Responsible Appliance
                                                                           Disposal Program
         RAD Refrigerator Recycling Pilot Program
                              in Indian  Country:
                      Yakama Nation  Case Study
The U.S. EPA's Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program promotes the proper disposal of old, inefficient
refrigerators and freezers to minimize the release of ozone-depleting substances (ODS), greenhouse gases
(GHGs), and other harmful substances. Federal law requires that all refrigerant be recovered prior to dismantling
or disposing of appliances, and universal waste (mercury), used oil, and PCBs be properly managed and stored.
However, the laws do not require the recovery of appliance foam, which represents a significant source of ODS
and GHG emissions. EPA enforcement data show that very few appliances are disposed of in an environmentally
friendly way and in accordance with these regulations. By requiring the removal and destruction/reclamation of
refrigerants and foam-blowing agents that are not covered  under existing federal regulations, the RAD Program
minimizes the emissions of ODS and GHGs from refrigerated appliances. In addition, the RAD Program saves
landfill space; conserves energy through the premature removal of working appliances and the recycling of
durable materials  (e.g., metals, plastics, glass); and prevents  the release of PCBs, mercury, and used oil. All
utilities, retailers,  and municipalities are invited to join as Partners. Current Partners serve regions throughout
the U.S.

In 2009, the RAD Program received funding from
EPA's Tribal Program to conduct a small-scale
refrigerator/freezer recycling pilot program designed
to benefit a tribal community. Specifically, the pilot
program targeted the removal and proper disposal of
approximately 250 old refrigerators and  freezers
from within tribal land, as well as outreach to and
education for tribal residents.

This report summarizes the pilot project activities,
environmental results, and lessons learned, and
provides guidance for future programs that are
similar or larger in scale.

Summary of Program Activities
The RAD pilot program ran from August to November 2010. The program was designed to remove and
properly dispose of approximately 250 old refrigerators and freezers from within tribal lands, as well as
conduct outreach to educate tribal residents about the importance of proper disposal. This section details the
program activities performed during this timeframe.

Selection of Tribal Nation and Appliance Recycler
In August 2010, EPA began reaching out to Tribal Nations to identify an appropriate community. Selection was
based on the following criteria:

• Large population and  sufficient density to ensure that the 250 unit collection target was attainable. Ideally
  the community would have at least 8,000 households (assuming a harvest rate of roughly 3% of households);
• Available infrastructure to support a fast-paced marketing campaign and appliance collection program;
• Tribal Nation employees interested  in the program and able to help ensure its success; and
  A community need for the program.

Based on these criteria and conversations with multiple Tribal Nations and Confederated Tribal Organizations,
the Yakama Nation was selected as the program host. The Yakama Nation Reservation occupies 1.4 million
acres located in south central Washington, which is the largest land area of the 29 Tribes in Washington State.
The Reservation encompasses the cities of Toppenish and Wapato and the town of Harrah, as well as
unincorporated areas (including the areas known as Satus and White Swan). The Yakama Nation has an
estimated population of 33,800, with approximately
9,100 households on the Reservation. The Yakama      "TfiP RAD  hilnt hrnarnm
Nation sustains a strong infrastructure and network for
communication and outreach, owns community trucks   rGSUItGU IF!  Significant pollution
that are equipped to collect large household appliances,  prevent/On  and OVO/donCC OfIllegal
and would benefit from the program in many ways. In                                        ..
particular, the Yakama Nation Department of Solid
Waste recently surveyed residents about the illegal      CCO/IO/THC benefits /Of t/16 Yb/CO/TIO
dumping of appliances on the Reservation lands, and      ki  .                .   »
found that significant dumping has resulted from the
financial disincentive to dispose of appliances at landfills,
which charge a disposal fee of $5 per  unit. Therefore, a                         —Loretta Zammarchi,
program that offers a positive incentive for properly     Yakama Nation Solid Waste Department
disposing of refrigerated appliances could reduce the
impact of illegal dumping within the Yakama Nation
Reservation. In addition, the community is relatively financially depressed and would benefit from the pilot
program's per-unit financial incentive as well as the short-term employment opportunities.  Finally, the Yakama
Nation Department of Solid Waste expressed  interest in participating in this RAD pilot program.

