priorities and achieved
results  in predominantly  environmental justice communities.   Since CARE is  a multi-media
program, projects often address more than one medium. To date, Fifty percent of the grants have
addressed air pollution; 50  percent chemical safety; 30 percent cleanup of contaminated lands;
30 percent water issues; and 25 percent climate change.  With the FY 2012 funding, the CARE
program will  reach approximately 10 new communities.  EPA will provide technical support for
underserved  and other  communities, help  them use  collaborative processes  to  select  and
implement local actions, and award federal funding for projects to reduce exposure to pollutants
and local  environmental  problems.   Under this  program, EPA will  create - and in  several
Regions pilot - a Partners Program  to provide technical support and access to EPA programs

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while outside organizations  provide  funding to the community.  The  Partners Program will
provide the  opportunity  to leverage EPA's  investment  and  allow  CARE to  reach more
communities than EPA could with increased grant funding alone.

U.S.-Mexico Border:

The U.S.-Mexico Border region hosts a  growing population of more than 14.6 million people,
posing unique drinking water and wastewater infrastructure shortages. In addition, 432 thousand
of the over 14 million  people  in the region live in  1,200 colonias  which are unincorporated
communities characterized by substandard housing and unsafe drinking water.  The Border 2012
framework agreement is intended to protect the environment and public health along the U.S.-
Mexico Border region, consistent with the principles of sustainable development.  The key areas
of focus for EPA's Border 2012 Program continue to include: 1) increasing access to drinking
water and wastewater infrastructure; 2) building greenhouse gas (GHG) information capacity and
expanding voluntary energy  efficiency reduction  programs to achieve GHG reduction;  3)
developing institutional capacity to manage  municipal solid waste;  4) piloting projects that
reduce exposure to pesticides;  5) conducting bi-national emergency preparedness training  and
exercises  at  sister  cities; and 6) continuing to test and update the emergency  notification
mechanism between Mexico and the United States. In addition, in FY 2012, EPA also will focus
its efforts  towards the development of the next generation of the Border program.

Preserve  and Restore Land

EPA leads the country's activities to prevent and reduce the risks posed by releases of harmful
substances and to  preserve  and  restore land with effective waste management and cleanup
methods.   In FY 2012, the  Agency  is requesting $1.4 billion  to continue to apply the most
effective  approach  to preserve and  restore land by developing and implementing prevention
programs, improving response capabilities, and maximizing the effectiveness of response  and
cleanup actions.  This approach will help  ensure that human health and the environment are
protected  and that land is returned to beneficial use.

In FY 2012,  EPA also will continue to use a hierarchy  of approaches to  protect  the land:
reducing waste at  its source, recycling waste, managing waste effectively by preventing spills
and releases of toxic materials, and cleaning up contaminated properties.  The Agency especially
is concerned  about threats to sensitive populations, such as children, the elderly, and individuals
with chronic  diseases, and prioritizes cleanups accordingly.3

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, or
Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)  provide legal authority
for EPA's work to protect the land.  The Agency and its partners use  Superfund authority to
clean up  uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites, allowing land to be  returned to
 http://wwwborderhealth.org/border_region.php
3 Additional information on these programs can be found at: www. epa. go v/superfund,
http://www.epa.gov/oem/content/er cleanup.htm, http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/ca/, http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/,
http://www.epa.gov/swerustl/, http://www.epa.gov/swerffrr/ and http://www.epa.gov/swerrims/landrevitalization.
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productive use. Under RCRA, EPA works in partnership with states and tribes to address risks
associated with leaking underground storage tanks and to manage solid and hazardous waste.

In FY 2012, EPA  will work to preserve and restore the nation's land by  ensuring  proper
management of waste and petroleum products, reducing waste generation, increasing recycling
and by strengthening its cleanup programs and oversight of oil and chemical facilities.  These
efforts are integrated with the Agency's efforts to promote sustainable and livable communities.
EPA's land program activities for FY 2012 include seven broad efforts:  1) Integrated Cleanup
Initiative; 2) Land Cleanup  and Revitalization; 3) RCRA  Waste Management and Corrective
Action; 4) Recycling and Waste Minimization; 5) Underground Storage Tanks management; 6)
Oil Spills and Chemical Safety, and 7) Homeland Security.

Integrated Cleanup Initiative:

In an effort to improve the  accountability, transparency, and effectiveness of EPA's cleanup
programs, EPA initiated the Integrated Cleanup Initiative (ICI), a multi-year effort to better use
the most appropriate assessment and cleanup authorities to address a greater  number of sites,
accelerate cleanups, and put those sites back  into productive use while protecting human health
and the  environment.   By bringing to bear the relevant tools available in each of the cleanup
programs, including enforcement, EPA will better leverage the  resources available to address
needs at individual sites.  In  FY 2012, EPA will continue to examine all aspects of the cleanup
programs, identifying key process improvements and enhanced efficiencies.  In addition, in order
to better measure the performance and progress made in  advancing cleanups and addressing
potentially contaminated sites, EPA developed two new  performance measures under ICI that
will support comprehensive management of the cleanup life cycle: Site Assessments (to track all
of the sites for which EPA performs an  assessment of environmental condition) and Remedial
Action Project Completions (to track the progress in completing phases  of  constructing  the
remedy at Superfund sites).  When added to the existing suite of performance measures,  EPA's
measures  now address three critical points  in the cleanup process—starting, advancing,  and
completing site cleanup.

EPA also will implement its Community Engagement Initiative designed to enhance involvement
with local communities and stakeholders so that they may meaningfully participate in decisions
on land cleanup, emergency response, and management of hazardous substances and waste.  The
goals of this initiative are to  ensure transparent and accessible decision-making processes,
deliver information that communities can use to participate meaningfully, and help EPA produce
outcomes that are more responsive to community perspectives and that ensure timely cleanup
decisions.

Land Cleanup and Revitalization:

In addition to  promoting sustainable and livable communities, EPA's  cleanup programs (e.g.,
Superfund Remedial,  Superfund Federal Facilities Response, Superfund  Emergency Response
and Removal, RCRA Corrective Action, Brownfields, and Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
(LUST) Cooperative Agreements) and their partners are taking proactive steps to facilitate the
cleanup  and revitalization of contaminated properties.  In FY  2012, the Agency will continue to

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help  communities  clean up  and  revitalize  these once  productive properties  by  removing
contamination, helping limit urban sprawl, fostering ecologic  habitat enhancements, enabling
economic  development,  taking advantage  of existing  infrastructure,  and  maintaining  or
improving quality of life. In addition, EPA will continue to support the RE-Powering America's
Land initiative4 in partnership with the Department of Energy.  These projects advance cleaner
and more cost effective energy technologies, and reduce the environmental impacts  of energy
systems.

RCRA Waste Management and Corrective Action:

In FY 2012, the Agency will continue to work in partnership with the states to coordinate RCRA
program goals and  direction.  EPA will continue to assist states in permit development, permit
renewals, or other approved controls at facilities that treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste.
EPA will work to meet its annual target of implementing initial approved or updated controls at
100  RCRA hazardous  waste  management  facilities.  In addition to meeting  these  goals, the
program is responsible for the continued maintenance of the regulatory controls at approximately
2,500 facilities in the permitting baseline.5

EPA's RCRA Corrective Action  program will focus on  site investigation, identification of
interim remedies to eliminate exposures to human health or the environment,  and selection of
safe, effective long-term remedies.  Sites will see the results of this funding   in FY 2012 and
beyond,  as the number of sites achieving  the Agency's  environmental indicators  including
control of human exposures and migration of contaminated groundwater increase over time.

Recycling and Waste Minimization:

In FY 2012, EPA will complete this program's redirection to sustainable materials management.
This redirection  is  a significant step  that will allow EPA to  consider the human health  and
environmental  impacts  associated  with the full lifecycle  of materials—from  the  amount  and
toxicity of raw materials extraction, through transportation, processing, manufacturing, and use,
as well as re-use, recycling and disposal.

The EPAct and Underground Storage Tanks:

The EPAct6 contains numerous provisions that significantly affect federal and state underground
storage tank  (UST) programs and requires that  EPA and states strengthen  tank release  and
prevention programs. In FY 2012,  EPA will provide assistance to states to help them  meet  their
EPAct responsibilities,  which  include: 1) mandatory  inspections  every three  years for all
underground  storage tanks and enforcement of violations discovered during the inspections; 2)
4 Additional information on this initiative can be found on http://www.epa.gov/renewableenergvland/.

 The permitting baseline universe currently has 2,446 facilities with approximately 10,000 process unit groups.
6 For more information, refer to http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-
 bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109 cong public Iaws&docid=f:publ058.109.pdf (scroll to Title XV - Ethanol And Motor Fuels,
 Subtitle B - Underground Storage Tank Compliance, on pages 500-513 of the pdf file).
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operator training;  3)  prohibition of delivery  for non-complying facilities7; and 4) secondary
containment or financial responsibility for tank manufacturers and installers.

Additionally,  there  are  an  unknown  number  of  petroleum Brownfields  sites  that  are
predominately old gas stations that blight the environmental and economic health of surrounding
neighborhoods. In FY 2012, EPA's UST and Brownfields program will continue to jointly focus
attention and resources on the cleanup and reuse of petroleum-contaminated sites.

Oil Spills and Chemical Safety:

The Oil Spill program  helps  protect U.S. waters by  effectively  preventing, preparing for,
responding to, and monitoring oil spills. EPA conducts oil spill prevention, preparedness, and
enforcement  activities  associated  with the  640,000  non-transportation-related  oil  storage
facilities that EPA regulates through its  Spill  Prevention Control and Countermeasure (SPCC)
program.  EPA currently conducts approximately 1,100 inspections per year at SPCC-regulated
facilities (representing 0.2 percent of the total universe of 640,000) and 250 FRP inspections and
drills at 6 percent of the FRP facilities.  In FY 2012, as part of the Oil Spill  investments,  the
Agency will broaden and expand its prevention and preparedness activities.

In addition to its prevention responsibilities, EPA serves  as the lead responder for cleanup of all
inland zone  spills, including transportation-related  spills  from pipelines,  trucks, and other
transportation systems and provides technical assistance and support to the U.S. Coast Guard for
coastal  and maritime oil spills.   In  FY 2012, EPA will  continue to  review and revise,  as
appropriate, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan, including
Subpart J which regulates the use of dispersants  and  other chemicals as a  tool in oil spill
response.

EPA also works with state and local partners to help protect the public and the environment from
catastrophic releases of hazardous substances  at chemical handling  facilities through the State
and  Local Prevention and Preparedness  program. Under the Clean  Air Act (CAA), EPA
regulations require that facilities  handling  more than a threshold quantity  of certain extremely
hazardous  substances must  implement a risk management  program  and  submit  a Risk
Management Plan (RMP) to EPA among others entities. Facilities  are required to update their
RMP at least once every five years and sooner if changes are made at the  facility. EPA currently
conducts over 550 inspections or unannounced exercises per year (approximately 5 percent of
the universe of 13,100 RMP facilities in non-delegated states), including over 140 at high risk
facilities.  In FY 2012, through the Regaining  Ground: Increasing Compliance in Critical Areas
investment, the Agency will expand its current activities.

Homeland Security:

EPA's Homeland Security work is  an important component of the  Agency's prevention,
protection, and response activities. EPA will continue to provide Homeland Security emergency
preparedness and  response capability.   In FY 2012, the Agency  requests $38.7 million to:
7 Refer to Grant Guidelines to States for Implementing the Delivery Prohibition Provision of the Energy Policy Act of 2005,
 August2006, EPA-510-R-06-003, http://www.epa.gov/oust/fedlaws/epact Q5.htm#Final.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                            43

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maintain its capability to respond effectively to incidents that may involve harmful chemical,
biological,  and  radiological  substances;  operate  the  Environmental  Response  Laboratory
Network (ERLN); maximize  the effectiveness of its involvement in national security events
through pre-deployments of assets  such as emergency response personnel and field detection
equipment; maintain the Emergency Management Portal (EMP);  and manage,  collect, and
validate  new  information  for  new  and  existing  weapons of mass  destruction agents  as
decontamination techniques are developed or as other information  emerges from the scientific
community.

Improve Human Health and the Environment in Indian Country

In FY 2012, EPA will assist Federally-recognized tribes in assessing environmental conditions in
Indian country, and will help build their capacity to implement environmental  programs though
the  $8.5 million investment in funding for the Tribal GAP program.  EPA will also strengthen
the  scientific  evidence and  research  supporting  environmental  policies and  decisions on
compliance, pollution prevention, and  environmental stewardship in Indian  country  through
continued collaboration with Agency  program offices as well as through EPA's Tribal  Science
Council.

Since adopting the EPA Indian Policy in 1984, EPA has worked with federally-recognized tribes
on  a  government-to-government basis,  in  recognition  of the  federal  government's  trust
responsibility to federally-recognized  tribes. Under federal environmental  statutes, the  Agency
is responsible for protecting human health and the environment in Indian country. In FY 2012,
EPA's Office of International and Tribal Affairs (OITA) will continue to lead an Agency-wide
effort to work with  tribes, Alaska Native Villages, and inter-tribal consortia to fulfill this
responsibility.  EPA's strategy for achieving this objective has three major components:

•   Establish an Environmental Presence in Indian Country: The Agency will  continue to
    provide funding through the Indian General Assistance Program (GAP) so each federally-
    recognized tribe can establish an environmental presence.

*   Provide Access to Environmental  Information: EPA will provide the information tribes
    need  to meet EPA  and Tribal  environmental  priorities,  as well  as  characterize  the
    environmental and public health improvements that result from joint actions.

•   Implementation  of Environmental Goals: The Agency will provide opportunities for the
    implementation of Tribal environmental programs by tribes, or directly by EPA, as necessary
    through 1) media-specific programs, 2) tribes themselves, or 3) directly by EPA if necessary.

Additionally, in FY  2012, EPA is investing in the multi-media Tribal implementation grant
program which allows the Agency  to build upon the successful capacity-building work  of the
GAP program through full program implementation.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                          44

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Research

In FY 2012, EPA is  strengthening its planning and delivery of science by implementing  an
integrated research approach that looks at problems systematically instead of individually. EPA
is realigning and integrating the work of its base research programs into four new research
programs (further described in the Goal 1 overview and appendix).  The new Sustainable and
Healthy Communities (SHC) research program will  focus  on the integration, translation and
coordinated communication of research on sustainability, land use, protection and restoration,
human health, ecological risk assessment modeling, and ecosystem services. The SHC research
program will provide innovative and creative management approaches and decision support tools
for communities, regions, states and tribes to protect  and ensure a sustainable balance between
human health and the environment.

Communities are increasingly challenged to improve and protect the health and well-being of
their residents and the ecosystem services upon which they depend,  in the face of increasing
resource demands and changing demographics, economic, social, and climate patterns. Research
will be conducted  in broad areas,  which will support the many  aspects of community health
described above:

I.     Research to Address Specific Community Needs and Improve Our Understanding
       of Community Sustainability:

       As specific research questions are formulated  in the areas of human health, ecosystems
       and ecosystem services, land and waste management, innovative technologies and life
       cycle analysis,  EPA  will begin  conducting  pilot projects that explore  and  address
       problems in an integrated manner by focusing  specifically on 1) an urban community, 2)
       multiple communities in the Gulf of Mexico region, and3) certain high-priority problems
       facing communities across the nation.

II.     Decision Analysis and Support for Conducting Integrated Assessments:

       While communities  often have creative and well-trained government staff, NGOs, and
       citizen groups, they usually do not have the capacity to rapidly develop and/or customize
       advanced decision tools and  supporting data  sets that will enable effective, real-time
       community investment decisions.   This research will focus on developing  practical
       decision support tools and analytic methods that enable communities to effectively use
       information developed by the SHC research  program  and  other programs to support
       community decision making related to environmental sustainability.

III.    Superfund:

       The  SHC  research  program  will  focus  on  innovative  remediation   options  for
       contaminated sediments and the development  of new alternatives  to dredging.   In
       addition, the program will develop solutions to contaminated ground water by evaluating
       subsurface and above-ground alternatives to pump-and-treat, particularly for recalcitrant
       contaminants such as chlorinated solvents  and other  contaminants that do  not dissolve
       easily in water, and will evaluate chemical oxidation and permeable reactive barriers,
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           45

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       including those using nanoscale materials.  The SHC research program will continue to
       provide technical support and technology transfer to support ground water modeling
       needs in communities.

IV.    Oil Spill Research:

       In FY 2012, the SHC program will focus on two areas related to oil spill research:  1)
       EPA will develop protocols to revise or test oil  spill control agents or products for listing
       on the National Contingency Plan (NCP) Product Schedule and other activities deemed
       necessary by EPA's Office of Emergency Management (OEM), and 2) the Agency will
       conduct studies on the effectiveness of bioremediation for freshly  spilled oil and aged
       residuals of petroleum-based oil, biodiesel, and biodiesel blends, and the performance of
       dispersants for deep water applications.

EPA also conducts research  supporting Goal 3 through its  Science to Achieve Results (STAR)
program,  which leverages innovative and cutting-edge research  from scientists  in academia
through a competitive and peer-reviewed grant process that is integrated with EPA's overall
research  efforts.   The Agency  is enhancing its  investment in areas critical to  support the
Administration's  science  priorities, including  strengthening the future  scientific workforce
through investment in fellowships to  students in pursuit of careers  and  advanced degrees in
environmental science,  technology, engineering, and mathematics.   In FY 2012, EPA will
provide $14 million for STAR Fellowships, including support for an estimated 243 continuing
fellows and 105 new STAR fellows.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           46

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

               Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
Reduce the risk and increase the safety of chemicals and prevent pollution at the source.

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES:
       Reduce the risk of chemicals that enter our products, our environment, and our bodies.

       Conserve and  protect natural  resources by  promoting pollution prevention and  the
       adoption  of other  stewardship  practices by  companies,  communities, governmental
       organizations, and individuals.

                              GOAL, OBJECTIVE SUMMARY
                                     Budget Authority
                                   Full-time Equivalents
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)

Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals
and Preventing Pollution
Ensure Chemical Safety
Promote Pollution Prevention
Total Authorized Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$681,126.8
$618,182.3
$62,944.5
2,692.5
FY 2010
Actuals
$671,424.4
$609,729.0
$61,695.4
2,741.0
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$681,126.8
$618,182.3
$62,944.5
2,692.5
FY 2012
Pres
Budget
$702,542.3
$642,721.6
$59,820.7
2,706.4
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
$21,415.5
$24,539.3
($3,123.8)
13.9
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                          47

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                                           Goal 4

                 Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution

   Reduce the risk and increase the safety of chemicals and prevent pollution at the source

                                        Introduction

Chemicals have become ubiquitous in our everyday lives and products, because they are used in
the production of everything from our homes and cars to the cell phones we carry and the food
we eat.  Chemicals are often released into  the  environment as  a result of their manufacture,
processing, use,  and disposal.  Research  shows that children are getting steady infusions  of
industrial  chemicals before they  even  are  given solid food8'9'10.   Other vulnerable groups,
including low-income, minority, and  indigenous populations, may also be disproportionately
impacted by and thus particularly at risk from chemical exposure11'12'13.  While  TSCA authorizes
review of new chemicals before they enter the market and provides authority for EPA to mandate
industry to conduct testing, there remain gaps in the available use and exposure data and state of
knowledge on many  widely  used chemicals in commerce.   EPA programs work to  ensure
chemical safety,  including pesticides, and  to manage the chemicals already in the environment
that may have adverse affects.  EPA is also promoting sustainable, lower risk processes and
working with  communities to improve overall environmental quality.

In FY 2012, EPA will continue  to make substantial progress in transitioning from an approach
dominated by voluntary  data submissions by industry, to a more aggressive action-oriented
approach to ensure chemical safety through four areas of focus: 1) using all available authorities
under TSCA to take immediate and lasting  action to eliminate or reduce identified chemical risks
and develop proven safer  alternatives;  2) using regulatory mechanisms to fill remaining gaps in
critical exposure data, and increasing transparency and public access to information on TSCA
chemicals; 3)  using data from all available  sources to conduct detailed chemical risk assessments
on priority chemicals to inform the need for and support development and implementation of risk
management actions; and 4) prevent introduction  of unsafe new chemicals into commerce.

EPA's Pesticide Licensing program screens new pesticides before they  reach the market and
ensures that pesticides already in commerce are safe when used in accordance with the label.  As
directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), and  the Food  Quality  Protection Act (FQPA), EPA is
8 The Disproportionate Impact of Environmental Health Threats on Children of Color
(http://vosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/8d49f7ad4bbcf4ef852573590040b7f6/79a3n3c301688828525770c0063b277iOpenD
ocumenfl
9 Executive Order 13045: Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks
10 Guide to Considering Children's Health When Developing EPA Actions: Implementing Executive Order 13045 and EPA's
Policy on Evaluating Health Risks to Children
(http://vosemite.epa.gov/ochp/ochpweb.nsf/content/ADPguide.htm/SFile/EPA ADP Guide 508.pdf)
1' Holistic Risk-based Environmental Decision Making: a Native Perspective
(http://www.ncbi.nhn.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241171)
12 Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low Income
Populations
13 Interim Guidance on Considering Environmental Justice During the Development of an Action
(http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ei/resources/policv/considering-ei-in-rulemaking-guide-07-2010.pdf)
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                             48

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responsible for registering pesticides to protect consumers, pesticide users, workers who may be
exposed to pesticides,  children,  and other sensitive populations.   EPA also reviews  potential
impacts on the environment, with particular attention to endangered species.

In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act established preventing pollution before it is generated as
national environmental policy.  EPA is enhancing cross-cutting efforts to advance sustainable
practices, safer chemicals and sustainable lower risk processes and practices, and safer products.
The combined effect of community level actions, geographically targeted investments,  attention
to chemicals, and concern for ecosystems, implemented through the lens of science, transparency
and law, will bring real improvements and protections.

Achieving  an environmentally  sustainable future  demands  that  EPA make  smarter, faster
decisions guided by  sound science on  environmental problems  facing the  country today.  It is
also  crucial  to  anticipate tomorrow's problems  and  identify approaches to  better inform
environmentally sustainable behavior.   The EPA Science Advisory Board has recognized14 that
the improved  understanding  of  today's  environmental  problems  requires  an  integrative,
transdisciplinary approach that considers multi-media, integrated, and non-traditional approaches
to achieve more effective and efficient solutions. EPA's research request reflects the necessity to
increase synergies  among  programs using systems thinking and catalytic innovation in order to
meet the problems  of the 21st century.

                            Major FY 2012 Investment Areas

Enhancing Chemical Safety

EPA will invest an additional $16 million and 5.5 FTE to continue implementing its enhanced
chemical management strategy to make long-overdue progress in ensuring the safety of existing
chemicals:   1) obtaining, managing and making public chemical information; 2) screening and
assessing chemical risks; and 3) managing chemical risks.  In FY 2012, EPA's approach will be
centered on  immediate and lasting actions to identify and mitigate  unreasonable chemical risks
and develop proven safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals.

The FY 2012 investment  will provide for action needed to 1) increase the Agency's pace in
obtaining and making public TSCA chemical health and safety and other information; 2) conduct
detailed  chemical risk  assessments   on  priority  chemicals  and  accelerating progress in
characterizing the hazards posed by HPV chemicals 3) undertake appropriate risk management
actions on chemicals  identified as posing significant human health or environmental risks.

                     Major FY 2012 Disinvestments and Reductions

•  Funding reductions reflect expected program efficiencies and reprioritization of targeted
   activities.  Specifically, EPA will  reduce support  for non-regulatory activities  including
   pollinator protection, urban pest management and the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship
   Program. Funding reductions may also delay development and implementation of some risk
   assessment policies.
14 http://vosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/E989ECFC125966428525775B0047BElA/SFile/EP A-SAB-10-010-unsigned.pdf
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           49

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                                   FY 2012 Activities
Toxics Programs
FY 2012  represents  a crucial stage  in EPA's approach  for ensuring chemical safety.  The
program has attained its 'zero tolerance' goal in preventing introduction of unsafe new chemicals
into  commerce but many existing ('pre-TSCA') chemicals already  in commerce  remain un-
assessed.  The Existing  Chemicals can be  split into three  major component activities:  1)
strengthening  chemical information collection,  management,  and transparency ($14.7M);  2)
Screening and Assessing Chemical Risks ($15.6M); and 3) Reducing Chemical Risks ($26.4M).

Also in FY 2012, EPA will continue to prevent the  entry of new chemicals into the US market
which pose unreasonable  risks to human health or the environment.  The major activity of the
New Chemicals program ($14.3M) is PMN review and  management,  which  addresses the
potential   risks from  approximately  1,100 chemicals,  products of biotechnology and  new
chemical nanoscale materials received annually prior to their entry into the US marketplace.

In FY 2012,  the Agency will continue to implement the Chemicals Risk Management program to
further eliminate risks from high-risk "legacy" chemicals, such as Polychlorinated Biphenyls
(PCBs) and mercury.   The Lead program will continue efforts to further reduce childhood blood
lead incidence, and will continue implementing the Lead Renovation, Repair and Painting (RRP)
Rule though increased outreach efforts and targeted  activities to support renovator certifications.
EPA will allocate $35.3 million to undertaking existing chemical risk management actions in FY
2012.

                              Children's Risk
                 Blood Lead Levels for Children aged  1-5
              30%


              25%


              20%


              15%


              10%


               5%


               0%
>10 ug/dL
Elevated Lead
Levels
>5 ug/dL
New Concern Lead
Levels
>5 ug/dL
TARGET Lead Levels
For near Future
Pesticides
Programs
                             C?>"    oft"
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                          50

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A key component of chemical safety and to protecting the health of people, communities, and
ecosystems, is identifying, assessing, and reducing the risks presented by the pesticides on which
our society and economy depend. EPA will continue to manage a comprehensive pesticide risk
reduction program through science-based registration  and reevaluation  processes, a worker
safety program,  and support for integrated pest management.   The pesticide review processes
will  continue  to increasingly focus  on improving pesticide registrations  compliance with the
Endangered Species Act and achieve broader Agency objectives for water quality protection.

EPA will continue to place emphasis on the protection of potentially  sensitive groups, such as
children, by reducing exposures from pesticides used in and around homes, schools, and other
public areas.  In addition, the Agency worker protection,  certification, and training regulations
will  encourage safe application practices.  Together, these programs minimize  exposure  to
pesticides, maintain a  safe and affordable  food supply, address public health  issues, and
minimize property damage that can occur from  insects and pests.  As part of the Agency's
review  of non-regulatory efforts,  the  Strategic  Agriculture Initiative  program will shift  its
emphasis to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program, providing a more focused effort in
IPM to address  a  wide range of agricultural risk issues in food  safety as well as minimizing
exposure from pesticide drift.

Chemical and biological pesticides  help  meet national and global demands for food.   They
provide effective pest control for homes, schools, gardens, highways, utility lines, hospitals, and
drinking water treatment facilities  and control animal vectors of disease.  Many  regulatory
actions involve reduced risk pesticides which, once registered,  will result in increased societal
benefits. In addition to collecting a total of $82 million in anticipated fee-funded activities in FY
2012, $32 million which can be obligated EPA is funding $128.7 million in Pesticides Licensing
programs.

Pollution Prevention

EPA  will continue to promote  innovation through  environmental  stewardship  strategies that
promote economic revitalization. EPA will draw on innovative and  cross media  strategies to
focus analysis and coordination across the Agency, with States, and with other Federal agencies.

In FY  2012, EPA's  Pollution Prevention  (P2) programs  will  target  technical assistance,
information and supporting assessments to encourage the use of greener chemicals, technologies,
processes,  and products through programs with  proven  records of success such as:   Green
Suppliers Network, Regional  Grants, Pollution Prevention Resource Exchange, Partnership for
Sustainable Healthcare,  Green Chemistry and Green Engineering.   In  addition, EPA's  P2
programs will continue to support the new Economy, Energy and Environment (E3) partnership
among federal agencies, local governments and manufacturers to promote energy efficiency, job
creation and environmental improvement.

Through these efforts, EPA will encourage government and business to adopt source reduction
practices that can help to prevent pollution and avoid potential adverse health and environmental
impacts. P2 grants to states and tribes provide support for technical assistance, education, and
outreach to assist  businesses.  Work under these programs also supports  the energy reduction

Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                            51

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goals under E.G. 13514. In FY 2012, the total funding for P2 programs is $20.7 million and 72.7
FTE.

International Affairs

Environmental pollution  and contamination often extend well beyond a country's individual
borders.  In the face of  shared environmental challenges, such as global climate change and
improving children's  environmental health outcomes,  cooperation with global  partners can
catalyze even greater progress toward protecting our domestic environment. By partnering with
and assisting other nations to improve their environmental governance, EPA also  helps protect
the U.S.  from pollution  originating outside our borders from reaching our citizens.  These
collaborative efforts are the key to  sustaining  and enhancing progress, both domestically and
internationally.

EPA's international priorities  include:  building  strong  environmental  institutions  and legal
structures; improving access to clean water; improving urban air quality; limiting global  GHG
emissions and  other climate-forcing  pollutants, reducing exposure to  toxic chemicals, and
reducing hazardous waste and improve waste management.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

The  National Environmental Policy  Act (NEPA) requires Federal  agencies to prepare
environmental impact statements (EISs) for actions that have the potential to cause significant
environmental effects,  and develop  appropriate plans to  mitigate or eliminate those impacts.
EPA's unique role in this process is  reviewing and commenting on all Federal EISs and making
the comments available to the public. In FY 2012, EPA will continue to work with  other Federal
agencies to streamline and to improve their NEPA processes. Work also will focus on a number
of key areas such as review and comment on mining on-shore and off-shore liquid natural gas
facilities, coal bed methane development and other energy-related projects, nuclear power/hydro-
power  plant  licensing/re-licensing,  highway  and   airport   expansion,   military   base
realignment/redevelopment  (including the expansion  in  Guam), flood  control  and port
development, and management of national forests and public lands.  EPA also will conduct work
pursuant to the Appalachian Coal Mining Interagency Action Plan.

Research

In FY 2012, EPA is strengthening  its planning and  delivery of science by  implementing an
integrated research approach that looks at problems systematically instead of individually. This
approach will create synergy and yield benefits beyond those possible from approaches that are
more narrowly targeted to single chemicals or problem areas.  EPA is realigning and integrating
the work of its base research programs into four new research programs (further described in the
Goal 1 overview and appendix).

The  new Chemical Safety and Sustainability (CSS) Program will develop enhanced chemical
screening  and testing  approaches for improving context-relevant  chemical  assessment and
management. New computational, physico-chemical,  and biological and exposure science tools

Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           52

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promise  to transform  the way risks of chemical products  are evaluated.  Development  and
validation will proceed on broadly applicable, predictive, high-throughput tools to be combined
with existing test methods, integrating toxicity and exposure pathways in the context of the life
cycle of the chemical.  In FY 2012 EPA will begin a multi-year transition from the Endocrine
Disrupter Screening Program (EDSP)  to  validate  and more efficiently use  computational
toxicology methods and high throughput screens that will allow the Agency to more quickly and
cost-effectively  assess potential  chemical  toxicity.   As  reflected  in Figure V,  testing  300
chemicals with computational toxicology methods costs on average about $20,000 per chemical
compared to more traditional approaches that can cost more than $6 million per chemical. In FY
2012, EPA will begin to evaluate endocrine-relevant ToxCast assays.
                TRANSFORM ING the EFFECTIVENESS
                    of Chemical Safety Research
         Traditional Toxicology
      Computational Toxicology
            .
     Sir

                             •

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              ;   i .    ii,
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                   COMPTOX:
Increases results
Decreases costs
Figure V: EPA research
is developing
computational
toxicology tools that are
faster, more efficient,
and have the capacity to
test thousands of
chemicals at a fraction
of the cost for traditional
animal-based testing
(e.g., $2 billion versus
$6 million for 300
chemicals). This
innovative research is
critical to catalyzing
sustainable solutions
that inform decisions on
chemical safety.
CSS will also  contribute to the  Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program  by
providing decision makers in individual localities and communities with research and support on
contaminants of highest priority and concern to them. Better and more integrated approaches to
chemical testing and assessment also will lead to  better air toxics and drinking water-related
regional and local decision making.  Under this newly consolidated research program, EPA will
continue to support the scientific foundation for addressing the risks of exposure to chemicals in
humans and wildlife. Resources requested total $95.7 million and 292.7 FTE.

In FY2012, the Agency's Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) program will continue to
develop assessments including Integrated Science Assessments (ISA) of criteria air pollutants,
Integrated  Risk Information  Systems (IRIS)  Assessments of  high priority chemicals, and
Provisional Peer Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTV).  The program will release draft ISAs  for
ozone and lead  for Clean Air Science Advisory Committee review and public comment.  The
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                            53

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program will  strive to post  numerous  completed  human health assessments (e.g.  dioxin,
methanol, cumulative phthalate assessment, benzo-a-pyrene, Libby asbestos cancer assessment,
and PCB noncancer assessment) in IRIS.

EPA also conducts research supporting Goal 4 through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR)
program,  which leverages  innovative and  cutting-edge research  from scientists in  academia
through a competitive  and peer-reviewed grant process that is integrated with EPA's overall
research efforts. The Homeland Security Research Program (HSRP) will continue to enhance
the nation's preparedness, response, and  recovery  capabilities  for homeland security incidents
and other hazards.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                           54

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                            Enforcing Environmental Laws
Protect human health and the  environment through vigorous and targeted civil and  criminal
enforcement. Assure compliance with environmental laws.

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES:

    •  Pursue vigorous civil and  criminal enforcement that targets the most serious water, air,
      and chemical  hazards  in communities.   Assure  strong,  consistent, and effective
      enforcement of federal environmental laws nationwide.
                              GOAL, OBJECTIVE SUMMARY
                                    Budget Authority
                                   Full-time Equivalents
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)

Enforcing Environmental Laws
Enforce Environmental Laws
Total Authorized Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$807,902.7
$807,902.7
4,003.2
FY 2010
Actuals
$795,703.1
$795,703.1
3,834.3
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$807,902.7
$807,902.7
4,003.2
FY 2012
Pres
Budget
$829,831.4
$829,831.4
3,914.3
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
$21,928.7
$21,928.7
-88.9
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
                                          55

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                                         GoalS

                             Enforcing Environmental Laws

Protect human health and the environment through vigorous and targeted civil and criminal
enforcement. Assure compliance with environmental laws.

                                      Introduction

EPA's  civil  and criminal enforcement programs  perform  the core function of  assuring
compliance with our nation's environmental laws.  A strong and effective enforcement program
is  essential to maintain respect for the rule of law and to realize the promise of our federal
statutes to protect our environment and the public health of our citizens.

On January  18, 2011, President  Obama  issued a "Presidential Memoranda  - Regulatory
Compliance" which reaffirms the importance of effective  enforcement and compliance in
regulations.  In part, it states "Sound regulatory enforcement promotes the welfare of Americans
in  many ways, by increasing public safety, improving working  conditions, and protecting the air
we breathe and the  water we  drink.  Consistent regulatory enforcement also levels the playing
field among regulated entities, ensuring that those that fail to comply with the law do not have an
unfair advantage over their law-abiding competitors."

In  FY 2012, EPA will  maintain the strength of its core enforcement  program and begin a new
focus on harnessing the tools of 21st century technology to make our enforcement program more
efficient and more effective for the future.  We will  also continue to  address special challenges
such as the litigation resulting  from the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

Our current approach,  rooted  largely in  the traditional inspection and enforcement model, has
produced  substantial public  health and  environmental  benefits.  However, use of modern
technology and methods can  reduce the costs  of monitoring and ensuring compliance both to
EPA and  businesses,  and  enable  us to do a more effective job.   Today,  we rely almost
exclusively on time-consuming and expensive  pollution tests that make it hard to quickly find
and investigate the  worst air, waste and water pollution, and for communities to know  about
pollution that affects them.  It is increasingly difficult to ensure compliance using outdated tools
and old approaches, as the universe of regulated pollution sources is  outstripping the resources
available to state and federal inspectors to find and correct non-compliance.

EPA and its state partners simply cannot conduct enough inspections to ensure that the health
and environmental  benefits of laws passed by Congress are realized and catastrophes are
avoided.  The BP Deepwater  Horizon oil spill and the Enbridge  pipeline oil  spill in Marshall,
Michigan have generated a greater awareness of the growing  need for the country to  catch up
when it comes to  finding  and correcting non-compliance to prevent damage and economic
hardships. Yet the oil spill crises are just one piece of the puzzle.  Today, states are adding more
waters to the Clean Water Act's  list of impaired waters,  while at the same time indicating that
resource constraints are pushing them to seriously consider returning control  of environmental
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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protection programs to EPA.   These and other issues  argue  for new approaches to ensuring
compliance to enable the Agency to become more effective and efficient.

A recent snapshot (see graph on following page) shows us that nationally reported compliance
data - while it  does not paint a complete picture - strongly indicates that violations are likely
widespread.   For example, non-compliance with the Clean  Water Act's  National  Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System permits in many places averages 60 percent - leading to concerns
about health impacts in those places.
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                           Non-Compliance Information Across Sectors
                                                                                 15
                                Clean
                                Wotei Act
                                ICWAI
               Resource
               Conservation
               and Recovery
               Act IRCRA)
        *Statistically
           Valid
   **New Source
      Review
(RSR)/Prevention of
    Significant
Deterioration (PSD)
**Mining and
   Mineral
 Processing
A= Combined Sewer Municipalities    H= Oil & Gas            Q= Phosphoric Acid
B=Ethylene Oxide Manufacturers      1= Misc. Metal Parts       P= Mines
C= Organic Chemical Manufacturing   J= Fabric Coating         Q= Other Mineral Processing
D= Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) K= Acid Manufacturing    R= RCRATreatment Storage and Disposal Facilities
E= Flares                            L= Cement Manufacturing S= Financial Assurance
F= LDAR Miscellaneous              M= Glass Manufacturing  T= Majors
G= Petroleum Refining                N= Coal Fired Boilers     U= Minors
15*Non-compliance rates based on data gathered during inspections/evaluations at a statistically valid sample of the regulated
universe and defined as having a minimum of one violation with any given requirement examined during the
inspection/evaluation.
"Non-compliance rates are based on violations detected at facilities in these sectors during inspections and evaluations; not
statistically valid sample, but based on completed evaluations for 61% of the Air Toxic targeted universe (LDAR, Flares, LDAR
Misc., Petroleum Refining, Oil and Gas, Misc. Metal Parts and Fabric coating), 40% of the targeted universe for NSR/PSD (Acid
Manufacturing, Cement Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing), and 14% of the targeted universe for Mining and Mineral
Processing (Phosphoric Acid, Other Mineral Processing, Mines).
* "Non-compliance rates are based on a combination of facility self-reported Discharge Monitoring Reports. (DMRs) and
violations detected at facilities during inspections.
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                               Major FY 2012 Investment Areas

In FY  2012,  the Agency's Regaining  Ground: Increasing Compliance in  Critical Areas
investment will allow EPA to begin to move toward implementing a more efficient and effective
enforcement program that uses 21st century e-reporting and monitoring tools, in combination
with market-based approaches.  Investments in new technology offer the opportunity to save the
federal  government,  states,  and American  business valuable resources as overall  compliance
costs are reduced.  EPA will also invest in more advanced monitoring tools, allowing EPA and
its state partners to more easily identify, investigate and address the worst violations that affect
our communities.  The Agency requests $14.2 million  and 4.0 FTE under Goal  5 for this
investment.

EPA will begin  to  review compliance  reporting requirements in existing rules to identify
opportunities for conversion to a national  electronic reporting format;  and examine new rules to
incorporate electronic reporting elements  during rule development. Eliminating existing paper
based reporting systems will be an overarching goal of this initiative.  As part of the process of
developing new rules, EPA will identify  opportunities  to require objective,  self-monitoring
and/or  self-certification.   EPA will  upgrade  key  data  systems to allow  for third-party
certification, public accountability, advanced monitoring  and electronic reporting requirements
to improve compliance.

EPA will begin enhancing its data systems to help the Agency and its regulatory partners better
determine the compliance status of facilities, focus our resources to efficiently address the most
serious  non-compliance, and substantially reduce the costs of collecting, sharing, and analyzing
compliance information.

With this investment, EPA will use a market based approach to develop open platform "e-file"
data exchange standards, modeled after that used by the  IRS to collect tax data, which would
unleash the expertise of the  private sector marketplace to  replace the  largely paper-based
reporting systems that have evolved over  the past thirty years.  Further, in those programs where
EPA has already built electronic reporting tools, the private sector may enhance these tools to
better support industry needs, enabling EPA to largely eliminate the need to continue to fund the
operation and maintenance of these tools.

With the requested resources, EPA also will  begin to invest in modern monitoring technology
such as portable  emission detectors, thermal  imaging  cameras, flow  meters, and  remote
(fenceline) monitoring equipment to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of our compliance
monitoring program.  Our investment includes an increase for monitoring equipment, as well as
funding to train staff on the use of remote sensing techniques.   Providing modern monitoring
technology for  EPA  inspectors will enable field staff to perform more efficient and effective
compliance verification.  Modern monitoring equipment will increase EPA's ability to detect
violations across all programs and focus our efforts on the most significant problems.

EPA's response to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill will continue in FY 2012 as the Agency
provides support for the U.S.  Department of Justice's civil action and criminal  investigations
against  BP, Anadarko, Transocean,  and other responsible parties.  The Department of Justice

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filed its civil complaint  on behalf of EPA, the Coast Guard, and other federal  plaintiffs in
December 2010, and EPA will be actively providing litigation support, discovery management,
and response to court orders throughout FY 2012.  Currently, EPA resources are being used to
support Department of Justice's on-going civil investigations.

                     Major FY 2012 Disinvestments and Reductions

•  Eliminating funding for homeland security enforcement efforts because EPA will not need to
   maintain separate capacity to support environmental criminal investigations and training for
   terrorism-related investigations.  This reduction  reflects the  increased capacity of other
   agencies to handle the environmental forensics work associated with security incidents.

•  Reducing funding for Enforcement  Training, relying more on web-based  tools to more
   efficiently deliver compliance assistance and training, reducing staff intensive activities.

•  Reducing funding for Superfund Enforcement that could have been used for PRP searches
   and settlement activity.

•  Reducing funding to the Department of Justice for CERCLA case support.

•  Reducing funding for Criminal Enforcement that  could have been used  for investigative
   support for criminal cases.

                                     Priority Goal

EPA has established a Priority Goal to focus and highlight progress made through  enforcement
actions to clean up the nation's polluted waters.  The Priority Goal is:

   Clean water is essential for our quality of life and the health of our communities. EPA will
   take actions over the next two years to improve water quality.

   Improve Water Quality: Federal Clean Water Enforcement

   •   Increase pollutant reducing  enforcement actions in waters that don't meet water  quality
       standards, and post results and analysis on the web.

In FY 2012, EPA will continue to track progress towards its Priority Goals and will update goals
as necessary and appropriate.

FY 2012 Activities

While making the reforms described above to improve our core business practices for monitoring
and reporting,  the  Agency remains committed to implementing a strong  enforcement  and
compliance  program  focused on  identifying  and reducing  non-compliance  problems  and
deterring future violations.  In order to meet these goals,  the program employs an integrated,
common-sense approach to problem-solving  and decision-making.  An appropriate mix  of data

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collection and analysis, compliance monitoring, assistance and incentives, civil and criminal
enforcement  efforts  and   innovative  problem-solving  approaches  addresses  significant
environmental issues and achieve environmentally beneficial outcomes.  As discussed above,
enhancing these efforts through  a  new approach that relies on 21st century reporting and
monitoring tools will be the focus  of our efforts in FY  2012 and  will be used to advance
implementation of the Administrator's priorities as well as our core program work.  Including the
new FY 2012 investment, $375.7  million and 2,132.7 FTE will support compliance monitoring
and civil and criminal enforcement activities.

Focus Areas:

•  Protecting Air  Quality:  EPA will focus on the largest sources of air pollution, including
   coal-fired power plants  and the  cement, acid and glass sectors, to  improve air quality.
   Enforcement to cut toxic air pollution in  communities improves the health of communities,
   particularly those overburdened by pollution.

   The Energy  Independence  and  Security  Act (EISA)  of 2007 requires increased  use  of
   renewable fuels.  EPA's Civil Enforcement program  will help the regulated community
   understand their statutory obligations under the EISA; inspect renewable  fuel production
   facilities;  monitor compliance with renewable fuel requirements;  monitor and enforce the
   credit trading program;  and, undertake administrative and judicial enforcement actions, as
   appropriate.

•  Protecting America's Waters:  EPA,  working with permitting authorities,  is revamping
   compliance  and enforcement  approaches to make progress on the most important water
   pollution problems.  This work includes getting raw sewage out of water, cutting pollution
   from animal waste and reducing pollution from stormwater runoff.  These efforts will help to
   clean up  great waters  like the  Chesapeake  Bay and will focus on revitalizing  urban
   communities by protecting and restoring urban waters.  Enforcement  will also support the
   goal of assuring clean drinking water for all communities, including small systems and in
   Indian country.

•  Cleaning  Up Our Communities:  EPA protects communities by  ensuring that responsible
   parties  conduct cleanups,  saving federal dollars for sites where there are no viable
   contributing parties.  Ensuring that these  parties clean up the sites ultimately reduces direct
   human exposure to hazardous pollutants and contaminants,  provides for long-term  human
   health protection, and ultimately makes contaminated properties available for reuse.

   EPA's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action enforcement
   program supports the goal  set by the Agency and its state partners of attaining remedy
   construction at  95 percent of 3,747 RCRA facilities by the year 2020.  In 2010, EPA issued
   the "National Enforcement  Strategy  for  Corrective Action" to promote and  communicate
   nationally consistent enforcement and compliance assurance principles, practices, and tools
   to help achieve this goal. In FY 2012, EPA will continue targeted enforcement under the
   Strategy and will work with its state partners to  assess the contribution of enforcement in
   achieving the 2020 goal.

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•  Ensuring the Safely of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution:  Strengthening chemical safety
   enforcement and reducing exposure to pesticides  will improve the health of Americans.
   Enforcement reduces direct human exposures to toxic chemicals and pesticides and supports
   long-term human health protection.

Compliance Monitoring

EPA's Compliance Monitoring program reviews and  evaluates  the activities of the regulated
community to determine compliance with applicable laws, regulations, permit conditions and
settlement agreements, as well as  to determine whether conditions presenting imminent and
substantial endangerment exist.  In FY 2012, EPA's compliance monitoring activities will be
both environmental media- and sector-based.  EPA's media-based inspections complement those
performed by states and tribes, and are a key part of our strategy for meeting the long-term and
annual goals established  for the air, water,  pesticides, toxic substances and hazardous waste
programs.

Compliance  monitoring  includes EPA's  management and  use of data systems  to  run its
compliance  and enforcement  programs under the  various statutes and  programs that EPA
enforces.  In FY 2012, the  Agency  will begin the process  of  enhancing its data  systems to
support electronic  reporting,  providing more comprehensive, accessible data to the  public and
improving integration of environmental  information with health data and other pertinent data
sources from other federal agencies and private entities. The Agency will continue its multi-year
project to modernize its national  enforcement and compliance data system, the Integrated
Compliance  Information  System (ICIS), which supports both compliance  monitoring and civil
enforcement.

Civil Enforcement

The  Civil Enforcement program's  overarching goal is to assure compliance with the nation's
environmental laws and regulations in order to protect human health and the environment.  The
program  collaborates with  the Department of  Justice,  states,  local  agencies  and  Tribal
governments to ensure consistent and fair enforcement of all environmental  laws and regulations.
The program seeks to protect public health and the environment and ensure a level playing field
by strengthening our partnership with our co-implementers in the states, encouraging regulated
entities to rapidly correct their own violations, ensuring that violators do not realize an economic
benefit from noncompliance and pursuing enforcement to deter future violations.

The  Civil Enforcement program develops, litigates and settles administrative and civil judicial
cases against serious violators of environmental laws. In FY 2010,  EPA achieved commitments
to invest more than $12 billion in future pollution controls and pollution reduction commitments
totaling approximately 1.5 billion pounds.

In FY 2012, EPA will  continue to target implementation of  the National Compliance and
Enforcement Initiatives established  for FY 2011-2013.   These  national initiatives  address
problems that remain complex and  challenging,  including Clean Water Act  "wet weather"

Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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discharges, violations of the Clean Air Act New Source Review/Prevention of Significant
Deterioration requirements and Air Toxics regulations, RCRA violations at mineral processing
facilities, and multi-media problems resulting from energy extraction activities. Information on
initiatives, regulatory requirements, enforcement alerts and EPA results will be made available to
the public  and the regulated community through web-based sites.   The Civil Enforcement
program also will support the Environmental Justice program and the Administrator's priority to
address pollution impacting vulnerable populations.  The Civil Enforcement program will focus
actions on facilities that have repeatedly violated environmental laws in communities that may
be disproportionately exposed to risks and harms from  the  environment, including minority
and/or low-income areas. In addition, the Civil Enforcement program will help to implement the
President's directive to develop and implement  a compliance  and  enforcement strategy for the
Chesapeake Bay, providing  strong oversight to ensure existing regulations are complied with
consistently and in a timely manner.

Criminal Enforcement

Criminal Enforcement  underlies our  commitment to pursuing  the most  serious  pollution
violations.    EPA's  Criminal  Enforcement  program   investigates  and  helps  prosecute
environmental violations that seriously  threaten  public health and the environment and involve
intentional,  deliberate or criminal behavior on  the  part of  the violator.   The  Criminal
Enforcement program deters violations  of environmental laws  and regulations by demonstrating
that the regulated community will be held accountable, through jail  sentences and criminal fines.
Bringing criminal  cases sends  a strong  deterrence message  to potential  violators,  enhances
aggregate compliance with laws and regulations and protects our communities.

The program has completed its three-year hiring  strategy, raising  the number of special agents to
200, and will use this capacity to address complex environmental  cases in FY 2012.  In FY 2012,
the Criminal Enforcement program will expand its identification  and investigation of cases with
significant environmental, human health and deterrence impact while balancing its overall case
load across all pollution statutes.  EPA's Criminal Enforcement program  will focus on cases
across all media that involve serious  harm or injury; hazardous  or toxic releases;  ongoing,
repetitive, or multiple releases;  serious documented exposure  to pollutants; and violators with
significant repeat or chronic noncompliance or prior criminal conviction.

Superfund Enforcement

EPA's Superfund  Enforcement  program protects  communities by ensuring that responsible
parties conduct  cleanups,  preserving  Federal  dollars for sites  where there  are  no viable
contributing parties.   Superfund  Enforcement ensures  prompt   site  cleanup and uses  an
"enforcement first" approach that maximizes the participation  of liable and viable parties in
performing and paying for cleanups in both the remedial and removal programs. The Superfund
Enforcement program  includes  nationally  significant  or  precedential  civil,  judicial  and
administrative site remediation cases.   The  program   also  provides  legal  and  technical
enforcement support on Superfund Enforcement actions and emerging issues.  The Superfund
Enforcement program also develops waste cleanup  enforcement  policies and provides guidance
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and tools that clarify potential environmental cleanup liability, with specific attention to the reuse
and revitalization of contaminated properties, including Brownfields properties.

Enforcement authorities play a unique role under the Superfund  program.   The authorities are
used to ensure that responsible parties conduct a majority of the cleanup actions and reimburse
the federal  government  for  cleanups financed by Federal  resources.  In  tandem with  this
approach, various reforms have been implemented to increase fairness, reduce transaction costs,
promote economic development and make sites available for appropriate reuse.16  Ensuring that
these parties cleanup sites ultimately reduces direct human exposures to hazardous pollutants and
contaminants, provides  for  long-term human  health  protections  and makes  contaminated
properties available for reuse.

The  Department  of  Justice  supports EPA's  Superfund  Enforcement   program  through
negotiations and judicial actions to compel Potentially Responsible Parties  (PRP) cleanup and
litigation to recover Trust Fund monies.   In FY 2010, the Superfund Enforcement program
secured private party commitments that exceeded  $1.6 billion.  Of this amount, PRPs have
committed to future response work with an estimated value of approximately $1.4 billion; PRPs
have agreed to reimburse the Agency for $150 million in past costs; and PRPs have been billed
by the EPA for approximately $82 million in oversight costs.  EPA  also works to ensure that
required legally enforceable  institutional  controls and  financial  assurance  instruments  are in
place and adhered to at Superfund sites and at facilities subject to RCRA Corrective Action to
ensure the long-term protectiveness of cleanup actions.

In FY 2012, the Agency will negotiate remedial design/remedial action cleanup agreements and
removal agreements  at  contaminated  properties to address  contamination impacting  local
communities. When appropriated dollars are used to clean up sites, the program will recover the
associated cleanup costs from the Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs).  If future work remains
at a  site,  recovered funds  could be placed in a site-specific special account pursuant  to the
agreement. Special accounts are sub-accounts within EPA's Superfund Trust Fund. The Agency
will continue its efforts to establish special accounts and to use  and track those funds efficiently
to facilitate and  advance cleanups.  As of the  end of FY 2010,  1,023  site-specific  special
accounts were established and over $3.7 billion were deposited into special accounts (including
earned interest).  EPA has obligated and dispersed approximately $1.85 billion  from  special
accounts to finance site response actions and has developed multi-year plans to use the remaining
funds  as  expeditiously as possible.   These  funds  will  be used to  conduct many different
CERCLA response actions, including, but not limited to, investigations to determine the  extent
of contamination and appropriate remedy  required, construction of  the remedy, enforcement
activities, and post-construction monitoring.

During FY 2012,  the Agency will continue  to refine the cost documentation process to gain
further efficiencies; provide DOJ case support for Superfund sites;  and calculate indirect cost and
annual allocation rates to be  applied to direct costs  incurred  by EPA for  site cleanup.   The
Agency also will continue to maintain the accounting and billing of Superfund oversight costs
attributable to responsible parties as stipulated in the terms of settlement agreements.
16 For more information regarding EPA's enforcement program and its various components, please refer to
 http://www.epa.gov/compliance/cleanup/superfund/.
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Partnering with States, Tribes and Communities

EPA shares accountability for environmental and human health protection with states and tribes.
Most  states have  been  delegated the  legal  responsibility  for  implementing  environmental
programs. We work together to target the most important pollution violations and ensure that
companies that meet their obligations and are responsible neighbors are not put at a competitive
disadvantage.   EPA also has  a responsibility to oversee  state and Tribal implementation  of
federal laws to ensure that the same level of protection for the environment and the public
applies across the country.

Enforcement  promotes environmental justice by equitably targeting pollution  problems that
affect  low  income,  minority, and/or  tribal  communities.     Ensuring  compliance with
environmental  laws is  particularly  important in  communities  that are exposed  to greater
environmental health risks.  EPA fosters community involvement by making information about
compliance and government action available to the public.  Increased transparency is also  an
effective tool for improving compliance. By  making information on violations  both available
and understandable, EPA empowers citizens to demand better compliance.
Enacted Budget represents our Operating Plan.
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Environmental Protection Agency
2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents - Science and Technology

Resource Summary Table	68
Program Projects in S&T	68
Program Area: Clean Air and Climate	72
   Clean Air Allowance Trading Programs	73
   Climate Protection Program	77
   Federal Support for Air Quality Management	81
   Federal Support for Air Toxics Program	84
   Federal Vehicle and Fuels Standards and Certification	86
Program Area: Indoor Air and Radiation	96
   Indoor Air: Radon Program	97
   Reduce Risks from Indoor Air	99
   Radiation: Protection	101
   Radiation: Response Preparedness	103
Program Area: Enforcement	105
   Forensics Support	106
Program Area: Homeland Security	108
   Homeland Security: Critical Infrastructure Protection	109
   Homeland Security: Preparedness, Response, and Recovery	114
   Homeland Security: Protection of EPA Personnel and Infrastructure	122
Program Area: IT / Data Management / Security	124
   IT / Data Management	125
Program Area: Operations and Administration	128
   Facilities Infrastructure and Operations	129
Program Area: Pesticides Licensing	133
   Pesticides: Protect Human Health from Pesticide Risk	134
   Pesticides: Protect the Environment from Pesticide Risk	137
   Pesticides: Realize the Value of Pesticide Availability	141
Program Area: Research: Air, Climate and Energy	144
   Research: Air, Climate and Energy	145
Program Area: Research: Safe and Sustainable Water Resources	154
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   Research: Safe and Sustainable Water Resources	155
Program Area: Research: Chemical Safety and Sustainability	162
   Research: Chemical Safety and Sustainability	163
   Human Health Risk Assessment	177
Program Area: Research: Sustainable Communities	183
   Research: Sustainable and Healthy Communities	184
Program Area: Water: Human Health Protection	192
   Drinking Water Programs	193
Program Area: Clean Air	197
   Research: Clean Air	198
   Research: Global Change	202
Program Area: Clean Water	205
   Research: Drinking Water	206
   Research: Water Quality	210
Program Area: Human Health and Ecosystems	213
   Research: Computational Toxicology	214
   Research: Endocrine Disrupter	217
   Research: Fellowships	220
   Research: Human Health and Ecosystems	223
Program Area: Land Protection	228
   Research: Land Protection and Restoration	229
Program Area: Research: Sustainability	232
   Research: Sustainability	233
Program Area: Toxic Research and Prevention	237
   Research: Pesticides and Toxics	238
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                           Environmental Protection Agency
           FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
                      APPROPRIATION: Science & Technology
                              Resource Summary Table
                                (Dollars in Thousands)

Science & Technology
Budget Authority
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted

$848,049.0
2,442.5
FY2010
Actuals

$817,677.7
2,441.7
FY2011
Annualized
CR

$846,049.0
2,442.5
FY2012
Pres Budget

$825,596.0
2,471.2
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted

($22,453.0)
28.7
                        Bill Language:  Science and Technology

For science and technology, including research and development activities, which shall include
research and development activities  under the  Comprehensive Environmental  Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended; necessary expenses for personnel and
related costs and travel expenses; procurement of laboratory equipment and supplies; and other
operating expenses in support of research and development, $825,596,000, to remain available
until September 30,2013. Note.—A full-year 2011 appropriation for this account was not enacted
at the time the budget was prepared; therefore, this account is operating under a continuing
resolution (P.L. 111-242, as amended). The amounts included for 2011 reflect  the annualized
level provided by the continuing resolution.

                              Program Projects in S&T
                                (Dollars in Thousands)
Program Project
Clean Air and Climate
Clean Air Allowance Trading
Programs
Climate Protection Program
Federal Support for Air Quality
Management
Federal Support for Air Toxics
Program
Federal Vehicle and Fuels Standards
and Certification
Subtotal, Clean Air and Climate
Indoor Air and Radiation
Indoor Air: Radon Program
FY 2010
Enacted

$9,963.0
$19,797.0
$11,443.0
$2,398.0
$91,782.0
$135,383.0

$453.0
FY 2010
Actuals

$9,329.3
$20,126.8
$12,480.6
$2,381.7
$87,648.2
$131,966.6

$485.6
FY 2011
Annualized
CR

$9,963.0
$19,797.0
$11,443.0
$2,398.0
$91,782.0
$135,383.0

$453.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget

$9,797.0
$16,345.0
$7,650.0
$0.0
$100,578.0
$134,370.0

$210.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted

($166.0)
($3,452.0)
($3,793.0)
($2,398.0)
$8,796.0
($1,013.0)

($243.0)
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Program Project
Reduce Risks from Indoor Air
Radiation: Protection
Radiation: Response Preparedness
Subtotal, Indoor Air and Radiation
Enforcement
Forensics Support
Homeland Security
Homeland Security: Critical
Infrastructure Protection
Water Sentinel
Homeland Security:
Critical Infrastructure
Protection (other activities)
Subtotal, Homeland Security:
Critical Infrastructure
Protection
Homeland Security: Preparedness,
Response, and Recovery
Decontamination
Laboratory Preparedness
and Response
Safe Building
Homeland Security:
Preparedness, Response,
and Recovery (other
activities)
Subtotal, Homeland Security:
Preparedness, Response, and
Recovery
Homeland Security: Protection of
EPA Personnel and Infrastructure
Subtotal, Homeland Security
IT / Data Management / Security
IT / Data Management
Operations and Administration
Facilities Infrastructure and
Operations
Rent
Utilities
Security
FY 2010
Enacted
$762.0
$2,095.0
$4,176.0
$7,486.0

$15,351.0


$18,576.0
$4,450.0
$23,026.0

$24,857.0
$499.0
$1,996.0
$14,305.0
$41,657.0
$593.0
$65,276.0

$4,385.0


$33,947.0
$19,177.0
$10,260.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$808.0
$1,962.1
$4,242.7
$7,498.4

$15,245.3


$13,953.7
$7,001.2
$20,954.9

$20,448.7
$438.3
$1,225.2
$15,585.7
$37,697.9
$593.0
$59,245.8

$4,054.0


$34,102.2
$21,934.3
$9,218.0
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$762.0
$2,095.0
$4,176.0
$7,486.0

$15,351.0


$18,576.0
$4,450.0
$23,026.0

$24,857.0
$499.0
$1,996.0
$14,305.0
$41,657.0
$593.0
$65,276.0

$4,385.0


$33,947.0
$19,177.0
$10,260.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$370.0
$2,096.0
$4,082.0
$6,758.0

$15,326.0


$8,632.0
$2,747.0
$11,379.0

$17,382.0
$0.0
$0.0
$12,696.0
$30,078.0
$579.0
$42,036.0

$4,108.0


$35,661.0
$20,195.0
$10,714.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($392.0)
$1.0
($94.0)
($728.0)

($25.0)


($9,944.0)
($1,703.0)
($11,647.0)

($7,475.0)
($499.0)
($1,996.0)
($1,609.0)
($11,579.0)
($14.0)
($23,240.0)

($277.0)


$1,714.0
$1,018.0
$454.0
69

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Program Project
Facilities Infrastructure and
Operations (other activities)
Subtotal, Facilities Infrastructure
and Operations
Subtotal, Operations and Administration
Pesticides Licensing
Pesticides: Protect Human Health
from Pesticide Risk
Pesticides: Protect the Environment
from Pesticide Risk
Pesticides: Realize the Value of
Pesticide Availability
Subtotal, Pesticides Licensing
Research: Air, Climate and Energy
Research: Air, Climate and Energy
Global Change
Clean Air
Research: Air, Climate and
Energy (other activities)
Subtotal, Research: Air, Climate
and Energy
Subtotal, Research: Air, Climate and
Energy
Research: Safe and Sustainable Water
Resources
Research: Safe and Sustainable
Water Resources
Drinking Water
Water Quality
Research: Safe and
Sustainable Water
Resources (other activities)
Subtotal, Research: Safe and
Sustainable Water Resources
Subtotal, Research: Safe and Sustainable
Water Resources
Research: Sustainable Communities
Research: Sustainable and Healthy
Communities
FY 2010
Enacted
$9,534.0
$72,918.0
$72,918.0

$3,750.0
$2,279.0
$537.0
$6,566.0


$20,822.0
$81,605.0
$9,022.0
$111,449.0
$111,449.0


$49,103.0
$61,918.0
$52.0
$111,073.0
$111,073.0


FY 2010
Actuals
$7,587.2
$72,841.7
$72,841.7

$4,146.4
$2,285.9
$505.1
$6,937.4


$19,646.9
$74,670.2
$8,441.0
$102,758.1
$102,758.1


$50,346.0
$58,586.9
$0.0
$108,932.9
$108,932.9


FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$9,534.0
$72,918.0
$72,918.0

$3,750.0
$2,279.0
$537.0
$6,566.0


$20,822.0
$81,605.0
$9,022.0
$111,449.0
$111,449.0


$49,103.0
$61,918.0
$52.0
$111,073.0
$111,073.0


FY 2012
Pres Budget
$9,951.0
$76,521.0
$76,521.0

$3,839.0
$2,448.0
$544.0
$6,831.0


$20,805.0
$83,102.0
$4,093.0
$108,000.0
$108,000.0


$52,495.0
$66,229.0
$52.0
$118,776.0
$118,776.0


FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
$417.0
$3,603.0
$3,603.0

$89.0
$169.0
$7.0
$265.0


($17.0)
$1,497.0
($4,929.0)
($3,449.0)
($3,449.0)


$3,392.0
$4,311.0
$0.0
$7,703.0
$7,703.0


70

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Program Project
Human Health
Ecosystems
Research: Sustainable and
Healthy Communities
(other activities)
Subtotal, Research: Sustainable
and Healthy Communities
Subtotal, Research: Sustainable
Communities
Research: Chemical Safety and
Sustainability
Human Health Risk Assessment
Research: Chemical Safety and
Sustainability
Endocrine Disrupters
Computational Toxicology
Research: Chemical Safety
and Sustainability (other
activities)
Subtotal, Research: Chemical
Safety and Sustainability
Subtotal, Research: Chemical Safety and
Sustainability
Water: Human Health Protection
Drinking Water Programs
Congressional Priorities
Congressionally Mandated Projects
Subtotal, Congressionally
Mandated Projects
TOTAL, EPA
FY 2010
Enacted
$54,180.0
$71,698.0
$62,217.0
$188,095.0
$188,095.0

$42,899.0

$11,350.0
$20,044.0
$46,437.0
$77,831.0
$120,730.0

$3,637.0

$5,700.0
$5,700.0
$848,049.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$54,324.6
$68,805.1
$59,873.0
$183,002.7
$183,002.7

$41,516.4

$12,471.9
$13,929.9
$48,819.3
$75,221.1
$116,737.5

$3,889.3

$4,568.0
$4,568.0
$817,677.7
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$53,180.0
$70,698.0
$62,217.0
$186,095.0
$186,095.0

$42,899.0

$11,350.0
$20,044.0
$46,437.0
$77,831.0
$120,730.0

$3,637.0

$5,700.0
$5,700.0
$846,049.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$45,392.0
$60,905.0
$64,729.0
$171,026.0
$171,026.0

$42,400.0

$16,883.0
$21,209.0
$57,565.0
$95,657.0
$138,057.0

$3,787.0

$0.0
$0.0
$825,596.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($8,788.0)
($10,793.0)
$2,512.0
($17,069.0)
($17,069.0)

($499.0)

$5,533.0
$1,165.0
$11,128.0
$17,826.0
$17,327.0

$150.0

($5,700.0)
($5,700.0)
($22,453.0)
71

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Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                72

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                                                 Clean Air Allowance Trading Programs
                                                     Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                         Objective(s): Improve Air Quality

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$20,791.0
$9,963.0
$30,754.0
88.6
FY2010
Actuals
$20,664.3
$9,329.3
$29,993.6
83.4
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$20,791.0
$9,963.0
$30,754.0
88.6
FY2012
Pres Budget
$20,842.0
$9,797.0
$30,639.0
86.7
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$51.0
($166.0)
($115.0)
-1.9
Program Project Description:

This program develops, implements, assesses, and provides regulatory and modeling support for
federally-administered, multi-state programs that address major regional and national air issues
from the power sector and other large stationary sources. Trading programs help implement the
National Ambient  Air Quality  Standards  (NAAQS)  and  reduce acid  deposition,  toxics
deposition, and regional haze.  Pollutants include sulfur dioxide (862),  nitrogen oxides (NOX),
and, as a co-benefit of 862 emission reductions,  mercury.  Current operating programs include
the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) seasonal and annual programs for interstate control of
ozone and fine  particle (PM2.5) pollution, as well as  Acid Rain's SO2 and  NOX  emission
reduction programs authorized under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments
(described  in  the  Clean Air Allowance Trading  Program  description under  Environmental
Programs and Management).

In accordance with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit Court's State
of North Carolina vs. the Environmental Protection Agency  decision in December 2008, the
Clean Air Interstate Rule,  promulgated by EPA in  May  2005, will "remain in effect until it is
replaced by a rule consistent with  [the  Court's July  11, 2008]  opinion"  so  as to  "at  least
temporarily preserve the environmental values covered by CAIR."1  The Court remanded CAIR
to EPA  for further rulemaking consistent with the opinion and, concurrently, told EPA and the
affected states to proceed with full  and timely implementation of the original rule provisions to
cut SC>2 and NOX emissions. CAIR was designed to control the contribution of transported SC>2
and NOX to ozone and PM2.s nonattainment areas in the Eastern U.S. Transported 862 and NOX
emissions are significant contributors to nonattainment in many states and, pursuant to the "good
neighbor" provision of the  CAA,  upwind  states must  share responsibility  for achieving air
quality goals.

All the  28  affected states  and  the District of Columbia elected to  achieve  the mandated
reductions  primarily  by  controlling power  plant  emissions  through  an  EPA-administered
 U.S. Court of Appeals for the B.C. Circuit, No. 05-1244, page 3 (decided December 23, 2008).
                                           73

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interstate cap-and-trade  program.  Under CAIR, Phase 1, annual  SC>2 and NOX emissions are
capped  and there is an additional seasonal NOX cap for states with sources that  contribute
significantly to transported ozone pollution.  Both the CAIR NOX and  862 control programs
began on schedule in 2009 and 2010, respectively.

In 2009, when compliance with the CAIR NOX programs became mandatory, ozone season NOX
emissions fell in every state in the program.  Units in the seasonal program reduced their overall
NOX emissions from 689,000 tons in 2008 to 495,000 tons in 2009.  A 22 percent improvement
in emission rate, coupled with an 11 percent drop in heat input, accounted for this reduction. The
introduction of the annual CAIR NOX program in 2009 cut year-round emissions substantially as
program participants  operated  control  devices outside the summer  months.   Annual  NOX
emissions from  electric generating units (EGUs) fell 43  percent  while  power  demand (as
measured by heat input) for those sources dropped only 10 percent.  For  additional information
on CAIR, please visit http://www.epa.gov/oar/cair.

On July 6, 2010, EPA  finalized its proposal for  a Transport Rule  to replace CAIR utilizing
approaches consistent with the Court's  opinion.  The proposed Transport Rule satisfies three
requirements:

    1)  Fulfills EPA's legal obligation to provide federal implementation plans or FIPs to reduce
       air pollution  that significantly affects another state;
    2)  Clarifies state obligations to reduce pollution affecting other states under the CAA; and
    3)  Responds to  the court ruling vacating the 2005 CAIR and the 2006  CAIR FIPs.

EPA intends to  finalize this  proposed rule as soon as possible  to  help provide certainty for
sources and states. The rule will clarify that emissions reductions needed for states to address the
interstate air pollution transport problem will  continue, and that greater needed reductions will
occur in the future.

EPA is responsible for managing the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET), a long-
term atmospheric deposition monitoring network, established in 1987, that serves as the nation's
primary source for atmospheric data on  the dry deposition component  of acid deposition, rural
ground-level  ozone, and  other  forms  of  particulate and gaseous air pollution.   Used  in
conjunction with the National Atmospheric Deposition Program  (NADP) and other networks,
CASTNET's long-term datasets and data products are used to determine the efficacy of national
and regional emission control programs through monitoring geographic  patterns  and temporal
trends  in ambient air quality and atmospheric deposition in  non-urban areas  of the  country.
Maintaining a robust long-term atmospheric deposition  monitoring  network is critical for the
accountability of the Acid Rain Program and regional programs for controlling transported
emissions and air pollution.

Surface water chemistry is a direct indicator of the environmental effects  of acid deposition and
enables assessment of how water bodies  and aquatic ecosystems are responding to reductions in
sulfur and  nitrogen emissions.  Two  EPA-administered programs, the Temporally  Integrated
Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program and the Long-Term Monitoring (LTM) program,
were specifically designed to assess whether the 1990 Clean Air Act  Amendments  have been
                                           74

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effective in reducing the acidity of surface waters in sensitive areas.  Both programs are operated
cooperatively with numerous partners in state agencies, academic institutions, and other federal
agencies.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, EPA will:

    •   Begin implementation of the First Phase of the Transport Rule to assure that NOx and
       SC>2 emissions reductions being achieved under CAIR will continue. The timing of rule
       implementation phases addresses the Court's concern that compliance deadlines consider
       downwind  state NAAQS  attainment deadlines.  The First Phase begins in FY 2012,
       aligned with 2012 ozone NAAQS attainment deadlines.

    •   Provide legal support as needed for the Transport Rule and analysis of modifications so
       control of emissions transport across state lines is synchronized with any changes to the
       ozone and PM 2.s standards.  Implementation of the Second Phase of the Transport Rule
       is aligned with the first deadline for daily PM 2.5 NAAQS  attainment.

    •   Assist states and sources in transitioning from the CAIR NOx and SC>2 control programs
       to  implementation of the Transport Rule.   Provide  technical  assistance to states in
       implementing state plans and rules for NOx and  SO2 control  programs under the
       Transport Rule. Assist states in resolving issues related to source applicability, emissions
       monitoring, monitor certification and reporting.

    •   Modify   and transition   operating  infrastructure   from  CAIR   to  Transport  Rule
       implementation. Effective and efficient operation of multi-state programs for controlling
       interstate  emissions transport  depends  critically  upon  ongoing  maintenance  and
       continuous improvement of the e-GOV infrastructure supporting the electronic emissions
       reporting, monitor certification, and compliance determination systems.

    •   Ensure accurate and consistent results for the  program.  Successful air pollution control
       and trading programs require accurate  and  consistent  monitoring of emissions from
       affected sources.  Work will  continue on performance specifications  and investigating
       monitoring alternatives and methods to  improve the efficiency of monitor certification
       and emissions data reporting.

    •   Assist  states with considering  regional  programs  for EGUs  to  comply  with the
       110(A)(2)(d) requirements generated by the new ozone  standard.  EPA will work with
       states  to create flexible approaches,  such as  cap-and-trade programs  and emissions
       averaging, where they potentially could be more cost-effective than application of source-
       specific emission standards.

In FY 2012, the program will continue to provide analytical support for the interagency National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). NAPAP coordinates federal acid deposition
research and monitoring of emissions, acidic deposition, and their effects, including assessing the
costs and benefits of Title IV.
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In FY 2012, the program will continue to manage CASTNET.  The FY 2012 request level for
CASTNET is $3.95M.2 In addition, the program will continue managing the TIME and LTM
programs for monitoring surface water chemistry and aquatic ecosystem  response in sensitive
areas of the U.S. The FY 2012 request level for TEVIE/LTM is $0.83M.

Reducing emissions of 862 and NOx remains a crucial component of EPA's strategy for cleaner
air. Particulate matter can be formed from direct sources (such as diesel exhaust or smoke), but
also can be formed through chemical reactions in the air.  Emissions of SC>2 and NOx can be
chemically transformed into sulfate and nitrates that are very tiny particles which, when inhaled,
can cause serious  respiratory problems and may lead to premature mortality.  Sulfates  and
nitrates can be carried, by winds, hundreds of miles from the emitting source.  These same small
particles  also are a main pollutant that impairs visibility across large areas of the  country,
particularly  damaging  in national parks known for their  scenic  views.   Nitrogen dioxide
emissions also  contribute substantially to the formation of ground-level ozone.  Ozone, when
inhaled in sufficient concentrations, can cause serious respiratory problems.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program also supports performance results in the Clean Air Allowance Trading
Programs  under the Environmental  Program Management  Tab  and can  be found in  the
Performance Four Year Array in Tab 11.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$182.0)  This reflects  a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This  initiative targets certain  categories  of spending for efficiencies  and  reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (+$16.0) This reflects an increase in contracts funding to support the  finalization of the
       CAIR replacement rule.

Statutory Authority:

CAA (42 U.S.C. 7401-7661f).
' For additional information on CASTNET, please visit http://www.epa. gov/CASTNET/.
                                           76

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                                                            Climate Protection Program
                                                     Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                     Objective(s): Address Climate Change

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$113,044.0
$19,797.0
$132,841.0
226.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$109,726.1
$20,126.8
$129,852.9
243.8
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$113,044.0
$19,797.0
$132,841.0
226.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$111,419.0
$16,345.0
$127,764.0
258.4
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($1,625.0)
($3,452.0)
($5,077.0)
32.4
Program Project Description:

The  Clean Automotive  Technology (CAT) program provides  EPA with laboratory and real-
world assessments and demonstrations of promising advanced, high-efficiency and  low-GHG
technologies that can better protect the environment and save energy.  The CAT program has
developed very advanced and unique technical expertise of diesel, alcohol and gasoline engine
combustion and hydraulic hybrid vehicle propulsion.  Its extensive work with advanced series
hybrids  and ultra clean engines has provided a deep understanding of the technology pathways
and their potential to cost-effectively  achieve large reductions of criteria and GHG  emissions
from  both  cars  and   trucks.     For   more   information   about   CAT,   please  visit:
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/technology.

The CAT program uses its engine and  powertrain experience to assist the development of future
low-GHG cars  and trucks.  This valuable expertise helps develop and  demonstrate technology
options, assess  technical viability,  determine benefits, and evaluate costs in support of industry
efforts to  reduce future GHG emissions.  Thorough knowledge of emerging engine, electric
hybrid, hydraulic hybrid and plug-in technologies enables more informed assessments of future
GHG reduction options. This knowledge increases the productivity of EPA's efforts to formulate
technology-forcing GHG standards and GHG regulatory effects  through considering the real-
world potential  of various technologies within the regulatory timeframe.

The CAT program also uses its technology know-how and expertise to assist companies wishing
to rapidly  deploy cost-effective low greenhouse gas (GHG) technologies into the transportation
sector of the economy.   The CAT program's  technology transfer collaboration  occurs with
universities, as well as automotive, trucking, and fleet industries.  Through cooperative research
and development agreements (CRADA), EPA  demonstrates innovative technologies that can
extend the range of battery vehicles  and  advance hybrids with clean-engine technologies  in
vehicles such as  minivans, SUVs, pickup trucks, urban delivery trucks, school buses, shuttle
buses, refuse trucks, and plug-in hybrids. These demonstrations establish the practical  feasibility
of low cost technologies capable of large GHG reductions, thus providing direct support to mid-
term GHG regulation.
                                           77

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FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, the CAT Program will:

    •   Demonstrate doubling battery range of all-electric commercial vehicles using hydraulic
       technology - In congested urban operation, most of a battery-only vehicle's energy is
       needed for accelerations.  As  more than 50% of the energy  supplied to the wheels is
       available for recovery, significantly improving the regenerative braking systems for these
       electric vehicles could as much as  double their range (or conversely,  reduce the size of
       the  battery).  Demonstration of this new application of hydraulic technology to  all-
       electric vehicles will allow evaluation of vehicle performance and project cost reductions.

    •   Evaluate and demonstrate high fuel efficiency, packaging, noise, vibration and harshness
       (NVH), and cost of series hydraulic hybrid technology in  minivans/pickup trucks - Apply
       EPA's expertise and know-how to address challenges that are  unique to series hydraulic
       hybrid technology in light-duty vehicles.  Solving these difficult packaging, noise and
       cost issues would create powerful affordable low-GHG reduction  solutions that could be
       easily applied to vehicle fleets to reduce greenhouse gases from the US and globally.

    •   Assess commercially viable high-efficiency low-GHG spark-ignition engines for light and
       heavy vehicles - Fundamental research suggests that an 18 to 28 percent improvement in
       gasoline and alcohol engine efficiency is possible beyond today's state-of-the-art engines,
       while  maintaining criteria emission reductions.  Demonstration of  these technologies will
       identify  practical efficiency benefits,  performance limitations,  fuel requirements (octane
       sulfur, etc.), as well as validate  low  cost projections.

    •   Partner  on series hydraulic hybrid/clean engine shuttles with California South Coast Air
       Quality  Management  District  - Demonstrate  low GHG potential from shuttle  buses
       equipped  with  series  hydraulic hybrid technology  and  powered by  the world's first
       gasoline  HCCI engine. The HCCI  engine  gets  diesel   efficiency from gasoline fuel
       without  the need  for costly  diesel  after treatment.  This phase of the partnership will
       begin  a real-world evaluation of a pilot fleet of vehicles  with ultra clean gasoline HCCI
       engines to determine its durability and cost-effectiveness to reduce emissions  and GHGs.

    •   Transfer technology to affordably double fuel efficiency  of urban commercial vehicles -
       Uphold  CRADA commitments established in 2010 to transfer EPA's advances  in
       hydraulic hybrid technologies (promote adoption of technology and technical assistance),
       providing continuity  in EPA's commitments to  the  truck and  fleet industry  for
       development and deployment of affordable heavy hybrids. In addition, the program will
       continue the technology  transfer  of  EPA's  advances in clean engine  combustion
       technologies  (such  as clean  combustion gasoline  homogeneous-charge compression
       ignition  (HCCI) engines and high-efficiency E85 engines).
                                           78

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Performance Targets:

The  Clean  Automotive  Technology program is working through  its technology  transfer
demonstration projects with industry to develop performance data that definitively quantifies the
"real-world" vehicle greenhouse gas reduction potential of these clean automotive technologies.
EPA's initial testing of two of its real-world hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV) showed significant
improvement in fuel economy.

The CAT program has added to its commercialization goals to include technology transfer for
the first  phase of retrofitting hydraulic  hybrid and engine technology in medium and  heavy
commercial trucks through 2013, and in light-duty vehicles through 2015.

Work  under this program supports the  strategic objective: "Addressing Climate Change."
Currently, there are no performance measures for this specific Program Project.

FY 2012  Change from FY 2010 Enacted  (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$77.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

   •   (-$33.0) This reduction reflects efficiencies from several agencywide IT projects such as
       email optimization, consolidated IT procurement, helpdesk standardization, and  others
       totaling $10  million agencywide.  Savings in individual areas may be offset by increased
       mandatory costs for telephone and Local Area Network (LAN) support for FTE.

   •   (-$202.0) This reflects a reduction to EPA's technology transfer support for cooperative
       research and development agreement  (CRADA) partners working to  commercialize
       hydraulic  hybrid  retrofit  for  high-volume hybridization of on-the-road medium
       commercial vehicles.

   •   (-$318.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

   •   (-$1,976.0) This reduction  reflects a phase down of the federal  cost-share for California
       technology demonstration partnerships  (with  South Coast Air Quality Management
       District, California Air Resources Board, and California Energy Commission), requiring
       California to pick up a greater share of the cost in order to demonstrate these advanced
       technologies in their fleets.

   •   (-$1,000.0)  Funding will be discontinued in this appropriation  for the ENERGY  STAR
       program since ENERGY STAR work under the Science and Technology appropriation will
       be completed in FY 2010.  Funding for ENERGY STAR is  continued in the Environmental
       Programs and Management appropriation.
                                           79

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Statutory Authority:
CAA Amendments, 42 U.S.C. 7401  et  seq. - Sections  102,  103,  104,  and 108; Pollution
Prevention Act, 42 U.S.C. 13101 et seq. - Sections 6602, 6603, 6604,  and 6605;  NEPA, 42
U.S.C. 4321 et seq. -  Section 102;  Global Climate Protection Act, 15 U.S.C. 2901 -  Section
1103; FTTA, 15 U.S.C. - Section 3701a.
                                          80

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                                            Federal Support for Air Quality Management
                                                      Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                           Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                         Objective(s): Improve Air Quality

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$99,619.0
$11,443.0
$111,062.0
714.7
FY2010
Actuals
$103,224.6
$12,480.6
$115,705.2
707.3
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$99,619.0
$11,443.0
$111,062.0
714.7
FY2012
Pres Budget
$133,822.0
$7,650.0
$141,472.0
850.6
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$34,203.0
($3,793.0)
$30,410.0
135.9
Program Project Description:

Federal support for the criteria pollutant and air toxics programs includes a variety of tools to
help characterize ambient air quality and the level of risk to the public from toxics in the air, and
to help measure national progress toward improving air quality and reducing air toxics risk.  The
program supports development of State Implementation Plans (SIPs) through modeling and other
tools. The program also develops and provides information and tools to assist state, local, and
tribal agencies, as well as communities, to reduce air toxics emissions  and risk specific to their
local areas.  Finally, the program includes activities related to the stationary source residual risk
program, which involves an assessment of source categories subject to Maximum Achievable
Control Technology standards to determine if more  stringent  standards are needed to further
reduce the risks to public health (taking into account developments in  practices,  processes, and
control technologies).

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

As  part  of implementing the ozone and fine particulate matter (PM^.s) standards, EPA  will
continue providing  state and local  governments with substantial  assistance in developing SIPs
during FY 2012.  EPA will ensure national consistency in how conformity determinations are
conducted across the U.S., and the  Agency will work  with state and local air quality agencies to
ensure that PM2.5  hot-spot analyses are conducted in a manner consistent with the transportation
conformity regulation and guidance.   EPA also will  assist areas in identifying  the most cost-
effective control options available  and provide guidance, as needed, for areas that implement
conformity.

In FY 2012, EPA will continue to assist state, tribal, and local agencies in implementing and
assessing the effectiveness  of national clean air programs via a broad  suite  of analytical tools.
EPA is working to implement improvements  to the  National  Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS) federal program, within current statutory limitations, that  address  deficiencies in
design and implementation and identify and  evaluate needed  improvements.  The air quality
grants and permitting program will  be improved by implementing updates to the grant allocation
processes to ensure resources are properly targeted and utilizing  program efficiency measures.
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In FY  2012,  EPA  will  work with  partners  to  continue  improving  emission factors  and
inventories,  including a better automated, higher quality National Emissions Inventory.  This
effort includes gathering improved activity databases and using geographic information systems
and satellite remote  sensing,  where possible, for key  point,  area, mobile, and fugitive source
categories and  global  emission  events.   A  key  part of EPA's improved  emissions  factors
development program relies upon electronic  submissions of emissions data directly from the
sources affected by our regulations.   The data that are required for improving our emissions
factors are the same  data that are  required to review regulations.  By obtaining the data as it is
being collected,  EPA's goal with this effort is  to reduce the need for developing information
collection requests that are typical every time the Agency begins  the rule development process.
The  electronic  collection of data will  not  only expedite  the development and revision of
emissions factors, but it will also allow EPA to develop rules in a more efficient manner once the
electronic data  collection program is  fully operational.  EPA also is working on  improving
monitoring systems to fill data gaps and to get a better  assessment of actual population exposure
to toxic air pollution.

Performance Targets:

EPA, collaborating with the states, will implement federal measures, assist with the development
of SIPs, and develop air toxics tools to continue improving air quality (as measured by the air
quality index and other measures)  and to continue reducing air toxics risk.

Work under this program also supports performance results in the Federal Support for Air
Quality Management Program in the Environmental Program Management Tab and can be found
in the Performance Four Year Array in  Tab 11.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$123.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of  base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

   •   (-$4,751.0 / -28.2 FTE) This represents the outgoing transfer of mobile source resources,
       including 28.2 FTE with associated payroll of $4,097.0, to the Federal Vehicle and Fuels
       Standards and  Certification Program in support of  a sector-based multi-pollutant
       approach to air quality management.

   •   (+$968.0) This represents  the incoming transfer of stationary source resources from the
       Federal Support for Air Toxics program. The  Federal Support for Air Toxics Program
       has been consolidated with  this  program in support of a sector-based multi-pollutant
       approach to air quality management.

