AGENCY      Ji

              Environmental Protection Agency

                   1976 Budget Estimates

                     Table of Contents
Summary Tables	,	,	    I
Air	,.	,	 A- 1
  Abatement and Control	 A- 8
 •   Mobile source	 A-10
  .  Stationary source standards and guidelines	 A-15
    Ambient trend monitoring	 A-l8
    Technical assistance	 A-21
    Academic training	 A-24
    Control agency support	 A-25
  Enforcement	,. A-27
    Stati onary source enforcement	 A-29
    Mobi 1 e source enforcement	 A-38
  tesearch and Development.	 A-45
    Processes and effects	 A-46
    Control technology	 A-51

Water Quality	WQ- 1
  Abatement and Control	WQ- 9
   'Ambient trend monitoring	..WQ-14
  -"Technical assistance	WQ-17
    Academic training	WQ-25
    Control agency support	WQ-27
    Muni cipal source control....		WQ-29
    Industrial source control	,	WQ-35
    Nonpoint source control	WQ-38
    Ocean disposal  and spill prevention	WQ-41
    Areawide waste treatment management grants	WQ-46
  Enforcement	,			 .WQ-48
    Water qua! i ty enforcement	WQ-48
  Research and Development.............	WQ-53
    Processes and effects.	WQ-54
    Control technology	WQ-59
  C.on-struction Grants.,	.WQ-63


Hater Supply ........ .......,..».» ........ .........  WS-  1
  Abatement and Control ..... ....... . ........ ......  WS-  6
    Technical  assistance... ..... ..,....,.. ..... ....  WS-  8
    State program grants ... .......................  WS-12
  Enforcement..... ........ , ........ ...............  WS-13
    Water supply enforcement... ............ ...... .  WS-13
  Research and Devel opment ................. , ......  WS-1 5
    Processes and effects ............. , ...........  WS-16
    Control technology. ....... ..... ....... ........  WS-1 9

Solid Waste. ....... .................................  $W-  1
  AbateTnent and Control ...... ... ... . ........... ....  $W-  5
    Techni cal  assi stance .... ............... .......  $W-  6
  Research and Devel opment. ........ .............. .  $W-1 1
    Processes and effects ...... ........... , ..... ; .  $W-1 2
    Control technology ..... . ............. .. ..... i.  SW-14
  Abatement and Control ........ . ..................   P- 6
    Registration and tolerances ................. . .   P- 9
    Monitoring ........... .. ............ . ..... . ____   P-ll
    Technical assi stance ............... ...........   P-l 3
  Enforcement. . . ...... . ....................... ....   P-16
    Pesticides enforcement.. ....... ...............   P-16
  Research and Devel opment ................... .....   P-19
    Processes and effects ............ . . ...........   P-20

Radiation ............ ............. . .......... .....   R- 1
  Abatement and Control ...,..'. ...... , . , ...........   R- 7
    Standards and guide! ines .......... ........ ....   R- 8
    Monitoring..... ....... .... ........ . ...........   R- 9
    Technical assistance .................. . ______ . .   R-ll
  Research and Development.. ..... .... .............   R-13
    Processes and effects . ........ ................   R-l 4

Noise ........................ ..... ................   N- 1
  Abatement and Control ---- . _______ ..... ...........   N- 8
    Standards and guidelines.... .. ................   N-10
    Technical assistance.. ............ , ...........   N-12
  Enforcement. . ..... ....... ...... . ....... . ........   N-15
    Noise enforcement. . . ....... ....... ............   N-15
  Research and Development ....... ............ .....   N-19
    Processes and effects ..... ................. ...   N-20
    Control technology ......... ...................   N-21

Interxl jjci pi Inary.,,,...,.,,,,,«,.......«..,,......    I - 1
  Research and bevelopment,	......	—..    1-2
    Processes and effects	    I- 3
    Control technology.	    I - 8

Toxic Substances.,	,	   TS* 1
  Abatement and Control	..   TS- 5
    Standards and guidelines..	   TS- 5
  Research and Development.	   TS- 8
    Processes and effects.....'	   TS- 9

Program Management and Support....	  PMS-1
  Abatement and Control...	...	  PMS - 6
    Program management	,.-...	  PMS- 7
    Program support	/.	  PMS- 9
  Enforcement	  PMS-10
    Program management	  PMS-11
    Program support...	  PMS-14
  Research and Development	  PMS-15
    Program management	  PMS-16
    Program support	,	  PMS-18

Energy.	    E- 1
  Research and Development	    E- 1
    Processes and effects	    E- 2
    Control technology	    E-12

Agency and Regional Management	  ARM- 1

Bu i 1dings an d Fa ell i t i es	•	   BF<- 1

Sc 1 entifie Acti vities Oyerseas	  SAO- 1

Special Analyses	,	     *
   *See Special Analyses Table of Contents



                      Budget Summary

    The Environmental Protection Agency's 1976 budget proposal
provides for an increase of $47 million and is presented under
eight appropriations.  A summary of each area and the major
changes for 1976 follows,

    1.  Research and Development programs produce the scientific
information and technical tools on which to base national policy
and effective control strategies in the regulations prevention
and abatement of environmental pollution.

    The major 1976 increases are budgeted to support the water
quality and water supply program areas.  Work on nonpoint source
pollution management will be accelerated with an increase of
$2,5 million; research on the health effects of land disposal
of sludges produced by wastewater treatment plants will be in-
creased by $1 million; and an additional $7,6 million will be
used to carry out research in support of the recently enacted
Safe Drinking Water Act,

    Agency support for the National Center for Toxicological
Research will increase by $2 million, to create an inhalation
toxl col ogy fac 111 ty.

    Reductions will be effected in the air research program
($8 million reflecting the impact of large scale investments
made during 1975), radiation research ($1 million), noise
research ($0.5 million)s and program management ($2 million).

    2.  Energy Research^and Development programs provide for
development of a scientific basis to ensure (1) protection
of human health, (2) environmental protection necessary to
facilitate the use of domestic energy suppliess (3) implementa-
tion of energy systems initiatives without delays caused by
inadequate and insufficient environmental impact data9 and
(4) the concurrent development of appropriate control technologies
and emerging energy systems to minimize control costs and
environmental impact.  The energy related research program
will be reduced by $22 million.  This reduction reflects the
impacts of transfers to the Energy Research and Development
Administrations multiyear funding of.large scale projects in
1975, and the completion of certain capital intensive large-
scale demonstration project.

