Transport Partnership
                                   A Glance at
               Clean Freight Strategies
Improved  Freight Logistics
  A trucking fleet that optimizes its freight logistics can save fuel, save time, and improve productivity, generating
  fuel cost savings and additional revenue, while cutting greenhouse gas emissions.
  What is the challenge?
  Inefficiencies in freight operations can cause trucks
  to travel empty (without cargo), use longer or more
  congested routes,  and  idle unnecessarily.  These
  inefficiencies increase fuel consumption and  fuel
  costs,  and  cause trucking  companies  to miss
  opportunities to generate revenue.

  When  motor carriers cannot arrange for a return
  shipment, the empty truck move (called a deadhead)
  doesn't generate revenue but accumulates costs in
  labor, equipment wear and fuel. In some fleets, 15
  percent or more of annual truck miles may be non-
  revenue empty miles. For a typical long-haul truck,
  this could add  up to about 15,000 miles each year,
  consuming  over  2,400  gallons  of diesel fuel  and
  producing 24 metric tons of carbon dioxide, the most
  prevalent greenhouse gas. Inefficient truck routing
  and loading and unloading practices also contribute
  to excessive fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  What is the solution?
  Improved freight logistics can minimize inefficient
  freight operations,  saving fuel  and  increasing
  revenue for trucking companies. Improved logistics
  include load matching,  more efficient routes  and
  delivery  schedules, and  improved  shipping  and
  receiving practices.

  Options  for Load Matching
  Motor  carriers  can use  a variety of load matching
  strategies to reduce empty mileage. Routes can be
  arranged so  trucks  haul  successive loads in a
  triangular pattern. Trucking companies  in different
  areas  may coordinate  on  loads  and back hauls.
  Trucking  companies can use freight brokers  that
  match  empty  carriers with shippers. Drivers may
  check  the electronic monitors (called load boards)
  available at some truck  plazas, for information on
  loads that shippers have available to carry.

  The Internet, with its potential for widespread, real-
  time information exchange, offers load matching
  opportunities via  a number of trucking-oriented web
  sites. Another  option is  to use an electronic data
  interchange  system   to  communicate  logistics
  information  among  dispatchers,  drivers,  and

  Options  for Routing and Scheduling Software
  Computerized  routing and scheduling software that
  is based  on optimization models can often provide
         more efficient routing solutions than dispatchers can
         achieve on their own. This software allow routes to
         be  constructed  taking  into account  numerous
         dynamic factors that include driver hours-of-service
         rules,  pick up and delivery schedules, vehicle size
         constraints, vehicle-product compatibility, equipment
         availability, vehicle-loading dock compatibility, route
         restrictions, and empty mileage. Large fleets with 200
         or more trucks generally get the most benefit from
         sophisticated  routing  and  scheduling  software.
         Smaller fleets can use less costly software products
         to manage their routing and scheduling operations.

         Options  for  Flexible  Loading  and  Receiving
         Increased flexibility at loading docks can contribute to
         fuel efficiency and cost reduction. Innovations like
         24/7 shipping-and-receiving allow trucks to travel at
         off-peak times and avoid traffic congestion.  With
         more flexibility to deliver and pick up loads, trucking
         companies can  decrease idling, minimize the time
         spent loading and unloading, and use their hours and
         equipment to haul freight and generate revenue.

         The  results are in ...
         Load matching, improved routing  and  scheduling,
         and flexible loading  and unloading practices help
         trucking fleets improve productivity and  increase
         revenue-miles  while decreasing fuel consumption
         and greenhouse gas emissions. Trimming just 1
         percent of empty miles from one long haul truck can
         save over 100  gallons  of fuel, cut greenhouse gas
         emissions over 1 metric ton, and increase ton-miles
         by nearly 20,000 per  year. Reducing  that same
         truck's idling by 5 percent though improved routing
         and loading practices could save another 100 gallons
         of fuel, and cut greenhouse gas emissions another
         metric ton.
         Next steps
         Trucking  firms  should  take  advantage  of  the
         extensive  options  for  improved  logistics   and
         encourage shippers to adopt more flexible shipping
         and receiving practices. Many trucking-oriented web
         sites provide information on load matching services
         and  opportunities.  Freight brokers  and software
         vendors can provide information on logistics services
         and  software.  Information is also available  from
         professional  organizations such as the Council of
         Logistics Management (www.clml.org).
J.S. Environmental Protection Agency  Office of Transportat
    February 2004. EPA420-F-04-011, 9 For more information,, visit: www.epa.gov/smartway