   •   (-$56.0) This decrease in  travel  costs reflects  an effort to  reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel  and conferencing.
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    •   (-$77.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work to  redesign  processes  and streamline  activities  in both  administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

CAA (42 U.S.C. 7401-7661f).
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                                                Federal Support for Air Toxics Program
                                                     Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                        Objective(s): Improve Air Quality

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$24,446.0
$2,398.0
$26,844.0
145.8
FY2010
Actuals
$23,468.8
$2,381.7
$25,850.5
138.8
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$24,446.0
$2,398.0
$26,844.0
145.8
FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($24,446.0)
($2,398.0)
($26,844.0)
-145.8
Program Project Description:

Federal support for the air toxics program includes  a variety of tools to help characterize the
level of risk to the public from  toxics in the air and help measure the Agency's progress in
reducing this risk. The program develops and provides information and tools to assist state, local,
and tribal  agencies as well as communities to reduce air toxics emissions and risk specific to
their local areas. The program also includes activities related to the Stationary Source Residual
Risk Program.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

All activities  in  this program  will be  assumed  by the Federal  Support for Air Quality
Management Program and the Federal Vehicle and Fuels Standards and Certification Program to
support the switch to a sector-based multi-pollutant approach to air quality management.

Performance Targets:

There are no FY 2012 performance targets associated with this  program project  because the
resources have been transferred to the Federal Support for Air Quality Management Program and
the Federal Vehicle and Fuels Standards and Certification Program.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010  Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$968.0)  This represents  a transfer of funding and program responsibilities  for the
       Stationary Source Program to the Federal Support for Air Quality Management Program
       in support of a sector-based multi-pollutant approach to air quality management.

   •   (-$1,430.0 / -5.4 FTE) This represents a transfer of funding and program responsibilities
       for the mobile source program, including 5.4 FTE with associated payroll of $776.0, to
       the Federal Vehicle and Fuels Standards and Certification program in support of a sector-
       based multi-pollutant approach to air quality management.
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Statutory Authority:




CAA (42 U.S.C. 7401-7661f).
                                          85

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                                   Federal Vehicle and Fuels Standards and Certification
                                                     Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                 Objective(s): Address Climate Change; Improve Air Quality

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$91,782.0
$91,782.0
306.2

FY2010
Actuals
$87,648.2
$87,648.2
309.7

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$91,782.0
$91,782.0
306.2

FY2012
Pres Budget
$100,578.0
$100,578.0
357.8
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$8,796.0
$8,796.0
51.6
Program Project Description:

The most common mobile sources of air pollution are highway motor vehicles and their fuels.
Other mobile sources, such as airplanes, ships, construction equipment and lawn mowers also
produce significant amounts of air pollution. EPA establishes national emissions standards for
each of these sources  to reduce  the production of air pollution. The Agency also provides
emissions and fuel economy information for new cars, and educates consumers on the ways their
actions affect the environment.

Primary responsibilities include  developing, implementing,  and ensuring  compliance with
national standards to reduce mobile source-related air pollution from  light-duty cars and trucks,
heavy-duty trucks and buses, nonroad engines and vehicles and their fuels; evaluating emission
control technology; and providing state, tribal, and local air quality managers and transportation
planners with access to information on transportation programs and  incentive-based programs.
Other activities include testing vehicles, engines and fuels, and establishing test procedures for,
and determining compliance with, federal emissions and fuel economy standards.

EPA works with  states and local  governments to ensure the technical integrity of the  mobile
source  controls  in  State  Implementation  Plans  (SIPs)  and  transportation  conformity
determinations. EPA also develops and provides information and tools to assist state, local, and
tribal agencies,  as well as communities, to reduce air toxics emissions and risks specific to their
local areas. Reductions in emissions of mobile source air toxics, such  as diesel particulate matter
(PM), are achieved through establishing national emissions standards  and innovative partnership
approaches working with state, local,  and tribal governments, as well  as a variety of stakeholder
groups.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

Climate Change

In FY 2012, EPA will undertake a number of critical  mobile source related actions to implement
the Administrator's priority to take common-sense actions to address climate change.  These
efforts will include actions to implement the first-ever harmonized fuel economy and greenhouse
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gas (GHG) emission standards  for light-duty vehicles (model years 2012-2016) which were
finalized by EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in April
2010 (40 CR Parts 85, 86 and 600).  EPA also will be responding to the President's May 2010
directive to work with NHTSA to finalize first-time fuel economy and GHG emission standards
for heavy-duty vehicles, which are the transportation sector's second largest contributor to oil
consumption and GHG emissions. In addition, EPA will be responding to the President's
directive to work with NHTSA to develop  a coordinated national  program that will set further
standards to improve fuel efficiency and reduce GHG emissions for light-duty vehicles for model
years 2017 and later.  All of these programs  have the goal of taking coordinated steps to deliver a
new generation of clean vehicles, and to do this through a cohesive federal program that also is
harmonized with applicable state requirements. In addition, the Agency will continue its work to
assess  GHG emissions from non-road  sources, specifically  ocean-going vessels and aircraft.
EPA  is  participating  in the  appropriate  international  forums  for ocean-going  vessels
(International   Maritime  Organization-IMO)  and  aircraft   (International  Civil   Aviation
Organization-ICAO)  in order to coordinate its efforts to address GHG emissions from these
sources.

In the fuels arena, EPA will  continue to implement the new Renewable Fuel  Standards (RFS2)
program  and carry out several other actions required by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005
and the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007.  EISA dramatically expanded
the renewable fuels provisions of EPAct and requires additional EPA studies  in various areas of
renewable fuel use.

                     Energy Independence and Security Act
Type of Fuel (Categories)
Total Renewable Fuels by 2022
Corn Ethanol (Starch Based)
Advanced Biofuels - Includes imported biofuels and
biodiesel.
Includes 1 billion gpy biodiesel starting in 2009
All must achieve > 50% reduction of GHG emissions
from baseline*
Cellulosic Fuels - Includes cellulosic ethanol,
biobutanol, green diesel, green gasoline
All must achieve >60% reduction of GHG emissions from
baseline*
Billions of
Gallons/Yr
36BGY
15BGYcap
21
16
*
Baseline = average lifecycle GHG emissions as determined by EPA Administrator for gasoline or diesel
(whichever is being replaced by the renewable fuel) sold or distributed as transportation fuel in 2005
EISA requires that EPA set an annual RFS standard and the 2012  RFS  standard will be
promulgated in FY 2012. EISA also required EPA to develop a comprehensive lifecycle GHG
methodology to  implement  the  Act's  GHG  threshold requirements.   A multi-year  testing
emission program to address  the EPAct/EISA requirements will be completed in FY 2011.  The
testing program evaluates the impact of fuel properties (e.g., aromatic content, vapor pressure,
distillation properties, ethanol content, etc.) on  light-duty vehicle emissions.   In FY 2012, EPA
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will continue evaluating the results of the testing program, incorporating the newly gathered data
into emission models and regulatory analyses.  The results from this program will be used to
update the Agency's fuel effects model used to support regulations. In FY 2012, the Agency also
will continue to implement its real-time reporting  system to ensure compliance with RFS2
provisions. This real-time system will handle 4,000 to 6,000 submissions per day, encompassing
30,000 to 40,000 transactions per day, and the generation of 1.2 billion Renewable Identification
Numbers (RINs) per month. RINs are assigned to each gallon of renewable fuel generated, and
recording RINs allows for an accurate tracking of the renewable throughout the supply chain. In
addition, the  Agency will  continue to develop and update lifecycle models to allow assessment
of new biofuel  technologies and to evaluate feedstocks and fuel pathways for future fuels and
processes.

FY 2012 represents  year  four in EPA's five-year modernization plan to upgrade its vehicle,
engine, and fuel testing  capabilities at the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions  Laboratory
(NVFEL).  Because EPA  is responsible for establishing the test procedures needed to measure
emissions  and estimate the fuel economy of new vehicles, and for verifying car manufacturers'
data on fuel economy, the Agency is investing in additional testing and certification capacity to
ensure that new vehicles, engines,  and fuels are in compliance with new vehicle  and fuel
standards.  The  new standards  for vehicle greenhouse gas  emissions  in particular  will require
EPA to more frequently verify car manufacturers' data for a greater variety of vehicle and engine
technologies.  To prepare for this workload, the Agency will continue its support of the multi-
year National Vehicle  and Fuel Emissions  Laboratory (NVFEL)  modernization  effort.  In FY
2012,  $6.2 million  will be  allocated to the NVFEL modernization  effort, addressing EPA's
highest priority needs related  to certifying new heavy-duty vehicles with GHG emissions
standards.

Concurrent with the upgrade of the NVFEL testing facilities and equipment, EPA is  requesting 8
additional  FTE to address the increased workload  resulting from growth in its  vehicle and
compliance program in both size and complexity.  The FY 2012 workload reflects  a more than
four-fold increase in the number of vehicle  and engine certificates EPA issues and much more
challenging oversight requirements for both the vehicle/engine compliance program and fuels
programs  due to the diversity of  sophisticated technologies and the expanded international
universe of the regulated parties that must be monitored to ensure a fair competitive playing field

Clean Air

EPA  will  continue  to achieve  results in reducing pollution from  mobile sources, especially
nitrogen oxide  (NOx)  emissions associated with national emissions standards included in the
Agency's National Clean Diesel Campaign.  The Tier 2 Vehicle program, which took effect in
2004,  will make new cars, SUVs, and pickup trucks 77 to 95 percent cleaner than 2003 models.
The Clean Trucks and Buses program, which began in 2007, will make new highway diesel
engines as much as  95  percent cleaner than  current models.   Under the  Non-road  Diesel
Program, new fuel and engine requirements will reduce sulfur in off-highway diesel by more
than 99 percent. Under the recently finalized Locomotive  and Marine Engines Rule, new fuel
and engine requirements will reduce dangerous fine  particle pollution (PM) by 90  percent and
NOx  by 80 percent for newly-built locomotives and marine diesel engines.  Combined, these

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measures will prevent over 26,000 premature deaths each year, reduce millions  of tons of
pollution a year, and prevent hundreds of thousands of respiratory illnesses by 2030.
                    Clean Fuel/Engine Standards will Lead to
                  Substantial Air Quality/Health Benefits in 2030
2030
NOx (short tons)
PM25 (short tons)
VOC (short tons)
SOx (short tons)
Cost
Net Benefits
Avoided Premature
Mortality
Avoided Hospital
Admission
Avoided Lost Work
Days
Light-duty
Tier 2
2,800,000
36,000
401,000
281,000
$5 billion
$25 billion
4,300
3,000
700,000
Heavy-duty
2007
2,600,000
109,000
115,000
142,000
$4 billion
$70 billion
8,300
7,100
1 .5 million
Nonroad
Diesel
Tier 4
738,000
1 29,000
34,000
376,000
$2 billion
$80 billion
12,000
8,900
1 .0 million
Locomotive
& Marine
Diesel
795,000
27,000
43,000
0
$740 million
$11 billion
1,400
870
1 20,000
2030 Total
6,933,000
301 ,000
593,000
799,000
$11. 74 billion
$186 billion
26,000
1 9,870
3,320,000
In addition, the recently finalized rule to control emissions from ocean-going vessels will reduce
NOx emission rates by 80 percent and PM emission rates by 85 percent, compared to the current
limits applicable to this class of marine engines,  and prevent an additional 13,000 premature
deaths annually (40 CFR Parts 80, 85, et al).

Additional emission reductions from light-duty vehicles will be a key strategy in helping areas
attain the ozone,  PM, and nitrogen  dioxide (NC>2)  National  Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQSs) and in reducing exposure to toxics  for the millions of people living, working, or
going to school near major roads. In FY 2012, EPA will work on new light-duty vehicle control
regulations (Tier 3), which could include tighter NOx standards, off-cycle standards, and PM
standards for gasoline  vehicles.  The Tier 3 program may also  include lower limits for sulfur in
gasoline that will enable tighter emission standards by allowing more efficient aftertreatment.
Gasoline sulfur  control  could  also  provide  immediate benefits through  in-use fleet and
greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction co-benefits. The program will address any needs for
mitigation of adverse air quality impacts that might develop from the increased use of renewable
fuels (e.g., increase in NOx due to increases in ethanol use).

EPA's NVFEL will continue to conduct testing operations  on  motor vehicles,  heavy-duty
engines, nonroad engines, and fuels to certify that all  vehicles, engines, and fuels that enter the
U.S. market comply with all federal clean air and fuel economy standards. The NVFEL will
continue to conduct vehicle emission tests as part of pre-production tests, certification audits, in-
use assessments,  and  recall programs to ensure compliance with mobile source  clean air
programs.  Tests are conducted on a spot check basis on motor vehicles, heavy-duty engines,
nonroad engines, and fuels to: 1) certify that vehicles and engines meet federal  air emission and
fuel economy standards; 2) ensure engines comply with in-use requirements; and 3) ensure fuels,
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fuel additives, and exhaust compounds meet federal standards.  In FY 2012, EPA will continue
to conduct testing activities for tailpipe emissions, fuel economy, gasoline sulfur, reformulated
gasoline, ultra low sulfur diesel, alternative fuel vehicle conversion certifications,  Onboard
Diagnostics  (OBD) evaluations, certification audits, and recall programs. In addition to these
testing activities, EPA will continue expanding its compliance testing of heavy-duty and nonroad
engines.

In FY 2012, EPA anticipates reviewing and approving approximately 5,000 vehicle and engine
emissions certification  requests, including light-duty vehicles,  heavy-duty  diesel  engines,
nonroad engines, marine engines, locomotives and others. This represents a significant expansion
in EPA's certification burden  over previous years, due in part to the addition of certification
requirements for stationary engines and for marine and small spark-ignited engines.

                   The Number of EPA-lssued Vehicle and Engine
                Certificates Have More Than Quadrupled Since 1995
  Model Year 1995 Certificates
          Total = 810
     LDV. ICL Alt Fuel. HMC,
      OFMC. HDDE. HDGE
  Model Year 2008 Certificates
       Total = 3,640+
                                                            ^.
                                 Large SI-59   ***•«-HI    NRCI-618 Small SI - 1.06:
                              Locomotive - 76  ATV - 304  Snowmobiles - 37  Marine CI - 137
LDV - 512 IC1 - 10 Alt Fuel - 24 HMC - 485
  OFMC-71 1IDDE-75 IIDGE-30
 Projected
Model Year
   2012
Certificates
                                                                      Total = 5,000+
Certification and compliance testing of advanced technologies such as plug-in hybrid electric
vehicles, light-duty diesel applications, and  advanced after-treatment for heavy-duty highway
vehicles will be a major focus in FY 2012. The Agency also will continue to review the in-use
verification program data submitted by vehicle manufacturers to determine whether there are any
emissions compliance issues.   In addition,  EPA will continue to  expand its  web-based
compliance information system to be used by manufacturers and EPA staff to house compliance
data for all regulated vehicles and engines.  EPA will continue to be responsible for vehicle
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)  and gas guzzler fuel  economy testing and for
providing the fuel economy data to the Department of Transportation, the Department of Energy,
and the Internal Revenue Service. In FY 2012, EPA expects to expend significant resources on
ensuring compliance with certification as well as in-use requirements for foreign-built engines
and equipment.

A rule  establishing onboard diagnostics  (OBD) requirements for nonroad  engines will be
developed in FY 2012.  To meet the new nonroad diesel standards, engine  manufacturers will
produce engines that are going to be more complex and dependent on electronic controls, similar
to highway engines. OBD standards are needed to ensure that engines are properly maintained
and compliant, ensuring that the full benefits of the emission standards are  realized in the real
world. In addition, EPA will implement an in-use compliance testing program for nonroad diesel
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engines conducted by diesel engine manufacturers per a consent decree. This program is vital to
ensuring that new engine standards are actually met in-use under real-world conditions.  Other
priorities include addressing off-cycle emissions from heavy-duty trucks through the application
of a supplemental test procedure, a rulemaking (in response to court remand) justifying and
updating the 2012 model year standards for snowmobiles, and the  promulgation of new jet
aircraft engine emission standards that would align federal rules with international standards and
propose other controls and program upgrades under Clean Air Act (CAA) authority.  In addition,
the Agency will continue its efforts to evaluate the use of lead in  aviation gasoline and its use in
piston engines.

EPA will continue to  support implementation of existing vehicle, engine, and fuel regulations
including the Tier II light-duty (LD) vehicle program, the Mobile Sources Air Toxics (MSAT)
programs, the 2007-2010 Heavy-Duty  (HD) Diesel standards,  and the Non-Road Diesel Tier 4
standards (and earlier  nonroad standards) in order to ensure the successful delivery of cleaner
vehicles, equipment, and  fuel.  The Agency also will continue implementation activities for the
Locomotives/Marine rule finalized in 2008 and for small gasoline engine standards that began
with model  year 2009.  Other FY 2012 activities include the implementation of the Agency's
new GHG fuel economy labelling program and ongoing assessment and analysis of emissions
and fuel economy compliance data. Ensuring that  emission standards are actually met under
real-world conditions is an essential element of EPA's efforts to ensure fair competition and a
level economic playing field,  EPA will continue to  implement a  manufacturer-run,  in-use
compliance  surveillance  program for  highway heavy-duty diesel, locomotive, marine spark
ignition (SI) and large  SI engines.

EPA's  emission  models  provide the overarching  architecture that supports EPA's regulatory
programs, generating emission factors  and inventories needed to quantify emission reductions.
EPA continues to improve in this area with the  development of the new mobile source emission
model, MOVES. MOVES is greatly improving the Agency's ability to support the development
of emission control programs, as well as provide support to states  in their determination of
program needs to meet air quality standards.  The CAA requires regular updates of the emission
models to account for technology changes  and new emission data.   Assessing mobile source
emissions requires sustained and ongoing emission research resources. In FY 2012, EPA will
continue improving MOVES by implementing emission testing programs to collect the necessary
information  from  new technologies, incorporating new emission data  into  the  model,  and
expanding the application of the model to  include  additional  nonroad sources and toxic
emissions.

As part of implementing the eight-hour ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.s) standards, EPA
will continue to provide  state and local governments with  substantial assistance in developing
SIPs and making conformity determinations during this period. In FY 2012, EPA will continue
to ensure national consistency in how conformity determinations are conducted across the United
States  and continue to ensure consistency in adequacy findings for motor vehicle  emissions
budgets in air quality plans, which are  used  in  conformity  determinations.   EPA also  will
continue to work with  state and local transportation and air quality agencies to ensure that PM2.5
hot-spot  analyses are  conducted  in a  manner consistent  with  the  transportation conformity
regulation and guidance.  In addition, EPA will work with states and local governments to ensure
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the technical integrity of the mobile source controls in the SIPs for the eight-hour ozone and
PM2.5 air quality.  EPA also will assist in identifying control options available and provide
guidance, as needed, for areas that implement conformity.

EPA  will  partner with states,  tribes, and  local  governments  to create  a  comprehensive
compliance program to ensure that vehicles and engines pollute less.  EPA will use advanced in-
use measurement techniques and other sources of in-use data to monitor the performance of
OBD systems on vehicle models to make sure that OBD is a reliable  check on the emissions
systems.  In 2010, basic and/or enhanced vehicle inspection/maintenance  testing was being
performed in over 30 states with technical and programmatic guidance from EPA. EPA will
continue to assist state, tribal, and local agencies in implementing and assessing the effectiveness
of national clean air programs via a broad suite of analytical tools.

In FY 2012, EPA will continue to work with a broad range of stakeholders to develop voluntary
incentives for different economic sectors (construction, ports, freight, and agriculture) to address
the emissions from existing diesel engines. Even without funds for Diesel  Emission Reduction
Act grants, work is being done across these sectors at the national and regional level to clean up
the existing fleet. Reducing emissions from diesel engines will help localities meet the Agency's
NAAQS and reduce exposure to  air toxics from diesel engines. EPA also has developed several
emissions testing protocols that will provide potential purchasers of emission control technology
a  consistent,  third party  evaluation  of  emission  control  products.   EPA  has developed
partnerships with state and local  governments, industry, and private companies to create project
teams to help fleet owners create the most cost-effective emissions reduction programs.

Performance Targets:

Measure
Type


Outcome



Measure
(N35) Cumulative
Millions of Tons of
Carbon Monoxide
(CO) reduced since
2002 from mobile
sources

FY 2010
Target


1.69



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target


1.86



FY 2012
Target


2.03



Units


Tons



Measure
Type


Outcome



Measure
(O33) Cumulative
Millions of Tons of
Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOCs)
Reduced since 2000
from Mobile Sources

FY 2010
Target


1.71



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target


1.88



FY 2012
Target


2.05



Units


Tons


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Measure
Type


Outcome



Measure
(O34) Cumulative
Millions of Tons of
Nitrogen Oxides
(NOx) Reduced since
2000 from Mobile
Sources

FY 2010
Target


3.39



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target


3.73



FY 2012
Target


4.07



Units


Tons


Measure
Type
Outcome
Measure
(P34) Cumulative Tons
of PM-2.5 Reduced
since 2000 from
Mobile Sources
FY 2010
Target
122,434
FY 2010
Actual
Data
Avail
12/2011
FY2011
CR
Target
136,677
FY 2012
Target
146,921
Units
Tons
Recent national emissions standards finalized by the Agency also include the control of air toxics
from  mobile sources (the  Mobile Source  Air Toxics Rule  in 2007),  significantly reducing
hydrocarbon  air toxics while  delivering PM co-benefits, and  the establishment of first-ever
evaporative  emission standards for small spark ignition  and  recreational  marine engines (the
Small Si/Recreational Marine Engine Rule in 2008). All together, EPA estimates that six recent
national standards, including the 2007 Heavy Duty, Nonroad Diesel Tier 4, and Light Duty Tier
2 rules, will yield approximately $300 billion in combined  benefits annually by 2030.

Performance  targets  for reduction  of toxicity-weighted emissions also are supported by work
under the Federal Stationary Source Regulations program project.

Work under this program project supports the Agency's High Priority Performance Goal
(Priority Goal), addressing measuring and controlling Greenhouse Gases. A list of the Agency's
Priority Goals can be found in Appendix A.  For a detailed description of the EPA's Priority
Goals (implementation strategy, measures and milestones)  please visit www.Performance.gov.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$433.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •   (-$4,115.0) This reflects a decrease in funding for modifications and equipment upgrades
       to EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL), which were funded
       at $10.3 million  in  FY  2010.   The FY 2012 funding level of $6.2M will be directed
       toward the building  of a new heavy-duty vehicle certification test site.  This new test site
       is critical to the Agency's ability to certify that new heavy-duty vehicles sold in the U.S.
                                           93

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   comply with the new GHG emission standards EPA will be issuing for  heavy-duty
   vehicles.

•  (+$1,359.0 / +8.0 FTE) This reflects an increase in FTE to address the more than four-
   fold increase in the number of vehicle and engine certificates EPA issues and the much
   more challenging oversight requirements for both the vehicle/engine compliance program
   and fuels programs due to the diversity of sophisticated technologies and the expanded
   international universe of the regulated parties that must be monitored.  This includes
   payroll of $1,329.0 and travel costs of $30.0.

*  (-$268.0) This  reduction reflects efficiencies from several Agencywide IT projects such
   as email optimization, consolidated IT procurement, helpdesk standardization, and others
   totaling $10 million agencywide.  Savings in individual areas may be offset by increased
   mandatory costs for telephone and Local Area Network (LAN) support for FTE.

•  (+$2,050.07 +6.0 FTE)  This reflects additional resources to support the implementation
   of  the new national  GHG emissions/CAFE  standards  for passenger  cars, light-duty
   trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles for model years 2012-2016, compared to the
   FY 2010 spending levels.  These resources will advance U.S. policy to reduce greenhouse
   gas (GHG) emissions and improve fuel economy for all new cars and trucks sold in the
   United States.  This includes $797.0 for associated payroll.

•  (+$3,996.07 +4.0 FTE) This reflects an increase from FY 2010 spending levels to support
   implementation of Heavy-Duty GHG emission standards and for initial analysis and
   technology assessment efforts needed to support U.S. participation in international efforts
   at EVIO and ICAO to address GHG emissions from ocean-going vessels and commercial
   aircraft.  This analysis and technology assessment work will include inventory modeling,
   compliance modeling, cost estimation, and air quality benefits analysis.  This includes
   $531.0 for associated payroll.

•  (+$6,181.07 +33.6 FTE) This reflects an incoming  transfer of mobile source resources
   and FTE which had been distributed across multiple programs to the Federal Vehicle and
   Fuels Standards and Certification program, including 33.6 FTE  with associated payroll of
   $4,873.0.   This  increase is  offset by  an  equal  decrease  through  program  project
   consolidation.  This  consolidation  supports  the goals, objectives,  and performance
   measures of the overall mobile source program.

•  (+$269.0) This reflects an increase for programmatic laboratory fixed costs.

•  (-$138.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
   footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

•  (-$971.0) This reflects  a  reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
   This  initiative  targets  certain categories  of  spending for efficiencies and  reductions,
   including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
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       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.
Statutory Authority:

CAA (42 U.S.C. 7401-766If); Motor Vehicle Information Cost Savings Act; Alternative Motor
Fuels Act of 1988; National Highway System Designation Act; NEP Act, SAFETEA-LU of
2005; EPAct of 2005; EISA of 2007; Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards
and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (40  CR Parts 85, 86  and 600); Control of
Emissions from New Marine Compression-Ignition Engines at or Above 30 Liters per Cylinder
(40 CFR 80, 85, 86, 94,  1027, 1033, 1039, 1042,  1043, 1045, 1048, 1051, 1054, 1060, 1065, and
1068).
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Program Area: Indoor Air and Radiation
                 96

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                                                           Indoor Air: Radon Program
                                                  Program Area: Indoor Air and Radiation
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                        Objective(s): Improve Air Quality

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$5,866.0
$453.0
$6,319.0
39.4
FY2010
Actuals
$5,408.1
$485.6
$5,893.7
33.1
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$5,866.0
$453.0
$6,319.0
39.4
FY2012
Pres Budget
$3,901.0
$210.0
$4,111.0
23.1
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($1,965.0)
($243.0)
($2,208.0)
-16.3
Program Project Description:

Title HI of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) directs EPA to undertake a variety of
activities to address the public health risks posed by exposures to indoor radon.  The law directs
EPA to study the health effects of radon, assess exposure levels, set an action level and advise
the public of steps they can take to reduce exposure, evaluate mitigation methods, institute
training centers to ensure a supply of competent radon service providers, establish radon
contractor proficiency programs, and assist states with program development through the
administration of a grants program.

This program, combined with the Indoor Air S & T Program, supports the Radiation and Indoor
Environments National Laboratory (R&IE) in Las  Vegas, NV.   R&IE is the  only  Federal
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) radon laboratory.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, although the indoor air and radon programs will be shrinking and streamlining some
functions,  the funds provided in the President's Budget will  allow EPA to achieve results in
indoor radon risk reduction. As part of this reduction, EPA will have to reconsider the provision
of federal radon  laboratory services, potentially relying more on the State Indoor Radon Grants
program.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program also supports performance results in the Indoor Air: Radon Program
under the Environmental Program Management Tab and can be found in the Performance Four
Year Array in Tab 11.
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FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$242.07-1.5 FTE)  To accommodate this  lower funding level, EPA plans to eliminate
       lower priority efforts to provide exposure services to support local, state, and federal
       radon programs; radon laboratory inter-comparisons and device verification exposures to
       support privatized radon proficiency programs; and distribution and analysis of test kits
       and analyses for community-based environmental justice partners.  The total reduction
       includes $158.0 in payroll funding and $4.0 in travel.

    •   (-$1.0) This reflects a reduction  as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory  contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work  to redesign  processes  and  streamline  activities  in  both  administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

CAA Amendments of 1990; Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research Act; Title IV of the
SARA of 1986;  TSCA,  section 6, Titles II and Title III (15 U.S.C. 2605 and 2641-2671); and
IRAA, Section 306.
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                                                         Reduce Risks from Indoor Air
                                                  Program Area: Indoor Air and Radiation
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                        Objective(s): Improve Air Quality

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$20,759.0
$762.0
$21,521.0
63.8
FY2010
Actuals
$19,253.0
$808.0
$20,061.0
63.4
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$20,759.0
$762.0
$21,521.0
63.8
FY2012
Pres Budget
$17,198.0
$370.0
$17,568.0
54.3
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($3,561.0)
($392.0)
($3,953.0)
-9.5
Program Project Description:

Title IV of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) gives the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  broad authority to conduct and coordinate research on
indoor air quality, develop and disseminate information on the subject, and coordinate efforts at
the federal, state, and local levels.

This program, combined with the Radon S  & T Program, supports the Radiation and Indoor
Environments  National Laboratory (R&IE)  in Las Vegas, NV.  R&IE  is the only  Federal
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) radon laboratory.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012,  EPA will continue to provide limited support to tribal communities  with  field
measurements and assessments upon request and provide technical support for indoor air quality
remediation.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program also supports performance results in  the Reduce Risks from Indoor Air
program  under the Environmental  Program  Management  Tab  and can  be  found  in  the
Performance Four Year Array in Tab 11.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$384.07 -1.5 FTE) To accommodate this lower funding level, EPA plans to eliminate
       lower  priority in-person  tribal training courses on  indoor  air quality intervention  and
       remediation approaches as well as lower the lab's capacity for responding to Regional
       requests for field measurements, assessments, and technical support. The total reduction
       includes $118.0 in payroll funding and $5.0 in travel.  With the FY 2012 President's
       Budget funding level,  EPA will continue to provide limited support to tribal communities
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       with field measurements and assessments upon request and provide technical support for
       indoor air quality remediation.

   •   (-$8.0)  This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work to redesign  processes  and  streamline  activities  in both  administrative and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

CAA Amendments of 1990: Title IV of the SARA of 1986.
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                                                                   Radiation: Protection
                                                   Program Area: Indoor Air and Radiation
                           Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                    Objective(s): Reduce Unnecessary Exposure to Radiation

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Hazardous Substance Superfiind
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$11,295.0
$2,095.0
$2,495.0
$15,885.0
88.6
FY2010
Actuals
$11,433.3
$1,962.1
$2,586.2
$15,981.6
84.2
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$11,295.0
$2,095.0
$2,495.0
$15,885.0
88.6
FY2012
Pres Budget
$9,629.0
$2,096.0
$2,487.0
$14,212.0
76.1
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($1,666.0)
$1.0
($8.0)
($1,673.0)
-12.5
Program Project Description:

This program supports the ongoing radiation  protection capability at the  National  Air and
Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Radiation and
Indoor Environments National Laboratory (R&IE) in  Las Vegas, Nevada.  These nationally-
recognized laboratories provide  radioanalytical  and  mixed  waste testing  and analysis of
environmental  samples to  support  site  assessment,  clean-up,  and  response  activities for
Superfund projects and in the event of an accident or radiological incident.

Both labs provide technical support  for conducting site-specific radiological characterizations
and cleanups, using the best available science to  develop risk assessment tools. The labs also
develop  guidance,  in  collaboration with  the  public,   industry,  states,  tribes, and  other
governments, for cleaning up Superfund and other sites that are contaminated with radioactive
materials.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY  2012,  EPA, in cooperation with  states, tribes, and other federal agencies,  will provide
ongoing  site  characterization and analytical support for site assessment activities, remediation
technologies, and measurement and  information systems. EPA also will provide training and
direct site assistance including  field surveys and monitoring, laboratory analyses, and health and
safety,  and risk assessment support at sites with actual  or suspected radioactive contamination.
Some of these  sites are located  near at-risk communities,  emphasizing the Administration's
commitment to protecting vulnerable communities.

EPA's  laboratories  will  continue to  support EPA  Regional  Superfund  Remedial  Project
Managers (RPMs) and  On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs),  providing  laboratory and field-based
radioanalytical and mixed waste analyses. They also provide technical services, guidance, and
standardized procedures.
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Performance Targets:

EPA's radiation labs are supporting Strategic Plan Goal 1, Objective 4: Reducing Unnecessary
Exposure to Radiation through their ongoing  work.  The  program developed an  efficiency
measure that demonstrates EPA's ability to expedite processes while ensuring safe disposal of
transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP).

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$11.0)  This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •   (-$2.0) This  decrease in travel  costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and teleconferencing.

    •   (+$1.0) This is an increase for contracts to support the radiation lab work.

    •   (-$9.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work  to  redesign  processes  and  streamline  activities  in both  administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

Atomic Energy  Act (AEA)  of 1954,  as  amended,  42 U.S.C.  2011 et  seq. (1970),  and
Reorganization Plan #3 of 1970; Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990; Comprehensive
Environmental Response,  Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the
SARA of 1986;  Energy Policy Act (EPA) of 1992, P.L.  102-486; Executive Order 12241 of
September  1980, National Contingency Plan,  3  CFR,  1980; National Oil and Hazardous
Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), 40 CFR 300; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA)
of 1982; Public Health Service Act (PHSA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.; Safe Drinking
Water Act (SOWA); Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978; Waste
Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992.
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                                                      Radiation: Response Preparedness
                                                   Program Area: Indoor Air and Radiation
                           Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                    Objective(s): Reduce Unnecessary Exposure to Radiation

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$3,077.0
$4,176.0
$7,253.0
42.3
FY2010
Actuals
$2,827.9
$4,242.7
$7,070.6
41.0
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$3,077.0
$4,176.0
$7,253.0
42.3
FY2012
Pres Budget
$3,042.0
$4,082.0
$7,124.0
42.3
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($35.0)
($94.0)
($129.0)
0.0
Program Project Description:

The National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama,
and the Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (R&IE) in Las Vegas, Nevada,
are nationally recognized radiological  laboratories that provide field sampling and analyses,
laboratory  analyses, and direct  scientific support to  respond to radiological  and  nuclear
incidents.3   This includes  measuring  and  monitoring radioactive  materials  and assessing
radioactive contamination in the environment. This program comprises direct scientific field and
laboratory activities to support preparedness, planning, training, and procedures development. In
addition, selected personnel are  members of EPA's Radiological Emergency Response  Team
(RERT) and are trained to provide direct expert scientific and technical assistance in the field.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, EPA's RERT, a component of the Agency's emergency response program, will
continue to improve the level of readiness to support federal radiological emergency response
and recovery operations under the National Response Framework (NRF) and the National Oil
and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP).  The laboratory RERT members
will  conduct training and  exercises  to enhance and demonstrate their  ability to fulfill  EPA
responsibilities in the field, using mobile  analytical systems.  Laboratory staff also will support
field operations  with  fixed laboratory  analyses and provide rapid  and accurate  radionuclide
analyses in environmental matrices.4
3 Additional information can be accessed at: http://www.epa.gov/narel/iag.html
4 Additional information can be accessed at:  http://www.epa.gov/radiation/rert/
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Also, in FY 2012, both labs will continue to develop rapid-deployment capabilities to ensure that
field teams are ready to provide scientific data, analyses and updated analytical techniques for
radiation emergency response programs across the Agency.  The laboratories will  maintain
readiness for radiological emergency responses; participate in emergency exercises; provide  on-
site scientific support to state radiation, solid waste, and health programs that regulate radiation
remediation; participate in the Protective Action Guidance (PAG) development and application;
and respond, as required, to radiological incidents.

Performance Targets:

Work  under this  program also supports   performance  results in the Radiation:  Response
Preparedness program under the Environmental Program Management Tab and can be found in
the Performance Four Year Array in Tab 11.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$97.0) This decrease reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
        FTE.

   •   (-$5.0)  This decrease in travel costs  reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's  travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

   •   (+$16.0) This increase is associated with increased programmatic laboratory fixed costs.

   •   (-$8.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency  Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work  to  redesign processes and  streamline  activities in both  administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

Atomic Energy  Act (AEA)  of 1954,  as  amended,  42 U.S.C.  2011 et  seq. (1970),  and
Reorganization Plan #3 of 1970; Clean Air  Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990;  Comprehensive
Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability  Act  (CERCLA);  National  Oil  and
Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), 40 CFR 300; Executive Order 12241
of September  1980, National  Contingency Plan,  3 CFR, 1980;  Executive Order 12656 of
November  1988, Assignment of Emergency Preparedness  Responsibilities,  3 CFR,  1988;
Homeland Security Act of 2002; Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006
(PKEMRA); Public Health Service Act (PHSA), as amended, 42 U.S.C.  201 et seq.; Robert T.
Stafford Disaster Relief and EAA, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.; Safe Drinking Water  Act
(SOWA); and Title XIV of the Natural Disaster Assistance Act (NDAA) of 1997, PL 104-201
(Nunn-Lugar II).
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Program Area: Enforcement
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                                                                        Forensics Support
                                                                Program Area: Enforcement
                                                       Goal: Enforcing Environmental Laws
                                                  Objective(s): Enforce Environmental Laws
                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Science & Technology
Hazardous Substance Superfund
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$15,351.0
$2,450.0
$17,801.0
105.2
FY2010
Actuals
$15,245.3
$2,727.0
$17,972.3
101.0
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$15,351.0
$2,450.0
$17,801.0
105.2
FY2012
Pres Budget
$15,326.0
$2,389.0
$17,715.0
105.2
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($25.0)
($61.0)
($86.0)
0.0
Program Project Description:

The Forensics  Support program  provides  specialized scientific and technical support for the
nation's most complex civil and  criminal enforcement cases, as well as technical expertise for
Agency compliance efforts.  This work is  critical to determining non-compliance and building
viable enforcement cases. EPA's National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) is a fully
accredited  environmental forensics  center under International Standards Organization (ISO)
17025, the main standard used by testing and calibration laboratories, as recommended by the
National Academy of Sciences (NAS)5.  Laboratory accreditation is the recognition of technical
competence through  a third-party assessment of a  laboratory's quality, administrative, and
technical systems.  It also provides the general public and users of laboratory services a means of
identifying those laboratories which have successfully demonstrated compliance with established
international standards.  NEIC's accreditation  standard  has been  customized to  cover both
laboratory and field activities.

NEIC collaborates with other federal, state, local and tribal enforcement organizations to provide
technical assistance, consultation, on-site inspection, investigation, and case resolution activities
in support of the Agency's Civil  Enforcement program.  The program also coordinates with the
Department of Justice and other federal, state and local law enforcement organizations to provide
this type of science and technology support for criminal investigations.6

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

Efforts to  stay at the forefront  of  environmental enforcement  in  FY 2012  include  focused
refinement  of single  and  multi-media  compliance  monitoring  investigation  approaches,
customized  laboratory methods  to  solve  unusual enforcement  case  challenges, and  applied
research  and development in both laboratory and field applications.  In response to case needs,
the NEIC will conduct applied research and development to identify, develop, and deploy new
 Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, National Academy of Sciences, 2009, available at
http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php7record id= 12589
6 For more information, refer to: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/neic/index.html
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capabilities,  test and/or enhance  existing methods  and techniques, and  provide  technology
transfer to other enforcement personnel  involving environmental measurement and forensic
applications. Consistent with these activities and working with appropriate organizations across
the Agency, NEIC  also will play a role in  evaluating the scientific basis  and/or technical
enforceability of select EPA regulations. Additionally, NEIC will apply its technical resources in
support of the Agency's national enforcement priorities.

In FY 2012, NEIC will continue to function under rigorous ISO requirements for environmental
data measurements  to maintain its accreditation.  The program  also will  continue to utilize
advanced technologies to support field measurement and laboratory analyses.

Performance Targets:

Currently, there are no specific performance measures for this Program Project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •  (+$511.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

    •  (-$466.0) This change reduces  resources  that support the operations  of NEIC and
       maintenance for its laboratory instruments. This reduction may defer NEIC's purchase of
       new equipment to support the Agency's criminal and civil  enforcement cases and could
       also defer maintenance on some of its current laboratory and field equipment.

    •  (-$70.0) This decrease in travel costs  reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

Statutory Authority:

RCRA; CWA;  SOW A;  CAA;  TSCA;  Residential Lead-Based Paint  Hazard Reduction Act
(RLBPHRA); FIFRA; Ocean Dumping Act (i.e., MPRSA); EPCRA.
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Program Area: Homeland Security
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                                    Homeland Security: Critical Infrastructure Protection
                                                          Program Area: Homeland Security
                                                          Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                                                  Objective(s): Protect Human Health Water

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Hazardous Substance Superfiind
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$6,836.0
$23,026.0
$1,760.0
$31,622.0
49.0
FY2010
Actuals
$6,805.1
$20,954.9
$1,269.5
$29,029.5
46.4
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$6,836.0
$23,026.0
$1,760.0
$31,622.0
49.0
FY2012
Pres Budget
$1,065.0
$11,379.0
$0.0
$12,444.0
25.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($5,771.0)
($11,647.0)
($1,760.0)
($19,178.0)
-24.0
Program Project Description:

This program provides resources to coordinate and support protection of the nation's critical
water infrastructure  from terrorist threats and all-hazard events.  Reducing risk in the water
sector  requires  a  multi-step  approach to:  determine risk through vulnerability, threat,  and
consequence assessments;  reduce risk through security enhancements;  prepare to effectively
respond to and recover from incidents; and measure the water sector's progress in risk reduction.
The Public  Health  Security and Bioterrorism  Response  and  Preparedness  Act  of  2002
(Bioterrorism Act) also provides that EPA support the water sector in such activities.  For more
information, see http://www.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

Since the events of 9/11, EPA has been designated as the sector-specific  agency responsible for
infrastructure protection activities for the nation's drinking  water and wastewater systems. EPA
is  utilizing its position within the water sector and working with its stakeholders to provide
information to help protect the nation's drinking water supply from terrorist or other intentional
acts.  Specifically, EPA is responsible for developing new security  technologies to detect and
monitor contaminants as part of the Water Security Initiative (WSI), establishing a national water
laboratory alliance, and planning for and practicing for response to both  natural and intentional
emergencies  and incidents. In FY 2012, EPA will move  to the next phase of the WSI pilot
program, focusing on support and evaluation activities. EPA also will continue to support water
sector-specific  agency  responsibilities, including  the Water  Alliance  for Threat  Reduction
(WATR), to protect the nation's  critical  water infrastructure.  The Agency will continue  to
integrate the  regional laboratory  networks  and the WSI pilot laboratories into a national,
consistent program.  All of these efforts support the Agency's responsibilities and commitments
under the National Infrastructure Protection  Plan (NIPP),  as defined within the Water Sector
Specific  Plan, which  includes specific milestones for  work  related  to the WSI, the Water
Laboratory Alliance,  and metric development.
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Water Security Initiative and Water Laboratory Alliance

EPA's goal is to  develop a "robust,  comprehensive, and fully coordinated surveillance and
monitoring system"7 for drinking water and a water laboratory network that would support water
surveillance and emergency response activities.  The overall goal of the initiative is to design and
demonstrate an effective system for timely detection and appropriate response to drinking water
contamination threats and incidents through a  pilot program that has broad application to the
nation's drinking water utilities in high threat cities.

WSI consists of five general components: (1) enhanced physical security monitoring; (2) water
quality monitoring; (3) routine and triggered sampling for high priority contaminants; (4) public
health surveillance; and  (5)  consumer complaint surveillance.  Recent simulation analyses
underscore the importance of a contaminant warning system that integrates all five components
of event detection,  as different contaminants are detected by different sequences of triggers or
"alarms."

WSI is intended to demonstrate the concept of an effective contamination warning system that
drinking water  utilities  in  high threat cities of all sizes  and  characteristics could adopt.
Resources appropriated to date have enabled EPA to award a total of five pilots for the WSI.

The FY 2012 request  includes $7.3  million  for necessary ongoing WSI  pilot  support and
evaluation  activities and dissemination and knowledge transfer and  $1.3 million for WATR.
Funding will  allow the Agency to provide technical support to  the existing pilots, assist in
conducting outreach efforts to migrate lessons  learned from the pilots to  the water sector, and
develop  and execute an approach to promote national voluntary adoption of effective and
sustainable drinking water contamination warning  systems. In FY 2012, EPA will complete its
evaluation  of each pilot and continue to prepare and refine a series of guidance documents for
water utilities on designing, deploying, and testing contamination warning  systems based on
additional lessons learned from the pilots.  These guidance documents are planned to be finalized
by 2013.

In FY 2012, the pilots will conclude with a thorough evaluation of their operation, performance,
and sustainability (i.e., the practicality of a water system deploying, operating, and maintaining
the contamination warning system components, including costs and benefits). In the absence of
an actual contamination event,  much of the evaluation of the pilots will occur through reviewing,
for example, component and system availability, alarm rates, operation  and  maintenance costs,
and the success of conducting sample analysis in response to a trigger.  The Agency will begin to
execute a partnership-based outreach plan (based  on  coordination with water associations and
water systems) to promote national adoption of drinking water contamination warning systems.
This outreach plan will include the  development  of integrated tools  and training materials to
assist drinking water utilities with designing and deploying contamination warning systems.  The
tools and training materials will reflect data and lessons learned from the pilots.  EPA anticipates
conducting  this  outreach  through  a formal  partnership  with  one or more water sector
organizations to promote utility adoption of lessons learned through the pilots.
 Homeland Security Presidential Directive-9 (HSPD-9).
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In a contamination event, the sheer volume or unconventional type of samples could quickly
overwhelm the capacity or capability of a single laboratory. To address this potential deficiency,
EPA has established a national alliance of laboratories harnessed from the range of existing lab
resources from the local (e.g., water utility) to the federal levels  (e.g.,  CDC's Laboratory
Response Network) into  a Water Laboratory Alliance (WLA).  The  WLA focuses solely on
water and represents the water component of the EPA's Environmental Response Laboratory
Network (ERLN).  The ERLN is a network with a similar purpose as the WLA but with a focus
on analyses of all other  environmental  media. The WLA will reduce the time necessary for
confirming an  intentional  contamination event in drinking water and  speed response  and
decontamination  efforts.  Launched  in  2009,  the  WLA  is composed of  a  number  of
environmental, public health, and commercial laboratories across the  nation with membership
increasing steadily. In FY 2012, efforts will  focus on the national implementation of the WLA
through the Water Laboratory  Alliance Plan, a national plan  which provides  a  protocol for
coordinated laboratory response to a surge of analytical needs. EPA also will work with regional
and state environmental laboratories to conduct exercises, within the framework of  the Water
Laboratory Alliance Response Plan, and continue efforts to expand the membership of the WLA
with the intention of achieving nationwide coverage.  In  addition, EPA will continue to support
environmental laboratories and utilities by facilitating access to supplemental analytical capacity
and improved preparedness for analytical support to an emergency situation.

Under the WLA, EPA also will establish partnerships with stakeholders to further efforts
necessary to validate methods for contaminants of high concern for intentional contamination in
drinking water.  About 90 percent of these contaminants currently lack validated methods.

Water Sector-Specific Agency Responsibilities

EPA is the sector-specific  agency "responsible for infrastructure  protection activities" for the
water sector (drinking  water and wastewater utilities). EPA is  responsible for developing and
providing tools and training on improving security to the 52,000 community water systems and
16,000 publicly-owned treatment works.

In FY 2012,  EPA will continue working to ensure  that water sector utilities have tools and
information to prevent, detect, respond to, and recover from terrorist  attacks, other intentional
acts,  and natural  disasters.  The following preventive and  preparedness activities  will  be
implemented  for the water sector in collaboration with the Department of Homeland  Security
(DHS) and states' homeland security and water sector officials:

   •   Conduct webcasts to prepare  utilities, emergency responders, and  decision-makers to
       evaluate and respond to physical, cyber, and contamination threats and events;
   •   Disseminate tools and provide technical assistance to ensure that water and wastewater
       utilities  and emergency  responders  react  rapidly  and  effectively  to  intentional
       contamination  and  other incidents. Tools  include:   information  on  high  priority
       contaminants,  incident  command protocols, sampling and  detection  protocols  and
       methods, and treatment options;
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   •   Sustain operation of the Water Desk in the Agency's Emergency Operations Center by
       updating  roles/responsibilities, training staff in the incident command  structure, and
       ensuring adequate staffing during activation of the desk;
   •   Develop tools and technical assistance for water utilities under the Climate Ready Water
       Utilities effort,  which would enable  these utilities to  account for climate change
       consideration in long-range planning and operations;
   •   Support the adoption and use of mutual aid agreements among utilities to improve
       recovery times;
   •   Continue to implement specific recommendations for emergency response, as developed
       by EPA and water sector stakeholders, including providing an expanded set of tools (e.g.,
       best security practices, incident command system and mutual aid training, recovery, and
       resiliency)  in  order to  keep  the  water sector  current  with  evolving  water security
       priorities;
   •   Continue to implement specific recommendations of the Water Decontamination Strategy
       as developed  by  EPA  and water  sector  stakeholders (e.g.,  defining  roles  and
       responsibilities of local, state, and federal agencies during an event); and
   •   Develop annual  assessments,  as required under the NIPP, to  describe existing water
       security efforts and progress in achieving the  sector's key metrics.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program supports EPA's Protect Human Health objective.  Currently, there are
no performance measures for this specific Program Project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$183.0)   This  increase  reflects the recalculation  of base workforce  costs for existing
       FTE.

   •   (-$9,020.07-1.0 FTE) This reduction reflects completion at the end of FY 2010 of certain
       activities associated with the five full-scale contamination warning system demonstration
       pilots in public water systems under the WSI.  EPA will  not perform research  activities
       associated with the WSI Pilot Program in FY 2012.  Other work, including support and
       evaluation of the pilots and dissemination and knowledge transfer, will be conducted with
       the resources remaining in the program.   This reduction includes $133.0 in associated
       payroll.

   •   (-$39.0) This decrease in travel  costs  reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

   •   (-$700.0)  This reflects a decrease to outreach activities,  such as tabletop and full-scale
       exercises,  conducted to increase the number  of state  and  utility  labs participating in the
       WLA program.  Such outreach activities will  be reduced by half.

   •   (-$1,772.0 / -2.0  FTE) This reflects a decrease to preparedness and risk reduction efforts
       for the water sector as  these efforts ramp  down  due  to work  already  completed.
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       Decreased efforts include training and tabletop exercises, technical assistance webinars,
       and conferences that directly support the water sector.  This reduction includes $266.0 in
       associated payroll.

    •   (-$224.0) This reflects a reduction  to the WSI program as  part of the Administrative
       Efficiency Initiative. This initiative targets certain categories  of spending for efficiencies
       and  reductions,  including  advisory contracts,  travel, general services,  printing and
       supplies. EPA will continue its work to redesign processes  and streamline activities in
       both administrative and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-$75.0) This reflects a reduction to general expenses and other program support areas.

Statutory Authority:

SDWA 42 U.S.C. §300f-300j-9 as added by Public Law 93-523 and the amendments made by
subsequent enactments, Sections - 1431, 1432, 1433, 1434, 1435;  CWA, 33 U.S.C. §1251 et
seq.; Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Emergency and Response Act of 2002; Emergency
Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 42 U.S.C. §11001 et seq - Sections 301, 302, 303,
and 304.
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                              Homeland Security: Preparedness, Response, and Recovery
                                                        Program Area: Homeland Security
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                    Objective(s): Reduce Unnecessary Exposure to Radiation

                             Goal: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                                                      Objective(s): Ensure Chemical Safety

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Hazardous Substance Superfiind
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$3,423.0
$41,657.0
$53,580.0
$98,660.0
174.2
FY2010
Actuals
$4,264.2
$37,697.9
$51,558.9
$93,521.0
176.4
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$3,423.0
$41,657.0
$53,580.0
$98,660.0
174.2
FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$30,078.0
$40,662.0
$70,740.0
170.9
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($3,423.0)
($11,579.0)
($12,918.0)
($27,920.0)
-3.3
Program Project Description:

EPA's Research  and Development Program's research  provides  critical support to agency
environmental policy  decisions and  regulatory  actions  to  protect  human health  and  the
environment.  EPA  research has provided effective solutions to high-priority  environmental
problems for the past 40 years.  Research enabled the  Agency  to  implement policies  and
regulations to minimize waste and reduce pollution in specific industries and  scales. However,
these solutions were accomplished using 20th century approaches, focusing on  the risks  posed by
a single chemical to a single target organ or species.   Such an approach limits the Agency's
ability to  address the  increasing complexity of 21st century environmental challenges with
solutions that are effective, efficient, and sustainable - solutions that meet current needs without
compromising the future.

The  Homeland Security  Research Program (HSRP) will continue to plan  and implement  a
systems-based program.  That  approach will  address  scientific  and  technological gaps in  a
community's ability  to prepare  for and recover from large-scale  catastrophic events including
chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attacks.  When terrorist attacks  and even natural
disasters occur, sustainable  environmental  approaches  enhance the resiliency and speed  the
recovery of the communities  that are  affected.   Communities  that  have a high degree of
resiliency will be better prepared for and recover more  quickly and completely from a disaster
than communities that are not as resilient.
The  HSRP will evaluate  tools and  develop  capabilities so that cost effective response and
recovery approaches can be identified for future use by the response community, elected and
appointed decision makers, and risk managers.  Research will further state-of-the-art approaches
to address all phases of community response and recovery to ensure public and worker safety,
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protect property, and facilitate recovery.  The Agency will continue to work with other federal
agencies and organizations, through collaborative research efforts, to strengthen remediation and
decontamination capabilities.
EPA's Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC)—a federal  advisory committee comprised of
independent expert scientists and engineers—recognizes that the HSRP is both expansive and
complex as is the Agency's responsibility for responding to future terror events. The December
2008 BOSC report noted that "prior and recent reviews [by the National Academy of Sciences
and Science Advisory Board] of the National Homeland  Security Research Center (NHSRC)
have recognized this and have helped  shape the scope of the current research program.  The
NHSRC has done a  commendable job in analyzing and delineating the scope of its research
program relative to available resources."  The BOSC  reported that the program is successfully
providing utility to NHSRC clients and downstream end users.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA homeland  security research on chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) contaminants
will continue to fill critical gaps in our ability to effectively respond to and recover from threats
and attacks, including large-scale catastrophic incidents, thereby enhancing the resilience of our
communities. EPA has unique knowledge and expertise related to decontamination and disposal
of contaminated materials and in protecting the nation's drinking water and water infrastructure.
FY 2012 Homeland Security Research Program funds will be used  to deliver science  and
engineering research results to EPA's Water, Solid Waste and Emergency Response, and Air and
Radiation programs,  among others, to better facilitate and enable their ability to carry  out the
Agency's  homeland security missions. These results include tools and techniques to facilitate
response to  and recovery from incidents involving CBR agents.  Other applied science and
technical support needs also will be  provided  to  EPA's  response  community (National
Decontamination Team, Environmental Response Team, Radiological  Emergency Response
Team, Removal Managers, and On-Scene Coordinators). For example, the program's experience
and expertise were  critical in supporting EPA's coordinated Deepwater  Horizon Oil  Spill
response. EPA's HSRP  also provides support and assistance in interactions with water utilities
to help ensure the nation's water systems are secure and drinking water is safe.

The FY 2012 request for the HSRP includes a reduction of $8.2 million  from the FY 2010
enacted budget.  This reflects a 75  percent reduction to methods development, the planned
completion of decontamination research for the Safe Buildings Program, and the reduced need
for water contamination detection tools as work reaches completion.

Decontamination Research

EPA's decontamination research directly supports the  Agency's National Response Framework
(NRF) as well as its homeland security responsibilities.  In  many  cases, the research program
also supports the Department  of Homeland Security's needs for EPA expertise in a number of
key areas including materials decontamination and disposal, threat assessment, and sampling and
analytical methods.  There are reductions  in funding for some aspects of the homeland security
Decontamination Research Program. Activities in FY 2012 will include the following:
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•  Risk analysis research will  continue, at a reduced level,  to provide information that aids
   decision-makers in managing risks  associated with exposure to biological and  chemical
   agents.  This information includes the science required to develop exposure limits and clean-
   up goals.  Much progress has been made in collecting and evaluating data on the toxicity,
   infectivity, mechanism of action, fate, transport, and exposure consequences associated with
   CBR contamination. In 2012 and beyond, these data will be extrapolated to predict human
   response from exposure  to varying doses of biological organisms.   This information will
   support the development of cleanup goals for sites contaminated with biological  agents.
   Development of Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for additional  chemicals will provide
   health effect information for intermediate durations of exposure (hours - days). Research will
   continue to identify and fill data gaps related to risk analysis  and to  develop improved
   methods to communicate risk information to decision-makers and the public.

•  Testing and evaluation of commercially-available technologies will continue to support those
   in need of purchasing reliable equipment to  detect and decontaminate CBR contaminants
   resulting from terrorist attacks on buildings and outdoor areas.  Research will continue, at a
   significantly reduced  level,  which supports the development  and capabilities  of the
   Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN). The program has made significant
   progress in  the last several years on developing and verifying methods  for the analysis of
   chemical, biological, and radiological warfare agents.  The remaining methods development
   funding will be used to develop methods for newly identified, high  priority contaminants.
   EPA will continue this support by updating the Selected Analytical Methods (SAM) manual,
   which  identifies CBR agents and analytical  methods that are needed to characterize the
   nature and extent of contamination and to document the completion of remediation.

•  Decontamination and consequence management research will continue, at a reduced level, to
   develop and improve decontamination  and disposal techniques for the clean-up of outdoor
   areas, buildings, and infrastructure (e.g., subways, bridges,  stadiums,  and  drinking water and
   wastewater  systems) contaminated with CBR agents.  The Safe Buildings portion of the
   program will be discontinued because the vast majority of research to support cleanup of the
   interior of buildings has been  completed.

•  EPA will, in partnership with several other government entities, collaborate on a large-scale
   field demonstration of decontamination methods for  anthrax developed  over  the last few
   years. Also, EPA will work with other agencies to develop detection and analysis methods,
   and  evaluate  decontamination methods  for outdoor  areas,   indoor   areas  and water
   infrastructure for new chemicals that  may be used by terrorists.  EPA will continue to
   develop  methods  to decontaminate structures and  areas  contaminated  with radiological
   materials,  as well  as the   safe disposal of radiologically-contaminated  materials and
   decontamination residue.  EPA also  will provide  a synthesis of its work on the impacts of
   decontamination activities on sensitive materials.
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Water Infrastructure Protection Research

Water Infrastructure Protection Research  provides  scientific  data  and tools  for  the Water
Program and water utilities to improve the nation's ability to protect water systems from attack
and to detect and  recover from an attack.  This research directly supports the  national Water
Security Initiative  while providing effective ways to detect CBR agents in drinking water and
wastewater systems, to contain the contamination, and to treat the water and decontaminate the
infrastructure.  EPA  has  produced  many  award-winning products  over the past few  years
designed to improve the water utilities' capabilities including the CANARY event detection
                                                    o
software that won the prestigious 2010 R&D 100 Award.

Since the Water Security Initiative (WSI) is maturing, some aspects of the research program are
reduced.

Activities in FY 2012 will include the following:

•  Support to  provide  technical  assistance to water utilities  regarding water contamination
   detection software  tools  will  continue.    These  tools  include the  Threat Ensemble
   Vulnerability Assessment and Sensor Placement Optimization Tool (TEVA-SPOT) and the
   CANARY event detection software.

•  Work will support implementation of WSI by water utilities with updates and  improvement
   to software tools that  help  place detection systems in optimal locations within the  water
   system, and to assist in detecting contamination.

•  Research will  be  undertaken  to  support  strategies  that contain contamination  (thus
   minimizing public exposure).  This work includes the development of real-time distribution
   systems models to help decision makers isolate contaminated portions of the  systems so that
   the water may be removed, and to locate the origin of the contamination.

•  Methods will  be developed to decontaminate water  and  wastewater treatment systems  to
   rapidly restore  function in a cost-effective manner.  The program also will evaluate  effective
   methods for treating and disposing of wastewater generated from decontamination activities.

•  Testing and evaluation of commercially-available technologies will continue to  support those
   in need of purchasing reliable equipment  to detect  and decontaminate CBR  contaminants
   resulting from terrorist attacks  on water and wastewater treatment systems.

Radiation Monitoring

Maintenance of the RadNet air monitoring network supports EPA's responsibilities under the
Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex to the National Response Framework (NRF).  The network
includes deployable monitors and near real-time stationary monitors.
 http://www.epa.gov/nhsrc/news/newsl22007.html
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Through FY 2011, EPA expects to install all 134 purchased monitors providing near real-time
radiation monitoring coverage for each of the 100 most populous U.S. cities as well as expanded
geographic coverage.   In FY 2012,  the  Agency will  maintain the expanded RadNet  air
monitoring network. These near real-time monitors replaced or augmented the previous system
of 60 conventional air samplers. Fixed stations will operate routinely and in conjunction with as
many as 40 deployable monitors following a radiological incident. With the expanded RadNet air
monitoring network, average response time and data dissemination will be reduced from days to
hours and will provide the Agency and first responders with greater access to data,  improving
officials' ability to  make decisions about protecting public health and the environment during
and after an incident.  EPA will continue  to update its fixed and deployable monitoring systems
including their communications capability across various  media. Additionally, the data will be
used by scientists to better characterize the effect of a radiological incident.

Biodefense

There is no request for this program in FY 2012.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type
Output
Measure
(H72) Percentage of
planned outputs
delivered in support of
efficient and effective
clean-ups and safe
disposal of
contamination wastes.
FY 2010
Target
100
FY 2010
Actual
100
FY2011
CR
Target
100
FY 2012
Target
90
Units
Percent
Measure
Type
Output
Measure
(H73) Percentage of
planned outputs
delivered in support of
water security
initiatives.
FY 2010
Target
100
FY 2010
Actual
100
FY2011
CR
Target
100
FY 2012
Target
90
Units
Percent
Work under this program supports multiple strategic objectives.  In FY 2012, the program plans
to meet its targets of completing and delivering planned outputs in support of: 1) the efficient and
effective clean-up and safe disposal  of decontamination wastes, 2) the Water Security Initiative,
3) the rapid assessment of risk and the determination of clean-up goals and procedures following
contamination,  4) supporting the Environmental Response Laboratory Network,  and 5) the
program's ability to provide timely quality  assured ambient  radiation monitoring during an
emergency. In achieving these targets, the program will contribute to EPA's goal  of providing
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scientifically sound guidance and policy decisions related to the health of people, communities,
and ecosystems.

At the end of the fiscal year, the program reports on its success in meeting its planned annual
outputs (detailed in the program's Multi-Year Plan). The program strives to complete 100% of its
planned outputs each year so that it can best meet EPA and stakeholders' needs.  To ensure the
ambitiousness of its annual  output measures, EPA's Research and Development Program  has
better formalized the process for developing and modifying program outputs, including requiring
that these programs engage partners when making modifications.

EPA is on track through its ongoing work to meet its FY 2012 strategic plan goal of protecting
public health and the environment from unwanted releases of EPA-regulated radioactive waste
and to minimize impacts to public health from radiation exposure.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •  (+$585.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •  (-$114.07-0.5 FTE) This reflects the net result of infrastructure realignments of FTE and
       resources such as critical equipment purchases and repairs, travel, contracts, and general
       expenses  that  are proportionately allocated  across  programs  to better  align with
       programmatic priorities. This change includes a decrease of $66.0 in associated payroll
       and reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the agency better align
       resources, skills, and agency priorities.

    •  (-$49.0) This reflects adjustments to IT and telecommunications resources.  Realignment
       of these resources is based on FTE allocations.

    •  (-$53.0\-0.4 FTE)  This  reflects a reduction of programmatic support resources resulting
       from  expected  efficiencies in providing operational  support to  researchers.   It  also
       includes  a  decrease  of $53.0  in  associated payroll  and  reflects  EPA's  workforce
       management strategy that will help the  agency better align resources, skills, and agency
       priorities.

    •  (-$67.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

    •  (-$137.0\-0.3 FTE) This reduction reflects savings from the Administrative Efficiencies
       Project (AEP),  a  long-term effort  to develop  a corporate approach  to delivering
       administrative services in the Research and Development program. This change includes
       a decrease of $40.0  in  associated payroll and  reflects EPA's workforce management
       strategy that will help the Agency better align resources,  skills,  and agency priorities.

    •  (-$133.0\-1.0 FTE) This reflects a shift from the Homeland Security Research Program
       to the Chemical Safety  and Sustainability research program  to better align resources,
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   skills, and agency priorities.  This change includes a transfer of $133.0  in associated
   payroll to reflect EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the  agency better
   align resources, skills, and agency priorities.

•  (-$586.0) This reflects  a reduction as part of the  Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
   This  initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and  reductions,
   including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
   continue its work to redesign processes  and streamline activities in both administrative
   and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

•  (-$119.0\+10.0 FTE) This  change reflects a shift  of resources for the Agency's water
   security  and  decontamination research activities. This also reflects the transfer  of
   extramural funding  in  the  amount of  $1,330.0 to payroll to cover the cost  of the
   additional 10.0 FTE.

•  (-$3,500.0) This reflects a 75 percent reduction to the methods development research in
   FY 2012.  The  program has  made significant progress in the  last  several years on
   developing  and  verifying  methods  for  the  analysis  of  chemical, biological,  and
   radiological warfare  agents.  The remaining methods development funding will be used to
   develop methods for newly identified, high priority contaminants.

•  (-$4,089.0\-0.6 FTE) This reduction reflects: (1) planned completion of decontamination
   research for contaminated buildings (the  Safe Buildings Program) and (2) a reduced need
   for water contamination detection tools as the Water Security Initiative  completes its
   mission  and  a  large  extramural grant to  study  microbial risk assessment  reaches
   completion. This change includes a reduction  of $80.0  in associated payroll to reflect
   EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the agency better align resources,
   skills and agency priorities.

•  (-$2,225.0)   This reflects  a reduction of  pesticide program resources. Affected areas
   include the improvement of disinfection capabilities as applied to the food and agriculture
   sectors.

•  (-$596.0) This reflects a reduction of resources for EPA's RadNet national environmental
   radiation monitoring network.
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   •   (-$499.0) This  reflects  a reduction  in resources  for efforts to  improve national
       radiological laboratory capacity and capability. This will result in the termination  of
       laboratory capacity audits and proficiency testing of laboratories, a reduction in incident
       response radiological laboratory training, and a reduction in the publication of incident
       response radiological  laboratory guidance  documents. This  disinvestment will lead  to
       many of the nation's radiological  laboratories being inadequately prepared for a major
       nuclear or radiological incident due to  slower data generation and delay of consequence
       management activities aimed at protecting the public.

   •   (+$3.0)  This  reflects  additional  resources to  support efforts related to  enhancing
       decontamination capability and capacity.

Statutory Authority:

AEA of 1954, as through P.L. 105-394, November 13, 1998, 42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.  - Section
275 Reorganization Plan #3 of 1970; CAA Amendments 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq - Sections 102
and 103; CERCLA, as amended by the SARA 42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq., Sections 104, 105 and
106; Executive Order 12241 of September 1980,  National Contingency Plan,  3  CFR, 1980;
Executive  Order  12656  of November 1988,  Assignment of  Emergency  Preparedness
Responsibilities, 3 CFR, 1988; PHSA, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 201 et seq., Section 241; Robert T.
Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. -
Sections 201, 204, 303, 402, 403, and 502; SDWA 42 U.S.C. 300 et seq. -  Sections 1433, 1434
and 1442; NDAA of  1997, Public Law 104-201, Sections 1411 and 1412;  PHSBPRA of 2002,
Public  Law 107-188, 42  U.S.C. 201 et  seq., Sections 401 and 402 (amended the SDWA);
TSCA, 15 U.S.C. 53 - Section 2609; OP A, 33 U.S.C 40; PPA, 42 U.S.C 133; RCRA 42 U.S.C.
6901 et seq; EPCRA  42 U.S.C. §11001 et seq.; CWA 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.; FIFRA 7 U.S.C.
136 et seq.; FFDCA, 21 U.S.C 9;  FQPA 7 USC 136 et seq. Executive Order 10831 (1970);
PRIA;  FSMA,  Sections 203 and  208;  Executive Order  13486:  Strengthening  Laboratory
Biosecurity in the United States (2009); HSPD-5; HSPDs 7-10; HSPD-19.
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                     Homeland Security: Protection of EPA Personnel and Infrastructure
                                                        Program Area: Homeland Security

  Goal: Provide Agency-wide support for multiple goals to achieve their objectives. This support
 involves Agency-wide activities primarily provided by EPA's six (6) support offices - the Office
   of Administration and Resources Management (OARM), Office of the Chief Financial Officer
 (OCFO), Office of Environmental Information (OEI), Office of General Counsel (OGC), Office
                        of the Administrator (OA), and the Office of Inspector General (OIG).

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Building and Facilities
Hazardous Substance Superfund
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$6,369.0
$593.0
$8,070.0
$1,194.0
$16,226.0
3.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$6,300.3
$593.0
$9,652.1
$1,194.0
$17,739.4
3.3
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$6,369.0
$593.0
$8,070.0
$1,194.0
$16,226.0
3.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$5,978.0
$579.0
$8,038.0
$1,172.0
$15,767.0
3.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($391.0)
($14.0)
($32.0)
($22.0)
($459.0)
0.0
Program Project Description:

This program involves activities to ensure that EPA's physical structures and assets are secure
and operational, and that certain physical security measures are in place to help safeguard staff in
the event of an emergency.  These efforts also protect the capability of EPA's vital laboratory
infrastructure assets.  Specifically, funds within this appropriation support security needs for the
National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL).

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, the Agency will continue to provide enhanced physical security for the NVFEL and
its employees. This funding supports the incremental cost of security enhancements required as
part of an Agency security assessment review.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program supports multiple strategic  objectives.   Currently,  there  are  no
performance measures for this specific Program Project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$15.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services,  printing and supplies. EPA will continue its
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       work  to  redesign  processes  and  streamline activities  in  both  administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

   •   (+$1.0) This increase supports the security needs of the NVFEL.

Statutory Authority:

Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Emergency and Response Act of 2002; Secure Embassy
Construction and Counterterrorism Act (Sections 604 and 629); CAA (42 U.S.C. 7401-766If);
Motor Vehicle Information Cost Savings Act; Alternative  Motor Fuels Act of  1988; National
Highway System Designation Act; NEP Act, SAFETEA-LU of 2005; EPAct of 2005; EISA of
2007.
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Program Area: IT / Data Management / Security
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                                                                 IT / Data Management
                                            Program Area: IT / Data Management / Security

  Goal: Provide Agency-wide support for multiple goals to achieve their objectives. This support
 involves Agency-wide activities primarily provided by EPA's six (6) support offices - the Office
   of Administration and Resources Management (OARM), Office of the Chief Financial Officer
 (OCFO), Office of Environmental Information (OEI), Office of General Counsel (OGC), Office
                        of the Administrator (OA), and the Office of Inspector General (OIG).

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
Inland Oil Spill Programs
Hazardous Substance SuperrUnd
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$97,410.0
$4,385.0
$162.0
$24.0
$17,087.0
$119,068.0
503.1
FY 2010
Actuals
$98,258.9
$4,054.0
$152.3
$24.0
$16,498.3
$118,987.5
481.6
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$97,410.0
$4,385.0
$162.0
$24.0
$17,087.0
$119,068.0
503.1
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$88,576.0
$4,108.0
$0.0
$0.0
$15,352.0
$108,036.0
481.5
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($8,834.0)
($277.0)
($162.0)
($24.0)
($1,735.0)
($11,032.0)
-21.6
Program Project Description:

High quality data in support of sound science serves as a strategic resource that supports the
Agency's mission  of protecting public  health  and the environment.  IT/Data Management
(IT/DM) programs facilitate the  Agency's  Science  and  Technology  (S&T)  programs  by
delivering essential services to Agency staff to allow them to conduct their work effectively and
efficiently.  These three themes, facilitating  mission activities through better information and
tools; improving agency work processes to promote efficiencies; increasing transparency and
innovation in the agency work processes and enabling  the work force with reliable tools and
services are reflected in the following investments.

IT/DM supports the development, collection, management and analysis of environmental data (to
include both point source and ambient data) to  manage statutory programs and to support the
Agency in strategic planning at the national, program and regional levels.   IT/DM provides a
secure, reliable and capable information  infrastructure based on a sound enterprise architecture
which  includes  data  standardization, integration and  public access.   IT/DM manages the
Agency's Quality System, ensuring EPA's processes and data  are of high quality and adhere to
federal  guidelines.    IT/DM   supports  regional  information   technology   infrastructure,
administrative  and environmental programs and telecommunications.

The work performed under IT/DM encompasses more than 30 distinct activities. For descriptive
purposes, activities can be categorized into the following major functional  areas:  information
access; geospatial information and analysis;  Envirofacts;  IT/Information  Management (IT/EVI)
policy  and planning;  electronic records and  content  management; internet operations and
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maintenance   enhancements  (IOME);  information   reliability  and   privacy;  and  IT/IM
infrastructure.  IT/IM and IOME activities are provided to the programs funded under S&T.

Resources under this program  also  fund  the Agency-wide Quality Program.  The Quality
Program is a key management system that ensures the quality of all  services provided by EPA,
including,  for example,  all of  the science and  technology underpinning  all  of EPA's
environmental work, all of EPA's data and all of EPA's documents for public distribution.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

For FY 2012, the following IT/DM activities will continue to be provided for the following S&T
funded programs:

   •   Internet Operations and Maintenance Enhancements (IOME) - FY 2012 activities in
       this area  implement and maintain the EPA Home Page  (www.EPA.gov) and over 200
       top-level  pages that facilitate access to the many information resources available on the
       EPA Web site. In addition, IOME provides the funding to support Web hosting for all of
       the Agency's Web sites and pages. The EPA Web site is the primary delivery mechanism
       for environmental information to EPA staff, partners, stakeholders and the public, and is
       becoming a resource for emergency planning and response. (In FY 2012, IOME activities
       will be  funded at $0.42 million in non-payroll funding under the S&T appropriation.)

   •   IT/Information Management (IT/IM) Policy and  Planning - FY 2012 activities will
       ensure that all due steps are taken to reduce redundancy among information systems and
       data bases, streamline and systematize the planning and budgeting for all IT/IM activities,
       and monitor the progress and performance of all IT/IM  activities and systems.  EPA's
       Quality Program has consistently played a major role in each of these areas.  In FY 2012,
       the Quality Program will initiate a number of revisions to comply with the CIO Quality
       Policy  2106 (http://www.epa.gov/irmpoli8/policies/21060.pdf).  (In  FY  2012, Quality
       Program activities will be funded at $0.99 million in non-payroll funding and $2.7 million
       in payroll funding under the S&T appropriation.)

Performance Targets:

Work  under  this program supports multiple  strategic objectives.   Currently, there are no
performance measures for this specific Program Project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$267.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •   (-$28.0)  This decrease  in travel costs reflects  an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.
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   •   (-$498.0) This reduction reflects a decrease in efforts to improve EPA's IT capabilities in
       order to support the Agency's expanding use of video conferencing under the green travel
       and conferencing initiative.

   •   (-$18.0)  This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work  to  redesign  processes  and  streamline  activities in  both administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), 42 U.S.C. 553  et seq. and Government Information
Security Act (GISRA), 40 U.S.C.  1401 et seq. - Sections 3531, 3532, 3533, 3534, 3535 and
3536 and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA),
42 U.S.C. 9606 et seq. - Sections  101-128, 301-312 and 401-405 and Clean Air Act (CAA)
Amendments, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.  - Sections 102, 103, 104 and 108 and Clean Water Act
(CWA), 33 U.S.C. 1314 et seq. -  Sections 101,  102, 103, 104, 105, 107, and 109 and Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. 2611 et seq. - Sections 201, 301 and 401 and Federal
Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 7 U.S.C. 36 et seq. -  Sections  136a - 136y
and Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), 7 U.S.C. 136 et seq. - Sections 102, 210, 301 and 501
and Safe Drinking Water Act (SOWA) Amendments, 42 U.S.C. 300 et seq. - Sections 1400,
1401,  1411, 1421, 1431, 1441, 1454  and  1461 and Federal  Food,  Drug  and  Cosmetic Act
(FFDCA), 21 U.S.C. 346 et seq. and Emergency  Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
(EPCRA), 42 U.S.C. 11001 et seq. - Sections 322, 324, 325 and 328 and Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act (RCRA), 42 U.S.C. 6962 et seq. - Sections 1001, 2001, 3001 and 3005 and
Government Performance and Results Act  (GPRA), 39 U.S.C. 2803 et seq. - Sections 1115,
1116, 1117, 1118 and 1119 and Government Management Reform Act (GMRA),  31 U.S.C. 501
et seq. - Sections 101, 201, 301, 401, 402, 403, 404 and 405 and Clinger-Cohen Act (CCA), 40
U.S.C. 1401 et  seq. - Sections 5001, 5201, 5301,  5401, 5502, 5601 and 5701and Paperwork
Reduction Act (PRA), 44 U.S.C. 3501  et seq. - Sections  104, 105, 106, 107, 108,  109, 110, 111,
112 and  113  and Freedom  of Information  Act  (FOIA), 5  U.S.C. 552  et seq. and Controlled
Substances Act (CSA), 21 U.S.C. 802 et seq. - Sections 801, 811, 821, 841, 871, 955 and 961
and Electronic Freedom of Information Act (EFOIA), 5 U.S.C.  552 et  seq. - Sections 552(a)(2),
552 (a)(3), 552 (a)(4) and 552(a)(6).
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Program Area: Operations and Administration
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                                                 Facilities Infrastructure and Operations
                                              Program Area: Operations and Administration

  Goal: Provide Agency-wide support for multiple goals to achieve their objectives. This support
 involves Agency-wide activities primarily provided by EPA's six (6) support offices - the Office
   of Administration and Resources Management (OARM), Office of the Chief Financial Officer
 (OCFO), Office of Environmental Information (OEI), Office of General Counsel (OGC), Office
                        of the Administrator (OA), and the Office of Inspector General (OIG).

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Building and Facilities
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
Inland Oil Spill Programs
Hazardous Substance Superfund
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$315,238.0
$72,918.0
$28,931.0
$904.0
$505.0
$78,482.0
$496,978.0
411.1
FY2010
Actuals
$310,238.8
$72,841.7
$29,896.7
$871.9
$489.4
$76,052.0
$490,390.5
410.6
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$315,238.0
$72,918.0
$28,931.0
$904.0
$505.0
$78,482.0
$496,978.0
411.1
FY2012
Pres Budget
$324,965.0
$76,521.0
$33,931.0
$916.0
$536.0
$81,431.0
$518,300.0
408.5
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$9,727.0
$3,603.0
$5,000.0
$12.0
$31.0
$2,949.0
$21,322.0
-2.6
Program Project Description:

Science & Technology (S&T) resources in the Facilities Infrastructure and Operations Program
are used to fund  rental of laboratory and office space, utilities, security, and also to manage
activities and support services in many centralized administrative areas such as health and safety,
environmental compliance,  occupational health, medical monitoring, fitness, wellness, safety,
and  environmental management functions,  facilities  maintenance  and  operations,  energy
conservation, greenhouse gas reduction,  sustainable buildings  programs, and space planning.
Funding is allocated among the major appropriations for the Agency.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

 The Agency reviews  space needs on a regular basis, and is implementing a long-term space
consolidation plan that includes reducing the number of occupied facilities,  consolidating space
within the remaining facilities,  and reducing the square footage where practical.  From FY 2007
through FY 2010, EPA released approximately 250,000 square feet of space at headquarters and
facilities nationwide resulting in a cumulative annual rent avoidance of over $1.1 million in S&T
dollars over this period.  The Agency's Space Strategy  efforts  continue to  pursue several long
term policy  options that could lead to  further efficiencies and  potential reductions to  the
Agency's real property footprint.  In FY 2011 thru FY 2014, EPA plans to release additional
space for more savings.  These achieved savings and potential savings partially offset EPA's
escalating rent budget. For example, replacement leases for regional offices in Boston, Kansas
City, San Francisco, and Seattle are significantly higher than those previously negotiated.  The
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Agency will continue to manage its lease agreements with the General Services Administration
and  other private landlords by  conducting reviews and verifying that billing statements are
correct. For FY 2012, the Agency is requesting a total of $35.66 million for rent, $20.20 million
for utilities, $10.71 million for security, $0.90 million for transit subsidy, and $2.58 million for
Regional moves in the S&T appropriation.

In FY 2012, EPA will continue to improve operating efficiency and encourage the use of new,
advanced technologies, and energy sources.  EPA  will continue to direct resources towards
acquiring alternative fuel vehicles and more fuel-efficient passenger cars and light trucks to meet
the goals set by Executive Order (EO)  134239, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy,
and Transportation Management.  Additionally, the Agency will  attain the Executive Order's
environmental  performance goals related  to buildings through  several  initiatives,  including
comprehensive facility energy audits,  re-commissioning, sustainable building design in Agency
construction and alteration projects, energy  savings performance contracts to achieve energy
efficiencies, the use of off-grid energy equipment, energy load reduction strategies, green power
purchases,  and the use of Energy Star rated products and building standards.  In  FY  2012, the
Agency plans to reduce energy utilization  (or improve energy efficiency) by approximately 37
billion British Thermal Units or three percent.  EPA should end FY 2012 using approximately 21
percent less energy than it did in FY 2003.

EO 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, expands
upon EO 13423 and requires additional reductions to greenhouse gas emissions. EPA  will meet
the requirements of EO 13514 through:

•      Managing  existing building systems  to  reduce consumption of energy, water,  and
       materials;
•      Identifying opportunities to consolidate and dispose of existing  assets,  optimize  real
       property; and portfolio performance, and reduce environmental impacts; and
•      Implementing best management  practices  in  energy-efficient  management of  real
       property including Agency labs and  data centers.

As part of the Agency's commitment to promoting employee health and wellness, the Agency
collected data to assess its health and wellness programs nationwide. The data will be used to
establish a baseline from  FY 2010, which the Agency will use to explore options to improve
health and wellness  programs, and to develop performance  improvement targets  and  an action
plan with the goal of enhancing the overall  quality of life of EPA employees. In the interim EPA
has a short-term plan that includes the following initiatives:

•      Work with the General Services Administration (GSA) to expand health and wellness
       programs in  GSA-owned and -leased facilities.  Some options include healthier food
       choices, increasing fitness center activities, and expanding health unit capabilities.
9 Information is available at http://www.fedcenter.gov/programs/eol3514/. Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and
Economic Performance', and http://www.fedcenter.gov/programs/eol3423/. Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and
Transportation Management


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•      Enhance  outreach  efforts  to employees  to increase  fitness  center  memberships,
       registration for seminars and educational programs,  and inoculations and screenings in
       health units.

•      Establish or expand sports competitions and fitness challenges to build or strengthen our
       fitness programs nationwide.

•      Offer more health educational classes and seminars to increase employee attendance and
       participation.

Lastly,  EPA will continue to provide transit subsidy  to  eligible  applicants as  directed by
Executive  Order  1315010 Federal  Workforce  Transportation.    EPA  will  continue  the
implementation  of the Safety and  Health Management Systems to ensure  a  safe  working
environment.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program supports the performance measures in the Facilities Infrastructure and
Operations Program Project under the EPM appropriation. These measures can also be found in
the Performance Four Year Array in Tab 11.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •    (+$2,034.0) This increase reflects the net effect of rent reduction as a result of the space
       consolidation  effort, projected contractual  rent  increases, and reallocation  involving
       EPM, S&T and Superfund appropriations.

   •   (+$1,018.0) This reflects an increase in utility costs.

   •   (+$454.0)  This reflects an increase in security due to guard contract costs  in RTF and
       Cincinnati facilities.

   •   (+$2,333.0) This reflects an increase in funding for Regional moves for the Reproductive
       Toxicology Facility (RTF), which is moving to the main campus  in Research Triangle
       Park (RTF).

   •   (-$35.0)  This reflects a decrease in transit subsidy based on projected needs.

   •   (-$1,083.0)  This reflects  efficiencies  achieved  in health and safety audits, security
       systems maintenance by utilizing a Physical Access  Control  System, and preventative
       maintenance and on-site engineering support at EPA's facility.

   •   (-$882.0)  This reflects a reduction as part  of the Administrative Efficiency  Initiative.
       This initiative  targets  certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions,
  Additional information available at http://ceq.eh.doe.gov/nepa/regs/eos/eol3150.html
                                           131

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       including advisory contracts,  travel, general services,  printing and supplies.   EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-$236.0) This reduction eliminates EPA's funding for Lab 21 conference, which will
       now be fully funded from private sector resources.

Statutory Authority:

FPASA; PBA; Annual Appropriations Act; CWA; CAA; D.C. Recycling Act of 1988; Executive
Orders 10577 and 12598; United States Marshals Service, Vulnerability Assessment of Federal
Facilities Report; Presidential Decision Directive 63 (Critical Infrastructure Protection); Energy
Policy Act of 2005; Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.
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Program Area: Pesticides Licensing
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                                    Pesticides: Protect Human Health from Pesticide Risk
                                                        Program Area: Pesticides Licensing
                             Goal: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                                                      Objective(s): Ensure Chemical Safety

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$62,944.0
$3,750.0
$66,694.0
467.9
FY2010
Actuals
$62,696.4
$4,146.4
$66,842.8
470.1
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$62,944.0
$3,750.0
$66,694.0
467.9
FY2012
Pres Budget
$58,304.0
$3,839.0
$62,143.0
447.5
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($4,640.0)
$89.0
($4,551.0)
-20.4
Program Project Description:

 The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),  Section 3(c)(5), states that
 the Administrator shall register a pesticide if it is determined that, when used in accordance with
 labeling and common practices,  the product "will not generally cause unreasonable adverse
 effects  on the environment." Further, FIFRA defines "unreasonable adverse  effects on the
 environment" as "any unreasonable risk to man or the environment."

EPA's Pesticides Program screens new pesticides before they reach the market and ensures that
pesticides already in commerce are safe.   As directed by FIFRA, the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), and the Food  Quality Act of 1996 that amended FIFRA and FFDCA,
EPA is  responsible for registering and re-evaluating pesticides to protect consumers, pesticide
users, workers who may be exposed to  pesticides, children, and other sensitive populations.  To
make regulatory decisions and establish tolerances for the maximum allowable pesticide residues
on food and feed, EPA must balance  the risks and benefits of using the pesticide,  consider
cumulative and aggregate risks, and ensure extra protection for children.

Laboratory activity for  the  Pesticide  Program  supports the goal of protecting human  health
through efforts at three  laboratories:  an  analytical chemistry laboratory  and a microbiology
laboratory  at the Environmental  Science  Center at Fort Meade, MD, and an environmental
chemistry laboratory at Stennis Space Center, Bay St. Louis, MS.  These laboratories provide a
variety  of technical services to EPA, other  federal  and  state agencies,  tribes,  and  other
organizations.  The laboratories assist the  Agency  and  state enforcement laboratories  by
providing reference standards, analytical  methods  development, training,  and assistance with
laboratory  audits.   They develop and validate analytical methods for  risk assessment and
enforcement  projects.   The  analytical methods are available  for  use by the United  States
Department of Agriculture (USDA),  the United States  Geological Survey (USGS), EPA, and
states.  Additionally, the laboratories  perform  chemical and efficacy analyses  and assist in
investigations of incidents such as crop damage or illegal pesticide residues.