    3,  Abatement and Control programs provide for development
and implementation of environmental standards, monitoring and
surveillance of pollution, pollution control planning, financial
and technical assistance to State and local pollution control
agencies, assistance to other Federal agencies to minimize
adverse impact of their activities on the environment, and
training of personnel engaged in pollution control activities.

    A decrease of $5.5 million is budgeted for the air program
which reflects a reduction in vehicle in-use testings academic
training and the carry over to 1976 of a $3.75 million congressional
add-ons which was not utilized in 1975.  A major increase of
abatement and control is $53.0 million for the Section 208
areawide waste treatment management planning grant program due
to the shift in funding from contract authority to budget
authority.  Other water quality activities show decreases,
principally in the area of control agency grants ($11.3 million),
clean lakes ($4 million), industrial source control ($2 mi11 ion)s
ambient trend monitoring ($1 million), academic training
($0.9 million), and water planning ($1 million).  There is a
small increase provided for increased staff to manage the
construction grant program.

    An incrase of $16.8 million is budgeted for the water
supply program to support State water supply programs and
State underground injections control programs and carry out
other activities mandated by the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    An increase of $10.0 million is budgeted to carry out the
mandates of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide
Act, as amended.  These funds.will support increased efforts
in applicator training ($7.2 million), assistance to State
applicator certification programs ($1.8 million), increased
regional technical assistance activities ($.5 million) and
increased funding for pesticide registration and classification
($.5 million).

    Other changes in abatement and control are a $1.2 million
increase for the solid waste program; a $4.7 million increase
for the noise control program; and a $0.2 million decrease for
the radiation program.

    f-  Enforcement program responsibilities are in the areas
of air pollution controls water pollution control, and pesticide
control.  Much of the effort is in support of or in cooperation
with State and local enforcement programs such as the enforcement
of air quality standards; navigable and interstate water quality
standards and issuance of discharge permits.  The increase of
$1.5 million in 1976 reflects the combination of a $2.7 million

i   ,"          decrease in water enforcement and increases of $1.3 million in
             air enforcement, $.5 million in noise enforcement, $.2 million
f I          In pesticides and $2.2 million in enforcement program management
£ I          and support.  Enforcement includes such actions as notices
             of violations, abatement orders, civil and criminal court
             actions, and, in the case of pesticides, recalls and seizures.

                 5.  Agency and Regional Management activities provide both.
             centralized and regional leadership and administrative support \
             for EPA's programs.  An increase of $6.9 is budgeted for manage-
             ment and support activities.  This provides for preparation of
             EIS's and audits of wastewater treatment grants as well as the
             increases necessary to maintain the Agency support services at
             approximately the same level as 1975.

                 6.  Construction Grants are made to local public agencies for
   \          construction of municipal wastewater treatment facilities to
   I          assist States and localities in attaining and maintaining water
             quality standards.  The Federal Water Pollution Control Act
             Amendments of 1972 authorized $18 billion for this purpose.
   I          As a result of the recent Supreme Court decision, this entire
             amount is available for obligation.  As of February 1975,
             approximately $4 billion of these funds had been obligated.

   *'              7.  Scientific Activities Overseas (Special Foreign Currency
             Program) supports cooperative research and demonstration programs
   *         in other countries, using excess currencies available under
   i          PL 480.  No funds were appropriated in 1975.  The 1976 request
             of $6 million will restore the program to its previous operating
   3          level and allow participation in a special cooperative energy
   I          related environmental studies program with Poland.

                 8.  Buildings and Facilities activities provide for the
   1          design and construction of EPA owned facilities as well as for
   -1          the repair and improvement to facilities utilized by the
             Agency.  The $.7 million increase will be used to meet the
   j          Department of Labor's safety standards under the Occupational
   J          Health and Safety Act.

                 Summary of Budget Authority
                 and End-of-Year Employment

                               1974         1975         1976

Research an d D e ve 1 o p-
  Budget Authority...  $159,427,742 $169,229,500 $162,631,600
   Employment	         1,786        1,834        1,779

Abatement and Control
  Budget Authority...   256,014,845,279,225,700  339,547,900
  Contract Authority.   lOO.OOO.OOOi/lSO.QOO.OOOk/
   Employment....	         3,770        3,798        3,998

  Budget Authority...    45,812,522   51,670,300   53,162,000
   Employment	         1,578        1,597        1,525

Agency and Regional
 Management                                      .
  Budget Authority..      55,693,902   60,469,500   67,358,500
   Employment	           1,824        1,823        1,837

Energy  Research and
  Budget Authority..          .   ...  134,000,000  112,000,000
   Employment	...             ...          ...           40

Buildings and
  Budget Authority..             ...    1,400,000    2,100,000

Construction Grants
  Budget Authority..   .
  Contract Authority  4,000,000,000 9,000,000,008S/
   Employment	             ...         "•••

Scienti fie Activities
  Budget Authority..       2,000,000          ...    6,000,000

Operations, Research
 and Facilities
  Budget Authori ty,..
   Employment..	            83

Revolving Fund
  Budget Authority...
   Employment..,...,.           ...          ...

Trust Fund
  Budget Authority...        -4,871

  Budget Authority...
   Employment........           146          135.          105

Advances and
 Allocations Accounts
  Budget Authority.,.           ...          ...
   Employment	            16           16           16

Total, Environmental
 Protection Agency
  Budget Authority...   518,944,140  695,995,000  742,800,000
  Contract Authority. 4,100,000,000 9,150,000,000
   Employment	         9,203        9,203        9,300

a/  Section 208 Areawide Waste Treatment Management Grants.
    $100 million contract authority authorized for 1974, of
    which $86,795,000 was administratively cancelled.

b/  Section 208 Areawide Waste Treatment Management Grants.
    $150 million contract authority authorized for 1975, of
    which $120 million is expected to be obligated.

£/  Includes $1,333,770,000 allotted earlter By Court Orders but
    not made available for obligation until Supreme Court
    decision of February 18, 1975.
d/  Included in the President's Budget under Research and
    Development, Abatement and Controls and Agency and
    Regional Management.-'

 NOTE:   End-of-year employment  = permanent  positions.