Once Yakama Nation agreed to host the RAD pilot program, a targeted request for proposals was sent to
appliance recycling companies to enlist their services for the dismantling and proper disposal of the collected
appliances. JACO Environmental, Inc. (JACO) was selected to process the collected appliances,  arrange for the
dissemination of program incentive checks, and assist with marketing and outreach efforts as needed.

Project Kick-off
A project kick-off meeting was held on September 8,
2010, to arrange program logistics, confirm the project
schedule, and discuss marketing strategies. Based on this
meeting,  participants developed the program timeline
presented in Table I.

EPA, Yakama Nation Solid Waste Department, and
JACO worked together to ensure that these tasks
were completed by the funding deadline. Activities
associated with each task are detailed below.

In addition, the monetary value and conditions for
receipt of a  refrigerator disposal incentive were
discussed. Since other utility-sponsored appliance
disposal programs in the area offer $30 incentives, it
was agreed that a $30 incentive would be offered for up
to two old refrigerators per  household, whether they
were working or non-working.

Community Marketing
and Outreach Campaign
Yakama Nation spearheaded  the marketing and
community outreach campaign. They developed a
poster/flyer  that was disseminated at community
stores, longhouses, churches, and other central
locations. Representatives from the Yakama Nation
Department of Solid Waste attended  community
meetings and met with Nation elders  to publicize the
program and answer questions. Newspaper ads and
60-second radio spots were also developed and released
in the Yakama Nation Review and on KYNR in October
(see textbox for radio spot text). Community members
also received information about the program at major
community events and through the Yakama Nation staff
email lists. In addition, the Area Agency on Aging, a tribal
program benefiting elderly tribal members, distributed
over 200 mailers to their membership  list. Finally,
Yakama Nation staff notified the Toppenish and Wapato
communities through their Public Works and Police
Departments to promote the collection efforts in the
broader community. Figure I  presents  the  poster used
to publicize the program throughout the community. No
mailer was sent to the whole  community, as the Yakama
Solid Waste Department did  not have  ready access to a
tribal enrollment list.
     Table I: Timeline of Program Activities
Task 2:
Task 3:
   Program Activities
Develop and Conduct Community
Marketing and Outreach
Arrange and Implement Refrigerator/
Freezer Pick-up: Establish Pick-up
Hotline, Collect Appliances
Process Refrigerators/Freezers
Following  RAD Program Guidelines
and Document Results
Task 4:    Disseminate Incentive Checks
to Mid-October

October to
Early November

Mid-October to

Mid-October to
Late November
 KYNR Radio Spot

 Hey Yakamas, do you have an old inefficient refrigerator or
 freezer that you need to get rid of? The Yakama Nation Solid
 Waste Program  may be of help.

 For the month of October, the Yakama Nation Solid Waste
 Program in cooperation with U.S. EPA's Responsible Appliance
 Disposal Program will pay you $30 to collect and recycle your old
 fridge or freezer.

 Interested? Here  is how the project works.This offer is available to
 all residents of the Yakama Nation - enrolled or non-enrolled. The
 unit must be owned by you and we will accept it working or not.
 Up to two units per household. It must be emptied of all food
 contents and be  accessible for pick up. To make arrangement for
 free pickup, call Yakama Nation Solid Waste Program at 865-5121
 ext. 6041. You will receive your $30 reward in the mail within 3-4
 weeks following the pickup.

 Our flyers and the sign-up slips are posted in the Yakama Nation
 agency buildings if you are interested  in this offer. But, remember
 this is a limited time offer and you must register!

 By recycling your old fridge or freezer, you have taken a personal
 positive action to keep our Reservation  clean and safe of illegally
 disposed and dumped units. Hey Yakamas, give yourself a  high five!