For additional information, see http://www.epa.gov/oppbeadl/labs/index.htm.
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FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In 2012, the Agency will protect  human health  by ensuring the availability  of appropriate
analytical methods for  detecting pesticide residues in food and feed, ensuring suitability for
monitoring  pesticide residues,  and enforcing  tolerances.   This  will  be  accomplished by
developing and validating multi-residue pesticide analytical methods for food, feed, and water
for use by  other federal  and state laboratories, and EPA.  Laboratories further support the
estimation of human  health risks from pesticide use by operating the National Pesticide Standard
Repository (NPSR).  EPA's NPSR collects and maintains pesticide standards (i.e., samples of
pure active  ingredients or technical grade active ingredients for pesticides).  The  repository
distributes these standards to EPA and other federal laboratories and tribal laboratories involved
in pesticide enforcement, including tolerance ,  enforcement verification of label claims,  and
investigations of pesticide use/misuse in support of EPA's regulatory  decisions for FIFRA and
Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). The laboratories also perform efficacy measurement and
testing of antimicrobial  products with public health claims - for example hospital  disinfectants
and research on methods to measure the efficacy of various types of antimicrobials, including
sporicides.

EPA's pesticide laboratories provide quality assurance and technical support and training to EPA
regional  offices, state  laboratories, and other federal  agencies  that implement FIFRA.   The
laboratories  will evaluate registered products that are most crucial to infection  control (e.g.
sterilants, tuberculocides,  and  hospital-level disinfectants).   Under the  Plant  Incorporated
Protectants  or PIP method validation program, evaluation will continue  on  several  novel
molecular-based methods.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program also supports performance results listed in EPM Pesticides: Protect
Human Health from  Pesticide Risk and can be found in the Performance Four -Year Array in
Tab 11.

Some of this program's performance measures are program outputs, which represent statutory
requirements to ensure that pesticides entering the marketplace are safe for human health and the
environment and when used  in accordance with the packaging label,  present a reasonable
certainty of no harm. While program outputs are not the best measures of risk reduction, they do
provide a means for realizing benefits in  that the program's safety review prevents dangerous
pesticides from entering the marketplace.  There are  no specific  performance measures for this
specific program.

FY 2012 Change from  FY 2010 Enacted  Budget (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$52.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

   •   (-$23.0) This  reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
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       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

   •   (+$60.0) This increase represents additional funds to support fixed laboratory costs for
       the pesticide program.

Statutory Authority:

Pesticide Registration Improvement Renewal Act (PRIRA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended; Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) as
amended, § 408 and 409.
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                                   Pesticides: Protect the Environment from Pesticide Risk
                                                          Program Area: Pesticides Licensing
                              Goal: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                                                        Objective(s): Ensure Chemical Safety

                                   (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$42,203.0
$2,279.0
$44,482.0
301.4
FY2010
Actuals
$41,584.5
$2,285.9
$43,870.4
334.9
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$42,203.0
$2,279.0
$44,482.0
301.4
FY2012
Pres Budget
$37,913.0
$2,448.0
$40,361.0
288.2
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($4,290.0)
$169.0
($4,121.0)
-13.2
Program Project Description:

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), section 3(c)(5), states that the
Administrator shall register a pesticide  if it is  determined that, when used in accordance with
labeling  and common  practices,  the product "will  not  generally cause unreasonable adverse
effects on the environment." FIFRA defines "unreasonable adverse effects on the environment"
as "any unreasonable risk to man or the environment."

Along with assessing the risks that pesticides pose to human health, EPA conducts ecological
risk assessments to determine potential effects on plants, animals, and ecosystems.  EPA works
to protect ecosystems, particularly the plants and animals that are not targets of the pesticide, and
satisfies  additional responsibilities under the Endangered  Species Act (ESA).11  As directed by
FIFRA, EPA must determine that a pesticide is not likely to harm the environment, and may
impose risk mitigation  measures such as restricting uses, denying uses, or requiring monitoring
of environmental  conditions,  such as effects  on water  sources.12  In making its regulatory
decisions, the Agency  considers  both the risks and the benefits derived from  the use  of the
pesticide.

Laboratory activities  for the pesticides program support the goal of protecting the environment
from pesticide use through three pesticides laboratories:  an analytical chemistry laboratory and a
microbiology laboratory  at  the  Environmental Science Center  at Fort Meade, MD, and an
environmental  chemistry  laboratory at  Stennis Space  Center,  Bay  St.  Louis, MS.   These
laboratories  develop  and  validate  environmental and  analytical  chemistry   methods  and
genetically modified organism Plant-Incorporated Protectant (PIP) methods to ensure the United
States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), EPA
11 The Endangered Species Act of 1973 sections 7(a)l and 7(a)2; Federal Agency Actions and Consultations, as amended (16
U.S.C. 1536(a)). Available at U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Act of 1973 Internet site:
http://www.fws.gov/endangered/ESA35/ESA35DaleOA.html.
12 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended.  January 23, 2004. Section 3(a), Requirement of Registration
(7U.S.C. 136a). Available online at: http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/regulating/laws.htm
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offices, and states have reliable methods to measure and monitor pesticide residues in food and
in the  environment.  The pesticide laboratories, in cooperation with industry, state, and other
EPA laboratories, develop multi-residue analytical methods to allow enforcement agencies to test
for several different chemicals using one test.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In 2012, the Agency will support the protection of the environment by developing methods and
conducting analyses to make better informed decisions regarding pesticide exposures and risk to
the environment and by operating the National Pesticide Standard Repository (NPSR) to support
federal  and  state  laboratories involved  in  enforcement  activities.  Under the PIP method
validation program, work will continue on evaluating several novel molecular-based methods.

The laboratories also will support the protection of the environment by:

1) Evaluating residue analytical methods used for detecting pesticide residues in environmental
matrices, such as water, soil, and sediment.  Evaluating residue analytical methods will allow the
program to better assess the  results generated by the registrant and submitted to the Agency,
which  is required  by the pesticide  registration  guidelines of FIFRA.   Evaluating residue
analytical methods  also will assist the agency in developing  and validating multi-residue
pesticide  analytical  methods for environmental  matrices  for use by  other federal and  state
laboratories to estimate environmental risks.

2) Responding to urgent pesticide program  needs for analytical  chemistry support  to address
specific short-term, rapid turnaround issues of high priority. The laboratories cooperate with the
Regional Offices on activities related to analysis of environmental samples for select pesticides
or other environmental contaminants related to pesticide production or disposition. Additionally,
the laboratories develop exposure  data  for dioxins,  polychlorinated  biphenyls,  and other
persistent contaminants  of environmental  concern,  to support  agency  environmental  risk
assessments.

3) Conducting product performance evaluations of antimicrobials to remove ineffective products
from the market.  The labs also provide data to support use of effective tools for remediation
efforts and testing capacity for environmental monitoring of microbial populations (due to overt
or unintentional contamination).  Another activity involves conducting validation services on
methods used to detect DNA and/or proteins for PIPs in major agricultural commodities such as
corn, soybeans, potatoes, and cotton.

EPA's laboratories provide technical support and quality assurance support to regional, state and
other federal laboratories in numerous ways.  The laboratories are responsible for the posting and
upkeep of residue analytical methods and environmental chemistry methods for food, feed, soil,
and water on the EPA Web site. These methods are frequently the only resource available to
Regional  Offices,   state  laboratories,  and  other federal  agencies  for  current methodology
information for the newest pesticides.  The microbiology laboratory also posts and maintains the
methods used to determine the efficacy of microbiological products on the Web where there are
approximately 400  methods  currently available  (see http://www.epa.gov/oppbeadl/methods/).
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Additionally, the  Agency responds  to approximately  90  requests per  year for  method
information. These requests primarily come from state FIFRA laboratories.

The laboratories are involved in the development of multi-residue analytical methods (MRMs),
which  are  methods capable of measuring  several similar  pesticides  simultaneously.   These
MRMs are made available to state and federal laboratories involved in residue monitoring and
enforcement activities.

The pesticides program operates the EPA NPSR, which provides pesticide reference materials to
federal and state laboratories for enforcement activities. The NPSR shipped approximately 6,000
analytical reference standards to enforcement laboratories in FY 2007 and approximately 6,500
standards in FY 2008.  In FY 2009, 5,013 standards were provided. The number increased to
6,870 in FY 2010. FY 2011 and FY 2012 standards are anticipated to be 6,500 for each year.

The laboratories also participate in the American Association  of Pest Control Officials  and the
State FIFRA Issues and Research Evaluation Group pesticide laboratory technical meetings with
state  and  industry  chemists,  responding to issues  raised by   enforcement laboratories.
Additionally, the laboratories are represented on and work through the Association of Analytical
Chemists to develop and implement consensus  methods for microbiology and chemistry.

In the area of quality assurance, the Agency's laboratories  assist state and federal  partners in
several ways. Examples include providing review of quality management plans and laboratory
projects  conducted under interagency agreements with the  Food  and  Drug  Administration
(FDA); providing technical assistance and oversight on quality assurance and technical questions
from FDA and DoD laboratories for a  variety  of projects; providing quality assurance oversight
to the FDA/White Oak facility for the  Three Step Method  (TSM) collaborative validation study
(the FDA did not have a quality  assurance unit in place at the time of the study); and conducting
a readiness review at 10 collaborating  laboratories working on the validation of the  TSM.  The
TSM quantitatively measures the efficacy of antimicrobials for inactivating anthrax spores.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program also supports performance results listed in EPM  Pesticides: Protect the
Environment from  Pesticide Risk and can be found in the Performance Four-Year Array in Tab
11.

Some of the pesticide program's performance measures are program outputs, which represent
statutory requirements to ensure that pesticides entering the marketplace are safe for human
health and the environment, and when used in accordance with the packaging label present a
reasonable certainty of no harm.  There  are no specific performance measures under this program.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$125.0) This reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.
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    •   (-$15.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies. EPA will continue its
       work  to redesign  processes  and  streamline  activities  in  both  administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (+$59.0) This increase represents additional funds to support laboratory fixed costs for
       the pesticide program.

Statutory Authority:

Pesticide Registration Improvement Renewal Act (PRIRA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended; Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) as
amended § 408 and 409.
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                                       Pesticides: Realize the Value of Pesticide Availability
                                                           Program Area: Pesticides Licensing
                               Goal: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                                                         Objective(s): Ensure Chemical Safety

                                    (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$13,145.0
$537.0
$13,682.0
89.7
FY2010
Actuals
$13,508.9
$505.1
$14,014.0
99.9
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$13,145.0
$537.0
$13,682.0
89.7
FY2012
Pres Budget
$12,550.0
$544.0
$13,094.0
88.1
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($595.0)
$7.0
($588.0)
-1.6
Program Project Description:

Within the Federal  Insecticide,  Fungicide, and  Rodenticide  Act (FIFRA), the  definition of
"unreasonable adverse effects on the  environment" expands the concept of protecting against
unreasonable risks to man or the environment, by adding "taking into account the economic,
social  and environmental costs and benefits of the use of any pesticide..."13  This  language
authorizes the emergency use program to respond in infestations along with other aspects  of the
program that enhances the benefits of pesticides.

EPA must ensure  that such emergency uses will not present an unreasonable risk to human
health  or the environment.  EPA's timely review of emergency  exemptions has avoided an
estimated $1.5 billion in crop losses per year,14 resulting from incidents of new pests  on crops
when  exemptions  are necessary to allow non-standard pesticide use  to stem off a specific
outbreak or while progress is made towards full registration of new pesticides.  In such  cases,
EPA's  goal  is  to  complete the  more detailed  and  comprehensive risk review  for  pesticide
registration within three years.

FIFRA clearly recognizes that there will be societal benefits beyond protection of human health
and  the environment from the pesticide registration process  that it  establishes.  Section 3 of
FIFRA also  authorizes EPA to register products  that are identical or  substantially similar to
already registered  products.  While some  effective termiticides have been removed  from the
market due to safety concerns, EPA continues to work with industry to register safe alternatives
that  meet or exceed all current safety standards and offer a high  level of protection.
13 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, as amended. January 23, 2004. Section 3(a), Requirement of Registration
(7U.S.C. 136a). Available online at http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/regulating/laws.htm.

14 Baseline data on crop market prices, crop production, and total acres grown are from United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) databases, while the percentage of potential yield loss without pesticides is estimated by Biological and Economic
Analysis Division (BEAD) scientists based on published and unpublished studies. The number of acres treated with the pesticides
are based on data submitted by state Departments of Agriculture.
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Three pesticide laboratories provide data that are used by EPA to make informed regulatory
decisions that recognize societal benefits: an analytical chemistry laboratory and a microbiology
laboratory  at the Environmental  Science Center at Fort Meade, MD, and  an environmental
chemistry laboratory  at  Stennis Space Center,  Bay  St. Louis, MS.   These  laboratories also
validate environmental  and analytical chemistry methods to ensure  that the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA), the United  States Department  of Agriculture (USDA), EPA offices, and
states have reliable methods to measure and monitor pesticide residues  in  food and in the
environment. Additionally, the  laboratories ensure that pesticides deliver intended results. The
laboratories,  in cooperation with  industry,  state and other EPA laboratories, develop multi-
residue analytical methods to allow enforcement agencies to test for several different chemicals
using one test.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, the Agency will realize the benefits of pesticides by operating the National Pesticide
Standard Repository (NPSR) and conducting chemistry and efficacy testing for antimicrobials.
EPA's laboratories will continue to provide quality assurance and technical support and training
to EPA regions,  state laboratories, and other federal agencies that  implement FIFRA.  The
laboratories will evaluate registered products that are most crucial to infection control (sterilants,
tuberculocides, and hospital-level disinfectants).  Under the Plant-Incorporated Protectants (PIP)
method validation program, work will continue on evaluating several novel molecular-based
methods.

The pesticide laboratories  support the program by  evaluating analytical methods  for detecting
pesticide residues in food and  feed ensuring suitability  for monitoring pesticide  residues and
enforcement of tolerances. The NPSR also distributes analytical standards to federal and state
laboratories involved  in  enforcement activities.   The laboratories develop and validate multi-
residue pesticide  analytical methods for food, feed  and water for use by other federal (USDA
Pesticide Data Program and FDA) and state laboratories.  These laboratories generate residue
data that are then used by the  program to estimate human health risks.  The laboratories are
prepared to respond to urgent program needs for analytical chemistry support and special studies
to address specific short-term, rapid turnaround priority issues.

In  addition to residue  methods,  the  laboratories  provide  method validation  services for
genetically modified organism products.  They also develop data to support FIFRA Section 18
uses for new chemicals where efficacy  data are  non-existent (particularly  biothreat  agents,
including B. anthracis, or emerging hospital pathogens) and evaluate the product performance of
antimicrobials used to control infectious pathogens  in hospital environments.  The laboratories
develop new test methods for novel uses or emerging pathogens, including biothreat agents. The
outputs of this work provide  guidelines for efficacy data for public health claims,  guidance for
registration, and facilitate technical support and training on testing methods and procedures.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program also supports performance results listed in EPM Pesticides: Realize the
Value of Pesticide Availability and can be found in the Performance Four Year Array in Tab 11.
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Some of this program's performance measures are program outputs, which represent statutory
requirements to ensure that pesticides entering the marketplace are safe for human health and the
environment and, when used in  accordance with the packaging label, present a reasonable
certainty of no harm. While program outputs are not the best measures of risk reduction, they do
provide a means for realizing benefits in that the program's safety review prevents dangerous
pesticides from entering the marketplace. There are no specific performance measures under this
program.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$4.0) This decrease reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

    •   (-$3.0) This reflects a  reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending  for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts,  travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will  continue its
       work to redesign  processes  and  streamline  activities in both  administrative and
       programmatic areas to  achieve these savings.

    •   (+$14.0) This increase represents additional funds to support laboratory fixed costs for
       the pesticide program.

Statutory Authority:

Pesticide Registration Improvement Renewal Act (PRIRA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),  as amended; Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)as
amended, § 408 and 409.
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Program Area: Research: Air, Climate and Energy
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                                                      Research: Air, Climate and Energy
                                          Program Area: Research:  Air, Climate and Energy
                           Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                 Objective(s): Address Climate Change; Improve Air Quality

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$111,449.0
$111,449.0
313.6

FY2010
Actuals
$102,758.1
$102,758.1
311.4

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$111,449.0
$111,449.0
313.6

FY2012
Pres Budget
$108,000.0
$108,000.0
309.6
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($3,449.0)
($3,449.0)
-4.0
Program Project Description:

EPA's Office of Research and Development provides critical support to Agency environmental
policy decisions and  regulatory actions to protect  human health and the environment. EPA
research has provided  effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems for the past 40
years.  Research enabled the Agency to implement policies and regulations to minimize waste
and reduce pollution in specific industries and at different scales (national, regional, and local).
However, these solutions were accomplished  using  approaches based on  the best science
available at the time and typically focused on the risks posed by a single chemical to a single
target organ or species.

Now, as science advances, EPA is working to address the increasing complexity of 21st century
environmental challenges with solutions that are effective, efficient, and sustainable - solutions
that  are  designed  to meet  current  needs while  minimizing potential  human health  and
environmental risks in the future. Air quality decisions historically rested solely on the health
and environmental consequences of individual pollutants. As many air pollutant levels decrease,
however, concern  grows for potential health  and environmental effects from multipollutant
exposures.  Climate change  may be affected by,  and  contribute  to,  particles  in  these
multipollutant mixtures. A change in climate may cause changes in temperature, humidity,  and
cloud formation that can lead to the evolution of secondary pollutants (e.g., ozone and organic
compounds) and changes in pollution-causing particles. An increase in secondary pollutants  and
particle changes may  cause increased  degradation of air and water quality.  At the same time,
community traffic plans and land use decisions also have impacts on climate and air quality. A
comprehensive understanding of these  processes is necessary to inform the models used to make
air quality and  community adaptation  decisions and to avoid partial, disconnected information
that undermines sound decision making.

In FY 2012, EPA  will strengthen its planning and delivery of science by  implementing an
integrated research approach that looks at problems from a systems perspective.  This approach
will  create  synergy and should produce more timely, efficient results than those possible from
approaches that are more narrowly targeted to single chemicals or problem areas.
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Consistent with the Administration's science and technology priorities for FY 2012,15 the new
integrated research approach will help develop sustainable solutions by adding a transformative
component to EPA's  existing research portfolio. The Agency will plan,  develop and conduct
research leveraging the diverse capabilities of in-house scientists and bridge traditional scientific
disciplines.  In addition, research plans will incorporate input from external stakeholders such as
federal, state and  local government  agencies, non-governmental organizations, industry,  and
communities affected by environmental problems.

The  Air,  Climate  and Energy (ACE) Research Program's  integrated research approach will
provide models and tools necessary for policy makers at all levels of community and government
to make the best decisions. In coordination with other Research Programs, EPA will extend its
research to include impacts to disadvantaged or otherwise compromised communities.  The new
research approach integrates multiple science disciplines  and includes multiple users to promote
sound policy decisions as we move forward in the 21st century.

EPA will use the integrated research  framework  to  develop a deeper understanding of our
environmental challenges and inform sustainable solutions to meet our strategic goals. In FY
2012, EPA is realigning and integrating the work of twelve of its base Research Programs into
four new Research Programs:
       Air, Climate and Energy
       Safe and Sustainable Water Resources
       Sustainable and Healthy Communities
       Chemical Safety and Sustainability
        Proportion of
        Former Programs
        Transferring
        NEW
FY 2012 Program
         100%
        99%
          10%
         1%
15 For more information, see the Executive Office of the President memorandum:
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/fyl2-budget-guidance-memo.pdf
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This integration capitalizes on existing capabilities and promotes the innovative use of multiple
disciplines to further EPA's mission. Research to  address  targeted,  existing problems  and
provide technical  support  will also continue, with  a focus  on sustainable  applications  and
outcomes.

This program realignment will strengthen EPA's ability to leverage its partnerships to ensure its
research is addressing the highest Agency priorities.  The following Research Programs will be
integrated into the Air, Climate and Energy Research Program:

       Clean Air Research
   -   Global Change Research
   -   Biofuels Research (within the Sustainability Program)
       Mercury Research (within the Human Health and Ecosystems Program)

The  following are descriptions  of current FY 2012 Air, Climate and Energy (ACE) activities
categorized under the key program areas:

Clean Air Research ($83.1 million)—Clean Air research provides the scientific foundation for
review and implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).  In order
to better address the true atmospheric complexities of air pollution, EPA  conducts research using
a multi-pollutant source to  health outcome approach. This air quality approach will link health
and environmental impacts to their dominant sources and will provide  information for a more
effective and efficient air quality management strategy.

Global  Change  Research  ($20.8  million)—Global  Change research  provides  scientific
information to enable decision makers and stakeholders to develop the most effective policies
and strategies to respond to global change. Research will continue to improve  understanding of
how climate  change affects the Agency's ability  to  fulfill its  statutory,  regulatory  and
programmatic requirements, and identifies opportunities  within the provisions  of the  statutes
(e.g., the  Clean Air Act,  Clean  Water  Act, and  Safe Drinking Water Act) to address the
anticipated impacts of a changing climate.

The  Air,  Climate  and Energy  Program  will continue to provide  the  underlying research to
support the Agency's implementation of the Clean Air Act, which mandates scientific review of
the NAAQS as well as the evaluation of risks associated with HAPs.   The ACE program  will
also  continue to   be  an active participant in  the U.S.  Global  Change Research Program
(USGCRP), the interagency Federal effort to improve scientific understanding of climate change
and global change. 16 EPA will continue to participate in USGCRP's programmatic, assessment,
and planning activities, including the development of the National Climate Assessments.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

Protecting human health and the environment from the effects of air pollution and  developing a
better understanding of climate  change impacts on natural  systems, while meeting  the demands
of a growing population  and economy,  is  critical  to the well-being  of  the nation.   As we
 5 For more information, see http://www. globalchange. gov/


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investigate solutions to  reduce and prevent emissions and investigate potential environmental
implications of a changing climate, we are challenged by uncertainties surrounding the complex
interplay between air quality, the changing climate, and a changing energy landscape, and the
subsequent human health  and environmental  risks from exposure to an evolving array of air
pollutants.

By integrating air, climate and  energy research, and  in working with  the  other Research
Programs, EPA will conduct research to understand the complexity of these interactions. The
ACE  Program will  provide  cutting-edge scientific information and tools to support EPA's
strategic goals  to  protect and  improve air quality.   New knowledge  will  investigate
environmental implications of strategies to reduce emissions and sustainably adapt to climate
change.

EPA's ACE Research Program is designed to promote innovative, sustainable, and integrated
solutions to air pollution and climate change to minimize adverse impacts on public health and
the environment.  The  ACE Program also will  continue to provide responsive,  robust,  and
dynamic research in support of EPA's programs to improve public health and the environment,
increase life expectancy, and protect the most susceptible populations.

Following are overarching  research themes to be  addressed by the program based  on  ongoing
input from EPA's partners.  These research themes and questions will be independently reviewed
by EPA's Science Advisory Board and Board of Scientific  Counselors during the spring and
summer of 2011.

Theme  1: Develop and evaluate multi-pollutant,  regional,  and sector-based approaches  and
advance more cost-effective  and innovative  strategies  to reduce air emissions that adversely
affect atmospheric integrity.

Air pollution sources emit  mixtures of pollutants, including greenhouse gases.  Individuals are
therefore exposed to multiple air pollutants at any one  time.  Multi-pollutant  and sector-based
pollutant reduction approaches will be developed to  simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas
emissions and account for the evolution and transformation of these mixtures in the atmosphere
and the effects of a changing climate. Integrated pollution reduction approaches will enable EPA
to develop and implement sustainable solutions to effectively  meet its goal to ensure a clean and
healthy environment. The ACE Research Program will:

   •   Work with experts in industry, academic  and  research  communities,  and with other
       federal, state and local partners to develop integrated strategies that reduce and prevent
       atmospheric pollution from key economic sectors.
   •   Assess the full life-cycle health, environmental and social impacts of alternative sector-
       specific strategies, such as biofuels for transportation.
   •   Develop,  evaluate, and adapt innovative technologies for both monitoring multi-pollutant
       mixtures  in the  atmosphere and  assessing source emissions for  a  range of needs,
       including community  information, compliance and enforcement, regional and  national
       assessments and air quality planning.
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    •   Develop research tools that can evaluate the effectiveness of air pollution strategies at the
       local, regional and national levels.

Theme 2: Assess the impacts of atmospheric pollution, accounting for interactions  between
climate change, air quality, and water quality.

Understanding the concurrent impacts of atmospheric pollution and climate change is a critical
step in evaluating  the  benefits and sustainability of environmental  policies.  Many of the
environmental outcomes EPA is seeking to improve are sensitive to weather and climate change.
Research is needed to explain how changes in climate will affect achieving and maintaining air
pollution and other environmental goals.  Adding to the complexity is the need to understand
how air pollutants, acting in combination with each other and with stressors impacted by climate
change (e.g., temperature,  aeroallergens), impact human health  and ecosystems.   The  ACE
Research Program will:

    •   Develop methods to assess health and ecosystem impacts of exposure to multiple air
       pollutants  in different environments including polluted urban areas, indoor  environments,
       and affected ecosystems.
    •   Develop tools and methods to assess impacts of air pollution and climate change  at
       community, regional, national and international scales.
    •   Link economic, technology, air  quality, water quality, land  use, ecosystem, and  other
       models to  enable integrated analyses of atmospheric pollution impacts.
    •   Gather, synthesize and report data on past changes in relevant environmental endpoints
       and climate-related metrics.

Theme 3: Provide environmental modeling, monitoring, metrics, and  information needed by
communities to adapt to the impacts of climate change.

Documented changes to environment and human health due to climate change are  challenging
the ability of federal, state,  and local agencies to meet their responsibilities  to  protect public
health  and the environment. EPA has an important role to play in providing information that will
help communities adapt to the environmental consequences  of climate  change.   The  ACE
Research Program will:

    •   Assess the characteristics of populations and ecosystems that are at greatest risk to the
       adverse effects of air pollution and climate change.
    •   Develop  integrated  approaches  to assess how  social and economic  factors  affect
       vulnerability to air pollution and climate change.
    •   Develop tools and  methods  that enable evaluation of adaptation  efforts  and inform
       coordinated, sustainable  responses to the impacts of climate change, in partnership with
       other federal agencies and research institutions.
    •   Develop tools to assess behavioral, social and economic responses  to  mitigation  or
       adaptation policies addressing climate change that can affect vulnerability to air pollution
       or climate change impacts.
    •   Support Agency efforts to develop and maintain a next generation monitoring network
       for ambient air pollutants, including both the NAAQS and HAPs.  In  particular, it will
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       provide field validation  of available, untested and  undeployed monitoring  methods,
       refinement of outdated techniques and methods, and innovative new technologies.

Within these integrated themes, EPA will continue its research to understand air pollution near
roads, attempting to link roadway emissions with health outcomes. 17 EPA is conducting studies
in Detroit from September 2010  through 2012, in  collaboration  with the  Federal  Highway
Administration, to measure and  characterize emissions and  to understand potential exposures
associated with roadway  emissions. This  research  is  being coordinated  by  EPA  with  a
cooperative  study  conducted by the University of Michigan focusing on the links  between
emissions, ambient concentrations,  exposure metrics and health outcomes in asthmatic children
residing near roadways. Through 2012, EPA will be publishing and reporting study data. Based
on this near  roads research, EPA will refine pollution models to provide regulators, community
planners  and decision  makers with the tools  needed to assess land-use  and future  land-use
planning.  These  tools will  inform key  decisions  such as  school building locations  and
renovations.    This  research  includes an assessment of the use  of passive road barriers in
mitigating air pollution effects.

Because the  2010 Report to Congress is complete, EPA will  reduce funding for research on the
impacts of biofuel production in FY 2012.   The decrease will reduce EPA research on filling
gaps identified in the Report to Congress, while still enabling EPA planning for the 2013 Report
to Congress  as required by the Energy  Independence and Security Act (EISA).  EPA also will
reduce funding for the Mercury Research Program and discontinue research examining mercury
"hot spots"  evaluating mercury emission measurement/control technologies,  and assessing the
impact of different coals and technology configurations on coal  combustion residues.  The
program will use data already generated to produce final products and reports.

During 2012, each of the six NAAQS will be  at some phase within the review cycle: Science
Assessment, Risk and Exposure Assessment, Policy Assessment, external review (e.g., Clean Air
Scientific Advisory Committee review or public review), or Proposed Rulemaking leading to
Final Rule Making.  Currently, Particulate Matter and Ozone are in the final  phases of review.
The NAAQS reviews focus on individual pollutants as statutorily mandated in five-year cycles
of review. The Air, Climate and Energy research program will continue to provide the critical
science to support the review process and the  development of models and tools to support
implementation of the NAAQS.

EPA will support the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves 18 to inform investments to develop
and deploy  improved stoves. The  goal of the  alliance is to reduce the health risks of people
exposed to the emissions from  cookstoves used by the world's poor to cook and heat. Clean
cookstoves can save lives,  enhance livelihoods, empower women  and combat climate change.
By utilizing EPA's  unique expertise in  characterizing   emission  generation,  quantifying
exposures and  assessing  human health effects,  ACE will address the health, environmental,
economic, and gender risks  associated with the use of solid fuels in traditional cookstoves.

Performance Targets:

17 For more information, see Near Roads: http://www.epa.gov/nerl/goals/air/linkages.html
18 For more information, see the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves: http://cleancookstoves.org/overview/.


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To be accountable to the American taxpayers, EPA plans to support the interagency Science and
Technology in America's Reinvestment - Measuring  the Effect of Research on  Innovation,
Competitiveness and Science (STAR METRICS) Program,  currently a pilot program for the
National Institutes of Health. This program is a collaboration of multiple science agencies, the
Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the research community.  STAR METRICS will
use "science of science policy" approaches to assessing the impact that federal science and
technology investments have on society, the environment, and the economy.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

The following policy changes are based on a comparison of the new FY 2012 budget structure to
the 2010 enacted budget and are included in the transfers from the source programs following
this section:

    •   (+$3,000.0)  This reflects  an  increase to help  the  Agency develop  efficient, high-
       performing,  and cost-effective monitors for  ambient air pollutants, including both the
       NAAQS and HAPs. In particular, it will  provide field validation of available,  untested
       and undeployed monitoring methods, refinement of outdated techniques  and methods,
       and innovative new technologies. With this investment, the Agency will seek lowest-cost,
       automated monitoring technologies to minimize future monitoring burdens felt by state
       and local agencies. This investment in a next generation air monitoring network supports
       the  Agency's priority of improving air quality across the nation by helping modernize
       monitoring methods and monitors.

    •   (-$36.0)  This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies. EPA will  continue its
       work to redesign processes  and  streamline  activities in  both administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-$150.0) This reflects a decrease to the  Clean  Air Research Program and  will reduce
       source receptor  and  dose-effect research that investigates  human  exposure  to air
       pollutants and the resulting health effects. This decrease could reduce the level  of detail
       in risk  estimates that support NAAQS  regulations.    This  decrease will  also delay
       reporting for the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study.

    •   (-$625.0) This reflects a reduction to research investigating the impacts of climate change
       on estuarine ecosystems.

    •   (-$762.0) This  reduction  to  the Clean  Air Research  Program will reduce  research
       activities that support the development and application of models and technologies used
       to understand the relationships  between  air  pollution,  ambient concentration  and
       exposures,  and assist in  the  development  of  state  implementation strategies.   This
       decrease will result in a delay to possible model improvements  that could aid state and
       regional air quality implementation plans.
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   •   (-$2,200.0)  This reflects a disinvestment of research in biofuels due to the completion of
       the  2010 Report to Congress.  The decrease  will reduce EPA  research on filling gaps
       identified  in the Report to  Congress,  while  still enabling EPA planning for the 2013
       Report to Congress as required by the Energy  Independence and  Security Act (EISA).

   •   (-$2,429.0 / -3.1 FTE)  This reflects a reduction to the Mercury Research Program and
       includes a reduction of 3.1 FTE and decreased  associated payroll of  -$412.0.   The
       program will discontinue research examining mercury "hot spots" evaluating mercury
       emission measurement/control technologies, and assessing the impact of different coals
       and technology configurations on coal combustion residues. The program will use data
       already generated to produce final products and reports.

   •   (-$247.0 / -.9  FTE)  This  decrease represents the  net effect  of all other payroll  and
       technical adjustments including Information Technology reductions, Small Business
       Renovation Research (SBIR) realignments and administrative and programmatic support
       realignments and reductions. It includes an increase of $820.0  for FTE changes as well
       as a recalculation of base costs for existing FTE in this program.  For more information
       on these adjustments, refer to the programs integrating into the  Air, Climate and Energy
       Program.

The following transfers will integrate Clean Air, Global Climate Change, Mercury and Biofuels
Programs into the transdisciplinary Air, Climate and Energy (ACE) Research Program that better
aligns with the Administration and Agency priorities.  This effort will improve the ability to
deliver science more effectively and efficiently, with catalyzing innovative sustainable solutions
as the overall goal. This integration  reflects EPA's efforts to  collaborate  across  traditional
program boundaries to support national and regional  decision-making, thereby strengthening the
Agency's ability to respond to environmental and public health.

   •   (+$83,186.0 /  +261.8 FTE)  This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Clean Air  Research Program into the new, integrated Air, Climate and Energy Research
       Program, including $35,373.0 in associated payroll.  This transfer includes the net effect
       of all technical  adjustments such as  Information  Technology (IT) reductions,  Small
       Business Innovation Research (SBIR) realignments and administrative and programmatic
       support realignments and reductions. For additional details on this net effect, please refer
       to the Research: Clean Air Program narrative.

   •   (+$20,810.0 / +41.2 FTE)  This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Global Change Research Program into the  new,  integrated Air, Climate  and Energy
       Research Program, and  includes $5,521.0 in associated payroll. This transfer includes the
       net  effect  of all technical  adjustments such  as IT reductions,  SBIR realignments  and
       administrative  and programmatic  support realignments and reductions.  For  additional
       details on this net effect, please refer to the Research: Global Change Program narrative.

   •   (+$1,204.0 / +6.6 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and  FTE resources from the
       Human Health and Ecosystems Research Program  for mercury  research and includes
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       $886.0 in associated  payroll.  This transfer includes the net effect  of all technical
       adjustments  such  as  IT  reductions,   SBIR  realignments  and  administrative  and
       programmatic support realignments and reductions. For additional details on this net
       effect, please refer to the Research: Human Health and Ecosystems Program narrative.

   •   (+$2,800.0)   This reflects a transfer of resources from  the Sustainability Research
       Program  for biofuels  research. This transfer includes the net effect of all technical
       adjustments  such  as  IT  reductions,   SBIR  realignments  and  administrative  and
       programmatic support realignments and reductions. For additional details on this net
       effect, please refer to the Research: Sustainability Program narrative.

Statutory Authority:

CAA 42 U.S.C.  7401 et seq.  Title 1, Part A - Sec. 103  (a) and (d) and Sec. 104 (c); CAA 42
U.S.C 7402(b) Section 102; CAA 42 U.S.C 7403(b)(2) Section 103(b)(2); Clinger Cohen Act, 40
U.S.C 11318; Economy Act, 31  U.S.C 1535; EISA, Title  II Subtitle B; ERDDA, 33 U.S.C. 1251
- Section 2(a); Intergovernmental Cooperation Act, 31 U.S.C. 6502; NCPA; NEPA, Section 102;
PPA; USGCRA  15 U.S.C. 2921.
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Program Area: Research: Safe and Sustainable Water Resources
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                                         Research: Safe and Sustainable Water Resources
                             Program Area: Research:  Safe and Sustainable Water Resources
                                                         Goal: Protecting America's Waters
   Objective(s): Protect Human Health; Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$111,073.0
$111,073.0
427.0

FY2010
Actuals
$108,932.9
$108,932.9
407.5

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$111,073.0
$111,073.0
427.0

FY2012
Pres Budget
$118,776.0
$118,776.0
439.6
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$7,703.0
$7,703.0
12.6
Program Project Description:

EPA's Office of Research and Development provides critical support to Agency environmental
policy decisions and regulatory actions  to  protect human health and the environment. EPA
research has provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems for the past 40
years.  Research enabled the Agency to implement policies and regulations to reduce pollution
and  minimize  waste in specific  industries.   However,  these  solutions were  accomplished
approaches based  on the best science available at the time for very  specific  problems,  for
example, focusing  on the risks posed by a single chemical to a single target organ or species.

Now, as science advances, EPA is working to address the increasing complexity of 21st century
environmental challenges with solutions that are effective, efficient, and sustainable - solutions
that  are designed to meet current needs  while  minimizing potential  health and environmental
detriment in the future.

One such novel challenge  is nutrient  pollution (nitrogen and phosphorus).  The problem of
nutrient loading and the events that cascade from it are not just a pervasive problem for aquatic
ecosystems, but also may create public health problems, both of which could be exacerbated by
climate change and changes in water quantity.  Nutrients enter and impact  every step of the
hydrologic cycle from air to land to fresh surface water to groundwater to estuaries to marine
systems. Excessive nutrient loads are currently responsible for poor biological condition in over
30 percent of the nation's stream miles and about 20 percent of the nation's lakes and reservoirs.
In addition, these  loads raise public health concerns  associated with cyanobactedal blooms,
nitrate and nitrite  pollution, and the formation of disinfection by-products in drinking  water
supplies. Solving the nutrient pollution problem and ensuring sustainable, safe water resources,
will  require engaging expertise across many  sectors and across traditional scientific disciplines.
Integrated, research is needed to  help develop improved management practices for nutrients  and
other novel water challenges in the face of competing demands for water resources.

To address these challenges, in FY 2012 EPA will strengthen its planning and delivery of science
by  implementing  an integrated research approach  that  looks  at problems from a systems
perspective. This  approach will  create synergy and produce more timely,  efficient results than
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those possible from approaches that are more narrowly targeted to single chemicals or problem
areas.

Consistent with the Administration's science and technology priorities for FY 2012,19 the new
integrated research approach will help develop sustainable solutions by adding a transformative
component to EPA's  existing water research portfolio.  The Agency will  plan, develop and
conduct research leveraging the  diverse capabilities of in-house scientists and  engineers, and
bridge  traditional  scientific disciplines.  In addition, research for scientific, technological, and
behavioral innovations will help ensure clean, abundant and equitable supplies of water that
support human  health  and resilient aquatic ecosystems.  Research plans will incorporate input
from  external  stakeholders such  as  federal, state and  local government  agencies, non-
governmental organizations, industry, and communities affected by environmental problems.

EPA will use the integrated  research framework to develop a deeper understanding  of our
environmental challenges and inform sustainable solutions to meet our strategic goals.  In FY
2012, EPA is realigning and combining the Drinking Water and Water Quality base Research
Programs into one Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research Program. This integration
capitalizes on existing capabilities and  promotes the use of an approach  to  further  EPA's
mission. Research to address targeted, existing problems and provide technical support will also
continue, but with an  emphasis on applications and outcomes. This program realignment will
strengthen EPA's ability to leverage partnerships to ensure  research is addressing  the highest
Agency priorities.
           Proportion of
           Former Programs
           Transferring
        NEW
FY 2012 Program
             100%
  Safe and
                                                   Sustainable
                                              WatervResources
19 For more information, see the Executive Office of the President memorandum:
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/fyl2-budget-guidance-memo.pdf
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The  following are descriptions of FY 2012  Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research
Program activities categorized under each program area:

EPA's  Drinking Water  Research  Program (FY  2012  request:  $52.5 million) conducts
comprehensive integrated research in support of EPA's  Water Program and regional offices'
implementation  of the  Safe  Drinking Water Act  (SDWA).   The program  focuses  on
characterization  and management of human  health  risks across the  water continuum with an
emphasis on sound scientific approaches for ensuring safe and sustainable drinking water.

The  Water Quality Research Program (FY  2012 request:  $66.2 million) is designed to support
the Clean Water  Act (CWA), providing scientific information and tools to the Agency and others
to help  protect and restore the designated uses of water bodies that  sustain human health and
aquatic  life. Research focuses on the development and application of water quality criteria, the
implementation  of effective  watershed  management  approaches,  and the  application  of
technological options to  restore and  protect  water  bodies using  information  on effective
identification, treatment and management alternatives.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

Following are descriptions of problem  areas to be addressed by the program based on ongoing
input from EPA's partners.  These research themes and questions, as well as the Agency's FY
2012 research plan, will  be independently reviewed  by EPA's Science Advisory  Board and
Board of Scientific Counselors.

Increasing demands for sources of clean water-combined with poor land use practices, growth,
aging infrastructure, and climate variability  threaten to  our nation's water resources.  Research is
needed  to inform management of our nation's waters  in an integrated,  sustainable manner that
will promote economic prosperity and human and aquatic ecosystem health.

In FY 2012, the  Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research Program will begin addressing
the critical science questions impacting the development and maintenance of safe,  sustainable
waters.  It will begin to address key issues  such as comprehensive water resource management,
water sustainability metrics, infrastructure life-cycle assessments, and economical and effective
management of  stressors  (e.g., nutrients, sediments, pathogens other contaminants). Safe and
Sustainable Water Resources efforts will address existing high priority water research  needs,
such as recreational water protection,  water-energy interdependences,  geologic sequestration,
green infrastructure, and hydraulic fracturing.

The  Safe  and   Sustainable Water Resources  Research  Program seeks safe, resilient and
sustainable solutions to the increasingly complex water challenges facing  the nation's regions,
states, tribes, cities,  and rural areas. Research  areas that may be investigated in FY 2012 include
potential impacts of a changing climate on  water resources,  existing  infrastructure problems
associated with built urban environments and sprawl, potential consequences of increased energy
demand and  mineral extraction  on water quality, and maintaining  and using natural and
engineered aquatic systems to fully ensure the needed capacity and quality of water that supports
the nation's range of growing demands  and uses. Safe and Sustainable Water Resources research
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will  guide the national  implementation of EPA's regulatory and non-regulatory efforts by
providing information on new approaches to enable the following:

   •   Systematic protection and restoration of watersheds to provide safe and sustainable water
       quality necessary for human and ecosystem health;
   •   Sustainable water quality and  availability to support the needs  of healthy  humans,
       ecosystems, and economies; and
   •   Water infrastructure capable of the sustained delivery  of safe  water, providing for the
       removal and treatment of wastewater consistent with its sustainable and safe reuse, and
       management of stormwater in a manner that values it as a resource and a component of
       sustainable water resources.
   •   Research that informs assessing the potential public health and environmental risks posed
       by hydraulic fracturing.  In particular, EPA's Science Advisory Board recommends that
       EPA undertake five to ten case studies in order to provide an understanding of how
       potential risks may vary in the key geologic and geographic situations where hydraulic
       fracturing is or may be used.

The  new Safe and Sustainable  Water  Resources Program will take a systems approach to
protecting human and aquatic ecosystem health and protecting and  restoring watersheds for the
sustainability of the nation's  water resources. This approach will continue to include targeted
research on key priorities.

For example, in FY 2010, the Agency began outreach and investigation into a study designed to
determine whether hydraulic fracturing has  adverse  effects  on drinking  water resources in
response to  a FY 2010 request from Congress.  Work in  FY 2012 will continue to assess the
potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing.

Beaches  work in FY 2012 will  continue to support criteria development and implementation
guidance  regarding the applicability and use of new molecular tools.  The molecular tools
provide a more sensitive measure of waterborne pathogens that can  cause disease and allow
public health  officials to  determine  more  quickly if water  is safe for swimming.   While
immediate needs for the 2012 criteria are being met, work to support an expected five  year
revision will focus on new and unanswered questions.  Large scale epidemiology studies will be
more difficult to support with the proposed reduction, but continued development of measures of
waterborne  pathogen  occurrence and tools for  assessing illnesses related to pathogens will
remain a priority. There  will not be large scale health studies in FY 2012, but work on tools to
use in future health studies will continue.

Aging Water Infrastructure research, which began as a FY 2007 initiative, will wrap up efforts to
provide new tools for infrastructure condition assessment, repair, replacement, and rehabilitation.
This  research  also will provide improved tools  for decision-support and asset  management.
Green infrastructure work  will continue to support several regional projects.  This work will
provide better predictive tools and guidance for  selecting and implementing appropriate green
technologies.  Supporting work also will seek to link green technologies to improving watershed
health at various scales and locations. This information is important to municipal governments
for capital planning projects to meet both the current needs and future needs,
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Finally, carbon sequestration research will continue in FY 2012 and will focus on mechanical
well integrity, biogeochemical and hydrologic models of the fate and transport of carbon dioxide
and  displaced  fluids in subsurface formations, and monitoring and modeling approaches for
characterizing and managing sites in support of the SDWA underground injection control (UIC)
program.

Performance Targets:

As EPA scientists work closely with the program and regional offices to develop the Safe and
Sustainable Water Resources' solution-oriented research portfolio, EPA also is developing FY
2012 measures for program managers to ensure the research is responsive to our partners' critical
research needs.  In addition, to be accountable to the American taxpayers, EPA plans  to support
the  interagency Science and  Technology in America's Reinvestment - Measuring the Effect of
Research on Innovation, Competitiveness and Science (STAR METRICS) Program, currently a
pilot program for the National Institutes of Health. This  program is a collaboration of multiple
science agencies, the Office of Science and Technology Policy,  and the research community.
STAR METRICS uses  "science of science policy" approaches focusing on assessing the impact
federal science and technology investments have on society, the environment, and the economy.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

The following policy changes are based on a comparison of the new FY 2012 Budget structure to
the  2010 enacted Budget and are included in the transfers from the source programs following
this section:

•   (+$5,966.0 / +7.0 FTE)  This reflects funding for green infrastructure research to improve
   watershed management practices and facilitate the nation's transition to more sustainable
   water infrastructure systems. The increase also includes 7.0 FTE with associated  payroll of
    $931.0. A significant portion of funds will leverage the innovative thinking by academia's
    scientists through Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants.

•   (+$4,226.0 / +5.0 FTE) This reflects an increase for research on hydraulic fracturing which
   includes  $665.0 in  associated payroll for 5.0 FTE.  Research will provide policy relevant
   methods, models, monitoring tools, and data on potential risks associated with extracting gas
   from subsurface formations using vertical and horizontal fracturing technologies. Research
   will inform key areas lacking information to provide an adequate assessment of the potential
   public health  and environmental risks posed by hydraulic fracturing.  In particular, EPA's
    Science Advisory Board recommends that EPA undertake five to ten case studies in order to
   provide an understanding of how the risks may vary in the  key geologic  and geographic
    situations where hydraulic  fracturing  is or may be used.   Evaluation of the  chemicals
    conducted under this investment  will provide a sound foundation  upon which to base the
    choice of safer hydraulic fracturing chemicals.  Congress has urged EPA  to  conduct this
   research, which supports the Agency's priority to protect the quality of the nation's waters by
    ensuring the protection of our aquifers.
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•  (-$550.0)  This reflects a reduction to the development of best management practices and
   informing decisions associated with control of pathogens in drinking water systems.  This
   decrease will limit the extent to which the Agency can respond to the priorities defined by
   EPA's Distribution System Research and Information Collection Partnership (RICP).

•  (-$1,005.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
   initiative  targets certain categories  of spending  for efficiencies and reductions,  including
   advisory  contracts, travel,  general  services, printing and supplies.  EPA  will continue its
   work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative and programmatic
   areas to achieve these savings.

•  (-$2,000.0)  This  reflects a  decrease in Beaches research due to continued progress in
   meeting the requirements of the consent decree and settlement agreement.  Work to support
   implementation efforts through  the Office  of Water will receive a higher priority. In
   particular, as the Beaches work nears completion, human health effects efforts will transition
   to a technical support level. Research on methods and new molecular tools will continue.
   Large scale epidemiology studies will be more difficult to  support with this reduction, but
   continued development  of measures  of waterborne  pathogen  occurrence and  tools for
   assessing illnesses related to pathogens will remain a priority. There will not be large  scale
   health studies in FY 2012, but work on tools to use in future health studies will continue.
   While immediate needs for the 2012 criteria are being met, work to support an expected five
   year revision will focus on new and unanswered questions.

•  (+$1,066.0 / +0.6  FTE)  This increase represents  the net effect of all other payroll and
   technical   adjustments  including  Information  Technology  reductions,  Small  Business
   Renovation  Research   realignments   and  administrative  and  programmatic  support
   realignments and reductions. It includes an increase of $1579.0 for FTE changes as well as a
   recalculation of base costs for existing FTE in this program.  For more information on  these
   adjustments, refer to the programs integrating into the Safe and Sustainable  Water Resources
   Program.

The following transfers will integrate Drinking Water and Water Quality Research Programs into
the Safe  and Sustainable  Water Resources Research Program  that  better  aligns with the
Administration and Agency priorities.   This effort will improve the ability to deliver science
more effectively and efficiently, with catalyzing innovative  sustainable solutions as the overall
goal. This integration reflects EPA's  efforts to collaborate across traditional program boundaries
to support national and regional decision-making, thereby strengthening the Agency's ability to
respond to environmental and public health issues.

•   (+$52,547.0 /  +196.2 FTE)  This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
   Drinking  Water Research  Program into  the new, integrated Safe  and Sustainable Water
   Resources Program, including $25,050.0 in associated payroll. This transfer includes the net
   effect of  all technical  adjustments  such  as Information Technology (IT) reductions,  Small
   Business  Innovation Research (SBIR) realignments and administrative and programmatic
   support realignments and reductions. For additional details on this net effect, please refer to
   the Research: Drinking Water Program narrative.
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•  (+$66,229.0 / +243.4 FTE)  This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
   Water Quality Research Program into the  new, integrated  Safe  and Sustainable Water
   Resources Program and includes $31,105.0 in associated payroll. This transfer includes the
   net effect  of all technical  adjustments such  as IT reductions,  SBIR realignments and
   administrative and programmatic support realignments and reductions. For additional details
   on this net effect, please refer to the Research: Water Quality Program narrative.

Statutory Authority:

SDWA Part E, Sec. 1442 (a)(l); CWA Title I, Sec. 101(a)(6) 33 U.S.C. 1254 - Sec 104 (a) and
(c) and Sec. 105; ERDDA 33 U.S.C. 1251 - Section 2(a); MPRSA Sec. 203, 33 U.S.C.  1443;
ODBA Title II; SPA; CVA; WRDA; WWWQA; MPPRCA; NISA; CZARA;, CWPPRA; (ESA;
NAWCA; FIFRA 7 U.S. C.  135 et seq; TSCA U.S. C. 136 et seq.
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Program Area: Research: Chemical Safety and Sustainability
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                                            Research: Chemical Safety and Sustainability
                                 Program Area: Research:  Chemical Safety and Sustainability
                                                       Goal: Cleaning Up Our Communities
                                 Objective(s): Promote Sustainable and Livable Communities

                             Goal: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                                                      Objective(s): Ensure Chemical Safety

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$77,831.0
$77,831.0
283.7

FY2010
Actuals
$75,221.1
$75,221.1
276.5

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$77,831.0
$77,831.0
283.7

FY2012
Pres Budget
$95,657.0
$95,657.0
292.7
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$17,826.0
$17,826.0
9.0
Program Project Description:

As primary support for environmental policy decisions and regulatory actions to protect human
health  and the  environment,  EPA's  research has provided effective solutions to high-priority
environmental problems  for  the past 40 years.   Research enabled the Agency to implement
policies and regulations to minimize waste and reduce pollution in specific industries. However,
these solutions  were accomplished using approaches based on the best science  available at the
time, which often focused on  more narrow issues such as on the risks posed by a single chemical
to a single target organ or species.

Such an approach  that focuses on  a single  chemical at a  time using  expensive and time
consuming methodologies is  not adequate  for providing the  information needed  to  assess the
hazards and exposure of the large numbers of chemicals in commerce. As science advances, EPA
is working to develop more efficient and effective tools for evaluating the effects of chemicals as
function of species, gender, genetics and lifestage.  EPA needs the research capability to fully
understand complex interactions and in  order to  inform policy choices to develop  more
sustainable solutions.

In FY 2012, EPA will strengthen its planning, conduct and delivery of science by implementing
an integrated research approach that looks at  problems from  a  systems perspective.  This
approach will create synergy and lead to the generation of environmental  science information
that is  more responsive to more modern public health and environmental challenges  and hence
will be of greater use to decision makers.

Consistent with the Administration's science and technology priorities for FY 2012,20 the new
20 For more information, see the Executive Office of the President memorandum:
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/fyl2-budget-guidance-memo.pdf
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integrated research approach will help develop sustainable solutions by adding a transformative
component to EPA's existing research portfolio.  The Agency will plan, develop and conduct
research in ways that bring together the expertise of a wide range of disciplines in the biological,
chemical,  physical, computational and social sciences.  Additionally, EPA will assess the needs
and priorities of the Research Program's partners in the program offices and regions, to provide
more effective and efficient  tools for evaluating  chemical  exposures, hazards and risks.   In
addition, research action plans will incorporate input from external  stakeholders such as federal,
state  and  local  government  agencies,  non-governmental  organizations,  industry,  and
communities.

EPA will  use the integrated research framework to develop a deeper  understanding  of our
environmental challenges  and inform sustainable solutions to meet our strategic  goals.  In FY
2012, EPA is integrating Computational Toxicology, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs),
and  Nanotechnology research, as well as portions of  Human Health, Human Health Risk
Assessment, Pesticides and Toxics, and Sustainability research, into a new Chemical Safety and
Sustainability Research Program.
                    Proportion of
                    Former Programs
                    Transferring
        NEW
FY 2012 Program
                             Endocrine Disrupting
                             Chemicals
                             Computational Toxicology
                   I 55%|   J Pesticides & Toxics

                        31% | Land Protection & Restoration

                             Human Health & Ecosystems

                       20% | Sustainability(E-Waste)
I** 1

1 <1% 1
Human Health
Risk Assessment
Clean Air
                                                           Nanotechnology (Land, HH&Eco, Air)

This  integration  capitalizes  on  existing capabilities and  promotes  the  use  of a systems
perspective to achieve EPA's mission. Research  to  address targeted, existing problems and
provide technical  support  will also continue,  with an  emphasis on  utilizing  the  integrated
approaches developed by the core Research Program.  The Research Program realignments will
strengthen EPA's  ability to leverage partnerships to ensure EPA research is addressing  the
highest Agency priorities.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:
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We need chemicals to clean everything from industrial equipment to our clothes to the water we
drink and to help us provide an abundant food  supply  for our growing population.  While
chemicals contribute  to  our economic  well-being  and  our quality of life, some may also
adversely affect our health, society, and the environment.  We need new ways to evaluate and
reduce the effects of harmful chemicals  on society and the environment while maintaining our
economic well-being.  To this end, EPA has been working to reshape its research on chemicals to
ensure that we develop timely innovative, systematic, effective, and efficient  approaches and
tools to inform decisions that will reduce such impacts of chemicals.

The CSS Research Program has been working with partners from across EPA as well as external
stakeholders to identify the critical science questions that will  be addressed  under the CSS
Research Program in 2012. These research themes and questions, as well as the final  research
action plan, will be independently reviewed by EPA's Science Advisory Board and Board of
Scientific Counselors. Research under CSS will support  the development and applications of
tools that would contribute to the design of safer chemicals.  The Administration's science and
technology priorities  for FY 2012 stress the need  for  more multidisciplinary  research that
transforms the approaches used to address the nation's problems. This funding will combine the
unique capabilities and expertise in EPA to address the national challenge associated  with the
large  number of chemicals and products  used and introduced annually in the United States.
Funds will  support a range of science  activities, in coordination with EPA policy  activities that
will help address this issue in a systemic, integrated manner and provide for more  sustainable
solutions to environmental issues.

CSS will build  on existing  research on cost-efficient,  energy-efficient,  generic,   and  green
pathways for  synthesizing chemicals that are constituents of products  that pose potential
exposures to humans and ecosystems.  In addition,  the program will develop approaches, such as
life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies, that will demonstrate the benefits  of green pathways
when evaluated from  life cycle impacts and cost  bases. The CSS Research Program also will
develop innovative, approaches and tools that inform more sustainable solutions to the design of
chemicals. For example, EPA is developing approaches to identify and assess  the environmental
impacts of specific properties of nanomaterials contained in next-generation batteries.  These
assessment tools  will  be invaluable  to manufacturers and  will  allow them  to create next-
generation batteries that are that is both economically viable and environmentally friendly.

With  the use of nanotechnology in the consumer and industrial sectors  expected  to  increase
significantly in the future, nanotechnology offers society the promise of major  benefits. The
challenge for environmental protection  is to ensure that,  as nanomaterials are developed and
used,  unintended adverse consequences  of exposures to humans and ecosystems  are identified
and prevented or minimized.

In FY  2012,  the CSS  Program  will  conduct  research on  the  environmental  impacts  of
nanomaterials  and other chemicals from  a life cycle perspective.   Impacts to people or the
environment from chemicals can occur at any point from the extraction of raw materials to make
the chemical; to processes to create the  chemical  and incorporate it into products; through the
chemical's use; and at its end of life, when it is disposed of or recycled.  In  addition,  research
conducted within the CSS Program will  inform  chemical evaluation strategies  that integrate
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specific decision needs into tiered approaches for developing the scientific information used for
risk  assessments  and risk  management decisions.   CSS will  support  the  development and
application of improved and new:

   •   Strategies and approaches for the efficient assessment and management of the thousands
       of existing and emerging  chemicals  (including pesticides, toxic  substances, endocrine
       disrupters, nanomaterials)  in commerce (i.e., knowing what to test, when to test it, and
       how);

   •   Advanced computational tools for  improving existing methods to understand inherent
       properties  and predict behaviors and impacts  of chemicals and  their related products
       throughout their life-cycle;

   •   Approaches for alternative product  formulations using green chemistry and engineering
       principles throughout their  life-cycle that lead to greater sustainability;

   •   Multidisciplinary approaches to better characterize the impact on environmental media
       and aquatic organisms of real world releases of endocrine active  compounds (including
       natural hormones, pesticides, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals) from wastewater
       treatment plans, concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and drinking water
       plants, and to develop risk management and mitigation strategies.

   •   Approaches to address issues of cumulative risk, chemical mixtures in the environment,
       vulnerability of populations, and environmental equity; and

   •   Methods to translate research findings  into  decision support tools that are useful and
       usable to regulators and risk managers, as well  as the other Agency Research Programs:
       Air,  Climate, and Energy; Sustainable Water and Water Resources; Sustainable and
       Healthy Communities; Human Health Risk Assessment; and Homeland Security.

As part of EPA's sustained support for fundamental research and the vitality and productivity of
research  universities and  laboratories, CSS will support new Science To Achieve  Results
(STAR) grants for:

   •   A Center for Life Cycle Chemical Safety,
   •   A Center for Sustainable Molecular  Design focused on the safer design of chemicals
       without endocrine activity,

   •   Innovative treatment designs and technologies approaches for mitigating EDCs and other
       emerging chemical contaminants from drinking water and wastewater treatment systems,
       and,

   •   High  throughput screens that  would improve  our understanding of the pathways  of
       toxicity relevant  to  endocrine-mediated endpoints in  mammalian and  ecological
       organisms.
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EPA is developing performance measures for this program to ensure the research meets the
critical needs of partners. The key performance foci will be:

    •   Identifying and synthesizing the best available scientific information, models, methods,
       and analyses to support Agency guidance and policy decisions, with a focus on human
       and ecosystem health

    •   Supporting the screening and testing protocols that EPA's Chemical Safety and Pollution
       Prevention Program will validate for use in evaluating the potential for chemicals to
       cause endocrine-mediated effects

    •   Developing the  scientific  underpinning related  to the effects, exposures, and risk
       management of specific individual or classes of both pesticides and toxic substances that
       are of high priority to the Agency to inform Agency risk assessment and management
       decisions.ORD is collaborating with  EPA's  Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution
       Prevention (OCSPP)  to develop a workplan that will allow OCSPP to incorporate
       efficient toxicological assessment approaches into its prioritization of chemical action
       plans and other decision-making processes.  ORD meets with OCSPP periodically to help
       identify their highest  priority  science needs and ensure that the research program is
       addressing these needs in an efficient and timely manner.

The following are descriptions of FY 2012  Chemical  Safety  and  Sustainability activities
categorized under key program areas:

Computational Toxicology ($21.2 million)

Computational toxicology is the application of mathematical and computer models to help assess
the hazards and  risk chemicals pose  to human health and the environment.   Supported by
advances  in  informatics, high-throughput screening, and  genomics,  computational toxicology
offers scientists the ability to develop  a more detailed understanding of the hazards posed by
large numbers of chemicals, while at the same time reducing the use of animals for toxicological
testing.  EPA is developing robust and flexible  computational tools  that can be applied to the
thousands  of contaminants and  contaminant mixtures found in America's air, water, and
hazardous-waste sites.

ToxCast™:  EPA's Toxicity  Forecaster (ToxCast™)   is  a state-of-the-art  chemical  screening
approach  that builds  statistical and computational models that identify and forecast toxicity
pathways  relevant to human  health effects. EPA uses ToxCast™ data to develop prioritization
tools for regulatory decision making in Agency program offices. EPA  has an existing partnership
With PtlZer, as well as pending partnerships with several large pharmaceutical companies including Merck, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and
Sanofi-Aventis.  During Phase  II of ToxCast™, these partnerships will  allow  EPA to directly  compare
ToxCast™ results with data  on chemicals already  clinically  proven to be toxic to  humans.
Completion of Phase II is planned for FY 2012. EPA will continue to use ToxCast™ data to
refine toxicological prediction  models for developmental  toxicity, reproductive toxicity, and
cancer causing chemicals.   The goal  is  to  transition to the use of ToxCast  for regulation
determination beginning in FY 2013.  In  FY 2012, EPA will continue to assess appropriate
reference  substances  for assessing estrogen, androgen, and thyroid systems and  expand its
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collaborations on proof of concept investigations of toxicological pathways in the  ToxCast
program.  EPA  expects  to  award  four additional  ToxCast™  contracts that will  become
operational in FY 2012. These contracts, as well as new STAR research grants, will accelerate
and sustain EPA's activity in this area of science.

 •  Tox21: The Tox21  effort unites the Agency's capabilities with  those  of the  National
    Institute  of Environmental Health Sciences  (NIEHS), the National  Institutes of Health
    (NIH)'s Chemical  Genomics Center (NCGC) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
    (FDA). Tox21 integrates  EPA's  ToxCast™ assays with the thousands of chemicals being
    tested at the NIH NCGC.21 The Tox21 library contains data on roughly 10,000 chemicals; a
    public online database (PubChem) houses the results of high throughput  screening of the
    nuclear receptors and stress pathways of these chemicals.

EPA  is making long-range efforts to leverage data from ToxCast™  and Tox21 and  other
supporting knowledge bases to develop virtual first generation models of the liver and embryo.
In addition, the "elk" study, launched in FY 2011, will provide endocrine activity profiles on an
additional  1000 chemicals for use by the Chemical  Safety and  Pollution Prevention (CSPP)
program.

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals ($16.9 million)

The EPA  research program provides direct support to CSPP's  endocrine screening and testing
efforts by evaluating current testing protocols and developing new protocols to evaluate  potential
endocrine effects of environmental agents.  EPA's research in this area also includes developing
and applying methods, models, and measures to evaluate real-world  exposures to endocrine
disrupters  and  characterize related effects resulting  from  these exposures for humans and
wildlife.  In addition, EPA develops risk management tools to prevent or mitigate exposures to
EDCs.

In FY 2012 the Agency will conduct research to:

   •   Define toxicity  pathways  by which endocrine disrupters adversely affect the health of
       mammalian and aquatic organisms;
   •   Characterize the  shape of the "dose-response" curve and its implications  for risk
       assessment, and;
   •   Develop approaches for assessing cumulative risk and methods for extrapolating results
       across species, ultimately reducing animal testing.

Additional research in FY 2012 will identify  sources of EDCs  entering the environment,
focusing on wastewater and drinking water treatment plants and concentrated animal feeding
operations  (CAFOs).  This research will explore  the extent to which these sources contribute to
environmental releases  of endocrine active compounds, examine the  impact of these compounds
on aquatic  organisms, and develop improved technologies that can be applied to reduce harmful
endocrine active compound levels. For example, technological advances in the field  of green
 1 Collins et al., 2008, Science; http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/319/5865/906.pdf


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engineering will enable chemicals to be manufactured without endocrine activity.  Innovative
and cost-effective technologies will advance the assessment and management of environmental
endocrine disrupters and other emerging contaminants of concern and strengthen the Agency's
ability to  protect human health and wildlife. Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants will
complement these FY 2012 intramural research activities.

The  limitations  of  current tools  and  approaches—and  the number of chemicals to assess—
challenge the nation's efforts to make chemicals use environmentally sustainable (i.e.,"greener").
As a modern  society, the United States produces tens of thousands of chemicals and millions of
products to enhance our productivity,  comfort, and well-being.  EPA's mission is to safeguard
human health and the  environment, including responsibility for  assessing and managing risks
from chemicals over their life cycle. Current regulatory decisions to control the use of specific
chemicals are based on a wide range of tools and information that represent the best available
science; however, these tools are  unable to handle the large number of chemicals currently in
commerce. Additionally, the available tools have failed to fully address complex aspects of risk,
such as the impact of life-stage vulnerability, genetic susceptibility, disproportionate exposures,
and cumulative risk.  New computational,  physico-chemical, and biological science tools are
rapidly developing that will transform the way risks of chemical products are evaluated.  Broadly
applicable, predictive,  high-throughput tools will be combined  using a  systems approach to
integrate toxicity and exposure pathways in the context of the life cycle of the chemical, as well
as addressing the long standing need to assess environmentally relevant mixtures.

By formally integrating its chemicals research, EPA will advance the science in the sustainable
development, use, and assessment of chemicals by developing and applying integrated chemical
evaluation strategies and  decision-support tools.   Such new scientific approaches are needed for
the safer use,  assessment, and management of chemicals.  Currently, there are nearly 150,000
chemicals registered in the European REACH Program and over 84,000 chemicals on the Toxic
Substances Control Act  (TSCA) inventory,  and each  year  about  1,000 new chemicals  are
introduced into commerce. EPA is developing innovative, high-throughput tools that are capable
of screening thousands  of chemicals in a day.  By developing this technology, EPA will have the
science and tools needed to make evaluations more quickly and cost-effectively.

In 2012,  additional funding  will support  grants to  academia  through the Agency's STAR
Program, complementing the intramural research effort on EDCs. This research will allow for an
acceleration of the latest state-of-the-art technologies and innovations to advance the assessment
and management of environmental endocrine disrupters and other  emerging contaminants of
concern.

EPA also will continue its ongoing investment in next-generation computational toxicology tools
to speed and facilitate implementation  of the Agency's Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program
(EDSP). The application of these tools will  introduce a more efficient approach to identifying
potential endocrine disrupters and  apply this information across the life cycle of a chemical. This
research is critical to help the Agency  meet its priority of strengthening chemicals management
and risk assessment, as well as bolstering ongoing efforts to  quickly screen the large universe of
known chemicals in commerce today for potential to interact  with the endocrine system.
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There are three distinct drivers for ORD's Chemical Safety and Sustainability Program:
         The need to tailor data generation  and evaluation approaches to support varying
         decisions. Rapid and efficient risk assessment requires intelligent testing approaches
         that apply broad,  predictive approaches, including  those that use high-throughput
         tools, to integrate toxicity  and  exposure pathways using  systems approaches and
         consideration of the entire chemical life cycle. The goal of this Research Area of CSS
         is to develop and  provide Integrated Evaluation tools and approaches for providing
         context relevant answers to issues of chemical safety assessment. For example, some
         decisions only need screening-level assessments to identify within a large number of
         chemicals a small  number which may cause concern. Using the experience gained in
         the ToxCast™ program, the CSS  program will  develop non-animal and  high-
         throughput tests targeted at common adverse health effects induced by chemicals,
         including birth defects,  reproductive impairment, immunological  and  neurological
         disorders, cancers  and impacts on wildlife population structures. Research in these
         areas will inform assessments and decision making on impacts to humans and wildlife
         at the individual and population levels.  Although the emphasis of this research area is
         on developing  the scientific knowledge required  to develop  and refine tools and
         models, the testing and evaluation of these tools will be an integral  component of the
         research.

   •   The need to more efficiently and effectively assess chemical risks and identify what to  do
       about them.
         In support of Goal 4 of the EPA  Strategic Plan, which calls for reducing chemical
         risks, EPA research must integrate  efforts  to improve the next-generation of risk
         assessment  and risk management  approaches.  New approaches will ensure faster,
         more efficient, and  more  sustainable  decisions with reduced  uncertainty for  both
         legacy and new chemicals. New assessment and management methods will support a
         broad array of decisions,  ranging from screening and prioritization to major regulatory
         decisions for humans and wildlife.  Using tools and  approaches from the first activity
         area—such as toxicogenomic methods,  structure-activity relationships that are better-
         informed by inherent properties information, and LCA methods—the new assessment
         and management methods developed  in this activity will incorporate data on chemical
         inherency, exposure, and hazard. These  new  assessment and  management methods
         also will incorporate information from life cycle assessment and other methodologies
         that can provide more realistic and environmentally  relevant assessments than simply
         focusing on a single chemical without  considering its environmental context.  These
         new methods must incorporate the means to assess  vulnerabilities from inherent and
         extrinsic factors that lead to differential susceptibilities, and,  therefore, can inform
         community and environmental justice mandates being planned in the Sustainable and
         Healthy Communities Program for assessing and mitigating environmental impacts.

   •   The need to focus on  the highest-priority chemicals-related problems facing EPA and the
       nation, so that research remains relevant to the Agency's mission.
         Even as the Chemicals Research Program provides the foundation for a transformation
         in the current  business  practices  for chemical management,  it is necessary to  be
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         mindful  that  there  will  be time-critical  research  needs for fulfilling  regulatory
         mandates.  EPA researchers will engage  Agency partners on  an annual basis and
         determine the types  of research needed to directly support key regulatory decisions.
         This year, for instance EPA is working in the key area of assessing cumulative risks of
         children's exposure to insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in schools.
         This  activity will, therefore, be focused  on  how to incorporate into the integrated
         evaluation strategy those methods, models, and data that address the highest priority
         needs as determined by  regular discussions between  the  senior managers of the
         Chemicals Research Program and  those of the  EPA  partner offices  and  other
         stakeholders. By developing approaches to generating and using data that are  fit to
         particular decision contexts (some decisions require more data, others less),  EPA
         program offices will  be better able to meet their deadlines.

The research and development products from EPA's new Chemical Safety and  Sustainability
(CSS) Research Program will benefit the regulation and use of existing pesticides  and industrial
chemicals and enhance green chemistry and engineering opportunities for the design, production,
and use of both new and existing chemicals.  CSS' research products also will be used by EPA
programs and other decision makers to  support community level  decisions by providing  tools
and data used by  EPA's Sustainable and Healthy  Communities  Research Program  for  those
contaminants of highest priority and concern to the community, considering susceptibilities and
exposures of the  most vulnerable  populations.   Better approaches to chemical  testing and
assessment also will inform air toxics- and drinking water-related national, regional  and  local
decision making,  as well as  decisions  on waste management, remediation,  and emergency
response.   Decision makers need  targeted,  credible, and usable information  to  inform  their
decisions, and the CSS Research Program is focused on developing approaches that can provide
such information in a timely manner.

CSS will build upon existing EPA research in chemical management and extend  efforts to
develop innovative, approaches and tools that inform more sustainable solutions to the design
and management of chemicals throughout their life cycle.  The  following illustrates the key
elements of the program and demonstrates our  central focus on  developing intelligent and
integrated evaluation strategies that support context-relevant assessments.
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                                      CSS Linkages
                            Chemical/Material/Product Decision Context
                    NEW
                    Chemicals
                ORD Contributions:
                Approachesthat inform
                greener and safer
                chemical synthesis and
                use, includingevaluation
                of alternatives.
 Intelligent
 Testing,
considering
 Inherency
                     EXISTING
                     Chemicals
ORD Contributions:
Improved approaches for
assessing environmental
impacts and how to
preventer manage such
impacts.
                                       Context-Relevant
                                         Assessment
Schematic of linkages between integrated evaluation strategies,  context-relevant assessments, and decision
support.

Under the CSS Program, development  of enhanced chemical screening and prioritizing testing
approaches for smarter  context-relevant  chemical assessment and  management will not only
directly support regulation of existing pesticide and industrial chemicals, but also enhance green
chemistry opportunities for the design and use of new chemicals.  This program also will support
community-level  decision making specific to those contaminants  of highest priority and concern
to individual localities and communities. For example, better approaches to chemical testing and
assessment also  will lead to better air toxics and drinking water-related  regional and  local
decision making.

Importantly, these tools  can be used by EPA Program and regional offices and stakeholders to
significantly increase risk information  available for individual chemicals and environmentally
relevant mixtures and provide a practical context for effective risk prevention through  safer
product development and management for those chemical uses that pose unacceptably high risks.

The need  for green chemistry research  and ensuring safer chemicals in products also has been
highlighted in recent chemicals legislation under consideration by Congress, such as the "Safe
Chemicals Act of 2010."  Proposals include a revised  policy  to  assist in renewing  the
manufacturing  sector  of the  United States  by spurring innovations in green chemistry;  the
development of a scientifically and technically trained green chemistry workforce in the United
States; approaches to inform and engage communities about green chemistry; and a network of
EPA-funded green chemistry and engineering centers, some funded by EPA, which would
support the development and adoption of safer alternatives to harmful chemical substances.
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Additional funding also will support E-waste/E-design research to improve the sustainability of
electronic materials. EPA research in this area analyzes the factors that drive a chemical effects
and exposures, over the chemical's life cycle; knowledge gained through this research will allow
those who design, use, and regulate chemicals to develop assessments and management methods
that reduce negative impacts from the manufacture, use, and disposal or  recycling of chemicals
and products that contain them. .

In planning and implementing the new CSS  Program, EPA program and regional offices have
worked with EPA's Office of Research and Development to identify and  address critical science
questions in order to formulate the CSS Research Program. In addition, EPA will collaborate
with multiple federal and non-government stakeholders, particularly those interested in chemical
safety.

Performance Targets:

To be  accountable to  the American taxpayers, EPA will support the interagency Science and
Technology in America's Reinvestment - Measuring the  Effect of Research on Innovation,
Competitiveness and Science (STAR METRICS) Program, currently in a pilot phase for the
National  Institutes of Health. This program is a collaboration of multiple science agencies, the
Office  of Science and Technology Policy, and the research  community.  STAR METRICS will
use "science of science policy" approaches to assess the impact Federal science and technology
investments have on society, the environment, and the economy.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in  Thousands):

The following policy changes are based on a comparison of the new FY 2012 Budget structure to
the 2010 enacted  budget and are included in the transfers from the source programs following
this section:

   •   (+$7,000.0) Additional funding will  support grants to academia through the Agency's
       STAR Program, complementing the intramural research effort on endocrine disrupting
       chemicals  (EDCs). This research will  allow for an acceleration of the latest state-of-the-
       art  technologies and innovations  to advance  the assessment  and  management  of
       environmental endocrine disrupters and other emerging contaminants of concern.

   •   (+$5,434.0 / +0.9 FTE) This reflects an increase for a new green chemistry and design
       for the environment initiative and includes associated payroll of $120.0.  It includes
       $1,000.0  for  E-waste/E-design  research to improve  the  sustainability of electronic
       materials.  The proposed  research would develop new scientific information and tools
       that will lead to the development of safer chemicals, including nanomaterials. Funds will
       be used to integrate  data from multiple scientific disciplines and sources into innovative
       user friendly decision tools, databases, and models  for use by environmental decision-
       makers.  This research will spur innovations in green chemistry as  well as to help develop
       a  scientifically and technically trained green chemistry workforce, approaches to inform
       and engage communities about green chemistry, and a network of green  chemistry and
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       engineering  centers to support the development  and adoption of safer alternatives to
       chemical substances.

    •   (+$2,000.0)  This reflects an increase for next-generation computational toxicology tools
       to speed and facilitate implementation of the Agency's Endocrine Disrupter Screening
       Program (EDSP). The application of these tools will introduce a more efficient approach
       to identifying potential  endocrine  disrupters and  apply this information across the life
       cycle of a chemical.  This  research is  critical  to  help  the Agency meet its priority of
       strengthening chemicals management and risk assessment.

    •   (-$750.0) This reflects a reduction to the  nanotechnology research that would result in a
       delay of material properties and life-cycle assessment research  in using  new  energy
       applications, such as next-generation lithium-ion batteries, as case  studies for developing
       LCA approaches for nanomaterials. This reduction also will delay FY 2012 commitments
       made to the international Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development to
       support development  of non-animal test methods for nanomaterials, in particular for
       carbon nanotubes and  silver nanoparticles.

    •   (-$1,032.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency  Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain categories of spending  for  efficiencies and reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its  work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-$1,377.0 / -0.9 FTE) This reflects a reduction to research supporting the development of
       scientific tools  for biotechnology and includes a  reduction of 0.9 FTE with decreased
       associated payroll of -$120.0. The program will reduce research into refining the use of
       remote sensing  as a tool for the management of insect resistance in genetically modified
       crops,  also  known as  Plant Incorporated Pesticides  (PIP)  crops.  The program  has
       completed research on decision  support systems to identify insect infestations that would
       indicate the development of insect resistance.

    •   (-$1,500.0) This reflects a  reduction to human health research on screening assays  and
       predictive toxicology approaches.

    •   (+$8,051.0 / +9.0 FTE) This increase represents  the net effect of all  other payroll  and
       technical adjustments  including  Information  Technology  reductions, Small Business
       Renovation  Research realignments  and  administrative  and programmatic  support
       realignments and reductions. It  includes an  increase of $4,815.0 for FTE changes as well
       as a recalculation of base costs for existing  FTE in this program.   For more information
       on these adjustments, refer to  the programs integrating into the  Chemical Safety  and
       Sustainability Program.

The following  transfers  will integrate  Computational Toxicology,  Endocrine Disrupting
Chemicals, and Nanotechnology research, as well as portions of Human Health, Human Health
Risk Assessment, Pesticides  and Toxics, and Sustainability research, into a effort that better
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aligns with the Administration and Agency priorities.  EPA expects this effort will improve the
ability to deliver science more effectively and efficiently, with catalyzing innovative, sustainable
solutions  as  the  overall goal.  This integration reflects EPA's  efforts  to  collaborate across
traditional  program  boundaries to support  national and  regional  decision-making,  thereby
strengthening the Agency's ability to respond to environmental and public health issues.

    •   (+$31,025.0 / +100.5 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Human Health and Ecosystems Research Program into the  new, integrated Chemical
       Safety and Sustainability Research Program, including $12,606.0 in associated payroll.
       This transfer includes the net effect  of all technical adjustments such as Information
       Technology (IT) reductions, SBIR  realignments and administrative and programmatic
       support realignments and reductions. For additional details on this net effect, please refer
       to the Research: Human Health and Ecosystems program narrative.

    •   (+$21,211.0 /  34.4 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Computational Toxicology Research Program into the new, integrated Chemical Safety
       and Sustainability  Research Program, including  $4363.0 in associated  payroll.   This
       transfer includes the net effect of all technical adjustments such as IT reductions, SBIR
       realignments and administrative and programmatic support realignments and reductions.
       For additional details on this  net effect, please refer to  the Research:  Computational
       Toxicology program narrative.

    •   (+$16,888.0 / +46.1 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Endocrine Disrupters  Research Program into the new, integrated Chemical Safety and
       Sustainability Research Program, including $5,847.0 in associated payroll. This transfer
       includes  the  net effect  of all  technical adjustments  such as  IT reductions,  SBIR
       realignments and administrative and programmatic support realignments and reductions.
       For additional  details on  this net  effect,  please  refer  to  the Research:  Endocrine
       Disrupters program narrative.

    •   (+$15,043.0 / +77.1FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Pesticides and Toxics Research Program into the new, integrated Chemical Safety and
       Sustainability Research Program, including $10,023.0 in associated payroll. This transfer
       includes  the  net effect  of all  technical adjustments  such as  IT reductions,  SBIR
       realignments and administrative and programmatic support realignments and reductions.
       For additional details on this  net effect, please refer to  the Research:  Pesticides and
       Toxics program narrative.

    •   (+$5,440.0 / +1.9 FTE)  This reflects  a transfer of dollar and FTE resources  associated
       with nanotechnology  and E-waste/E-design research from the Sustainability Research
       Program into the new, integrated Chemical Safety and Sustainability Research Program,
       including  $126.0 in associated payroll.  This transfer includes the net effect  of all
       technical adjustments  such as IT reductions, SBIR realignments and administrative and
       programmatic  support realignments and reductions.  For  additional details on  this net
       effect, please refer to the Research: Sustainability program narrative.
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   •   (+$4,215.0 / +25.2 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Land Preservation and Restoration Research Program into the new, integrated Chemical
       Safety and Sustainability  Research Program, including  $3,324.0 in associated payroll.
       This transfer includes the net effect of all technical adjustments such as IT reductions,
       SBIR  realignments  and administrative and programmatic  support realignments  and
       reductions. For additional details on this net effect, please refer to the Research: Land
       Preservation and Restoration Program narrative.

   •   (+$1,708.0 / +6.5 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Human Health Risk Assessment Research Program into the  new,  integrated Chemical
       Safety and Sustainability Research Program, including $808.0 in associated payroll.  This
       transfer includes the net effect of all technical adjustments such as  IT reductions, SBIR
       realignments and administrative  and programmatic support realignments and reductions.
       For additional details on this net effect, please refer to the Research: Human Health Risk
       Assessment program narrative.

   •   (+$127.0 / +1.0 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the Clean
       Air Research Program into  the new,  integrated  Chemical  Safety and  Sustainability
       Research Program, including  $127.0 in associated payroll. This transfer includes the net
       effect  of all  technical adjustments such  as  IT reductions,  SBIR realignments  and
       administrative and programmatic support realignments  and reductions. For additional
       details on this net effect, please refer to the Research: Clean Air program narrative.

Statutory Authority:

CAA,  Sec. 103, 104 &  154; CCA,  40 U.S.C 11318;  CERCLA; Children's Health Act; 21st
Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act, 15 U.S.C. 750; CWA, Sec. 101 - 121;
Economy  Act, 31 U.S.C 1535; ERDDAA,  42 U.S.C. 4361-4370; FFDCA, 21 U.S.C. Sec. 346;
FIFRA; FQPA; Intergovernmental Cooperation Act, 31 U.S.C. 6502; National Environmental
Policy Act of 1969, Section 102; PPA, 42 U.S.C.  13103; RCRA; SOW A, 42 U.S.C.; TSCA,
Section 10, 15, 26 U.S.C.
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                                                        Human Health Risk Assessment
                                Program Area: Research:  Chemical Safety and Sustainability
                             Goal: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                                                     Objective(s): Ensure Chemical Safety

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Science & Technology
Hazardous Substance Superfund
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$42,899.0
$3,404.0
$46,303.0
182.5
FY2010
Actuals
$41,516.4
$3,169.1
$44,685.5
216.2
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$42,899.0
$3,404.0
$46,303.0
182.5
FY2012
Pres Budget
$42,400.0
$3,342.0
$45,742.0
195.8
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($499.0)
($62.0)
($561.0)
13.3
Program Project Description:

EPA's Research and Development program provides critical support to Agency environmental
policy decisions and regulatory actions to protect human health and the environment.   EPA
research has provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems for the past 40
years.  Research enabled the Agency to implement policies and regulations to minimize waste
and reduce pollution in specific industries. However, these solutions were accomplished using
approaches based on the best science available at the time. In some cases, this resulted in a more
limited focus, for example, focusing on the risks  posed by a single chemical to a single target
organ or species.

Now, as science advances, EPA is working to address the increasing complexity of 21st century
environmental challenges with solutions that are effective, efficient, and sustainable - designed
to meet current needs while minimizing  potential health and environmental detriment  in the
future. The Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) Program will continue to provide the risk
assessments necessary to guide EPA's actions to protect public health and the environment.  The
program generates health assessments that are used extensively by EPA program and  regional
offices, and other parties to develop regulatory standards for environmental contaminants  and to
manage cleanups.   The  HHRA Program will continue to  evolve to meet today's complex
environmental challenges, developing multi-pollutant science assessments for health and climate
effects (as  called for by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) and other
scientific reviews such as the 2004 NAS report on Air Quality Management).

Three complementary areas comprise the HHRA Program:

    1) The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and other priority health assessments,
   2) Risk assessment guidance, methods, model development, and
   3) Integrated Science Assessments (ISA) of criteria air pollutants.

   IRIS and other health hazard assessments: EPA's HHRA Program prepares peer reviewed,
   qualitative and quantitative health hazard assessments on environmental pollutants of major
   relevance to EPA's regulatory mandates.  EPA program and  regional  offices use these
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   assessments to support their decision-making. The Agency disseminates the assessments to
   the public on the IRIS Internet database.22  EPA and the risk assessment/risk management
   community consider IRIS the  premier source of hazard and dose-response information for
   environmental pollutants.   Currently there  are  more than 550  health hazard assessments
   available through IRIS.

   Methods,  Models and Approaches to Improve Risk  Assessment  Science:   The risk
   assessment/risk management community needs approaches, methods, and models to enhance
   the quality  and  objectivity of assessments  through  the incorporation of  contemporary
   scientific advances. The HHRA Program often uses these innovations in the development of
   IRIS  assessments and IS As.  In addition,  they often support decision-making  by EPA's
   program and regional offices.   These scientific  products receive external peer review, and
   then EPA disseminates them through the published literature and EPA web sites.

   Integrated Science Assessments: Congress requires that EPA regularly summarize the state-
   of-the-science for criteria air pollutants—ozone,  particulate matter, sulfur and nitrous oxides,
   carbon monoxide, and lead—to assist EPA's Air and Radiation Program in determining the
   National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).  These ISAs (formerly Air Quality
   Criteria Documents) are major risk assessments that undergo rigorous external peer review
   by the CASAC.

In FY 2008, an evaluation by EPA's Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC)—a federal advisory
committee comprised of independent expert scientists and engineers—concluded that the HHRA
Program  "has been  highly  responsive to the  needs  of the program  offices  and  regions,"
producing products that are critical to EPA's  regulatory mission and form the foundation for
regulatory decisions  and policies.  This  prospective and retrospective review  evaluated the
program's relevance, quality, performance, and  scientific leadership. The evaluation  found that
the program is making substantial  and satisfactory progress; has clearly defined milestones; and
provides  additional essential support to EPA programs to respond  to unscheduled emergency
needs. In July 2010, the BOSC reviewed the mid-cycle report on  the progress  of the HHRA
program  in implementing its  previous recommendations. The  BOSC  affirmed its previous
evaluation of the relevance of the program and noted significant progress on its previous
recommendations.  EPA is using  the BOSC's  evaluation and recommendations to  help  plan,
implement, and strengthen the program over the next five years.