                             summary or increase or Decrease
                             Aut^rtty and End-of-Year Employment
                                              1975          197S     Decrease

            Research and Development
               Budget Authority.V...  $169,229,500  $162,631,600  -$6,597,900
                Employment...	         1,834         1,779          -55

            Abatement and_ Control
               Budget Authority.....   279,225,700   339,547,900  +60,322,200
               Contract Authori ty...   150,000,000       ...      -150,000,000
                Employment	         3,798         3,998         +200

               Budget Authority,...,    51,670,300    53,162,000  +1,491,700
                Employment	         1,597         1,525          -72

            Agency and Regional Management
               Budget Author!ty	    50~,469,5QO    67,358,500  +6,889,000
                Employment	         1,823         1,837          +14

            Energy  Research and Development
               Budget Authority.....134^000,000   112,000,000  -22,000,000
                Employment	     .                     40          +40

            Bui 1di ngs and Faci1i tles
               Budget Authority	     1,400,000     2,100,000     +700,000

            ContructiQn Grants
               Contract Authority... 9,000,000,000       ...    -9,000,000,000

            Scientific Activities  Overseas
* ]             Budget Authority.....           ...     6,000,000  +6,000,000
  .}             End-of-Year
                Employment..........           ...           ,..
!  5
*  ,1

                                  1975         1976        Decrease

 Reimbursements  a/
    Budget Authority	            ...
     Employment...	*.            135          105             -30

 Advances and Allocations
    Budget Authority	.
     Employment....	            16           16

    Budget Authorlty	    695,995 ,000  742,800,000    + 46,805,000
    Contract Authority..  9,150,000,000          ...  -9,150,000,000
     Employment.........           9,203        9,300             +97

 a/   Included in the President's  Budget  under  Research and Develop-
     ment, Abatement and Control, and Agency and Regional Management.

NOTE:   End-of-year employment -  permanent positions.


Budget Authority
  Abatement and
  Research and

  Abatement and
  Research and
$87 , 31 7 , 300
+ 1,270,100
- 7,985,200
- 16,797,300

Overview and Strategy

     The Clean Air Act authorizes a national program of air
pollution research, regulation, and enforcement activities.
Primary responsibility for the prevention and control of air
pollution rests with State and local governments.  The
program is directed at the Federal level by the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA).  EPA's role is to conduct research
and development programs3 set national environmental goals,
ensure that adequate standards and regulations are established
to meet these goalss provide technical and financial assistance
to the States, and ensure that the standards and regulations
are effectively enforced.

     The environmental goals are quantified in the National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), which set forth the
allowable concentration in air of pollutants which affect
human health and public welfare.  The health and other
effects of pollutants are delineated in criteria documents
which are the basis for the standards.  National Ambient
Air Quality Standards have been set for total suspended

particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon
monoxide, photochemical oxidants, and hydrocarbons.   The
first three pollutants are emitted primarily from stationary
sources, while the remainder are attributed primarily to
motor vehicles.  Two types of standards are set: primary
standards to protect human health and secondary standards to
protect the public  welfare (prevention of damage to property,
animals, vegetation, crops, visibility, etc.).

     As an aid in managing the air pollution control program,
the Nation has been divided into 247 Air Quality Control
Regions (AQCRs).  These regions are classified into priorities
according to the seriousness of the air pollution problem.

     The severity of the air pollution problem that the
Nation faces can best be described by examining the classi-
fication of the Air Quality Control Regions.  Of the 247
Regions, 120 were classified in 1972 as Priority I where the
concentration of particulates was significantly above the
level necessary to protect human health.  Over 65 percent of
the population resides in these areas.  Sixty AQGRs with 50
percent of the population were classified as Priority I for
sulfur dioxide.  About 53 percent of the population resides
in the 53 Regions where the concentration of photochemical
oxidants is significantly above protective health standards.
Of course, not all of the population in these Regions is
exposed to levels of pollution above the primary standard.

     Significant gains have been made in reducing air
pollution.  The average center - city concentration of
sulfur oxides has markedly decreased and some progress has
been made in reducing urban particulate levels.  These gains
result, primarily, from the increased use of cleaner burning
fuels.  Further improvements in air quality can be expected
as the effects of stationary source control devices, currently
being installed to conform with State Implementation Plans,
are felt.  In addition, there has been a significant down-
ward trend in motor vehicle emissions since the advent of
Federal emission standards.  For example, model year 1971
vehicles emitted 65 percent less hydrocarbons and 54 percent
less carbon monoxide than earlier, uncontrolled (1952-1967)

     Although there has been an improvement in air quality
in many areas, pollutant levels in many AQCRs are still
above the primary standards.  For example, in Denver, the
annual mean of measured particulates in 1972 was twice the

level necessary to protect human health; in Chicago 1.3
times the level; in Pittsburgh 1.8 times; in New York City
1.3 times; in St. Louis 1.2 times; and in Philadelphia the
particulate concentration was right at the level necessary
to protect human health.  The vehicle emission reduction
necessary to protect public health is significant in many
areas.  For example, in Washington, D.C., meeting the
standard necessary to protect human health will require a
reduction of 67 percent in the amount of hydrocarbons and a
reduction of 56 percent in the amount of carbon monoxide
(from 1972 levels).

     The basic goal of the Clean Air Act is to meet primary
standards necessary to protect human health by July 1975, or
in cases where the necessary control technology is not
available, by 1978.  The strategy for achieving and main-
taining ambient standards has been directed mainly at
reducing emissions from sources.  States were required to
prepare State Implementation Plans which set emission
limitations for existing stationary sources and specify steps
to be taken to control pollution from motor vehicles.  State
and community air pollution control agencies establish
schedules for many existing sources that delineate dates by
which control equipment must be procured, installed and in
operation.  Enforcement actionsare taken by the States and
communities against sources which do not comply with the
State Implementation Plans.  In cases where the States fail
to meet the requirements of the Clean Air Act, EPA promulgates
requirements for installing control equipment or takes
enforcement action against noncomplying sources.  However,
in keeping with the policy of the Act, which places the
primary responsibility for air pollution control on States
and communities,, EPA takes action only in the absence of
State or local action.  EPA gears its activities toward
complementing the efforts of State, and local agencies and
toward facilitating these agencies' operations, including
providing financial support.

     In addition, during 1976 two relatively new areas of
program concern are to be given increasing priority:  one
is the maintenace of standards once achieved ahd the pre-
vention of significant deterioration of air quality; the
second is the utilization of flexibility within the Act to
assure that environmental goals and goals of energy
sufficiency do not unnecessarily conflict.