Figure I: Poster/flyer developed by Yakama Solid Waste Department and disseminated throughout the Yakama Nation
Do you have an old, inefficient
refrigerator or freezer that you need
to get rid of? The Yakama Nation
Solid Waste Program may be of
For the months of September and
October the YNSWP in cooperation
with  the US EPA's Responsible Ap-
pliance Disposal Program (RAD)
will pay you $30 to collect and re-
cycle your old fridge or freezer.
                              GET $30 For Your Old
                            _Refrigerator_pr F/eezer_
                          Fill out the information below and return to:
                          Yakama Nation Facility Management Office
                           401 Fort Rd. Toppenish, WA or call
                                865-5121 x 6041 Today
                                I understand this is a one-time limited offer.
                                Only applies to refrigerators and freezers
             Yakama Nation Facility Management Office /Solid Waste
             401 Fort Rd. Toppenish, WA (509) 865-5121 X 6041
             MAILING ADDRESS

               	I have a working refrigerator/freezer

               	I have a non-working refrigerator/freezer
                            Responsible Appliance
                             Disposal Program

  The offer is available to all
  residents of the Yakama Nation
  The unit must be owned by
  Up to two (2) units per
  Working and non-working units
  All units must be accessible and
  empty for pickup.  NO FOOD!
  Call the YNSW Program to make
  arrangements to have your  units
  picked up for FREE.
  You will receive your $30
  Reward in the mail within
  3-4 weeks following pick up.
                                                                      WHY RECYCLE
                                                                     YOUR OLD UNIT?
   Proper disposal of old, inefficient
      refrigerators and freezers:
  Minimizes the release of ozone depleting
  substances, greenhouse gases and other
  harmful substances into our environment.
  Reduces overall energy demand and
  monthly utility bill.
  Prevents costly clean up of illegally
  disposed of and dumped units.
                               This project is being provided by Yakama Nation Solid Waste Program in coordination with
                           US EPA's Responsible Appliance Disposal Program and JACO Environmental
                     For more information on waste disposal, reduction and recycling contact Yakama Nation Solid Waste Program at
                                       P.O. Box 151 Toppenish, WA (509) 865-5121 x 6453
                                             and Safe.  DbpoM of Your
                                             91911 Up Toctayi

Figure 3: Unit Labeling
Refrigerator Collection                          Figure 2: Yakama Nation Staff with Collection Truck
While simultaneously developing the marketing and
outreach campaign, Yakama established a call-in hotline
to identify program participants. Yakama Nation
targeted old units to be collected from people's
homes.  Solid Waste Department staff fielded the calls,
sign-up forms, and other sign-up requests, and entered
all requests into a customer database. Collection
routes were organized to minimize travel distance;
Yakama Nation staff met twice daily to determine the
most efficient appliance pick-up routes and update the
customer database.

The Yakama Nation Solid Waste department staff
collected units in trucks owned by the Yakama Nation,
which each held between 10 and 20 units. Figure 2
depicts Yakama Nation staff, Alfrieda Peters  and John
DeMontiney, with a collection truck en route to
collect refrigerators for proper disposal.

The Yakama Nation staff recorded the refrigerator and
freezer  data (i.e., type of appliance, whether  it was
working or non-working, and pick-up location) to
submit to JACO for processing, and labeled each unit
with a unique ID number and date using indelible
marker, as shown in Figure 3.

An initial test run of eight units was performed to
ensure that the collection process ran smoothly.
Afterwards, the full-scale collection  efforts were
launched. Within the first week, 53 units were
collected; by the project completion date, 192 units
were collected. All collected units were non-working
at time of pick-up. Yakama staff explained that because
the community is financially distressed, people will
retain their old appliances as long as possible, and  even
pass them down through family members. The
collected units were stored in a 53-foot trailer truck
provided by JACO and parked at the Yakima Waste
Systems' transfer station yard in Granger. Yakima
Waste Systems, the contract hauler for the Yakama
Nation, provided this storage area free of charge.
Figure 4 depicts the units stored inside. Yakama Nation staff estimated that for each  pick-up, a total of roughly
12 miles were traveled prior to reaching the  central  transfer station.

Each truck held approximately 65 units. Once the truck was filled, Yakama Nation staff contacted JACO to
exchange it for an empty one. This procedure continued until all 192 units were taken to the JACO processing
facility located 300 miles away in Everett, Washington. The first shipment on October  20 contained 67 units,
followed by a second load of 63 units on October 28, and a final load of 62 units on November II, 2010.
The 3 truckloads sent to the processing facility traveled a total distance of 1,800 miles.
Figure 4: Collected Units in JACO Truck Ready for Transfer

Refrigerator Processing
All units were processed at the JACO appliance recycling
facility in Everett, Washington according to RAD
Program standards. Specifically, refrigerant was
destroyed at Clean Harbors in El Dorado, Arkansas for
carbon credits; HFC refrigerant was reclaimed at Perfect
Cycle in Red Oak, Texas; foam was manually removed
and sent for destruction at the Spokane Regional Waste-
to-Energy facility; durable materials were sent for
recycling; and hazardous materials were properly
handled by Univar USA Inc. in Redmond, Washington,
to minimize threats to the environment and human
health. Figure 5, Figure 6, and Figure 7 depict the
refrigerator recycling process at the JACO facility.