FY 2012  Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, EPA requests $27.1  million to continue to develop IRIS and other health hazard
assessments.  EPA will continue to implement and to ensure the  program effectively meets the
needs of EPA,  the federal government and the American  public.  The program will make
significant  progress  on health hazard  assessments of high priority chemicals  (e.g.  dioxin,
methanol, cumulative phthalate assessment, benzo-a-pyrene, Libby asbestos cancer assessment,
and PCB  non-cancer assessment), completing work for interagency science consultation, external
 Available at: http: //www.epa. go v/iris.
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review, or posting on the IRIS web page.23  The IRIS program will expand intrinsic scientific
knowledge and expertise in refinement of IRIS assessments.

EPA will continue to develop Provisional Peer Reviewed Toxicity Values (PPRTVs) and other
health hazard assessments to support program and regional decision-making.  EPA will respond
with science  assessment  support on  chemical contaminant issues requiring quick action and,
ultimately, quick decisions  and solutions (e.g., Katrina, the World Trade Center disaster and
Deepwater Horizon oil spill). Responding to these types of issues is a key part of EPA's mission
to protect human health and  the environment and corresponds with a BOSC recommendation.

EPA requests $5.5 million  in FY 2012 to continue to be a leader in the development of risk
assessment approaches,  methods,  and  models to  enhance  the  quality and objectivity  of
assessments through  the incorporation of contemporary scientific advances.  EPA will continue
to develop approaches for applying mode of action in risk assessment and improve quantification
of health risks, such as Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Biologically Based Dose
Response modeling,  as well as characterizing environmental exposure and risk to susceptible
populations.

EPA will continue implementation of Health and  Environmental Research Online (HERO) to
support  a more  continuous process to  identify,  compile, characterize,  and prioritize new
scientific studies for human health  and ecological assessment  development.   HERO lends
transparency to the process  of assessment development by allowing access to the data used for
scientific decisions.

In addition, EPA requests $9.8 million  continue to develop ISAs of criteria air pollutants, as a
mandated  prerequisite to EPA's review  of  the NAAQS  and effectively meet court ordered
deadlines to  provide these  assessments.   The ISAs provide  important scientific  analyses in
support of many of EPA's important rulemakings.   In FY 2012, the  program will release final
ISAs for ozone  and  lead to contribute  to EPA's Air and Radiation Program's review  of the
NAAQS and  creation of state-of-the-science  methods for continuous evaluation of assessments
of new scientific information on criteria  air pollutants.  The HHRA Program also will begin
exploring multi-pollutant assessment approaches as called for by the 2008 CASAC consultation
on EPA's draft plan for review of the Primary NAAQS for Carbon Monoxide and the 2004 NAS
report on Air  Quality Management.

As  part of EPA's effort to integrate research efforts  to deliver  more innovative, sustainable
solutions to  environmental  problems, HHRA's next  generation risk assessment research is
moving into the Chemical Safety and Sustainability Research Program.  Within this integrated
program, EPA will  advance risk assessment approaches by incorporating knowledge derived
from recent advances in molecular biology, systems biology and gene-environment interactions
in human disease. EPA expects this effort will result in more comprehensive, timely approaches
for assessing  potential environmental impacts, and new approaches for preventing future  risks
resulting from chemical exposure.
 3 Available at: http://www.epa.gov/IRIS/


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This new effort is complementary to HHRA and continued investments in FY 2012 will allow
the program to make significant progress toward its long-term goals of providing state-of-the-
science for health hazard assessments.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type
Output
Measure
(H83) Percentage of
planned outputs
delivered in support of
HHRA Technical
Support Documents.
FY 2010
Target
90
FY 2010
Actual
100
FY2011
CR
Target
90
FY 2012
Target
90
Units
Percent
EPA uses performance measures for this program to manage and improve the development of
risk assessments to support EPA decision-making.  These outcomes support the achievement of
EPA's Strategic Plan goals.  At the end of the fiscal year, the program reports on its success in
meeting planned annual outputs (detailed in the program's research  plan).  In addition, to be
accountable to  the American taxpayers, EPA plans to support the interagency  Science  and
Technology in  America's Reinvestment—Measuring the Effect of Research on  Innovation,
Competitiveness and Science (STAR METRICS) Program,  currently in a pilot phase for the
National Institutes of Health.  This  program is a collaboration of multiple science agencies, the
Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the research community. STAR METRICS will
use "science of science  policy" approaches  to assess the impact of federal  science  and
technology investments on society, the environment, and the economy.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

•  (+$987.0 / +0.3 FTE) This reflects the net result of realignments  of infrastructure FTE and
   resources such as equipment purchases and repairs, travel, contracts, and general expenses
   that are proportionately  allocated  across  programs to  better  align  with programmatic
   priorities.

•  (+$384.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

•  (+$255.0)  This  represents  a  restoration  of  resources transferred to the  Research:
   Sustainability Program to support Small  Business Innovation Research (SBIR). For SBIR,
   EPA  is required to set aside 2.5 percent of funding for contracts to  small businesses to
   develop and commercialize new environmental technologies.  After the FY 2012 Budget is
   enacted, and the exact amount of the mandated requirements is known, FY 2012 funds will
   be transferred to the SBIR Program.

•  (-$70.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel footprint
   by promoting green travel and conferencing.
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•  (-$104.0)   This  reduction  reflects  efficiencies  from  several  agencywide  Information
   Technology (IT) projects such as email optimization, consolidated IT procurement, helpdesk
   standardization, and others totaling $10 million agencywide.  Increased mandatory costs for
   telephone and Local Area Network (LAN) support for FTE may offset savings in individual
   areas.

•  (-$126.0 / +14.0  FTE) This net FTE increase supports development of Integrated Science
   Assessments (ISAs) and strengthens the Agency's work on  addressing  risk assessment
   methods and includes associated payroll of $1,862.0.  In addition, $1,988.0 in extramural
   funds is redirected to payroll to support these risk assessment FTE.

•  (-$190.0 / -1.1 FTE) This reflects a reduction of programmatic support resources resulting
   from expected efficiencies in providing operational support to researchers in the HHRA
   Research Program.  It also includes a reduction of programmatic FTE that reflects EPA's
   workforce management strategy that will help the  Agency better align resources, skills and
   Agency priorities.

•  (-$311.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the government-wide Administrative Efficiency
   Initiative.   This  initiative targets certain categories  of spending for efficiencies  and
   reductions, including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA
   will continue its work to redesign  processes and streamline activities in both administrative
   and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

•  (-$416.0 / -1.1 FTE) This reduction reflects savings from the Administrative Efficiencies
   Project (AEP), EPA's  long-term effort to  develop a  corporate  approach to delivering
   administrative services.   This will  not have programmatic impacts.  This change includes a
   decrease of $146.0 in associated payroll and reflects EPA's workforce management strategy
   that will help the agency better align resources, skills, and Agency priorities.

•  (-$418.0 / -0.9 FTE) This decrease  reflects a  reduction of resources in  support of risk
   assessment research and includes decreased associated payroll of $120.0.  It will delay some
   work addressing benchmark dose software updates.

•  (-$490.0 / +2.1 FTE) This reflects a reduction to extramural resources for science associated
   with Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and the statistics workgroup
   within the HHRA Program.  This reduction will  limit our capacity to contract out expert
   external  support for PBPK and statistical support, but is partially offset by an increase of 2.1
   FTE and associated payroll of $279.0.

The following transfer is based on  a  comparison of the new FY 2012 budget structure to the
source programs and is included in the 2010 enacted budget. The changes above,  including the
Administrative Efficiency Initiative  reduction,  incorporate changes for the  portion of the
program being transferred.

•  (-$1,708.0 / -6.5 FTE)  This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources for NexGen risk
   assessment approaches to the new Chemical Safety and Sustainability Program including
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   $808.0 in associated payroll. The integration of efforts under this new program will provide
   for more effective and efficient risk assessments and support the Agency priority for assuring
   the safety of chemicals.

Statutory Authority:

CAA Amendments, 42 U.S.C.  7403  et seq.  -  Sections 103, 108, 109, and  112;  CERCLA
(Superfund, 1980) Section 209(a) of Public Law 99-499; FIFRA (7 U.S.C. s/s 136 et seq. (1996),
as amended), Sec.  3(c)(2)(A); FQPA PL 104-170; SDWA (1996) 42 U.S.C. Section 300J-18;
TSCA (Public Law 94-469): 15 U.S.C.  s/s 2601 et seq. (1976), Sec. 4(b)(l)(B), Sec. 4(b)(2)(B).
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Program Area: Research: Sustainable Communities
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                                         Research: Sustainable and Healthy Communities
                                         Program Area: Research: Sustainable Communities
                                                       Goal: Cleaning Up Our Communities
                                  Objective(s): Promote Sustainable and Livable Communities

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Science & Technology
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
Inland Oil Spill Programs
Hazardous Substance SuperrUnd
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$188,095.0
$345.0
$639.0
$21,264.0
$210,343.0
647.0
FY2010
Actuals
$183,002. 7
$422.5
$549.7
$22,525.3
$206,500.2
625.3
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$186,095.0
$345.0
$639.0
$21,264.0
$208,343.0
647.0
FY2012
Pres Budget
$171,026.0
$454.0
$614.0
$17,706.0
$189,800.0
621.7
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($17,069.0)
$109.0
($25.0)
($3,558.0)
($20,543.0)
-25.3
Program Project Description:

As the  support to  Agency environmental policy decisions  and regulatory  actions to protect
human health and the environment, EPA's research  has  provided effective  solutions to high-
priority environmental problems for the past 40 years.   Research has enabled the Agency to
implement policies  and regulations to minimize waste and reduce pollution in specific industries
and at national, regional and local scales.  While these solutions were effective in moving the
Agency toward its  goal of protecting human health and environment, they were accomplished
using the best  available  science at the time  and were occasionally more limited in scope, for
example, focusing on the risks posed by a single chemical to a single target organ or species.

Now, as science has advanced, EPA is working to address the increasing complexity of 21st
century environmental challenges with solutions that are  effective, efficient, and sustainable -
solutions that  are  designed to meet  current needs while  minimizing  potential health and
environmental risks in the future. To address this challenge, in FY 2012 EPA will strengthen its
planning and delivery of science by implementing an  integrated research approach that looks at
problems from  a systems  perspective.  This approach will  create synergy and  provide more
timely and efficient benefits beyond those possible  from approaches that are more narrowly
targeted to  single chemicals or problem areas.

Consistent  with the Administration's science  and technology priorities for FY 2012,24 the new
integrated research  approach will help develop sustainable solutions by adding a transformative
component to  EPA's existing  research portfolio.   This research  will  leverage  the  diverse
capabilities of in-house scientists and engineers and bridge traditional scientific disciplines.   In
addition, research plans will incorporate input from external  stakeholders such as federal,  state
24 For more information, see the Executive Office of the President memorandum:
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/fyl2-budget-guidance-memo.pdf
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and local government  agencies, non-governmental  organizations, industry, and  communities
affected by environmental problems.

EPA will use the integrated research framework to develop a deeper understanding of our
environmental challenges and inform sustainable solutions to meet our strategic goals.  In FY
2012, EPA is realigning and integrating the following individual Research Programs into a new
integrated, Sustainable and Healthy Communities (SHC) Research Program:

       Human Health research
       Ecosystems Services research
   -   Land Protection and Preservation research
   -   Pesticides and Toxics research
       Sustainability research
       Fellowships
          Proportion of
          Former Programs
          Transferring
        NEW
FY2012  Program
The hallmark of this new SHC Research Program is a central focus on the integration, translation
and coordinated communication of research on the many issues that impact the Sustainability and
health of communities.25  Integrated research on these issues under the new SHC program will
focus on addressing the specific health  and environmental needs of local communities.  The
25 In the graphic above, the proportions of the former research programs transferring to the new Sustainable and Healthy
Communities program reflect funds from all appropriations.
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program will conduct research to address issues such as environmental justice concerns, waste
reduction and site clean-up, and green development.

The SHCRP will focus primarily on environmental sustainability at the community scale.  The
SHC program aims to conduct research and development that will help communities assess their
current  health and  environmental condition  and identify  strategies that  increase ecosystem
services while decreasing community health risks.  Healthy communities will translate to healthy
economies.

The following are descriptions of current SHC  activities categorized under key program areas:
Human Health Research (FY 2012 request $45.4 million)—Human health research provides tools
and  models to evaluate and manage health risks  from  exposures to environmental chemicals.
Human  Health research  can  promote environmental justice by focusing  on groups such  as
children and the elderly that may be more  susceptible and perhaps disproportionately impacted;
research models are developed in concert with stakeholders and applied in community-based
participatory research projects to characterize communities at disproportionate risk. For example,
the C-FERST (Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool), will be pilot tested in
EPA's CARE (Community Action  for a Renewed Environment) program  to identify key
community exposures and evaluate risk mitigation  strategies,  and STAR grants will explore
innovative methods for assessing potential interactions between pollution exposures and social
stressors.

Ecosystems Services Research (FY 2012 request $60.9 million)—Ecosystems Services research
is focused on better understanding the implications of impacts  on ecosystems  and the services
they provide. Research includes analyzing the effects of different environmental management
scenarios in particular communities or regions   over the  intermediate  to long term on the
maintenance of critical ecosystem services that are  expensive or impossible to replace: assessing
regional  scale vulnerability  to ecosystem stressors.  Research examines and  quantifies the
impacts of human behavior on an ecosystem's ability to produce natural benefits and services.
This science generates scientific information  tools for assessing risk management, informing
impactful policy decisions, and creating long-term environmental solutions.

SHC research will also examine Oil Spill and Superfund topic areas that are explained in further
detail in the Oil Spill and Superfund SHC programs.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, EPA will conduct pilot projects that explore and address problems in an integrated
manner by focusing specifically on an urban community, on multiple communities in the Gulf of
Mexico  region, a rural community,  and on certain high-priority problems  facing communities
across the nation.  The first phase of research in the SHC Research Program will be to identify
the most significant problems that diminish community sustainability in terms  of human and
environmental health in  a  particular urban  community.  Examples include the ability  to
simultaneously meet air and water quality  goals and standards,  reduce and/or safely dispose  of
wastes and clean up contaminated sites, preserve or mitigate wetlands,  reduce  the burden  of
pollutant exposure to children and the elderly on health care delivery, and  avoid solutions that
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place a disproportionate burden on households with low socioeconomic status. The program will
conduct extensive transdisciplinary,  multi-stressor, multi-endpoint evaluations of the issues that
communities are facing, relying heavily on state-of-the-art decision analysis with local officials
and stakeholders.  After  gathering data, analyzing trends, and synthesizing  findings, the SHC
Research Program will develop an  "optimal" portfolio of processes and initiatives that can be
drawn from to maximize the  sustainability and resilience of a community, including human,
natural,  and economic capital, which could be readily used by  other communities across the
nation.

Following are two representative  examples focusing on human health protection.  First, the C-
FERST  is being developed  and  applied with input from  prospective users  including regional
decision-makers, CARE community projects, city planners, tribal groups, and NGOs. This user-
friendly, web-based  tool will  enable users to access an  array of exposure information from
multiple databases.  This one-stop  tool will  assist  EPA and other users  in  characterizing
communities as areas of disproportionate  exposure, which could  assist  in identifying risk
reduction and remediation strategies.  Second, EPA will establish Research Centers of Excellence
in Environmental Health Disparities.    These Centers  will  conduct research  that brings
environmental, social and economic sciences together to focus on the best ways protect human
health  in  sustainable  communities  without disproportionately  impacting any  subgroups or
populations.  This research  will  address goals articulated by EPA's Office of Environmental
Justice Plan EJ 2014 and support decisions that incorporate equity into sustainable community
development.

In a third component, the SHC Research Program will identify specific barriers to community
sustainability in its core research  areas (e.g. land, wastes,  ecosystem  services) that face a large
number of communities  across the  nation.  The program will then  conduct R&D to identify
effective strategies to reduce  the barriers.   Examples include substituting  ecosystem services
resulting from land restoration for expensive gray infrastructure upgrades; technology to reduce
or recycle materials to avoid wastes; and smart growth tools that reduce air and water pollution
while improving community health.  The SHC Research Program also will address knowledge,
methods and decision support  gaps that communities face, by developing tools that can be used
by local decision makers to address problems of human and environmental health.  Following are
key research questions to be  addressed by the program  based on ongoing  input from EPA's
partners.  These research questions, as  well as the SHC research plan, will be  independently
reviewed by EPA's Science Advisory Board and Board of Scientific Counselors:

     •  What computational  and  measurement tools  (e.g.,  ecological footprint, return on
        investment,  probabilistic  analysis)  are  needed  to  support  the application of
        sustainability indicators to community decision making?

     •  What types of systems analysis methods  (e.g., material  flow  analysis, life  cycle
        assessment, system dynamics modeling) can be effectively applied or modified to help
        communities develop plans to address their long term human health  and environmental
        challenges?

     •  How can decision support  systems best be  designed so  that they provide clearly
        understandable  results   to  decision-makers  and stakeholders and are usable by
        communities on a real-time, iterative basis?
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Finally, EPA will be developing indicators and performance measures, so that communities will
have measurement tools to characterize their current level of sustainability; develop meaningful
goals and quantifiable objectives for the future, understand the consequences  of alternative
investment strategies, track  their progress, and confirm that their investments in  solutions to
improve their sustainability are yielding the intended results. Key research questions include:

     •  What data are available at the national scale that could be useful to communities, and
        how can the numerous state and local datasets be collected and organized to facilitate
        sustainability analysis when a region spans multiple jurisdictional boundaries?

     •  What  indicators  are  most  appropriate  for  assessing  the  overall  environmental
        sustainability of a community?

     •  What indicators are of most utility in diagnosing the causes of sustainability problems
        and identifying potential solutions?

     •  What indicators are most useful  for setting environmental goals and communicating
        these goals to community stakeholders?
        What are the most useful indicators for tracking the performance of projects intended to
        increase environmental sustainability of communities?

In FY  2012, the Agency is increasing funding in areas critical to support the Administration's
science priorities. EPA is strengthening the future scientific workforce by increasing funding for
fellowships to students in pursuit of careers and advanced  degrees in environmental  science,
technology, engineering, and mathematics. In FY 2012, EPA will provide $14 million for STAR
Fellowships,  including support for an  estimated 243  continuing fellows and 105  new  STAR
fellows.

The FY 2012 budget also will support a study of the Agency's laboratory network  focusing on
current capability to address important strategic issues central to EPA's mission over the next 10
years.  This investment responds to  Congressional legislation and President Obama's direction,
in Executive Order 13514,  that all  federal agencies implement an integrated  strategy toward
sustainability.

Performance Targets:

To be accountable to the American taxpayers, EPA plans to support the interagency  Science and
Technology in  America's Reinvestment - Measuring the Effect of Research on  Innovation,
Competitiveness and  Science (STAR METRICS) Program,  currently in a  pilot  phase for the
National Institutes of Health. This program is a collaboration of multiple science agencies, the
Office  of Science and Technology Policy,  and the research community.  STAR METRICS will
use "science of science  policy" approaches to assess  the impact of federal  science and
technology investments on society, the environment, and the economy.
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FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

The following policy changes are based on a comparison of the new FY 2012 budget structure to
the 2010 enacted budget and are included in  the transfers from the source programs following
this section:

    •   (+$6,000.0) This request reflects increased funding for training the next generation of
       environmental scientists and  engineers under the  Science to Achieve Results (STAR)
       Fellowship Program. The increase supports the Administration's science and technology
       priority for investing in  a  diverse  science, technology, engineering,  and mathematics
       workforce.

    •   (+$2,000.0) This reflects an increase to support the plan for a long-term review of EPA's
       laboratory network.  This cross-Agency integrated management  approach reflects EPA
       labs,  centers  and program  offices'  aim  to  collaborate  across  traditional  program
       boundaries to support national  and  regional decision-making. This  investment will
       strengthen the Agency's ability to respond to environmental and public health issues.

    •   (-$150.0) This reflects a reduction to human health research integrating health indicators
       with  socio-economic indicators for the Environmental Quality Index (EQI).   This
       reduction will slow the effort to provide comparison metrics for prioritization of research.

    •   (-$667.0)  This reflects a reduction  as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions,
       including  advisory contracts,  travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-$1,685.0) This reflects a reduction to ecosystems research for mapping and modeling
       current  ecosystem services and  future ecosystem services  predicted  under multiple
       scenarios.   The reduction will reduce and delay a number of research projects including
       EMAP condition monitoring, site-specific demonstration projects in the southwest, a site-
       specific demonstration project and use of remote sensing technology in the Albermarle-
       Pamlico Watershed, and the Regional Vulnerability Assessment toolkit.

    •   (-$2,000.0)   This reduction  is  the result of a  one-time supplemental  appropriation
       included in FY 2010 for oil spills research.  This increase is not included in the FY 2012
       Budget request.

    •   (-$3,000.0) This reduction is  the result of an increase included in the Congressionally-
       directed  FY 2010  Appropriation  providing  an additional  $3,000.0  for  children's
       environmental health research in FY 2010.  This increase is not included in the FY 2012
       Budget request.

    •   (-$3,500.0)  This reduction reflects decreased funding for the  Advanced Monitoring
       Initiative.  Research with the Interagency Group on Earth Observations will focus only on
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       those areas that are core EPA priorities; the remaining collaborative research with NASA
       will be integrated into the new Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program.

    •   (-$14,067.0 / -21.4 FTE) This decrease represents the net effect of all other payroll and
       technical  adjustments  including  Information Technology reductions,  Small  Business
       Renovation Research (SBIR) realignments and administrative and programmatic support
       realignments and reductions.  It includes a decrease of $6,868.0 for FTE changes as well
       as a recalculation of base costs for existing FTE in this program. For more information
       on these adjustments,  refer to the programs integrating into the Sustainable and Healthy
       Communities Program.

The following transfers26 will integrate the Human Health Research, Ecosystems  Services
Research, Land  Protection  and  Preservation  Research,   Pesticides  and Toxics  Research,
Sustainability  Research Programs and Fellowships  into the transdisciplinary  Sustainable and
Healthy Communities Research Program that better aligns with the Administration and Agency
priorities. This effort is expected to improve the ability to deliver science more effectively and
efficiently, with catalyzing innovative sustainable solutions as the overall goal.  This integration
reflects EPA's efforts to collaborate across traditional program  boundaries to support national
and  regional  decision-making, thereby  strengthening  the  Agency's ability to respond to
environmental and public health issues.

    •   (+$113,217.0 / +367.9 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Human Health and Ecosystems Research Program into the new, integrated Sustainable
       and  Healthy  Communities Program, including $49,335.0 in  associated  payroll. This
       transfer includes the  net effect of all  technical  adjustments such  as Information
       Technology (IT) reductions,  SBIR realignments and administrative and  programmatic
       support realignments and reductions. For additional details on this net effect, please refer
       to the Research:  Land Protection and Restoration program narrative.

    •   (+$9,386.0 / +32.1FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Land Protection and Restoration Research Program into the new, integrated Sustainable
       and  Healthy  Communities Program, including $4,216.0 in  associated payroll.   This
       transfer includes the net effect of all technical adjustments such as IT reductions, SBIR
       realignments and administrative and programmatic support realignments and reductions.
       For additional details on this net effect, please refer to the Research: Land Protection and
       Restoration Program narrative.

    •   (+$18,548.0 / +65.1 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Sustainability  Research Program into  the new, integrated   Sustainable  and Healthy
       Communities Program,  including $9,130.0 in associated payroll.  This transfer includes
       the net effect of all technical adjustments such as IT  reductions, SBIR realignments and
       administrative and  programmatic support realignments and  reductions. For additional
26 The FY 2012 total for the Research: Sustainable and Healthy Communities includes an additional $502 thousand in EPA Green
Conferencing resources that are not included in EPA's Research Program.
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       details on this net effect, please refer to the Research: Land Protection and Restoration
       program narrative.

   •   (+$17,261.0 / +6.4 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Fellowships Research  Program into the new, integrated  Sustainable  and  Healthy
       Communities Program, including a transfer of $664.0 in associated payroll.  This transfer
       includes  the  net effect  of all technical  adjustments such  as  IT reductions,  SBIR
       realignments and administrative and programmatic support realignments and reductions.
       For additional details on this net effect, please refer to the Research: Land Protection and
       Restoration Program narrative.

   •   (+$12,116.0 / +58.2 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources from the
       Pesticides and Toxics Research Program into the new, integrated Sustainable and Healthy
       Communities Program,  including a transfer of $7,666.0 in associated payroll.  This
       transfer includes the net effect of all technical adjustments such as IT reductions, SBIR
       realignments and administrative and programmatic support realignments and reductions.
       For additional details on this net effect, please refer to the Research: Land Protection and
       Restoration Program narrative.

Statutory Authority:

CAA, Sections 103 and 104. 42 U.S.C.  7403, 42 U.S.C. 7404, 103; 104; CWA, Sections 101,
104 & 404, 33 U.S.C. 1254; CCA, 40 U.S.C. 11318; CZMA, 16 U.S.C.  1451  -  Section 302;
Executive Order 12866; ERDDAA; ESA, 16 U.S.C.  1531  - Section 2; FIFRA Sections 18 and
20; TSCA, Section 10. 15 U.S.C. 2609; WRRA.
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Program Area: Water: Human Health Protection
                    192

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                                                               Drinking Water Programs
                                            Program Area: Water:  Human Health Protection
                                                         Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                                                        Objective(s): Protect Human Health
                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$102,224.0
$3,637.0
$105,861.0
589.4
FY2010
Actuals
$99,394.2
$3,889.3
$103,283.5
598.2
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$102,224.0
$3,637.0
$105,861.0
589.4
FY2012
Pres Budget
$104,616.0
$3,787.0
$108,403.0
585.3
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$2,392.0
$150.0
$2,542.0
-4.1
Program Project Description:

This program provides technical  support to drinking water programs through the Technical
Support  Center  (TSC), which evaluates engineering and scientific data (including treatment
technology information) to establish its applicability to the drinking water program's needs.  The
Center also:

    •   Develops and implements regulations to support national occurrence surveys and assists
       in the assessment of the contaminant occurrence data resulting from those surveys;

    •   Develops and  evaluates  monitoring  approaches  and analytical  methods, including
       assessing data  provided by  others to demonstrate the  effectiveness of new/alternate
       analytical methods;

    •   Trains regional and state certification officers and develops guidelines for the  drinking
       water laboratory certification program;

    •   Works with  EPA regional offices and  states to  help  drinking  water  utilities better
       understand their treatment and distribution  systems and implement improvements  to
       optimize performance;  and

    •   Provides other  technical support to develop and implement National Primary Drinking
       Water Regulations (NPDWRs). The Center also provides external technical assistance in
       support of EPA regional and state drinking water programs.27

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, the Drinking Water Technical Support Program will:
27 For additional program information see
http://www.epa.gov/safewater
https://www.cfda.gov/index?s=program&mode=form&tab=stepl&id=63cecb6866ee587d2bfafc7b77c3563c&cck=l&au=&ck
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Provide technical  and scientific support for the development  and implementation of
drinking water regulations.  This includes the development of methods for updating rules
and  implementing the  Unregulated Contaminant  Monitoring  Rule  (UCMR),  and
responding  to  technical  implementation  questions  regarding  the  entire  range of
NPDWRs;

Implement EPA's Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program.  This program sets
standards  and establishes methods for EPA, state, and privately-owned laboratories that
analyze drinking water samples. Through this program, EPA will conduct three regional
program reviews during FY 2012.  TSC visits each regional office on a triennial basis and
evaluates  their  oversight of the state laboratories and the state laboratory certification
programs within their purview;

Support small drinking water systems'  efforts to optimize their  treatment technology
under the  drinking water treatment Area Wide  Optimization Program (AWOP).  AWOP
is a highly successful technical assistance and training program that enhances the ability
of small systems to meet existing and  future microbial, disinfectant, and disinfection
byproducts standards. By FY 2012, EPA will have worked with four regional offices and
24 states to facilitate the transfer of specific skills using the performance-based training
approach targeted  toward optimizing key groundwater system  and distribution system
integrity.  The performance-based training brings together a group of public water supply
operators  from  different localities  for  a series of sessions  where they  learn  key
operational and problem solving  skills.   Each  skill is  needed to enable operators to
address the factors  limiting optimized performance of their plant;

Complete the review and validation  of the data  from the second  round  of contaminant
monitoring conducted under UCMR2. The monitoring period for  UCMR2 was January
2008 to December 2010. The last of the  monitoring results should  be reported by public
water systems by  the middle of calendar year 2011. The monitoring results, used in
conjunction with health effects information  and other occurrence data,  will contribute
significantly to the regulatory determination process;

Publish the regulation that will support  the  third  round of unregulated contaminant
monitoring (UCMR3) and  coordinate with states and regional  offices to carry  out the
agency's pre-monitoring implementation responsibilities. Key activities for EPA include
management of all  aspects  of small-system  monitoring,  approval  and  oversight of
supporting laboratories,  troubleshooting  and  technical assistance,   and review  and
validation of data.  EPA is  required by Section 1452(o) of the Safe Drinking Water Act
(SOWA),  as amended, to annually set aside $2 million of State Revolving  Funds to pay
the costs of small system monitoring and sample analysis for contaminants for each cycle
of the UCMR. UCMR3 monitoring is scheduled to begin in January 2013; and

Provide analytical  method  development/validation to  enable  implementation of the
nation's drinking water compliance monitoring  and occurrence data gathering.
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Performance Targets:
Measure
Type





Outcome




Measure
(aa) Percent of
population served by
CWSs that will receive
drinking water that
meets all applicable
health-based drinking
water standards
through approaches
including effective
treatment & source
water protection.
FY 2010
Target





90




FY 2010
Actual





92




FY2011
CR
Target





91




FY 2012
Target





91




Units




Pprppnt
A wlv/wllL
Population




Measure
Type




Outcome



Measure
(apm) Percent of
community water
systems that meet all
applicable health-based
standards through
approaches that include
effective treatment and
source water
protection.
FY 2010
Target




90



FY 2010
Actual




89.6



FY2011
CR
Target




90



FY 2012
Target




90



Units



Percent
Systems



Work under this program supports EPA's protect Human Health Objective. Currently, there are
no performance measures for this specific program project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$163.0)  This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •   (-$13.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies. EPA will continue its
       work  to redesign processes and  streamline  activities  in  both administrative and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:
                                          195

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SOW A, 42 U.S.C. §300f-300j-9 as added by Public Law 93-523 and the amendments made by
sub sequentenactments.
                                       196

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Program Area: Clean Air
          197

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                                                                      Research: Clean Air
                                                         Program Area: Research: Clean Air
                                                 Goal: Clean Air and Global Climate Change
                                      Objective(s): Radiation; Enhance Science and Research

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$81,917.0
$81,917.0
269.5

FY2010
Actuals
$74,920.0
$74,920.0
265.5

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$81,917.0
$81,917.0
269.5

FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($81,917.0)
($81,917.0)
-269.5
Program Project Description:

EPA's Office of Research and Development provides the scientific foundation for the Agency's
actions to  protect the  air Americans breathe and supports the Administrator's  priority for
improving  air quality.   The program provides the underlying research to support the Agency's
implementation of the  Clean Air Act, which mandates promulgation and enforcement of the
National Ambient  Air Quality  Standards  (NAAQS)28  as well  as  the evaluation of risks
associated  with Hazardous Air Pollutants.29  In  addition,  the program has integrated research
activities around a multi-pollutant approach to address ozone and other criteria pollutants as well
as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).  In moving toward the multi-pollutant theme, the program
increasingly focuses on how to address  specific  source sectors  contributing to air pollution, a
systems  approach that will result in more effective  and  efficient air quality management
strategies.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA research has provided effective solutions  to high-priority environmental problems for the
past 40 years. However, these solutions were accomplished using  approaches based on the best
science available at the time and typically focused on the risks posed by a single chemical to a
single  target organ  or species. Now, as science  advances, EPA is  working to  address the
increasing  complexity  of 21st century environmental challenges.  Protecting human health and
the environment  from  the effects of air pollution  and developing a better understanding  of
climate change impacts on natural systems, while meeting the demands of a growing population
and economy, is critical to the  well-being of the  nation. As we investigate solutions to reduce
and prevent  emissions and investigate  potential  environmental implications of a  changing
climate,  we  are challenged by uncertainties  surrounding the complex interplay between air
quality, the changing  climate,  and a changing energy landscape, and the  subsequent human
health  and environmental risks from exposure to an evolving array of air pollutants.
28 The NAAQS set limits for criteria pollutants regulating levels of tropospheric ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide,
sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and lead. For more information, see http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html.
29 For more information, see http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/188polls.html
                                            198

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In FY 2012  EPA will  strengthen its planning  and delivery of science by implementing an
integrated research approach that looks at problems from a systems perspective. This approach
will create synergy and should produce more timely, efficient results that those possible from
approaches that are more narrowly targeted to single chemicals or problem areas.

To implement this new  approach, EPA is integrating most of the Clean Air Research Program
into the new  Air, Climate and Energy Research Program.  EPA is integrating the remainder of
the Clean Air Program,  nanotechnology, into the Chemical Safety and Sustainability Research
Program.  This integration capitalizes on existing capabilities, and promotes the innovative use
of a multiple disciplines to further EPA's mission. Research to  address targeted,  existing
problems and provide technical support will continue, with a focus on sustainable applications
and outcomes.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

•  (+$3,000.0) This reflects an increase to help the Agency develop efficient, high-performing,
   and cost-effective monitors for ambient air pollutants, including both the NAAQS and HAPs.
   In particular, it will provide field validation of available, untested and undeployed monitoring
   methods,  refinement of outdated techniques and methods, and innovative new technologies.
   With this investment, the Agency will seek lowest-cost, automated monitoring technologies
   to minimize future monitoring burdens felt by state and local agencies.  This investment in a
   next generation air  monitoring  network supports the  Agency's  priority of improving  air
   quality across the nation by helping modernize methods and monitors.

•  (+$1,756.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

•  (+$531.0) This  represents  a  restoration   of  resources   transferred  to  the  Research:
   Sustainability Program to support Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR). For SBIR,
   EPA is required to  set aside  2.5  percent of funding for contracts to small businesses to
   develop and commercialize new environmental technologies. After the FY 2012 budget is
   enacted, and the exact amount of the mandated requirement is known, FY 2012 funds will be
   transferred to the SBIR Program.

•  (-$124.0)  This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
   initiative  targets  certain  categories of spending for efficiencies  and reductions, including
   advisory  contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.   EPA will continue its
   work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative and programmatic
   areas to achieve these savings.

•  (-$133.0) This decrease in travel  costs reflects an effort  to reduce  the  Agency's travel
   footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

•  (-$136.0 / +0.3 FTE) This reflects the  net result of realignments  of infrastructure FTE and
   resources such as equipment purchases and repairs, travel, contracts, and general expenses
   that are  proportionately  allocated  across programs to better  align  with programmatic

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   priorities.  This includes an increase of 0.3 FTE and associated payroll of $40.0 and reflects
   EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the Agency better align resources, skills
   and Agency priorities.

•   (-$150.0) This reflects a decrease to the Clean Air Program and will reduce source receptor
   and dose-effect research that investigates human exposure to air pollutants and the resulting
   health effects.  This decrease could reduce the level of detail in risk estimates needed to
   support NAAQS  regulations.   This decrease will also delay  reporting for the  Detroit
   Exposure and Aerosol Research Study.

•  (-$224.0)   This  reduction  reflects  efficiencies  from  several  Agencywide  Information
   Technology (IT) projects such as email optimization, consolidated IT procurement, helpdesk
   standardization,  and others totaling $10 million Agencywide.  Savings in individual areas
   may be offset by  increased mandatory  costs  for telephone and local area network (LAN)
   support for FTE.

•  (-$459.0 /  -1.5 FTE) This reduction reflects  savings from the Administrative Efficiencies
   Project  (AEP),  a  long-term  effort  to   develop a  corporate  approach  to delivering
   administrative services.  The reduced resources include  1.5 FTE and associated payroll of
   $200.0  and reflect EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the  Agency better
   align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

•  (-$536.0 / -1.5 FTE)  This reflects a reduction of programmatic support resources resulting
   from expected efficiencies  in providing operational support to researchers.  It also includes a
   reduction of  1.5  FTE  and  associated  payroll of $200.0  that  reflects EPA's workforce
   management strategy that  will help the Agency better align resources, skills and Agency
   priorities.

•  (-$549.0) This reflects adjustments to the Agency's fixed costs.

•  (-$762.0) This reduction to the Clean Air Research Program will reduce research activities
   that  support the development and application of models and technologies used to understand
   the relationships between air pollution,  ambient concentration and exposures, and assist in
   the development of state implementation strategies.  This decrease will result in a delay to
   possible model improvements that  could  aid  state  and regional air quality implementation
   plans.

•  (-$818.0 / -4.0 FTE) This reflects a shift from  the Clean Air Research Program to the Global
   Change Research  Program for  research on air quality-climate interactions  to effectively
   couple regional  air quality and  global climate models. The reduced resources include 4.0
   FTE and associated payroll of $532.0  and reflect EPA's workforce management strategy that
   will  help the Agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

•  (-$127.0 / -1.0 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollars and FTE resources for nanotechnology
   research to the new Chemical Safety and Sustainability Research Program. The reduced
   resources include  1.0 FTE and  associated payroll  of $127.0 and reflect  EPA's workforce

                                           200

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   management strategy that will help  the Agency better align resources, skills and Agency
   priorities.

•  (-$83,186.0 / -261.8 FTE)  This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to the new
   Air, Climate, and Energy Research Program and includes $35,373.0 in associated payroll.
   This transfer will integrate the Clean Air Research Program into the transdisciplinary Air,
   Climate and Energy (ACE) Research Program that better aligns with the Administration and
   Agency priorities.  This effort will  improve the  Agency's ability to deliver science more
   effectively and efficiently, with catalyzing innovative sustainable solutions as the overall
   goal.

Statutory Authority:

CAA 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. Title 1, Part A - Sec. 103 (a) and (d) and Sec. 104 (c); CAA 42
U.S.C 7402(b) Section  102; CAA 42 U.S.C 7403(b)(2) Section 103(b)(2); Clinger Cohen Act, 40
U.S.C 11318;  Economy Act,  31 U.S.C 1535; ERDDA,  33  U.S.C. 1251  -  Section  2(a);
Intergovernmental Cooperation Act, 31 U.S.C. 6502; NEPA, Section 102; PPA.
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                                                               Research: Global Change
                                                       Program Area: Research: Clean Air
                                               Goal: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems
                                               Objective(s): Enhance Science and Research
                                 (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$20,826.0
$20,826.0
35.5

FY2010
Actuals
$19,646.9
$19,646.9
36.3

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$20,826.0
$20,826.0
35.5

FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($20,826.0)
($20,826.0)
-35.5
Program Project Description:

EPA's Office of Research and Development is focused on understanding and assessing  the
effects of global change—particularly climate  variability and change—on air  quality, water
quality, aquatic  ecosystems,  human health  and social well being in the United  States and
supports the Administrator's priorities for taking action on climate change, improving air quality
and protecting America's waters. The Agency strives to produce timely and useful information,
decision  support  tools  and  adaptation  strategies   that  will  enable  resource  managers,
policymakers, and other stakeholders to account  for global change when making decisions. EPA
also is developing decision support tools to help decision  makers evaluate alternative strategies
for reducing  greenhouse gas emissions to  better quantify the environmental implications (and
potential co-benefits) associated with deployment of these strategies.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA research has provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems for the
past 40 years. However, these solutions were accomplished using approaches based  on the best
science available at the time and typically focused on the  risks posed by  a single chemical to a
single  target organ or species. Now,  as  science advances, EPA is working to address  the
increasing complexity of 21st century  environmental challenges.  Protecting human health and
the environment from  the effects  of  air pollution and developing a better understanding of
climate change impacts on natural systems, while meeting the demands of a growing population
and economy, is critical to the well-being of the nation.  As we investigate solutions to reduce
and prevent  emissions  and  investigate potential environmental implications of a changing
climate, we are challenged  by uncertainties surrounding the complex  interplay between air
quality, the changing climate, and  a  changing  energy landscape, and the subsequent human
health and environmental risks from exposure to an evolving array of air pollutants.

In FY 2012  EPA will strengthen its planning and delivery of science by implementing an
integrated research approach that looks at problems from  a systems perspective.  This approach
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will create synergy and should produce more timely, efficient results than those possible from
approaches that are more narrowly targeted to single chemicals or problem areas.

To implement this new approach, EPA is integrating the Global Change Research Program into
the  new Air, Climate and Energy Research Program.  This integration  capitalizes on existing
capabilities, and promotes the innovative use of a multiple disciplines to further EPA's mission.
Research to address targeted, existing problems and provide technical support will continue, with
a focus on sustainable applications and outcomes.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

•  (-$432.0)  This decrease is the net effect of increases for payroll and cost of living  for
   existing FTE, combined with a reduction based on the recalculation of base workforce costs.

•  (+$818.0 / +4.0 FTE)  This reflects a shift to the Global Change Research Program from the
   Clean Air Research Program to better  align resources, skills, and Agency priorities.  The
   resources include 4.0  FTE and  associated payroll of $532.0  and  reflect EPA's workforce
   management strategy that  will help the Agency  better align resources,  skills and Agency
   priorities.

•  (+$232.0)  This  represents  a  restoration  of  resources  transferred  to  the  Research:
    Sustainability program to  support  Small  Business Innovation Research (SBIR).  For that
   program, EPA is required to set aside 2.5 percent of funding for contracts to small businesses
   to develop and commercialize new environmental  technologies. After the FY 2012 budget is
   enacted, when the exact amount of the mandated requirement is known, FY 2012 funds will
   be transferred to the SBIR Program.

•  (+$131.0) This reflects adjustments to the Agency's fixed costs.

•  (+$104.0 / +2.0 FTE)  This reflects the  net result of realignment of infrastructure FTE and
   resources such as equipment purchases and repairs, travel, contracts, and general expenses
   that are  proportionately  allocated  across  programs  to  better align  with  programmatic
   priorities.  This includes an increase of 2.0 FTE with associated payroll of $266.0.

•  (-$11.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency  Initiative.  This
   initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions,  including
   advisory contracts, travel,  general  services, printing  and  supplies.  EPA will continue its
   work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative and programmatic
   areas to achieve these savings.

•  (-$26.0) This decrease  in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel footprint
   by promoting green travel and conferencing.

•  (-$30.0)  This   reduction  reflects   efficiencies   from  several  Agencywide Information
   Technology (IT) projects such as email optimization, consolidated IT  procurement, helpdesk
   standardization, and others totaling $10 million Agencywide.  Savings in individual areas

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   may be offset by increased mandatory costs for telephone and Local Area Network (LAN)
   support for FTE.

•  (-$92.0 / -0.2 FTE) This reduction reflects savings from the Administrative Efficiencies
   Project  (AEP),   a long-term  effort  to  develop  a  corporate  approach  to  delivering
   administrative services.  The reduced resources include 0.2 FTE and associated payroll of
   $27.0  and reflect EPA's workforce management  strategy  that will help the Agency better
   align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

•  (-$85.0 / -0.1 FTE)  This reflects a reduction of programmatic support resources resulting
   from expected efficiencies in providing operational support to researchers. It also includes a
   reduction of 0.1  FTE and  associated payroll of $13.0 that reflects  EPA's  workforce
   management strategy that will help the Agency better align resources, skills  and Agency
   priorities.

•  (-$625.0) This reflects  a reduction to research investigating the impacts of climate change on
   estuarine ecosystems.

•  (-$20,810.0 / -41.2 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to the new Air,
   Climate,  and Energy  Research Program, including $5,521.0 in associated payroll. This
   transfer will integrate  the Global Change  Research Program into the transdisciplinary Air,
   Climate and Energy (ACE) Research Program that better aligns with the Administration and
   Agency  priorities.  This effort will improve the  Agency's ability to deliver science more
   effectively and efficiently, with catalyzing innovative, sustainable solutions as the overall
   goal.

Statutory Authority:

Clinger Cohen Act, 40 U.S.C 11318; Economy Act, 31 U.S.C  1535; ERDDA, 33 U.S.C. 1251 -
Section 2(a); Intergovernmental Cooperation Act, 31 U.S.C. 6502; NCPA; NEPA,  Section 102;
PPA; USGCRA 15 U.S.C.  2921.
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Program Area: Clean Water
           205

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                                                               Research: Drinking Water
                                                      Program Area: Research: Clean Water
                                                                Goal: Clean and Safe Water
                                                Objective(s): Enhance Science and Research
                                  (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$49,155.0
$49,155.0
190.2

FY2010
Actuals
$50,346.0
$50,346.0
182.9

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$49,155.0
$49,155.0
190.2

FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($49,155.0)
($49,155.0)
-190.2
Program Project Description:

EPA's Drinking Water Research Program conducts comprehensive integrated research in support
of EPA's Office  of Water and regional offices.   The program provides methodologies, data,
tools, models, and technologies in support of regulatory decisions, health risk assessments and
other needs  pertaining to the Safe  Drinking Water Act's  (SDWA)  statutory  requirements.
Research also is targeted at the implementation of regulatory decisions, addressing compliance
issues  associated with  groups of contaminants, promoting the sustainability of water resources,
and the reliable delivery of safe drinking water, as well as developing approaches to improve
water infrastructure.

Research in the Drinking Water Research Program is coordinated with the Agency's regulatory
activities and timelines. Key research areas include:

    •   Supporting  EPA's  Drinking  Water StrategySO  through  technology  research  and
        evaluation of alternative  approaches to  control  multiple contaminants effectively and
        affordably;
    •   Addressing information gaps associated with chemicals and microorganisms that  are on
        the  third  Contaminant Candidate List  and  supporting the  unregulated contaminant
        monitoring rule;
    •   Addressing science issues associated with revisions to the Total Coliform  Rule and
        related research on distribution systems and sustainable water infrastructure;
    •   Providing  support to  those implementing recent regulatory  decisions  including the
        Ground Water Rule, the Stage  2 Disinfection  Byproduct Rule,  and  the  Long-Term
        Enhanced  Surface Water Treatment Rule;
    •   Supporting simultaneous compliance challenges, particularly  co-compliance with the
        Lead and Copper Rule, Microbial and Disinfectant Byproduct rules; and
    •   Supporting  regulatory  needs associated  with  the Underground Injection Control
        regulations pertaining to geologic  sequestration of carbon  and  aquifer storage and
30http://www.epa.gov/ogwdwOOO/sdwa/dwstrategydocs/Drinking_Water_Strategyfs.pdf

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       recovery as well as research on water resource implications associated with hydraulic
       fracturing for gas extraction.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA research has provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems for the
past 40 years.  As science advances, EPA is working towards  and  approach that allows the
Agency  to  address  the increasing  complexity of 21st century environmental  challenges.
Increasing demands for sources of clean water-combined with land use practices, growth, aging
infrastructure, and climate variability can  threaten our nation's water resources.  Competing
challenges require research to inform improved management practices that consider long-term
sustainability for human and aquatic ecosystem health.

In FY 2012  EPA will strengthen its planning and delivery of science by implementing  an
integrated research approach.  This approach will look at problems from a systems perspective to
develop  a  deeper understanding  of our environmental  challenges  and  inform  sustainable
solutions to our strategic goals.

To implement this new approach, EPA is integrating the Drinking Water Research Program into
the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research Program.   This new program is directly
aligned with EPA's new Strategic  Plan structure, capitalizes  on existing  capabilities, and
promotes the use  of a perspective to further EPA's mission. Research to address targeted,
existing problems  and  provide technical support will continue, with an emphasized  focus  on
sustainable applications and outcomes.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$4,226.0 / +5.0 FTE) This reflects  an increase for research on  hydraulic fracturing
       which includes  $665.0 in associated payroll for 5.0 FTE.  Research  will provide policy
       relevant methods, models,  monitoring  tools,  and data on potential risks associated with
       extracting gas  from   subsurface formations using  vertical  and horizontal  fracturing
       technologies. Research will inform key areas lacking information to provide an adequate
       assessment of the potential public health and environmental  risks posed by hydraulic
       fracturing.   In  particular, EPA's  Science  Advisory Board  recommends that  EPA
       undertake five to ten  case  studies in order to provide an understanding of how the risks
       may vary in the key geologic and geographic situations where hydraulic fracturing is or
       may be used.  Evaluation of the chemicals conducted under this investment will provide a
       sound foundation upon which to base the choice of safer hydraulic fracturing chemicals.
       Congress has urged EPA to conduct this research, which supports the Agency's priority
       to protect the quality of the nation's waters by ensuring the protection of our aquifers.

    •   (+$1,180.0)  This increase reflects the  recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

       (-$36.0 / +2.9 FTE) This reflects  the net result of realignments of infrastructure FTE and
       resources  such  as equipment purchases and repairs, travel, contracts, and general


                                           207

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   expenses  that  are proportionately  allocated across  programs  to  better  align  with
   programmatic priorities. This change reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that
   will help the Agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.
•  (+$216.0)  This  represents a restoration of resources transferred in FY 2010 to the
   Research: Sustainability Program to support Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR).
   For SBIR, EPA is required to set  aside 2.5  percent  of funding for contracts to small
   businesses to develop and commercialize new environmental technologies. After the FY
   2012  Budget is enacted, when the exact amount of the mandated requirement is known,
   FY 2012 funds will be transferred to the SBIR Program.

•  (+$65.0) This realignment of resources from the Land Protection and Remediation
   Program  reflects   the  natural  evolution  in  research  direction  from  groundwater
   remediation issues to groundwater protection issues related to carbon sequestration.

•  (-$28.0) This reflects adjustments to the Agency's fixed costs for rent,  utilities, security
   and other expenditures.

•  (-$91.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort  to reduce the Agency's travel
   footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

•  (-$150.0)  This reduction reflects  efficiencies from  several Agencywide Information
   Technology (IT) projects  such as email optimization,  consolidated  IT  procurement,
   helpdesk  standardization, and  others  totaling  $10 million Agencywide.   Savings in
   individual  areas may be offset by increased  mandatory  costs for telephone and Local
   Area Network (LAN) support for FTE.

•   (-$352.0  / -1.0 FTE)  This  reflects  a reduction of programmatic support resources
   resulting from expected efficiencies in providing operational support to researchers in the
   Drinking Water Research Program.  It also includes a reduction of programmatic FTE
   that reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the Agency better align
   resources, skills and Agency priorities.

•  (-$356.0 /  -0.9 FTE)   This reduction reflects savings from EPA's Administrative
   Efficiencies Project (AEP),  a long-term effort  to  develop a corporate approach to
   delivering administrative services. The  reduced resources include 0.9 FTE and associated
   payroll  of $120.0  and reflect EPA's workforce management  strategy that will help the
   Agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

•  (-$550.0) This reflects a reduction to the development of best management practices and
   informing decisions associated with control of pathogens in drinking water systems.  This
   decrease will limit the extent to which the Agency can respond to the priorities defined
   by EPA's Distribution System Research and Information Collection Partnership (RICP).

•  (-$732.0) This  reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
   This  initiative targets certain categories of  spending for  efficiencies and  reductions,
   including advisory  contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will

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       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

   •   (-$52,547.0 / -196.2 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to the new
       Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Program and includes a transfer of $25,050.0 in
       associated payroll.  This transfer will integrate the Drinking Water Research Program
       into the transdisciplinary Safe and Sustainable Water Resources (SSWR) Program that
       better aligns with the Administration and Agency priorities.  EPA expects this effort will
       improve the Agency's  ability to deliver science more effectively and efficiently, with
       catalyzing innovative, sustainable solutions as the overall goal.

Statutory Authority:

SDWA Part E, Sec. 1442 (a)(l); CWA Title I, Sec.  101(a)(6) 33 U.S.C. 1254 - Sec 104 (a) and
(c) and Sec. 105; ERDDA 33 U.S.C. 1251 - Section 2(a); MPRSA Sec. 203, 33 U.S.C.
                                           209

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                                                                Research: Water Quality
                                                     Program Area: Research: Clean Water
                                                               Goal: Clean and Safe Water
                                                Objective(s): Enhance Science and Research
                                  (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$61,918.0
$61,918.0
236.8

FY2010
Actuals
$58,586.9
$58,586.9
224.6

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$61,918.0
$61,918.0
236.8

FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($61,918.0)
($61,918.0)
-236.8
Program Project Description:

The  Water Quality Research  Program is designed to support the  Clean Water Act (CWA),
providing scientific information and tools to the Agency and others to help protect and restore
the designated uses of water bodies that sustain human health and  aquatic life.  The program
conducts  research  on  the  development  and application  of  water  quality  criteria,  the
implementation  of effective  watershed  management  approaches, and the  application  of
technological  options  to  restore and  protect  water bodies  using  information on  effective
treatment and management alternatives.

The Water Quality Research Program is responsive to the needs of EPA's Water program and
regional offices, which are the program's primary partners in developing research priorities, and
also  supports the Administrator's priority of protecting America's waters.  The Water Quality
Research Program will  support priorities set in consultation with EPA's Water program and
regional offices, taking into account such factors as pollutant/stressor type, water body types, and
source of pollutants (e.g.,agricultural versus urban).  In particular, urban watershed management
is  a top Agency priority.  Continued efforts on green infrastructure research will facilitate the
nation's transition to more sustainable water infrastructure systems and watershed management
practices. This and other Water Quality research is categorized within three broad areas:  Water
Quality Integrity  Research;  Watershed  Management  Research;  and  Source  Control  and
Management Research.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA research  has provided  effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems for the
past  40 years.  As science advances, EPA is working towards and approach that allows  the
Agency to  address  the  increasing  complexity  of 21st century  environmental challenges.
Increasing demands on sources of clean water, land use practices, growth, aging infrastructure,
and climate variability pose threatens to our nation's water resources.  Research is needed to
inform improved  management our nation's waters in an integrated, sustainable manner that will
promote economic prosperity and human and aquatic ecosystem health.
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To address this challenge, in FY 2012 EPA will strengthen its planning and delivery of science
by implementing an integrated transdisciplinary research approach. This approach will look at
problems from a systems perspective to develop a deeper understanding of our environmental
challenges and inform sustainable solutions to our strategic goals.

To implement this new approach, EPA is integrating the Water Quality Research Program into
the  Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research  Program. This new program  is directly
aligned with EPA's  new  Strategic Plan structure,  capitalizes  on existing capabilities, and
promotes the use of a transdisciplinary perspective to further EPA's mission. Research to address
targeted, existing  problems  and  provide  technical  support  will  continue,  with focus on
sustainable applications and outcomes.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted Budget (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$319.0)   This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

   •    (+$5,966.0 / +7.0 FTE) This reflects funding for green infrastructure research to improve
       urban watershed  management  practices and facilitate  the nation's  transition  to more
       sustainable  water  infrastructure systems.  The increase  also  includes 7.0  FTE  with
       associated payroll of $931.0.  A  significant portion  of funds will  leverage  the most
       innovative thinking by academia's top scientists through  STAR grants.

   •   (+$1,087.0) This reflects adjustments to the Agency's fixed costs.

   •   (+$589.0 / +2.2 FTE) This reflects the net result of realignments of FTE and resources
       such as critical equipment purchases and repairs, travel, contracts, and general expenses
       to better align with programmatic priorities, and includes 2.2 FTE with associated payroll
       of $293.0 Realignments are based on FTE allocations  as well  as scientific equipment
       needs.

   •   (+$183.0)  This represents  a restoration  of resources  transferred in FY 2010 to the
       Research: Sustainability Program to support Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR).
       For SBIR, EPA is required to  set aside 2.5 percent  of funding for contracts to small
       businesses to develop and commercialize new environmental technologies. After the FY
       2012 Budget is enacted, and the  exact amount of the mandated requirement is known, FY
       2012 funds will be transferred to the SBIR Program.

   •   (-$92.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the  Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

   •   (-$227.0) This reduction  reflects efficiencies from  several  Agencywide Information
       Technology  (IT)  projects such as  email  optimization, consolidated IT  procurement,
       helpdesk standardization,  and  others totaling $10 million Agencywide.   Savings in
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       individual areas may be offset by increased mandatory costs for telephone and Local
       Area Network (LAN) support for FTE.

    •   (-$273.0) This  reflects a reduction as  part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative  targets  certain categories of  spending for  efficiencies and  reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-$510.0 /  -1.3  FTE)   This reflects  a reduction of programmatic support resources
       associated with the Water Quality Research Program.  This change includes a decrease of
       1.3  FTE and associated payroll of $173.0 and reflects EPA's workforce management
       strategy that will help the agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

    •   (-$731.0 /  -1.3 FTE)  This  reduction reflects  savings  from  EPA's Administrative
       Efficiencies Project  (AEP),  a  long-term effort  to  develop a corporate approach to
       delivering administrative services.  This change includes  a decrease  of 1.3 FTE  and
       associated payroll of $173.0 and reflects EPA's workforce management  strategy that will
       help the agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

    •   (-$2,000.0)  This reflects a decrease in Beaches research due to continued progress in
       meeting the requirements  of the consent decree  and settlement agreement. Work to
       support implementation efforts through the Office of Water will receive  a higher priority.
       In particular, as the Beaches work nears completion, human health effects work will
       transition to a technical support level. Research on methods and new molecular tools will
       continue. Large scale epidemiology studies  will be more difficult to support with  this
       reduction, but continued development of measures of waterborne pathogen occurrence
       and tools for assessing illnesses related  to pathogens will remain a priority.  There will
       not be large scale health studies in FY  2012, but work on  tools to use in future health
       studies will continue.

    •   (-$66,229.0 / -243.4 FTE)  This reflects  a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to the new,
       integrated Safe and  Sustainable Water  Resources Program and includes $31,105.0 in
       associated payroll. This transfer will integrate the Water Quality Research Program into
       the  transdisciplinary  Safe and Sustainable Water Resources  (SSWR) Research Program
       that better aligns with the Administration and Agency priorities. EPA expects this effort
       will improve the Agency's ability to deliver science more effectively and efficiently, with
       catalyzing innovative, sustainable solutions as the overall goal.

Statutory Authority:

CWA Title I,  Sec. 101(a)(6) 33 U.S.C. 1254 - Sec 104 (a)  and (c) and Sec. 105; ERDDA 33
U.S.C. 1251 - Section 2(a); MPRSA  Sec. 203, 33 U.S.C. 1443; ODBA Title II; SPA; CVA;
WRDA;  WWWQA; MPPRCA; NISA; CZARA; CWPPRA;  ESA; NAWCA; FIFRA 7 U.S. C.
135 et seq; TSCA U.S. C. 136 et seq.
                                           212

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Program Area: Human Health and Ecosystems
                  213

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                                                    Research: Computational Toxicology
                                    Program Area: Research: Human Health and Ecosystems
                                                Goal: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems
                                                Objective(s): Enhance Science and Research

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$20,048.0
$20,048.0
32.7

FY2010
Actuals
$13,929.9
$13,929.9
33.0

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$20,048.0
$20,048.0
32.7

FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($20,048.0)
($20,048.0)
-32.7
Program Project Description:

Computational Toxicology assesses the risks that certain chemicals pose to human health and the
environment  using  mathematical  and   computer  models.  Established  in  2003,  EPA's
Computational Toxicology Research Program (CTRP) examines the sources of chemicals in the
environment and assesses their potential  to cause adverse health effects. The CTRP develops
robust and flexible computational tools,  which are used to assess thousands of contaminants
found  in  America's air, water, and  hazardous-waste  sites. Advances in informatics, high-
throughput screening, and genomics enable  EPA scientists to use  CTRP results to develop a
detailed understanding of the risks posed by large numbers of chemicals, while at the same time
reduce the use of animals for toxicological testing. These tools are transforming environmental
health protection by providing risk assessors and managers more efficient and effective methods
for managing chemical risks.

The National Center for Computational Toxicology, established in 2005,  comprises the largest
component of the CTRP.  The  strategic directions of the CTRP are highly consistent with the
National Research Council report "Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a
Strategy"31  (Tox21), and  include  several  substantial  and innovative projects  in  chemical
screening and prioritization,  informatics,  and systems  biology32. EPA's Science to Achieve
Results (STAR)  grant  program  and  other EPA  laboratories conduct  research under the
Computational  Toxicology program.  The contribution  of the  STAR program to the CTRP
includes two centers in bioinformatics and two in computational toxicology. The research of
these centers will help fill gaps in our understanding of the molecular pathways  that may result in
toxicity to the developing embryo and fetus, which we  know represent highly susceptible life
stages to chemical exposure.  As these pathways are identified, assays will be  developed to test
their sensitivity to thousands of chemicals.
31Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy,
http://www.nap. edu/openbook.php?record_id=11970&page=l
32http://epa.gov/ncct/download_files/basic_information/CTRP2_Implementation_Plan_FY09_12.pdf
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FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA research has  provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems for the
past 40 years.   The Computational  Toxicology program  efforts  are at the core of The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency's Strategic Plan for Evaluating the Toxicity of Chemicals33.
The Strategic Plan and the CTRP Implementation Plan for FY 2009-2012 highlight the unique
capabilities of EPA to  provide the necessary science to transform how chemical and other risk
assessments  are performed,  and thus  support  improved  management  of  environmental
contaminants and chemical risk. Unfortunately, traditional research approaches within the CTRP
portfolio are limited in their ability to address the increasing  complexity of 21st century
environmental challenges.

To address this challenge, in FY 2012 EPA will strengthen its planning and delivery of science
by implementing an  integrated transdisciplinary research approach.  This  approach will look at
problems from a systems perspective to develop a deeper understanding  of our environmental
challenges and inform sustainable solutions to our strategic goals.

To implement this new approach,  EPA is integrating  the Computational  Toxicology Research
Program into the new Chemical Safety and Sustainability (CSS) program.  This new program is
directly aligned with EPA's new Strategic Plan structure, capitalizes on existing capabilities, and
promotes the use of a transdisciplinary approach to further EPA's mission. Research to address
targeted, existing  problems and provide technical support will continue, with a  focus on
sustainable applications and outcomes.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

•   (-$756.0) This decrease is the net effect of increases for payroll and cost of living for existing
    FTE, combined with a reduction based on the recalculation of base workforce costs.

•   (+$2,000.0)  This reflects  an increase  for next-generation tools  to  speed  and  facilitate
    implementation of the  Agency's Endocrine Disrupter Screening  program  (EDSP). The
    application  of these tools will  introduce a more efficient approach  to identifying potential
    endocrine disrupters  and apply this information across the life cycle of a chemical.  This
    research  is  critical to  help  the  Agency meet its priority  of strengthening chemicals
    management and risk assessment.

•   (+$285.0)  This  represents  a  restoration of  resources  transferred  to the  Research:
    Sustainability program to support Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR). For SBIR
    EPA is required to set aside 2.5  percent  of funding for  contracts to small  businesses to
    develop and commercialize new environmental technologies. After the FY 2012 budget is
    enacted, when the exact amount of the mandated requirement is known, FY 2012 funds will
    be transferred to the SBIR program.
"National Service Center for Environmental Publications, P.O. Box 42419, Cincinnati,OH 45242, publication # 100K09001

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•  (+$92.0 / +2.7 FTE) This change reflects the net result of realignments of resources such as
   critical equipment purchases and repairs, travel,  contracts, and  general expenses to better
   align with programmatic priorities, including 2.7 FTE with associated payroll  of $359.0.
   Realignments of these resources are based on FTE allocations as well as scientific equipment
   needs.

•  (-$3.0) This reduction reflects efficiencies from several Agencywide Information Technology
   (IT)  projects  such  as  email  optimization,  consolidated  IT  procurement,  helpdesk
   standardization,  and others totaling $10 million Agencywide.  Savings in individual  areas
   may be offset by increased mandatory costs for telephone  and  local area network (LAN)
   support for FTE.

•  (-$28.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel footprint
   by promoting green travel and conferencing.

•  (-$133.0 / -1.0 FTE) This reflects a realignment of FTE resources for STAR grants including
   -$133.0 in associated payroll.   This change  reflects EPA's workforce management strategy
   that will help the Agency better align resources,  skills and Agency priorities.

•  (-$294.0) This reflects  a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
   initiative targets certain categories  of spending for efficiencies and  reductions, including
   advisory contracts,  travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
   work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative and programmatic
   areas to achieve these savings.

•  (-$21,211.0 / -34.4 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar  and  FTE resources to  the new
   Chemical Safety and Sustainability program  (CSS), including $4,363.0 in associated payroll.
   This transfer will integrate Endocrine Disrupters Chemicals; Computational Toxicology; and
   Nanotechnology Research Programs, as well as portions of Sustainability,  Human Health,
   Pesticides and Toxics, and Human Health Risk Assessment programs into a transdisciplinary
   effort that better aligns with  the Administration  and  Agency priorities.  This  effort will
   improve  the Agency's  ability to deliver science  more  effectively  and efficiently,  with
   catalyzing innovative sustainable solutions as the overall goal.

Statutory Authority:

   SDWA; Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments; Environmental Research, Development
   and Demonstration Authorization  Act;  SARA;  CERCLA;  RCRA; Oil  Pollution  Act;
   BRERA; Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority.
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                                                         Research: Endocrine Disruptor
                                    Program Area: Research: Human Health and Ecosystems
                                               Goal: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems
                                               Objective(s): Enhance Science and Research

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$11,355.0
$11,355.0
50.1

FY2010
Actuals
$12,471.9
$12.471.9
52.1

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$11,355.0
$11,355.0
50.1

FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($11,355.0)
($11,355.0)
-50.1
Program Project Description:

EPA's Endocrine Disrupters Research  Program  applies methods, models,  and measures  to
evaluate real-world exposures to endocrine disrupters and characterize related effects resulting
from these exposures for humans  and wildlife. The Endocrine Disrupters Research Program
provides  direct  support  to  EPA's Endocrine  Screening  and Testing Programs,  which  are
mandated  under the  Food Quality Protection Act of 1996  and the Safe  Drinking  Water Act
Amendments of 1996.34

EPA uses Endocrine Disrupters research to develop risk management tools to prevent or mitigate
exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Decision-makers use these tools to reduce
and prevent exposure of humans and  ecosystems to endocrine disrupters. The EDCs Program
also develops and evaluates the new and existing test protocols that are used to assess potential
endocrine  effects of environmental agents.

This research program strengthens  the scientific foundation for the Agency's  actions to protect
Americans against unreasonable risk from exposure to toxicants that interfere with the endocrine
system. In addition, the EDCs Program supports the Administrator's priorities for assuring the
safety  of chemicals,  protecting  America's waters  and  building  strong  state  and  tribal
partnerships.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance  Plan:

EPA research has provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems for the
past  40 years.  Unfortunately,  traditional research  approaches are limited  in their ability  to
address the increasing complexity of 21st century environmental  challenges.   Although
chemicals are essential to modern  life, we lack innovative  systematic, effective, and efficient
approaches and tools to inform  decisions that reduce the environmental and societal impact of
harmful chemicals while increasing economic value.
  SDWA Section 1457.
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To address this challenge, in FY 2012 EPA will strengthen its planning and delivery of science
by implementing an integrated transdisciplinary research approach.  This approach will look at
problems from a systems perspective to develop a deeper understanding of our environmental
challenges and inform sustainable solutions to our strategic goals.

To implement this new approach, EPA is integrating the Endocrine Disrupters Research Program
into the Chemical  Safety and Sustainability Research  Program. This new program is directly
aligned with EPA's  new Strategic Plan structure, capitalizes on  existing capabilities, and
promotes the use of a transdisciplinary approach to further EPA's mission. Research to address
targeted, existing  problems and provide technical support will  continue,  with a focus on
sustainable applications and outcomes.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$115.0) This decrease reflects the recalculation of base workforce  costs for existing
       FTE.

   •   (+$7,000.0) Additional funding will support grants to academia through the Science to
       Achieve Results  (STAR) Program, complementing the intramural research effort on
       endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).  This research will  allow  for an acceleration of
       applying the  latest  state-of-the-art technologies  and innovations  to  advance  the
       assessment  and management of environmental  endocrine disrupters and other emerging
       contaminants of concern.

   •   (+133.0 / +1.0 FTE) This reflects a realignment of FTE  resources for STAR grants,
       including  $133.0  in  associated  payroll.   This change  reflects  EPA's workforce
       management strategy that will help the Agency  better align resources, skills and Agency
       priorities.

   •   (+$37.0) This  represents a  restoration  of resources  transferred  to  the Research:
       Sustainability  Program to support  Small  Business  Innovation Research (SBIR). For
       SBIR,  EPA is required  to  set aside 2.5 percent of  funding for contracts  to  small
       businesses to develop and commercialize new environmental technologies. After the FY
       2012 budget is enacted, and the exact amount of the mandated requirement is known, FY
       2012 funds will be transferred to the SBIR Program.

   •    (+$5.0) This reflects adjustments to the Agency's fixed  costs.

   •   (-$43.0) This decrease in travel  costs reflects  an effort to reduce the Agency's  travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

   •   (-$54.6  /  -0.2 FTE)   This  reduction  reflects  savings from EPA's Administrative
       Efficiencies Project (AEP),  a long-term  effort  to  develop a corporate approach  to
       delivering  administrative  services.   The  reduced  resources  include  0.2 FTE and
       associated payroll of -$26.6. The change reflects EPA's  workforce management strategy
       that will help the Agency better align resources,  skills and Agency priorities.

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    •   (-$58.9  /  -0.3  FTE)   This reflects a  reduction  of programmatic  support  resources
       associated with the Endocrine Disrupters Research  Program.  The  reduced  resources
       include 0.3 FTE and associated payroll of -$39.9.  The change reflects EPA's workforce
       management strategy that will help the Agency better align resources, skills and Agency
       priorities.

    •   (-$255.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the  Administrative Efficiency  Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain  categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.   EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes  and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-$413.8 /  -1.6 FTE)  This represents a net realignment of FTE and resources  to the
       Pesticides and Toxics Research Program to address exposure issues related to potential
       chemical and/or pesticide stressors to better reflect program support needs. This includes
       a reduction of  1.6 FTE with decreased  associated payroll of  -$212.8.   This change
       reflects  EPA's workforce  management strategy that will help the agency better align
       resources,  skills and Agency priorities.

    •   (-$701.7 / -2.9  FTE) This reflects the realignment of resources for  critical  equipment
       purchases  and facility repairs and  improvements across Agency Research Programs to
       better align with programmatic priorities.  This includes a reduction of 2.9  FTE  with
       decreased  associated payroll of -$385.7. Realignments are based on FTE allocations as
       well as scientific equipment needs.

    •   (-$16,888.0 /  -46.1 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to the new
       Chemical Safety and Sustainability Program to better integrate chemical safety Research
       Programs.  The reduced resources include 46.1 FTE and associated payroll of $5,847.0.
       This transfer will integrate Computational Toxicology, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals,
       and Nanotechnology research, along with portions of Human Health, Human Health  Risk
       Assessment, Pesticides and  Toxics, and Sustainability research into  a transdisciplinary
       effort that better aligns with Agency priorities.  This effort will improve the Agency's
       ability to  deliver  science  more effectively and efficiently, with  catalyzing  innovative
       sustainable solutions as the overall goal.

Statutory Authority:

CAA, 42 U.S.C.  Sec. 103, 104 & 154; CWA, 33  U.S.C.  Sec. 101-121; CERCLA, 42 U.S.C.;
ERDDAA, 42  U.S.C.  4361-4370; FIFRA, 7 U.S.C.  Sec.  136; FQPA,  7  U.S.C.;  Pollution
Prevent on Act PP A, 42 U.S.C. 13103; RCRA 42 U.S.C.; SOW A, 42 U.S.C. 1457 Sec. 136-137,
201-203; TSCA, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 2609.
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                                                                   Research: Fellowships
                                    Program Area: Research: Human Health and Ecosystems
                                                Goal: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems
                                                Objective(s): Enhance Science and Research

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$11,083.0
$11,083.0
2.6

FY2010
Actuals
$11,453.8
$11,453.8
7.4

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$11,083.0
$11,083.0
2.6

FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($11,083.0)
($11,083.0)
-2.6
Program Project Description:

It is essential that our nation has a well-trained scientific and engineering workforce that can
address complex  environmental issues. According to a July 2004 publication by the National
Science and Technology Council titled Science for the 21st Century., beginning in 1998, the U.S.
experienced a significant decline in science and engineering doctorates. EPA assists in efforts to
counteract this decline by offering five fellowship programs that encourage promising students to
pursue degrees and careers in environmentally-related fields:

    •   Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Fellowship Program:35 U.S. masters and doctoral
       students in environmental fields  compete for EPA's STAR fellowships through  a
       rigorous merit-based review process. The applicant's  proposed  area of research must
       aim to strengthen the scientific basis for environmental management and promote a
       broader  focus for future research  and environmental technology development. EPA
       provides assistance  for up to three years in the form of a stipend ($20,000/year),  a
       research budget ($5,000/year) and tuition assistance (up to $12,000/year).

    •   Greater Research Opportunities (GRO)  Undergraduate Fellowship Program:!  This
       program awards fellowships to undergraduates whose universities receive less than $35
       million annually in  federal science and  technology funds. For  qualifying students in
       environmental fields, EPA provides up  to  $19,250 a year  for  academic support and
       $8,000 for a three-month summer internship with EPA between the fellow's junior and
       senior years.

    •   Environmental Science and Technology Policy Fellowship Program:36 In conjunction
       with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), EPA places
       qualified  technical  professionals  with   a Ph.D.  degree  or  equivalent into EPA
       headquarters for up to two years. Fellows design and work on projects that produce
35 For more information, see http://epa.gov/ncer/fellow/.
36 For more information, see http://fellowships.aaas.org/index.shtml.
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       meaningful scientific research for environmental policy makers. The program awards
       annual stipends ranging between $70,000 and $95,000.

   •   Environmental  Public Health  Fellowship  Program:37  In  conjunction  with  the
       Association  of  Schools  of Public  Health  (ASPH),  EPA  provides  professional
       development opportunities to graduates of accredited U.S. schools of public health.
       Fellows gain real-world experience in environmental public health issues by working in
       EPA laboratory, regional, program or research management offices across the country.
       The program awards annual stipends of up to $50,000.

   •   EPA Marshall Scholarship Program:38  In partnership  with the Government of the
       United Kingdom, EPA awards  Marshall Scholars  approximately $40,000 a year for
       tuition and fees, a stipend, program-related expenses, and travel to and from the United
       States.  Since 1953, the Marshall  Scholarship Program has provided opportunities for
       highly motivated masters degree students to receive support for two years of study in
       Great Britain.  The program  places special emphasis on academic fields  that address
       global environmental problems or benefit multilateral efforts.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA research has provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental  problems for the
past  40 years.  As  science advances, EPA is working towards and approach that allows the
Agency to address the increasing complexity of 21st century environmental challenges.

In FY 2012, EPA will strengthen its  planning  and delivery of science by implementing an
integrated transdisciplinary research approach. This approach will  look at problems  from a
systems perspective to develop  a deeper understanding of our environmental challenges and
inform sustainable solutions to our strategic goals.

To implement this new approach, EPA  is  integrating the Fellowships Program into the new
Sustainable  and Healthy  Communities  Research Program.  This new  program is aligned with
EPA's new Strategic Plan structure,  capitalizes on existing capabilities, and promotes the use of
a transdisciplinary perspective to further EPA's mission.  Within this integrated program, EPA's
Fellowships  Program will  continue to foster  long-term  investment  in the  enhancement of
environmental research and  development,  increased  promotion  of green  principles,  and an
increase in the nation's scientific education and workforce.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$526.0)  This decrease  reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

   •    (+$6,000.0) This request reflects increased funding for training the next generation of
       environmental  scientists and engineers under the Science to Achieve Results (STAR)
37 For more information, see http://www.asph.org/document.cfm?page=751&JobProg ID=1.
38 For more information, see http://www.marshallscholarship.org/applications/epa.
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       Fellowship Program.  The increase supports the Administration's science and technology
       priority for investing in a diverse science,  technology,  engineering,  and mathematics
       education and workforce.

   •   (+$540.0  7+3.8 FTE) This increase reflects the  net result of realignments of resources
       such as critical equipment purchases and repairs, travel, contracts, and general expenses
       to better align with programmatic priorities,  3.8 FTE with associated payroll of $505.0.
       Realignments of these  resources  are based  on  FTE allocations as well as scientific
       equipment needs. This change reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that will
       help the Agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

   •   (+$164.0)  This represents  a restoration of resources  transferred to the Research:
       Sustainability Program  to support Small Business  Innovation Research (SBIR). For
       SBIR, EPA is  required to set aside  2.5 percent of funding for contracts to  small
       businesses to  develop and commercialize new environmental technologies. After the FY
       2012 Budget is enacted, and the exact amount of the mandated requirement is known, FY
       2012 funds will be transferred to the SBIR Program.

   •   (-$17,261.0 /  -6.4 FTE)  This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to the new
       Sustainable and Healthy Communities Program and includes 6.4 FTE and $664.0  in
       associated payroll.  This transfer will integrate Fellowships and Ecosystems research,  as
       well as portions of Land;  Sustainability; Human Health; and Pesticides  and Toxics
       Research   Programs  into  a  transdisciplinary  effort  that   better  aligns  with the
       Administration and Agency priorities. EPA expects this effort will improve the Agency's
       ability to deliver science more  effectively and  efficiently, with  catalyzing innovative
       sustainable solutions as the overall goal.

Statutory Authority:

SWDA, 42 U.S.C. 6981, Sec. 8001; HSWA; ERDDA; SARA, 42 U.S.C. 7401, Sec. 209 (a), Sec.
403 (a,b); CERCLA, 42 USC 9660, Sec.311; RCRA, 42 U.S.C.; OP A, BRERA.
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                                               Research: Human Health and Ecosystems
                                    Program Area: Research: Human Health and Ecosystems
                                               Goal: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems
                                               Objective(s): Enhance Science and Research

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$161,511.0
$161,511.0
484.9

FY2010
Actuals
$158,721.8
$158,721.8
472.3

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$159,511.0
$159,511.0
484.9

FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($161,511.0)
($161,511.0)
-484.9
Program Project Description:

EPA's Human Health and Ecosystems Research Program is a crucial scientific component of the
Agency's ability to protect Americans' public health and environment. The Human Health and
Ecosystems  program examines the interactions and impacts between ecosystems  and  human
activity.

Human Health Research
The Human Health Research Program (HHRP) develops sustainable technological innovations
aimed at protecting human health. The HHRP addresses the limitations,  gaps, and challenges
articulated in EPA's Report on the Environment (2008) and responds to recommendations in the
National Research Council's  reports "Toxicity Testing  in the 21st Century:  A Vision and a
Strategy" (2007)  and  "Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment"  (2009). Using a
"source-to-exposure-to-effects-to-disease" research  framework, HHRP  develops and links
indicators of risk, characterizes and reduce uncertainties in  risk assessment,  and  applies new
research information to real world settings. Advanced exposure models illuminate potential risks
of environmental  contaminants and characterize specific environmental exposures and stressors
that contribute to  current human health concerns. HHRP research catalyzes the development of
public health indicators that evaluate the  effectiveness of risk management decisions, especially
as they pertain to vulnerable populations such as children and  the elderly.

Ecosystems Services Research
The  Ecosystem  Services Research  Program  (ESRP) conducts solutions-based research that
enables  proactive environmental decision  making that conserves  and protects ecosystem
services. ESRP has made significant accomplishments in quantifying the ecological condition of
the nation's aquatic resources,  developing ecological  stressor-response  models,  methods  to
forecast alternative future scenarios, and creating methods to restore ecological functions and
ecosystem  services  within  degraded   systems.  ESRP  leverages  the   expertise of these
accomplishments  by integrating scientific resources  into a common research  framework. This
framework allows EPA to  assess and quantify ecosystem services and  determine how those
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services are affected by  human behaviour. Using this information, ESRP develops decision
support tools that help policy makers implement scientifically-sound environmental decisions
and create incentives that eliminate or redirect problematic human behaviour. ESRP's research
approach provides the Agency with unique opportunities to produce environmental solutions at
lower cost and with fewer unintended consequences.

Additional research areas
In addition  to ESRP  and HHRP,  the  Human  Health and Ecosystems program  works  in
partnership with NASA to perform advanced monitoring research (AMI); conducts mercury
research, nanotechnology research and exploratory research; and develops the Agency's Report
on the Environment (ROE).

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA research  has provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems for the
past 40 years.  The integrative nature of the Human Health and Ecosystems Research Program
gives  the Agency a unique ability to assess the relationship between environmental agents and
human health  and well-being. Currently, the Human Health and Ecosystem Services program,
along with the rest of EPA's research portfolio,  targets high-priority environmental issues and
provides technical support for implementing short-term solutions. As science has advanced, EPA
is working towards an approach that allows the Agency to address the increasing complexity of
21st century environmental challenges.

To address these challenges, in FY 2012 EPA will strengthen its planning and delivery of science
by implementing an integrated research approach.  This approach will look at problems from a
systems perspective to develop a deeper understanding of our environmental challenges and
inform sustainable solutions to our strategic goals.

To implement this new approach, EPA is integrating the Human Health and Ecosystem Services
program into the Air, Climate and Energy, Chemical Safety and Sustainability, and Sustainable
and Healthy Communities Research Programs.  These new programs are aligned with EPA's
new Strategic Plan structure,  capitalize on existing capabilities, and incorporate systems analysis
in problem  definition  and research methods  to further EPA's mission.  This  approach will
leverage  the capabilities of the  Human Health and Ecosystem program  and bridge traditional
scientific disciplines. Research  to address targeted, existing problems  and provide technical
support will  continue, with an emphasized focus on sustainable applications and outcomes.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$1,254.0) This  represents  a restoration of resources  transferred to  the Research:
       Sustainability program  to support Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR). For
       SBIR,  EPA  is  required to set aside  2.5 percent  of  funding for contracts  to  small
       businesses to develop and commercialize  new environmental technologies. After the FY
       2012 Budget is enacted, and the exact amount of the mandated requirement is known, FY
       2012 funds will be transferred to the SBIR program.
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•  (+$1,186.0) This reflects adjustments to the Agency's fixed costs.

•  (+$800.0) This increase reflects a redirection of resources  to  the Human Health and
   Ecosystems program to fund ECOTOX, which is a database for locating single chemical
   toxicity data for  aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife.  The ECOTOX database is
   relied upon  by EPA program and regional offices, as well as external stakeholders, as a
   source of ecological toxicity data.

•  (+$2,000.0) This reflects an increase to support the plan for a long-term review of EPA's
   laboratory network.  This cross-Agency integrated management approach reflects EPA
   labs,  centers  and  program  offices'  aim  to collaborate  across  traditional  program
   boundaries  to support  national and  regional decision-making. This investment will
   strengthen the Agency's ability to respond to environmental  and public health issues as
   "one EPA."

•  (+$133.0 / +1.0 FTE) This reflects a shift of FTE resources from the Homeland Security
   Research Program to nanotechnology research.  The resource shift includes associated
   payroll of $133.0.

•  (-$1,104.0) This decrease reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
   FTE.

•  (-$532.0)   This  reduction reflects  efficiencies  from several agencywide  Information
   Technology (IT) projects  such as  email optimization,  consolidated IT procurement,
   helpdesk standardization, and  others totaling  $10 million agencywide.  Savings  in
   individual  areas  are  partially  offset  by necessary financial system investments and
   increased mandatory  costs for  telephone and Local Area Network (LAN) support for
   FTE.

•  (-$150.0) This reflects a reduction to human health research integrating health indicators
   with socio-economic  indicators for  the Environmental Quality  Index (EQI).  EPA has
   deemed this research lower priority than other human health efforts.

•  (-$326.0) This decrease reflects the Agency working to  reduce its carbon footprint by
   reducing travel costs, promoting green travel practices, and moving routine meetings to a
   web or video conference format.

•  (-$836.0 /  -2.2  FTE)  This reflects  a reduction of programmatic  support resources
   resulting from expected efficiencies in providing operational support to  researchers.  It
   also includes a reduction of 2.2  programmatic FTE and associated payroll of-$293.0 that
   reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that  will help the Agency to better align
   resources, skills and Agency priorities,

•  (-$750.0) This reflects a reduction to  the nanotechnology research to delay research in
   using new energy applications, such  as  next-generation lithium-ion batteries,  as  case
   studies for  developing Life Cycle Assessment approaches for  nanomaterials.  This

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   reduction also will delay FY 2012 commitments made to the international Organization
   for Economic Co-operation and Development to support development of non-animal test
   methods for nanomaterials, in particular for carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles.

•  (-$751.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative  Efficiency Initiative.
   This  initiative targets certain categories  of spending for efficiencies and reductions,
   including advisory contracts, travel, general  services, printing and  supplies. EPA will
   continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
   and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

•  (-$769.0 / -3.4 FTE) This decrease reflects the net result of realignments of infrastructure
   FTE  and resources  such as  equipment purchases and repairs,  travel, contracts, and
   general expenses that are proportionally allocated across programs to better align with
   programmatic priorities.  The decrease includes a reduction of 3.4 FTE and decreased
   associated payroll of-$452.0.

•  (-$1,500.0) This reflects a reduction to human health research on screening assays and
   predictive toxicology approaches.  Research to develop new assays  and approaches will
   be delayed, slowing EPA efforts to transform the efficiency and effectiveness of toxicity
   testing.

•  (-$1,685.0) This reflects a reduction to ecosystems research for mapping and modeling
   current ecosystem  services and future  ecosystem  services predicted under  multiple
   scenarios.  The reduction will reduce and delay a number of research projects including
   EMAP condition monitoring, site-specific demonstration projects in the southwest, a site-
   specific demonstration project and use of remote sensing technology in the Albemarle-
   Pamlico Watershed, and the Regional Vulnerability Assessment toolkit.

•  (-$2,000.0) This reduction is the result of a supplemental appropriation included in FY
   2010 for oil spills research. This increase is not included in the FY 2012 Budget request.

•  (-$2,106.0 /  -2.2 FTE)  This reduction  reflects  savings  from  EPA's Administrative
   Efficiencies  Project (AEP),  a long-term  effort  to develop a  corporate  approach  to
   delivering administrative services and reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that
   will help the Agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities. A portion  of
   these administrative savings ($1,000) will be  reinvested directly into science through
   STAR fellowships.  The change includes a decrease of 2.2 FTE with reduced associated
   payroll of $293.0 and reflects EPA's  workforce management strategy that will  help the
   agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

•  (-$2,429.0 /  -3.1  FTE)  This reflects a reduction to the mercury Research Program and
   includes a reduction of 3.1 FTE  and decreased associated payroll  of  -$412.0.  The
   program will discontinue research examining mercury "hot spots'" evaluating  mercury
   emission measurement/control technologies, and assessing the impact  of different coals
   and technology configurations on coal combustion residues.  The program will  use data
   already generated to produce final products and reports.