     The Clean Air Act also requires EPA to establish Federal

emission limitations for new stationary sources and for
sources emitting "hazardous" pollutants such as asbestos,
beryllium, and mercury.  EPA encourages States to accept
responsibility for enforcing these programs; where States
do not accept delegation, EPA is responsible for enforcement.

     The Clean Air Act also requires EPA to set national
emission standards for new motor vehicles and aircraft.
Mobile sources are significant contributors to urban air
pollution.  Almost all of the carbon monoxide, more than
half of the hydrocarbons (and its by-product, photochemical
oxidants), and slightly less than half of the nitrogen
oxides in our cities come from mobile sources.  The burden
for compliance with auto emission standards is with the
manufacturer.  EPA assures compliance primarily by certifying
prototype vehicles.  In 1976, a new thrust will be to assure  ,
that production vehicles comply with emission standards.
EPA also has the responsibility to ensure that in-use
vehicles meet standards through implementation of the recall,
warranty, tampering, and import provisions of the Clean Air
Act.  In addition, EPA enforces standards to assure the
availability of lead-free fuel.  To insure that emission
control devices are kept in proper working order, States
and communities are establishing inspection and maintenance

     The Clean Air Act also authorizes research and develop-
ment work to better define health and welfare effects of
pollutants, to define mechanisms of atmospheric transportation
and transformation of pollutants, and to develop improved
control methods.  The research and development program is
structured to supply the information base and the technology
necessary to support the Agency's standard setting and
enforcement activities.  Comprehensive knowledge of
pollutants, their type, source, occurrence, effects, and
atmospheric pathways is necessary if air pollution is to be
controlled.  The research and development program, therefore,
attempts to anticipate the technical needs of the enforcement
program, to supply technical assistance for immediate rule-
making activities, and to develop data with which to contin-
ually evaluate established standards.

Summary of Increases and Decreases

1975 Air Program.	     $154,026,000

 Abatement and Control	      -10,082,200

    Reduce 1n-use vehicle testing
    program, reduce New Obligational
    Authority for control agency
    support (program level  remains
    the same}, and phase down
    academic training program.

Enforcement	.		       +1,270,100

    Increase enforcement of mobile
    source control program.

Research and Development......	       -7,985,200

    Transfer of support to Agency's
    energy related environmental
             1976 Air Program Request.	       137,228,700

                        Summary of Resources
                        (dollars in thousands)
Budget Authority
  Abatement and Control
    Mobile Source...........    $10,290.1
    Stationary Source Stand-
     ards and Guidelines	      6,402.5
    Ambient Trend Monitoring      3,262.1
    Techn i ca1 As s is tance	     10,369.6
    Academic Training.......      1,700.0
    Control Agency Grants...     55,293.0

      Subtotal	     87,317.3

    Stationary Source En-
     forcement	      8,544.7
    Mobile Source Enforce-
     forcement		..      2 .,205.2

      Subtotal.....	.....     10,749.9

  Research and Development
    Processes and Effects...     38,426.3
    Control technology	     1?»532.5

      Subtotal	     55,958.8

               Total........    154,026.0








End-of-Year Employment
Abatement and Control
  Mobile Source.,		   170      223
  Stationary Source Standards
    and Gutdelfnes.,	   146      146
  Ambient Trend Monitoring	    80       80
  Technical Assistance.........   334      324
  Academic Training,	
  Control Agency Support.......   ...	._._._

          Subtotal		...   730      773

  StatlonaTy Source Enforcement   326      333
  Mobile Source Enforcement....    78	Til

          Subtotal-.	   404      444

Research and Development
  Processes and Effects-	•••   331      346
  Control Technology.	   125      108

          Subtotal.-.		   456      454

          Total-	 1,590    1,671

                                                       * * *

                                                       • • t

Abatement and

                   Abatement  and 'Control
Budget Authority
Mobile Source 	
Stationary Source
Standards and
Gui del i nes 	
Ambient Trend
Assistance. .....
Academic Training.
Control Agency
End -of -Year
Mobile Source 	
Stationary Source
Standards and
Guide! ines ......
Ambient Trend
Moni tori ng 	
Assistance. ....
Academic Training
Control Agency
Support.... .....
, 80
a * •
1976 Decrease
$ 8,935,400 -$1,354,
6,441,300 + 38,
2,533,000 - 729,
10,457,400 + 87,
1,100,000 - 600,
47,768,000 - 7,525,
77,235,100 -10,082,
• * *
B * *
• • •
• • *

     The air abatement and control  program is directed to
the establishment of ambient air quality standards,  assist-
ance to State and local agencies'  efforts to implement
these standards with control plans, air quality monitoring
and emissions surveillance activities,  establishment of

emissions standards for both stationary and mobile sources
of air pollution, development of procedures for determining
compliance with emissions standards, and determining the
need for control of pollutants.   EPA also assists Federal
agencies in bringing their facilities into conformance with
air pollution control requirements.   Environmental impact
statement review helps insure that the activities of
Federal agencies have a minimal  air pollution impact,

     The bulk of EPA's Abatement and Control efforts
support State and community agencies, which bear the primary
responsibility for controlling pollution.  Over 60 percent
of the funds in this area are channelled to State and local
agencies through control agency grants; EPA's technical
assistance, monitoring and training programs directly
support State and local efforts.  EPA activities in State
Implementation Plan development and revision are also aimed
at facilitating State actions.  First priority attention is
paid to the achievement and maintenance of the primary
National Ambient Air Quality Standards in those Air Quality
Control Regions that are classified Priority I for sulfur
dioxide and total suspended particulates.


                   Abatement and Control

                      Mobile Source

                            1975         1976         Change

Mobile source....    $10,290,100   $8,935,400    -$1,354,700

     The mobile source pollution control program includes
(1) development of emission and fuel standards for motor
vehicles and aircrafts; (2) provision of technical assistance
to the States to plan and implement transportation controls;
(3) certification of new vehicles and engines for conformity
with applicable emission standards; (4) determination of the
emissions performance of in-use vehicles; and (5) certifi-
cation of emissions testing laboratories.