The names and locations  of third parties handling these
materials, as well as the quantities and  fates of all
recovered materials, were documented and provided
to EPA using the 2010 RAD Annual Reporting Form.
The number of units and  materials processed are
summarized below.

Incentive Check Dissemination
JACO provided incentive checks to the households
that turned in their old working or non-working units.
In total, 163 checks were disseminated to
122 households totaling $4,890. A maximum of two
incentive checks were disseminated per household.

Program Costs
The Yakama Nation RAD pilot program cost
approximately $50,000. Some of these funds were
used to identify an appropriate tribal nation and to
resolve logistical concerns before initiating the
program. If the project had a longer timeframe with
greater funding to process more units, economies of
scale would be achieved. Following collection, each unit
was processed at a cost of roughly $45 (in addition to
any incentive [$30] provided).
Figure 5: Refrigerant recovery using an SEG machine at
JACO refrigerator recycling facility
Figure 6: JACO employee saws refrigerator to access
insulation foam
Figure 7: JACO employee removes insulation foam from

Summary of Program Results
During the two-month Yakama Nation RAD pilot
program, a total of 192 units from community households
and Facility Management were collected and processed at
theJACO recycling facility. 163 incentive checks, totaling
$4,890, were delivered to community members. By
disposing of these units using the best available practices,
Yakama Nation has helped protect the ozone layer,
reduce GHG emissions, and increase the recycling of
durable components. The benefits of these  practices are
described below and shown in Table 2.
                                            Table 2: Summary of Units
                                             and Materials Processed
                                Number of Units Processed                              192
                                  Refrigerators                                      169
                                  Stand-Alone Freezers                                 23
                                Ozone Benefits (OOP-weighted kg avoided)                   95
                                Climate Benefits (MTC02e)                               717
                                Durable Materials Recycled (Ibs.)                       30,336
                                Hazardous Substances Properly Treated
                                  Used Oil (gal.)                                     15
                                  Other Hazardous Components                          II
All collected units were not working at the time of
pick-up. Many of the appliances were over 40 years old,
some of which contained fiberglass insulation, which pre-dated the use of ODS-blown foam insulation.
Ozone Benefits
Disposal of the  192 Yakama Nation refrigerators and freezers resulted in ozone benefits through the recovery
and destruction of refrigerant as well as foam-blowing agents. The depletion of stratospheric ozone has led to
significant increases in UV reaching the Earth's surface, which in turn has been linked to several major human
health problems, including: skin cancer, cataracts, and immune suppression.

JACO recovered and stored 80 Ibs. of CFC refrigerant from these units, all of which will ultimately be sent to
Clean Harbors in El Dorado, Arkansas for destruction for carbon credits (see text box). Using a manual foam
removal technique followed by incineration at Spokane Regional Waste-to-Energy, JACO also recovered and
destroyed 161 Ibs. of CFC and HCFC foam-blowing agent. By avoiding the release of this refrigerant and
foam-blowing agent into the environment, an estimated 253 Ibs. of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) were
avoided through this pilot program—equivalent to 95 ODP-weighted kilograms. Figure 8 presents the total
quantities of ODS refrigerant and foam-blowing agents destroyed. Environmental benefits associated with
foam removal were lower than anticipated due to the fact that 31  collected units contained fiberglass in lieu
of ODS foam.
 Figure 8: Total Quantity of ODS Refrigerant and Foam-Blowing
 Reclaimed or Destroyed (Ibs.)
CFC-1 I          HCFC-141 b
    Foam-Blowing Agent
Carbon Credits from ODS Destruction

All ODS refrigerant was stored by JACO for destruction in exchange for
carbon credits through the Climate Action Reserve (the Reserve). The
refrigerant will be combined with other waste refrigerant recovered from
retired equipment and then shipped to a reclamation facility in
Champaign, Illinois for cleaning. The reclaimed refrigerant will be sent to
a certified carbon credit destruction facility in El Dorado, Arkansas.