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   •   (-$3,000.0) This  reduction  is  the  result of an  increase  included  in the FY 2010
       Appropriation  providing an  additional  $3,000.0  for children's environmental health
       research in FY 2010. This increase is not included in the FY 2012 Budget request.

   •   (-$3,500.0)  This reduction reflects  decreased  funding for the Advanced  Monitoring
       Initiative. Research with the interagency Group on Earth Observations will focus only on
       those areas that are core EPA priorities; the remaining collaborative research with NASA
       will be integrated into the new Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program.

   •   (-$1,204.0 / -6.6 FTE) This reflects a transfer of FTE and resources for mercury research
       to the new Air, Climate and Energy Research Program. The reduced resources include -
       6.6  FTE and associated payroll of $886.0 and reflect EPA's workforce management
       strategy that will help the Agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

   •   (-$31,025.0 / -100.5 FTE)   This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources for a
       portion of Human Health  Research and nanotechnology research to the new Chemical
       Safety and Sustainability program to better integrate chemical safety Research Programs.
       The reduced resources include 100.5 FTE and associated payroll of $12,606.0 and reflect
       EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the agency better align resources,
       skills  and Agency priorities.   This  transfer will  integrate the Endocrine Disrupting
       Chemicals, Computational Toxicology, and Nanotechnology Research Programs, as well
       as portions of Sustainability, Human Health, Pesticides and  Toxics, Human Health Risk
       Assessment  programs into  a  transdisciplinary  effort that better   aligns with  the
       Administration and Agency priorities.  EPA expects this effort will improve the ability to
       deliver science more effectively and efficiently, with catalyzing innovative sustainable
       solutions as the overall goal.

   •   (-$113,217.0 / -367.9  FTE)  This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources for a
       portion of Human Health Research,  Ecosystem Services Research, the Report on the
       Environment, and the Advanced Monitoring Initiative to the new Sustainable and Healthy
       Communities program. The reduced resources include 367.9 FTE and associated payroll
       of $49,335.0 and reflect EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the agency
       better  align  resources, skills  and  Agency priorities.  This transfer will  integrate
       Fellowships and Ecosystems research; as well as portions of Land; Sustainability; Human
       Health; and Pesticides and  Toxics research into a transdisciplinary effort that better aligns
       with the Administration and Agency priorities. EPA expects this effort will improve the
       Agency's  ability to deliver  science more effectively and  efficiently,  with catalyzing
       innovative sustainable solutions as the overall goal.

Statutory Authority:

CAA,  42 U.S.C. 7403, 7404;  SDWA, 42 U.S.C. 300J-1; ERDDA; CWA, 33  U.S.C. 1254;
FIFRA, 7 U.S.C. 136; FFDCA, 21 U.S.C.; RCRA 42 U.S.C. 6981; FQPA; TSCA, 15 U.S.C.;
USGCRA,  15 U.S.C. 2921
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Program Area: Land Protection
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                                              Research: Land Protection and Restoration
                                                  Program Area: Research: Land Protection
                                                   Goal: Land Preservation and Restoration
                                                Objective(s): Enhance Science and Research
                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Science & Technology
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
Inland Oil Spills
Hazardous Substance SuperrUnd
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$14,111.0
$345.0
$639.0
$21,191.0
$36, 286.0
154.7
FY2010
Actuals
$14,687.7
$422.5
$549.7
$22,334.0
$37,993.9
137.6
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$14,111.0
$345.0
$639.0
$21,191.0
$36, 286.0
154.7
FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($14,111.0)
($345.0)
($639.0)
($21,191.0)
($36, 286.0)
-154.7
Program Project Description:

Research performed under the Land Research Program supports scientifically defensible and
consistent decision-making for Resource  Conservation and Recovery Act  (RCRA) material
management, corrective action, and emerging materials topics.  EPA's Land Research Program
provides the scientific foundation for the Agency's actions to protect America's land. Research
under this program has been evolving from waste treatment to beneficial reuse, avoidance of
more toxic materials, and operation of waste management facilities to conserve capacity and
produce energy. Research addresses resource conservation and material reuse issues, as well as
the application of alternative landfill covers and the benefits of landfill bioreactors.  To address
emerging  material  management  issues,  the program  made  a  strategic shift  to focus  on
nanomaterial fate and transport and associated risk management issues.

Research  efforts  are guided by  the  Land  Research  Program  Multi-Year Plan  (MYP),39
developed with input from across the Agency. The MYP outlines steps for meeting the needs of
the Research and  Development Program's clients and stakeholders and for evaluating progress
through annual performance goals and measures. Research under this Program supports human
health risk and exposure assessments and methods, which are conducted under the Human
Health Risk Assessment Program.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA research has provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems for the
past 40 years. As science has advanced, EPA is working towards an approach that allows the
39 EPA, Office of Research and Development, Land Research Program MYP. Washington, D.C.: EPA. For more information,
see http://www.epa. gov/ord/htm/multi-yearplans.htm#land.
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Agency to  address  the increasing  complexity  of 21st century environmental  challenges.
Communities are increasingly challenged to sustain the  well-being of their residents and the
benefits of nature upon which they depend. Changing demographics; urbanization; competition
for food, materials, and  energy in a global economy; growing waste streams; changing climate;
and tighter  budgets  have exacerbated the challenges. Instead, a  more systems-oriented  and
synergistic approach is needed.

To address these challenges, in FY 2012 EPA will strengthen its planning and delivery of science
by implementing an integrated research approach.  This approach will  look at problems from a
systems perspective to  develop  a deeper understanding  of our environmental challenges  and
inform sustainable solutions to our strategic goals.

To implement this new approach this, EPA is integrating the Land Preservation and Restoration
Research Program with the Fellowships, Human Health and Ecosystems, Sustainability,  and
Pesticides and  Toxics  Research Programs into  the Sustainable  and Healthy  Communities
Research  Program.  This new program  is directly  aligned with  EPA's  new  Strategic Plan
structure,  and capitalizes on  existing capabilities to accomplish EPA's mission. Research to
address targeted, existing  problems  and provide  technical  support  will continue,  with  an
emphasized  focus on sustainable applications and outcomes.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

•  (+$242.0 / +0.9 FTE) This reflects the net result of realignments of infrastructure FTE and
   resources such as  equipment purchases and  repairs, travel, contracts, and general expenses
   that are proportionately  allocated across  programs to  better align  with  programmatic
   priorities.  This  reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the Agency
   better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

•  (+$241.0) This reflects adjustments to the Agency's fixed costs.

•  (+$10.0)   This  represents   a restoration  of resources  transferred in  FY  2010 to  the
   Sustainability Research Program to  support Small Business Innovation  Research (SBIR).
   For SBIR EPA is  required  to set  aside 2.5  percent of funding for contracts to small
   businesses to develop and commercialize new environmental  technologies.   After the FY
   2012 budget is enacted, and  the exact amount of the mandated requirement is known, FY
   2012 funds will be transferred to the SBIR Program.

•  (-$5.0)  This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
   initiative targets certain  categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions,  including
   advisory contracts, travel, general services,  printing and  supplies.  EPA will continue its
   work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative and  programmatic
   areas to achieve these savings.

•  (-$83.0)  This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the  Agency's travel footprint
   by promoting green travel and conferencing.
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•  (-$124.0) This reflects adjustments to the Agency's technology infrastructure modernization
   plan (or Information Technology and telecommunications) resources. Realignment of these
   resources is based on FTE allocations.

•  (-$125.0 / -0.1 FTE) This reflects a reduction of programmatic support resources resulting
   from expected efficiencies  in providing  operational support to  researchers.   This change
   includes -$13.0 in associated payroll and reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that
   will help the agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

•  (-$154.0 / -0.3 FTE) This reduction reflects savings  from EPA's Administrative Efficiencies
   Project  (AEP),  a   long-term  effort  to  develop  a  corporate  approach  to  delivering
   administrative services. This change includes -$40.0 in associated payroll and reflects EPA's
   workforce management strategy that will help the agency better align resources, skills and
   Agency priorities.

•  (-$181.0) This reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

•  (-$331.0 / -2.0 FTE) This reflects a redirection  of resources to Drinking Water research,
   reflecting the  natural evolution in research direction  from groundwater remediation issues to
   groundwater protection issues related to  carbon  sequestration. This reduction includes  2.0
   FTE with decreased associated payroll of $266.0.

•  (-$4,215.0 / -25.2 FTE)  This reflects  a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to  the new
   Chemical Safety and Sustainability Program and includes a transfer of $3,324.0 in associated
   payroll.   This transfer will integrate nanotechnology  research into the  transdisciplinary
   Chemical Safety  and Sustainability Program that better aligns with  Agency priorities.  EPA
   expects this effort will improve the Agency's ability to deliver science more effectively and
   efficiently, with catalyzing innovative, sustainable solutions as the overall goal.

•  (-$9,386.0 / -32.1 FTE)  This reflects  a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to  the new
   Sustainable and  Healthy Communities  Program and includes  a  transfer  of $4,216.0 in
   associated  payroll. This   transfer will  integrate  land  restoration   research  into   the
   transdisciplinary  Sustainable and Healthy  Communities Program that better aligns with
   Agency priorities.   EPA expects this effort will improve the Agency's ability to deliver
   science more  effectively and efficiently, with catalyzing  innovative,  sustainable solutions as
   the overall goal.

Statutory Authority:

Clean Air Act Sections  103 and 104. 42 U.S.C. 7403, 42 U.S.C. 7404,103;  104; CWA  Sections
101,  104 & 404, 33 U.S.C. 1254;  Clinger Cohen Act, 40 U.S.C. 11318; CZMA, 16 U.S.C. 1451
- Section 302;  E.G.  12866;  ERDDAA; ESA, 16 U.S.C. 1531 - Section 2;   FIFRA Sections 18
and 20; TSCA  Section 10. 15 U.S.C. 2609; WRRA.
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Program Area: Research: Sustainability
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                                                                 Research: Sustainability
                                                    Program Area: Research: Sustainability
                                                Goal: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems
                                                Objective(s): Enhance Science and Research

                                          Goal: Compliance and Environmental Stewardship
       Objective(s): Enhance Societies Capacity for Sustainability through Science and Research

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Science & Technology
Hazardous Substance Superfimd
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$27,287.0
$73.0
$27,360.0
70.8
FY2010
Actuals
$25,807.8
$152.0
$25,959.8
73.1
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$27,287.0
$73.0
$27,360.0
70.8
FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($27,287.0)
($73.0)
($27,360.0)
-70.8
Program Project Description:

EPA's  Science  and  Technology for  Sustainability  (STS) Research  Program  provides
technologies  and decision tools to inform  future risk management  decisions,  and provides
technical and scientific support to regional and national  Sustainability policies and initiatives.
These tools and support are provided through three main areas:

    •   Sustainability Metrics:.  The  STS Research Program focuses its efforts on developing
       scientifically-based Sustainability metrics and indices that will support understanding of
       the implications of different technology and risk management pathways, evaluation of
       regional ecosystem and human health Sustainability over time, and assessment  of how
       various management strategies can move a region towards Sustainability.

    •   Decision Support ToolsAO This research creates tools, models, and methods that provide
       information to decision makers on ways to evaluate environmental management issues,
       from a systems perspective, in  order to achieve sustainable outcomes. This research is
       built on the  foundation of life cycle and supply  chain  analysis techniques.   These
       techniques address the Sustainability of alternative policy options,  production pathways,
       and product  usage by  describing  the full environmental  impact  and  Sustainability
       implications of each alternative.

    •   Technologies:   This research emphasizes the development and testing of technologies
       that facilitate  sustainable  outcomes.  An example of ongoing technical work is the
       development  and evaluation of a new membrane technology that can recover  biofuel
       from biomass  streams at higher purity levels using 50 percent less energy and at lower
40 For more information, see http://www. epa. go v/ord/NRMRL/std/sab.

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       cost than current technology. Programs such as the Small Business Innovation Research
       (SBIR) Program and the People, Prosperity, and Planet (P3) student design competition
       emphasize  finding  solutions to client-driven  problems while promoting  sustainable
       design and implementation  practices that generate research outputs in the form of
       innovative, inherently benign, integrated, and interdisciplinary designs that will advance
       the  scientific, technical, and  policy knowledge  necessary  to  further the goals  of
       sustainability.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA research has provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental problems  for the
past 40 years.  As science advances, EPA is working towards and approach that allows the
Agency to address the increasing complexity of 21st century environmental challenges.

In FY 2012  EPA will  strengthen its planning and delivery of science by implementing an
integrated research approach.  This approach will look at problems from a systems perspective to
develop  a  deeper understanding of  our environmental  challenges  and  inform  sustainable
solutions to our strategic goals.

To implement this new approach, EPA is integrating the STS Research  Program into the new
Sustainable and Healthy Communities  Research Program.  This new program is aligned with
EPA's new Strategic Plan structure and capitalizes on existing capabilities to accomplish EPA's
mission. In addition, research on E-waste/E-design under the STS Research Program will be
integrated with the new Chemical Safety and Sustainability  Research Program.   Research to
address targeted, existing  problems and provide technical  support will  continue, with  an
emphasized focus on sustainable applications and outcomes.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

•   (+$5,465.07 0.9 FTE) This reflects an increase for a new green chemistry and design for the
    environment initiative and includes associated payroll  of  $120.0.  It includes $1,000.0 for
    E-waste/E-design research  to improve  the sustainability of electronic  materials.   The
    proposed  research would develop new scientific information and tools that will lead to the
    development of safer chemicals, including nanomaterials.   Funds will be used to integrate
    data from multiple  scientific disciplines and sources into  innovative  user friendly decision
    tools, databases, and models for use by environmental  decision-makers.  This research will
    spur innovations in green chemistry as well as help develop: a scientifically and technically
    trained green chemistry workforce, approaches to inform and  engage communities about
    green chemistry,  and a  network  of green chemistry and engineering  centers to support the
    development and adoption of safer alternatives to chemical  substances.

•   (+$609.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

•   (+$31.0)  This reflects adjustments to the Agency's fixed costs.
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•  (-$53.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel footprint
   by promoting green travel and conferencing.

•  (-$99.0)  This   reduction  reflects efficiencies  from  several   agencywide  Information
   Technology projects such  as email optimization, consolidated  IT procurement, helpdesk
   standardization, and others totaling $10 million agencywide. Savings in individual areas may
   be offset by increased mandatory costs for telephone and Local Area Network (LAN) support
   for FTE.

•  (-$103.0) This reflects  a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
   initiative  targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and  reductions, including
   advisory contracts, travel,  general services, printing and  supplies.  EPA will continue its
   work to redesign processes  and streamline activities in both administrative and programmatic
   areas to achieve these savings.

•  (-$148.0 / -0.3 FTE) This reflects a reduction of programmatic support resources associated
   with the  Sustainability  Research Program.   The reduced resources include  0.3 FTE and
   associated payroll of $40.0.

•  (-$209.0 / -0.9 FTE) This reduction  reflects savings from the Administrative Efficiencies
   Project  (AEP),  a long-term  effort  to develop  a  corporate  approach to  delivering
   administrative services.   The reduced resources  include 0.9 FTE and associated payroll of
   $120.0 and  reflect EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the Agency better
   align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

•  (-$610.0 / -3.5 FTE) This  reflects the  net result of realignments of infrastructure FTE and
   resources such as  equipment purchases and repairs, travel, contracts,  and general expenses
   that  are  proportionately allocated across  programs to  better  align with programmatic
   priorities.  This  includes a reduction of 3.5 FTE with decreased associated payroll of-$466.0
   and  reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the Agency better  align
   resources, skills  and Agency priorities.

•  (-$2,200.0)  This reflects a disinvestment of research in biofuels due to the completion of the
   2010 Report to Congress and Department of Energy and Department of Agriculture reports
   that are under development. The decrease will reduce EPA research on filling gaps identified
   in the  Report to Congress and limit EPA  planning for the 2013 Report to  Congress as
   required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA.)

•  (-$3,183.0)  This reflects an  adjustment for Small  Business Innovation Research  (SBIR).
   Enacted funding levels  for  SBIR include the amount EPA is required to  set aside for
   contracts to  small businesses to develop and commercialize new environmental technologies.
   This adjustment  is necessary because the SBIR set aside, at this point in  the budget  cycle, is
   redistributed to  other Research Programs in the President's Budget request.  After the FY
   2012 budget is enacted, and  the exact amount of the mandated  requirement is known, FY
   2012 funds will be transferred to the SBIR Program.
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•  (-$2,800.0)  This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources for biofuels to the new Air,
   Climate, and Energy Research Program.   There is  no associated payroll included  in the
   transfer.

•  (-$5,440.0 / -1.9 FTE)  This reflects a transfer  of dollar and FTE resources for the green
   chemistry and design for the environment, E-waste/E-design, and nanotechnology research to
   the new Chemical Safety and Sustainability Research Program. This transfer will integrate
   Endocrine Disrupters Chemicals; Computational  Toxicology;  and Nanotechnology Research
   Programs, as well as a portion of Human Health, Pesticides and Toxics, Human Health Risk
   Assessment, and Sustainability research into a transdisciplinary  effort that better aligns with
   the Administration and Agency priorities. EPA expects this effort will improve the Agency's
   ability  to deliver science more  effectively and efficiently,  with  catalyzing  innovative
   sustainable solutions as the overall  goal.  The resources  include 1.9 FTE  and associated
   payroll of $126.0.

•  (-$18,547.0 / -65.1 FTE)   This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to the new
   Sustainable  and  Healthy  Communities Research Program.   This transfer will integrate
   Fellowships and Ecosystems research, as well as portions of the Land; Sustainability; Human
   Health; and Pesticides  and Toxics Research Programs into  a  transdisciplinary effort that
   better  aligns  with the Administration and Agency priorities.  EPA expects  this effort will
   improve the  Agency's  ability  to  deliver  science more effectively and  efficiently, with
   catalyzing innovative sustainable solutions as the overall goal.  The resources include 65.1
   FTE and associated payroll of $9,130.0.

Statutory Authority:

CAA; CWA;  FIFRA; PPA;  RCRA: SOW A; SARA: TSCA; ERDAA; EISA.
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Program Area: Toxic Research and Prevention
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                                                         Research: Pesticides and Toxics
                                              Program Area: Toxic Research and Prevention
                                                Goal: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems
                                                Objective(s): Enhance Science and Research
                                  (Dollars in Thousands)



Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY2010
Enacted
$27,347.0
$27,347.0
137.4

FY2010
Actuals
$27,423.6
$27,423.6
128.2

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$27,347.0
$27,347.0
137.4

FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($27,347.0)
($27,347.0)
-137.4
Program Project Description:

The Pesticides and Toxics Research Program develops methods, models, and data for use in
decisions by EPA's Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention Program and other organizations.
The  program  identifies  and synthesizes  the best available  scientific information,  models,
methods, and analyses to support Agency guidance and policy decisions related to the health of
people,  communities, and  ecosystems, with  a focus  on pesticides and toxic chemicals. The
Research Program has three major goals:
   •   Provide predictive tools to inform decision-making regarding high priority pesticides and
       toxic substances,
   •   Develop  probabilistic risk assessment methods  and  models to better protect wildlife
       populations, and
   •   Provide the  tools necessary to make risk management decisions related to products of
       biotechnology.
Research in the  Pesticides and Toxics Program strengthens  the  scientific foundation for the
Agency's actions to protect human health and the environment against unreasonable risks from
exposure to pesticides and toxic chemicals.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA research has provided effective solutions to high-priority environmental  problems for the
past  40 years.   Unfortunately,  traditional research approaches are limited in their ability to
address the increasing complexity  of 21st  century  environmental  challenges.   Although
chemicals are  essential to modern life, we lack innovative systematic, effective, and efficient
approaches and tools to inform decisions that reduce the environmental and societal impact of
chemicals while increasing economic value.

To address this challenge, in FY 2012 EPA will strengthen its planning and delivery of science
by implementing an integrated transdisciplinary research approach. This approach will look at
problems from a systems perspective  to develop a deeper understanding of our environmental
challenges and inform sustainable solutions to our strategic goals.
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To  implement  this new approach, EPA is  integrating  the  Pesticides and  Toxics Research
Program into  the  Chemical  Safety  and Sustainability and  the Sustainable and  Healthy
Communities Research Programs.  These new programs are  directly aligned with  EPA's new
Strategic Plan  structure, capitalize  on  existing capabilities,  and promote  the use of a
transdisciplinary perspective to further EPA's mission. Research to address targeted, existing
problems and provide technical support will continue, with a focus on  sustainable  applications
and outcomes.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$1386.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs  for existing
       FTE.

    •   (+$518.0 / +2.0 FTE)  This  reflects  a redirection of resources  from EDCs  research
       towards Pesticides and Toxics research to address exposure issues related  to potential
       chemical and/or pesticide stressors. This change includes 2.0 FTE with associated payroll
       of $266.0.  This change reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the
       agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

    •   (+$125.0)  This reflects adjustments to the Agency's fixed costs.

    •   (+$16.0) This  represents  a  restoration  of  resources  transferred to  the Research:
       Sustainability Program to  support  Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR).  For
       SBIR, EPA is  required  to set  aside 2.5  percent of funding  for  contracts to small
       businesses to develop and commercialize new environmental technologies. After the FY
       2012 budget is enacted, and the exact amount of the mandated requirement is known, FY
       2012 funds will be transferred to the SBIR Program.

    •   (-$13.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies. EPA will  continue its
       work  to redesign processes  and  streamline  activities  in  both administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •    (-$137.0 / -0.8 FTE)  This reflects  a  reduction  of  programmatic  support  resources
       associated with the  Pesticides and Toxics  Research Program.  The reduced resources
       include  -0.8 FTE and  associated  payroll of  -$106.0  and  reflect  EPA's workforce
       management strategy that will help the Agency better align resources, skills  and Agency
       priorities.

    •   (-$50.0) This decrease  in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

    •   (-$201.0)  This  reduction reflects efficiencies from  several  Agencywide  Information
       Technology (IT)  projects such  as  email optimization,  consolidated  IT procurement,
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       helpdesk standardization,  and others totaling $10  million  Agencywide.   Savings  in
       individual areas may be offset by increased mandatory costs for telephone and local area
       network (LAN) support for FTE.

   •   (-$354.0  / -0.7 FTE) This  reduction  reflects  savings from EPA's  Administrative
       Efficiencies  Project (AEP), a long  term effort to  develop a corporate  approach  to
       delivering administrative  services.   The  reduced  resources  include  0.7 FTE and
       associated payroll of -$93.0 and reflect EPA's workforce management strategy that will
       help the Agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

   •   (-$332.0  / -1.7 FTE) This reflects the realignment  of resources for critical equipment
       purchases and facility repairs and  improvements across Agency Research Programs  to
       better align with programmatic priorities.  The reduced resources include -1.7 FTE and
       associated payroll of -$226.0.  Realignments are based on FTE allocations as well  as
       scientific equipment needs.

   •   (-$1,146.0 /  -0.9 FTE) This reflects a reduction to research supporting the development
       of scientific tools for biotechnology and  includes a reduction of 0.9 FTE with decreased
       associated payroll of -$120.0. The  program will reduce research into refining the use  of
       remote sensing as a tool for the management of insect resistance in genetically modified
       crops,  also  known as Plant Incorporated Pesticides  (PIP)  crops.  The program has
       completed research on decision support systems to identify insect infestations that would
       indicate the development of insect resistance.

   •   (-$12,116.0 / -58.2 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to the new
       Sustainable and Healthy Communities Program.   Reduced resources include 58.2 FTE
       and associated payroll of $7,666.0. This transfer will integrate Pesticides and Toxics
       research  with Fellowships and  Ecosystems  research;  as well  as  portions  of Land;
       Sustainability and Human Health research into a transdisciplinary effort that better aligns
       with Agency priorities.  This effort will  improve the Agency's ability to deliver science
       more effectively and efficiently, with catalyzing innovative, sustainable solutions as the
       overall goal.

   •   (-$15,043.0 / -77.1 FTE) This reflects a transfer of dollar and FTE resources to the new
       Chemical Safety and Sustainability Program to better integrate chemical safety Research
       Programs.  Reduced resources include 77.1  FTE and associated payroll of $10,023.0.
       This  transfer will integrate  Pesticides  and  Toxics  research  with  Computational
       Toxicology,  Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, and Nanotechnology research, along with
       portions of Human Health, Human Health Risk Assessment,  and Sustainability research
       into a transdisciplinary effort that better aligns with Agency priorities.  This effort will
       improve  the Agency's  ability to deliver science  more effectively and efficiently, with
       catalyzing innovative sustainable solutions as the overall goal.

Statutory Authority:

CAA, 42 U.S.C. Sec. 103, 104 & 154;  CWA,  33 U.S.C. Sec.  101-121; ERDDAA, 42 U.S.C.
4361-4370; FIFRA, 7 U.S.C. Sec.  136; FQPA, 7  U.S.C.; TSCA, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 2609.

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Environmental Protection Agency
2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents - Environmental Programs and Management

Resource Summary Table	245
Program Projects in EPM	246
Program Area:  Clean Air and Climate	252
   Clean Air Allowance Trading Programs	253
   Climate Protection Program	257
   Federal Stationary Source Regulations	267
   Federal Support for Air Quality Management	273
   Federal Support for Air Toxics Program	282
   Stratospheric Ozone: Domestic Programs	284
   Stratospheric Ozone: Multilateral Fund	288
Program Area:  Indoor Air and Radiation	291
   Indoor Air: Radon Program	292
   Reduce Risks from Indoor Air	295
   Radiation: Protection	298
   Radiation: Response Preparedness	301
Program Area: Brownfields	304
   Brownfields	305
Program Area: Compliance	309
   Compliance Assistance and Centers	310
Program Project Description:	310
   Compliance Incentives	312
   Compliance Monitoring	314
Program Area: Enforcement	322
   Civil Enforcement	323
   Criminal Enforcement	329
   Enforcement  Training	333
   Environmental Justice	335
   NEPA Implementation	339
Program Area:  Geographic Programs	342
   Great Lakes Restoration	343
                                       241

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   Geographic Program:  Chesapeake Bay	358
   Geographic Program: San Francisco Bay	368
   Geographic Program: Puget Sound	372
   Geographic Program: South Florida	375
   Geographic Program: Mississippi River Basin	379
   Geographic Program:  Long Island Sound	381
   Geographic Program:  Gulf of Mexico	385
   Geographic Program:  Lake Champlain	391
   Geographic Program:  Other	394
Program Area: Homeland Security	400
   Homeland Security: Communication and Information	401
   Homeland Security: Critical Infrastructure Protection	404
   Homeland Security: Preparedness, Response, and Recovery	407
   Homeland Security: Protection of EPA Personnel and Infrastructure	409
Program Area: Information Exchange / Outreach	411
   Children and Other Sensitive Populations: Agency Coordination	412
   Environmental Education	415
   Congressional, Intergovernmental, External Relations	418
   Exchange Network	422
   Small Business Ombudsman	427
   Small Minority Business Assistance	430
   State and Local Prevention and Preparedness	433
   TRI / Right to Know	436
   Tribal - Capacity Building	439
Program Area: International Programs	444
   US Mexico Border	445
   International Sources of Pollution	449
   Trade and Governance	454
Program Area: IT / Data Management / Security	459
   Information Security	460
   IT / Data Management	463
Program Area: Legal / Science / Regulatory / Economic Review	471
   Administrative Law	472
   Alternative Dispute Resolution	474
                                        242

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   Civil Rights / Title VI Compliance	476
   Legal Advice: Environmental Program	480
   Legal Advice: Support Program	483
   Regional Science and Technology	485
   Integrated Environmental Strategies	488
   Regulatory/Economic-Management and Analysis	494
   Science Advisory Board	500
Program Area:  Operations and Administration	502
   Facilities Infrastructure and Operations	503
   Central Planning, Budgeting, and Finance	508
   Acquisition Management	511
   Financial Assistance Grants / IAG Management	514
   Human Resources Management	517
Program Area:  Pesticides Licensing	521
   Endocrine Disrupters	522
   Pesticides: Protect Human Health from Pesticide Risk	526
   Pesticides: Protect the Environment from Pesticide Risk	532
   Pesticides: Realize the Value of Pesticide Availability	538
   Science Policy and Biotechnology	542
Program Area:  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)	544
   RCRA:  Waste Management	545
   RCRA:  Corrective Action	550
   RCRA:  Waste Minimization & Recycling	554
Program Area:  Toxics Risk Review and Prevention	558
   Toxic Substances:  Chemical Risk Review and Reduction	559
   Pollution Prevention Program	570
   Toxic Substances:  Chemical Risk Management	580
   Toxic Substances:  Lead Risk Reduction Program	584
Program Area:  Underground Storage Tanks (LUST / UST)	592
   LUST/UST	593
Program Area:  Water: Ecosystems	596
   National Estuary Program / Coastal Waterways	597
   Wetlands	602
Program Area:  Water: Human Health Protection	607
                                        243

-------
   Beach/Fish Programs	608
   Drinking Water Programs	613
Program Area: Water Quality Protection	622
   Marine Pollution	623
   Surface Water Protection	629
                                         244

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                           Environmental Protection Agency
            FY 2012 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
              APPROPRIATION: Environmental Program & Management
                               Resource Summary Table
                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Budget Authority
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted

$2,993,779.0
10,925.3
FY2010
Actuals

$2,988,874.6
10,793.6
FY2011
Annualized
CR

$2,993,779.0
10,925.3
FY2012
Pres Budget

$2,876,634.0
10,851.9
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted

($117,145.0)
-73.4
               Bill Language: Environmental Programs and Management

For environmental programs and management, including necessary expenses, not otherwise
provided for, for personnel and related costs and travel expenses; hire  of passenger motor
vehicles;  hire,  maintenance,  and  operation  of aircraft; purchase of reprints; library
memberships in societies or associations which issue publications to members only or at a price
to members  lower than to subscribers who are not members; administrative costs of the
brownfields program under the Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization
Act of 2002; and not to exceed $19,000 for official reception and representation expenses of
which $10,000 is for hosting the annual meeting  of the  Council of the  Commission for
Environmental Cooperation in the  United States  during FY2012, $2,876,634,000,  to remain
available  until September 30,  2013: Provided,  That of the funds made available under this
heading, at least $3,000,000 is for strengthening  the Agency's  acquisition workforce capacity
and capabilities: Provided further, That such funds may be transferred by  the Administrator to
any other account of the Agency to carry out the  purposes provided herein and that  such
transferred funds shall be  available for the same time period  as the account to which
transferred: Provided further, That with respect to the previous proviso, such transfer authority
is in addition to any other transfer authority provided in this Act: Provided further, That with
respect to the previous proviso, such funds shall be available for  training, recruitment, retention,
and hiring members of the  acquisition  workforce as  defined by  the  Office of Federal
Procurement Policy Act, as amended (41 U.S.C. 401 et seq.): Provided further, That with respect
to the previous proviso,  such funds shall be available for information technology in support of
acquisition workforce effectiveness  or for  management solutions  to improve acquisition
management. Note.—A full-year 2011 appropriation for this account was not enacted at the time
the budget was prepared; therefore, this account is operating under a continuing resolution  (P.L.
111-242, as amended). The amounts included for 2011 reflect the annualized level provided by
the continuing resolution.
                                          245

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Program Projects in EPM
  (Dollars in Thousands)
Program Project
Clean Air and Climate
Clean Air Allowance Trading
Programs
Climate Protection Program
Energy STAR
Methane to markets
Greenhouse Gas Reporting
Registry
Climate Protection Program
(other activities)
Subtotal, Climate Protection
Program
Federal Stationary Source
Regulations
Federal Support for Air Quality
Management
Federal Support for Air Toxics
Program
Stratospheric Ozone: Domestic
Programs
Stratospheric Ozone: Multilateral
Fund
Subtotal, Clean Air and Climate
Indoor Air and Radiation
Indoor Air: Radon Program
Reduce Risks from Indoor Air
Radiation: Protection
Radiation: Response Preparedness
Subtotal, Indoor Air and Radiation
Brownfields
Brownfields
Compliance
Compliance Assistance and Centers
Compliance Incentives
Compliance Monitoring
FY2010
Enacted

$20,791.0

$52,606.0
$4,569.0
$16,685.0
$39,184.0
$113,044.0
$27,158.0
$99,619.0
$24,446.0
$5,934.0
$9,840.0
$300,832.0

$5,866.0
$20,759.0
$11,295.0
$3,077.0
$40,997.0

$24,152.0

$25,622.0
$9,560.0
$99,400.0
FY2010
Actuals

$20,664.3

$42,138.0
$5,272.8
$15,990.7
$46,324.6
$109,726.1
$26,195.8
$103,224.6
$23,468.8
$6,159.4
$9,840.0
$299,279.0

$5,408.1
$19,253.0
$11,433.3
$2,827.9
$38,922.3

$24,465.3

$23,628.3
$8,792.6
$97,937.7
FY2011
Annualized
CR

$20,791.0

$52,606.0
$4,569.0
$16,685.0
$39,184.0
$113,044.0
$27,158.0
$99,619.0
$24,446.0
$5,934.0
$9,840.0
$300,832.0

$5,866.0
$20,759.0
$11,295.0
$3,077.0
$40,997.0

$24,152.0

$25,622.0
$9,560.0
$99,400.0
FY2012
Pres Budget

$20,842.0

$55,628.0
$5,616.0
$17,646.0
$32,529.0
$111,419.0
$34,096.0
$133,822.0
$0.0
$5,612.0
$9,495.0
$315,286.0

$3,901.0
$17,198.0
$9,629.0
$3,042.0
$33,770.0

$26,397.0

$0.0
$0.0
$119,648.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted

$51.0

$3,022.0
$1,047.0
$961.0
($6,655.0)
($1,625.0)
$6,938.0
$34,203.0
($24,446.0)
($322.0)
($345.0)
$14,454.0

($1,965.0)
($3,561.0)
($1,666.0)
($35.0)
($7,227.0)

$2,245.0

($25,622.0)
($9,560.0)
$20,248.0
          246

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Program Project
Subtotal, Compliance
Enforcement
Civil Enforcement
Criminal Enforcement
Enforcement Training
Environmental Justice
NEPA Implementation
Subtotal, Enforcement
Geographic Programs
Great Lakes Restoration
Geographic Program: Chesapeake
Bay
Geographic Program: Great Lakes
Geographic Program: San Francisco
Bay
Geographic Program: Puget Sound
Geographic Program: South Florida
Geographic Program: Mississippi
River Basin
Geographic Program: Long Island
Sound
Geographic Program: Gulf of
Mexico
Geographic Program: Lake
Champlain
Geographic Program: Other
Lake Pontchartrain
Community Action for a
Renewed Environment
(CARE)
Geographic Program:
Other (other activities)
Subtotal, Geographic Program:
Other
Subtotal, Geographic Programs
Homeland Security
Homeland Security:
Communication and Information
Homeland Security: Critical
FY2010
Enacted
$134,582.0

$146,636.0
$49,637.0
$3,278.0
$7,090.0
$18,258.0
$224,899.0

$475,000.0
$50,000.0
$0.0
$7,000.0
$50,000.0
$2,168.0
$0.0
$7,000.0
$6,000.0
$4,000.0

$1,500.0
$2,448.0
$3,325.0
$7,273.0
$608,441.0

$6,926.0

FY2010
Actuals
$130,358.6

$145,896.6
$49,043.2
$3,220.0
$9,567.4
$18,313.4
$226,040.6

$430,818.2
$53,192.7
$1,752.3
$10,087.1
$40,040.4
$2,321.5
$0.0
$6,141.9
$7,671.7
$486.9

$996.0
$1,648.9
$1,901.0
$4,545.9
$557,058.6

$7,206.3

FY2011
Annualized
CR
$134,582.0

$146,636.0
$49,637.0
$3,278.0
$7,090.0
$18,258.0
$224,899.0

$475,000.0
$50,000.0
$0.0
$7,000.0
$50,000.0
$2,168.0
$0.0
$7,000.0
$6,000.0
$4,000.0

$1,500.0
$2,448.0
$3,325.0
$7,273.0
$608,441.0

$6,926.0

FY2012
Pres Budget
$119,648.0

$191,404.0
$51,345.0
$0.0
$7,397.0
$18,072.0
$268,218.0

$350,000.0
$67,350.0
$0.0
$4,847.0
$19,289.0
$2,061.0
$6,000.0
$2,962.0
$4,464.0
$1,399.0

$955.0
$2,384.0
$1,296.0
$4,635.0
$463,007.0

$4,257.0

FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($14,934.0)

$44,768.0
$1,708.0
($3,278.0)
$307.0
($186.0)
$43,319.0

($125,000.0)
$17,350.0
$0.0
($2,153.0)
($30,711.0)
($107.0)
$6,000.0
($4,038.0)
($1,536.0)
($2,601.0)

($545.0)
($64.0)
($2,029.0)
($2,638.0)
($145,434.0)

($2,669.0)

247

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Program Project
Infrastructure Protection
Decontamination
Homeland Security:
Critical Infrastructure
Protection (other activities)
Subtotal, Homeland Security:
Critical Infrastructure
Protection
Homeland Security: Preparedness,
Response, and Recovery
Decontamination
Homeland Security:
Preparedness, Response,
and Recovery (other
activities)
Subtotal, Homeland Security:
Preparedness, Response, and
Recovery
Homeland Security: Protection of
EPA Personnel and Infrastructure
Subtotal, Homeland Security
Information Exchange / Outreach
Children and Other Sensitive
Populations: Agency Coordination
Environmental Education
Congressional, Intergovernmental,
External Relations
Exchange Network
Small Business Ombudsman
Small Minority Business Assistance
State and Local Prevention and
Preparedness
TRI / Right to Know
Tribal - Capacity Building
Subtotal, Information Exchange /
Outreach
International Programs
US Mexico Border
International Sources of Pollution
Trade and Governance
Subtotal, International Programs
FY2010
Enacted

$99.0
$6,737.0
$6,836.0

$3,423.0
$0.0
$3,423.0
$6,369.0
$23,554.0

$7,100.0
$9,038.0
$51,944.0
$17,024.0
$3,028.0
$2,350.0
$13,303.0
$14,933.0
$12,080.0
$130,800.0

$4,969.0
$8,628.0
$6,227.0
$19,824.0
FY2010
Actuals

$156.1
$6,649.0
$6,805.1

$1,573.3
$2,690.9
$4,264.2
$6,300.3
$24,575.9

$5,715.8
$7,396.6
$52,787.0
$17,918.5
$3,488.5
$2,133.1
$13,426.7
$15,230.9
$13,040.9
$131,138.0

$4,997.8
$8,514.5
$6,359.8
$19,872.1
FY2011
Annualized
CR

$99.0
$6,737.0
$6,836.0

$3,423.0
$0.0
$3,423.0
$6,369.0
$23,554.0

$7,100.0
$9,038.0
$51,944.0
$17,024.0
$3,028.0
$2,350.0
$13,303.0
$14,933.0
$12,080.0
$130,800.0

$4,969.0
$8,628.0
$6,227.0
$19,824.0
FY2012
Pres Budget

$0.0
$1,065.0
$1,065.0

$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
$5,978.0
$11,300.0

$10,795.0
$9,885.0
$52,268.0
$20,883.0
$2,953.0
$2,280.0
$14,613.0
$16,463.0
$15,070.0
$145,210.0

$4,912.0
$8,302.0
$6,233.0
$19,447.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted

($99.0)
($5,672.0)
($5,771.0)

($3,423.0)
$0.0
($3,423.0)
($391.0)
($12,254.0)

$3,695.0
$847.0
$324.0
$3,859.0
($75.0)
($70.0)
$1,310.0
$1,530.0
$2,990.0
$14,410.0

($57.0)
($326.0)
$6.0
($377.0)
248

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Program Project
IT / Data Management / Security
Information Security
IT / Data Management
Subtotal, IT / Data Management /
Security
Legal / Science / Regulatory / Economic
Review
Administrative Law
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Civil Rights / Title VI Compliance
Legal Advice: Environmental
Program
Legal Advice: Support Program
Regional Science and Technology
Integrated Environmental Strategies
Regulatory/Economic-Management
and Analysis
Science Advisory Board
Subtotal, Legal / Science / Regulatory /
Economic Review
Operations and Administration
Facilities Infrastructure and
Operations
Rent
Utilities
Security
Facilities Infrastructure and
Operations (other activities)
Subtotal, Facilities Infrastructure
and Operations
Central Planning, Budgeting, and
Finance
Acquisition Management
Financial Assistance Grants / IAG
Management
Human Resources Management
Recovery Act Mangement and
Oversight
Subtotal, Operations and Administration
FY2010
Enacted

$5,912.0
$97,410.0
$103,322.0

$5,275.0
$1,147.0
$12,224.0
$42,662.0
$14,419.0
$3,271.0
$18,917.0
$19,404.0
$6,278.0
$123,597.0


$157,040.0
$13,514.0
$27,997.0
$116,687.0
$315,238.0
$82,834.0
$32,404.0
$25,487.0
$42,447.0
$0.0
$498,410.0
FY2010
Actuals

$5,881.7
$98,258.9
$104,140.6

$5,424.8
$1,313.8
$12,413.1
$42,826.7
$14,727.9
$3,146.2
$18,366.6
$19,041.3
$6,157.2
$123,417.6


$161,817.5
$2,539.3
$27,326.6
$118,555.4
$310,238.8
$86,883.5
$33,272.6
$24,311.6
$43,526.7
$22,237.5
$520,470.7
FY2011
Annualized
CR

$5,912.0
$97,410.0
$103,322.0

$5,275.0
$1,147.0
$12,224.0
$42,662.0
$14,419.0
$3,271.0
$18,917.0
$19,404.0
$6,278.0
$123,597.0


$157,040.0
$13,514.0
$27,997.0
$116,687.0
$315,238.0
$82,834.0
$32,404.0
$25,487.0
$42,447.0
$0.0
$498,410.0
FY2012
Pres Budget

$6,837.0
$88,576.0
$95,413.0

$5,386.0
$1,329.0
$11,685.0
$45,352.0
$15,873.0
$3,283.0
$17,509.0
$22,326.0
$5,867.0
$128,610.0


$170,807.0
$11,221.0
$29,266.0
$113,671.0
$324,965.0
$77,548.0
$34,119.0
$26,223.0
$44,680.0
$0.0
$507,535.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted

$925.0
($8,834.0)
($7,909.0)

$111.0
$182.0
($539.0)
$2,690.0
$1,454.0
$12.0
($1,408.0)
$2,922.0
($411.0)
$5,013.0


$13,767.0
($2,293.0)
$1,269.0
($3,016.0)
$9,727.0
($5,286.0)
$1,715.0
$736.0
$2,233.0
$0.0
$9,125.0
249

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Program Project
Pesticides Licensing
Pesticides: Protect Human Health
from Pesticide Risk
Pesticides: Protect the Environment
from Pesticide Risk
Pesticides: Realize the Value of
Pesticide Availability
Science Policy and Biotechnology
Subtotal, Pesticides Licensing
Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act (RCRA)
RCRA: Waste Management
eManifest
RCRA: Waste
Management (other
activities)
Subtotal, RCRA: Waste
Management
RCRA: Corrective Action
RCRA: Waste Minimization &
Recycling
Subtotal, Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA)
Toxics Risk Review and Prevention
Endocrine Disrupters
Toxic Substances: Chemical Risk
Review and Reduction
Pollution Prevention Program
Toxic Substances: Chemical Risk
Management
Toxic Substances: Lead Risk
Reduction Program
Subtotal, Toxics Risk Review and
Prevention
Underground Storage Tanks (LUST /
UST)
LUST/UST
Water: Ecosystems
FY2010
Enacted

$62,944.0
$42,203.0
$13,145.0
$1,840.0
$120,132.0


$0.0
$68,842.0
$68,842.0
$40,029.0
$14,379.0
$123,250.0

$8,625.0
$54,886.0
$18,050.0
$6,025.0
$14,329.0
$101,915.0

$12,424.0

FY2010
Actuals

$62,696.4
$41,584.5
$13,508.9
$1,349.5
$119,139.3


$0.0
$71,171.2
$71,171.2
$39,366.0
$13,063.3
$123,600.5

$8,513.2
$53,458.7
$18,014.5
$7,193.0
$13,429.3
$100,608.7

$12,833.9

FY2011
Annualized
CR

$62,944.0
$42,203.0
$13,145.0
$1,840.0
$120,132.0


$0.0
$68,842.0
$68,842.0
$40,029.0
$14,379.0
$123,250.0

$8,625.0
$54,886.0
$18,050.0
$6,025.0
$14,329.0
$101,915.0

$12,424.0

FY2012
Pres Budget

$58,304.0
$37,913.0
$12,550.0
$1,756.0
$110,523.0


$2,000.0
$64,854.0
$66,854.0
$40,266.0
$9,751.0
$116,871.0

$8,268.0
$70,939.0
$15,653.0
$6,105.0
$14,332.0
$115,297.0

$12,866.0

FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted

($4,640.0)
($4,290.0)
($595.0)
($84.0)
($9,609.0)


$2,000.0
($3,988.0)
($1,988.0)
$237.0
($4,628.0)
($6,379.0)

($357.0)
$16,053.0
($2,397.0)
$80.0
$3.0
$13,382.0

$442.0

250

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Program Project
Great Lakes Legacy Act
National Estuary Program / Coastal
Waterways
Wetlands
Subtotal, Water: Ecosystems
Water: Human Health Protection
Beach / Fish Programs
Drinking Water Programs
Subtotal, Water: Human Health
Protection
Water Quality Protection
Marine Pollution
Surface Water Protection
Subtotal, Water Quality Protection
Congressional Priorities
Congressionally Mandated Projects
Subtotal, Congressionally
Mandated Projects
TOTAL, EPA
FY2010
Enacted
$0.0
$32,567.0
$25,940.0
$58,507.0

$2,944.0
$102,224.0
$105,168.0

$13,397.0
$208,626.0
$222,023.0

$16,950.0
$16,950.0
$2,993,779.0
FY2010
Actuals
$33,030.3
$29,796.8
$27,130.2
$89,957.3

$2,981.4
$99,394.2
$102,375.6

$9,783.7
$201,136.3
$210,920.0

$29,700.0
$29,700.0
$2,988,874.6
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$0.0
$32,567.0
$25,940.0
$58,507.0

$2,944.0
$102,224.0
$105,168.0

$13,397.0
$208,626.0
$222,023.0

$16,950.0
$16,950.0
$2,993,779.0
FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$27,058.0
$27,368.0
$54,426.0

$2,708.0
$104,616.0
$107,324.0

$13,417.0
$212,069.0
$225,486.0

$0.0
$0.0
$2,876,634.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$0.0
($5,509.0)
$1,428.0
($4,081.0)

($236.0)
$2,392.0
$2,156.0

$20.0
$3,443.0
$3,463.0

($16,950.0)
($16,950.0)
($117,145.0)
251

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Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                252

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                                                  Clean Air Allowance Trading Programs
                                                      Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                           Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                          Objective(s): Improve Air Quality

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$20,791.0
$9,963.0
$30,754.0
88.6
FY2010
Actuals
$20,664.3
$9,329.3
$29,993.6
83.4
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$20,791.0
$9,963.0
$30,754.0
88.6
FY2012
Pres Budget
$20,842.0
$9,797.0
$30,639.0
86.7
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$51.0
($166.0)
($115.0)
-1.9
Program Project Description:

The Acid Rain Program, established under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,
requires major reductions in sulfur dioxide (802) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions from the
U.S. electric power generation industry.  The program continues to be recognized as a model for
flexible and effective air pollution regulation, both in this country and abroad.  The 862 program
uses a market-based approach with tradable units called "allowances" (one allowance authorizes
the emission of one ton of SC>2 in a given or later year).  The authorizing legislation sets a
permanent  cap on the total amount of SO2 that may be emitted annually by affected electric
generation units (EGUs) in the contiguous U.S. The program was phased in, with the final 862
cap beginning in 2010  set at 8.95 million tons, a level at approximately one-half the amount
these sources emitted in 1980. Both the SC>2 and NOX program components require accurate and
verifiable measurement of emissions.

The program also is responsible for implementing U.S. commitments under the US-Canada Air
Quality Agreement of 1991 to reduce and  maintain lower SC>2 and NOX emissions.  EPA's Acid
Rain Program provides affected sources flexibility to select their own methods of compliance so
the required  emission  reductions  are  achieved  at the  lowest cost  (both to  industry and
government).  For  additional  information  on  the   Acid  Rain  Program,  please   visit
http ://www. epa.gov/acidrain.

In 2009, total SC>2 emissions from  3,572  affected  EGUs were 5.7 million tons, over 3 million
tons below the statutory annual permanent cap.1 Total NOX emissions were 2.0 million tons, a
drop of 1.0 million tons from 2008.  Despite this significant achievement, EPA health studies and
ecological  assessments, analyses  by the  Interagency National Acid Precipitation Assessment
Program (NAPAP),2  and data from long-term  monitoring networks all  indicate that further
reductions in 862 and NOX emissions, beyond those specified in Title IV, are necessary to allow
1 US EPA, Acid Rain and Related Programs:  Acid Rain and Related Programs: 2009 Highlights,, December 2010
(http://www.epa.gov/airmarkwts/progress/ARP09_4.html'l. Pages 1-4.
2 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment. 2005.
http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/resource/docs/NAPAP.pdfPages 65-73.
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sensitive  forests and  aquatic  ecosystems  to recover  from  acidification.    The  program's
environmental  objective to improve affected ecosystems  cannot be attained without more
reductions in 862 and NOX, the key pollutants involved in the formation of acid rain.  These
assessments also show that significant additional reductions in these emissions are needed for
many areas in the U.S. to achieve and maintain health-based protective air quality standards for
fine particulate matter (PM^.s) and ozone.  The  NAPAP Report  to Congress estimates these
additional reductions need to be 40-80 percent.3

At the request of the states, EPA administered the NOX Budget Program (NBP), a regional cap-
and-trade program for reducing NOX emissions and transported ozone in the  eastern U.S., for
over a decade.  The NBP was established initially in the late  1990s, under a Memorandum of
Understanding  among nine states and  Washington D.C.,  in the  Northeast Ozone Transport
Region (OTR).  These states recognized the efficiencies and economies of scale associated with
centrally-administered   systems  for allowance  trading,   emissions  reporting,  and  true-
up/compliance  determination,  so  they sought EPA's expertise to establish and  operate these
systems  for their  market-based  program.    The NBP   expanded  under  the  NOX State
Implementation Plan (SIP)  call, which operated from 2003 - 2008. Twelve (12) states from the
Midwest and Southeast  were  added  and the  number  of affected sources doubled.  Affected
sources included  boilers, turbines, and combined  cycle units from  a diverse set of industries as
well as utility EGUs.

In 2009, the NBP transitioned under the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) to the CAIR seasonal
NOX  program  for  control of transported  ozone  pollution  and  summer  NOX emissions.
Approximately  600 units in  six additional  states,  which were not subject to NBP, reported
emissions data  for compliance with  the seasonal CAIR NOX program and  participated  in the
EPA-administered regional allowance trading program. Ozone season NOX emissions fell in
every state in the program. Units in the seasonal program reduced their overall NOX emissions
from 689,000 tons in 2008  to 495,000 tons in 2009.  A 22 percent improvement in emission rate
coupled with an 11 percent drop in heat  input accounted for this reduction. States and sources in
the  CAIR seasonal NOX program that contribute to  ozone pollution in downwind states will be
transit!oning in 2012  into the seasonal NOx program under the Transport Rule  for  ozone
control.4

The National Academy of Sciences5 commended EPA on its Acid Rain Accountability Program,
which relies on the Clean  Air Status  and Trends  Network (CASTNET)  for  monitoring
deposition, ambient sulfate and nitrate concentrations, and other air quality indicators and uses
the  Temporally  Integrated Monitoring  of Ecosystems (TIME) and  Long-Term Monitoring
(LTM) Programs for assessing how  water bodies  and aquatic ecosystems are responding to
reductions in sulfur and nitrogen  emissions.  The Acid Rain Accountability Program  issues
comprehensive  annual reports on compliance and  environmental results from implementation of
the  Acid Rain and CAIR trading programs.  These reports  track progress in not only reducing
SO2 and NOX emissions from the affected sources, but also assess the impacts of these reductions
3 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment. 2005.
http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/resource/docs/NAPAP.pdfPage 73.
4 Please visit http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/progress/progress-reports.html for additional information on the CAIR seasonal NOX
program.
5 National Academy of Sciences Report: Air Quality Management in the United States. 2004. www.nap.edu/catalog/10728.html


                                           254

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on acid deposition, air quality (e.g., ozone levels), surface water acidity, forest health, and other
environmental indicators.

Reducing emissions of 862 and NOX continues to be a crucial component of EPA's strategy for
cleaner air.  Particulate matter can be formed from direct sources (such  as diesel  exhaust or
smoke), but also can be formed through chemical  reactions in the air. Emissions of SC>2 and NOX
can be chemically transformed into sulfates and nitrates ("acid rain paniculate"), which are very
tiny particles that can be carried, by winds, hundreds of miles. When inhaled, these fine particles
can cause serious respiratory problems, particularly for individuals who suffer from asthma or
are in sensitive populations.  Numerous studies have even linked these exposures with premature
mortality from heart and lung diseases.  These same small particles also are a main pollutant that
impairs visibility across large areas of the country, particularly damaging in national  parks
known for their scenic views.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012; the program is projected to measure, quality assure, and track emissions for SC>2
and/or NOX from  Continuous  Emissions  Monitoring systems  (CEMs) or equivalent  direct
measurement methods at over 4,600 EGUs.  In  addition, the program will conduct audits and
certify emission monitors.  Allowance transfers are recorded in  electronic tracking systems and
the allowances  held  are reconciled against emissions for all affected sources  to ensure
compliance.

Nitrogen dioxide emissions also contribute substantially to the formation of ground-level ozone.
Ozone, when  inhaled in sufficient concentrations, can cause  serious respiratory problems.
Achieving and maintaining  EPA's national air quality standards is an important step towards
ensuring the air is safe to breathe.  In FY 2012, EPA will continue to work with states, tribes, and
local government partners toward this goal.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(A01) Maintain annual
emissions of sulfur
dioxide (SO2) from
electric power
generation sources
nationwide at or below
6 million tons
FY 2010
Target



8,450,000



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target



8,450,000



FY 2012
Target



6,000,000



Units



Tons



EPA  tracks  the  annual emissions  of SC>2  from  utility  electric  power  generation  sources
nationwide to assess the effectiveness of the  Acid Rain  and related programs with annual
performance targets.
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FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$252.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •   (-$114.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative targets  certain categories  of  spending for efficiencies and reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel,  general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-$66.0) This reduction reflects efficiencies from several agencywide IT projects such as
       email optimization, consolidated  IT  procurement,  helpdesk standardization, and  others
       totaling $10 million agencywide.  Savings in individual areas may be offset by increased
       mandatory costs for telephone and Local Area Network (LAN) support for FTE.

    •  (-$21.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

    •  (-1.9 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

Statutory Authority:

CAA (42 U.S.C. 7401-7661f).
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                                                            Climate Protection Program
                                                      Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                           Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                     Objective(s): Address Climate Change

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$113,044.0
$19,797.0
$132,841.0
226.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$109,726.1
$20,126.8
$129,852.9
243.8
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$113,044.0
$19,797.0
$132,841.0
226.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$111,419.0
$16,345.0
$127,764.0
258.4
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($1,625.0)
($3,452.0)
($5,077.0)
32.4
Program Project Description:

EPA's Climate Protection Program promotes efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
through voluntary programs, and  supports the Administration's priority of taking action on
climate change.  It also provides technical assistance and online reporting tools for regulated
facilities to report annual greenhouse gas emissions in support of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting
Program.

EPA's voluntary  public-private partnership  programs are designed  to  capitalize on the cost-
effective opportunities  that  consumers,  businesses, and organizations  have  to  invest  in
greenhouse  gas reducing  technologies,  policies, and  practices.  These investments  avoid
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, mobile sources, and various other sources.

EPA's Climate Protection Program has  achieved real reductions of carbon dioxide (CC^) and
other greenhouse gases,  such as  methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated greenhouse  gases -
including hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons  (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SFe).
EPA's climate change programs promote energy efficiency and emissions reductions of non-CC>2
greenhouse gases.   Actions taken today will continue to deliver environmental and economic
benefits for many years to come, since the investments made by EPA partners as a result of EPA
programs often have  lifetimes  of ten years or more. For  every dollar spent by EPA on its
voluntary climate change partnership programs, EPA  estimates that the programs have  reduced
greenhouse gas emissions by up  to 1.0 metric ton of carbon equivalent (3.67 tons of CC^),
delivered more than $75  in energy bill savings, and facilitated more than $15 in private sector
investment.6 This is based upon cumulative reductions since 1995.

EPA manages a number of voluntary efforts, such as  the ENERGY STAR program, SmartWay
Transport Partnership, clean energy partnerships, and multiple programs on non-CC>2 greenhouse
gases,  all  of  which remove barriers in  the  marketplace in order  to deploy  cost-effective
6 Climate Protection Partnerships Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2009.
http://www.energvstar.gov/ia/partners/publications/pubdocs/2009%20CPPD%20Annual%20Report.pdf
                                          257

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technologies faster. EPA programs do not provide financial subsidies.  Instead, they work by
overcoming widely  acknowledged  barriers  to energy  efficiency  and deployment of GHG
reduction measures such as: lack of clear, reliable information on technology opportunities; lack
of awareness of energy efficient products, services, and transportation choices; and the need for
additional incentives for manufacturers to invest in efficiency research and development.

EPA  started the ENERGY  STAR  program in  1992. The program achieves  significant and
growing greenhouse gas  reductions by dismantling identifiable and pervasive market barriers
stifling  the adoption of cost-effective,  energy-efficient  technologies and  practices in  the
residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. In  1996, the U.S. Department  of Energy (DOE)
joined with EPA and assumed specific  ENERGY STAR  program responsibilities for several
product categories. A new Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed on September 30,
2009 by EPA and the DOE. The MOU clearly defines the roles and responsibilities of EPA and
DOE  and  strengthens  coordination between the  two agencies. It builds upon the agencies'
respective areas of expertise and puts EPA in charge  of the ENERGY  STAR brand.  EPA now
manages the specification process for all product categories (more than 60) and continues to
implement the new and existing homes programs. For commercial buildings,  EPA is the brand
manager when  ENERGY STAR is applied to whole  buildings, including marketing, outreach,
monitoring and verification and performance  levels.   DOE  supports ENERGY  STAR with
product testing and verification, including referring any  products that fail its tests to EPA for
enforcement action,  and manages building  test  procedures,  establishment  of a  commercial
building asset rating and a master database  of buildings, among other responsibilities.  The
ENERGY STAR program continues to yield significant results. In 2009 alone, Americans, with
the help of ENERGY STAR, prevented more than 168  million metric tons of carbon dioxide
equivalent  (MMTCO2E),  saving $17 billion on their annual utility bills. ENERGY STAR is on
track to  avoid 190 MMTCO2E of greenhouse gases in 2012. 7

EPA also manages the implementation of the Global Methane  Initiative (GMI), formerly called
the Methane to Markets program, a U.S. led, international public-private partnership that brings
together 38 Partner governments and over 1,000 public  and private  sector organizations to
advance methane recovery and use  as a clean energy source.  GMI builds on the success of
EPA's domestic methane  programs and focuses on advancing project development at agriculture
operations, coal mines,  landfills, and oil and gas systems. In 2012, EPA will be working with its
partners to strengthen  and expand the Initiative to include new resource  commitments from
developed  countries, explore opportunities to reduce emissions from  new  sources, such as
wastewater treatment,  and to  develop  country action  plans  to  help  direct and  coordinate
international efforts.  As  of 2011, the US is supporting over 300 projects around the world and
has leveraged  over $387  million in  public and private sector  investments.  These projects  are
expected to reduce  emissions  by 63  million  metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MMTCO2E)
annually.8

EPA's SmartWay Partnership Program works with transportation technology and freight industry
partners (shippers,  carriers, logistics companies) to accelerate the deployment of fuel saving, low
emission technologies and to promote  GHG reductions  across the global  supply chain.   The
7 Additional information at: www. energystar. gov
8 Additional information at: www. epa. gov/globalmethane and www.methanetomarkets. org
                                          258

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SmartWay program started in February 2004 with 15 partners, and in June 2010, it passed the
2,700 partner mark. Since 2002, our SmartWay partners have saved 1.5 billion gallons of diesel
fuel, nearly 14.7 million metric tons of CO2, 215,000 tons of NOx, and over 8,000 tons of PM.
SmartWay partners have saved over $3.6 billion in fuel costs.

SmartWay  is the  only  voluntary  program  working  across the  entire freight  system to
comprehensively  address  GHG  emissions and  air pollution.   Numerous  states,  countries,
international organizations and private companies now rely on SmartWay's supply chain tools,
testing protocols and public-private partnership approach for  their freight transport  efficiency
programs. California has used SmartWay verified technologies and  testing protocols for their
GHG programs and numerous states have used SmartWay's model  idle-reduction ordinances.
Canada,  Mexico, China, and  the European Union  are  currently using or  in the process of
adopting all or many of the critical elements of the SmartWay program.

The  SmartWay program has developed a unique partnership with the major  class 8  truck and
trailer manufacturers, which culminated in the joint development of a SmartWay branded tractor-
trailer that achieves a 20  percent improvement in fuel efficiency.  This partnership also has
provided critical information for EPA's heavy duty diesel regulatory program.  All major class 8
truck and trailer manufacturers now offer at least one SmartWay model, and the SmartWay
branded vehicle has already achieved a 5 percent market penetration.

EPA manages a number of other partnership programs that tailor their approach to specific trades
or organizations in the arena of climate change.  The Clean Energy-Environment State  and Local
Program provides assistance to local and state  governments for improving their facilities, and
leading  energy efficiency-related  GHG reduction efforts.  EPA's Combined Heat and Power
(CHP) Partnership promotes cost-effective CHP projects,  while its Green Power Partnership
supports the procurement of green power.

In addition to EPA's voluntary climate change programs, EPA provides analytical and technical
support  for Congress and Administration policymakers related to national climate change and
energy policy, including support for analysis of international issues.

   •  EPA's climate  change analysis builds on  the understanding of the  emission  and
       sequestration of greenhouse gases, for all greenhouse gases and from all sectors of the
       economy; and the economic, technical and policy issues related to wider deployment of
      key  technologies  (e.g., energy efficiency, transportation,  non-CC>2 greenhouse gases,
       carbon capture and storage).

   •  EPA's economic analyses  cover key questions such as:   which technologies could be
       expected to be most effective under alternative policy scenarios and the implications of
       alternative policy approaches on the U.S. economy and global competitiveness.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

   •  EPA  will continue to implement its government/industry  partnership efforts to  achieve
      greenhouse gas reductions.  In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, these
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   efforts are projected to reduce other forms of pollution, including criteria and toxic air
   pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX), particulate matter, and mercury by accelerating
   the adoption of energy efficient products and practices.

•  EPA will have completed the phase out of the Climate Leaders program at the end of FY
   2011. In FY 2012, EPA will still support the General Services Administration's pilot to
   assist small federal suppliers in developing their GHG inventories. EPA will conduct
   technical trainings,  review inventories  submitted by pilot participants  and maintain the
   list of participants on the EPA website.

•  EPA  will  continue  to implement the ENERGY STAR program across the residential,
   commercial, and industrial sectors consistent with the EPA/DOE MOU:

     o   Accelerating the rate that product specifications are updated in terms of stringency.
         For product categories with rapidly evolving models (e.g., consumer electronics,
         office equipment), specifications will be updated about every two years and, where
         appropriate, will include out-year specification criteria so that industry can
         anticipate upcoming revisions. For all other product categories, EPA will
         consistently monitor market share  and launch revisions, as appropriate.

     o   Pursuing comprehensive enhancements for ENERGY STAR product qualification
         and verification. The process began in 2010 and FY 2012 will be the first full year
         of implementation. Enhancements include:

              •    All ENERGY STAR qualified products will be certified as  meeting
                  program requirements by an accredited third-party certification  body.
                  Certification will include qualification testing before product labeling as
                  well as post-market verification testing to confirm that products continue
                  to meet program requirements.

                  All product testing will  be conducted in EPA-recognized laboratories that
                  have demonstrated technical competence, strong quality management
                  processes, and impartiality towards test results.

                  EPA will continue to solicit applications from accreditation bodies,
                  laboratories, and certification bodies that wish to participate in the
                  program. Requirements for EPA recognition of these organizations will
                  build upon international standards, including provisions that they
                  demonstrate  impartiality.

         o  Reviewing ENERGY STAR product categories to ensure that they are still
           appropriate; process began in 2010 and will be  complete in 2011.

         o  Enhancing the use of the ENERGY STAR label on products by adding products
           to the program.
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     o  Strengthening the ENERGY STAR New Homes program by implementing the next
        version of the ENERGY STAR specification (version 3) by 2012 to provide a
        business advantage for builders in a soft market and great benefits to homeowners
        including additional installation checklists for HVAC equipment, insulation and
        water management to achieve better quality control of comfort and energy savings
        benefits.  In addition, EPA will be working with DOE to consolidate the existing
        homes program at DOE.

     o  Expanding ENERGY STAR programs that improve the installation of products
        such as heating and cooling equipment whose efficiency is greatly affected by
        installation practices.

     o  Expanding efforts to promote improvement of commercial buildings and industrial
        facilities through EPA's ENERGY STAR tools, resource, and outreach campaigns.

     o  Engaging regional, state, and utility energy efficiency programs and smaller trade
        associations in the new ENERGY STAR Challenge for Industry as a primary
        method of reaching diffuse industries and small and medium enterprises while
        continuing with the ENERGY STAR Industrial Focuses.

     o  Expanding building performance with ENERGY STAR to offer consistent whole
        building assessments to utilities and service providers.

The FY 2012 Budget Request for the ENERGY STAR program totals $55.6 million.

•  EPA will continue  the SmartWay Transport Partnership to increase energy efficiency and
   lower emissions  of freight transportation through verification, promotion, and low-cost
   financing of advanced  technologies including  anti-idling technologies,  lower rolling
   resistance tires, improved aerodynamic truck designs, and  improved  freight logistics.
   SmartWay also will expand its efforts to:

     o  develop GHG  accounting protocols for  heavy-duty  diesel trucks  and explore
        opportunities to evolve protocols for the multimodal freight supply chain network;
     o
promote  SmartWay  certified  light duty  and heavy duty  vehicles that meet
SmartWay's criteria for environmentally superior performance;
     o  expand our  SmartWay  partner  recruiting  efforts while  streamlining  partner
        management processes;

     o  update, as  needed,  federal  guidance  on  low  GHG-emitting  vehicles  for
        implementation of Energy  Independence and Security Act (EISA)  Section  141
        Federal vehicle purchase requirements;

     o  continue to provide expertise and serve as a technical test bed in support of the
        Agency's future policy direction for greenhouse gas emissions; and
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         o  promote  the  adoption  of SmartWay  methods  and tools  internationally through
            stakeholder development, information sharing, and collaboration on pilot projects.

The  FY  2012 Budget Request for  the  SmartWay Transport Partnership  program totals $2.7
million.

   •  Continue the  Global Methane  Initiative  (GMI)  and  enhance public-private  sector
       cooperation to reduce global methane emissions and deliver clean energy to markets.
       EPA will be supporting the  development and implementation of methane recovery and
       use projects at landfills,  agricultural waste  operations,  coal  mines,  wastewater,  and
       natural gas and oil facilities in key developing countries and countries with economies in
       transition. EPA support will involve identifying and addressing technical, institutional,
       legal, regulatory and other  barriers to  project development and  will be targeted to
       leverage investments and  assistance provided by the private sector and other partners
       through the GMI's country action plans.  The FY 2012 Budget Request for the Global
       Methane Initiative totals $5.7 million.

   •  Continue policy and technical  assistance to  developing countries and  countries with
       economies-in-transition to monitor, report, and verify greenhouse gas  emissions  and
       sequestration through cost-effective measures and  assist  in the fulfillment of the U.S.
       obligations under the U.N.  Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

   •  Continue to address several  critical  air and  climate-related issues related to commercial
       scale deployment of carbon  capture and sequestration (CCS) technology,  implementing
       the recommendations of the President's  Task Force on  Carbon Capture  and Storage.
       These issues  and related  activities  include, but are not limited to:  creating a strong
       regulatory framework for all  stages of CCS  projects; addressing issues for the long-term
       stewardship at sequestration sites; evaluating technical and economic implications of
       applying  carbon dioxide capture to currently regulated industry sectors,  including the
       potential for increases or decreases in emissions of other criteria pollutants resulting from
       CCS retrofits; and collaborating with other agencies to address issues pertaining to public
       understanding and acceptance of the technology.

   •  Continue to implement the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program.  Established in October
       2009, this program has  a  total of 31 sectors of which 11 were added  in 2010.   The
       Agency expects efforts  by  both headquarters and regional offices to implement  this
       program for approximately  13,000 reporters.  The first annual reports from the largest
       GHG emitting facilities (-10,000  reporters), covering  calendar  year  2010, will  be
       submitted to EPA on March 31, 2011.  Reports for the sectors added in 2010 (-3,000
       reporters) will be due in March 2012. In order to prepare for this, focus areas in FY 2012
       for the GHG Reporting Rule  will include:

         o  expanding the database management systems for the new sectors and updating it as
            necessary for the existing reporters;
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         o  verifying reported data, through a combination of electronic reviews and on-site
            audits and developing and deploying verification protocols for new sectors;

         o  providing guidance and  training  to  reporters from the newly  added sectors  and
            using the results of verification  to  focus the training and outreach to existing
            reporters to ensure that they report in  an accurate and timely manner; and

         o  developing the data publication tools to share the reported data with the public,
            within the Federal Government,  with state and local governments,  and  with
            reporting entities to support improved understanding of both emission levels  and
            opportunities for GHG reductions. First publication of the data will occur on June
            15,2011.

       In FY 2012, the budget request for the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule is $17.7 million.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type



Output



Measure
(G02) Million metric
tons of carbon
equivalent
(MMTCO2e) of
greenhouse gas
reductions in the
buildings sector.
FY 2010
Target



143



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target



156.9



FY 2012
Target



168.7



Units



MMTCO2e



Measure
Type



Output



Measure
(G06) Million metric
tons of carbon
equivalent
(MMTCO2e) of
greenhouse gas
reductions in the
transportation sector.
FY 2010
Target



15.8



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target



26.4



FY 2012
Target



41.4



Units



MMTCO2e



Measure
Type



Output



Measure
(G16) Million metric
tons of carbon
equivalent
(MMTCO2e) of
greenhouse gas
reductions in the
industry sector.
FY 2010
Target



304



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target



346.2



FY 2012
Target



372.9



Units



MMTCO2e



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Measure
Type


Output



Measure
(G17) Percentage of
registered facilities that
submit required and
complete GHG data by
the annual reporting
deadline of March 3 1 .

FY 2010
Target






FY 2010
Actual





FY2011
CR
Target






FY 2012
Target


100



Units


Percent


There are over 20 climate change programs that work with the private sector to cost effectively
reduce greenhouse gas emissions and facilitate energy efficiency improvements.  Each sector
(buildings, industry and transportation) has performance and efficiency measures to track the
amount of greenhouse gas emissions that are reduced as a result of the program's efforts.

Work under the Greenhouse  Gas Reporting Program  supports the Agency's Priority Goal,
addressing measuring and controlling Greenhouse Gases. A list of the Agency's Priority Goals
can be found in  Appendix A.   For a  detailed  description of the EPA's Priority Goals
(implementation strategy, measures and milestones) please visit www.Performance.gov.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$2,270.07  -20.7 FTE)  This  decrease  in FTE for  "other climate change programs"
       represents an adjustment to the FY 2010 base  budget for both the ENERGY STAR
       program and "other climate change programs" of -13.2 FTE as well as a shift of-7.5  FTE
       to support the Global Methane Initiative.

   •   (+$3,022.07 +24.2 FTE)   This increase in FTE for the ENERGY  STAR program
       represents an adjustment to the FY 2010 base  budget for both the ENERGY STAR
       program and the "other climate change programs" of+13.2 FTE from within the program
       project, as well as  a request for an additional +11.0 FTE to expand the ENERGY STAR
       program across the residential, commercial, and industrial  sectors.  The total increase
       includes an additional $3,148.0 in payroll and $43.0 in travel.

   •   (+$1,047.07 +7.5 FTE) This increase in FTE reflects a shift in resources from "other
       climate change program" activities to support the Global Methane Initiative (formerly the
       Methane  to Markets program).  The  request includes $1,037.0  in additional payroll
       funding.

   •   (+$2,461.07 +20.0  FTE) These resources are requested to support the Greenhouse Gas
       Reporting Rule, including 20.0 FTE with associated payroll of $2,797.0.  Of the 20 FTE,
       10 FTE will handle the general reporting and verification workload across the many
       industry sectors and emission sources and 10 FTE will work with states and follow-up on
       specific issues.   Funding will decrease by $336.Ok as we complete some initial  systems
       work.
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•  (-$1,500.0)  This reflects funding that was transferred from the EPM appropriation to the
   STAG appropriation to support the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GGRP). The
   STAG funds  will be  used by  states  to facilitate the collection,  review and  use  of
   greenhouse  gas emissions data collected under EPA's GGRP  and linked state-based
   reporting programs.

•  (-$5,000.0)  This reflects a reduction in analytical assistance, such as economic modeling
   of proposed climate and energy legislation and policy scenarios.

•  (-$1,515.0)  This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
   This  initiative targets  certain categories of spending for  efficiencies  and reductions,
   including advisory contracts, travel, general  services, printing and  supplies.  EPA will
   continue its work to redesign processes and  streamline activities in both administrative
   and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

•  (-$1,086.0)  This reduction reflects  the phase out of the Climate Leaders program at the
   end of FY 2011.

•  (+$2,000.07  +2.0  FTE)    This  increase  reflects  the   work   to   implement  the
   recommendations of the  President's Interagency  Task Force on Carbon  Capture and
   Storage.   Total funding includes $280.0 in payroll costs  and $7.0 in travel funding.
   Funds will  support efforts to identify, analyze and address key gaps to near-term and
   long-term demonstration  and deployment of CCS technologies.   Funds  will support
   development and implementation of a comprehensive public outreach strategy.

•  (+$882.0)  This increase  reflects   increased  extramural  support  for outreach and
   communication for EPA's voluntary climate change programs.

•  (-0.6  FTE) This decrease reflects a  realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
   rates.

•  (-$100.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects  an effort to reduce  the  Agency's travel
   footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

•  (-$66.0)  This  reduction reflects efficiencies from several Agencywide IT projects such as
   email optimization, consolidated IT procurement, helpdesk standardization, and  others
   totaling $10 million Agencywide. Savings in individual areas may be offset by increased
   mandatory costs for telephone and Local Area Network (LAN) support for FTE.

•  (+$500.0) This reflects resources for web tools and technology infrastructure  to support
   activities across the program.
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Statutory Authority:

CAA Amendments, 42 U.S.C. 7401  et seq. - Sections  102,  103,  104 and 108; Pollution
Prevention Act (PPA), 42 U.S.C. 13101 et seq. - Sections 6602, 6603,  6604 and 6605; National
Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.  4321 et seq. - Section 102; Grand Canyon
Protection Act (GCPA), 15 U.S.C. 2901 -  Section 1103; Federal Technology  Transfer Act
(FTTA),  15 U.S.C. - Section 3701a; CWA, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. -  Section 104; SWDA, 42
U.S.C. 6901 et seq.- Section 8001; EPA, 42 U.S.C. 16104 et seq.
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                                                   Federal Stationary Source Regulations
                                                      Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                           Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                 Objective(s): Address Climate Change; Improve Air Quality

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$27,158.0
$27,158.0
105.8
FY2010
Actuals
$26,195.8
$26,195.8
100.6
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$27,158.0
$27,158.0
105.8
FY2012
Pres Budget
$34,096.0
$34,096.0
135.7
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$6,938.0
$6,938.0
29.9
Program Project Description:

Under the Clean Air Act (CAA), EPA is responsible for setting, reviewing, and revising National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six common pollutants and for setting emission
standards for sources of these "criteria" pollutants.  These national standards form the foundation
for air quality management and establish goals that protect public health and the environment.

The  CAA established two  types  of NAAQS:  primary standards set limits to protect public
health, including  the health of sensitive  populations such as asthmatics and the  elderly; and
secondary standards set limits to protect public welfare,  including protection against decreased
visibility and damage to animals, crops, vegetation, and buildings.  The six pollutants for which
EPA  has established NAAQS  include:  paniculate matter (PM), ozone, sulfur  dioxide (862),
nitrogen dioxide (NC^), carbon monoxide (CO), and lead.

This program also includes activities directed toward reducing air emissions of toxic pollutants
from  stationary sources.   Specifically, this program provides for the development  of control
technology-based standards for major sources (i.e., Maximum Achievable Control Technology -
MACT standards) and area sources, the development of standards of performance and emissions
guidelines for  waste combustion sources,  the  assessment and regulation  of residual risk
remaining after implementation of the control technology-based standards, the periodic review
and revision of the control technology-based standards, and associated national guidance and
outreach.  The program also includes issuing, reviewing, and periodically revising, as necessary,
New  Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for  criteria and certain listed pollutants,  setting
standards to limit emissions  of volatile  organic  compounds  (VOC) from  consumer and
commercial  products,  and establishing Reasonably Available  Control Technology (RACT)
through issuance and periodic review and revision of control technique guidelines  (CTG).

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

Activities described within Federal  Stationary Source Regulations support  the  Improving Air
Quality and Addressing Climate Change objectives in the Strategic Plan.
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Addressing Climate Change

In 2012, EPA will develop NSPS for sources of greenhouse gases for utilities and refineries,
consistent with  the  requirements  of the  CAA.   Using emission inventory data,  EPA will
determine feasible  emission control within a reasonable timeframe  and  where  significant
emission reductions could be achieved cost-effectively. The regulatory development will include
developing  emission estimates,  evaluating  costs  of control,  and  to the  extent possible,
quantifying  economic, environmental,  and energy impacts.   The NSPS will address carbon
dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions in conjunction with the revision of NSPS for other
regulated pollutants.

Improving Air Quality

In 2012,  EPA will  continue  reviewing criteria  pollutant standards  in accordance  with  an
aggressive multi-year schedule. The Agency has recently accelerated the schedule for completing
NAAQS reviews in order to meet the five-year deadline in the CAA for reviewing the standards
for each pollutant. Conducting seven  concurrent reviews under this aggressive schedule requires
substantial investment in highly trained staff and the allocation of significant analytical resources
toward the NAAQS  review process.  Each review involves extensive  scientific peer review by
EPA scientific and technical experts, the design and conduct  of complex risk and exposure
analyses, a complete policy assessment, and consultation with external scientific experts at each
stage of the review process.

In addition to reviewing existing standards, work is currently underway to achieve and maintain
compliance with the ozone standard to be established in 2011, the ozone standards established in
1997, and 1979; the 1997 PMio and PM2.5 standards, the 2006 PM2.5 standard; the 2008 lead
standard; the 2010 NO2 standard; the  1971 CO standard; and the 2010 SO2 standard. In addition,
planning has begun for implementation requirements relating to revisions  to the NAAQS for CO
and PM,  and the secondary NAAQS for NO2 and SO2, which are all under review.

Between 2010 and 2012, EPA faces an agenda of 310 stationary source rules due for review and
promulgation,  50 of which are on a  court-ordered deadline or in litigation.  Currently, 131 of
these rules are in some stage of development within EPA. Additional litigation over pending or
already-missed deadlines is  expected.   Since  1990,  EPA  has published 96 MACT standards
covering 187 pollutants emitted  from 174 industrial categories.  However, a number  of these
rules have been found deficient by the courts, necessitating substantial revisions and  mandating
significant additional effort in the future by EPA for stationary source standards.

Air toxics  are  pollutants known to cause  or suspected  of causing  cancer, birth  defects,
reproductive effects or other serious  health problems. Based on the latest National Air Toxics
Assessment, EPA estimates that approximately 220 excess cancer cases per year may result from
the inhalation of air toxics  from outdoor sources,  and of this total  40 to  110 cases can be
attributable, directly or indirectly, to HAP emissions from stationary sources regulated by EPA.
To reduce or eliminate the unacceptable health risks and cumulative exposures to air toxics from
multiple  sources  in  affected communities  and  to fulfill  its  statutory  and  court-ordered
obligations,  EPA will continue to pursue opportunities to meet multiple  CAA requirements  for
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stationary sources in more integrated ways in 2012. For example, where the CAA requires that
the Agency take multiple regulatory  actions that affect the same industry, EPA will consider
aligning the timing of these rulemaking actions to take  advantage of synergies between the
multiple rules, where feasible.   Coordinating  such actions allows us to  meet multiple  CAA
objectives for controlling both criteria  and hazardous air pollutants while considering cost
effectiveness and technical feasibility of controls.

Reductions in emissions  from prioritized sectors such as: petroleum refining; utilities; and oil
and gas will reduce emissions of air  toxics, help ozone nonattainment areas, and enhance our
climate change efforts. Additional controls at these  sources also will reduce  emissions near
affected communities, including low income and minority communities.  EPA also will address
programmatic elements, including court-vacated rules that apply across many industrial sources,
such as exemptions for start-up, shutdown and malfunction and the collection and application of
the best available data. EPA has  reviewed existing regulations to identify potential  emissions
monitoring deficiencies and the Agency has embarked upon a course to correct those, including
the application of new, advanced monitoring technologies.  Additional resources will enable the
Agency to propose new regulations  that would  allow  facilities  to report compliance data
electronically.
                                Current State of the Air
                                    Toxics Program
                            •   +300 rules need to be under
                               development by FY 2012

                            •   50 are under legal deadline

                            •   Almost 200 will  be past their
                               statutory deadline by FY 2012

                            •   +100 need to be re-issued or
                               amended to adhere to court
                               opinions
Significant resources are needed to fulfill legal and statutory deadline obligations to complete
certain MACT and waste incineration standards, to issue residual risk and technology review
standards  for MACT  categories, to review and revise NSPS,  and to issue control technique
guidelines for control of VOCs.

EPA  will  engage in rulemaking  efforts  regarding  Petroleum Refineries  NSPS;  Petroleum
Refineries MACT I and II; Uniform Standards and the GHG NSPS.  To address standards that
are part of the residual risk litigation settlement, EPA also will accomplish significant progress in
issuing  standards  for the following categories: Aerospace;  Secondary Aluminum;  Primary
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Aluminum; Wool  Fiberglass;  Polymers and  Resins  IV;  Pesticides  Production;  Polyether
Production; Ferroalloys Production; Secondary Lead Smelting; Pulp and Paper; Mineral Wool;
Wood Furniture; Polyether Polyols; and, Primary Lead Smelting.

In addition to existing CAA and court-ordered mandates, EPA is required to periodically review
and revise both the list of air toxics subject to regulation and the list of source categories for
which standards  must be  developed.    Available  information  strongly  indicates that this
requirement will add significantly to EPA's already-substantial regulatory burden over time. For
example, if during the course of a regulatory review EPA acquires information demonstrating the
existence  of a number  of potentially significant unregulated emission points, the Agency would
potentially develop standards for additional source categories.

                         Regulatory Trends for Stationary Source
                                 Air Toxics 2000-2013:
            2000*2001*2002*2003*2004*2005*2006*2007*2008*2009*2010 2011 20122013

                                       Year


The figure above represents the number of stationary source rules that the Agency has issued
and rules that  are due  through 2013. In  the  chart above: NSPS refers  to  New Source
Performance Standards,  CTG/183(e) are national volatile organic compound (VOC) rules or
control technology guidelines. Area sources are sources that emit less than 10 tons annually of a
single hazardous air pollutant or less than  25 tons annually of a combination of hazardous air
pollutants (HAPs), andMACT/129 refers to standards for larger emitters of HAPs or solid waste
combustion units.
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Performance Targets:
Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(001) Cumulative
percentage reduction in
tons of toxicity-
weighted (for cancer
risk) emissions of air
toxics from 1993
baseline.
FY 2010
Target



36



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target



36



FY 2012
Target



37



Units



Percent



Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(002) Cumulative
percentage reduction in
tons of toxicity-
weighted (for non-
cancer risk) emissions
of air toxics from 1993
baseline.
FY 2010
Target



59



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target



59



FY 2012
Target



59



Units



Percent



FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$7,551.07 +15.0 FTE)  This reflects increased resources, including 15.0 FTE and
       associated payroll, to support development  of New  Source  Performance  Standards
       (NSPS) to address Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) as required by the Clean Air Act.  This
       includes associated payroll of $1,982.0.

   •   (+$837.07 +6.2 FTE) This reflects increased resources to develop rulemaking that would
       modify how facilities report compliance data, including 6.2 FTE with associated payroll
       of $818.0.

   •   (+$1,419.07 +10.5 FTE) This  reflects increased resources,  including 10.5 FTE with
       associated payroll of $1387.0 and travel of $32.0, to support development of regulations
       that are needed to meet court-ordered deadlines, including MACT  standards that have
       been found deficient by the courts.

   •   (-$2,293.0) This reflects a reduction to contract support and general program expenses.

   *   (+$127.07 -1.8 FTE)  This funding increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce
       costs for existing FTE, and a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization rates.

   •   (-$195.0)  This reduction reflects  efficiencies from several agencywide IT projects such
       as email optimization, consolidated IT procurement, helpdesk standardization, and others
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       totaling $10 million Agencywide. Savings in individual areas may be offset by increased
       mandatory costs for telephone and Local Area Network (LAN) support for FTE.

   •   (-$508.0)  This  reflects a reduction as part  of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative  targets  certain categories  of spending for efficiencies and  reductions,
       including  advisory contracts, travel, general services,  printing  and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

CAA (42 U.S.C. 7401-7661f).
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                                            Federal Support for Air Quality Management
                                                      Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                           Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                  Objective(s): Address Climate Change; Improve Air Quality

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$99,619.0
$11,443.0
$111,062.0
714.7
FY2010
Actuals
$103,224.6
$12,480.6
$115,705.2
707.3
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$99,619.0
$11,443.0
$111,062.0
714.7
FY2012
Pres Budget
$133,822.0
$7,650.0
$141,472.0
850.6
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$34,203.0
($3,793.0)
$30,410.0
135.9
Program Project Description:

This Federal Support for Air Quality Management Program assists state, tribal, and local air
pollution control agencies in the development,  implementation, and evaluation of programs to
implement the National Ambient Air  Quality Standards  (NAAQS), establish standards for
reducing air toxics, and sustain the visibility protection  program.   EPA develops federal
measures  and regional  strategies that help to reduce emissions from stationary and mobile
sources;  however, states and tribes  have the primary responsibility  for developing clean air
measures necessary to meet the NAAQS and protect visibility.  EPA partners with states, tribes,
and local governments  to create  a comprehensive compliance program to  ensure  that multi -
source and multi-pollutant reduction targets and air quality  improvement objectives, including
consideration of environmental justice issues, are met and sustained.