Emission Standards

     The standards set for light duty vehicles (including
gasoline and diesel powered automobiles and light duty
trucks) and aircraft are undergoing constant evaluation in
view of the changing technology available for meeting the
standards and changes in our understanding of the degree of
control required.  Under the Clean Air Act, manufacturers
also have an opportunity to request an additional suspension
of the statutory standards, commencing in January 1975.
Work related to the suspension requests will require a
substantial effort during the second half of 1975 and the
beginning of 1976.

     Standards are being developed for motorcycles and work
is in process for setting more stringent emission standards
for heavy duty and medium duty trucks.  The current emission
standards for heavy duty vehicle engines are comparatively
less stringent than are the emission standards for light
duty vehicles.  A meaningful heavy duty vehicle  test
procedure will be developed, on the basis of which the air
quality impact of heavy duty vehicle  emissions can be
documented, and standards justified.  In addition, the need
for control is being assessed for sulfates emitted from
light duty vehicles and polynuclear aromatics from heavy
duty diesel powered trucks.  All of this work entails the
development of testing procedures and measurement techniques.

     In addition, this program consists of the assessment of
alternative power systems plants and fuels for automotive transpor-
tation systems that may have potential for improved fuel
economy and emissions performances and the fostering of use
and application of such systems in the development of long
term national environmental pollution control strategies,   N

State_Tec_hn_1 caj Support

     Technical support to the States as they plan and
implement transportation controls is carried out through
the development of information as to the feasibility and
effectiveness of transportation control measures and
implementation procedures.  The development of a test
protocol   will enable EPA to provide data to the States on
the effectiveness of candidate emission control devices in
reducing emissions when retrofitted to in-use vehicles.  The
vehicle  is a State responsibility under the Clean Air Act.
The Act does not provide authority for Federal action against
individuals whose vehicles may not be properly maintained
and used.

Motor Vehicle and Engine Certification

     Under this program prototype motor vehicles are tested
and certified as to their conformance with Federal emission
standards.   A program under which auto manufacturers
voluntarily label new automobiles with fuel economy data is
also operated.  Data submitted by manufacturers in support
of their applications for certification is reviewed and
engine classes are selected for emission testing by manufac-
turers and by EPA.  Vehicle tests are then conducted.  The work-
load that will be required in 1976 is approximately the same
as in 1975 and is displayed below.

Type of Vehicle
Light Duty Vehicle
Heavy Duty Engines
Motorcycles.. .....
• « •
n Model
FY 1976
                           Total.......   106    1S870  375   13500   481

                     *Key:  A=Number of engine families to be certified.
                            B=Number of confirmatory tests to be carried  out.

     The certification of model year 1977 vehicles for high
altitude operation will also be required in 1976.  EPA plans
to handle this task through a contractor.

Emissions Performance of In-Use Vehicles

     To determine the contribution of in-use vehicles to air
pollution, a representative sample of individually owned
vehicles is procured and tested by EPA.  This information
provides a data base from which motor vehicle pollution can
be calculated and projected for individual  metropolitan
areas as well as nationwide.  Approximately 1,000 vehicles
are tested each year for this purpose.

     The testing of in-use vehicles to determine whether
recall is necessary is also carried out under this program.
Section 207(c) of the Clean Air Act provides that the
Administrator may require a manufacturer to recall and fix,
at the manufacturer's expense, any class of properly used
and maintained motor vehicles if EPA finds a substantial
number are in violation of the emission standards.  The
testing of 3,000 1972 model year vehicles (the first model
year to which Section 207(c) is applicable) has been
completed.  Manufacturers have been requested to furnish
additional information on some 1972 model year vehicle
classes that were found to be high emitters.  A similar
testing program has been initiated, covering 1973 and 1974
model year vehicles; approximately 43000 vehicles are to be
tested.  However, a reduction of resources in 1976 for this
program will eliminate the testing of 1975 model year
vehicles to determine in-use emissions.

Certification of Emissions Testing Laboratories
     New regulations, due to be proposed soon, will help
 jduce the burden on importers in sending vehicles to the
  S. for testing, as well as greatly improve  EPA's device
 /aluation and retrofit certification programs.  Under these
 "oposed regulations, private laboratories will be certified/--'
 / EPA to undertake testing and certify the results.  It is ^*
estimated that approximately 18 laboratories will seek
certification (12 in the United States, four in Europe, and
t to in Japan).
     The issue of importers having to send their cars to
Ann Arbor (where EPA's test facilities are located) is
increasingly being raised by foreign governments (who have

their own governmental, rather than manufacturer, testing
facilities) who desire some sort of reciprocal certification
as is used in the aviation field.  Because reciprocal
certification is unacceptable to EPA, it is essential that
EPA proceed to certify   labs that can make tests and report
the results to EPA.

     The verification of retrofit devices and the impact on
emission of aftermarket parts constitutes an increasing
workload which can be handled more efficiently by independent
testing laboratories.  If the use of independent laboratories
is successful, sizeable savings in EPA resources could
ultimately be achieved.

1975 Program and Accomplishments

     -  Complete certification of manufacturer's planned
        1975 model year production of light duty vehicles
        and heavy duty engines for conformity with emission

     -  Complete emissions testing to allow determination
        of whether manufacturers should be required to recall
        any 1973 model year vehicles;

     -  Monitor the operation of two in-use vehicle
        inspection and maintenance State programs and
        distribute guidance material to States on the
        establishment of in-use  vehicle inspection and
        maintenance programs;

     -  Operate the 1975 model year voluntary fuel economy
        labeling program for automobiles and light trucks.

     -  Issue a report on the assessment of manufacturers'
        efforts and ability to meet the statutory light
        duty vehicle emission standards;

     -  Propose regulations for  the certification of emission
        testing laboratories, emission standards, and test
        procedures for medium duty vehicles and emission
        standards and test procedures for motorcycles;

     -  Complete a fuel economy  study with the Department of
        Transportation as required by the Energy Supply and
        Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 •

     -  Complete an impact study on the feasibility of
        electric powered vehicles in urban areas; and

     -  Complete impact studies on the feasibility of use
        of various alternative fuels.

1976 Plan

     -  Complete the certification of manufacturers'  planned
        1976 model year production of light duty vehicles
        and heavy duty engines for conformity with emission

     -  Complete emissions testing to allow determination of
        whether manufacturers should be required to recall
        any 1974 model year vehicles,

     -  Continue to provide assistance to the States to
        implement inspection and maintenance programs and
        other transportation control measures;

     -  Operate the voluntary fuel economy labeling program
        for 1976 model year automobiles;

     -  Certify independent testing laboratories in the United
         States and overseas; and

     -  Begin certification processing of 1977 model  year
        medium duty vehicles and motorcycles.