The revenue that can be generated from carbon credits varies based
on a number of factors, including  carbon price. In 2010, the price of
carbon offset credits  on the  Reserve, known as Climate Reserve
Tonnes (CRT), generally ranged from  $5 to $10 per metric ton of
carbon dioxide equivalent (MTC02e).  Based on the Reserve's ODS
project protocol, the  destruction of refrigerant from a single disposed
refrigerator containing CFC-12 may yield an approximate carbon offset
credit value of $15*—not taking into account project costs such as
registration, administration,  verification, etc.
                                                            * This value assumes a 15% C0;e discounting.

Climate Benefits
The CFCs, HCFCs, and MFCs contained in refrigerators
are all potent greenhouse gases (GHGs). These
refrigerants and blowing agents have direct global
warming potentials (GWPs) up to  10,900—meaning that
they are up to 10,900 times more effective at damaging
the climate system than carbon dioxide  (CO2) on an
equal mass basis. Therefore, recovering  these
compounds, even in small quantities, can result in
significant climate benefits.

In addition, the recycling of durable materials from
appliances prevents indirect GHG emissions associated
with the generation of electricity, which would have
otherwise been needed to  produce virgin materials.
                                                        Figure 9: Climate Benefits Achieved in the Yakama Nation
                                                        RAD Pilot Program
                                                             Ferrous Metal
Other Durable
In total, the Yakama Nation pilot program achieved the
reduction of 717 metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MTCO2e),
equivalent to approximately 137 passenger car emissions
over a one-year period. Of this,  57% can be attributed to reclaiming or destroying refrigerant, 39% to reclaiming or
destroying foam-blowing agents, and 4% to recycling durable materials. Figure 9 presents the total GHG emissions
reductions associated with this program.
                                                        Yakama Nation disposed of 192 appliances in the pilot program; this
                                                        resulted in 717 MTC02e GHG emissions reductions, equivalent to
Other Environmental Benefits
In the Yakama Nation pilot program, environmental
benefits were also achieved by collecting abandoned
units and otherwise keeping  recyclable materials out of
landfills and ensuring the proper handling of hazardous
waste, as summarized below.

Materials prevented from going to a landfill:

  24,000 pounds of ferrous metals
• 768 pounds of non-ferrous metals
• 4,800 pounds of plastic
• 768 pounds of glass

Toxic or hazardous materials properly handled:

   15 gallons of used oil
•  11  PCB-containing capacitors

If released  into the environment, used oil can leak into groundwater and major waterways and pollute drinking
water sources. In addition to used oil, appliances may contain toxic chemicals and heavy metals—namely PCBs
from capacitors and mercury from thermostatic switches. PCBs are regulated by EPA as toxic substances; they
may cause  cancer and liver damage, and can have negative impacts on the neurological development of
children, the human reproductive system, the immune system, and the endocrine system. Mercury is toxic and
causes a variety of adverse health effects, including tremors, headaches, respiratory failure, reproductive and
developmental abnormalities, and potentially, cancers.
                                                        Source: EPA's Greenhouse Gas Equivalency Calculator. Available at

Community Benefits
From the program's outset, the EPA and the Yakama Department of Solid Waste staff identified a number of
program goals to benefit the greater community, namely:

• Avoid illegal dumping of refrigerators and freezers
* Prevent pollution through proper recycling
• Educate residents about proper waste disposal
  Employ local residents
• Promote solid waste services of the Yakama Nation and assess the feasibility of bulky item pick-up as a
  potential service to be added by the Department
• Provide economic benefit through financial incentives

                                                            All of these goals were indeed achieved,
                                                            and the RAD pilot program garnered
                                                            widespread community praise.

                                                            Other branches of the local government
                                                            showed strong support for the program.
                                                            The Tribal Water Code Program and the
                                                            tribal and local Police Departments
                                                            particularly appreciated the  program
                                                            because it kept refrigerators out of
                                                            streams and irrigation ditches, which not
                                                            only prevented pollution but removed
                                                            potential safety hazards. "Through the
                                                            RAD pilot program, we've seen many old
                                                            refrigerators removed for proper recycling
                                                            that would have otherwise been  dumped
                                                            illegally," said Sergeant Ben Scooter, police
                                                            officer in the town of Wapato. "By
avoiding the dumping of these units, the program prevented the release of harmful substances into our
environment and  likely prevented child injury or even death."