For each of the six criteria pollutants, EPA tracks two kinds of air pollution trends: air pollutant
concentrations based on actual measurements in the ambient (outside) air at selected  monitoring
sites throughout the country,  and emissions based on engineering estimates or measurements of
the total tons  of pollutants released into the air each  year.  EPA  works with state and local
governments to ensure the technical  integrity of source controls in  State Implementation Plans
(SIPs), and assists  in identifying the most cost-effective control options available, including
consideration  of multi-pollutant reductions and innovative strategies.   This  Federal  Support
Program includes working with other federal agencies to ensure a coordinated approach, and
working with other countries  to address pollution sources outside U.S.  borders that pose risks to
public health and the environment within the U.S.  This program also supports the development
of risk assessment methodologies for the criteria air pollutants.

Toxic air pollutants are known to cause or suspected  of causing increased risk of  cancer and
other serious health effects.   This Federal Support Program assists state, tribal, and local air
pollution  control agencies in reducing air  toxic  emissions  through  modeling,  inventories,
monitoring, assessments, and strategies.  EPA also supports programs that reduce inhalation risk
and deposition to water bodies and ecosystems (e.g., the  Great Waters program), facilitate
international cooperation to  reduce transboundary and intercontinental air toxics pollution,
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develop  and  update the  National Emissions Inventory  (NEI),  develop  risk  assessment
methodologies for toxic air pollutants,  and provide training for air pollution professionals.  In
addition, the program includes activities for the implementation of federal air toxics standards
and for the triennial National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA).

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

Improving Air Quality

Particulate Matter (PM) is linked to tens of thousands of premature deaths per year and repeated
exposure to ozone can cause acute respiratory  problems and lead to permanent lung damage.
Elevated  levels of  lead  in  children  have  been associated with  IQ  loss,  poor  academic
achievement, and delinquent behavior,  while effects in adults include increased blood pressure
and  cardiovascular  disease,  and  decreased  kidney  function. Implementing  the  PM  and
reconsidered ozone NAAQS are among the Agency's highest priorities.  In FY 2012, EPA will
continue to support  these standards by  taking federal oversight  actions and  by developing
regulations and policies to ensure continued health protection during the transition between the
pre-existing and new standards.  EPA will provide technical  and policy assistance  to states
developing or revising attainment SIPs and will designate areas as attainment or nonattainment.

While EPA proceeds with the proposed transport rule to replace the  Clean Air Interstate Rule
(CAIR), the Agency will  continue  implementing Phase I of  the existing CAIR to ensure that
PM2.s and ozone reductions are maximized and to  support attainment of these standards.  EPA
will work with states to develop information needed to designate areas for the revised lead, 862
and NC>2 standards.  EPA also will  provide technical  and policy assistance to states developing
regional haze implementation plans. EPA will continue to review and act on SIP submissions in
accordance with the Clean Air Act (CAA).

EPA continues to implement recommendations of the National Research Council, including: (1)
developing  a  more  integrated  multiple  pollutant management framework that incorporates
criteria and toxic air pollutants, (2) incorporating  ecosystem  impacts, community effects, and
future air quality and climate interactions, and (3) assessing the progress of air programs through
an accountability framework.  EPA will  continue to  implement,  as appropriate,  key reform
recommendations of the  Clean Air Act Advisory  Committee's Subcommittee on Air Quality
Management, including working with selected state and local agencies on alternative approaches
to air quality planning.

In FY 2012, EPA will provide assistance to state, local,  and tribal agencies in implementing
national programs  and assessing their effectiveness. EPA uses a broad suite of analytical tools
such as  source  characterization analyses, emission factors and inventories, statistical analyses,
source apportionment  techniques,  quality assurance  protocols and  audits, improved source
testing and monitoring techniques, urban and regional-scale numerical grid air quality models,
and augmented cost/benefit tools to assess control  strategies (please see http://www.epa.gov/ttn
for further details).  EPA will maintain these tools  (e.g., integrated multiple pollutant emissions
inventory, air quality modeling platforms,  etc.) to provide the technical underpinnings for more
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efficient and comprehensive air quality management and for integration with climate  change
activities.

In addition, EPA will continue to implement the National Ambient Air Monitoring Strategy to
maintain, where possible, multiple  pollutant monitoring sites to  support the development and
evaluation of multiple pollutant air management strategies.   This includes changes, where the
Agency deems necessary, to effectively implement revised NAAQS monitoring requirements for
ozone,  lead, 862, NO2, and carbon monoxide (CO).  EPA will continue development of
emissions measurement methods for condensable PM2.5 for cross-industry application to ensure
that  accurate and  consistent measurement methods  can  be  employed  in  the  NAAQS
implementation program.  EPA also will continue to assist other federal agencies and state and
local governments in implementing the conformity regulations. The regulations require federal
agencies, taking actions in nonattainment and maintenance areas, to determine that the emissions
caused by their actions will conform to the SIP.

EPA will  continue  to  participate in global and  continental air quality management efforts
addressing transboundary  air pollution.   Additionally, EPA will continue participating in
negotiations under international treaties (i.e., the U.S.-Canada Agreement, Convention on Long-
range  Transboundary  Air Pollution,  and  Stockholm Convention  on  Persistent  Organic
Pollutants), and leading and participating in partnerships (e.g., the Global Mercury Programme)
to address fine particles, ozone, mercury, and persistent organic pollutants; assessing trends and
impacts  on U.S.  air quality  using  sophisticated models; and building the capacity to reduce
transboundary air pollution in key EPA Regional Offices and various nations (e.g., India, China,
Mexico, etc.).

EPA will continue to operate and maintain the Air Quality System (AQS),  which houses the
nation's air quality data and allows for data and technology exchange/transfer. EPA will modify
the AQS, as necessary, to reflect new ambient monitoring regulations and to  ensure that  it
complies with  critical  programmatic needs and with EPA's  architecture  and  data  quality
requirements. The AQS Data Mart will continue to provide access  to the scientific community
and others to obtain air quality data via the  Internet.9  EPA also will continue to operate and
maintain AirNow, which provides real-time air quality data  and forecasts nationwide. Further,
EPA will operate and maintain the Emissions Inventory System (EIS), a system used to quality
assure  and  store current and historical  emissions inventory data,  and used to generate the
National Emissions Inventory (NET).  The NEI is used by EPA, states, and others to analyze the
public  health risks from air toxics and to  develop strategies to manage those risks and support
multipollutant analysis covering air toxics, NAAQS pollutants, and greenhouse gases (GHGs).
The EIS will be used for the first time to generate the 2008 NEI.10

EPA will continue to support permitting authorities on the timely issuance of renewal permits
and to respond to veto  petitions under the Title V  operating permits program.  EPA also will
continue  to  address  monitoring issues  in underlying federal  and state rules and to take
appropriate  action   to  more  broadly  improve  the   Title   V  program.   Please  see
9 Please see http://epa. gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs/ for more details.
10 Please see http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/net/neip/index.html for additional information.
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http://www.epa.gov/air/oaqps/pertnits/ for further details. EPA will perform monitoring support
associated with permit issuance and National Environmental Policy Act evaluation.

EPA will perform analyses aimed at developing New Source Review (NSR) regulations to more
effectively address sources of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases, and EPA will continue to
work with state and tribal governments to implement revisions to the Prevention of Significant
Deterioration (PSD) requirements and NSR  rules, including updates to delegation agreements
(for delegated states) and review of implementation plan revisions (for SIP-approved states and
TIP-approved Tribes with approved Tribal Implementation Plans).  EPA also will continue to
review and respond to reconsideration requests and (working with DOJ) legal  challenges related
to NSR program revisions, take any actions  necessary to respond to court decisions, and work
with states and industries on NSR applicability issues. Emphasis will be given to assisting tribes
in implementing the NSR tribal rule and help them develop the capacity to assume delegation of
the rule or to effectively participate in reviews of permits issued by EPA in Indian Country.

To improve the NAAQS federal program,  EPA will  continue,  within current  statutory  and
resource limitations, to address deficiencies in designations and implementation.  For example,
EPA has been working to synchronize  the issuance of implementation guidance with the final
revised  NAAQS.  Our goal  is to provide this guidance early  in the process  to assist States in
implementing standards. The Agency will continue   consulting with  States to  determine
additional methods to  improve the implementation process  that are within current statutory
limitations. EPA will continue to develop measures of permit program efficiency.

EPA will continue to work with  state and local agencies to implement the National Air Toxics
Monitoring Network.   The network has two main parts:  the  National Air Toxics Trends Sites
(NATTS) and Local Scale Monitoring  (LSM) projects.  The  NATTS, designed to capture the
impacts of widespread pollutants, is comprised of 27 permanent monitoring sites, and the LSMs
are comprised of scores  of short-term  monitoring  projects, each designed to address specific
local issues. Please see http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/airtoxpg.html for additional  information.
EPA continues working  on  improving monitoring systems to fill data gaps and get a better
assessment  of actual  population exposure  to toxic air pollution.  Also,  EPA will continue
updating analytical efforts designed to provide  nationwide information on  ambient levels of
criteria and toxic air pollutants.

In addition to meeting CAA requirements, EPA will continue development of its multi-pollutant
and sector based efforts by constructing and organizing initiatives around industrial sectors.  The
focus of these efforts is to address an individual  sector's emissions comprehensively and to
prioritize regulatory efforts on the pollutants of greatest concern. EPA will continue to look at all
pollutants in an industrial sector and  identify ways to take advantage of the co-benefits of
pollution control.   In developing sector and  multi-pollutant approaches, EPA seeks innovative
solutions that address the differing nature of the various sectors.

One of EPA's top priorities is to eliminate unacceptable health  risks and cumulative exposures to
air toxics from multiple sources in affected communities, and  to enable the Agency to fulfill its
CAA and court-ordered  obligations.  The CAA requires that the technological bases for all
MACT  standards  be reviewed and updated as necessary every 8 years. In FY  2012, EPA  will
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continue to conduct risk assessments to determine whether the MACT rules appropriately protect
public health.

Between 2010 and 2012, there are 310 stationary source (e,g.  air toxics) rules due for review and
promulgation, 50 of which are already on court-ordered deadlines or in litigation; 131 of these
rules are in some stage of development at the present time. To develop effective  standards that
will  survive  legal challenges, EPA needs accurate information about actual  emissions, their
composition,  specific emission points and transport into communities.

EPA will continue to enhance analytical capabilities to develop effective regulations including:
analyzing  the economic impacts of regulations and policies; developing and refining existing
emission test methods for measuring pollutants from smokestacks and other industrial sources;
developing and refining existing source sampling measurement techniques to determine rates of
emissions  from  stationary sources; and  conducting dispersion modeling that  characterizes the
atmospheric processes that disperse a pollutant emitted by a source.  EPA's current assessments
indicate that  while many air toxics are widespread, areas of concentrated emissions such as
communities  with concentrated  industrial and mobile source activity (near ports or distribution
areas) often have greater cumulative exposure. Working with litigants and informed by analysis
of air quality  health risk data, EPA is working to prioritize key air toxics regulations that can be
completed expeditiously and that will address significant risks to public health.

In FY 2012, EPA will continue to provide information and  training to  states and communities
through documents, websites, and workshops on tools to help them in conducting assessments
and identifying risk reduction strategies for air toxics. This effort allows state, local,  and  tribal
governments; industry; public interest groups; and local citizens to work together to determine if
actions are needed, and if so, what should be done.

As part of the Agency's Air Toxics Initiative, EPA is requesting funding in FY 2012 to improve
the Agency's air toxic monitoring capabilities (on both source-specific and ambient bases), and
improve dissemination of information between and amongst the various EPA offices, the  state,
local and tribal  governments, and the public. To  make these improvements EPA proposes to:
expand analyses using tools such as the National Air Pollution Assessment (NAPA) and National
Air  Toxic  Assessment  (NATA)  to   include  demographics  and  cumulative,   aggregate
environmental risks to  different communities  and population subgroups (e.g.,  children, the
elderly); enhance quantitative benefits assessment tools such  as BenMAP to  include analytic
capabilities for air toxics; improve emission inventory estimates for toxic air pollutants using the
data  collected through source and ambient monitoring; and manage information (e.g. regulatory
requirements, compliance status, pollutant release information, permitting status)  for regulated
entities  electronically in  a  single location by modernizing the Air Facility System (AFS)
database.  This  system would accommodate data from and  coordinate  with other agency data
systems (such as NATA, NEI, TRI, RSEI) and provide streamlined access to federal and state
regulators.  In addition,  EPA is  requesting resources in FY 2012 to develop tools for  electronic
compliance reporting  as part of the Regaining Ground Initiative.  EPA  anticipates  that  these
investments will increase the Agency's ability to meet aggressive court ordered schedules to
complete  rulemaking  activities, especially in  the  Risk Technology Review program.  This
                                           277

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investment will  also assist the Agency in its work in FY 2012 to complete  or develop  an
additional 150 rules that are under legal or statutory deadlines for FY 2013.

Addressing Climate Change

During FY 2012, EPA will issue additional policy and guidance on GHG-related issues for the
Title V operating permits and PSD programs. Furthermore, EPA will continue to issue permits
directly  to sources in  areas where  states, local  agencies, or tribes do not issue permits.  In
addition, EPA will oversee the activities of state and local permitting programs as they continue
to transition to GHG coverage.

Adding  GHGs to the permitting programs has increased the number of covered  sources;  EPA
estimates that 550 new sources will be subject to Title V operating permits and 900 more actions
will fall under PSD.11 In FY 2012, EPA regional offices will continue to issue increased numbers
of PSD and  Title V permits  because of the new requirements for GHG emissions  control.
Additionally, the regional offices will issue GHG PSD permits in states where EPA has issued
Federal  Implementation Plans (FIPs). They also  will review increased numbers  of state, local,
and tribal  issued permits and  review changes to state, local, and  Tribal PSD and  Title V
programs  that incorporate GHG provisions.  EPA also will  address complex national policy
questions that are likely to arise as these new requirements are implemented.

EPA will consider the results of a range of international assessments issued in 2011 and address
the climate impacts of short-lived climate forcers. These traditional air pollutants, for example,
black carbon (a constituent of particulate matter) and  ozone are  impacting the climate and
reducing their emissions can reap immediate climate and public health benefits.  In the context of
the revised ozone and PM NAAQS,  and contingent on the outcome of the 2011 Black Carbon
Report to  Congress and other assessments, EPA will identify the most significant domestic and
international sources  of black carbon and ozone  precursor emissions. Based on these findings
and enhanced analytical  capabilities, EPA will  consider the best steps  for  addressing these
emissions.
Performance Targets:
Measure
Type
Output
Measure
(M94) Percent of major
NSR permits issued
within one year of
receiving a complete
permit application.
FY 2010
Target
78
FY 2010
Actual
Data
Avail
12/2011
FY2011
CR
Target
78
FY 2012
Target
78
Units
Percent
  http://www.epa. gov/NSR/documents/20100413piecharts.pdf
                                          278

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Measure
Type



Output



Measure
(M95) Percent of
significant Title V
operating permit
revisions issued within
18 months of receiving
a complete permit
application.
FY 2010
Target



100



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target



100



FY 2012
Target



100



Units



Percent




Measure
Type


Output



Measure
(M96) Percent of new
Title V operating
permits issued within
18 months of receiving
a complete permit
application.

FY 2010
Target


99



FY 2010
Actual

Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target


99



FY 2012
Target


99



Units


Percent


Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(M9) Cumulative
reduction in
population-weighted
ambient concentration
of ozone in monitored
counties from 2003
baseline.
FY 2010
Target



11



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target



12



FY 2012
Target



12



Units



Percent



Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(M91) Cumulative
reduction in
population-weighted
ambient concentration
of fine particulate
matter (PM-2.5) in all
monitored counties
from 2003 baseline.
FY 2010
Target



6



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011



FY2011
CR
Target



15



FY 2012
Target



15



Units



Percent



279

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Measure
Type




Outcome




Measure
(MM9) Cumulative
percent reduction in the
average number of
days during the ozone
season that the ozone
standard is exceeded in
non-attainment areas,
weighted by
population.
FY 2010
Target




26




FY 2010
Actual



Data
Avail
12/2011



FY2011
CR
Target




29




FY 2012
Target




32




Units




Percent




Measure
Type



Efficiency



Measure
(MM8) Cumulative
percent reduction in the
number of days to
process State
Implementation Plan
revisions, weighted by
complexity.
FY 2010
Target



2.9



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
2011


FY2011
CR
Target



2.9



FY 2012
Target



3.1



Units



Percent



FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$2,269.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •   (+$24,446.0 / +140.4 FTE) This represents the incoming transfer of resources, including
       140.4 FTE with associated payroll of $18,620.0 and travel of $345.0, from the Federal
       Support for Air Toxics Program.  The Federal Support for Air Toxics Program has been
       consolidated with this program in  support of a sector-based multi-pollutant approach to
       air quality management.

    •   (+$4,864.0 / + 25.0 FTE)  This represents an increase  for Clean Air Act  Permitting
       activities, including 25.0 FTE with associated payroll of $3,241.0 and travel of $69.0.
       These resources and FTE will support expanded PSD and Title  V permit review by the
       Regional  Offices and sector- and source-specific guidance from headquarters, including
       guidance  on significant national policy issues.

    •   (-$485.0) This decrease in travel  costs  reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

    •   (+$343.0  / + 1.0 FTE) This represents an increase as part of EPA's Regaining Ground
       Initiative, including 1.0 FTE with  associated payroll of $143.0.  These resources will be
       utilized to develop tools for electronic compliance reporting.
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   •   (+$3,146.0  /  + 8.8 FTE) This represents  an increase  as  part of EPA's Air  Toxics
       Initiative, including 8.8 FTE with associated payroll of $1,227.0. Funding will be used
       for improving EPA's  air toxic facility fence line and remote monitoring capabilities,
       national assessments and improving dissemination of information between and amongst
       the various EPA offices, the state, local and tribal governments, and the public. Specific
       improvements include: expanding analyses using tools such as the National Air Pollution
       Assessment   (NAPA)   and  National Air   Toxic  Assessment  (NATA);   enhancing
       quantitative benefits assessment tools, such as BenMAP, to  include analytic capabilities
       for air toxics;  improving emission inventory estimates for air toxic pollutants using the
       data collected through  source and ambient monitoring;  and managing all information for
       all regulated entities electronically  in a single location by modernizing the Air Facility
       System (AFS) database.

   •   (+$2,931.0 / + 6.5 FTE) As part of the Healthy Communities Initiative, this  reflects an
       increase to  support the  Agency's efforts to  improve  existing  ambient monitoring
       networks to improve community wide characterizations of the impacts of air  toxics and
       related pollutants and to expand analytical tools to include demographics and cumulative,
       environmental risks to different communities and population subgroups, including 6.5
       FTE and associated payroll of $904.0. These resources and FTE will support expanded
       analyses and  information access by enhancing tools such as the National Air Pollution
       Assessment  (NAPA),  National Air  Toxic Assessment  (NATA),  BenMAP, and Air
       Facility System (AFS).

   •   (-$557.0)  This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This  initiative targets  certain  categories of spending for efficiencies  and reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel, general  services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

   •   (+$299.0) This reflects realignments and corrections to resources for telephone, Local
       Area Network (LAN) and other telecommunications and IT security requirements.

   •   (-$3,053.07  -9.2 FTE)   This reflects a reduction to regional resources.  This  reduction,
       includes $1,169.0 in payroll associated with the reduced FTE as well as a reduction of
       $36.0  in travel.  The reduction will mean reduced support to states as  they implement
       new and revised NAAQS and toxics standards.  This also will reduce support to states as
       they develop revised and updated clean air plans.

   •   (-8.4 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

Statutory Authority:

CAA Amendments of 1990 (42 U.S.C.  7401-7661f).
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                                                Federal Support for Air Toxics Program
                                                     Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                        Objective(s): Improve Air Quality

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$24,446.0
$2,398.0
$26,844.0
145.8
FY2010
Actuals
$23,468.8
$2,381.7
$25,850.5
138.8
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$24,446.0
$2,398.0
$26,844.0
145.8
FY2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($24,446.0)
($2,398.0)
($26,844.0)
-145.8
Program Project Description:

The Federal Support for Air Toxics Program assists state, tribal, and local air pollution control
agencies and communities with modeling, inventories, monitoring, assessments, strategies, and
program development of community-based toxics programs, including the assessment of air
toxics outside schools. EPA also provides support for programs that reduce inhalation risk or
deposition to water bodies  and ecosystems, international  cooperation to reduce transboundary
and intercontinental air toxic pollution, National Emissions Inventory development and updates,
risk  assessment methodologies for toxic air  pollutants, Persistent  Bioaccumulative Toxics
activities, and training of air pollution professionals. In addition, the program includes activities
for implementation of  federal air toxics standards  and the  triennial National  Air Toxics
Assessments.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

All activities  in  this program will  be  assumed by the Federal  Support for  Air Quality
Management Program to support the conversion to a sector-based multi-pollutant approach to air
quality management.

Performance Targets:

There are  no FY 2012 performance targets associated with this program project because the
funds are transferred to the Federal Support for Air Quality Management Program.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$24,446.0  \  -140.4  FTE)  This represents  a  transfer  of  funding and  program
       responsibilities, including 140.4 FTE with associated payroll of $18,620.0, to the Federal
       Support for Air  Quality Management  Program  in  support of a sector-based  multi-
       pollutant approach to air quality management.
                                          282

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Statutory Authority:




CAA (42 U.S.C. 7401-7661f).
                                          283

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                                                  Stratospheric Ozone: Domestic Programs
                                                        Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                            Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                       Objective(s): Restore the Ozone Layer

                                   (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$5,934.0
$5,934.0
23.8
FY2010
Actuals
$6,159. 4
$6,159.4
28.0
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$5,934.0
$5,934.0
23.8
FY2012
Pres Budget
$5,612.0
$5,612.0
23.7
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($322.0)
($322.0)
-0.1
Program Project Description:

The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by shielding the Earth's surface from harmful
ultraviolet (UV) radiation.  Scientific evidence amassed over the past 30 years has shown that
ozone-depleting substances (ODS) used around the world destroy the stratospheric ozone layer
and contribute to climate change.12  Overexposure to increased levels of UV radiation due to
ozone layer depletion is expected to raise the incidence of skin cancer and other illnesses.13 Skin
cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in the U.S. One American dies almost every hour
from melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer.14  Increased UV levels have been associated
with other human and non-human effects, including immune suppression and effects  on aquatic
ecosystems and agricultural crops.

EPA estimates that in the U.S.  alone, the worldwide phaseout of ODS will avert millions of non-
fatal and fatal skin  cancers, as well as millions of cataracts, between 1990 and 2165.15  Cataracts
are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, and in the U.S. a significant source of cost to the
Medicare budget. EPA's estimates regarding the U.S. health benefits from the ODS phaseout are
based on the assumption that international ODS  phaseout targets will be achieved, allowing the
ozone layer to recover later this century.  According to current atmospheric research, the ozone
layer is not expected to recover until mid-century at the earliest, due to the long  lifetimes of ODS
in the stratosphere.16

EPA's Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program implements the provisions of the Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1990 (the Act) and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone
Layer (Montreal Protocol), continuing the control and reduction of ODS in the U.S. and lowering
health risks to the  American public. Since ODS and many of their substitutes are also potent
12 World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006.  Geneva, Switzerland. 2007.
13 Fahey, D.W. (Lead Author), World Health Organization, et. al. "Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer:
2006 Update, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, World Meteorological Organization, March 2007.
14 American Cancer Society. "Skin Cancer Facts." Accessed August 9, 2010. Available on the Internet at
http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/SunandUvExposure/skin-cancer-facts.
15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act 1990-2010: EPAReportto
Congress. EPA: Washington, DC. November 1999.
16 WMO, 2007.
                                            284

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greenhouse gases, appropriate control and reduction of these substances also provide significant
benefits for climate protection. The Act provides for a phaseout of production and consumption
of ODS and  requires controls  on their use,  including banning certain emissive uses,  requiring
labeling to inform consumer choices, and requiring sound servicing practices for the use of ODS
in various products (e.g., air conditioning and refrigeration). The Act also prohibits venting ODS
or their substitutes, including other F-gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

As  a signatory to the Montreal Protocol, the U.S. is committed to  ensuring that our  domestic
program is at least as stringent as international obligations, and to regulating and enforcing its
terms domestically. With 196 Parties and virtually universal participation, the Montreal Protocol
is the most successful international  environmental treaty in existence.17 With U.S. leadership,
the Parties to the Montreal Protocol agreed  in  2007 to a more aggressive phaseout for ozone-
depleting  hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).   This  adjustment  to  the Montreal  Protocol
requires  dramatic  HCFC  reductions  during  the period 2010-2040,  equaling  a 47 percent
reduction in overall emissions compared to previous commitments under the Protocol.

The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program also works with  the supermarket industry through
                                                 1 &
the GreenChill Advanced Refrigeration Partnership.   An EPA partnership  with the supermarket
industry  and other stakeholders,  GreenChill promotes advanced technologies,  strategies,  and
practices that reduce refrigerant charges and emissions of ODS and greenhouse gases.   The
program now includes  more than 5,500 stores in 48  states.   In 2008, partners reduced their
aggregate total emissions by 8.5 percent.

EPA's Responsible Appliance Disposal  (RAD) Program19 is a partnership that protects the ozone
layer and  reduces emissions  of greenhouse  gases  through  the  recovery of ODS  from old
refrigerators,  freezers, air conditioners, and dehumidifiers.  RAD partners dispose  of more than 1
million refrigerant-containing appliances  annually, reducing ODS emissions by over 550 ODP-
weighted tons.

While the Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program continues to heal the ozone layer and garner
climate co-benefits, EPA also works to  improve public health by sharing information to help the
public make  informed  decisions  about health  and the environment. Because people  will  live
under a compromised ozone layer  until the middle of this  century, the  SunWise Program20
educates children about the importance of UV protection.  SunWise  has grown from 25 schools
to over 26,000 since 1999.  It is now relied on by public and private schools in every U.S. state,
and in several states, SunWise partner  schools amount to a quarter of the number of schools in
the state. According to a  study published in  Pediatrics,2   every  federal dollar invested in
SunWise results in a $2-$4 savings in health care.
17 See: http://ozone.unep.org/Publications/MP Key Achievements-E.pdf,
http://www.eoearth.org/article/Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer,
http://ozone.unep.org/highlights.shtml (Nov 2,2009 entry)
18 For more information, see: www.epa.go v/greenchill
19 For more information, see: www.epa.gov/ozone/partnerships/rad
20 For more information, see: www.epa.gov/sunwise
21 Pediatrics. 2008 May;121(5):el074-84. Economic evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's SunWise Program:
Sun Protection Education for Young Children. Kyle JW, Hammitt JK, Lim HW, Geller AC, Hall-Jordan LH, Maibach EW, De
Fabo EC, Wagner MC.


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FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In carrying out the requirements of the Act and the Montreal Protocol in FY 2012, EPA will
continue to implement the domestic rulemaking agenda for control and reduction of ODS. EPA
will provide compliance assistance and enforce rules controlling ODS production, import,  and
emission.

In FY 2012, EPA will focus its work to ensure that ODS production and import caps under the
Montreal Protocol and Clean Air Act continue to be met. The Clean Air Act requires reductions
and a  schedule for  phasing out the  production  and  import of  ODS.   These requirements
correspond to  the domestic consumption  cap  for class II HCFCs,  as set by the Parties to the
Montreal Protocol.  As of January 1, 2010, ODS production and imports were capped at 3,810
ODP-weighted metric tons,  which is 25% of the U.S. baseline under the Montreal  Protocol.
Each ODS is weighted based on its ODP, a measure of the damage it does to the stratospheric
ozone layer. Beginning on January 1,  1996, the cap for HCFC consumption was set at the sum
of 2.8  percent of the domestic ODP-weighted consumption of CFCs in 1989,  plus the OOP-
weighted level of HCFCs in 1989.22  In 2015, U.S.  production and import will be reduced
further, to 10% of the U.S. baseline, and in 2020, all production and import will be phased out
except for exempted amounts.

Given that the  ODS cap was lowered in 2010, EPA is responding to an increased number of ODS
substitute applications, many of which represent lower-GHG options.  Under  the Significant
New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program,23  EPA reviews alternatives to ODS to assist the
market's transition to alternatives that are  safer, especially for the climate system.  The purpose
of the program is to allow a safe, smooth transition away from ODS by identifying substitutes
that offer lower overall risks to human health and the environment.  As necessary, EPA restricts
use of  alternatives  for given applications that are more  harmful to  human health  and the
environment on an overall basis. In FY 2012, EPA will consider the suite of available substitutes
for each  of approximately  50  end  uses (e.g.,  domestic  refrigeration,  motor vehicle air
conditioning) in eight industrial sectors and with the listing of new alternatives, review previous
decisions as necessary.  Also, EPA will continue to work with federal and international agencies
to halt  the illegal import of ODS  and foster the smooth transition to  non-ozone-depleting
alternatives in various sectors.
Performance Targets:

Measure
Type


Outcome



Measure
(SOI) Remaining US
Consumption of
hydrochlorofluorocarbons
(HCFCs), chemicals that
deplete the Earth's
protective ozone layer,

FY 2010
Target


<3,811



FY 2010
Actual

Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target


<3,811



FY 2012
Target


<3,811



Units


ODP tons


22 Consumption equals production plus import minus export.
23 For more information, see: www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/
                                          286

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Measure
Type

Measure
measured in tons of
Ozone Depleting
Potential (OOP).
FY 2010
Target

FY 2010
Actual

FY2011
CR
Target

FY 2012
Target

Units

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$49.0) This decrease reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •   (-$197.0) In a time of fiscal constraint, EPA plans to reduce funding for the Sun Wise
       program website. As a result, schools will have to rely on a Sunwise website that is not
       updated as often. This website offers internet-based materials for use, additional related
       printed curriculum and  information on sun safety.

    •   (-$8.0)  This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to  reduce the  Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting  green travel and conferencing.

    •   (-$72.0)   This reflects a  reduction as part  of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative  targets  certain categories of spending for efficiencies  and reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel,  general  services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and  streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-0.1 FTE)  This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

    •   (+$4.0) This increase in funding will support the review of ODS alternatives.

Statutory Authority:

CAA Amendments of 1990, Title I, Parts A and D  (42 U.S.C. 7401-7434, 7501-7515), Title V
(42 U.S.C. 7661-7661 f),  and Title VI (42 U.S.C.  7671-7671q);  The Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
                                           287

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                                                      Stratospheric Ozone: Multilateral Fund
                                                          Program Area: Clean Air and Climate
                             Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                          Objective(s): Restore the Ozone Layer

                                     (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$9,840.0
$9,840.0
0.0
FY2010
Actuals
$9,840.0
$9,840.0
0.0
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$9,840.0
$9,840.0
0.0
FY2012
Pres Budget
$9,495.0
$9,495.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($345.0)
($345.0)
0.0
Program Project Description:

The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects life on Earth by preventing harmful ultraviolet (UV)
radiation from reaching the Earth's surface.  Scientific evidence amassed over more than 30 years
has  shown  that ozone-depleting substances  (ODS)  used  around  the  world  destroy  the
stratospheric ozone layer and contribute to  climate change.24 Increased levels of UV radiation,
due  to ozone depletion, have contributed to increased incidence of skin  cancer, cataracts,  and
other health effects.25  Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, accounting for nearly half
of all cancers.26  Increased  UV levels also have  been associated with other human and  non-
human effects, including immune suppression and effects on aquatic ecosystems and agricultural
crops.27

EPA estimates that in the U.S. alone, the worldwide phaseout of ODS will avert millions of non-
                          r\Q                                                        r\f\
fatal and fatal skin cancers   as well as millions of cataracts between 1990 and 2165.   According
to current research,  the ozone layer is expected to recover later this century.  This long recovery
period is due  to the long atmospheric lifetime of ODS.30  These estimates are based  on the
assumption that international ODS phaseout targets will be achieved through full participation by
all  countries  (both  industrialized and developing), allowing the  ozone layer to recover.  If
developing countries go back to using ODS, at even 70 percent of historic rates, within 20 years
the environmental gains to date would be negated,  as would billions of dollars spent. Ending the
24 World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006. Geneva, Switzerland. 2007.
25 Fahey, D.W. (Lead Author), World Health Organization, et. al. "Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer:
2006 Update, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, World Meteorological Organization, March 2007.
26 American Cancer Society. "Skin Cancer Facts." Accessed August 9, 2010. Available on the Internet at
http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/SunandUvExposure/skin-cancer-facts.
27 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UNEP, Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 2006 Assessment.
Nairobi, Kenya, 2007.
28 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act 1990-2010: EPAReportto
Congress. EPA: Washington, DC. November 1999. Also:
29 Protecting the Ozone Layer Protects Eyesight - A Report on Cataract Incidence in the United States Using the Atmospheric
and Health Effects Framework Model. Accessed August 9, 2010. Available on the Internet at:
http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/effects/AHEFCataractReport.pdf
30 WMO, 2007.
                                              288

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production and use of ODS not only saves the ozone layer, but it also reduces the climate impact
of these potent greenhouse gases.

Under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol),
the U.S. and other developed countries contribute to the Multilateral Fund to support projects and
activities in  developing  countries  to eliminate the production  and use of ODS. The Montreal
Protocol is the first multilateral treaty to have universal participation with ratification by all 196
countries.  The U.S. contribution to the Multilateral Fund, which is split between EPA and the
Department  of State, is 22 percent of the total based  on  the U.N.  scale of assessment.  The
Multilateral Fund draws heavily on U.S. expertise and technologies, and the permanent seat of
the  U.S.  on the  Executive  Committee  ensures  cost-effective  assistance.  Negotiated  text
supporting the 2007 adjustment to the Protocol commits donor countries, including the U.S., to
"stable and sufficient" funding to the Multilateral Fund. The Parties to the Montreal Protocol
agreed,  in  the 2007   adjustment, to  a  more  aggressive  phaseout  for  ozone-depleting
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which involves dramatic HCFC  reductions during the
period from 2010-2040, equaling a 47  percent  reduction in overall  emissions.  Most of these
reductions will  occur in developing countries. Because most ODS  are strong greenhouse gases
(GHGs), this faster phaseout also will  result in large reductions in greenhouse gas  (GHG)
emissions.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA's contributions to the Multilateral  Fund in FY 2012 will help continue  support for cost-
effective projects designed to build capacity and  eliminate ODS production and consumption in
over 60 developing countries. Today, the Multilateral Fund supports over 6,000 activities in 148
countries that, when fully implemented, will prevent annual emissions of more than 451,000
metric tons  of  ODS.  Additional  projects will  be  submitted,  considered  and  approved in
accordance with Multilateral Fund guidelines.

Performance Targets:

Performance measures  associated with this program  are included  in the section  Stratospheric
Ozone:  Domestic Program under Environmental Programs and Management Tab and  can be
found in the Performance Four Year Array in Tab 11.

The Clean Air Act requires reductions and a schedule for phasing out the production and import
of ODS. These requirements correspond to the domestic  consumption cap for class II HCFCs, as
set by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. Each ODS is weighted based on the damage it does to
the  stratospheric ozone  layer—this is the  ozone depletion potential  (OOP).  Since January 1,
2010, the  U.S. is  required  to  meet a  consumption  cap of 3,810  OOP-weighted metric tons.
Further incremental reductions are required through 2020 until all  ODS production and import
are phased out, except for exempted amounts.
                                          289

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FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$370.0)   This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain  categories of spending for efficiencies and  reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes  and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (+$25.0 ) This increase will  support the Multilateral Fund.

Statutory Authority:

CAA Amendments of 1990, Title 1, Parts A and D (42 U.S.C.  7401-7434, 7501-7515), Title V
(42 U.S.C. 7661-7661f),  and Title VI (42 U.S.C. 7671-7671q); The  Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
                                           290

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Program Area: Indoor Air and Radiation
                 291

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                                                            Indoor Air:  Radon Program
                                                   Program Area: Indoor Air and Radiation
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                         Objective(s): Improve Air Quality

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$5,866.0
$453.0
$6,319.0
39.4
FY2010
Actuals
$5,408.1
$485.6
$5,893.7
33.1
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$5,866.0
$453.0
$6,319.0
39.4
FY2012
Pres Budget
$3,901.0
$210.0
$4,111.0
23.1
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($1,965.0)
($243.0)
($2,208.0)
-16.3
Program Project Description:

Title III of the Toxic Substances Control  Act (TSCA) directs EPA to undertake a variety of
activities to address the public health risks posed by exposures to indoor radon. The law directs
EPA to study the health effects of radon, assess exposure levels, set an action level and advise
the public of  steps they can take to reduce  exposure, evaluate mitigation methods, institute
training centers to ensure  a supply of competent radon service  providers, establish  radon
contractor proficiency  programs, and  assist  states with program development through the
administration of a grants program.

Radon is the leading cause  of lung cancer  mortality among non-smokers, accounting for about
21,000 deaths per year. EPA's non-regulatory indoor radon program promotes actions to reduce
the public's health risk from indoor radon.   EPA and the Surgeon General recommend that
people do a simple home test and, if levels  above EPA's guidelines are confirmed, reduce those
levels by home mitigation using inexpensive and proven techniques.  EPA also recommends that
new homes be built using radon-resistant features in areas where there is elevated radon. This
voluntary program has succeeded in promoting partnerships between national organizations, the
private sector, and state, local, and tribal governmental programs to achieve radon risk reduction.
On the basis of that success, EPA plans to streamline the program to rely more heavily on these
partners to achieve radon risk reduction.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, EPA will:

    •   Continue to partner with national and private sector organizations, as well as state, local,
       and tribal government organizations to reduce radon exposure;

    •   Work with states, tribes, and localities to improve their radon programs to increase risk
       reduction;
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    •   Continue partnerships that will make radon risk reduction a normal part of doing business
       in the marketplace; and

    •   Improve scientific knowledge and technologies to support and drive aggressive action on
       radon in conjunction with partners.

The number of homes in the U.S. with radon levels above the action level is currently estimated
at 1 in 15 homes, and continued action is needed. In FY 2012, EPA will accelerate efforts to
reduce radon exposure.  The program will continue to focus on radon risk reduction in homes
and schools.   EPA will  use  information  dissemination,  social  marketing  techniques,  and
partnerships with influential public health and environmental organizations to drive action at the
national level.  EPA will continue  to promote public action to test homes for indoor radon, fix
homes when levels  are high,  and build homes with  radon-resistant features. EPA also will
continue its work with national partners to inform and motivate public action.  As part of this
outreach,  EPA communicates  risk estimates from  the National  Academy  of Sciences that
demonstrate the substantial risks associated with radon exposure.

The Indoor Air Program is not regulatory. Instead, EPA works toward its goal by  conducting
research  and promoting appropriate  risk reduction  actions through  voluntary education  and
outreach programs.  The Agency will continue to focus on making efficiency improvements and
improving transparency  by making state radon grantee performance data available to the public
via a website or other easily accessible means.

The majority of federal resources directed to radon risk reduction are allotted to states under the
State  Indoor Radon  Grants Program, which is described elsewhere in this volume.  With its
programmatic resources, EPA engages in public outreach and education activities designed to
increase the public health effectiveness of state and  private efforts.  This includes support for
national  public information campaigns  that attract  millions  of dollars in donated air time,
identification and dissemination of "best practices" from the highest achieving states for transfer
across the nation, public support for local and  state adoption of radon prevention standards in
building  codes, coordination of national voluntary standards (e.g., mitigation and construction
protocols)  for  adoption by  states and the radon  industry, and numerous  other activities
strategically selected to promote individual action to test and mitigate homes and promote radon
resistant  new construction.31 In FY  2012,  EPA plans to  streamline the  program, curtailing
activity in lower priority outreach, education, guidance and technical assistance.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type
Output
Measure
(R50) Percent of
existing homes with an
operating mitigation
system (ROMS)
compared to the
FY 2010
Target
12
FY 2010
Actual
Data
Avail
12/2011
FY2011
CR
Target
12.5
FY 2012
Target
13.3
Units
Percent
31 http://www.epa.gov/radon
                                           293

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Measure
Type

Measure
estimated number of
homes at or above
EPA's 4pCi/L action
level.
FY 2010
Target

FY 2010
Actual

FY2011
CR
Target

FY 2012
Target

Units

Measure
Type



Output


Measure
(R51) Percent of all
new single-family
homes (SFH) in high
radon potential areas
built with radon
reducing features.
FY 2010
Target



33


FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011

FY2011
CR
Target



34.5


FY 2012
Target



36


Units



Percent


FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$1,921.07-14.8  FTE)  To accommodate the lower funding  level,  EPA will reduce
       resources for lower priority regional efforts to address public  health risks  posed by
       exposures by  indoor radon. These efforts include  regional  support  for  outreach,
       education, guidance, and technical assistance. This reduction includes associated payroll
       of $1,906.0.  With the remaining available resources, EPA will continue to partner with
       national and private sector organizations, as well as state, local,  and tribal government
       organizations to reduce radon exposure; work with states, tribes, and localities to improve
       their radon programs to increase risk reduction; continue partnerships that  will make
       radon risk reduction a normal part of doing business in the marketplace; and improve
       scientific knowledge and technologies to  support and drive aggressive action on radon in
       conjunction with partners.

    •   (-$44.0)  This  decrease in travel costs reflects  an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

Statutory Authority:

CAA Amendments of 1990; Radon  Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research Act; Title IV of the
SARA of 1986; TSCA,  Section 6, Titles II and  Title III (15 U.S.C. 2605 and 2641-2671); and
IRAA, Section 306.
                                          294

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                                                           Reduce Risks from Indoor Air
                                                    Program Area: Indoor Air and Radiation
                           Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                          Objective(s): Improve Air Quality

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$20,759.0
$762.0
$21,521.0
63.8
FY 2010
Actuals
$19,253.0
$808.0
$20,061.0
63.4
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$20,759.0
$762.0
$21,521.0
63.8
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$17,198.0
$370.0
$17,568.0
54.3
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($3,561.0)
($392.0)
($3,953.0)
-9.5
Program Project Description:

Title IV of the  Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) gives the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) broad authority to conduct and coordinate research on
indoor air quality, develop and disseminate information on the subject, and coordinate efforts at
the federal, state, and local levels.

In this  non-regulatory,  voluntary program,  EPA  works through  partnerships, with  non-
governmental  organizations and federal  partners,  as well as  professional organizations, to
educate and encourage individuals, schools, industry, the health  care community, and others to
take  action  to reduce health risks from poor indoor air quality. For many reasons, including
peoples' decisions to smoke in their own homes, air inside  homes, schools, and workplaces can
be more polluted than outdoor  air in the largest and most industrialized cities.32 People typically
spend close  to 90 percent of their time indoors and may be more at risk from indoor than outdoor
air pollution.33

Additionally, EPA uses technology transfer to improve the design, operation, and maintenance of
buildings, including schools,  homes,  and workplaces, to promote healthier indoor  air.   EPA
provides technical assistance that directly supports states, local governments, and public health
organizations.

FY 2012 Activities  and Performance Plan:

In FY  2012, EPA's Indoor Air Program will continue to support the Administrator's priorities.
EPA will continue to  promote comprehensive asthma care that integrates management of
environmental asthma triggers  and  health care  services.  EPA will  continue to promote
community  adoption  of comprehensive asthma care programs through  the Communities in
32 U.S. EPA. 1987. The Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Study: Summary and Analysis Volume I. EPA 600-6-
87-002a. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
33 U.S. EPA. 1989. Report to Congress on Indoor Air Quality, Volume II: Assessment and Control of Indoor Air Pollution. EPA
40-6-89-001C. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
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Action for Asthma-Friendly Environments Campaign, EPA will place a particular emphasis on
protecting vulnerable populations, including children, low-income,  and minority populations
disproportionately  impacted  by  poor  asthma  outcomes.  The  protection  of  vulnerable
subpopulations is a top Administrator's priority, especially  with  regard to children. EPA will
continue to work in partnership  and collaboration with other federal  agencies,  the health care
community,  and state  and local organizations  to promote smoke-free  homes  and  cars,
emphasizing protection for young children through collaboration with the Department of Health
and Human Services' Office of Head Start.

EPA also will continue to promote a suite of "best practice" guidance for a range of building
types,  including  guidance for  the  control  and management   of  moisture  and  mold and
comprehensive  best  practice guidance  for IAQ  during each phase of the building cycle.
Additional guidance will focus on best maintenance practices for indoor environmental quality
and ensuring good IAQ in concert with increased energy efficiency in buildings.

Internationally, EPA will continue the Partnership for Clean Indoor Air to provide technology
transfer to developing countries so that individuals and organizations within those countries have
the tools to  address human health risk due to indoor  smoke  from cooking and heating  fires.
Since 2003, the Indoor Air Program has documented nearly three  million households across the
globe,  nearly 20 million people, who  have adopted clean  and efficient cooking and heating
technologies through the Partnership's programs.

In a time of fiscal constraint, the reduced FY 2012 resources will require EPA to decrease overall
partnership/outreach  support with non-governmental   organizations,  federal partners,  and
professional  organizations. Additionally, to accommodate the  lower funding level in FY  2012
EPA plans to reduce or eliminate lower priority activities, including  the Tools for  Schools
Program and the Healthy Homes/Buildings Program.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type
Output
Measure
(R17) Additional
health care
professionals trained
annually on the
environmental
management of asthma
triggers.
FY 2010
Target
2,000
FY 2010
Actual
Data
Avail
12/2011
FY2011
CR
Target
2,000
FY 2012
Target
3,000
Units
Professionals

Measure
Type

Outcome


Measure
(R16) Percent of public
that is aware of the
asthma program's
media campaign.

FY 2010
Target

>30


FY 2010
Actual
Data
Avail
12/2011

FY2011
CR
Target

>30


FY 2012
Target

>30


Units

Percent

                                          296

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Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(R22) Estimated
annual number of
schools establishing
indoor air quality
programs based on
EPA's Tools for
Schools guidance.
FY 2010
Target



1,000



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target



1,000



FY 2012
Target



1,000



Units



Schools



EPA will strive to meet its long-term strategic goal for 2015 that 7.6 million people with asthma
will be taking the essential actions to reduce their exposure to environmental triggers.  EPA's
goal is to motivate an additional 400,000 people with asthma to take these actions in 2012,
bringing the total number to approximately 6.5  million people with asthma who are taking the
essential actions to reduce their exposure to  environmental triggers.  As another component of
reducing exposure to environmental triggers for children with asthma, EPA will work to reduce
existing disparities between disproportionately impacted populations and the overall population.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted Budget (Dollars in Thousands):

•  (-$3,456.07 -8.0 FTE) In  a time of fiscal constraint,  the reduced  FY  2012 resources will
   require EPA to decrease  overall partnership/outreach  support  with  non-governmental
   organizations, federal partners, and professional organizations. Additionally, to accommodate
   the lower funding level in FY 2012 EPA plans to reduce or eliminate lower priority activities,
   including the Tools for Schools Program and the Healthy Homes/Buildings Program. Of the
   total decrease, $1,092.0 is for associated payroll. EPA will focus its healthy homes/buildings
   program on reducing exposures and health risks from environmental asthma triggers.

•  (-$105.0)  This reflects  a reduction as part of the  Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
   initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
   advisory contracts, travel,  general services, printing and  supplies.  EPA will continue its
   work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative and programmatic
   areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

CAA Amendments of 1990; Title IV of the SARA of 1986.
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                                                                  Radiation: Protection
                                                   Program Area: Indoor Air and Radiation
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                    Objective(s): Reduce Unnecessary Exposure to Radiation

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Hazardous Substance Superfiind
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$11,295.0
$2,095.0
$2,495.0
$15,885.0
88.6
FY2010
Actuals
$11,433.3
$1,962.1
$2,586.2
$15,981.6
84.2
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$11,295.0
$2,095.0
$2,495.0
$15,885.0
88.6
FY2012
Pres Budget
$9,629.0
$2,096.0
$2,487.0
$14,212.0
76.1
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($1,666.0)
$1.0
($8.0)
($1,673.0)
-12.5
Program Project Description:

Congress designated EPA as the primary federal agency charged with protecting human health
and the environment from harmful and avoidable exposure to radiation. EPA has important
general  and specific duties depending on the enabling  legislation (e.g., Atomic Energy  Act,
Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Clean Air Act, etc). EPA's Radiation Protection Program carries out
this responsibility through its federal guidance and regulations/standards development activities.
EPA provides oversight  of operations at the Waste  Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).   EPA also
regulates radioactive air  emissions  and ensures that the Agency  has  appropriate methods to
manage radioactive releases and exposures under Sec. 112 of the Clean Air Act, which governs
EPA's authority to regulate hazardous air pollutants.

Other EPA responsibilities include radiation clean-up and waste management guidance, radiation
pollution prevention, and guidance  on radiation protection standards and practices  to federal
agencies. The Agency's radiation science is recognized nationally and internationally; it is the
foundation that EPA, other federal agencies and states use to develop radiation risk management
policy,  guidance,  and  rulemakings.   The Agency  works closely with other  national and
international radiation protection organizations such as the National Academy of Sciences, the
National Council  on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the International Atomic Energy
Agency, the International Commission  on  Radiation  Protection, and the Organization  of
Economic  and Cooperative Development's  Nuclear Energy  Agency to advance scientific
understanding of radiation risks.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY  2012, EPA will  continue  to  implement its regulatory oversight  responsibilities for
Department of Energy  (DOE)  activities at the WIPP facility, as mandated by Congress in the
WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992.  EPA also will continue its oversight work to ensure the
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permanent and safe disposal, consistent with EPA standards,34 of all radioactive waste shipped to
WIPP. This includes conducting inspections of waste generator facilities and evaluating DOE's
compliance with applicable environmental laws  and regulations every five years. EPA will
continue limited work on the revision to the Uranium Milling and Tailings Radiation Control Act
regulation (40  CFR 192),  last reviewed in 1995, and the related Hazardous  Air Pollutants,
Subpart W (40 CFR 61) update.

EPA, in partnership  with other federal agencies, will continue to promote the management of
radiation risks in a consistent and safe manner at water treatment facilities, and during cleanups
at Superfund, DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), state, local  and other federal sites. EPA will
continue to conduct limited radiation risk assessments and provide guidance and technical tools
when available.

Performance Targets:

Measure
Type



Output





Output




Measure
(R37) Time to approve
site changes affecting
waste characterization
at DOE waste
generator sites to
ensure safe disposal of
transuranic radioactive
waste at WIPP.
(R36) Average time of
availability of quality
assured ambient
radiation air

monitoring data during
an emergency.

FY 2010
Target



70





0.7




FY 2010
Actual



Data
Avail
701 1
£*\J _L _L



Data
LfCaa
Avail
201 1


FY2011
CR
Target



70





0.7




FY 2012
Target



75





0.8




Units



Days





Days



FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$1,655.0 / -  11.0 FTE) This reflects a significant reduction in both headquarters and
       regional staff to address the nation's risks of radiation exposure, necessary in this time of
       fiscal constraint. To accommodate the reduction, EPAplans to terminate important but
       lower priority work on updating EPA radiation science issued through Federal Guidance
       publications that  federal  and state  agencies  use when  conducting  radiation  risk
       assessments. Of this reduction, $1,605.0 is a reduction in payroll due to the reduced FTE.
       This reduction may also mean that EPA will take longer to promulgate regulations due to
       limited resources for analysis and outreach and stakeholder input.

       This cut also may  substantially reduce  the  program's  timeliness in  responding  to
       radioactive waste policy and technical issues. Other lower priority activities that may be
       affected are the  Agency's tribal and environmental justice  efforts on  radiation issues,
  Additional information at: http://www.epa.gov/radiation/wipp/background.html
                                           299

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       particularly those aimed at Navajo uranium contamination; risk assessment support to the
       states and regions; and EPA's radiation outreach and public information abilities.

   •   (-$11.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiencies Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and  reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

AEA of 1954,  as amended, 42 U.S.C 2011 et seq. (1970), and Reorganization Plan #3 of 1970;
CAA Amendments of 1990; CERCLA as amended by the SARA of 1986; Energy Policy Act of
1992,  P.L.  102-486; Executive Order 12241 of September 1980, National Contingency Plan, 3
CFR,  1980; NWPA of 1982; PHSA as amended, 42 U.S.C 201  et seq.; SOW A; Uranium  Mill
Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978; WIPP Land Withdrawal Act.
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                                                     Radiation:  Response Preparedness
                                                   Program Area:  Indoor Air and Radiation
                          Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                    Objective(s): Reduce Unnecessary Exposure to Radiation

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$3,077.0
$4,176.0
$7,253.0
42.3
FY2010
Actuals
$2,827.9
$4,242.7
$7,070.6
41.0
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$3,077.0
$4,176.0
$7,253.0
42.3
FY2012
Pres Budget
$3,042.0
$4,082.0
$7,124.0
42.3
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($35.0)
($94.0)
($129.0)
0.0
Program Project Description:

EPA generates policy guidance and procedures for EPA radiological emergency response under
the National  Response Framework (NRF) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances
Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP).  EPA maintains its own Radiological Emergency Response
Team (RERT), is a member of the Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee
(FRPCC), and also supports the Federal Advisory Team for Environment, Food, and Health (the
"A-Team").  EPA responds  to  radiological  emergencies,  conducts  national  and  regional
radiological  response  planning and  training, and develops response plans for radiological
incidents or accidents.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, EPA's RERT, a component of the Agency's emergency response structure, will
continue to ensure that it maintains and improves the level of readiness to support federal
radiological emergency response and recovery operations under the NRF and NCP.  EPA will
design training and exercises  to enhance the RERT's ability  to fulfill EPA responsibilities, as
well as  analyze them for improvements needed for overall radiation response preparedness.35
Through personnel and asset training and exercises, EPA will  continue to enhance and maintain
its state  of readiness for radiological emergencies.

EPA will continue to coordinate with its interagency partners, under the Federal  Radiological
Preparedness Coordinating Committee, to revise federal radiation emergency response plans and
develop radiological emergency response protocols and standards. The Agency will continue to
develop guidance addressing lessons learned from incidents and exercises to ensure more
effective coordination of EPA support with that of other federal and state response agencies.
EPA will continue to develop and maintain Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for use by federal,
35
  Additional information can be accessed at: http://www.epa.gov/radiation/rert/
                                          301

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state, and local responders. Additionally, EPA will provide training on the use of the PAGs to
users through workshops and radiological emergency response exercises.

EPA will continue to participate in planning and implementing international and federal table-top
and field exercises including radiological anti-terrorism activities, with the Nuclear Regulatory
Commission  (NRC),  Department  of Energy  (DOE),  Department of Defense  (DOD), and
Department of Homeland Security  (DHS). EPA  also will continue  to train  state, local, and
federal  officials,  and provide  technical  support to federal  and  state  radiation,  emergency
management, solid waste,  and health programs that are responsible for radiological emergency
response and development of their own preparedness programs.

EPA  will continue development and implementation  of field-based measurement  methods,
procedures and quality systems to support expedited assessment and characterization of outdoor
and indoor areas  impacted with radiological contamination.  Application of these field-based
methods and procedures will support rapid assessment and triage of impacted areas (including
buildings, indoor environments, infrastructure) and development of cleanup strategies.

EPA's Special Teams will design and establish an instrument quality program for field-based
radiological measurements.  EPA's Special Teams also will  develop procedures for ensuring
protection of  responders  by  minimizing  exposure  and keeping  dose as low as reasonably
achievable.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type



Output



Measure
(R35) Level of
readiness of radiation
program personnel and
assets to support
federal radiological
emergency response
and recovery
operations.
FY 2010
Target



90



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011



FY2011
CR
Target



90



FY 2012
Target



90



Units



Percent



FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$7.0) This decrease reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

    •   (-$6.0)  This decrease  in travel costs reflects an  effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

    •   (-$11.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for  efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work  to redesign processes  and  streamline activities  in both  administrative   and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.
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   •   (-$11.0) This reduction reflects efficiencies from several agencywide IT projects such as
       email optimization,  consolidated IT procurement, helpdesk standardization,  and others
       totaling $10 million  agencywide. Savings in individual areas may be offset by increased
       mandatory costs for telephone and Local Area Network (LAN) support for FTE.

Statutory Authority:

Atomic Energy  Act (AEA) of  1954, as  amended,  42  U.S.C  2011 et seq.  (1970),  and
Reorganization Plan #3  of  1970; Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990;  Comprehensive
Environmental Response,  Compensation, and  Liability Act (CERCLA); National  Oil  and
Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), 40 CFR 300; Executive Order 12241
of September 1980, National Contingency Plan, 3  CFR,  1980;  Executive Order 12656 of
November  1988,  Assignment of Emergency Preparedness Responsibilities,  3  CFR, 1988;
Homeland Security Act of 2002;  Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006
(PKEMRA); Public Health  Service Act (PHSA), as amended,  42 U.S.C 201 et seq.; Robert T.
Stafford Disaster Relief and EAA,  as amended, 42 U.S.C 5121  et seq.; Safe Drinking Water Act
(SOWA); and Title XIV of the Natural Disaster Assistance Act (NDAA) of 1997, PL 104-201
(Nunn-Lugar II).
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Program Area: Brownfields
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                                                                            Brownfields
                                                               Program Area: Brownfields
                                                      Goal: Cleaning Up Our Communities
                                 Objective(s): Promote Sustainable and Livable Communities

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$24,152.0
$24,152.0
125.9
FY2010
Actuals
$24,465.3
$24,465.3
125.2
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$24,152.0
$24,152.0
125.9
FY2012
Pres Budget
$26,397.0
$26,397.0
144.9
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$2,245.0
$2,245.0
19.0
Program Project Description:

The  Brownfields program is  designed to help states,  tribes,  local communities,  and other
stakeholders involved in  environmental revitalization and economic redevelopment to work
together to plan, inventory, assess, safely cleanup, and reuse brownfields. Brownfield sites are
real  property,  the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which  may be complicated  by the
presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant,  or contaminant.  Revitalizing
these once productive properties helps communities by removing blight,  satisfying the growing
demand for land,  helping to limit  urban sprawl, fostering ecologic habitat  enhancements,
enabling economic development,  and maintaining or improving quality  of life.  This program
comprises  the  administrative component  of the Brownfields  program,  supporting  human
resources, travel, training, technical assistance, and research activities.

EPA's work  is  focused  on  removing  barriers and  creating  incentives  for  brownfields
redevelopment.  EPA's Brownfields program funds  research efforts, clarifies liability  issues,
enters into federal, state, tribal,  and local partnerships, conducts outreach activities, and  creates
related job training  and workforce development  programs.  The program provides financial
assistance for: (1) hazardous substances training for organizations representing the interests of
states and tribal co-implementers of the Brownfields law; and (2)  technical outreach  support to
address environmental justice issues and support  Brownfields research.

EPA's enforcement program  develops  guidance and  tools that clarify potential environmental
cleanup liabilities, thereby providing greater certainty and comfort for parties seeking to reuse
these properties.  The enforcement program also can provide direct support to parties  seeking to
reuse contaminated properties in order to facilitate transactions through consultations and  the use
of enforcement tools.

The  Brownfields Program also includes  smart growth  and sustainable design  that  address
Brownfield issues.  The smart  growth  activities  include:  (1) working with  state  and local
governments and other stakeholders to create an improved economic and institutional climate for
Brownfields redevelopment;  (2)  removing barriers  and creating incentives  for  Brownfields
redevelopment by changing standards that affect  the viability of Brownfields redevelopment; and
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(3) creating cross-cutting solutions that  improve the economic, regulatory, and  institutional
climate for Brownfields redevelopment.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

The Brownfields program fosters federal, state, local, and public-private partnerships to return
properties  to   productive  economic  use  in  communities.    This  approach  emphasizes
environmental health and protection that also achieves economic development and job creation
through  the  redevelopment  of  Brownfields properties,  particularly  in  underserved  and
disadvantaged communities.

As part of the America's  Great Outdoor Initiative, EPA is participating on interagency teams in
the development of a broad range of policy options to better align and leverage federal programs
and investments, make regulatory and voluntary efforts more complementary, and increase the
efficiency and effectiveness of programs to connect Americans with the great outdoors.  EPA is
leading teams  focused on promoting outdoor recreation  on public  and private lands in urban
parks, greenways, beaches, trails, and waterways,  and  educating and engaging Americans in our
natural, cultural, and historical resources.

In addition to supporting  the operations and management of the Brownfields program, funds in
FY 2012 will provide financial assistance  for training  on hazardous waste to organizations
representing the interests of state and tribal co-implementers of the  Small Business Liability
Relief and  Brownfields  Revitalization  Act (SBLRBRA),  otherwise  known as the  2002
Brownfields Amendments.  The program also offers  outreach support for the Administrator's
Priority of Promoting Environmental Justice issues affecting tribal and native Alaskan villages or
other  disadvantaged communities that need to address perceived or real hazardous  substance
contamination at sites in their neighborhood or community.

EPA Brownfields grants  are in the form  of cooperative agreements,  and require considerable
Agency staff involvement to ensure that sites are properly assessed and cleaned up consistent
with the  applicable requirements (e.g., Voluntary Cleanup Program (VCP)). Current Agency
guidelines recommend an average of no more than 11 cooperative agreements per project officer.
Despite  workload increases  in many  areas  of  the country  (including  areas  with many
disadvantaged communities and "cities in transition"), the average project officer works on as
many as  30 grants.  This greatly compromises the ability to effectively and efficiently manage
these grants for the benefit of the affected communities.

Since EPA's Brownfields program manages  a significant workload of assessment,  cleanup,
Revolving Loan Fund (RLF), job training and area-wide planning cooperative agreements, the
FY 2012 request includes 19.2 additional FTE. These FTE would help provide needed support
in the planning, expeditious award, and performance  management of Brownfields cooperative
agreements.

The additional  FTE will also  be used for project  officers who  will  more  effectively and
efficiently negotiate and  award  cooperative  agreements as part of current workload as well as
manage  the agreements  throughout their full  life-cycle,  providing the  necessary technical
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assistance the recipient communities need throughout the implementation of the project to ensure
successful outcomes.  As project  officers, these  FTE will also facilitate initial coordination
within EPA and with other Agencies in two ways:

       1) Facilitate initial coordination with EPA  enforcement, air and water quality programs
       (as appropriate) to target environmental improvements identified during the area-wide
       planning process.  Through  area-wide planning, local communities will be able to assess
       and address a single large or multiple Brownfield sites within their boundaries,  thereby
       advancing area-wide planning to enable redevelopment on a broader scale. For example,
       these improvements could come from  air quality or water infrastructure investments —
       planned or underway — within or  near the pilot project area, or from  a supplemental
       environmental  project identified by EPA's enforcement office (if information is publicly
       available).  The FTE also will  consult air and water media offices as needed to advise on
       development techniques that improve environmental outcomes, such as approaches which
       reduce air  emissions  (CC>2,   NOX, HC,  CO),  energy  use from  vehicular  energy
       consumption (e.g., reduce vehicle miles traveled), land consumption, stormwater run-off,
       and pollutant loadings.

       2) Work with  other federal, state and/or tribal  agencies (as appropriate) in an effort to
       provide additional information in  support of  developing the area-wide plan  for the
       brownfields-impacted  area, such as planned  neighborhood investments  or  services
       needed. By identifying  opportunities  for cross-program coordination and possible
       integration, EPA will be able  to deliver more comprehensive technical assistance to the
       pilot communities.

The National Brownfields Conference is the largest and most comprehensive conference in the
nation focused on environmental revitalization and economic redevelopment issues.  Due to
increased contributions and support from external partners, EPA is reducing its  funding for this
conference by a total of $905 thousand in FY 2012.

EPA will provide  technical assistance to communities that were awarded funding to combine
smart growth policies  with Brownfields redevelopment. EPA also will conduct  further research
on incentives for cleanup that encourage Brownfields redevelopment,  pilot additional techniques
to accomplish redevelopment within communities, identify new policy and research needs, and
highlight best practices that can be copied in other communities.

In FY 2012,  EPA's Brownfields program  request includes nearly  $1.3 million for the smart
growth  program.   The  smart  growth program  addresses  critical issues for Brownfields
redevelopment, including land assembly, development permitting issues, financing, parking and
street standards,  accountability  to  uniform systems of information for  land use controls, and
other factors  that influence the  economic viability  of Brownfields  redevelopment.  The  best
practices, tools, and lessons learned  from  the smart growth program will  directly inform and
assist EPA's efforts to increase area-wide planning for assessment, cleanup,  and redevelopment
of Brownfields sites.
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In FY 2012,  EPA is  requesting  $497 thousand  for EPA's  enforcement program.   EPA's
enforcement program will work collaboratively with our partners on innovative approaches to
help achieve the Agency's land reuse priorities.  EPA's enforcement program will  develop
guidance and tools to provide greater certainty and comfort regarding potential liability concerns
for parties seeking to reuse these properties.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program supports performance results in  the STAG:  Brownfields Program
Projects and can be found in the Performance Four Year Array.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$798.0)  This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •   (-2.0 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

    •   (+$2,706.07 +19.2 FTE) This reflects an increase in Regional project offices to provided
       additional support in the planning, expeditious award, and performance management of
       Brownfields cooperative agreements,  including the  proposed  expansion  of  area wide
       planning grants.  The additional resources include 19.2 FTE and associated  payroll of
       $2,630.0.

    •   (-$905.07  -1.0 FTE) This  reflects  a  decrease  in resources supporting  the National
       Brownfields conference due to enhanced administrative efficiencies.   The  reduced
       resources include 1.0 FTE and associated payroll of $137.0.

    •   (-$273.0)  This reflects  a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative targets  certain  categories of spending for efficiencies  and  reductions,
       including  advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing,  and  supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline  activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-$81.0)  This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce  the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

Statutory Authority:

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act , as amended by the
Small Business Liability  Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act, 42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq. -
Sections  101, 107 and 128 and the Solid Waste Disposal  Act,  as  amended by  the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U.S.C. 6901  et seq. - Section 8001.
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Program Area: Compliance
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                                                    Compliance Assistance and Centers
                                                              Program Area: Compliance
                                                     Goal: Enforcing Environmental Laws
                                                Objective(s): Enforce Environmental Laws
                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
Inland Oil Spill Programs
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$25,622.0
$797.0
$269.0
$26,688.0
173.7
FY 2010
Actuals
$23,628.3
$756.8
$263.7
$24,648.8
165.3
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$25,622.0
$797.0
$269.0
$26,688.0
173.7
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($25,622.0)
($797.0)
($269.0)
($26,688.0)
-173.7
Program Project Description:

EPA's Compliance Assistance  and  Centers  program provides information to millions  of
regulated entities, federal agencies, particularly small businesses and local governments, to help
them  understand and meet their environmental  obligations.  This information  lets  regulated
entities know of their legal obligations under federal environmental laws. Compliance assistance
resources  include  comprehensive Web sites, compliance  guides,  emission calculators, and
training materials aimed at specific business communities  or industry  sectors.  Also, on-site
compliance assistance and information is sometimes  provided by EPA inspectors during  an
inspection.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

The Compliance Assistance  and Centers program  was  streamlined  and  merged  with the
Compliance Monitoring and  Civil Enforcement programs in FY 2011.   EPA merged the
historical tool-based program project activities for compliance assistance and incentives into the
Civil  Enforcement and  Compliance  Monitoring programs.    Achieving  compliance  with
environmental laws requires a focus  on outcomes using  a mix of assistance, incentives, and
enforcement  actions,  often  in   combination  to achieve  environmental and  public health
protections.   The  changes  support the Agency's  emphasis on  pragmatic  and more  nimble
approach to enforcement - using the right tools at the right level of government to achieve
compliance and deterrence from violations of our laws - both civil and criminal.

Performance Targets:

The performance measures previously supported  by this program project are now addressed in
the Civil Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring programs, where these resources have been
realigned.
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FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$24,906.07 -162.5  FTE) This reduction reflects the Agency's proposal to integrate the
       tool-based  program project  activities for  Compliance  Assistance  into  the  Civil
       Enforcement and  Compliance  Monitoring programs.   Reduced resources  include
       $21,906.0 associated payroll for 162.5 FTE.

   •   (-$716.07 -4.6 FTE) This is a  reduction  to  Compliance Assistance Centers and tool
       development, reflecting a  greater  reliance  on electronic means for  disseminating
       assistance information.  This change reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that
       will help the Agency better align resources, skills, and Agency priorities. The reduced
       resources include $620.0 associated payroll for 4.6 FTE.

Statutory Authority:

RCRA; CWA; SOW A; CAA;  TSCA; EPCRA; RLBPHRA; FIFRA; ODA; NEPA; CERCLA;
NAAEC; LPA-US/MX-BR; EPAct.
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                                                                 Compliance Incentives
                                                              Program Area: Compliance
                                                     Goal: Enforcing Environmental Laws
                                                Objective(s): Enforce Environmental Laws
                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Hazardous Substance Superfiind
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$9,560.0
$0.0
$9,560.0
62.5
FY 2010
Actuals
$8,792.6
$14.4
$8,807.0
55.7
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$9,560.0
$0.0
$9,560.0
62.5
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($9,560.0)
$0.0
($9,560.0)
-62.5
Program Project Description:

EPA's Compliance Incentives program encourages regulated entities to monitor and quickly
correct environmental violations, reduce pollution, and make improvements in regulated entities'
environmental management practices.  EPA uses a variety of approaches to encourage entities to
self-disclose environmental violations under various environmental statues. EPA's Audit Policy
encourages internal  audits of environmental compliance  and subsequent correction of self-
discovered violations,  providing  a uniform enforcement response  toward  disclosures  of
violations  and accelerating compliance.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

The Compliance Incentives  program,  which  encourages internal audits  of environmental
compliance and  subsequent correction of self-discovered  violations, was shifted to the  Civil
Enforcement  program  as part of the  enforcement and compliance  assurance  program's
realignment effort.

In FY 2011, EPA merged the historical tool-based program activities for Compliance Assistance
and  Centers  and Compliance Incentives into  the Civil  Enforcement program.   Achieving
compliance with environmental laws requires a focus on outcomes using a mix of assistance,
incentives, and enforcement actions, often in  combination to achieve environmental  and public
health  protections.   The changes  support  the Agency's pragmatic and flexible approach to
enforcement - using the  right tools at the right level of government to achieve compliance and
deterrence from violations of our laws - both civil and criminal.

Performance Targets:

The performance measures previously supported by this  program project are now addressed in
the Civil Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring programs, where these resources have been
realigned and can be found in the Performance Four Year  Array in Tab 11.
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FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •  (-$9,560.07 -62.5 FTE) This reduction in resources reflects the integration of enforcement
      tool-based activities by realigning the Compliance Incentives program into the Civil
      Enforcement program. The reduced resources include $8,672.0 associated payroll for
      62.5 FTE.

Statutory Authority:

RCRA; CWA; SOW A; CAA; TSCA; EPCRA; RLBHRA;  FIFRA; ODA; NEPA; NAAEC;
LPA-US/MX-BR.
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                                                                 Compliance Monitoring
                                                               Program Area: Compliance
                                                      Goal: Enforcing Environmental Laws
                                                 Objective(s): Enforce Environmental Laws
                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Inland Oil Spill Programs
Hazardous Substance Superfiind
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$99,400.0
$0.0
$1,216.0
$100,616.0
612.3
FY2010
Actuals
$97,937.7
$0.0
$1,181.8
$99,119.5
593.0
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$99,400.0
$0.0
$1,216.0
$100,616.0
612.3
FY2012
Pres Budget
$119,648.0
$138.0
$1,222.0
$121,008.0
617.6
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$20,248.0
$138.0
$6.0
$20,392.0
5.3
Program Project Description:

The  Compliance Monitoring program's  overarching goal is  to  assure  compliance with the
nation's environmental laws and protect human health and the environment through a program of
inspections and other compliance monitoring activities.  Compliance monitoring comprises all
activities to  determine  whether regulated entities  are  in compliance with  applicable laws,
regulations, permit conditions and settlement agreements.  In addition, compliance monitoring
activities are  conducted to  determine whether conditions exist that may present imminent and
substantial  endangerment to human  health  and the environment.   Compliance  monitoring
activities   include   data   collection,    analysis   and   review,   on-site    compliance
inspections/evaluations, investigations, and reviews of facility records and monitoring reports.

EPA's  Compliance   Monitoring  program  includes the  management  of  compliance  and
enforcement data and information systems, and the use of the data to manage the compliance and
enforcement program.36  The program also responds to information requests, tips, and complaints
from the public.  The Agency uses multi-media approaches - such as cross-media inspections,
sector  initiatives, and risk-based targeting - to take a  more  holistic approach to protecting
ecosystems and to solving  the more intractable environmental  problems.  EPA's Compliance
Monitoring activities target  areas that pose significant risks to human health or the environment,
display patterns of non-compliance, or  involve  disproportionately exposed  populations.   In
addition, as a part of this  program, the  Agency reviews  and  responds to 100 percent of the
notices for movement of hazardous waste  across U.S. international borders.  The Agency ensures
that these wastes are properly handled in accordance with international agreements and Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations.37

EPA coordinates with, provides support to, and oversees the performance of states, local agencies
and tribal governments that  conduct compliance monitoring activities.  The Agency's Compliance
36 For more information, refer to: www.epa.gov/compliance/monitoring /index.html.
37 For more information about the Import/Export program, refer to: www.epa.gov/compliance/intemational/importexport.html.
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Monitoring program also provides technical assistance and training to federal, state and tribal
inspectors.  EPA's efforts complement state and tribal programs to ensure compliance with laws
throughout the United  States.   EPA  works with  states and  tribes  to identify where these
compliance inspections, evaluations, and investigations will have the greatest impact on achieving
environmental results.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, as part of  EPA's Regaining Ground in Compliance Initiative,  the Agency is
proposing to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the compliance monitoring program
with an  emphasis on electronic reporting  (e-reporting), enhanced  data  systems to collect,
synthesize and disseminate  monitoring data, and deployment  of state  of the  art monitoring
equipment to the field.  The old model relied heavily on individual facility based inspections
conducted by EPA and states to assess and compel compliance.  EPA is concerned over the level
of non-compliance with environmental  laws.   Data that the Agency has - although not
comprehensive - paints a picture of noncompliance that is troubling. It is increasingly difficult
and expensive, for businesses as well as the  Agency, to ensure compliance by using individual
site inspections, paper reporting, and other outdated tools and old approaches.  As a result, the
old model must be revisited as the universe of regulated sources is outstripping the resources
available to state and federal  inspectors. Electronic reporting combined with deployment of state
of the art monitoring equipment will substantially enhance the Agency's ability to identify the
most  serious violations,  detect pollution problems earlier,  and assure compliance all  while
increasing efficiency.

The Agency is proposing in  this new model the following changes to its compliance monitoring
program:

    >  Rulemaking improvements. The Agency will review compliance reporting requirements
       contained in existing  rules to identify opportunities for conversion to a national electronic
       reporting format.  As part  of the process of developing new rules, EPA will  work to
       identify opportunities where  objective, self-monitoring  and/or self-certification, public
       accountability, and electronic reporting  elements  might be appropriate.   Funding is
       requested in a number of programs to support the transition to electronic reporting in
       EPA's programmatic  databases.

    >  Obtaining new monitoring technology. EPA will invest in modern monitoring technology
       such as: portable emission detectors, thermal imaging cameras, flow meters, and remote
       (fence line) monitoring equipment to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of our
       compliance monitoring program. These innovative technologies will increase the ability
       of EPA and states to  detect  violations across programs and focus our efforts on the most
       significant problems.

    >  Using a market based approach for electronic  reporting  from regulated entities.   EPA
       will create an open platform "electronic reporting file" data exchange standard, modeled
       after that used by the  IRS to collect tax data.  The intent is to unleash the expertise of the
       private sector marketplace to create new electronic reporting tools. These private  sector
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       electronic reporting tools would be based on EPA data standards and would replace the
       largely paper-based reporting systems that evolved over the past 30 years.   Further, in
       those programs where EPA has already built electronic reporting tools, the private sector
       may, enhance these tools to better  support industry needs,  enabling EPA to  largely
       eliminate the need to continue to fund the operation and maintenance of these tools.

    >  Expand the capability of EPA and state data systems. EPA will expand its  capability to
       receive, analyze, and make publicly  available  information  on the  compliance status of
       facilities and their impact on public health and the environment.

The Regaining Ground in Compliance Initiative will improve efficiency. At the same time,
prioritizing the focus of the Agency's work promotes  the  effectiveness  of the program.   In
February 2010, the EPA's Enforcement and Compliance Assurance  program  announced three
overarching goals to guide its work: 1) aggressively go  after pollution problems that matter to
communities; 2) reset our relationship with  states; and 3)  improve transparency.  At the same
time, the program announced the selection of new National Enforcement Initiatives for  the FY
2011-2013 period, replacing the prior set of National Enforcement Priorities.38

The new National Initiatives include:

    >  Municipal Infrastructure - keeping raw sewage and contaminated stormwater out of our
       nation's waters;

    >  Concentrated Animal Feeding  Operations (CAFO)  - preventing animal  waste from
       contaminating surface and ground waters;

    >  Air Toxics - cutting toxic air pollution from facilities out of compliance with the Clean
       Air Act;

    >  Clean Air Act New Source Review/Prevention of  Significant Deterioration - reducing
       widespread air pollution from the largest sources,  especially the coal-fired utility, cement,
       glass and acid sectors;

    >  Mining and Mineral Processing  Initiative - protecting and cleaning up  our communities
       from toxic and hazardous waste;  and

    >  Energy Extraction Sector - assuring compliance with environmental laws.

In FY 2012, the Compliance Monitoring  program will continue to  identify the most  serious
violations in these National Initiatives so that appropriate enforcement actions can be initiated to
remedy the violations and achieve the stated goals.
38 EPA previously used the term "National Enforcement Priorities" to refer to these initiatives. EPA changed the terminology to
"National Enforcement Initiatives" to describe this work more accurately and to make clear that these areas of focus do not
include all the priority problems or compliance and enforcement work EPA is doing.
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To ensure the quality of compliance monitoring activities, EPA is continuing to develop national
policies, update inspection manuals, provide required training for inspectors and issue inspector
credentials.  In  FY  2012,  EPA will  continue to  conduct  training  to  ensure  that the
inspectors/investigators are:  1) knowledgeable  of environmental requirements  and policies; 2)
technically proficient in conducting compliance inspections/evaluations and taking samples; and
3) skilled at interviewing potential  witnesses  and  documenting inspection/evaluation  results.
Compliance monitoring activities include oversight of and support to states and tribes, as well as
authorizing  states/tribes employees to conduct inspections and  evaluations on EPA's behalf.
EPA works  across the Agency and with states  and tribes to build capacity,  share tools and
approaches,  and develop networks of professionals that can share and help build expertise.

EPA monitors the quality of laboratory data that is required to be reported to the Agency by the
regulated community.  In FY 2012, the Agency will work to improve its efficiency by integrating
technology  and e-reporting into the  inspection and  evaluation process.  Adopting 21st  century
tools provides an opportunity to improve the timeliness and accuracy of data collection and entry
endows the program with uniformity in the inspection and evaluation process and increases the
speed for submitting inspection and evaluation reports.

Compliance monitoring includes the  use of data systems to run its compliance and enforcement
programs under the various statutes and programs  that EPA enforces.  In FY 2012, the Agency's
focus will be  on enhancing its data systems to  support electronic reporting,  providing  more
comprehensive,  accessible data  to  the public,  and  allowing  for improved integration of
environmental information with health data and other pertinent data sources from other federal
agencies and private sources. The Agency will continue its multi-year project to modernize its
national enforcement and compliance  data  system,  the Integrated Compliance Information
System (ICIS), which supports both compliance monitoring and civil enforcement. ICIS is in the
second of three phases of development:

   •   Phase I of ICIS established a multi-media  Federal enforcement and compliance database
       in FY 2002.

   •   Phase II of ICIS is the modernization of  the Permit Compliance System (PCS), which
       supports EPA  and state management of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
       System (NPDES) program. As of February 2011, 34 states,  2 tribes,  8 territories and the
       District of Columbia are using ICIS. In FY 2012, one additional state will move to  ICIS,
       with  the last 15 states moving to ICIS in FY 2013, completing Phase II.

   •   Phase III of ICIS expands  the system to include the unique requirements of the Clean Air
       Act  stationary sources compliance and enforcement program through the  modernization
       of the Air Facility System (AFS).  In FY  2012, EPA  will continue to incorporate  work
       done in FY 2011  on system design, detailed business  requirements  and alternatives
       analyses into ICIS-CAA system development.  More specifically, in FY 2012, EPA will
       continue work on the AFS modernization by implementing a pilot Air Toxics module in
       ICIS to manage information for these sources. This information will be integrated with
       existing ICIS capabilities for tracking inspections, compliance status  and enforcement
       actions. In addition, the AFS information  will be added to our targeting tools and  made
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       publicly available through the Agency's Enforcement and Compliance History On-line
       (ECHO) web si
       using the data.
(ECHO) web site39, with easy-to-use tools added to assist the public in understanding and
EPA  is  committed  to  making  meaningful  facility compliance information available  and
accessible to the  public using 21st century technologies.   EPA will  continue to increase the
transparency of EPA's monitoring and enforcement program by making multi-media compliance
monitoring information available to the public through the ECHO Internet website during FY
2012. This site, and its powerful companion tool that serves more than 400 government entities,
the Online Targeting  and Information System (OTIS), provides communities and regulators with
compliance status information, averaging approximately 187,500 queries per month in FY 2010.

The Compliance Monitoring program will  help advance additional Administrator's priorities. In
FY 2012, EPA will continue its focus on improving the health of children by assessing how non-
compliance  contributes  to significant  health  risks in schools,  and  target compliance  and
enforcement actions  to reduce risks to children.  In addition, the enforcement program  will
continue implementing the Chesapeake Bay Executive Order 13508 through the Chesapeake Bay
program.  The Chesapeake Bay and Mississippi River Basin initiatives will support the Agency's
priority to restore these water bodies by  providing information about wet weather sources of
pollution.   This  also will ensure that these efforts result in an increase in knowledge,  use,
transparency and  public access to data about wet weather sources through: 1) building an e-
reporting module  for getting non-major compliance monitoring data into ICIS-NPDES to pilot
with states in the Chesapeake Bay and the Mississippi River Basin; 2) building and deploying
targeting tools to help identify the most significant sources of non-compliance and discharges of
pollutants most responsible for the impairment of these important water bodies; and 3) making
all non-enforcement  confidential data available, with easy-to-use tools to aid in  the public's
ability to use and understand the data.

The Pollution Prosecution Act of 1990 directed the Agency to create the National Enforcement
Training Institute  (NETI)  to  provide  environmental enforcement  and  compliance  training
nationwide to all levels of government.  In FY 2012, NETI will continue to operate in its new
streamlined structure to promote and support enforcement training across the Agency, taking
advantage of web-based tools.

EPA will continue to  review all notices for trans-boundary movement of hazardous waste and for
export of Cathode Ray Tubes to ensure compliance with domestic regulations and international
agreements.  While the vast  majority of the hazardous waste trade occurs with Canada, the
United States also has international trade agreements with Mexico, Malaysia, Costa Rica and the
Philippines, and is a  member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD), which issued a  Council Decision controlling trans-boundary movement of hazardous
waste applicable  to  all  member countries.   In FY  2010,  EPA responded to  1,820 notices
representing 560 import notices and 1,260 export notices.

The  Agency will continue to implement the  Energy  Policy Act  of 2005 by inspecting
underground storage  tanks covering a wide range of industries including gas stations,  chemical
 1 For more information, refer to: http://www.epa-echo.gov/echo/


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companies and federal facilities.  The program also will focus on monitoring compliance with
gasoline rules.

Work under this program project supports the Agency's Priority Goal addressing water quality.
A list of the Agency's Priority Goals can be found in Appendix A.

Performance Targets:

Measure
Type

Outcome


Measure

(409) Conduct
2 1,000 federal
inspections and
evaluations.

FY
2010
Target




FY
2010
Actual



FY
2011
CR
Target




FY
2012
Target

21,000


Units


Inspections/Evaluations

Measure
Type
Outcome
Measure
(4 12) Review the
overall compliance
status of 100 percent of
the open consent
decrees.
FY 2010
Target

FY 2010
Actual

FY2011
CR
Target

FY 2012
Target
100
Units
Percent
Results  will first become available for these measures at the end of FY 2012, and will be
reported in the FY  2012  Annual Performance Report  and the  FY  2014  Congressional
Justification.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •  (+$2,620.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
      FTE.

    •  (-17.0 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
      rates.

    •  (+$2,346.07 +10.2 FTE)  This internal  redirection  reflects  the  Agency's  efforts  to
      streamline and increase the efficiency of the compliance and enforcement program by
      consolidating accounts and resources. Specifically, the Agency's FY 2012 Enforcement
      and Compliance Assurance budget reflects changes in how the Agency will accomplish
      its mission, a new cycle of national  priorities and outcomes, and the program's evolving
      role vis-a-vis the  states.   The additional resources are  realigned from the Compliance
      Assistance and Centers program and include $1,346.0 associated payroll transferred from
      the Compliance Incentive program
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•  (+$1,906.07 +8.0  FTE)  This redirection transfers  resources  from the Enforcement
   Training program for the National Enforcement Training Institute's (NETI) support for
   web-based training, cooperative  agreements  for the four Regional  State Environmental
   Environment Associations, and EPA's legal intern program.  The additional resources
   include $1,056 associated payroll for 8.0 FTE.

•  (+$9,631.07 +2.0  FTE)  This increase supports  the Agency's efforts to  modernize
   compliance monitoring and reporting as  part of the  Regaining Ground in Compliance
   Initiative.   The initiative  promotes  efficiency  and  effectiveness  in  the  compliance
   monitoring program with an emphasis on electronic reporting, enhanced data systems to
   collect, synthesize, and disseminate monitoring data,  and deployment of state of the art
   monitoring equipment to the field to increase  compliance with the nation's environmental
   laws. The additional resources include $264.0 associated payroll for 2.0 FTE.

•  (+$1,540.07 +1.0 FTE) This increase  will allow EPA to  begin  modernizing the Air
   Facilities System (AFS) by building an Air Toxics module in ICIS to manage information
   for these sources.  This information will be integrated with existing capabilities to track
   inspections, compliance status, and enforcement action and added to our targeting tools.
   The information will be made public through the Agency's ECHO web site, with easy-to-
   use tools added to assist the public in understanding and using the data. The additional
   resources include $132.0 associated payroll for 1.0 FTE.