Purposeof Decrease

     The decrease of $1,354,700 results from the elimination
of one in-use vehicle emission testing program for model
year 1975 vehicles.


                    Abatement and Control

         Stationary Source Standards and Guidelines

                            1975.          1976       Change

Stationary source
 standards and
 guidelines.......     $6,402,500    $6,441,300     +$38,800

    This subactivity covers the development of ambient air
quality standardss emission standards for stationary sources,
and a variety of analyses related to the implementation of
the Clean Air Act.

    Although National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
have been set for six pollutants (particulars, sulfur dioxide,
carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, photochemical oxidants, and
hydrocarbons)s work related to their implementation is con-
tinuing.  For cases in which the controls required to achieve
NAAQS result in significant economic and social dislocation,
analysis is required to determine the exact nature of the
problem and to develop alternatives for problem resolution
within the framework of the Act.  Examples of this work are
the development of EPA's clean fuels policy and transportation
control regulations.

    Additional issues arising from EPA's implementation of
the NAAQS related parts of the Act (generally brought to
light by court actions) require the development of revised
policies and regulations; such has been the case with the re-
quirement to assure maintenance of ambient air quality stand-
ards (including the control of indirect sources of air pollu-
tion), the development of long-range air quality maintenance
plans and the prevention of significant deterioration which
require State decisions as to land-use control for purposes
of air quality preservation.

    Issues have also arisen with respect to federally promul-
gated emission regulations.  Although National Emission Stand-
ards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) have been promul-
gated for selected sources of asbestos, beryllium, and mercury,
issues still remain unsettled with respect to these standards.
The lack of coverage of all sources of these pollutants and
the difficulty in setting emission limitations for asbestos

sources may require future regulatory action.

    New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) have been promul-
gated for 12 source categories and were proposed for eight
additional categories in 1974; it is expected that NSPS will
be set for additional sources during 1975-1976.  NSPS will
continue to be set in the future since they provide the basis
for prevention of deterioration of ai'r quality, maintenance of
ambient air quality standards, and the control of emerging
industries, such as gas turbines, coal gasification, and oil-
shale use.

    Standards of performance are being developed for sources
of fluorides and will be used as the Federal regulatory strategy
for this pollutant in the air environment.  Control of this
pollutant as well as of sulfuric acid mist from sulfuric acid
plants will require State control action of existing sources
of these pollutants (i.e., the phosphate fertilizer industry
and primary aluminum reduction plants) under the provisions
of Section lll(d) of the Act.  Work is also carried out to
determine the need to control additional air pollutants.  Under
current consideration are, among others, cadmium, particulate
polycylic organic matter (PPOM), polychlorinated biphenyls
(PBC), lead from stationary sources, and vinyl chloride.

    Activities which support the development and implementation
of these standards include economic studies of specific in-
dustries, comprehensive studies of industries, emissions
testing, analyses of source-receptor relationships, analyses
of   alternative pollutant control strategies, and development
of national regulatory strategies.  The activities are essen-
tial to building an improved data base which is used to develop
SIP regulations, improved emissions inventories,  analytical
tools, and guidance documents for use by State and local
control agencies.

1975 Program and Accomplishments

    - Promulgate New Source Performance Standards for primary
      copper, lead and zinc smelters, primary aluminum plants,
      coal cleaning plants, phosphate fertilizer plants
      (four processes), electric arc furnaces in the iron and
      steel industry, and ferroalloy plants;

    - Propose New Source Performance Standards for

    - Issue State guidelines for standards of performance for
      existing sources for primary aluminum plants (fluorides),
      phosphate fertilizer plants (fluorides), and sulfuric
      acid plants (acid mist);

    - Promulgate general regulations to define or establish
      requirements for source modifications and continuous
      monitors; and'

    - Revise and expand coverage of the national emission
      standards for asbestos (inclusion of two additional
      manufacturing categories, fabrication processes and
      waste disposal) and mercury (sewage sludge incinerators).

1976 Plan
                                                               rric I***
    - Promulgate New Source Performance Standards for:  gas        | „
      turbines, kraft pulp mills, grain terminals, petroleum    •  &
      refineries (sulfur recovery plants), by-product coke
      ovens, chlor-alkali plants, lime plants, steam gener-
      ators (refuse fired), carbon black plants, steam gener-
      ators (lignite fired), crushed stone plants, electric
      arc furnaces in grey iron foundries, phosphate rock
      preparation, sintering plants .in steel mills, asphalt
      roofing, detergent plants, and dry cleaning plants, and

    - Promulgate standards for vinyl chloride manufacturing
      and polyvinyl chloride manufacturing and fabrication,

Purpose of Increase

    The increase of $38,800 is to provide for the full year
cost of the October 1974 pay raise.


                        Abatement and Control

                      Ambient Trend Monitoring

                            1975          1976       Change

Ambient trend
  monitoring..,,,,»...$3,262,100    $2,533,000    -$729,100

     EPA's ambient air monitoring is carried out by the
National Air Surveillance Network and specialized monitoring
studies.  The bulk of the air quality data, however, is
developed by States and localities.  Under this program, air
quality data submitted by States is analyzed; the EPA air
quality monitoring system provides independent verification
of State data.

     During 1975, efforts are being expanded to meet the
needs for air monitoring and analyses related to developing
regulations for the State Implementation Plans,  Area-
specific monitoring will be required to evaluate transporta-
tion control plan revisions, to review plans for the main-
tenance of ambient air quality standards, and to evaluate
and promulgate regulations to prevent the significant
deterioration of air quality.

     Additional monitoring activities will include studies
of high oxidant levels in rural areas, smelter and power
plant monitoring, assessment of the air quality impact of
the use of higher sulfur fuels due to existing low sulfur
fuel shortages, and the sampling and analysis of both
regulated and nonregulated pollutants (e.g., vinyl chloride)
in special or emergency situations.  The sharply increasing
amount of ambient data becoming available will enable EPA
to provide more frequent and sophisticated analyses of
national trends in air quality.  Analyses of these trends,
including the recommendation for control actions, will be
carried out in support of the achievement of EPA's objective
to achieve primary standards for SOo and participates in
Priority I Air Quality Control Regions,  fjnphasis will also
be given to achieving further improvements in stor'jhj/and
disseminating ambient data.