The pilot program also succeeded in educating residents about the hazards of improper waste disposal and the
benefits of recycling. "Through publicity and incentives, the RAD pilot program increased public awareness in
the Yakama Nation about proper waste management," said Loretta Zammarchi, Project Officer and  Solid
Waste Planner, Yakama Nation Solid Waste Department. "It also resulted in real benefits for local residents
and our environment."

The pilot program employed 4 local people to administer the program and schedule/collect appliances. The
program provided a total of 425 hours of labor. In addition, the pilot demonstrated the capabilities of the
Yakama Nation's Solid Waste Department, empowering it to run similar waste collection programs in the
future. According to Zammarchi, "The RAD pilot program allowed us to demonstrate that collection and
proper disposal of bulk items,  such as refrigerators, is a workable solid waste management service that can be
offered  by the  Yakama Nation Facility Management to benefit both the community and the environment."
Indeed,  the RAD program received great support throughout the community, providing a solid foundation for
the development of future waste disposal programs.

In addition to  these benefits, the financial incentive of $30/unit also provided direct economic benefits to
a financially distressed community.

Discussion and Lessons  Learned
The Yakama Nation RAD pilot program achieved great success in collecting and properly disposing of old
refrigerators and freezers. Despite the short timeframe, the program collected  192 units. The pilot ran
smoothly and provided insight into how similar programs may be run in future.

Contributions to Program Success
According to representatives of the Yakama Nation Solid Waste  Department, the program's success was
owed to a number of important factors:

  Infrastructure and staff. The Yakama Nation Solid Waste Department had access to pick-up trucks
  large enough to collect multiple refrigerators and freezers, as well as knowledgeable staff who could
  efficiently implement the program on a short timeframe. Yakama staff was also able to plan collection
  routes based on existing waste collection routes and had a strong understanding of the community.
  Such planning efforts helped minimize transportation over the very large territory.
  Community trust through strategic outreach. The Department of Solid Waste is well-respected
  throughout the community and had access to effective publicity outlets, including community meeting places,
  such as churches and longhouses. As such, the Department received widespread community interest in and
  support for the  program. Yakama Nation staff underscored that this trust was essential; in the past, the
  community has been taken advantage of by program scams, leaving residents hesitant to take part in similar
  call-in/take-back programs. With this in mind, the Solid Waste  Department staff employed outreach
  strategies that relied on direct communication at community meetings and events rather than mass-
  mailings—which are typically used by appliance recycling programs throughout the United States.
  Monetary incentives. The $30 incentive was crucial to program success, as community members saw
  direct financial benefits from recycling their old refrigerators. Indeed, Solid Waste staff received feedback
  from participants indicating that the incentive had been the main reason for their participation.

Lessons Learned
A number of important lessons were learned, which may benefit future RAD programs. First, the incentive
could have been increased or tiered to compel  more people to turn in their old and/or working refrigerators/
freezers. In this pilot program, 15 people canceled their scheduled pick-ups before their units were collected.
Based on JACO's nearly 20 years of experience in implementing appliance recycling programs, higher
incentives—on the order of $50 per unit—are  needed to adequately motivate people to turn in their old units
during difficult economic times. Similarly, to encourage the disposal of old, inefficient units that are still
working, the program could offer a greater incentive for working units than for non-working.

Moving forward, other information can be collected during program implementation to further understand
the program drivers and beneficiaries, and target future efforts accordingly.  In particular, additional information
could be obtained through a collection survey about participant demographics and how they learned  about the
program and chose whether or not to participate.

Overall, the Yakama Nation RAD  Pilot Program achieved great success, especially as the first effort to
implement a RAD-like recycling program on tribal lands within a  very tight timeframe.  Given the positive
community responses and overall program benefits, it is clear that this program model can be used in future
for similar and larger scale programs.
    Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper
    with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste
    using vegetable-based inks.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Stratospheric Protection Division (620SJ)
February 2011