•  (+$2,000.0) This increase supports the design and development of ICIS-NPDES to enable
   the electronic (batch) transfer of NPDES data from  full batch states'  system to ICIS-
   NPDES  via the Environmental Exchange Network.   In addition EPA will provide
   assistance  to the full  batch states to help  them  modify their own  state systems to
   electronically flow data to ICIS-NPDES via the Environmental Exchange Network.

•  (+$600.0) This increase is part of the Agency's Mississippi River Basin Initiative.  The
   Compliance Monitoring program will do the  following:  1) build an electronic reporting
   module for getting non-major permit data into ICIS-NPDES to pilot with states in the
   Mississippi River Basin; 2) build  and  deploy targeting  tools to identify the  most
   significant sources of noncompliance and discharges of pollutants  responsible for the
   impairment of this water body; and,  3)  make all non-enforcement  confidential  data
   available, with easy-to-use  tools to aid in the public's ability to use and understand the
   data.

•  (+$145.07 +1.1 FTE) This  change reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that
   will help the Agency better align resources, skills and Agency's priorities.  Specifically,
   this change reflects  a regional realignment  of resources to enhance  improvements in
   NPDES data quality and the ability of the  states data systems to interface effectively with
   ICIS. The additional resources include $145.0 associated payroll for 1.1 FTE.

•  (-$425.0) This  reflects a reduction as  part of the  Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
   This initiative targets  certain categories of  spending for efficiencies and  reductions,
   including advisory contracts, travel,  general  services, printing  and supplies.  EPA will
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       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •  (-$115.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

Statutory Authority:

RCRA; CWA; SOW A; CAA;  TSCA; EPCRA; RLBPHRA;  FIFRA; ODA;  NEPA; NAAEC;
LPA-US/MX-BR.
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Program Area: Enforcement
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                                                                      Civil Enforcement
                                                               Program Area: Enforcement
                                                      Goal: Enforcing Environmental Laws
                                                 Objective(s): Enforce Environmental Laws
                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
Inland Oil Spill Programs
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$146,636.0
$0.0
$1,998.0
$148,634.0
988.5
FY2010
Actuals
$145,896.6
$0.0
$2,082.8
$147,979.4
980.8
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$146,636.0
$0.0
$1,998.0
$148,634.0
988.5
FY2012
Pres Budget
$191,404.0
$832.0
$2,902.0
$195,138.0
1,219.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$44,768.0
$832.0
$904.0
$46,504.0
230.5
Program Project Description:

The Civil Enforcement program's overarching goal is to assure compliance with the nation's
environmental laws to protect  human health and the environment.  Effective enforcement  is
essential to deter violations and to promote compliance with federal environmental statutes and
regulations.  The program collaborates with the Department of Justice and states, local agencies
and tribal governments to ensure consistent and fair enforcement of all environmental laws and
regulations.  The program seeks to focus on violations that threaten communities, ensure a level
economic playing field by ensuring that violators do not realize an economic benefit from
noncompliance, and deter future violations. The Civil Enforcement program develops, litigates,
and settles administrative and civil judicial cases against serious violators of environmental laws.

EPA's National Enforcement and Compliance Assurance program is responsible for maximizing
compliance with 12 environmental statutes, 28 distinct programs under those statutes, and dozens
of regulatory requirements under  those programs which apply in various combinations to a
universe of approximately 40 million regulated federal and private entities.   In addition, as a
means for focusing its efforts, the enforcement program identifies, in three year cycles, specific
environmental risks  and  noncompliance  patterns as  national  initiatives.   The  enforcement
program coordinates the selection of these initiatives with programs and regional offices within
EPA,  and with states, local agencies and tribes, in addition to soliciting public comment.

EPA uses a variety of integrated tools to maximize compliance with the nation's environmental
laws.  This includes assistance to regulated entities to ensure fair notice and to make clear how to
comply  with regulations;  compliance monitoring (i.e., monitoring compliance status, identifying
violations through on-site inspections, investigations, and collection and analysis of compliance
data); compliance incentives to  motivate regulated facilities/companies to identify, disclose and
correct violations; and administrative, civil and criminal enforcement.  In addition to using these
tools,  the  enforcement  program  provides  oversight of state  and  delegated  local  agency
performance to ensure that national environmental laws are enforced in  a consistent, equitable
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manner that protects public health and the environment.  EPA also works directly with tribal
governments to build their capacity to implement environmental enforcement programs.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA leadership has focused attention on identifying where the most significant vulnerabilities
exist, in terms of scale and potential risk.  In FY 2012, the Agency is proposing the Regaining
Ground in Compliance Initiative that will begin to harness the tools of modern technology to
make EPA's Enforcement and Compliance Assurance program more  efficient and effective.
EPA is concerned over the level of non-compliance with environmental laws.  Data that the
Agency has - although not comprehensive - paints a picture of noncompliance that is troubling.
It  is increasingly difficult and expensive, for  businesses as  well  as  the Agency, to ensure
compliance by using individual site inspections, paper reporting, and other outdated tools and old
approaches. EPA must start using 21st century electronic  reporting (e-reporting), monitoring
tools, and market-based approaches to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of our limited
resources in protecting human health and the environment and ensuring  a level playing field for
American businesses.

Under this initiative in FY 2012, EPA will review compliance reporting requirements contained
in existing rules to identify opportunities for conversion to a national electronic reporting format.
As part of the process of developing new rules, EPA will identify opportunities to use objective
self-monitoring,  self-certification or  third party  certification, public accountability, advanced
monitoring, and  electronic reporting requirements. Electronic reporting replacing paper based
reporting is likely to be a common feature of most new rules, although the appropriate approach
and tools used for particular rules will vary.

EPA also needs to use more modern monitoring technology (e.g., portable emission detectors,
thermal imaging cameras, flow meters,  and remote (e.g. fence line) monitoring equipment) to
increase the effectiveness and efficiency of our compliance monitoring program.  Using modern
monitoring  tools  will allow EPA  and state  inspectors to do more  efficient and  effective
inspections  and compliance  verification.  Modern monitoring  will increase EPA's ability to
detect  violations  across all  programs and target enforcement  resources towards the biggest
problems.  Maximizing the use of advanced data and monitoring tools will allow EPA to focus
its limited inspection and enforcement resources in those areas where they are most effective or
most necessary such as:  complex industrial operations that require physical  inspection, repeat
violators,  cases involving significant harm to human  health or the environment, or potential
criminal violations.

In FY 2010, through its efforts in the core  program and  national initiatives,  EPA achieved
pollution reduction commitments totaling 1.5 billion pounds. In FY 2011-2013, the Agency will
continue to focus on complex and challenging  national pollution, problems including  Clean
Water Act "wet weather"  discharges,  violations  of the  Clean  Air Act New  Source
Review/Prevention  of Significant Deterioration (NSR/PSD)  requirements  and  Air  Toxics
regulations, and  Resource Conservation  and Recovery Act  (RCRA) violations at mineral
processing facilities,  as well as assessing and addressing  emerging problems in the energy
extraction sector.   Information on initiatives, regulatory requirements,  enforcement alerts and
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EPA results will be made available to the public and the regulated community on EPA's web
sites.40

EPA's response to the Deepwater Horizon oil  spill  will continue in FY 2012, as our civil
enforcement resources provide primary support for the U.S. Department of Justice's civil action
against  BP, Anadarko, and  others  responsible  for the Deepwater  Horizon incident.   The
Department of Justice filed its complaint on behalf of EPA, the Coast Guard and other federal
plaintiffs in December 2010,  and EPA expects to be actively participating  in this litigation,
discovery,  and response to court orders  throughout FY 2012  and  has  requested additional
resources to support this work.

EPA will collaborate with states, tribes and communities to reduce air toxics pollution, especially
pollution affecting vulnerable communities.  In FY 2012, EPA will continue to support the air
toxics  initiative  by targeting air monitoring,  inspections,  and  enforcement  activities in
communities.   Through targeting air monitoring, inspections and enforcement activities the
program will reduce toxic emissions for critical areas.

EPA's RCRA Corrective Action enforcement program supports the goal set by the Agency and
its state partners of attaining remedy construction at 95 percent of 3,747 RCRA facilities by the
year 2020.  In 2010, EPA issued the "National Enforcement Strategy for Corrective Action" to
promote and  communicate  nationally  consistent  enforcement  and  compliance assurance
principles, practices and tools to help achieve this goal.  In FY 2012, EPA will continue targeted
enforcement under this strategy and will work with its state partners to  assess the contribution of
enforcement in achieving the 2020 goal.

The Civil Enforcement program encompasses the full range of environmental issues - water, air,
waste, and others - at federal  sites as well.   The Federal Facilities Enforcement program  will
continue to expeditiously pursue  enforcement actions at Federal facilities where  significant
violations are  discovered, with a specific focus expected on  noncompliance with stormwater,
underground storage tank, and RCRA waste requirements.  The program will also continue its
partnership in FedCenter, the  federal facility  environmental  stewardship and  compliance
assistance center cosponsored by a dozen federal agencies.

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 requires increased use of renewable
fuels. In FY 2012, the Civil Enforcement program will help the regulated community understand
their statutory obligations under the EISA; inspect renewable fuel production facilities; monitor
compliance with renewable fuel requirements; monitor and enforce the credit trading program;
and, undertake administrative and judicial enforcement actions  against violators.

Other base activities will continue in FY 2012, and reliable information on compliance  and
program performance remains critical. EPA's Civil Enforcement program  will continue to  rely
heavily  on the  Integrated Compliance Information  System  to manage  its  compliance  and
enforcement activities by tracking the status  of all civil judicial and administrative enforcement
actions, as well as compliance and enforcement results.
  For more information, visit http://www.epa.gov/oecaerth/civil/index.html


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The Civil Enforcement program also will support the Environmental Justice program by focusing
enforcement  actions on industries that have repeatedly  violated  environmental  laws  in
communities that may be disproportionately exposed to risks and harm from the environment,
including minority and/or low-income  areas.  EPA works to protect these and other burdened
communities from  adverse human health and environmental effects  of its programs consistent
with environmental and civil rights laws.

Work under this program project supports the  EPA's  Priority Goal, addressing water quality
(specified in full in Appendix A).

Performance Targets:

Measure
Type


Outcome



Measure
(400) Reduce, treat, or
eliminate 480 million
estimated pounds of air
pollutants through
concluded enforcement
actions.

FY 2010
Target


480



FY 2010
Actual


410


FY2011
CR
Target


480



FY 2012
Target


480



Units


Million
Pounds



Measure
Type


Outcome



Measure
(402) Reduce, treat, or
eliminate 320 million
estimated pounds of
water pollutants
through concluded
enforcement actions.

FY 2010
Target


320



FY 2010
Actual


1,000


FY2011
CR
Target


320



FY 2012
Target


320



Units


Million
Pounds


Measure
Type
Outcome
Measure
(404) Reduce, treat, or
eliminate 3.8 million
estimated pounds of
toxic and pesticide
pollutants through
concluded enforcement
actions.
FY 2010
Target
3.8
FY 2010
Actual
8.3
FY2011
CR
Target
3.8
FY 2012
Target
3.8
Units
Million
Pounds
Measure
Type
Outcome
Measure
(405) Reduce, treat, or
eliminate 6,500 million
estimated pounds of
FY 2010
Target
6,500
FY 2010
Actual
11,800
FY2011
CR
Target
6,500
FY 2012
Target
6,500
Units
Million
Pounds
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Measure
Type

Measure
hazardous waste
through concluded
enforcement actions.
FY 2010
Target

FY 2010
Actual

FY2011
CR
Target

FY 2012
Target

Units


Measure
Type

Outcome


Measure
(410) Initiate 3,900
civil judicial and
administrative
enforcement cases.

FY 2010
Target




FY 2010
Actual



FY2011
CR
Target




FY 2012
Target

3,900


Units

Cases


Measure
Type

Outcome


Measure
(4 11) Conclude 3,800
civil judicial and
administrative
enforcement cases.

FY 2010
Target




FY 2010
Actual



FY2011
CR
Target




FY 2012
Target

3,800


Units

Cases

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$4,765.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

   •   (-7.6 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

   •   (+$32,120.07 +214.8 FTE) This increase reflects the Agency's  efforts to streamline and
       increase the efficiency  of the compliance  and  enforcement program by consolidating
       accounts  and resources, redirecting  152.3  FTE from the Compliance Assistance and
       Centers program and 62.5 FTE from the Compliance Incentives program.  The Agency's
       FY 2012 Enforcement and Compliance Assurance budget reflects changes in how the
       Agency will accomplish its mission, a new cycle of national priorities and outcomes, and
       the  program's  evolving role vis-a-vis  the  states.   The additional resources include
       $29,232.0 associated payroll for 214.8 FTE.

   •   (+$2,000.07 +13.3 FTE) This reflects an increase in the Civil Enforcement program to
       support  Compliance Assistance and Incentives activities.  The additional resources
       include $1,862.0 associated payroll.

   •   (-$1,106.07  -7.9 FTE)  This  decrease  reflects  7.4 FTE  transferred to the  Criminal
       Enforcement to accurately reflect the current legal support the  regions are providing to
       the Criminal Enforcement program and 0.5  FTE to NEPA Implementation program to
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       review Environmental Impact Statements.   The reduced resources include $1,106.0
       associated payroll for 7.9 FTE.

   •   (+$4,567.07 +2.0 FTE) This increase supports  the  Agency's Regaining Ground in
       Compliance Initiative  efforts  to increase  compliance with the  nation's environmental
       laws.  The investment will modernize the Agency's approach to enforcement by ensuring
       new and existing rules require electronic reporting and revamping data systems to collect,
       synthesize and disseminate monitoring data, and deploying monitoring equipment to the
       field  to increase support for the civil  enforcement program.  The  additional resources
       include $280.0 associated payroll for 2.0 FTE

   •   (+$2,160.07 +6.5  FTE)  This increase supports the enforcement component of  an
       Agencywide effort to reduce air toxics pollution within at-risk communities and around
       schools and other places where children may be exposed.  These resources will be used to
       assess compliance with existing air toxics emission rules and pursue enforcement actions,
       as appropriate. The additional  resources include $910.0 associated payroll for 6.5 FTE.

   •   (+$1,029.07+3.2 FTE)  This increase  is  provided  for  Deepwater Horizon  litigation
       support, discovery management, and the continuing civil investigation  against existing
       and potential additional defendants. This litigation support is not being  provided by the
       Department of Justice.  The additional resources include $448.0 associated payroll for 3.2
       FTE.

   •   (-$76.0)  This decrease will reduce litigation and case support for lower priority cases.

   •   (-$377.0) This decrease in travel  costs reflects an effort to reduce  the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

   •   (-$269.0) This decrease reflects a  reduction as  part  of the Administrative Efficiency
       Initiative.   This initiative  targets  certain categories  of spending for efficiencies and
       reductions,  including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.
       EPA will continue  its work  to redesign processes  and streamline activities in  both
       administrative and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

   •   (-$45.0) This decrease reflects a  realignment of Agency IT and  telecommunications
       resources for  Computer Security Incident Response  Center  from  across  programs to
       Information Security program.

Statutory Authority:

RCRA; CWA;  SOW A; CAA;  TSCA; EPCRA;  RLBPHRA; FIFRA;  ODA; NAAEC; LPA-
US/MX-BR; NEPA; SBLRBRERA; CERCLA; PPA;  CERFA; AEA; PPA; UMTRLWA; EPAct.
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                                                                   Criminal Enforcement
                                                               Program Area: Enforcement
                                                      Goal: Enforcing Environmental Laws
                                                  Objective(s): Enforce Environmental Laws
                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Hazardous Substance Superfiind
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$49,637.0
$8,066.0
$57,703.0
291.8
FY2010
Actuals
$49,043.2
$8,417.3
$57,460.5
284.3
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$49,637.0
$8,066.0
$57,703.0
291.8
FY2012
Pres Budget
$51,345.0
$8,252.0
$59,597.0
296.1
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
$1,708.0
$186.0
$1,894.0
4.3
Program Project Description:

EPA's Criminal Enforcement program investigates the most serious and complex environmental
crimes committed by individual and corporate defendants. The program protects human health
and the environment by providing federal,  state  and local prosecutors with the investigative,
forensic  and  technical  evidence needed to successfully prosecute violations of environmental
statutes and associated violations of Title 18  of the United States Code such as fraud, conspiracy
and obstruction of justice.  Successful prosecutions deter other potential violators, eliminate the
incentive for  companies to "pay to pollute," and help  ensure that businesses that follow the rules
do not face unfair competition from those that break the rules.  Criminal enforcement also sends
a strong  deterrence message in communities where residents have suffered disproportionate
pollution impacts, in part due to criminal actions.

These  efforts support  environmental  crimes prosecutions  primarily by the  Department  of
Justice's  Environmental  Crimes Section and the  United  States Attorneys, but occasionally by
state,  tribal and local prosecutors.   Special Agents (criminal  investigators)  evaluate leads;
interview witnesses and suspects;  and  review documents  and  data  from  environmental,
inspection, and other databases and files.  Investigators  remain involved during prosecutions,
testifying in court, assisting in securing plea agreements, or planning sentencing conditions that
will require defendants  to undertake projects to improve environmental conditions or develop
environmental management systems to enhance performance.

EPA Special  Agents also participate in task forces with other federal law enforcement agencies,
as well as state and local law officials, and participate in specialized training  at the Federal Law
Enforcement  Training Center (FLETC) in Glynco, GA and other locations.  These joint efforts
and training  help  build state,  local,  and tribal  environmental enforcement expertise,  which
enables them to protect their communities and offer valuable leads to EPA's program.41
  For more information visit: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/criminal/index.html.
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FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012,  the Criminal Enforcement program will continue to identify and investigate cases
with significant environmental, human health, and deterrence impacts while balancing its overall
case load across all pollution statutes.  The program has completed its three year hiring strategy
to increase the number of  Special Agents to 200 by the end of FY 2010.   The Criminal
Enforcement  program  continues to "tier"  significant cases based upon categories of human
health and environmental impacts (e.g., death, serious injury, human exposure, remediation),
release and discharge characteristics (e.g., hazardous or toxic pollutants,  continuing violations),
and subject characteristics (e.g., national corporation, recidivist violator).

The Criminal Enforcement  program will continue to enhance its collaboration and coordination
with the Civil Enforcement  program to ensure that the EPA enforcement program as a whole
responds to violations as effectively as possible.  The Criminal  Enforcement program will work
with the Civil Enforcement program to  identify  national  enforcement  initiative cases  and
violations of national EPA priorities that would most effectively be addressed through criminal
prosecution. This coordinated approach is accomplished by employing an effective regional case
screening process to  identify the most appropriate civil or criminal enforcement responses for a
particular violation and by  taking criminal enforcement  actions against long-term or repeat
significant  non-compliers, where appropriate.   Focusing on  parallel  proceedings and other
mechanisms that allow the Agency to use the most appropriate tools to  address environmental
violations and crimes will also facilitate coordination.

EPA's Criminal Enforcement program is committed to fair and consistent enforcement of federal
laws and regulations, as balanced with the flexibility to respond to region-specific environmental
problems. In FY 2012,  criminal enforcement will continue to implement management oversight
controls  and national policies to ensure that violators in similar circumstances receive similar
treatment under federal environmental laws.   Consistency  is  promoted by evaluating  all
investigations  from the national perspective, overseeing all investigations to ensure compliance
with program priorities, conducting  regular "docket reviews"  (detailed review of all open
investigations  in each EPA Regional office) to ensure consistency with investigatory discretion
guidance  and enforcement  priorities, and by  developing,  implementing,  and periodically
reviewing and revising policies and programs.

In FY 2012, the program will continue to use data from the electronic Criminal Case Reporting
System (CCRS). Information associated with all closed criminal enforcement cases will be used
to systematically compile a  profile of criminal cases, including the extent to which the cases
support Agencywide, program-specific or regional enforcement  priorities.  The program also will
seek to deter environmental crime by increasing the volume and quality of leads reported to EPA
by the public  through the tips and complaints link  on EPA's  website and continue to use the
fugitive website42.  The fugitive website enlists the public and law enforcement agencies to help
apprehend defendants who have fled the country or are in hiding to avoid  prosecution for alleged
environmental crimes or sentencing for crimes for which they have been found guilty. Since the
 • For more information visit: http://www.epa.gov/fugitives/
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site was established in FY 2009, five fugitives have been captured, and two more surrendered to
law enforcement authorities.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(418) Increase the
percentage of criminal
cases having the most
significant health,
environmental, and
deterrence impacts to
43 percent.
FY 2010
Target







FY 2010
Actual







FY2011
CR
Target







FY 2012
Target



43



Units



Percent



Measure
Type

Outcome

Measure
(4 19) Maintain a 75
percent rate for
criminal cases with
individual defendants.
FY 2010
Target



FY 2010
Actual



FY2011
CR
Target



FY 2012
Target

75

Units

Percent


Measure
Type

Outcome


Measure
(420) Increase the
percentage of criminal
cases with charges
filed to 40 percent.

FY 2010
Target




FY 2010
Actual



FY2011
CR
Target




FY 2012
Target

40


Units

Percent

Measure
Type

Outcome

Measure
(421) Maintain a 85
percent conviction rate
for criminal
defendants.
FY 2010
Target



FY 2010
Actual



FY2011
CR
Target



FY 2012
Target

85

Units

Percent

The  four new criminal  enforcement GPRA measures ("cases with charges filed," "criminal
defendants convicted or pled guilty," "percentage of cases with an individual defendant," and the
"percentage of cases with the most significant environmental, health and deterrent impacts") will
be reported in the FY 2012 Annual Performance Report.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$1,610.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.
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   •   (-5.1 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

   •   (+$1,036.07 +7.4  FTE) This increase reflects a transfer  from Civil  Enforcement  to
       Criminal Enforcement to accurately  reflect the current legal support the regions are
       providing  to  the  criminal  enforcement program.   The  additional  resources  include
       $1,036.0 associated payroll for 7.4 FTE.

   •   (+$1,158.07 +3.0 FTE)  This increase in resources, which includes $526.0 associated
       payroll,  support the Agency's  efforts to address the Deepwater Horizon  Oil Spill
       litigation.  This litigation support is not being provided by the Department of Justice.

   •   (-$1,597.07 -1.0 FTE) This decrease reflects a reduced level  of resources for the Criminal
       Enforcement program, which includes $168.0 associated payroll for 1.0 FTE.

   •   (-$96.0) The  decrease in  travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the  Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

   •   (-$403.0)  This  reflects a  reduction in support for law enforcement telecommunications
       and IT capabilities.

Statutory Authority:

RCRA; CWA; SOW A; CAA; TSCA; EPCRA; Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction
Act (RLBPHRA); FIFRA; Ocean Dumping Act (i.e., MPRSA);  Pollution Prosecution Act; Title
18 General Federal  Crimes  (e.g.,  false statements,  conspiracy); Powers  of Environmental
Protection Agency (18 U.S.C. 3063).
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                                                                  Enforcement Training
                                                              Program Area: Enforcement
                                                     Goal: Enforcing Environmental Laws
                                                 Objective(s): Enforce Environmental Laws
                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Hazardous Substance Superfiind
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$3,2 78.0
$899.0
$4,177.0
20.8
FY 2010
Actuals
$3,220.0
$756.5
$3,976.5
18.4
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$3,2 78.0
$899.0
$4,177.0
20.8
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($3,278.0)
($899.0)
($4,177.0)
-20.8
Program Project Description:

EPA is required by the Pollution Prosecution Act of 1990 to provide environmental compliance
and  enforcement training nationwide through  the National  Enforcement  Training  Institute
(NETI).  The Enforcement Training program oversees the design and delivery of core  and
specialized enforcement  courses, through NETI43, that sustain a well-trained workforce to carry
out the Agency's enforcement and compliance  goals.   Courses are provided to lawyers,
inspectors, civil and criminal investigators, and technical experts at all levels of government.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY  2012, the Enforcement Training program was   consolidated into the Compliance
Monitoring program  which houses  other training activities.  NETI activities and associated
resources were moved to the Compliance  Monitoring program to serve as:   1) the central
coordination  point for training  that is planned and conducted by EPA offices;  2) the grant
management for cooperative agreements that provide training in the compliance and enforcement
areas to state  programs; 3) the Legal Intern program; and 4) the lead source in conducting web-
based enforcement training.

Performance Targets:

Currently, there are no specific performance measures for this program project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •  (-$1,906.07 -8.0  FTE) This  reduction transfers the remaining Enforcement Training
       activities  to the  Compliance Monitoring  program.   The reduced  resources include
       $1,056.0 associated payroll for 8.0 FTE.
  For more information, refer to: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/training/neti/index.html
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   •  (-$1,372.07 -7.6 FTE) This reduction streamlines NETI by reducing support for classroom
      training and increasing web-based  training.   The reduced resources include  $1,103.0
      associated payroll for 7.6 FTE.

Statutory Authority:

PPA;  RLBPHRA; RCRA;  CWA;  SDWA;  CAA;  TSCA; EPCRA;  TSCA;  FIFRA;  ODA;
NAAEC: LPA-US/MX-BR: NEPA.
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                                                                  Environmental Justice
                                                              Program Area: Enforcement
                                                      Goal: Cleaning Up Our Communities
                                 Objective(s): Promote Sustainable and Livable Communities

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Hazardous Substance Superfiind
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$7,090.0
$795.0
$7,885.0
32.9
FY 2010
Actuals
$9,567.4
$891.0
$10,458.4
32.6
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$7,090.0
$795.0
$7,885.0
32.9
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$7,397.0
$600.0
$7,997.0
32.2
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
$307.0
($195.0)
$112.0
-0.7
Program Project Description:

EPA is committed to identifying and addressing the health and environmental burdens faced by
communities disproportionately impacted by pollution and supporting community efforts to build
healthy,  sustainable green neighborhoods.   The  EPA's  Environmental Justice (EJ) program
facilitates EPA efforts to engage  communities in key decision-making processes and to integrate
environmental justice considerations in  EPA programs, policies, and activities.44  The Agency
conducts and supports work to "open its doors" to historically underrepresented groups, such as
minority, low-income,  and tribal populations.  EPA also promotes the active engagement of
community groups, other federal agencies, states,  local governments and tribal governments to
recognize,  support, and advance environmental  protection  and public health  for vulnerable
communities.  The EJ program provides financial and technical assistance to empower low-
income or minority communities to protect  themselves from environmental  harm.  The EJ
program  partners with other Agency programs to create  scientific analytical methods, a legal
foundation,  and public  engagement  practices  that enable the incorporation of environmental
justice considerations in  EPA's  regulatory  and  policy  decisions.  Finally,  the  EJ program
supports  Agency efforts to strengthen internal mechanisms  to integrate environmental justice
including communication,  training, performance management, and accountability measures.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA will implement Environmental Justice activities consistent with the vision  outlined  in the
Agency's FY 2011-2015 Strategic Plan.  EPA will  work to reduce exposures for those at greatest
risk and ensure that environmental justice is integral to all Agency activities.  The EJ program
will work with Regional and program offices to implement the Agency's annual  action plan for
the Cross-Cutting Fundamental Strategy for  Environmental Justice and Children's Health. The
EJ  program also will  continue  to work with Regional  and program  offices to  maintain an
44 For more information on the Environmental Justice program, please refer to:
www.epa.gov/compliance/environmentaliustice/index.html
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inventory of successful efforts that track and report progress in achieving results in communities
disproportionately burdened by environmental hazards.

In FY 2012, EPA's EJ program will intensify its efforts to  incorporate environmental justice
considerations in the rulemaking process.  An ongoing challenge for EPA has been to  develop
rules  that implement existing statutory authority  while working  to  reduce  disproportionate
pollutant burdens and cumulative impacts from multiple  sources. In FY 2012, the EJ program
will work with Regional and program offices to apply effective methods suitable for decision-
making involving disproportionate environmental health  impacts on minority, low-income, and
tribal  populations.  As part of this effort, EPA is working on technical guidance to support the
integration of environmental justice considerations in analysis that support EPA's actions.

In FY 2012, EPA's EJ program will continue to lead the  integration of environmental justice
considerations into EPA's  planning and performance measurement processes.  The EJ program
will continue to develop guidance that will  support Agency efforts to identify disproportionately
impacted minority, low income, and tribal populations, establish commitments to address them,
and measure and report progress.

In FY 2012, the  EJ program will continue to enhance its  capabilities of on-line tools to support
the integration of environmental justice considerations into the daily work of the Agency.  The
EJ program will maintain EJView, a mapping and public access tool that enables public access to
environmental, public health, demographic, EPA grant and other environmental justice project
information.  EJView will  enable the public to examine environmental conditions  in their
communities, track progress of grant-funded initiatives to address environmental justice issues,
and access other information about projects and issues of interest to their local communities.

In FY 2012, the EPA EJ  program will work with  other federal agencies to continue building
strong relationships with historically underrepresented communities.  EPA will focus its efforts
to ensure the integration of environmental justice principles in environmental decision-making.
The EJ program will convene two full meetings of the National Environmental  Justice Advisory
Council  (NEJAC), the Agency's Federal Advisory  Committee Act  (FACA)  committee on
environmental justice  issues.  These meetings will be augmented by meetings of issue-specific
workgroups and public teleconferences.   The NEJAC  is an important vehicle for  ensuring
transparency  and meaningful  public  involvement.   Not  only  is  the  NEJAC  charged with
providing advice to  EPA  on  broad policy issue  areas, it  will be called upon  to  organize
community  input  regarding specific Agency  actions  such as  the  development of tools,
monitoring plans and community-based initiatives.  Finally, the EJ program  will support the
integration of environmental  justice issues into the  deliberations  of  other  EPA FACA
committees.

In addition to planned FACA activities in  FY 2012, the  EJ program will work to promote the
integration of environmental justice  principles in the programs, policies and activities  of other
federal  agencies.   Pursuant to Executive Order  12898, EPA  will continue to convene  the
Interagency Working  Group (IWG)  on Environmental Justice and will use this  mechanism to
provide and foster training  and technical assistance to other federal agencies on the integration of
environmental justice in their programs. Moreover, the EJ program will use the IWG to identify
                                          336

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collaborative opportunities to  support the achievement of healthy and sustainable community
goals.

In FY 2012, EPA will  continue to manage its Environmental Justice Small Grants program,
which assists community-based organizations and other groups in developing solutions to local
environmental issues.  Since its inception in  1994, the EJ program  has  awarded nearly $38
million to more than 1,200 community-based organizations and other groups to support efforts to
address local environmental and/or health issues.

In FY 2012, the EJ program will continue to assist program  offices  and  other environmental
organizations and government agencies in the delivery of customized training to increase the
capacity of their personnel to effectively address issues of environmental justice. This training
includes both in-person presentations and online training.  Specific topics will include but not be
limited to environmental justice integration principles, incorporating  environmental justice in
regulatory analysis,  and discussions of pertinent statutory authorities.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program supports multiple strategic objectives that benefit disproportionately
burdened  minority,  low-income, and tribal populations.  Currently, there are no performance
measures for this specific Program Project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$151.0) This increase  reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs  for existing
       FTE.

    •   (-0.6 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

    •   (+$5.0) This reflects realignments and corrections to  resources for telephone, Local Area
       Network (LAN), and other telecommunications and IT security requirements.

    •   (-$36.0) This decrease in travel costs  reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and  conferencing.

    •   (+$7.0)  This change reflects a modest increase in  contracts and grants to support the
       Agency's Environmental Justice program.

    •   (+$206.0) This reflects a redirection from Superfund  to EPM dollars (no net  gain in
       program budget).
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    •   (-$26.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work to  redesign  processes and streamline activities  in  both administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

Executive  Order  12898; RCRA;  CWA; SDWA;  CAA;  TSCA; EPCRA;  FIFRA; NEPA;
Pollution Prevention Act.
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                                                                 NEPA Implementation
                                                              Program Area: Enforcement
                             Goal: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                                                Objective(s): Promote Pollution Prevention

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY2010
Enacted
$18,258.0
$18,258.0
117.7
FY2010
Actuals
$18,313.4
$18,313.4
119.4
FY2011
Annualized
CR
$18,258.0
$18,258.0
117.7
FY2012
Pres Budget
$18,072.0
$18,072.0
115.2
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY2010
Enacted
($186.0)
($186.0)
-2.5
Program Project Description:

As required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Section 309 of the Clean Air
Act, the NEPA Implementation program reviews Environmental Impact Statements  (EISs) that
evaluate the anticipated environmental impacts of proposed major federal  actions.  The review
includes assessing options for avoiding or mitigating environmental impacts while making the
comments available to the public and  allowing for public input. The program manages the
Agency's  official filing activity for all federal EISs, in accordance with a  Memorandum of
Understanding with the Council on Environmental  Quality.   The program also manages the
review of Environmental Impact Assessments of non-governmental activities in Antarctica, in
accordance with the Antarctic Science, Tourism and Conservation Act (ASTCA).

In addition, the program  fosters cooperation with other federal agencies to ensure compliance
with applicable environmental  statutes,  promotes better integration of pollution prevention and
ecological risk  assessment elements into their programs, and provides  technical assistance in
developing projects that prevent adverse environmental impacts.  The program encourages other
federal agencies to incorporate environmental justice considerations into their decision making
as they perform  environmental analyses (both EISs and Environmental  Assessments) under
NEPA.  The Agency targets high impact federal  program areas, such as energy/transportation-
related projects and water resources projects.  The  program  also develops agency  policy and
technical guidance on issues related to NEPA, the Endangered Species Act,  the National Historic
Preservation Act and relevant Executive Orders (EOs).
45
FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, EPA will continue to work with other federal agencies to streamline, modernize, and
improve the NEPA process, by encouraging  early involvement in the project scoping process;
promoting methods and training for engaging federal, state, local  and tribal partners to develop
collaboration skills and successful collaborative agreements applicable to various stages of the
 ' For more information, refer to: www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa
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NEPA process; developing training for the public on NEPA requirements and effective public
involvement; and integrating the NEPA process with environmental management systems. The
program will continue to use the web-based NEPAssist environmental assessment tool, which
assists federal,  state, local agencies and tribes with their NEPA responsibilities.

Work also will focus on a number of key areas such as reviewing and commenting on on-shore
and off-shore liquid natural gas  facilities, coal bed methane development and other energy-
related projects; nuclear power/hydro-power plant licensing/re-licensing; highway and airport
expansion; military expansion in Guam; flood control and port development; and management of
national forests and public  lands.   In  FY 2012, EPA will continue work  related to the
Appalachian  Coal  Mining  Interagency  Action  Plan,  including  the  Cumulative Impact
Assessment of Mountaintop Removal - Valley Fill Mining operations.  In addition, EPA will
continue its successful collaboration efforts with federal land management agencies in the west
to ensure the growing number  of oil and natural gas development projects in that area do not
cause significant adverse air quality impacts.

The American  Recovery and Reinvestment Act increased EPA's involvement with  other federal
agencies  (including  scoping  and  collaboration  efforts)  on federal projects that required
environmental  review by EPA pursuant to Section 309 of the Clean Air Act and NEPA.  As of
December 31,  2010, appropriate NEPA reviews have been completed on nearly all (99.7%) of
EPA's ARRA projects/actions; EPA expects to be finished before FY 2012.

The NEPA Implementation program  also guides EPA's  own compliance with NEPA,  other
applicable statutes and EOs and related environmental justice requirements. The NEPA program
will continue to ensure environmental justice concerns are properly addressed in all actions
where EPA must comply with NEPA.  In FY 2012, at least 90 percent of EPA projects subject to
NEPA environmental assessment or EIS requirements are expected to result in no significant
environmental impact.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program supports the strategic objective to improve  compliance under Goal 5.
Currently, there are no performance measures for this specific Program Project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   *   (+$435.0) This increase reflects  the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

   •   (-2.3 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

   •   (-$276.07 -0.7 FTE) This  change is a realignment of Mountain  Top Mining resources
       under NEPA to Mountain Top Mining efforts in other programs.  These resources are
       associated  with  Environmental  Impact Statements  for  policies and  approaches  to
       Appalachian coal mining.  These resources include $94.0 associated payroll for 0.7 FTE.
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    •  (+$67.0/ +0.5 FTE) This increase reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that
       will help the Agency better align resources, skills,  and Agency priorities to support the
       Agency's  energy-related  NEPA  reviews.  The  additional  resources  include  $67.0
       associated payroll for 0.5 FTE.

    •   (-$55.0) This decrease in  travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

    *   (-$284.0) This reflects a decrease in resources for NEPA related activities.

    •  (-$9.0) This reflects realignments and corrections to resources for telephone, Local Area
       Network (LAN), and other telecommunications and IT security requirements.

    •   (-$64.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

CAA; NEPA; ASTCA; CWA; ESA; NHPA; AHPA; FCMA; FWCA; EO  12898.
                                           341

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Program Area: Geographic Programs
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                                                                 Great Lakes Restoration
                                                       Program Area: Geographic Programs
                                                         Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                         Objective(s): Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$475,000.0
$475,000.0
83.1
FY 2010
Actuals
$430,818.2
$430,818.2
86.3
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$475,000.0
$475,000.0
83.1
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$350,000.0
$350,000.0
84.1
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($125,000.0)
($125,000.0)
1.0
Program Project Description:

To  restore and protect this national treasure, the Obama Administration developed the Great
Lakes  Restoration  Initiative  (GLRI).   Led  by EPA,  the GLRI invests  in the  region's
environmental and public health through a  coordinated interagency process. As outlined in the
GLRI Action Plan46, this unprecedented program  focuses on five major restoration priorities: (1)
mitigating toxic substances and restoring Areas of Concern; (2) reducing the impact of invasive
species; (3) improving near-shore health and reducing non-point source pollution; (4) improving
habitat  and reducing species  loss; and  (5) improving  the  information,  engagement,  and
accountability in the  program  overall.   The GLRI  provides the  level of investment and the
interagency coordination required to successfully address  these five issues  across the Great
Lakes region.

The Great Lakes are the  largest system of surface freshwater on earth, containing 20 percent of
the  world's surface freshwater and accounting for 95 percent of the surface freshwater in the
United States.  The watershed includes 2 nations, 8 U.S. states, a Canadian province, more  than
40 tribes, and more than one-tenth of the U.S. population. The goal of the Agency's Great Lakes
Program is to restore  and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Great
Lakes Basin Ecosystem, as required by the Great Lakes Water  Quality Agreement (GLWQA)
and the Clean Water Act (CWA). EPA leads the  Interagency Task Force in the implementation
of a FY 2010 to FY 2014 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan (Action Plan), avoiding
unnecessary duplication of efforts.  Given today's fiscal constraints, such collaboration is even
more critical in maintaining progress on environmental priorities.

Pursuant to the Initiative, EPA works with its partners to select the best combination of programs
and projects for Great Lakes protection and restoration, using principles and criteria such as:

    •   Ability to achieve strategic and measurable environmental outcomes;
46 http://www.epa. gov/greatlakes/glri/
http://greatlakesrestoration.us/action/wp-content/uploads/glri actionplan.pdf
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    •   Feasibility for prompt implementation, for achieving visible results soon, and the ability
       to leverage resources; and
    •   Opportunities for interagency/interorganizational coordination and collaboration.

GLRI funds are used to strategically implement both federal projects and projects with states,
tribes, municipalities, universities, and other organizations. Projects and activities pursuant to the
Initiative will be at multiple scales (local, lake-wide, and basin-wide).  (For EPA, this means that
these funds will not be  directed toward water infrastructure programs that are addressed under
the Clean Water or Drinking Water State Revolving Fund program.) GLRI funds are distributed
by  the EPA  and are meant to supplement base funding for federal agencies'  Great Lakes
activities. The other principal agencies involved in the GLRI are: United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department
of Health and Human Services (HHS), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Department of
Housing  and Urban Development (HUD), Department of State (DOS), Department of Defense
(DOD-Army), Department of Interior (DOI),  and Department of Transportation (DOT).  In
addition to the GLRI, agencies have robust base Great Lakes programs that support ecosystem
restoration.

Funding  will be distributed directly by EPA and  through the transfer of funds to other  federal
agencies  for subsequent use and distribution. Grants will generally  be  issued competitively.
Agencies are expected to maintain their base level47 of Great Lakes activities and to identify new
activities and  projects that  will support  the Initiative's environmental  outcomes. EPA  uses
adaptive  management to make necessary Initiative program adjustments at appropriate times to
maximize results.  Priority-setting, coordination, and oversight are done through  efforts of the
Interagency Task Force.  Transparency and  accountability are priorities of the Initiative.  EPA
also will ensure appropriate coordination  with  Canada as required by the Great  Lakes Water
Quality Agreement.

FY 2012 Activities  and Performance Plan:

In its third year, the GLRI will support programs and projects strategically chosen to target the
most significant environmental problems in the Great Lakes ecosystem through direct program
implementation by EPA and Interagency  Task  Force members. This  will be accomplished by
issuing grants  and  other  agreements  to  states, tribes, municipalities, universities, and other
organizations.  Guided by the GLRI Action Plan, agencies  are shifting efforts for a stronger
emphasis on implementation actions and  results in the Initiative's focus  areas. Programs and
projects expected to be  initiated in FY 2012 will  be selected via a planning process conducted
through the Great Lakes  Interagency  Task  Force.   This process includes competitive grant
programs to implement  the Initiative by funding states, tribes, and other partners.  Interagency
Task Force members will  issue requests for proposals as soon as possible so some grants could
be undertaken during the 2012 field season.  Key activities expected to advance environmental
progress within each of the Initiative's focus areas are described below.
47 As a starting point for identifying their base, Agencies were asked to use the March 2008 OMB Great Lakes Restoration
Crosscut Report to Congress.
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Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern:

Persistent toxic substances, such as mercury and PCBs, are still present in the Great Lakes at
levels that warrant fish consumption advisories in all five lakes.  Thirty U.S. and binational Great
Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) remain degraded with an estimated 38.9 million cubic yards of
contaminated sediments (as of September 2010). Ongoing sources of persistent toxic substances
to the Great  Lakes include  releases  from contaminated bottom sediments,  industrial  and
municipal point sources; nonpoint sources including  atmospheric  deposition, agricultural and
urban runoff,  contaminated  groundwater; and cycling of the chemicals  within  the  lakes.
Chemicals of emerging concern  may pose  ecosystem  health threats  and must be  better
understood with respect to their hazards and routes of exposure, so that effective responses can
be implemented in a timely fashion.
                                           Great Lakes Areas of Concern
                                                                       River
                                                              XEighteenmile Creek
                                                              Buffalo
                                        St. Clair
                                 Kalamazoo
                                 River     Cllnton R™
                                       Detroit R
                                   Calumet Rouge
                                       River
                                                                         • U.S. AOCs
                                                                         O Binational AOCs

                                                                         • Canadian AOCs
                                                                         A Areas in Recovery
                                                                           Delisted Canadian AOCi
                                                                               1 1 R
Principal  actions  proposed to  protect the  Great Lakes  from  toxic  substances,  clean  up
contaminated sediments, and restore AOCs include:

•  AOC Restoration. EPA will issue grants to states and other stakeholders to fund projects in
   the AOCs to restore beneficial use impairments (BUI) (26 BUIs out of a universe of 261  are
   expected to have been restored through FY 2012).   Through the Great Lakes Legacy Act,
   three to five sediment remediation projects will commence and will be supplemented with
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   strategic navigational channel dredging by  the US Army Corp of Engineers (USAGE),
   habitat enhancements by US Fish and Wildlife (USFWS), and Brownfield restoration and
   green infrastructure developments by the US Forest Service (USFS).  FY 2012 funding of
   Legacy Act projects is  expected over time  to result in remediation of over 400  hundred
   thousand cubic yards of contaminated sediments and contribute to delisting of 1-2 AOCs.
                       Cumulative Volume of Sediment Remediated
                         via the Great Lakes Legacy Act Program
                                 (As of January 2011)
           2,000,000

           1,800,000

           1,600,000

           1,400,000

           1,200,000 -
           In
            ,000,000
           5 800,000
           3
           •^600,000
           E
           •§ 400,000
            200,000 -
                 0
                    2004   2005  2006  2007  2008  2009   2010   2011   2012
                                             Calendar Year

•  Collections.  EPA will assist states, tribes, and local governments in the removal of PCB
   ballasts from schools. EPA will report results of collections of e-waste and pharmaceutical
   waste in the Great Lakes basin.

•  Human Health/Safe Fish  Consumption. EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and
   Disease Registry (ATSDR) will continue to work with states and tribes to enhance and
   improve existing state/tribal fish consumption advisory programs.  Long-term results are
   expected to include measurable declines in mercury blood levels.

•  Total Maximum Daily Loads  (TMDLs).  EPA will award contracts to support EPA and
   state efforts to develop and implement toxic TMDLs  within the Great  Lakes Basin.   The
   TMDLs will define the extent of toxic contamination, including mercury, PCBs, dioxin and
   mirex throughout the basin. EPA will continue to support Michigan and New York's efforts
   to define the  extent of mercury, PCB,  dioxin,  and/or mirex  pollution,  and its potential
   sources, in up to 200  impaired Great Lakes sub watersheds.  Long-term results are expected to
   include TMDLs addressing up to 200 impaired watersheds, which identify pollutant loading
   capacities to guide pollutant reduction efforts in support of plans for  restoring polluted
   watersheds.
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•  Early Warning  System  to  Detect New  Toxic  Threats.    To  inform management
   interventions in a timely fashion, federal agencies, including EPA, NOAA, USFWS, the US
   Geological  Survey  (USGS),  the  Agency for  Toxic  Substances  and  Disease Registry
   (ATSDR), and the National Park Service (NFS) will continue to implement an early warning
   system to detect new toxic threats to the Great Lakes utilizing enhanced monitoring programs
   for Great Lakes fish, birds,  mussels, and human biomonitoring,  as well as  sediments,
   tributary source loads, and air deposition studies.  Agencies also will assess toxicant effects
   on food web dynamics and ecological health for key  aquatic communities such as lake
   sturgeon and benthic invertebrates.

Invasive Species.
Timeline of Aquatic Invasive Species in the Great Lakes
1800's
Purple
loosestrife
introduced
Into North
America;
Sea Lamprey
Observed In
Lake Ontario


1800-1
1921
1959
1988 1994
St. Lawrence Zebra mussels Asian carp
Seaway opens. Identified In (blgheadand
allowing Lake St. Clair silver) escaped
ocean-going
vessels access
to the Great
Lakes


960 1980'S
1982
Sea lamprey Spiny
expand Into the water flea
upper Great detected in Lake
Lakes due to Ontario
from aqua culture
ponds Into the
lower Mississippi
River due to floods


1990's
1900 1
2002 2006 2010
Asian carp Bloody red Use of
discovered shrimp eDNA
50 miles torn detected testing shows
Lake Michigan inMuskegon, that Asian
In the Illinois Rr*sr Michigan Cam are
and 21 miles
downstream of the
electrical dispersal
barrier

1
2000
198 2003
Round goby first Fishhook waterflea The North
reported In St. (Ceropoog/s pengol] America strain
Clalr Rrver Identified In Lake of the Viral
Ontario Hemorrhagic
alteration to the
Wetland Canal



Septicemia (VMS)
virus found In
Lake St. Clair
likely within
Chicago Area
Waterway
System
1
-2010
2009
Asian carp
found seven
miles
downstream
of the
electrical
dispersal
barrier
Progress toward restoring the Great Lakes has been significantly undermined by the effects of
non-native invasive species. Over 180 non-native species now exist in the Great Lakes. The most
invasive of these  propagate  and spread,  ultimately degrading habitat, out-competing native
species, and short-circuiting food webs. New invasive species (such as the Asian Carp, which is
poised to invade the system) can be  introduced into the Great Lakes  region through various
pathways, including: commercial shipping, canals and waterways, trade of live organisms,  and
activities of recreational and resource users.  The Great Lakes are the aquatic gateway to most of
the interior United  States. Once invasive species establish a foothold in the Great Lakes, they are
virtually impossible to eradicate and  have the  potential to spread to much  of the rest of the
country; controlling species in the Great Lakes will slow or eliminate the spread to other regions.
Thus, invasive species  must be  controlled to maintain the health of the Great Lakes ecosystem
and to reduce risk to the interior U.S. It is expected that in FY 2012 much of the necessary Asian
carp work will be carried out through agencies base budgets.

Principal actions proposed to prevent new introductions of non-native invasive species in the
Great Lakes basin  and stop the further spread of invasives within and  out of the Great Lakes
basin include:
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Prevention.  The Department of Transportation's Maritime Administration (DOT-MARAD)
the U.S. Coast Guard, and EPA will fund the further development of up to three ballast water
treatment systems for use in freshwater ecosystems by supporting the use of laboratory, land-
based, and ship-board testing and coordination with  the maritime industry.  Refinement of
sampling methodologies for treated ballast water also will continue.  USFWS will deploy
portable boat washing units to limit the spread of invasive species by recreational boaters.

Early Detection and Control.  EPA and USFWS will continue the targeted implementation
of monitoring surveys that will detect new invaders in Great Lakes locations and develop the
case studies needed for the development of a basinwide early detection program.  USFWS
will support on-the-ground implementation  of Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plans
for each  Great Lake state, including three  rapid response exercises/actions to demonstrate
and test multi-agency response capabilities. USDA-National Resource Conservation Service
(NRCS) will work directly with agricultural producers to implement conservation practices
that  reduce  terrestrial  invasive species on approximately  800  acres.  USFS will help
municipalities and tribes anticipate and address the impacts of Emerald Ash Borer. The Great
Lakes Fishery Commission  (GLFC) will  advance sea  lamprey control methods using
pheromones and telemetry, ensuring that such implementation would not reduce existing sea
lamprey control efforts.  ACE will enhance the use of barriers to further reduce Sea Lamprey
populations. Competitive grant funding from EPA will support agencies, local communities,
and organizations'  actions to implement  on-the-ground control  efforts on approximately
1,800  additional acres  in FY 2012,  and enhance  the development  of new  control
technologies.

 What is the "Nearshore"?
 The aquatic nearshore can be considered to begin at the shoreline and extend offshore to the depth at
 which the warm surface waters typically reach the bottom in early fall, generally 20m - 30m deep, and
 terrestrial nearshore areas range from narrow beaches to inland features influenced by Great Lakes
 processes.
                Lake Superior

       ',^/ ^ '/"*.
                                     '.  \
                        s
                     I-1    \
         Legend
        Nearshore waters  vty"                               o  100 200 Km
                                       348

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Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution. Great Lakes nearshore water quality has
become degraded,  as evidenced by  eutrophication resulting from excessive nutrients; harmful
algal blooms; the green algae Cladophora washing ashore to make unsightly, odiferous rotting
mats on  beaches;  outbreaks of avian botulism; and advisories at swimming beaches.    The
environmental stressors causing these problems include excessive nutrient loadings from both
point and nonpoint sources; bacteria and other pathogens  responsible for beach closures and
outbreaks of botulism; shoreline development and hardening, which disrupt habitat and alter
nutrient and contaminant runoff; and agricultural practices that increase nutrient and sediment
loadings.  Nonpoint sources are now the primary  contributors of many pollutants, but control
strategies to date have been inadequate to deliver the degree of stream  and lake restoration
necessary for the protection and maintenance of the Great Lakes. However, implementation of
agricultural or other watershed best management practices can have multiple benefits, including
simultaneous reductions in runoff of soils, nutrients, and pesticides.

Principal actions proposed to  reduce nonpoint source pollution to  levels that do not impair
nearshore Great  Lakes waters,  and to restore and preserve the health of Great Lakes  nearshore
areas, include:

•  Identify and Remediate Sources of Impairments to Nearshore Waters. To contribute to
   the reduction  or elimination of the number  and severity  of  incidences  of ecosystem
   disruptions, including  Cladophera growth, harmful  algal blooms (HABs),  botulism, and
   other issues associated with eutrophi cation, NRCS, USFS, USAGE, National Park Service
   (NFS), USGS, NOAA, and EPA will collaborate to: understand linkages between nearshore
   impairments  and their causal agents; enhance  or implement practices  to reduce the causal
   agents, including the  export  of  nutrients  and  soils to the nearshore waters; establish and
   implement total maximum daily loads  (TMDLs) for phosphorus and other  non-toxic
   pollutants; and  evaluate tributary transport of sediments and nutrients.

•  Improve Public Health Protection  at  Beaches. To assist local health officials in better
   protecting beach-goers, NOAA, USGS, and EPA will collaborate  with state, local and tribal
   governments to: remediate identified sources of pollution or bacteria at beaches; increase the
   effectiveness of monitoring for pathogens; model environmental conditions likely to result in
   elevated levels  of bacteria; and enhance communications to the public about daily swimming
   conditions.

•  Place-Based Watershed Restoration.  NRCS,  USFS, USAGE, NFS, and EPA, in  close
   collaboration with state programs, will address high priority watersheds, including Fox River,
   Saginaw River, Maumee River,  St. Louis River, and the Genessee  River, to:  strategically
   target where  on-the-ground actions can be most  effective; provide supplemental funding to
   enhance existing conservation programs and management procedures; implement  actions to
   control nonpoint source runoff, erosion and sedimentation or to otherwise improve conditions
   on  a watershed scale; protect forest ecosystem services; and foster green infrastructure
   projects, especially for stormwater management.
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   Generate Critical  Information for Protecting Nearshore Health.   EPA,  NFS, USFS,
   USGS,  and NOAA will collaborate to:  assess the status  and trends  of nearshore water
   conditions,  tributaries  and  groundwater;  implement  indicators of  land  use change,
   agricultural  lands, and  aquatic nearshore conditions;  identify  endpoints or interim target
   levels that reflect watershed stressors; facilitate "green" operation of marinas  and evaluate
   potential  contributions  to  nearshore  impairments;  and  develop education and  outreach
   programs to increase awareness and understanding of various Great Lakes issues.
                      Sediment Loading in the Great Lakes Basin
                             as calculated by HIT I.RUSLE ' SEDMOD)
                                          HUC8 sediment loading rate (tons/acre) (qualities)
                                              0 004 - 0 025
                                              0 026 - 0 050
Habitat and Wildlife. A multitude  of threats affect  the health of Great Lakes habitats and
wildlife. Habitat destruction and degradation due to development; competition  from invasive
species; the alteration of natural lake level fluctuations and flow regimes from dams and other
control structures; toxic compounds from urban development, poor land management practices
and non-point sources; and, habitat fragmentation have impacted habitat and wildlife. This has
led to  an  altered food web,  a loss of biodiversity, and  poorly functioning ecosystems. The
principal actions proposed to protect and restore Great Lakes habitat and wildlife include:

•  Protecting and  Restoring Native  Species and Habitats Agencies  will share data and
   management priorities  as  well as implement  protection and restoration actions to enhance
   native  species and habitats. Federal agencies (USAGE, Bureau of Indian Affairs—BIA, EPA,
   Federal Highway Administration-FHWA, FWS,  GLFC, NOAA, NFS, NRCS,  USFS, USGS,
                                          350

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   USDA-Animal and  Plant Health  Inspection Service-APHIS) will  continue  to  implement
   projects  directly  and through grants and  other agreements to reduce sedimentation and
   nutrient inputs, restore natural hydrological regimes, improve water  quality, and protect and
   restore habitats including Great Lakes islands,  beaches, sand dunes, and other coastal and
   upland habitats. Long term results will include restoration and  protection of 7,500 acres of
   wetlands  and  associated uplands and  coastal,  upland,  and island habitats;  improved
   ecosystem processes and functions; and, enhanced critical habitat for  native species.

•  Improving Aquatic  Ecosystem Resiliency. USFS, FWS,  USGS, USAGE, and NPS will
   begin implementation of projects directly and through grants and other agreements to remove
   large woody debris in floodplains and streams, replace barrier culverts to restore fish passage
   and stream/river connectivity, and restore forested edges in riparian areas. Long term results
   will include benefits to populations of keystone species such as lake sturgeon, brook trout
   and migratory birds;  removal of 50 fish passage barriers; and restoration of 500 stream  miles
   for fish passage and stabilization of stream banks.

•  Managing Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species. FWS,  USFS, and USGS will begin
   implementation of projects directly and through grants and other agreements to benefit rare,
   threatened and endangered Great Lakes species,  focusing  on actions  identified in species
   recovery and management plans. Long term results are expected to include  progress toward
   restoration  of populations of targeted  species and fisheries.  BIA will issue  grants and
   partnership  agreements  to tribal organizations for projects to protect  and  restore  tribal
   wetlands and culturally significant species such as wild rice.

•  Tracking Progress  on Coastal Wetlands Restoration.  EPA, with partners, will collect
   data for  birds, amphibians, fish, invertebrates,  plants, wetland extent  and  type, and water
   chemistry in 20 percent of US coastal wetlands and provide summary information to decision
   makers as part of a second year of coastal wetland monitoring. A cooperative agreement with
   a consortium of  12  universities, states, and agencies  is producing the first comprehensive
   baseline of the health of U.S.  Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

Accountability, Education, Monitoring,  Evaluation,  Communication, and Partnerships.
Oversight and coordination are critical  to the success of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, as
are a comprehensive and efficient accountability  system  and establishment  of well-defined
metrics to track progress.  Also critical  are activities to fill gaps in baselines,  measure and
monitor key indicators of ecosystem function, evaluate restoration progress, and provide decision
makers with the information they need.   This information needs to be  based on  best available
science, and compiled and communicated.  Outreach, education, and partnerships are also crucial
in the effort to restore the Great Lakes. All of these elements are needed for informed decisions
and wise investments for results. Principal efforts  in order to enhance information for decision
making include:

•  Implement Great Lakes Restoration Accountability  System.  EPA will implement and
   refine the transparency and accountability system for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative,
   including easy access to information and linkages to planning, budgeting, grant offering, and
   results.
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•  Implement Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs). With and through the LaMPs, partner
   agencies will implement LaMP programs and projects, using public forums to assist with the
   transfer and dissemination of information.

•  Measure and  Evaluate the  Health of the  Great Lakes Ecosystem  using the Best
   Available  Science. Through direct program implementation, grants and other agreements,
   federal  agencies will enhance  existing  programs that  measure  and assess  the physical,
   biological,  and chemical integrity of the Great Lakes, including the connecting channels.
   EPA in coordination with other federal and state agencies will establish and implement a
   statistically valid  assessment,  using a  probability-based design, of  Great  Lakes water
   resources,  including the  nearshore environment that coincides with intensive coordinated
   science and monitoring efforts for the lakes.  EPA and USGS will continue to advance
   development and implementation of science-based indicators to better assess and provide a
   better  measure of  accountability of actions to improve the health of the  Great Lakes
   ecosystem.   EPA  will  continue to implement the  Coordinated Science and Monitoring
   Initiative with Environment Canada to address lake-specific science and monitoring needs in
   Lake Huron in 2012, followed by Lakes Ontario, Erie, Michigan, and Superior in consecutive
   years.  EPA  and USGS will take steps to improve  infrastructure for uniform data quality
   management  and real time information access.  NOAA, USEPA, USGS, USFWS, NPS, and
   DOT will implement a coordinated interagency  approach for increasing ecosystem resiliency
   pertaining  to climate change impacts.  NOAA, USGS,  and EPA will also  work closely
   together to enhance ecosystem and watershed predictive capabilities providing  the necessary
   link between  science and management.

•  Support Great Lakes Restoration Education. EPA and NOAA will  support Great Lakes
   education  and  outreach, including  the incorporation  of Great  Lakes  protection  and
   stewardship  criteria into education  curricula.   EPA and NOAA will foster  additional
   engagement and communication of stewardship  principles.

•  Support Partnerships.   EPA will lead and support coordination and collaboration among
   Great Lakes  partners to ensure  that Initiative actions, projects,  and programs are efficient,
   effective, and supportive  of the US- Canada GLWQA. The Department  of State will support
   the GLWQA through binational studies on cooperative efforts with Canadian partners on
   issues of binational importance.  Partnerships will be advanced and resources and capabilities
   leveraged through  existing  collaborative efforts such as the Great Lakes Interagency Task
   Force and its Regional Working Group, the US-Canada Binational Executive Committee, the
   State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference,  the US-Canada Great Lakes Binational Toxics
   Strategy, Lakewide Management Plans, the Coordinated  Science Monitoring  Initiative and
   Great Lakes Fisheries management.

EPA has led the Interagency Task Force in development of provisional funding allocations for
member agencies. Final funding allocations will be informed by experience with  FY 2010 and
FY 2011 funding and the need  for adjustments to Great Lakes priorities. One factor in the need
for adjustments will be the extent to which the  priority of keeping Asian Carp out of the Great
Lakes has been incorporated in  agency base budgets. EPA, following consultation with members
                                          352

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of the Interagency Task Force, will select the programs and projects for funding.  Provisional
allocations for the respective focus areas are:
Summary of Proposed FY 2010, FY 2011 and FY 2012 Provisional Allocations by Focus Areas
(Dollars in Thousands)
Focus Area
Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern
Invasive Species
Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution
Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration
Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation,
Communication, and Partnerships

FY10
$146,946
$60,265
$97,331
$105,262
$65,196
$475,000
FY11
$101,364
$43,303
$54,402
$60,377
$40,554
$300,000
FY12
$117,000
$56,000
$72,000
$70,000
$35,000
$350,000
Performance Targets:
Measure
Type



Output



Measure
(626) Number of Areas
of Concern in the Great
Lakes where all
management actions
necessary for delisting
have been
implemented
(cumulative).
FY 2010
Target



1



FY 2010
Actual



1



FY2011
CR
Target



1



FY 2012
Target



3



Units



AOCs



Measure
Type




Output



Measure
(629) Number of
multi-agency rapid
response plans
established, mock
exercises to practice
responses carried out
under those plans,
and/or actual response
actions (cumulative).
FY 2010
Target




4



FY 2010
Actual








FY2011
CR
Target




4



FY 2012
Target




10



Units



Number
Responses/Plans



Measure
Type
Output
Measure
(635) Number of acres
of coastal, upland, and
island habitats
protected, restored and
enhanced (cumulative).
FY 2010
Target
15,000
FY 2010
Actual

FY2011
CR
Target
15,000
FY 2012
Target
20,000
Units
Acres
                                          353

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Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(433) Improve the
overall ecosystem
health of the Great
Lakes by preventing
water pollution and
protecting aquatic
systems (using a 40-
point scale.)
FY 2010
Target



No Target
Established



FY 2010
Actual







FY2011
CR
Target



23.4



FY 2012
Target



23.9



Units



Scale




Measure
Type


Outcome


Measure
(606) Cubic yards of
contaminated sediment
remediated (cumulative
from 1997) in the
Great Lakes.

FY 2010
Target


6.3


FY 2010
Actual


7.3

FY2011
CR
Target


8


FY 2012
Target


8.7


Units

Cubic Ycirds
(million)


Measure
Type


Outcome



Measure
(620) Cumulative
percentage decline for
the long-term trend in
concentrations of PCBs
in whole lake trout and
walleye samples.

FY 2010
Target


10



FY 2010
Actual


43


FY2011
CR
Target


37



FY 2012
Target


40



Units


Percent
Decline


Measure
Type
Outcome
Measure
(625) Number of
Beneficial Use
Impairments removed
within Areas of
Concern.
FY 2010
Target
20
FY 2010
Actual
12
FY2011
CR
Target
26
FY 2012
Target
31
Units
BUIs
Removed

Measure
Type

Outcome


Measure
(630) Five-year
average annual
loadings of soluble
reactive phosphorus
(metric tons per year)

FY 2010
Target

0


FY 2010
Actual



FY2011
CR
Target

0


FY 2012
Target

0.5


Units

Average
Loadings

354

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Measure
Type

Measure
from tributaries
draining targeted
watersheds.
FY 2010
Target

FY 2010
Actual

FY2011
CR
Target

FY 2012
Target

Units


Measure
Type

Efficiency


Measure
(623) Cost per cubic
yard of contaminated
sediments remediated
(cumulative).

FY 2010
Target

200


FY 2010
Actual



FY2011
CR
Target

200


FY 2012
Target

200


Units

Dollars/Cubic
Yard

Measure
Type



Output



Measure
(637) Percent of days
of the beach season
that the Great Lakes
beaches monitored by
state beach safety
programs are open and
safe for swimming.
FY 2010
Target







FY 2010
Actual







FY2011
CR
Target







FY 2012
Target



94



Units



Percent Days



Measure
Type

Output

Measure
(627) Number of non-
native invasive species
newly detected in the
Great Lakes
ecosystem.
FY 2010
Target

1.1

FY 2010
Actual



FY2011
CR
Target

1.0

FY 2012
Target

1.0

Units

Number of
Species


Measure
Type

Output



Measure
(628) Acres managed
for populations of
invasive species
controlled to a target
level (cumulative).

FY 2010
Target

1,000



FY 2010
Actual




FY2011
CR
Target

1,500



FY 2012
Target

2,600



Units

Number of
Acres


355

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Measure
Type


Output


Measure
(632) Acres in Great
Lakes watershed with
USDA conservation
practices implemented
to reduce erosion,
nutrients, and/or
pesticide loading.
FY 2010
Target


2%
increase


FY 2010
Actual





FY2011
CR
Target


2%
increase


FY 2012
Target


807
/O
increase


Units


Percent
(Acres)


Measure
Type


Output


Measure
(633) Percent of
populations of native
aquatic non-threatened
and non-endangered
species self-sustaining
in the wild
(cumulative.)
FY 2010
Target


33%;
48/147


FY 2010
Actual





FY2011
CR
Target


33%;
48/147


FY 2012
Target


35%;
51/147


Units


Number of
Species



Measure
Type


Output



Measure
(634) Number of acres
of wetlands and
wetland-associated
uplands protected,
restored and enhanced
(cumulative).

FY 2010
Target


5,000



FY 2010
Actual





FY2011
CR
Target


5,000



FY 2012
Target


7,500



Units


Acres


Measure
Type
Output
Measure
(636) Number of
species delisted due to
recovery.
FY 2010
Target
0
FY 2010
Actual

FY2011
CR
Target
0
FY 2012
Target
1
Units
Species
EPA will track and report on progress under the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan
through annual reporting on the 28 measures in the Action Plan.  EPA also will report on the
following subset of those measures, including reporting progress in each of the focus areas of the
Initiative, through the federal planning and budget process.

Much has been accomplished under the GLRI since the targets were set, including issuing
Interagency Agreements with all key federal agencies; addressing the Asian Carp emergency in
the Great Lakes; issuing and starting numerous projects; and issuing a Request for Proposals by
which over $160 million in grants were selected. GLRI Action Plan targets were ambitious, yet
                                          356

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achievable. However, reaching the GLRI Action Plan targets for FY 2011 and FY 2012 is
dependent upon many moving pieces falling into place.  There have been several contributing
factors to delays in hitting Action Plan targets, including applicants for Legacy Act projects have
not secured the matching funds required by statute, so fewer new Legacy Act projects
commenced than anticipated;

However, EPA is working to address these challenges.  To accelerate AOC remediation, EPA
will work to generate match funding from industry.  EPA will continue to coordinate with
Superfund and RCRA corrective action programs to explore betterment opportunities, and to
seek to "dovetail" regulatory and enforcement actions with Legacy Act projects.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):
    •   (-$143.0) This reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs  for existing FTE.

    •   (-$124,760.0) Decreased funding allows EPA and partner agencies to address the most
       important Great Lakes priorities in difficult economic times; however, there will be
       impacts to each of the GLRI Focus Areas. Funding will be targeted to minimize the
       impact of the reduction to on-the-ground and in-the-water actions, such as restoration of
       beneficial uses in Areas of Concern, including Great Lakes Legacy Act projects;
       nearshore work and habitat restoration in support of delistings of AOCs; and
       development and implementation of ballast water treatment and other efforts to prevent
       invasive species from entering the Great Lakes.

    •   (+1.0 FTE) The FTE increase will support management and oversight of grants and
       contracts necessary for implementation of the program.

    •   (-$97.0) This reflects a reduction in travel.

Statutory Authority:

1990 Great Lakes Critical Programs Act; 2002 Great Lakes and Lake Champlain Act (Great
Lakes Legacy Act); CWA; Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act of 1990;
Estuaries and Clean  Waters Act of 2000;  North American Wetlands Conservation Act; US-
Canada Agreements; WRDA;  1909 The Boundary Waters Treaty; 1978  Great Lakes Water
Quality Agreement (GLWQA);  1987 GLWQA; 1987 Montreal Protocol  on Ozone Depleting
Substances; 1996 Habitat Agenda; 1997 Canada-U.S. Great Lakes Bi-national Toxics Strategy.
EPA is again  proposing the statutory language pertaining to administrative provisions which was
included in the FY  2010  Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies
Appropriations Act.   Among other things, the language would give EPA independent statutory
interagency agreement authority and implementing grant authority in support of the Initiative and
the Great Lakes  Water Quality Agreement, and additional sediment remediation authority.
Continuation  of this authority is important to the success of the Initiative. Agencies are expected
to use numerous other statutory authorities, intrinsic to  their  programs, in  support of  the
Initiative.
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                                                 Geographic Program: Chesapeake Bay
                                                      Program Area: Geographic Programs
                                                        Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                        Objective(s): Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$50,000.0
$50,000.0
48.9
FY 2010
Actuals
$53,192.7
$53,192.7
42.3
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$50,000.0
$50,000.0
48.9
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$67,350.0
$67,350.0
51.5
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
$17,350.0
$17,350.0
2.6
Program Project Description:

In May 2009, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13508 to focus work to restore the
Chesapeake Bay.  The purpose of the  Executive Order is "to protect and restore the health,
heritage,  natural resources, and social  and economic value of the  nation's largest estuarine
ecosystem and the natural sustainability of its watershed."  It also declared the Bay a "national
treasure" while simultaneously acknowledging that the past 25 years had not seen sufficient
progress in restoring the health of the Bay and its watershed. The Executive Order also tasked a
team of federal agencies to draft a way forward for protection and restoration of the Chesapeake
watershed.  This team—the Federal Leadership Committee (FLC) for the Chesapeake Bay—is
chaired by the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and includes senior
representatives from  the departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Homeland Security,
Interior and Transportation.

The FLC developed the Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed,
which was released in May 2010. The Strategy is organized around four "Goal Areas" of work:
1) Restore Water Quality; 2) Restore Habitat;  3) Sustain Fish and Wildlife; and 4) Conserve
Land and Increase Public Access,  as well  as  four Supporting Strategies:   1) Expand citizen
stewardship;  2)  Develop environmental markets; 3)  Respond to climate  change;  and 4)
Strengthen science.  The  goals laid out  in the Strategy represent objectives to be accomplished
through 2025 by the federal government, working closely with state, local, and nongovernmental
partners.   The Administration is committed to implementing the Strategy  and restoring this
magnificent ecosystem.

Actions for which EPA  is primarily responsible under the EO strategy include, but  are not
limited to:

•  Providing expectations for and directing the development of watershed implementation plans
   by the six Bay watershed states and the District of Columbia (D.C.);
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•  Establishing evaluation protocols for the watershed implementation  plans  for  achieving
   loading reduction targets under the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) to
   achieve progress toward water quality goals;

•  Maintaining a Compliance and  Enforcement  Strategy for the Bay watershed  placing a
   stronger emphasis on compliance with existing laws;

•  Undertaking new rulemakings to reduce nutrient and sediment loadings to the Chesapeake
   Bay from concentrated animal feeding operations, stormwater, new or expanding sources of
   nutrient and/or sediment, and other pollutant sources as EPA deems necessary;

•  Establishing an enhanced partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to
   accelerate  the adoption of  conservation  practices by  agricultural interests in  the  Bay
   watershed; and

•  Working with federal partners to expand the understanding of the toxic contaminant problem
   in the Bay and its watershed and developing contaminant reduction outcomes and strategies.

In May 2009, the Chesapeake Executive Council pledged to put in place by 2025 all practices
necessary to restore the Bay's water quality standards for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and
chlorophyll. Part of this new strategy to accelerate the pace of Bay restoration and become more
accountable included the setting  of specific two-year milestones for each jurisdiction to reduce
pollution to the Bay and its rivers. These milestones will contain "contingencies"  and be subject
to ongoing EPA oversight and backstopping actions where they fall short.

On December 29, 2009, EPA sent a letter to the Chesapeake Bay states that outlined the details
of a new accountability framework  and the potential  federal actions for inadequate plans  or
failure to  meet the performance  milestones established.  The federal actions letter48 noted that
EPA may exercise  its discretionary  authority to take  any or all  of the following actions  as
necessary:

   •   Expand the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit coverage
       to currently unregulated sources;

   •   Object to NPDES permits and increase program oversight;

   •   Require net improvement offsets;

   •   Establish finer scale wasteload and load allocations in the Bay TMDL;

   •   Require additional reductions of loadings from point sources;

   •   Increase and target federal enforcement and compliance assurance in the watershed;
 ! For additional information, please see http://www.epa.gov/region03/chesapeake/bay letter 1209.pdf


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   •   Condition or redirect EPA grants based on demonstrated progress; and

   •   Promulgate local nutrient water quality standards.

On December 29,  2010,  EPA established the  Chesapeake Bay Total  Maximum Daily Load
(TMDL), a historic and comprehensive "pollution diet" with rigorous accountability measures to
initiate sweeping actions to restore clean water in the Chesapeake Bay and the region's streams,
creeks and rivers.  The TMDL is required under federal law and responds to consent decrees in
Virginia and Washington D.C. dating back to the late 1990s. It is also a keystone commitment of
the EO strategy.  The TMDL - the largest ever developed by EPA - includes pollution limits to
meet water quality standards in the Bay and its tidal rivers. The TMDL is designed to ensure that
all pollution control measures to  fully restore the Bay and its tidal rivers are in place by 2025,
with 60  percent of the actions  completed  by 2017.  The  TMDL is  supported  by  rigorous
accountability measures to ensure cleanup commitments are met, including short-and long-term
benchmarks, a tracking and accounting system for jurisdiction activities, and federal contingency
actions that can be employed if necessary to spur progress.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012,  EPA is requesting $67.3 million for  the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) which
includes  work under  Executive  Order 13508.  Work  under EO 13508  can be categorized
according to the Goal Areas and Supporting Strategies identified in the EO Strategy. Most of
EPA's direct efforts center around the first goal and more detail is provided in the subsequent
narratives.

   1.  Restore Clean Water:

       •   EPA implementation of the Chesapeake Bay TMDL  for nitrogen, phosphorus, and
          sediment to meet water quality standards;

       •   EPA funding  of Chesapeake  Bay  Regulatory and  Accountability Program and
          Implementation Grants;

       •   EPA, U.S.  Department of the  Interior (DOI) / National  Oceanic and Atmospheric
          Administration  (NOAA)  research  and  partnerships  to  address  toxic pollutant
          contamination in the Bay; and

       •   EPA and U.S.  Department of Agriculture (USDA) partnership to develop  suites of
          conservation practices to improve  water quality and targeting of technical and
          financial  assistance in high-priority watersheds.

   2.  Recover Habitat:

       •   EPA, U.S.  Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), U.S. Geological Survey  (USGS),
          NOAA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USAGE), Natural Resources Conservation
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          Service (NRCS), and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) work to strengthen science support
          for habitat restoration;

       •  USFWS, NOAA, USGS; NRCS,  Federal Highway  Administration (FHWA),  and
          National  Park Service (NFS) partnership  to  restore  and enhance wetlands and to
          conduct supporting research;

       •  USD A, USFS, and USFWS partnership to restore riparian forest buffers; and

       •  USFWS, NOAA, and NRCS work to restore historical  fish migratory routes.

   3.   Sustain Fish and Wildlife:

       •  NOAA and USAGE work to restore native oyster habitat and populations;

       •  NOAA work to rebuild the blue crab population target;

       •  USFWS, USFS, and NOAA work to restore brook trout, black duck, and other
          species; and

       •  NOAA,  USAGE,  USFWS,  USGS,  states,  and local organizations  partners to
          strengthen science support to sustain fish and wildlife.

   4.   Conserve Land and Increase Public Access:

       •  DOT, USD A, NOAA, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Department of
          Defense  (DOD),  states,  and  local agencies collaboration  on  the launch of  a
          Chesapeake Treasured Landscape Initiative;

       •  NFS, USFWS, USD A, NOAA, USGS, DOT, and U.S.  Department of Housing  and
          Urban Development (HUD) work on coordinated conservation actions; and

       •  Watershed-wide GIS-based land conservation targeting system.

The schedule for this work will be established in annual action plans  released by the FLC, the
first of which was released in September 2010. The success of this work will be documented in
annual progress reports released by the FLC,  the first of which will be released in early 2012.
EO 13508 requires publication of the annual action plans and progress reports by the FLC.

Highlights of EPA's Actions to Restore Clean Water

EPA's focus in FY 2012 will be to  continue to improve  the rate of progress in the Chesapeake
Bay watershed by  meeting the President's expectations as described in EO  13508, using the
Agency's  existing  statutory authority, implementing  the Chesapeake  Bay TMDL, developing
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more rigorous regulations, providing  states with  the tools necessary for effective regulatory
implementation,  creating better tools for scientific analysis and accountability,  and supporting
regulatory compliance and enforcement.  The requested FY 2012 funding will allow EPA to
continue to provide state implementation and enforcement grants worth a total of $25.3 million
and to implement key initiatives under EO 13508, including: updating the TMDL and Watershed
Implementation Plans (WIPs)  as envisioned in  Phase II;   implementing the TMDL; assisting
states in their Phase II watershed plans and conducting  evaluations of them for reasonable
assurance; maintaining enhanced oversight of state permitting  and compliance actions for the
various  sectors;  developing new regulations  for  animal  feeding operations and  stormwater
discharges;  developing  a  publicly accessible  TMDL tracking  and  accountability system;
deploying technology to integrate discrete Bay data systems  and to  present  the  data in an
accessible  accountability  system  called  ChesapeakeSfatf;   implementing  a  Bay-specific
enforcement and compliance initiative; and moving forward on the Bay's challenges related to
toxic contaminants.

The  Chesapeake Bay  Program (CBP) partnership is using independent  program performance
evaluation  to  critically  review  components  of the CBP and  support enhanced "adaptive
management" efforts.  EPA also will join the states in establishing two-year milestones for the
outcomes outlined in the EO strategy.  The first set of two-year milestones is expected to be
released in FY 2012.

A centerpiece of EPA's FY 2012 activities is the  implementation of the nation's largest and most
complex TMDL for the entire  Chesapeake Bay  watershed.  A TMDL is  essentially a plan that
defines how much of a particular pollutant may be discharged into a particular waterbody while
allowing the waterbody  to meet its water quality standards and designated uses. EPA released
the final TMDL in December 2010.  Prior to that release, the Bay jurisdictions developed WIPs
that  included specific timelines for enhancing programs  and implementing  actions to reduce
pollution, with all  measures needed to reach the TMDL pollution load limits in place no  later
than 2025.   In FY 2011 and FY 2012, the Chesapeake Bay jurisdictions will  be expected to
develop and implement second-generation WIPs that  define  how the  jurisdictions'  TMDL
allocations will be achieved, in part, through local  efforts.   EPA expects that by 2017, pollution
controls will be in place that should  result  in  approximately 60 percent of the  required
reductions.

To support the TMDL,  EPA will develop and initiate a tracking and accountability system to
ensure that the Bay jurisdictions are effectively implementing the  TMDL. EPA will support an
increase  of 35  sampling  sites  in the  Chesapeake Bay Program's  nontidal water-quality
monitoring network to better track TMDL progress.  The sampling sites  will provide better
measurements of nutrient and  sediment  load changes for  major  sources of pollution in more
localities.   EPA will  invest in bringing more  non-traditional  monitoring  partners, including
watershed organizations, permittees, and local  governments  - into the monitoring network,
increasing the data available to assess stream  and Bay health and responses to management
actions.

In FY  2012,  EPA will use its  technical and  scientific  analysis capabilities  to provide
implementation support  and guidance to the states  and thousands of local  governments that will
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be instrumental in meeting the TMDLs allocations. EPA will assist the jurisdictions in making
scientifically  informed  determinations  of the  most  effective ways to  meet their TMDL
obligations that will provide  individually tailored  solutions.   Also, EPA is conducting
assessments of state  developed offset  and trading programs to ensure that they  meet the
expectations for such programs expressed in the TMDL. The refinement and implementation of
this program will continue in FY 2012 to aid in identifying cost-effective solutions for meeting
the TMDL waste load and load allocations throughout  the watershed. EPA's Air and  Radiation
program will work with Region 3 and the Chesapeake  Bay Program Office to analyze whether
additional reductions are needed to meet the air deposition load allocations.

In FY 2012, EPA also will continue the development and implementation of new regulations to
protect and restore the Chesapeake Bay.  EPA  will continue  work on  rulemakings  under the
Clean Water Act to reduce nitrogen,  phosphorus,  and sediment pollution  in the Bay from
concentrated animal feeding operations, stormwater  discharges from  new and redeveloped
properties, new or expanded discharges, and other pollutant discharges as necessary.

EPA will use its resources to develop the scientific underpinnings of the new regulations, which
likely will include enhanced understanding  of the loads contributed by various pollution sources
in specific geographies.  EPA's Air and Radiation program is developing three rules that could
affect ambient air levels of NOx and, therefore, the deposition of nitrogen in the Chesapeake
Bay:  1)   a  replacement  rule   for  the  court-remanded Clean Air  Interstate Rule; 2) the
reconsideration of the ozone standard that was promulgated in 2008; and 3) a secondary standard
for oxides of nitrogen and sulfur.

EPA will  continue to support implementation of environmental market mechanisms as a means
of achieving the goals  of the  TMDL.  Environmental market approaches show promise for
encouraging innovation and investment in  conservation, improving accountability,  reducing
costs of restoration, expanding opportunities for landowners,  and creating new private incentives
for conservation and restoration.  The basic premise of an environmental  market is that an entity
that needs to reduce its effects on the environment can purchase  credits to offset an equivalent or
greater amount of environmental improvement.  The Bay TMDL establishes the expectation that
the Bay jurisdictions will expand or establish nutrient credit trading and offset programs to allow
development while continuing to reduce pollutant loads to the Bay and its tributaries.  EPA also
is participating in the federal  Environmental Markets Team, which includes more than 12
agencies   working together  to foster the  expansion of  water  quality  trading  and  other
environmental  markets.

To ensure that the states are  able to meet EPA's expectations under the TMDL  and new
rulemakings, EPA will continue and, in  some cases, expand its broad range of grant programs.
EPA will direct investments toward key local governments and watershed organizations based on
their ability to reduce nutrient  and sediment loads via key sectors such as development and
agriculture in urban and rural  areas.  Most significantly, EPA will increase funding for state
implementation and enforcement from $20.3 million to $25.3 million, including $5 million for
implementation of the jurisdictions' WIPs.  This additional funding will  be targeted toward
supporting activities at the local level to implement the WIPs. EPA has developed new guidance
for implementation grants that ensures a high level  of accountability for the use  of these
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resources.   These grants are an  essential  part  of achieving  the  goals  established for the
Chesapeake Bay and its watershed.

EPA's Chesapeake Bay Program has established a high level of accountability and transparency.
The  next step in meeting  that commitment to program partners and  stakeholders is the
development of the Chesapeake Registry and Chesapeake^fatf.  The Chesapeake Registry gathers
project  and   resource  information  from  all  Bay  partners,  including non-governmental
organizations,  to track  partner  actions with current and expected  progress  against explicit
environmental measures and outcomes (i.e., restored water quality, aquatic habitat and fisheries,
healthy watersheds, and fostered  stewardship).  In FY 2012, EPA will work with key partners to
integrate their existing internal partner performance management data systems and refine the
Chesapeake Registry to better support state and federal implementation efforts.

ChesapeakeStat  is a  key element in  the next  generation of tools EPA  is  developing to
significantly enhance the accountability of program partners.  ChesapeakeStat  is a web based,
geo-enabled tool for performance-based interactive decision-making for all Bay partners.   The
system allows the public to  track progress and become informed and engaged in restoring the
Bay.  A key feature of Chesapeake^fatf is the ability to target resources and activities to ensure
that taxpayer dollars are used most effectively. ChesapeakeStat provides an interface for existing
discrete systems and a newly deployed enterprise data engine for the Chesapeake Bay.  In FY
2012, the Agency continue refining  and improving Chesapeake<5Yotf.

Ensuring that the regulated community complies with the appropriate regulations is an essential
responsibility for achieving the goals established for the Chesapeake  Bay and its watershed.  In
FY 2012, the continued implementation of the Compliance and Enforcement Strategy for the Bay
Watershed  will target sources of pollution impairing the Bay.  EPA's multi-year, multi-state
strategy combines the agency's water, air and waste enforcement authorities to address violations
of federal environmental laws resulting in nutrient, sediment and other pollution in the Bay.

More specifically, EPA's compliance and  enforcement actions will be focused  on the following
areas:

   •   Identify and address  industrial,  municipal, and agricultural  sources releasing significant
       amounts of pollutants in excess of the amounts allowed by the Clean Water Act (CWA),
       the Clean Air Act (CAA) and other  applicable environmental laws;

   •   Identify nutrient and sediment impaired sub-watersheds;

   •   Identify key  regulated business  sectors  that, when  in non-compliance with current
       applicable  environmental  regulations,  contribute  significant amounts  of nutrients,
       sediment and other pollutants to the Bay.  The key regulated sectors,  some of which are
       also National Enforcement Initiatives for EPA, are:

          o   Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO),

          o   Municipal and industrial wastewater facilities,
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          o   Stormwater National  Pollution Discharge  Elimination  System  (NPDES)  point
              sources  including  Municipal  Separate  Storm  Sewer  System  (MS4s)  and
              Stormwater discharges from  construction  sites and  other  regulated  industrial
              facilities, and

          o   Air deposition sources of nitrogen regulated under the  CAA, including  power
              plants;

    •   Analyze the compliance records for facilities in the key regulated business sectors to target
       investigations and inspections;

    •   Investigate and  inspect  facilities  in the  key  regulated  business  sectors  and pursue
       appropriate enforcement actions to ensure compliance; and

    •   Identify appropriate opportunities for compliance and enforcement activities related to the
       CWA wetlands protection program,  federal facilities,  and Superfund  sites,  including
       remedial action and  removal sites, and Resource  Conservation  Recovery Act (RCRA)
       corrective action facilities.

In addition, enforcement resources will support the Agency's priority to restore the Chesapeake
Bay by providing information about wet weather sources of pollution.   This will result in an
increase in knowledge, use,  transparency,  and public access to data about wet weather sources
through: a) building an electronic reporting  module for getting non-major permit data into the
Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)-NPDES to pilot with states in the Chesapeake
Bay; b) building and  deploying  targeted tools to help  identify the most significant sources of
noncompliance  and  discharges  of pollutants most responsible  for  the impairment of this
important water body; and c) making all non-enforcement confidential data available, with easy-
to-use tools to aid in the public's ability to use and understand the data.