1975 Program and Accomplishments

     - Establish improved quality control  programs for the
       State ambient data gathering programs;

     - Complete preliminary determinations of the status of
       compliance of Air Quality Control  Regions with
       National Ambient Air Quality Standards;

     - Provide technical guidance and program direction to
       ensure that all  required State monitoring sites are
       in operation and generating valid  data;

     - Perform monitoring activities and  analyses relative
       to State Implementation Plan revisions and/or additions;

     - Perform selected special monitoring projects, such as
       the study of oxidant levels in rural areas and the
       surveillance of possible problem areas,

1976 Plan

     - Initiate a Federal-State program for collection and
       analysis of ambient data for nonregulated pollutants;

     - Install automated air quality data handling systems
       in 12-15 State and local control agencies;

     - Continue monitoring activities and analyses relative
       to State Implementation Plan requirements;

     - Continue providing guidelines and  direction to States
       and local agencies in monitoring operations and data

     - Continue the assessment and development of national
       trends in air quality;      /

     - Develop a rapid response capability for obtaining
       air quality information "'for special studies (examples:
       leads sulfatesj vinyl chloride, hexachlorobenzene);

     - Continue the operation and improvement of national
       air data banks; and

     - Compile a directory of monitoring  sites.

Purpose of Decrease

     The decrease results from the elimination in 1976 of
a "one-time" congressional increase of $750,000 in 1975
offset by an increase to provide for the full-year cost
of the October 1974 pay raise.


                       Abatement and Control

                       Technical Assistance

                            1975          1976       Change

  Assistance	  $10,369,600   $10,457,400     +$87,800

     This program includes the provision of technical informa-
tion and assistance to State and local  agencies; the review,
approval, or promulgation of State Implementation Plans; the
review of environmental impact statements; the surveillance
of other Federal agencies' activities to assure compliance
with standards; and the conduct of manpower training programs.

Technical Information and Assistance

     This program covers primarily the performance of analy-
ses to determine the adequacy of State Implementation Plans
(SIPs) and the development, if necessary, of substitute plans
for promulgation by EPA.  In support of the SIPs, analytical
procedures are developed and provided to the States for the
preparation of adequate SIPs and revisions.  Progress reports,
which describe the accomplishments of the States in carrying
out their implementation plans, are prepared twice a year.
Technical assistance also incorporates activities related to
the expansion and improvement of the national data bank of
pollutant emissions and air quality information.  This
information is used to assess national  air quality and emission
trends, as well as to determine the need for SIP revisions.

Federal Activities

     The purpose of this program is to assure that Federal
agencies develop plans and programs to meet national air
pollution program goals.  Executive Order 11752 requires
that Federal facilities comply with substantive requirements
of SIPs and Executive Order 11514 requires Federal agencies
to prepare environmental Impact statements on proposed actions.
EPA assists Federal agencies in fulfilling their responsi-
bilities under these two Orders.  Activities include pro-
vision of technical advice and assistance to Federal agencies,
monitoring their programs for achieving the standards, review-
ing compliance strategies among Federal agencies, and pro-
                  in nyonayi nn ctatoman-l-p r\n 4-hr\ mni>4v.m>.

mental impact of proposed activities.

Manpower Training

     The object of the training program is to help meet
manpower needs of State and local programs by providing their
personnel with state-of-the-art information on pollution
control systems and air pollution control strategy analysis
and development*  The program includes the development and
delivery of short courses for improving the skills of air
pollution control personnel at the entry and advanced levels
and the assessment of national training needs in air pollution

1975 Program and Accomplishments

     - Monitor State progress in attaining air quality
       standardsj as stipulated in SIPs, and recommend
       corrective action;

     - Provide two semiannual SIP progress reports;

     - Implement new and expanded computer systems for the
       storage, retrieval and analysis of emissions and
       related data;

     - Publish updated and new emission factors for pollu-
       tion source categories;

     - Upgrade the national technical data base by including
       emission inventories from all Federal facilities
       required to report;

     - Provide training for approximately 3S500 personnel;

     - Develop and distribute five packaged self-instructional

1976 Plan

     - Continue review of progress and development of reports
       on attaining air quality standards as required by
       State Implementation Plans;

     - Publish updated and new emission factors for pollution
       source categories;

     - Publish documents providing guidance to States ii
       handling and evaluating air quality and emission' data;

     - Compile and update area source inventories for all
       States and territories;

     - Acquire and store additional source inventory informa-
       tion for hazardous and trace materials;

     - Continue to update emission inventories and data from
       Federal facilities;

     - Provide training for approximately 3,500 personnel;

     - Develop and distribute five packaged self-instructional
       courses; and

     - Continue to publish technical information abstracts
       and disseminate information from a central technical
       information center.

        of Increase
     The increase of $87,800 is to provide for the full-year
cost of the October 1974 pay raise.


                       Abatement and Control

                         Academic Training

                            1975          1976       Change

Academic Training...  $1,700,000    $1,100,000    -$600,000

     To help meet national needs for professional air pollu-
tion control manpower, EPA supports professional training with
grants to universities and directly to individuals.  This
support has stimulated the establishment of competent programs
in leading universities over the country.  Assistance to
individuals with direct fellowship awards will continue in
1976 with emphasis placed on professional development at the
graduate level for employees of State and local agencies who
are already on the job.

1975. Program and Accompli shments

     -  Train 70 State and local agency professional
        employees at the graduate level through fellowship
        awards direct to the individuals, and

     -  Support graduate training at 12 institutions for
        120 students.  Courses of study will  be designed
        to develop pollution abatement practitioners or to
        provide skills needed for support of pollution
        abatement programs,

1976 Plan

     -  Train 70 State and local agency professional
        employees at the graduate level through fellowship
        awards direct to the individuals, and

     -  Support graduate training for 100 students.  Courses
        of study will be designed to develop pollution abate-
        ment practitioners or to provide skills needed for
        support of pollution abatement programs.

Purpose of Decrease

     The decrease represents the beginning of the phase-out
of the academic training grant program.