Work under this program project  supports the Agency's High Priority Performance Goal
(Priority Goal), addressing Chesapeake Bay water quality. A list of the Agency's Priority Goals
can be found in Appendix A. For a detailed description of the EPA's Priority Goals
(implementation strategy, measures and milestones) please visit  Performance.gov.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(cb6) Percent of goal
achieved for
implementing nitrogen
reduction actions to
achieve the final
TMDL allocations, as
measured through the
phase 5.3 watershed
model.
FY 2010
Target







FY 2010
Actual







FY2011
CR
Target







FY 2012
Target



1



Units



Percent Goal
Achieved



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Measure
Type



Outcome




Measure
(cb7) Percent of goal
achieved for
implementing
phosphorus reduction
actions to achieve final
TMDL allocations, as
measured through the
phase 5.3 watershed
model.
FY 2010
Target








FY 2010
Actual








FY2011
CR
Target








FY 2012
Target



1




Units



Percent Goal
Achieved



Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(cb8) Percent of goal
achieved for
implementing sediment
reduction actions to
achieve final TMDL
allocations, as
measured through the
phase 5.3 watershed
model.
FY 2010
Target







FY 2010
Actual







FY2011
CR
Target







FY 2012
Target



1



Units



Percent Goal
Achieved



Measure
Type




Efficiency




Measure
(233) Total nitrogen
reduction practices
implementation
achieved as a result of
agricultural best
management practice
implementation per
million dollars to
implement agricultural
BMPs.
FY 2010
Target




48,134




FY 2010
Actual




n/a




FY2011
CR
Target




48,134




FY 2012
Target




49,660




Units




Pounds/$M




For FY 2012, EPA,  along with the other  agencies involved in responding to the President's
Executive Order, will  be working toward the  12 outcomes articulated in the EO  strategy
document. These outcomes relate to  the specific actions identified in strategy.  Shorter-term
goals are identified in the annual EO action plan and will be refined in the federal two-year
milestones to be released in 2012.
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FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$5,000.0)  This reflects an increase to provide the Chesapeake Bay jurisdictions with
       additional funding to implement their  watershed  implementation plans (WIP).  This
       funding will allow  the Bay jurisdictions  to  work more closely  with  their local
       governments  to  identify and implement actions necessary  to meet the nutrient and
       sediment reductions required under the Chesapeake Bay TMDL.  This should allow the
       jurisdictions to meet the schedules identified in their WIPs and their two-year milestones.

    •   (+$10,747.0) This reflects an increase to implement the Chesapeake Bay TMDL and the
       President's Executive Order  on  the  Chesapeake Bay,  enhance state nonpoint source
       programs  and EPA  Executive  Order enforcement  activities,  and support innovative
       nutrient and sediment removal projects.  These activities include a range of reporting and
       accountability initiatives, such as expanding the Chesapeake Bay monitoring  network,
       further development of Chesapeake^fatf, continued development of the Bay Tracking and
       Accountability System, and implementation of an enforcement and compliance assistance
       strategy designed specifically for the Chesapeake Bay watershed.  This funding will also
       support EPA efforts under the President's Executive Order, including working  with
       dischargers to the Chesapeake Bay, including federal facilities and agricultural  interests,
       to reduce their pollutant discharges to the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.

    •   (+$50.0) This increase reflects additional travel to localities for WIP support.

    •   (-$580.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain categories of spending for  efficiencies and  reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to  redesign processes  and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas.

    •   (+$2,133.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •   (+5.0 FTE) This change reflects a conversion of non-payroll funding into FTE to support
       technical and legal expertise.

    •   (-2.4 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

Statutory Authority:

Clean Water Act (CWA), 33  U.S.C. 26 et seq. - Sections 1267 and 1313.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.
Clean Air Act (CAA), 42 U.S.C. 85 et seq.
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                                                Geographic Program: San Francisco Bay
                                                      Program Area: Geographic Programs
                                                         Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                        Objective(s): Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$7,000.0
$7,000.0
2.5
FY 2010
Actuals
$10,087.1
$10,087.1
1.9
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$7,000.0
$7,000.0
2.5
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$4,847.0
$4,847.0
2.3
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($2,153.0)
($2,153.0)
-0.2
Program Project Description:

The development of the Interim Federal Action Plan ("Interim Plan") for the California Bay-
Delta in December 2009 signaled the federal government's  intent to protect and restore  this
critically important ecosystem - one that provides water to 25 million residents, sustains one of
the most productive agricultural sectors in the country, and until recently supported a commercial
and recreational fishing  industry that normally contributed  hundreds  of millions  of dollars
annually to the  California economy.   The Interim Plan contained four cross-cutting federal
priorities:   1) work in closer partnership with the State of California and local  authorities to
ensure smarter water use and restore healthy ecosystems; 2) encourage smarter supply and use of
Bay-Delta water; 3) work in a focused and expedited manner to address the degraded Bay-Delta
Ecosystem; and 4) help deliver drought relief services and ensure integrated Bay-Delta flood risk
management.

Improving water supply reliability and conservation of threatened and listed  species remains a
focal point of emphasis. The federal government is participating in the development of the Bay-
Delta Conservation Plan (BDCP), a primary feature of  federal and  state collaboration on water
supply and conservation.  In addition, over the past two years, the Obama Administration has
recognized that despite the careful planning for the BDCP, more immediate actions need to be
taken in order to address the California water crisis. The  Department of the Interior (Interior), for
example, has invested over $500 million dollars in major projects to improve California's water
infrastructure, including the construction of the Delta Mendota Intertie, the Red Bluff Diversion
Facility, Contra Costa fish screen, a large number of water reuse and water conservation projects,
and the safety of improvements at Folsom Dam.

Further, U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USD A), National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps)
have undertaken a number of other activities to restore habitat, increase direct drought relief
assistance for agricultural producers, and improve water  quality. For example:

   •   American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funded projects to diversify
       wildlife refuge water supplies including a pilot project for several wildlife areas that are
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       expected to yield over nine thousand acre-feet of water per year. Construction on these
       three projects is scheduled to be completed in summer 2011;

    •   In 2010, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) developed a $10 million
       special  Environmental  Quality Incentives Program  Drought  Initiative to  allow San
       Joaquin Valley agricultural producers the  opportunity  to fallow severely eroded fields,
       rehabilitate  springs for  stock water, and undertake other critically needed conservation
       measures;

    •   In an effort to assess the effectiveness of current water quality regulation in the Bay-Delta
       and its tributaries, EPA will soon issue an advance notice  of proposed rulemaking that
       will  focus  on water quality impacts to Bay-Delta aquatic  life from pollutants  such  as
       ammonia, selenium, pesticides, emerging contaminants and water quality factors (such as
       salinity and temperature) that restrict estuarine habitat and migratory areas; and

    •   The  Administration also plans to continue,  as  needed, water augmentation activities
       developed in FY 2010 to provide increased assurance of available water supply from the
       Central Valley Project (CVP).

The Department of the Interior and the Council on Environmental Quality co-chair the Federal
Leadership  Committee for the Bay-Delta.    Other member agencies are the Departments  of
Commerce,  Agriculture, the Army (Civil Works), and EPA.  Each of these Departments and their
agencies are responsible for commitments under the Interim Federal Action Plan.
EPA  has  a diverse  and active  history of working with state, federal  and other stakeholders
throughi
include:
throughout the entire estuary to protect water quality and ecosystem health.  Program priorities49
          Participation in federal  and state partnerships aimed at resolving the challenges of
          water quality, ecosystem health and water supplies;

          Water  quality  improvements through Total  Maximum  Daily  Loads  (TMDLs),
          National  Pollutant Discharge Elimination  System  (NPDES),  Nonpoint  Source
          Program, watershed plans and upgrading aging infrastructure;

          Support for the San Francisco Estuary Partnership (National  Estuary Program) and
          the  implementation  of the Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan
          (CCMP);

          Protection and restoration of streams and wetlands and the reuse of dredge material;
          and
49 For more additional information on program activities see:
http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/waterrights/water_issues/programs^av_delta/strategicJ3lan/
http://resources.ca.gov/bdcp/. http://deltavision.ca.gov/. http://sfep.abag.ca.gov/
https://www.cfda.gov/index?s=program&mode=form&tab=stepl&id=838eOa426684bOfeb8abf6b8e60cb326
                                            369

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       •  Predicting, mitigating and adapting to climate change impacts on water quality.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary program will focus on the following activities,
which support Goal 3 of the Interim Federal Action Plan — Addressing the Degraded Bay-Delta
Ecosystem:

       •  Provide scientific support for Bay-Delta restoration to improve the understanding of:

              o   The  causes  of decline  and  methods  for  reversing the decline  of pelagic
                 organisms in the Delta;

              o   Restoring the health of the San Joaquin River (San Joaquin River Restoration
                 Settlement Act, Public Law 111-11); and

              o   Pesticide and mercury pollutant loading.

       •  Participate  in   a  state/federal partnership to balance the competing water needs
          between  agriculture,  urban  uses and  the  environment, especially  the Agency
          commitments in the Interim Federal Action Plan of December 2009;

       •  Increase effectiveness of regulatory  programs to restore water quality and to protect
          wetlands and streams following up on the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
          related to Bay Delta Estuary water quality issues issued in 2011;

       •  Continue  a  competitive grant program  to implement projects that improve water
          quality and restore habitat in San Francisco Bay watersheds;

       •  Strengthen ongoing implementation of  the  San Francisco  Estuary  Partnership's
          CCMP by supporting a new strategic plan. Encourage focus on reducing urban runoff
          impacts on  water  quality through watershed planning, Low Impact  Development
          (LID) and TMDL implementation;

       •  Support the California Water Boards in implementing their Bay Delta Strategic Plan,
          particularly reviewing/improving water quality standards;

       •  Continue efforts to support studies that focus  on preparing for the effects of climate
          change;

       •  Continue to support restoration of wetlands acreage; and

       •  Strengthen  monitoring to  assist  in  Clean  Water Act  reporting  and  TMDL
          implementation, particularly  aimed  at  establishing a  San  Joaquin  Regional
          Monitoring Program.
                                          370

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Performance Targets:

Work under this program supports the Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems
objective. Currently, there are no performance measures for this specific program.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (+$8.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

    •   (-$2,005.0)  This reduces the FY 2010 congress!onally directed funding increase for the
       San Francisco Bay-Delta Program.

    •   (-$156.0) This reflects  a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain categories of  spending for  efficiencies  and  reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities  in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-0.2 FTE)  This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

Statutory Authority:

Clean Water Act (CWA).
                                           371

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                                                        Geographic Program: Puget Sound
                                                        Program Area: Geographic Programs
                                                          Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                         Objective(s): Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                   (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$50,000.0
$50,000.0
9.3
FY 2010
Actuals
$40,040.4
$40,040.4
8.5
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$50,000.0
$50,000.0
9.3
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$19,289.0
$19,289.0
7.7
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($30,711.0)
($30,711.0)
-1.6
Program Project Description:

The Puget Sound Program  works to protect and restore the Puget  Sound, which has been
designated as an estuary of national  significance under the Clean Water Act National  Estuary
Program (NEP).  EPA efforts are focused on the following high priority environmental activities
consistent with the State of Washington's 2020 Puget Sound Action Agenda:

    •   Improving water quality and upgrading shellfish bed classifications;

    •   Managing stormwater by implementing effective local watershed protection plans;

     •   Reducing sources of toxics and nutrients;

     •   Restoring and protecting nearshore habitat; and

     •   Improving monitoring and science.

For more information, visit: http://www.psp.wa.gov/aa_action_agenda.php50

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012,  the Puget Sound  Program will accelerate improvements to water  quality and
minimize the adverse impacts of rapid development in the Puget Sound Basin. The goal of the
Puget Sound National Estuary Program's Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan
(CCMP), approved in  2009, is  to restore  and maintain the Puget Sound  Estuary's estuarine
50 For additional information please see:
https://www.cfda.gov/index?s=program&mode=form&tab=stepl&id=e7el6b26192b86b4bala48i775e6777e
https://www.cfda.gov/?s=program&mode=form&tab=stepl&id=fe6d95fee9f929947a9876314191fded
https://www.cfda.gov/index?s=program&mode=form&tab=stepl&id=Oade65acaede2fdc28a26fGdbf43262
https://www.cfda.gov/?s=program&mode=form&tab=stepl&id=8bd234el795d2cc71f81bc4f7a92269a
                                            372

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environment by 2020, so that it will support balanced, indigenous populations of shellfish, fish
and wildlife, and support the extensive list of recognized uses of Puget Sound. The program will
significantly leverage federal funds with  state and local partners to implement the CCMP with
special focus in the following areas:

    •  Restoring and  protecting  nearshore  habitat by  implementing  projects  identified as
       priorities in consultation with federal, tribal,  state, and local partners.  EPA's target is to
       restore  and  protect  approximately one  thousand  acres  of tidally and seasonally-
       influenced estuarine wetlands in FY 2012;

    •  Providing technical and financial support to local governments to reduce the adverse
       impacts of stormwater on the health of watersheds.  Stormwater is a leading stressor on
       watershed health as identified in the 2020 Action Agenda;

    •  Reducing discharges of toxics  and  nutrient pollution by continuing to  implement
       reduction strategies developed with federal, state, tribal and local partners;

    •  Supporting species recovery efforts with federal, tribal, state, and local partners;

    •  Strengthening monitoring,  performance management and science consistent with  the
       Science Plan developed by the Puget Sound Partnership  Science Panel and the advice of
       the Puget  Sound Federal  Caucus  and Canadian partners.   Areas likely  to  receive
       continuing support will include monitoring of indicators for accountability purposes;
       database support; refinement of pathogen, nutrient and toxics loading,  circulation and
       fate models; and watershed assessment work to support more effective implementation
       activities related to water quality and salmon recovery; and

    •  Improving water quality by  supporting local efforts to identify sources of pathogen
       pollution and implementing improved practices to reduce those sources.   The goal is to
       protect human health by upgrading harvest classifications of approximately 500 acres of
       commercial shellfish beds in FY 2012.
Performance Targets:
Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(psl) Improve water
quality and enable the
lifting of harvest
restrictions in acres of
shellfish bed growing
areas impacted by
degrading or declining
water quality.
FY 2010
Target



1,800



FY 2010
Actual



4,453



FY2011
CR
Target



4,953



FY 2012
Target



5,453



Units



Acres



                                           373

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Measure
Type

Outcome


Measure
(ps3) Restore the acres
of tidally and
seasonally influenced
estuarine wetlands.

FY 2010
Target

6,500


FY 2010
Actual

10,062

FY2011
CR
Target

12,363


FY 2012
Target

13,863


Units

Acres

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$4,000.0)  This reduces FY 2010 congressionally directed funding for the Puget Sound
       Ecosystem  Research  Initiative at the University of  Washington's College  of the
       Environment.

    •   (-$25,845.0)  This reduces congressional  directed increase in funding in the FY  2010
       Budget for the Puget Sound Basin.

    •   (-$765.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency  Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain  categories  of  spending  for efficiencies and reductions,
       including advisory contracts, travel,  general services,  printing and supplies.   EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve  these savings.

    •   (-$86.0 / -1.3 FTE)  This  reflects a reduction in staff support for the Puget Sound
       Program. The reduced resources include 1.3 FTE and associated payroll of $86.0.

    •   (-$15.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

    •   (-0.3 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

Statutory Authority:

Clean  Water Act  (CWA); Water Resources  Development  Act of 1996;  Water  Resources
Development Act  of 2000;  Resource Conservation  and Recovery Act  of 1976  (RCRA);
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA); Economy
Act of 1932; Intergovernmental Cooperation Act; Clean  Air Act (CAA); Safe Drinking Water
Act (SWDA); Toxic Substances Control  Act (TSCA); Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide and
Rodenticide  Act (FIFRA);  Pollution Prevention  Act;  Marine  Protection, Research,  and
Sanctuaries Act; National Environmental Education Act.
                                          374

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                                                    Geographic Program: South Florida
                                                      Program Area: Geographic Programs
                                                        Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                        Objective(s): Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$2,168.0
$2,168.0
3.9
FY 2010
Actuals
$2,321.5
$2,321.5
2.3
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$2,168.0
$2,168.0
3.9
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$2,061.0
$2,061.0
3.9
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($107.0)
($107.0)
0.0
Program Project Description:

The federal government has made substantial progress in Everglades restoration over the past 18
months.   Several key projects have commenced which, when complete, will help to restore
critical flows to Everglades National Park and protect the Everglades ecosystem.  The U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers (USAGE) began construction of one mile of bridging on the Tamiami Trail
under  the   Modified  Waters  Delivery  authority,  the C-lll  spreader  canal,  the  C-43
(Caloosahatchee River) project,  and the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands project.  The U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service (FWS) and U.S. National Park Service (NPS) are involved in efforts to
eradicate a wide variety of invasive species throughout the region. In 2010, the U.S. Department
of Agriculture  (USDA)  acquired  easements on  26,000 acres under  the Wetlands Reserve
Program in  the Fisheating  Creek watershed, preserving working agricultural  lands that also
provide critical  water storage and filtration. These are important successes and key milestones in
the restoration of the Everglades ecosystem.

The Administration also has studied the need for additional water flow to Everglades National
Park with additional bridging along the Tamiami Trail.  A final Environmental Impact Statement
(EIS) was released in late 2010. Additionally, the USDA and the U.S. Department of Interior
(DOI) are partnering with farmers and ranchers north of Lake Okeechobee to protect the agrarian
landscape and implement conservation measures that benefit the entire Everglades ecosystem.

EPA's  South Florida program coordinates  activities in the Florida Keys, where water quality and
habitat are directly affected by the pollution from, and restoration efforts in, the Everglades. EPA
implements, coordinates, and facilitates  activities including the Clean Water Act (CWA) Section
404 Wetlands Protection Program, the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Program (CERP),
the Water  Quality Protection  Program  for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary
(FKNMS),  the  FKNMS  Water Quality Monitoring Program,  the Coral Reef Environmental
Monitoring Program,  the Benthic Habitat Monitoring Program, the Southeast Florida Coral Reef
Initiative (SEFCRI) as directed by the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, the Brownfields Program,
and other programs. For more information, visit:
http://www.epa.gov/Region4/water/southflorida/.
                                          375

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FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

All of the federal agencies contributing  to the recovery of the Everglades  Ecosystem  are
advancing one or more of the following four key goals: restoring water flow; restoring habitat;
enhancing water quality; and conserving land. The EPA South Florida program targets efforts in
support of the third goal - enhancing water quality.

    •   Finalize nutrient criteria for the State of Florida in October 2010  for lakes and flowing
       water and in August 2012 for coastal areas and estuaries, consistent with the schedule set
       out in EPA's January 2009 determination;

    •   Assist with  coordinating and facilitating the  ongoing implementation  of  the Water
       Quality Protection Program for the FKNMS, including management of long-term status
       and trends monitoring projects (water quality, coral reef, and seagrass) and the associated
       data management program;

    •   Conduct  studies to determine  cause  and  effect relationships among  pollutants and
       biological resources, implement wastewater and stormwater master plans, and provide
       public education and outreach activities;

    •   Provide monetary  and/or technical/managerial support for priority environmental projects
       and programs in South Florida, including:

             o  Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative;

             o  FKNMS Water Quality Monitoring Program;

             o  Benthic Habitat (seagrass) Monitoring Program;

             o  FKNMS Coral Reef Evaluation and Monitoring Program; and

             o  Water Quality Protection Strategy for the South Florida Ecosystem.

    •   Implement the Wetlands Conservation, Permitting, and Mitigation Strategy;

    •   Support collaborative efforts  through  interagency workgroups/committees/task forces,
       including: South  Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task  Force; Florida  Bay  program
       Management Committee; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; and  FKNMS Water Quality
       Protection Program Steering Committee;

    •   Under a consent decree, continue assistance with the development  of Total Maximum
       Daily Loads (TMDLs) for South Florida; and

    •   Assist with the development of and tracking  of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
       System (NPDES)  and other permits, including  discharge limits that are  consistent with
       state  and federal law and federal court consent decrees.
                                          376

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Performance Targets:
Measure
Type





Outcome





Measure
(sf3) At least seventy
five percent of the
monitored stations in
the near shore and
coastal waters of the
Florida Keys National
Marine Sanctuary will
maintain Chlorophyll
a(CHLA) levels at less
than to equal to 0.35 ug
1-1 and light clarity(
Kd) )levels at less than
or equal to 0.20 m-1.
FY 2010
Target





No Target
Established





FY 2010
Actual











FY2011
CR
Target





75





FY 2012
Target





75





Units





Percent
Stations





Measure
Type






Outcome







Measure
(sf4) At least seventy
five percent of the
monitored stations in
the near shore and
coastal waters of the
Florida Keys National
Marine Sanctuary will
maintain dissolved
inorganic nitrogen
(DIN) levels at less
than or equal to 0.75
uM and total
phosphorus (TP) levels
at less than or equal to
.25 uM.
FY 2010
Target






No Target
Established







FY 2010
Actual














FY2011
CR
Target






75







FY 2012
Target






75







Units






Percent
Stations







                                      377

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Measure
Type



Outcome




Measure
(sf5) Improve the water
quality of the
Everglades ecosystem
as measured by total
phosphorus, including
meeting the 10 ppb
total phosphorus
criterion throughout
the Everglades
Protection Area marsh.
FY 2010
Target



Maintain




FY 2010
Actual



Not
Maintained




FY2011
CR
Target



Maintain




FY 2012
Target



Maintain




Units



Parts/Billion




FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$86.0) This decrease reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

    •   (-$21.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work  to  redesign  processes  and  streamline  activities  in both  administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

Florida Keys  National Marine  Sanctuary  and  Protection Act  of 1990;  National  Marine
Sanctuaries Program  Amendments Act of 1992; CWA; Water Resources Development Act of
1996; Water Resources Development Act of 2000.
                                          378

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                                            Geographic Program: Mississippi River Basin
                                                       Program Area: Geographic Programs
                                                         Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                        Objective(s): Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)



Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears

FY 2010
Enacted
$0.0
$0.0
0.0

FY 2010
Actuals
$0.0
$0.0
0.0

FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$0.0
$0.0
0.0

FY 2012
Pres Budget
$6,000.0
$6,000.0
7.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
$6,000.0
$6,000.0
7.0
Program Project Description:

Resources  in  this program project -  supplemented by EPA support via the Surface Water
Protection and Gulf of Mexico programs - support grants for the implementation of state nutrient
reduction strategies, consistent with  actions outlined in the Hypoxia Action Plan 2008, and the
Action Plan II. The 2008 Action Plan describes three goals and eleven actions needed to reduce
nitrogen and  phosphorus,  including  the promotion  of effective conservation  practices and
management practices, tracking progress, reducing existing scientific uncertainties, identifying
the economic costs of hypoxia, and promoting effective communications to increase awareness
of Gulf hypoxia.51 EPA's work will  continue  to involve close collaboration with the U.  S.
Department of Agriculture's (USDA) efforts to target critical watersheds for focused nutrient
reduction efforts and the efforts of the U.S. Geological  Survey (USGS) to measure progress in
nutrient reduction within the  Basin.  EPA will focus on the most significant contributors to
sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loadings at a state and watershed scale in selecting where to
award funds.
FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

The hypoxic zone that forms in the summer off the coasts of Louisiana and Texas is primarily
caused by  excess nutrients, many of which originate from  farms, urban areas, and industrial
facilities along the Mississippi River and its major tributaries (Ohio River, Illinois River, and
Missouri River).  To address this pressing water quality challenge, EPA will continue to work
with state  and federal  partners to target the highest priority 12 digit HUC high nutrient load
watersheds  in  the  Mississippi River Basin to demonstrate how effective nutrient reduction
strategies and  enhanced partnerships, especially with the  agricultural community, can yield
significant  progress in addressing non-point source driven nutrient pollution.  A key emphasis
will be encouraging partnerships with USDA and USGS to  promote sustainable  agricultural
practices, to reduce nutrient loadings in the Mississippi River Basin, to implement monitoring
programs to measure  nutrient reductions, and to use an adaptive management approach,  as
necessary and  appropriate.   EPA has been working with  USDA's  Farm Service Agency  to
  For more information, visit: http://www.epa.gov/msbasin/.
                                           379

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identify Mississippi  River Basin states interested in participating in  a "farmable wetlands"
program that funds construction of wetlands to treat  nutrients in a very cost-effective manner.
For example, EPA's Region 5 office is assisting the  State of Minnesota to develop a farmable
wetlands pilot program in the Root River area of the  state by providing technical assistance for
the design and siting of constructed wetlands.

In FY 2012, EPA will build upon our strong coordination with USD A and invest in the highest
priority watersheds in  3-4 states in the Mississippi  River Basin through a  competitive grant
process among the states.  The states selected for funding will:  implement strong, watershed-
based  nutrient reduction strategies  for  point  and  nonpoint  sources  contributing sediment,
nitrogen, and phosphorus loading that contribute to water quality problems in nearby waters and
the Gulf of Mexico.  These programs  should  target  funds towards watersheds generating the
greatest nonpoint source loadings of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus and include monitoring
to document actual results from implemented practices.   EPA and the selected states will also
coordinate  with USDA on the Natural Resources Conservation  Service (NRCS)  Mississippi
River Basin Healthy Watershed Initiative.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program supports the Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems
objective.  Currently, there are no performance measures for this specific program.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$6,000.0 / +7.0 FTE) This reflects an increase for a competitive grant program to help
       states implement watershed-based strategies to reduce  nutrient loadings in the Mississippi
       River Basin. The additional resources include $887.0 in associated payroll for 7.0 FTE.

Statutory Authority:

Clean Water Act.
                                          380

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                                               Geographic Program: Long Island Sound
                                                      Program Area: Geographic Programs
                                                        Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                        Objective(s): Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$7,000.0
$7,000.0
0.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$6,141.9
$6,141.9
0.0
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$7,000.0
$7,000.0
0.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$2,962.0
$2,962.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($4,038.0)
($4,038.0)
0.0
Program Project Description:

EPA supports the protection and restoration of Long Island Sound through its Long Island Sound
Office (LISO), established under Section 119 of the Clean Water Act (CWA), as amended. EPA
assists the  states  in  implementing  the  Sound's  1994  Comprehensive  Conservation  and
Management Plan (CCMP), developed under Section 320 of the CWA.  EPA and the States of
Connecticut and New York work in partnership with regional water pollution control agencies,
scientific researchers, user groups, environmental organizations, industry, and other interested
organizations and individuals to restore and protect the Sound and its critical ecosystems.

The  CCMP identified six critical  environmental problem areas that  require  sustained and
coordinated action to address: the effects of hypoxia on the ecosystem, including living marine
resources and commercially valuable species, such as the American lobster; the impacts of toxic
contamination in the food web and on living resources; pathogen contamination and pollution;
floatable debris deposition; the impacts of habitat degradation and loss  on the health of living
resources; and the effects of land use and development on the Sound, its human population and
public access to its resources.  The CCMP  also identifies  public education, information, and
participation as priority action items in protecting and restoring the Sound. Priorities for CCMP
implementation with quantitative targets and timeframes were adopted in the Long Island Sound
Study 2003 Agreement.

The States of New York and Connecticut are actively reducing nitrogen through their innovative
and nationally-recognized pollution trading programs.  In 2009, 106 sewage treatment plants in
New York and Connecticut discharged 39,011  trade-equalized pounds  per day  of nitrogen to
Long Island Sound.   In  2010, the states restored or protected 1,361 acres of critical coastal
habitat,  and reopened  13.1  miles  of river  corridors to  diadromous  fish passage through
construction of fishways or removal of barriers to fish passage.  EPA will work with the states,
through the Long Island  Sound Futures Fund Grant Program, to continue to assist in restoring
                                          381

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and   protecting   critical   habitat   and   reopening   rivers   to  fish   passage.      See
http://www.longislandsoundstudy.net for further information.52

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA will continue to oversee implementation of the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) CCMP in
FY 2012 by coordinating  the cleanup  and restoration  actions  of the LISS Management
Conference as authorized under Sections 119 and 320 of the CWA.

In FY 2012, EPA will focus on the following:

    •   Reducing the area of the seasonally impaired fish and shellfish habitats through continued
       emphasis on lowering Sound nitrogen loads to  alleviate low oxygen levels (a condition
       called  hypoxia).  Specifically,  LISO will  work  with  the  States  of New York  and
       Connecticut to revise and implement the  nitrogen Total Maximum Daily Load first
       approved by EPA in April 2001;

    •   Coordinating priority watershed protection programs through the Long  Island Sound
       Management Conference partners to ensure that efforts are directed toward priority river
       and stream reaches that affect  Long Island Sound. Watershed protection and nonpoint
       source pollution controls will help reduce the effects of runoff pollution on rivers and
       streams discharging  to  the  Sound.   Restoration  and protection  efforts  will  increase
       streams!de buffer zones as natural filters of pollutants and runoff;

    •   Monitoring (year-round  and seasonal) for water quality indicators including: biological
       indicators, such as chlorophyll a, and environmental indicators such as dissolved oxygen
       levels, temperature, salinity,  and water clarity.  This monitoring will assist Management
       Conference  partners in  assessing  environmental  conditions that may  contribute to
       impaired water quality and in developing strategies to address impairments;

    •   Protecting and restoring critical  coastal habitats that will improve the productivity of tidal
       wetlands, inter-tidal zones, and other key habitats that have been adversely affected by
       unplanned development, overuse, or land use-related pollution effects through the Long
       Island Sound Futures Fund, administered by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation;

    •   Promoting  stewardship  of ecologically   and  biologically  significant  areas,   and
       identification and management of recreationally  important areas, will assist in developing
       compatible public access and uses of the Sound's resources;

    •   Coordinating with the Long Island Sound Science and Technical Advisory Committee in
       conducting focused scientific research into the causes  and  effects of pollution on the
       Sound's living marine resources, ecosystems, water quality and human uses to assist
52 For additional information see:
https://www.cfda.gov/index?s=program&mode=form&tab=stepl&id=6504cc92476fD5523fc836b5dc099c2f
                                           382

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       managers and public decision-makers in developing policies and strategies to address
       environmental, social, and human health impacts; and

   •   Coordinating with the Long Island Sound Citizens Advisory Committee to develop an
       educated  population that  is  aware of significant  environmental  problems  and  that
       understands the management approach to, and their role in, correcting problems.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(H5) Percent of goal
achieved in reducing
trade-equalized (TE)
point source nitrogen
discharges to Long
Island Sound from the
1999 baseline of
59,146TElbs/day.
FY 2010
Target



52



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
1/701 1



FY2011
CR
Target



55



FY 2012
Target



56



Units



Percent Goal
Achieved



Measure
Type
Outcome
Measure
(H8) Restore, protect or
enhance acres of
coastal habitat from the
20 10 baseline of 2,975
acres.
FY 2010
Target

FY 2010
Actual

FY2011
CR
Target

FY 2012
Target
250
Units
Acres
Measure
Type



Outcome

Measure
(h'9) Reopen miles of
river and stream
corridors to
diadromous fish
passage from the 2012
baseline of 177 river
miles by removal of
dams and barriers or by
installation of bypass
structures.
FY 2010
Target





FY 2010
Actual





FY2011
CR
Target





FY 2012
Target



38

Units



Miles
Reopened

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$4,000.0)  This reduces the FY 2010 congress!onally directed funding increase for the
       Long Island Sound program.
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    •   (-$38.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies. EPA will continue its
       work to  redesign  processes and  streamline  activities in  both  administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

Long Island Sound Restoration Act, P.L.  106-457 as amended by P.L. 109-137; 33 U.S.C. 1269.
Long Island Sound Stewardship Act, P.L. 109-353; 33 U.S.C.
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                                                   Geographic Program: Gulf of Mexico
                                                      Program Area: Geographic Programs
                                                        Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                        Objective(s): Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$6,000.0
$6,000.0
14.0
FY 2010
Actuals
57,677.7
$7,671.7
12.3
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$6,000.0
$6,000.0
14.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$4,464.0
$4,464.0
12.4
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($1,536.0)
($1,536.0)
-1.6
Program Project Description:

Over the past two years, the federal government has renewed its commitment to the Gulf Coast
region.  A series of Administration efforts have sought to better coordinate agencies' activities
strengthening the working relationship with Gulf Coast states.

In October 2009, President Obama  created the Louisiana-Mississippi  Gulf Coast Ecosystem
Restoration Working Group to consolidate and  energize federal efforts  in the two states.  The
Working Group produced a "Roadmap" that sought to remedy several policy and process issues
that were impeding restoration progress.  The process  it set in motion has improved the working
relationship  between  the  federal   and  state  governments,  and  between  federal  agency
representatives in Washington DC and the region.

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill expanded the scope and visibility of restoration needs  in a
region that had long experienced ecological impacts and highlighted the connection between
ecological health and the human environment.  Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus recognized this
critical fact in his restoration recommendation to the President, outlining clearly the linkages
between economic,  human, and environmental health and the importance of ending long-term
environmental decline  in  this region.   The President incorporated many  of the  Secretary's
ecosystem restoration recommendations when he signed Executive Order 13554, establishing the
Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force.

While the Louisiana and Mississippi coasts - two of the most critically degraded areas in the
region - were the focus of the ecosystem restoration Roadmap and related working groups, the
recently created Gulf Coast Ecosystem Task Force, chaired by EPA, has expanded the scope to
address the myriad unique environmental challenges facing  this  ecologically  rich, culturally
diverse, and economically important region.  The Natural Resources Damage (NRD)  Trustee
Council will focus on remedying the environmental impacts of the oil spill, while the Task Force
and its federal agency partners will focus their individual efforts on the broader suite of impacts
afflicting the Gulf  Coast  region.  The Task Force  also will assist the Trustee Council, as
necessary, to  implement the NRD Restoration Plan.  The Administration supports dedicating a
portion of civil penalties obtained from parties responsible for the oil  spill to the  Gulf Coast
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region; these funds will be an important resource for critical ecosystem activities by the Task
Force.

An important issue identified in the Roadmap and in Secretary Mabus' report was the need for a
broad vision and strategy to guide federal cooperative efforts to address the degradation of this
region and to reverse longstanding problems that have contributed to its decline.  EO  13554
tasked the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task  Force with developing a Gulf of Mexico
Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy within one year.  The  Strategy will  identify  major
policy areas where coordinated federal  and state action is  necessary  and also will consider
existing restoration planning efforts in the region to identify planning gaps and restoration needs,
both on a state-by-state basis and on a broad regional scale.  This strategy, combined with the
NRD restoration plan, will likely inform federal investments in ecosystem restoration in the Gulf
region over the next decade.

EPA's efforts  in the Gulf of Mexico directly support a collaborative, multi-organizational Gulf
states-led partnership comprised of regional businesses and industries, agriculture, state and local
governments,  citizens, environmental and fishery interests, and numerous  federal departments
and agencies.  The Gulf of Mexico Program is designed to assist the Gulf states and stakeholders
in developing a  regional, ecosystem-based framework for  restoring and protecting the Gulf of
Mexico.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

The  Gulf of Mexico Program Regional Partnership's environmental priority goals are healthy
and  resilient  coastal  habitats,  sustainable coastal  barriers,  wise management of sediments,
improved science monitoring and management efforts for water quality and seafood safety, and
environmental education for underserved/underrepresented communities.  These efforts will
continue to be important based  on restoring the Gulf Coast  region in the  aftermath of the
Deepwater Horizon oil spill and in support of the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force.
FY 2012 activities of the Gulf of Mexico Program and its partners will include:

Coastal Habitats Are Healthy and Resilient

Healthy and resilient coastal habitats sustain many ecosystem services upon which humans rely.
Reversing  ongoing  habitat  degradation  and  preserving  the  remaining  healthy  habitats is
necessary to protect the communities, cultures, and  economy of the Gulf Coast.  The overall
wetland loss in the Gulf area is on the order of fifty percent, and protection of the critical habitat
that remains is essential to the health of the Gulf aquatic system.  EPA has a  goal of restoring
30,600 cumulative acres of habitat by FY 2012 and  is working with the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric  Administration  (NOAA),  environmental  organizations,  the  Gulf of Mexico
Foundation, and area universities to  identify  and restore  critical  habitat.  EPA will enhance
cooperative planning and programs across the Gulf states and federal agencies to protect wetland
and estuarine habitat.

Education  and outreach are  essential to accomplish the EPA's goal of healthy and resilient
coastal habitats; Gulf residents  and decision makers  need to understand and  appreciate the
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connection between the ecological health of the Gulf of Mexico and its watersheds and coasts,
their own health, the economic vitality of their communities, and their overall  quality of life.
There also is a nationwide need for a better understanding of the link between the health of the
Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. economy.  EPA's long-term goal is to increase  awareness and
stewardship of Gulf coastal resources and promote action among Gulf citizens. In 2012, the Gulf
of Mexico Program  will  establish public  and private support for the  development  and
deployment of the Gulf Coastal Ecosystem Learning Centers Rotational Educational Exhibits
Initiative; will foster  regional stewardship and  awareness of Gulf coastal  resources through
annual Gulf Guardian Awards; and will support initiatives that include direct involvement from
underserved  and underrepresented populations  and  enhance local  capacity  to reach these
populations.

Sustainable Coastal Barriers

The Gulf Coast supports a diverse array of coastal, estuarine, nearshore and offshore ecosystems,
including seagrass beds, wetlands and  marshes,  mangroves, barrier islands, sand dunes, coral
reefs, maritime  forests, bayous,  streams, and  rivers.   These  ecosystems provide numerous
ecological  and economic benefits including water quality, nurseries for  fish, wildlife habitat,
hurricane and flood  buffers, erosion  prevention,  stabilized  shorelines, tourism,  jobs,  and
recreation. Coastal communities  continuously face  and adapt to  various challenges of living
along the Gulf of Mexico.  The  economic, ecological, and social losses from  coastal hazard
events have grown as population growth places people in harm's way and as the ecosystems'
natural resilience is compromised by development and pollution.  In order to sustain and grow
the Gulf region's economic prosperity, individuals, businesses, communities, and ecosystems all
need to be more adaptable to change.  In FY 2012, EPA will assist with the development of
information, tools, technologies, products, policies, or public decision processes that can be used
by coastal communities to increase resilience to coastal natural hazards and sea level rise.  EPA
is working with NOAA's Sea Grant Programs and the U.S. Geological Survey in support of this
goal.

Management of Sediments and Impact of Nutrients

The wise management of sediments for wetland creation, enhancement, and sustainability is of
critical importance to the Gulf Coast region, especially given locally high rates of subsidence, or
settling,  and the regionwide threat from potential  future impacts  of climate change. To
successfully sustain and enhance coastal ecosystems, a broad sediment management effort is
needed that incorporates beneficial use of dredge material, and other means of capturing all
available sediment resources.

Healthy  estuaries and  coastal wetlands depend  on a balanced level of  nutrients.   Excessive
nutrient levels can have negative impacts such as reducing the abundance of recreationally and
commercially important fishery species.  An excess amount of nutrients is identified as one of
the primary problems facing Gulf estuaries and coastal waters.  Over the next several years, the
Gulf states will establish criteria for nutrients in coastal ecosystems that will guide regulatory,
land use, and water quality  protection  decisions.   Nutrient criteria  could potentially reverse
current trends in nutrient pollution to coastal waters and estuaries, but the challenge is to prevent
                                           387

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or reduce the man-made sources of nutrients to levels that maintain ecosystem productivity and
restore beneficial uses.  In FY 2012, EPA will support coastal nutrient criteria and standards
development with a Gulf state pilot and will develop science and management tools for the
characterization  of nutrients in coastal ecosystems.  Because the five Gulf states face similar
nutrient management challenges at both the estuary level and as the receiving water for the entire
Mississippi River watershed, the Gulf of Mexico Alliance Partnership is an important venue to
build and test management tools to reduce nutrients in Gulf waters  and achieve healthy and
resilient coastal ecosystems.

Any strategy to improve the overall health of the entire Gulf of Mexico must include a focused
effort to reduce the size of the hypoxic  zone in the northern Gulf.   Actions to address this
problem  must focus on both localized pollutant addition throughout the Basin and on nutrient
loadings from the Mississippi River.  EPA, in cooperation with states and other federal agencies,
supports the long-term target to reduce the size of the hypoxic zone from approximately  17,300
square kilometers to less than 5,000 square kilometers, measured as a five-year running average.
In working to accomplish this goal, EPA, states, and other federal agencies, such as USD A, will
continue implementation of core clean water programs and partnerships and efforts to coordinate
allocation of technical assistance and funding to priority areas around the Gulf.

Specifically, in FY 2012, EPA's Mississippi River Basin program will address excessive nutrient
loadings that contribute to water quality impairments in the basin and, ultimately, to hypoxic
conditions in the Gulf of Mexico. Working with the  Gulf Hypoxia Task Force, Gulf of Mexico
Alliance and other states within the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basins, other federal agencies,
and the Gulf Ecosystem Restoration Task Force, EPA will help develop and implement nutrient
reduction strategies that include an  accountability framework for point and nonpoint sources
contributing nitrogen and phosphorus loading to the Gulf, as well as watershed plans that provide
a road map for addressing nonpoint sources.  EPA will continue to coordinate with USDA and
with federal  and state partners to  support monitoring best management practices and  water
quality improvement  through work with the partner organizations and states and to leverage
resources to focus wetland restoration and development and habitat restoration efforts towards
projects  with  the  Mississippi  River Basin that will sequester nutrients  as appropriate  from
targeted watersheds and tributaries.

Improve Science Monitoring and Management Efforts for Water Quality for Healthy Beaches

The  Clean  Water  Act provides authority and resources that are essential to protecting  water
quality in the Gulf of Mexico and in the larger Mississippi River Basin, which contributes
pollution, especially  oxygen demanding  nutrients,  to the Gulf.   Enhanced monitoring and
research  is needed in the Gulf Coast region to make data more readily available.  EPA regional
offices and the Gulf of Mexico Program Office will work with states to continue to maximize the
efficiency and utility of water quality monitoring efforts for local managers by coordinating and
standardizing state and federal water quality data collection activities in the Gulf region.   These
efforts will assure the continued effective implementation of core clean water programs, ranging
from discharge permits, to nonpoint pollution controls, to wastewater treatment, to protection of
wetlands. The Gulf of Mexico  Program is  working with NOAA, the U.S. Army Corps  of
Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey in support  of this goal.
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A central pillar of the strategy to restore the health of the Gulf is restoration of water quality and
habitat in 13  priority coastal  watersheds.   These 13 watersheds, which include 755 of the
impaired segments  identified by  states  around the Gulf,  will receive targeted technical and
financial assistance to restore impaired waters.  The FY 2012 goal is to fully attain water quality
standards in at least  132 of these segments.

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause public health advisories, halt commercial and recreational
shellfish harvesting, limit recreation,  exacerbate human respiratory problems, and cause fish
kills.  EPA is working with Mexico and the Gulf states to implement an advanced detection and
forecasting capability system  to manage harmful algal blooms and for notifying public health
managers.  The  Agency  expects to expand  the system in FY 2012  by  providing support for
taxonomy training in Yucatan and Quintana Roo which will complete  the training in all six
Mexican States.

The  Gulf of Mexico Program  Office has a long-standing commitment to develop  effective
partnerships with other programs within EPA,  other federal agencies, and other organizations.
For example, the program office is working with the EPA Research and Development Program
and other  federal agencies  to develop and implement a coastal monitoring program  to better
assess the condition  of Gulf waters.

Performance Targets:
Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(22b) Improve the
overall health of
coastal waters of the
Gulf of Mexico on the
"good/fair/poor" scale
of the National Coastal
Condition Report.
FY 2010
Target



2.5



FY 2010
Actual


Data
Avail
12/2011


FY2011
CR
Target



2.5



FY 2012
Target



2.6



Units



Scale



Measure
Type



Outcome



Measure
(xgl) Restore water
and habitat quality to
meet water quality
standards in impaired
segments in 13 priority
coastal areas
(cumulative starting in
FY 07).
FY 2010
Target



96



FY 2010
Actual



170



FY2011
CR
Target



202



FY 2012
Target



234



Units



Impaired
Segments



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Measure
Type


Outcome



Measure
(xg2) Restore,
enhance, or protect a
cumulative number of
acres of important
coastal and marine
habitats.

FY 2010
Target


27,500



FY 2010
Actual


29,552


FY2011
CR
Target


30,000



FY 2012
Target


30,600



Units


Acres


For FY 2012, the Gulf of Mexico Program will continue to support specific challenges designed
to restore and enhance the environmental and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico through
cooperative partnerships and in support of the goals of the Strategy developed by the Gulf of
Mexico Ecosystem Restoration Task Force.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$109.0)  This decrease reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •   (-$45.0) This reflects a reduction  as part of the Administrative Efficiencies Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain categories of  spending  for  efficiencies and  reductions,
       including  advisory contracts,  travel, general services,  printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •   (-$1,362.0) This reduces the FY 2010 congressionally directed funding increase for the
       Gulf of Mexico program.

    •   (-1.0 FTE) This change reflects EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the
       Agency better align resources, skills and Agency priorities.

    •   (-0.6 FTE) This decrease reflects a realignment of total FTEs to better reflect utilization
       rates.

    •   (-$20.0) This decrease in travel costs reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

Statutory Authority:

Clean Water Act.
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                                                  Geographic Program: Lake Champlain
                                                       Program Area: Geographic Programs
                                                         Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                        Objective(s): Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$4,000.0
$4,000.0
0.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$486.9
$486.9
0.0
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$4,000.0
$4,000.0
0.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$1,399.0
$1,399.0
0.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($2,601.0)
($2,601.0)
0.0
Program Project Description:

Lake  Champlain was designated a resource  of national significance by the Lake Champlain
Special Designation Act (Public Law 101-596) that was signed into law on November 5,  1990,
and amended in 2002.  A management plan for the watershed, "Opportunities for Action," was
developed to achieve the goal of the Act: to bring together people with diverse interests in the
lake to create a comprehensive pollution prevention, control, and restoration plan for protecting
the future of the Lake Champlain Basin.  EPA's efforts to protect Lake Champlain support the
successful interstate, interagency, and international partnerships undertaking the implementation
of the Plan.  "Opportunities  for  Action"  is designed  to  address various threats  to  Lake
Champlain's water  quality,  including  phosphorus  loadings,  invasive  species,  and  toxic
substances.53

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

Through  a collaborative  and transparent process, EPA works with state and local partners to
protect and  improve the Lake Champlain  Basin's water quality, fisheries, wetlands,  wildlife,
recreation, and cultural resources. FY 2012  activities include:

    •   Working with federal, state, provincial, and local  partners to address high levels  of
       phosphorous by implementing the joint Vermont and New York Lake Champlain Total
       Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) to reduce phosphorus loads from all categories of sources
       (point, urban, and agricultural nonpoint);

    •   Working with federal, state, and provincial partners to implement actions included in the
       newly  revised  Lake  Champlain Management  Plan,  developing  a  system  to  track
       implementation of those actions, and tying these actions to an adaptive management
       framework for evaluating results;

53 For additional information see: http://www.epa.gov/NE/eco/lakechamplain/index.html
 http://www.lcbp.org. http://nh.water.usgs.gov/champlain feds, http://www.cfda.gov
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•  Reviewing results of the critical source area study undertaken by the International Joint
   Commission  and beginning collaboration with Lake Champlain partners at the state,
   local, federal, and provincial levels for implementation of the recommendations from that
   study;

•  Carrying out required activities resulting  from  the Lake Champlain TMDL lawsuit and
   the Vermont National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) withdrawal
   petition;

•  Implementing an  adaptive management framework  for  evaluating  the  results  of
   management efforts in the Lake Champlain Basin on water quality and other ecosystem
   indicators.  This adaptive management plan will integrate  and complement the ongoing
   critical source area studies with sub-watershed management practices.  This plan will
   evaluate  phosphorus TMDL load allocations through quantitative methods, and be  an
   extension of the current  monitoring regime for Lake Champlain and tributaries. The
   adaptive  management plan will  include current  and  future  TMDL implementation
   scenarios, and identify cost-effective alternatives to attain TMDL load allocations;

•  Developing and implementing a tracking system for investments in Lake Champlain
   Basin restoration;

•  Preventing the  introduction of an invasive form of Didymosphenia geminata into the
   Lake Champlain Basin from the neighboring Connecticut River  watershed by expanding
   education and outreach on detection and spread prevention methods;

•  Monitoring the Lake Champlain  Basin for possible introduction of invasive species,
   including the following: Asian clam, Asian carp, and spiny waterflea;

•  Monitoring the population of alewives, a  recent invasive  species  affecting  Lake
   Champlain, and expanding efforts to educate  the  public on the perils of transporting
   baitfish.  Efforts also include harmonizing baitfish regulations in Vermont and New
   York, as  well as working to remove and/or prevent the entry or dispersal of this and other
   fish, invasive plants, and invertebrates in the Lake Champlain Basin;

•  Working with partners, such as the  Army Corps of Engineers and the New York State
   Canal Corporation, to devise means to reduce  the likelihood that new invasive species
   can enter Lake Champlain from the Great Lakes through the Champlain Canal;

•  Continuing work to understand the high seasonal concentrations of toxic cyanobacteria,
   particularly microcystin, in the northern reaches of Lake Champlain by monitoring the
   dynamics of its species composition, concentration, and toxicity levels; reporting on  its
   potential health impacts; and providing necessary information to the health departments
   of New York and Vermont to close beaches, drinking water intakes, or take other actions
   as necessary;
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   •   Implementing recommendations resulting from the climate change studies (water quality,
       precipitation, and flow) to reduce the impacts of climate change on water quality in the
       Lake Champlain Basin; and

   •   Developing new approaches to stormwater control from urban areas in conjunction with
       state partners.

Performance Targets:

Work under this program supports the Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems
objective. Currently, there are no performance measures for this specific program.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$2,566.0)  This reduces FY 2010 congressionally directed funding increases for Lake
       Champlain Basin.

   •   (-$35.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts,  travel, general services, printing and supplies. EPA will continue its
       work  to redesign  processes  and streamline  activities in  both administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

1909 The Boundary Waters Treaty; 1990 Great Lakes Critical Programs Act; 2002 Great Lakes
and Lake Champlain Act; Clean Water  Act (CWA);  North American Wetlands Conservation
Act;  U.S.-Canada  Agreements; National Heritage  Areas  Act of 2006;  Water  Resources
Development Act (WRDA) of 2000 and 2007.
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                                                          Geographic Program: Other
                                                     Program Area: Geographic Programs
                                                       Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                        Objective(s): Protect and Restore Watersheds and Aquatic Ecosystems

                                                     Goal: Cleaning Up Our Communities
                                Objective(s): Promote Sustainable and Livable Communities

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$7,273.0
$7,273.0
10.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$4,545.9
$4,545.9
9.4
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$7,273.0
$7,273.0
10.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$4, 635.0
$4,635.0
8.5
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($2,638.0)
($2,638.0)
-1.5
Program Project Description:

EPA targets efforts to protect and restore various communities and ecosystems impacted by
environmental problems.   This program is in line with  the  Administrator's  emphasis on
maintaining  a place-based focus. Under this program,  the  Agency develops and implements
community-based approaches to mitigate diffuse sources  of pollution and cumulative risk for
geographic areas.  The Agency also fosters community efforts to build consensus and mobilize
local resources to target highest risks.

Community Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE)

Through the CARE program, EPA provides funding, tools and technical support that enable
underserved  communities to create collaborative partnerships to take effective actions to address
local environmental problems.   The on-the-ground support and funding help to reduce toxic
pollution from all sources, revitalize underserved areas and improve the  health of communities
across  the nation in sustainable ways.  In dealing with multi-media, multi-layered  issues,
communities want "One EPA" and "one government" and the CARE program provides them
with this.  For each of the CARE communities, EPA works together with the community to see
their problems  holistically, the  way they  see them.  CARE  is a model for  "One  EPA,"
recognizing  that genuine  cooperation across the  agency  and an integrated way of reaching
solutions best protects the environment.

CARE is highly regarded  for its successful innovations  in cross-agency management, grants
award and administration, and most importantly, its meaningful engagements between  EPA and
the environmental justice community. The National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA)
issued a positive evaluation of the CARE demonstration program in May  2009 observing ".. .the
CARE program complements EPA regulatory strategies with place-based strategies—strategies
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that consider the local context in which environmental decisions are made and effects are felt."54
The NAPA Panel believes that the CARE approach represents a "next step"  in environmental
improvement and protection, concluding that the CARE program successfully demonstrates that
the concept works well to combine EPA expertise with community capacity-building to deliver
funding and assistance to address risks from all sources of toxics in underserved communities.

Since its launch in 2005, the CARE program has awarded 91  grants to communities across 39
states with over 1,700 partners engaged for a total of over $14 million in grants.  These grants
address one or more of EPA's priorities:  25 percent address  climate change; 50 percent address
air pollution; 50 percent address safety of chemicals; 30 percent address cleanup of communities;
and 30  percent address water issues.  Since 2009,  68 CARE communities have  leveraged an
additional $12 million in funding - with local partners providing an additional $2 million in in-
kind services; visited over 4,000 homes  providing information and/or  environmental testing;
worked to reduce risks in almost 300 schools and provided  environmental information to over
2,800 businesses and 50,000 individuals.

CARE delivers funding through two types of cooperative agreements.  In the smaller Level I
agreements,  the community, working with EPA, creates a collaborative problem-solving group
of community stakeholders. That group assesses the community's toxic exposure, environmental
problems  and priorities,  and begins to identify potential solutions.  In the larger Level II
agreements, the community, working with EPA, selects and  funds projects that reduce risk and
improve the environment  in  the  community.  The  CARE  program  ended its  successful
demonstration period in FY 2010.  The cooperative agreements issued under the demonstration
authorities of the seven environmental statutes  may not be used to support day-to-day  program
implementation. In FY 2012, EPA is requesting new grant authority to implement the CARE
program to continue serving communities across the nation.

The Northwest Forest Program

The  Northwest  Forest Program  supports  interagency  coordination,  watershed  assessment,
conservation, and restoration efforts across seven states in the Pacific Northwest.  In addition to
supporting  protection of  drinking  water  and  Total  Maximum  Daily  Load (TMDL)
implementation, the  Northwest Forest Program  includes two  collaborative, watershed-scale
monitoring programs that help characterize watershed conditions across 70 million  acres of
Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) administered lands in the Northwest. In
addition to providing status and trend  information for aquatic and riparian habitats,  the two
monitoring programs help support adaptive management and state water quality/watershed health
programs.

The Lake Pontchartrain Basin Restoration Program

Through a collaborative and voluntary effort, the Lake Pontchartrain Basin Restoration Program
strives to restore the ecological health  of the Basin by developing and funding  restoration
projects within the sixteen parishes in the basin. The program continues to support the efforts of
  http://www.napawash.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/09-06.pdf
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the Lake Pontchartrain Basin Foundation by sampling lake and tributary water quality to support
related scientific and public education projects.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, EPA  and partner  agencies will protect and  restore various  communities and
ecosystems impacted by various sources of pollution.  These  collaborative and  transparent
community-based approaches will decrease the cumulative risk for geographic areas. EPA's FY
2012 efforts will focus on the following:

CARE

A total FY 2012  investment of $2.4 million (see table 1) in the CARE program will address
pollution  problems in  underserved communities  (90  percent of  CARE  projects  are  in
Environmental  Justice  communities of  concern).  EPA will  help  underserved  and other
communities use collaborative processes to select and implement local actions and will award
federal funding for projects to  reduce exposure to toxic pollutants and local  environmental
problems.  EPA is requesting new grant authority in FY 2012 to  continue this program beyond
the demonstration phase.  Table 1 displays the multi-media structure  of the CARE program.
Table 1: FY 2012 CARE Funding by EPA Program Office
(Dollars in Thousands)

EPA Program Office
Air and Radiation Program
Water Program
Chemical Safety and Pollution
Prevention Program
Solid Waste and Emergency
Response Program
Total Funding Level

FY
$
$
$
$
$
2012 PB
687.0
573.0
587.0
537.0
2,384.0
In FY 2012, the CARE program will provide support to communities to help them understand
and improve their local environments and health by:

   •   Selecting and awarding approximately ten assistance agreements to create and strengthen
       local partnerships, local capacity, and civic engagement to improve local environments
       and health, and to ensure sustainability of environmental health efforts over time;

   •   Providing technical support and training to help CARE communities build partnerships,
       improve their understanding of environmental  risks from all sources,  set priorities, and
       take actions to reduce risks;

   •   Improving community access  to EPA programs and helping communities utilize these
       programs to reduce risks;
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    •  Continuing implementation of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Centers
       for Disease Control's Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry  (ATSDR), to
       improve support for communities by coordinating the efforts of multiple federal agencies
       working at the community level to improve environmental health;

    •  Conducting outreach to  share lessons learned by CARE communities and encouraging
       other communities to build partnerships and take actions to reduce risks; and

    •  Exploring and piloting, as appropriate, the Partners Program to provide technical support
       and access to EPA programs while outside  organizations provide  funding  to the
       community.   The  CARE Partners Program pilots  could  provide  the opportunity to
       leverage EPA's investment and allow CARE to reach  more communities than could be
       reached with increased grant funding alone.

Northwest Forest

Federal  and  state  partners implement  shared responsibilities for aquatic  monitoring  and
watershed assessment. Efforts include refinement and  utilization of monitoring approaches and
modeling  tools  and  increased integration  of monitoring  framework designs, monitoring
protocols,  and watershed health indicators.  In FY 2012, EPA will invest  $1.3 million in the
Northwest Forest Program for the following activities:

    •  Continue stream  reach sampling on 636 stream reaches and watershed condition/trend
       monitoring  in  378  sub-watersheds  in  California,  Oregon,  Idaho,  Montana,   and
       Washington;

    •  Use remote sensed data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data layers and field
       data to support a five-year trend assessment  on 5,132  6th field watersheds55 in Oregon,
       Washington, Northern California, Montana,  Idaho, Nevada, and Utah;

    •  Utilize upslope analysis,  in-channel assessments, emerging research, and decision support
       models to inform management decisions and refine future monitoring  efforts;

    •  Compile  temperature  and  macroinvertebrate  data  and  establish  300  year-round
       temperature monitoring  stations  to  support  state water  quality and aquatic  habitat
       reporting, including 303(d) listings;

    •  Complete/utilize  field reviews of grazing  activities and evaluate stream  and riparian
       conditions to tie back to monitoring trends and inform necessary management changes;
55 A 6th field watershed is a hydro logical unit. Watersheds in the United States were delineated by the U.S. Geological Survey
using a national standard hierarchical system based on surface hydrologic features and are classified into the following types of
hydrologic units: First-field (region); Second-field (sub-region); Third-field (accounting unit); Fourth-field (cataloguing unit);
Fifth-field (watershed); and Sixth-field (sub-watershed). For more information visit: http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/huc.html.
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   •   Refine shade models to assist managers in prioritizing restoration opportunities to address
       stream temperature and sediment issues;

   •   Utilize aquatic monitoring to detect invasive species in streams and riparian areas; and

   •   Assist in development of implementation-ready TMDLs and Best Management Practices
       (BMPs) for forestry practices in five Oregon coastal basins.

Lake Pontchartrain

The program will work to restore the ecological health of the Lake Pontchartrain Basin. In FY
2012, EPA will invest $955 thousand in the Lake Pontchartrain Basin Program for the following
activities:

   •   Continuing implementation of the Lake Pontchartrain Basin Program Comprehensive
       Management Plan56 (LPBCMP) to support:

             o   Planning and design of consolidated wastewater treatment systems to support
                 sustainable infrastructure;

             o   Repair and replacement studies to improve existing wastewater systems; and

             o   Investigation and design of stormwater management systems.

   •   Conducting water quality monitoring outreach and public education projects that address
       the goals of the LPBCMP to:

             o   Improve the management of animal waste lagoons by educating and assisting
                 the agricultural community on lagoon maintenance techniques;

             o   Protect and restore critical habitats  and encourage sustainable growth by
                 providing   information and guidance  on  habitat  protection  and  green
                 development techniques; and

             o   Reduce pollution  at its  source  and  determine any impacts  to Lake
                 Pontchartrain from the recent major oil spill.

Performance Targets:

Work under these programs  supports the Restore  and  Protect Critical  Ecosystems objective.
Currently, there are no performance measures for this specific program.
 'http://www.saveourlake.org/management-plan.php
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FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$24.0) This decrease reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

    •   (-$2,000.0 / -1.5 FTE) This reduces FY 2010 congressionally directed funding increases
       for the Potomac Highlands initiative. The reduced resources  include 1.5 FTE, decreased
       associated payroll of $180.0, and reduced travel of $20.0.

    •   (-$522.0) This reduces FY 2010 congressionally directed funding increases for the Lake
       Pontchartrain  Basin Restoration Program.  This reduction will reduce EPA support for
       the  implementation  of the  Lake   Pontchartrain  Basin   Program  Comprehensive
       Management Plan,  including water quality  and  infrastructure improvements and coastal
       restoration.

    •   (-$92.0) This reflects  a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts,  travel, general services,  printing and supplies. EPA will continue its
       work  to redesign  processes  and streamline  activities  in both  administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

The Lake Pontchartrain Basin Restoration Act of 2000, codified as Clean Water Act  (CWA)
§121, 33 U.S.C.  §1273,   directed EPA to establish a Lake  Pontchartrain Basin  Restoration
Program "to restore the ecological health  of the Basin by developing and funding restoration
projects and  related  scientific and public education projects." CWA  §121(b);  CWA; Water
Resources Development Act of 1996; Water Resources Development Act of 2000; Resource
Conservation  and   Recovery  Act  (RCRA);  Comprehensive   Environmental   Response,
Compensation  and  Liability  Act (CERCLA); Economy  Act  of 1932;  Intergovernmental
Cooperation Act;  Clean Air Act (CAA); Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA); Toxic  Substances
Control Act (TSCA); Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide and  Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); Pollution
Prevention Act; Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act; and National Environmental
Education Act.
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Program Area: Homeland Security
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                                   Homeland Security:  Communication and Information
                                                       Program Area: Homeland Security
  Goal:  Provide Agency-wide support for multiple goals to achieve their objectives. This support
 involves Agency-wide activities primarily provided by EPA's six (6) support offices - the Office
   of Administration and Resources Management (OARM), Office of the Chief Financial Officer
  (OCFO), Office of Environmental Information (OEI), Office of General Counsel (OGC), Office
                        of the Administrator (OA), and the Office of Inspector General (OIG).

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$6,926.0
$6,926.0
17.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$7,206.3
$7,206.3
16.0
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$6,926.0
$6,926.0
17.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$4,257.0
$4,257.0
16.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($2,669.0)
($2,669.0)
-1.0
Program Project Description:

Recent disasters and incidents continue to demonstrate that timely and effective environmental
information is key to the protection of human health and the environment.  EPA's Environmental
Information Program must play a major role to safeguard  workforce health and safety in the
event of a significant incident, a Continuity of Operations (COOP), or a pandemic situation.

The White House, Congress, and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)  have defined
their expectations of EPA during a homeland security incident through a series of statutes,
presidential directives,  and  national plans. EPA uses  the Homeland  Security Collaborative
Network (HSCN), a cross-agency leadership group, to support the Agency's ability to effectively
implement this broad range of homeland security responsibilities, ensure consistent development
and implementation of homeland security policies and procedures, avoid duplication, and build a
network of partners. EPA's homeland security program also capitalizes on the concept of "dual-
benefits" so that EPA's  homeland  security  efforts enhance and  integrate with  EPA's  core
environmental programs that  serve to protect human health and the environment.

Homeland Security information technology efforts are closely coordinated with  the agencywide
Information Security and Infrastructure  activities, which are managed in the Information Security
and IT/Data Management programs.   The upgrading and standardization of technology,  with
particular  emphasis on the Internet  Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) infrastructure,  is necessary to
provide information access during an  emergency.  This program  also enables video contact
between localities, headquarters, Regional offices, and laboratories in emergency  situations.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

EPA will update and maintain a homeland  security policy for planning,  preparedness, response
and recovery for nationally significant incidents. EPA's homeland security efforts will focus on
maintaining its preparedness  level, filling critical knowledge and technology gaps, and working
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with partners to define collective capabilities and leverage combined resources to close common
gaps.

EPA will ensure that interagency intelligence-related planning and operational requirements are
met. This  will  be achieved  through coordination with  the  U.S. Intelligence Community,
including the  Office of the Director for National  Intelligence, the Department of Homeland
Security, the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the Federal Bureau of
Investigation, the Department of Defense, and the White House National and Homeland Security
Councils.  EPA also will track emerging national/homeland security  issues in order to anticipate
and  avoid  crisis situations and  target the Agency's efforts proactively against threats to the
United States.

EPA's FY  2012 resources will support national security efforts through monitoring across the
Agency's IT infrastructure, to detect, remediate, and eradicate malicious software or Advanced
Persistent Threats  (APT)  from EPA's networks and through improved detection capabilities.
EPA will improve national security efforts, including heightened awareness and vigilance across
the Information Security community, by increasing training and awareness of these threats.

Performance Targets:

Work  under this program  supports multiple  strategic objectives.   Currently, there are no
performance measures for this specific Program Project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •  (+$150.0)  This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •  (-$159.0  / -1.0 FTE)  This  change includes $159.0 in  associated payroll  and reflects
       EPA's workforce management strategy that will help the Agency better align resources,
       skills and agency priorities by streamlining administrative management.

    •  (-$130.0) This reflects a reduction to the homeland security program's mission support
      contract.

    •  (-$11.0)  This decrease in travel  costs reflects an effort to  reduce the Agency's travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

    • (-$28.0)  This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.  This
      initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
      advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies. EPA will continue its
      work to  redesign  processes  and streamline  activities  in both  administrative   and
      programmatic areas to achieve these savings.
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   •  (-$2,491.0)   This reflects a reduction to the Agency's homeland security specific IT
      infrastructure security efforts related to the deployment of critical infrastructure in support
      of emergency response and homeland security activities.

Statutory Authority:

Homeland Security Presidential Directives, 5 U.S.C. 101 et seq.  - Sections HSPD 1-25 and
National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), 42 U.S.C. 3231 et
seq. - Sections 300,  300.1, 300.2, 300.3, 300.4, 300.5,  300.6 and  300.7 and Comprehensive
Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. 9606 et seq. -
Sections 101-128, 301-312 and 401-405 and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),
42 U.S.C. 6962 et seq. - Sections 1001, 2001, 3001 and 3005 and Safe Drinking Water Act
(SOWA) Amendments, 42 U.S.C. 300 et seq. - Sections 1400, 1401, 1411, 1421,  1431, 1441,
1454 and 1461 and Clean Water Act (CWA), 33 U.S.C. 1314 et seq. - Sections  101,  102, 103,
104,  105, 107, and Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. - Sections 102,
103,  104 and 108 and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. 2611 et seq. - Sections
201, 301 and 401 and Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),  7 U.S.C. 36
et seq. - Sections 136a - 136y and Bio Terrorism Act of 2002, 42. U.S.C. 201 et seq. - Sections
303, 305, 306 and 307 and Homeland Security Act of 2002, 116 U.S.C. 2135 et seq. - Sections
101,  102,  103, 201,  202, 211-215, 221-225,  231-235 and 237  and Post-Katrina Emergency
Management Reform Act, 6 U.S.C. 772 et seq. - Sections  501, 502, 503, 504, 505,  506, 507,
508,  509, 510, 511, 512 and 513  and Defense  Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, 50
U.S.C. 2302 et seq. - (Title XIV of Public Law 104-201).
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                                   Homeland Security:  Critical Infrastructure Protection
                                                         Program Area: Homeland Security
                           Goal: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
                                                         Objective(s): Improve Air Quality
                                                         Goal: Protecting America's Waters
                                      Objective(s): Protect Human Health Water Safe for Use
                                                      Goal: Enforcing Environmental Laws
                                                 Objective(s): Enforce Environmental Laws

                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Hazardous Substance Superfiind
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$6,836.0
$23,026.0
$1,760.0
$31,622.0
49.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$6,805.1
$20,954.9
$1,269.5
$29,029.5
46.4
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$6,836.0
$23,026.0
$1,760.0
$31,622.0
49.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$1,065.0
$11,379.0
$0.0
$12,444.0
25.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($5,771.0)
($11,647.0)
($1,760.0)
($19,178.0)
-24.0
Program Project Description:

This program includes a number of EPA activities that coordinate and support the protection of
the nation's critical public infrastructure from terrorist threats.  EPA activities support effective
information sharing and dissemination to help protect critical water infrastructure.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

Information Sharing Networks & Water Security

In FY 2012, EPA will continue to build its capacity to identify and respond to threats to critical
national  water infrastructure.  EPA's wastewater  and  drinking water security efforts  will
continue to support  the  water sector  by  providing  access  to information  sharing tools  and
mechanisms  that  provide  timely information  on  contaminant properties, water treatment
effectiveness, detection technologies, analytical protocols, and laboratory capabilities for use in
responding  to  a  water contamination  event.   EPA  will  continue to  support effective
communication conduits to  disseminate threat  and  incident  information and to  serve  as  a
clearing-house for sensitive information. EPA promotes information sharing  between the water
sector  and  such  groups as  environmental professionals and  scientists, emergency  services
personnel, law enforcement, public health agencies, the intelligence community, and technical
assistance providers.   Through such exchange, water systems can obtain up-to-date information
on current technologies in water security, accurately assess their vulnerabilities to terror acts, and
work cooperatively with public health officials, first responders, and law enforcement  officials to
respond effectively in the event of an  emergency.
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EPA continues to partner with available information sharing networks to promote drinking water
and wastewater utilities'  access  to  up-to-date security  information.  In FY 2012,  EPA will
continue efforts to increase the water sector's participation in these critical networks. This effort
will ensure that these utilities have access to a comprehensive  range of important  materials,
including tools, training,  and protocols,  some  of which may be  sensitive and therefore  not
generally available through other means. In addition to providing a vehicle for utilities to access
these  materials, EPA will continue to develop materials to ensure that utilities have the most
updated information.  This work also will enable participating water utilities of all sizes to gain
access to a rapid notification system. Participating utilities will then receive alerts about changes
in the homeland  security  advisory level or to regional and national trends in certain types of
water-related incidents. For example,  should there be types of specific water related incidents
that are  re-occurring,  the alerts  distributed to the utilities will make note of the increasing
multiple occurrences  or  "trends" of  these incidents.   Access to such  information  sharing
networks allows the water sector not  only to improve their understanding of the latest water
security  and resiliency protocols and threats, but also to reduce their risk by enhancing their
ability to prepare for an emergency.  The  FY 2012 request level  for the information sharing
networks is $1.1 million.

Counterterrorism

There is no request for this program in FY 2012.

Monitoring

There is no request for this program in FY 2012.

Performance Targets:

Work under this  program  supports multiple strategic  objectives.   Currently, there are no
performance measures for this specific Program Project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (+$2.0) This increase reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing FTE.

   •   (-$1,494.0)  This reduction reflects decreased federal support for the water information
       sharing networks in FY 2011  and  FY 2012 as it transitions to a subscription based
       program and meets intended programmatic goals by FY 2012.

   •    (-$540.0) This reduction  eliminates travel and expense resources that support regional
       water response teams.

   •   (-$9.0) This reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies. EPA will continue its
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       work  to redesign processes  and  streamline  activities  in both  administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

   •   (-$1,114.07-1.0 FTE) This reduction reflects  the development of effective monitoring
       modeling methodologies to demonstrate the effects of air threats to air quality in the
       United States for use  in emergency response situations.  This reduction includes 1.0 FTE
       and associated payroll of $123.0.

   •   (-$2,616.0 7 -11.8 FTE)  EPA does not need to maintain separate capacity to support
       environmental  criminal investigations and training for terrorism-related investigations.
       This reduction  reflects  the   increased capacity  of other agencies  to  handle  the
       environmental  forensics  work associated  with potential  homeland security  related
       incidents. This reduction includes $1,980.0 in associated payroll for 11.8 FTE.

Statutory Authority:

SOW A, 42 U.S.C. §300f-300j-9 as added by Public Law 93-523 and the amendments made by
subsequent enactments,  Sections - 1431, 1432, 1433, 1434, 1435; CWA,  33 U.S.C.  §1251 et
seq.; Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Emergency and Response Act of 2002.
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                             Homeland Security: Preparedness, Response, and Recovery
                                                       Program Area: Homeland Security
                            Goal: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                                                     Objective(s): Ensure Chemical Safety

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Hazardous Substance Superfimd
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$3,423.0
$41,657.0
$53,580.0
$98,660.0
174.2
FY 2010
Actuals
$4,264.2
$37,697.9
$51,558.9
$93,521.0
176.4
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$3,423.0
$41,657.0
$53,580.0
$98,660.0
174.2
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$0.0
$30,078.0
$40,662.0
$70,740.0
170.9
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($3,423.0)
($11,579.0)
($12,918.0)
($27,920.0)
-3.3
Program Project Description:

EPA plays a lead role in protecting U.S. citizens and the environment from the effects of attacks
that release chemical, biological, and radiological agents. EPA's Homeland Security Emergency
Preparedness and Response Program  develops and maintains an  agencywide capability to
prepare for and respond to large-scale  catastrophic incidents with emphasis on those that may
involve Weapons  of Mass  Destruction  (WMD). EPA continues  to  increase the  state of
preparedness for homeland security incidents.  The response to chemical agents is different from
the response to biological  agents, but for both, the goals are to facilitate preparedness,  guide the
appropriate  response by  first responders, ensure safe re-occupancy  of buildings  or other
locations, and protect the production of crops, livestock, and food in the U.S. In the case of
chemical agents,  EPA develops  new information to  assist emergency  planners  and  first
responders in assessing immediate hazards.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

There is no request for this program in FY 2012.

Performance Targets:

This program has consistently exceeded its performance targets in past years in developing
Proposed AEGL values.  Work under this program also supports performance results in Toxic
Substances - Chemical  Risk Review and Reduction and can be found in the Performance Four
Year Array in Tab 11.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

   •   (-$1,589.07-1.0 FTE)  This reduction reflects the elimination of EPA's support for the
       development and refinement of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs), a program
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       for  developing  scientifically  credible limits  for short-term  exposures  to  airborne
       concentrations of acutely  toxic high-priority chemicals.   Work to develop proposed
       values will be completed in FY 2011. Most of the proposed values have already been
       elevated to Interim status and are being implemented. The reduced resources include 1.0
       FTE and associated payroll of $155.0.

   •   (-$369.07-2.0 FTE) This reflects the redirection of pesticide program resources to support
       core program operations in Pesticides: Protect Human Health from Pesticide Risk. This
       will impact efficacy testing of chemicals and pesticides for decontamination of food and
       agricultural facilities and disinfectants for hospital use.  The reduced resources include
       2.0 FTE and associated payroll of $311.0.

   •   (-$1,409.0) This reflects decreased support for homeland security pesticides related
       activities.  This reduction is possible since EPA has assisted the Department of Homeland
       Security (DHS) and other agencies in completing guidance on  procedures, plans, and
       technologies  to  restore airports  following  a biological  attack,  and  completed  the
       development of a risk management framework for decision-makers for restoration and
       recovery from a biological incident, including response to and recovery from Bacillus
       anthracis contamination of a large urban area.

   •   (-$56.0) This reflects reduced costs for IT security and integration services.

Statutory Authority:

Public Health Security  and Bioterrorism Emergency and Response Act  of 2002; CERCLA;
SARA; TSCA; Oil Pollution  Act; Pollution Prevention Act; RCRA; EPCRA;  SOW A; CWA;
CAA; FIFRA; FFDCA; FQPA; Ocean Dumping Act; Public Health Service Act, as amended; 42
U.S.C. 201  et seq.; Executive Order 10831 (1970); Public Law 86-373; PRIA.
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                     Homeland Security: Protection of EPA Personnel and Infrastructure
                                                        Program Area: Homeland Security
  Goal: Provide Agency-wide support for multiple goals to achieve their objectives. This support
 involves Agency-wide activities primarily provided by EPA's six (6) support offices - the Office
   of Administration and Resources Management (OARM), Office of the Chief Financial Officer
 (OCFO), Office of Environmental Information (OEI), Office of General Counsel (OGC), Office
                        of the Administrator (OA), and the Office of Inspector General (OIG).

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Science & Technology
Building and Facilities
Hazardous Substance Superfund
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$6,369.0
$593.0
$8,070.0
$1,194.0
$16,226.0
3.0
FY 2010
Actuals
$6,300.3
$593.0
$9,652.1
$1,194.0
$17,739.4
3.3
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$6,369.0
$593.0
$8,070.0
$1,194.0
$16,226.0
3.0
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$5,978.0
$579.0
$8,038.0
$1,172.0
$15,767.0
3.0
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
($391.0)
($14.0)
($32.0)
($22.0)
($459.0)
0.0
Program Project Description:

This portion of EPA's Homeland Security Program is composed of the following three distinct
elements: (1) Physical Security - ensuring EPA's physical structures and critical assets are secure
and operational with adequate security procedures in place to safeguard staff in the event of an
emergency; (2) Personnel Security - initiating and adjudicating personnel security investigations;
and (3) National Security Information - classifying and safeguarding sensitive mission critical
data.

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY 2012, the Agency will focus on issuing secure and reliable identification (Smart Cards) to
all employees  and select  non-federal workers. Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)
201-1, issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, establishes the technical
specifications  for the  Smart Cards.   Additionally, EPA will continue its physical security
activities  on a regular  basis,  including conducting  security vulnerability assessments and
mitigation at EPA's facilities nationwide.

Personnel security will play a major role in the  Agency's new EPA Personnel Access Security
System (EPASS) deployment.  Concurrent with new EPASS responsibilities, the Personnel
Security Program will continue to perform position risk designations, prescreen prospective new
hires, process national security clearances, and maintain personnel security files and information.

Regarding  national  security  information,  FY  2012  activities  will  include:  classifying,
declassifying and safeguarding classified information; identifying  and marking of classified
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information;  performing education,  training,  and outreach; and  conducting audits  and  self
inspections.  In addition, certification and accreditation of Secure Access Facilities (SAFs) and
Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities (SCIFs) will continue.

Performance Targets:

Work under this  program  supports  multiple  strategic  objectives.   Currently, there are no
performance measures for this specific Program Project.

FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •  (-$31.0) This decrease reflects the recalculation of base workforce costs for existing
       FTE.

    •  (-$200.0) This reflects an efficiency achieved through combining the National Security
       Information Program and Personnel Security Program. Combining the support contracts
       for  two functionally-related, but separate programs creates a streamlining effect which
       allows for leveraging knowledge and resources between the two programs.

    •  (-$159.0) This reflects a reduction as  part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative.
       This initiative targets certain categories of  spending for  efficiencies and  reductions,
       including advisory contracts,  travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will
       continue its work to redesign processes and streamline activities in both administrative
       and programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

    •  (-$17.0) This decrease in travel costs  reflects an effort to reduce the Agency's  travel
       footprint by promoting green travel and conferencing.

    •  (+$16.0) This reflects a realignment  of general expenses  and contracts  to  support
       administrative costs.

Statutory Authority:

The National Security Strategy; Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of  2004;
Executive Orders 10450,  12958, and 12968; Title V CFR Parts 731 and 732.
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Program Area: Information Exchange / Outreach
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                           Children and Other Sensitive Populations: Agency Coordination
                                              Program Area: Information Exchange / Outreach
                               Goal: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                                                         Objective(s): Ensure Chemical Safety

                                    (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$7,100.0
$7,100.0
11.9
FY 2010
Actuals
$5,715.8
$5,715.8
13.4
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$7,100.0
$7,100.0
11.9
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$10,795.0
$10,795.0
30.9
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
$3,695.0
$3,695.0
19.0
Program Project Description:

The Agency coordinates and  advances protection of children's environmental health through
regulatory development, science policy, program implementation, communication and effective
results measurement to make protecting children an explicit part of the EPA mission to protect
human health.  The children's  health protection effort is directed by the 1997 Executive Order
13045, Protection of Children's Health from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks and
the 2010 memorandum from the Administrator, EPA 's Leadership in Children's Environmental
Health. Legislative mandates such as the Energy Independence and  Security Act of 2007 (EISA),
the Safe Drinking Water Amendments of 1996, and the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 also
direct the Agency to protect children and other vulnerable life stages.57

FY 2012 Activities and Performance Plan:

In FY  2012, EPA will continue  to use a variety  of approaches to  protect  children  from
environmental  health  hazards. Those  approaches will  include  regulation, implementation of
community-based programs, research,  and outreach.   At  the  same  time,  the program  will
periodically  evaluate  EPA's performance to  ensure  that  it is  making steady  progress.  The
Children's Health  program  will  take the lead in ensuring that EPA programs and Regional
offices are successful in their efforts to protect children's environmental health. (In FY 2012, the
Children  and other Sensitive Populations: Agency Coordination program will be funded at
$10.79 million and 30.9 FTE.)
57 The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 directs EPA to produce guidelines on the safe siting of schools and
guidelines to states on school environmental health programs in order to protect children from environmental hazards where they
leam.
The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act require EPA to strengthen protection of children by considering the risk to
the most vulnerable populations and lifestages when setting standards.
The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 amended the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and
the Federal Food Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) to include stricter safety standards for pesticides, especially for infants and
children, and a complete reassessment of all existing pesticide tolerances.
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The following are planned activities in FY 2012:

   •   As part of the Healthy Communities Initiative:  Clean, Green and Healthy Schools, the
       program will continue working internally and with other agencies,  states and tribes to
       expand coordinated implementation of successful community-based programs to improve
       children's health outcomes. Internally, EPA will continue improving coordination across
       the Agency to ensure that policies and programs explicitly consider and use the most up-
       to-date data and methods for protecting children from heightened public health risks.

   •   In addition, EPA will continue to serve as a co-lead of an inter-agency effort with the
       Department of Education,  Department of Health and Human Services and other related
       agencies to  improve  Federal government wide  support  in implementing legislative
       mandates under the EISA and coordinating outreach and technical assistance.

   •   Address the potential  for unique  exposures,  health effects,  and health risks  in children
       during the development of Agency regulations and  policies.

   •   Coordinate with internal and external research partners to fill critical knowledge gaps on
       children's unique vulnerabilities.

   •   Improve EPA risk assessment  and  science  policies and their implementation tools to
       ensure they address unique, early-life health  susceptibilities including those for multiple
       environmental hazards and stressors.

   •   Contribute to standards, policies, and guidance at home and abroad that protect children
       by eliminating potentially harmful prenatal  and childhood  exposures  to  pesticides  and
       other toxic chemicals.

   •   Increase environmental health knowledge of health care providers related to prenatal and
       childhood exposures and health outcomes with a focus on vulnerable groups.

   •   Continue to work toward the goal  of developing measures related to children's health for
       which baseline data can be collected in FY 2012, and set targets in FY 2013.

   •   Increase transparency  and coordination with states,  local communities, schools and the
       general public by supporting a  strong communications and outreach  effort to  share
       information and provide technical  assistance,  tools  and materials to schools and
       stakeholder groups.

Performance Targets:

Work  under  this  program  supports multiple strategic  objectives. Currently, there are no
performance measures for this specific Program Project.
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FY 2012 Change from FY 2010 Enacted (Dollars in Thousands):

    •   (-$903.0) This decrease reflects a reduction based on the recalculation of base workforce
       costs for existing FTE.

    •   (+$2,501.07+11.0 FTE)  This increase supports the coordination and implementation of
       EISA, providing technical assistance to states and communities on implementation of
       voluntary  school citing  and environmental health guidelines.  The resources will  also
       support the Agency's cross-program Healthy Communities Initiative: Clean, Green and
       Healthy Schools. These resources include $1,595.0 in associated payroll and 11.0 FTE.

    •   (+$1,254.07+2.0  FTE)  This  increase  reflects  the Agency's cross-program  Healthy
       Communities Initiative: Clean, Green and Healthy Schools. Funding is for coordinating
       expertise and efforts across programs  to provide technical  assistance,  develop  and
       implement tools and models, and support communication and outreach. These resources
       include $290.0 in associated payroll and 2.0 FTE.

    •   (+$870.07+6.0 FTE) This increase reflects the Agency's strategy to focus on children's
       health in Agency regulatory action and on outreach and coordination on children's health
       actions with federal, state and local government agencies. These resources include $870.0
       in associated payroll and 6.0 FTE.

    •   (-$27.0) This  reflects a reduction as part of the Administrative Efficiency Initiative. This
       initiative targets certain categories of spending for efficiencies and reductions, including
       advisory contracts, travel, general services, printing and supplies.  EPA will continue its
       work  to  redesign  processes  and  streamline  activities  in  both administrative  and
       programmatic areas to achieve these savings.

Statutory Authority:

EO 13045; Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007; Food Quality  Protection Act of
1996; Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments Of 1996.
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                                                              Environmental Education
                                           Program Area: Information Exchange / Outreach
                                                     Goal: Cleaning Up Our Communities
                                 Objective(s): Promote Sustainable and Livable Communities

                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Environmental Program &
Management
Total Budget Authority / Obligations
Total Workyears
FY 2010
Enacted
$9,038.0
$9,038.0
17.6
FY 2010
Actuals
$7,396.6
$7,396.6
14.3
FY 2011
Annualized
CR
$9,038.0
$9,038.0
17.6
FY 2012
Pres Budget
$9,885.0
$9,885.0
18.5
FY 2012 Pres
Budget v.
FY 2010
Enacted
$847.0
$847.0
0.9
Program Project Description:

This program ensures that Environmental Education (EE), based on sound science and effective
education  practices, is used as a tool to promote  the protection  of human health  and the
environment, and to encourage student academic achievement.   Environmental Education is
fundamental to EPA's  mission and  cross-cutting priorities in that it teaches the public about
choices and environmental stewardship to produce the next generation of environmentally
literate citizens and stewards, and generate support for environmental policy.

The National Environmental Education Act (NEEA) provides a foundation for the activities that
the Agency  conducts.   EPA EE programs  support NEEA, provide leadership and support and
work in partnership with K-12 schools, colleges and universities, federal and state agencies, and
community organizations to assess needs,  establish priorities, and leverage resources.  EPA's
environmental education program  encompasses education programs and activities that support
EPA's strategic  goals  and priorities. A OneEPA approach to education coordinates Agency
education  activities  to  help conserve resources, avoid  duplication, and builds upon efforts to
increase intra-agency collaboration in support of EPA's goals  and priorities.  Early examples of
this collaboration were in the publication of EPA's 2009 Environmental Education Highlights
report, which provided an inventory of education activities and accomplishments across EPA,
and the subsequent establishment of an EPA intra-agency Environmental Education Workgroup
composed of EPA staff in headquarters and regions in September 2010.  In addition to intra-
agency  coordination,   OneEPA  education activities  also  involve  inclusion  of  education
components  in existing EPA grant programs, education for the general public on their role in
rulemaking,  integration of education elements in coordinated roll-out of programs, and policies
and rules.  Environmental Education activities are also consistent with the Agency's efforts to
promote education in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics nationally.

Please see the program website for additional information (www.e