                    Abatement and Control

                   Control Agency Support

                            1975          1976       Change

Control agency
 support...........  $55,293,000   $47,768,000  -$7,525,000

    Assistance is provided to State and local agencies through
grants, assignment of personnel to State agencies, special
contract support, and demonstration grants.  The primary pur-
pose of these support activities is to assist State and local
agencies to develop and implement plans to achieve and main-
tain ambient air quality standards.  Grant funds provide for
conducting control programs in their entirety and include
monitoring, enforcement, administration, laboratory services,
and other activities.  In general, the control agencies are
encouraged to use these funds in a manner consistent with
national priorities;, such as the achievement of primary
National Ambient Air Quality Standards for S02 and particulates
in Priority I Air Quality Control Regions.

    For cases in which States require special assistance for
the performance of specialized tasks, such as the development
of emission inventories, revisions related to transportation
control plans, maintenance of standards, and plans to prevent
significant deterioration, the services of EPA contractors
are available.  EPA enters into contracts with a series of
firms for services to be provided upon call.  This arrangement
greatly speeds up the availability of contractors' services
to States and permits States to comply with the short dead-
lines imposed by the Clean Air Act and related court orders.
To bolster State capability, EPA personnel are assigned to
State and local agencies under two year term appointments.

1975 Program and Accomplishments

    - Support air pollution control programs of approximately
      210 agencies in 50 States, the District of Columbia
      and territories;

    - Provide State assignees to State and T-ocal control
      agencies; and

                        -  Provide special  assistance (contracts  and  demonstration
                          grants) to States.

                    1976 Plan

T -                      -  Continue support to control  agencies  to help meet State
"-                         Implementation Plan requirements  and  activities;

! >                      -  Provide State assignees  to State  and  local  agencies;  and
                        -  Provide special  assistance (contractsand demonstra-
                          tion grants)  to States.

                    Purpose of Decrease

                        The decrease of $7,525,000 reflects the deferral  of
                    $3,750,000 to 1976.  These funds were added by the Congress
                    in 1975,   While the New Obligational  Authority shows  a  large
                    drop from 1975 to 1976, the funds available for obligation
                    will remain the same ($51.5 million).


  Stationary Source
  Mobile Source



.    $8,544,700

•    2,205,200
^8,891,500   +$346,800

 3.128,500    +923,300
         Total	   10,749,700    12,020,000  +1,270,100
End-of-Year Employment
  Stationary Source
  Mobile Source

     The air enforcement program is directed toward acheiving
compliance with the standards and regulations established for
stationary and mobile sources of air pollution under the
provisions of the Clean Air Act.  The stationary source
enforcement program is undertaken to bolster and stimulate  State
enforcement of State Implementation Plans,  New Source
Performance Standards, and National Emission Standards  for
Hazardous Air Pollutants.  The mobile source enforcement
program is primarily a Federal effort directed toward
achieving compliance with fuel and motor vehicle emission
standards and regulations.

     The Clean Air Act of 1970 places the primary responsibility
for development and enforcement of regulations limiting
emission of pollutants upon the States.   EPA's primary
objective regarding the stationary source enforcement
program is to assist and stimulate State enforcement programs.
Activities thus far have focused on identifying major sources
of pollution, ascertaining compliance status, developing
enforceable compliance schedules for sources not in final

compliance, and assuring compliance with final emission
limitations or increments of progress contained in compliance
schedules.  In 1976, we will need to give more attention to
certain problem urban areas where efforts to meet primary
health related standards prove inadequate.  Air Quality
Maintenance Plans will also require regulating both major
and minor sources not previously covered and, in some in-
stances, emission limitations will have to be made more
stringent.  The promulgation of new NSPS and NESHAP
regulations plus an increase of sources affected will call
for greater effort in the surveillance and enforcement of
these standards.

     The Clean Air Act provides a variety of enforcement
tools to achieve the necessary reductions in pollutants
from automotive vehicles, which as a class constitute the
largest single contributor to the Nation's air pollution
problems.  In the mobile source enforcement program for new
motor vehicles, inspection of vehicle manufacturers1
production certification procedures and qualifying manufac-
turer's assembly line test facilities constitute the major
thrust of the 1976 program.  These efforts will support the
prototype certification program funded under the Abatement
and Control appropriations.  With respect to vehicles in
use, the major thrust of the program is to use EPA's authority
to order recall  of vehiclesfnot conforming to emission stan-
dards during their useful life.  The production and perform-
ance warranty provisions of the Act are also designed to
help assure that manufacturers develop and produce vehicles
that meet standards throughout their useful life.   EPA
plans to make these warranties meaningful remedies for
purchasers of non-conforming vehicles in 1976.  Other act-
ivities of the mobile source enforcement program include
the enforcement of the tampering provision which makes it a
prohibited act for any manufacturer or dealer knowingly to
remove or render inoperative a vehicle emission control
system after sale of the vehicle; enforcement of Transportation
Control Plans for urban areas-, and a nationwide fuels
surveillance/enforcement program to assure the general
availability of unleaded gasoline vital to the maintenance
of catalytic converters.



                 Stationary Source Enforcement
                            1975          1976       Change

Stationary source
 enforcement....	  $8,544,700    $8,891,500    +$346,800

     The stationary source air enforcement program is designed
to effectively utilize the enforcement authorities provided
by the Clean Air Act to ensure nationwide compliance with
State Implementation Plans (SIP's), New Source Performance
Standards (NSPS), and National Emission Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).  EPA's stationary source
enforcement program consists of monitoring and evaluating
State enforcement programs; providing technical, legal, and
case development assistance to State programs; field
surveillance and compliance monitoring of major sources;
encouraging States to request enforcement authority for NSPS
and NESHAP; and enforcing SIP and NSPS/NESHAP requirements
to support and stimulate State efforts.

     The responsibility for enforcing State developed, EPA
approved, emission limitations is shared by EPA and the
States.   The Clean Air Act recognizes that States have
primary responsibility for achieving clean air within their
jurisdiction.  When States do not enforce air pollution
standards, however, the Act requires EPA to take action.  In
accordance with the intent of the Act, the EPA air enforcement
program is designed to ensure that all sources achieve
compliance with applicable standards.  EPA bolsters State
air enforcement efforts by supporting State control agencies
through control agency grants, providing specialized skill
and expertise or special contractual efforts, and by taking
enforcement actions against selected sources when the States
cannot or will not enforce.

     EPA has first responsibility for the enforcement of
Federal  emission standards it promulgates.  However, both
Section 111 (New Source Performance Standards) and Section
112 (National Emission Standards for. Hazardous Air Pollutants)
provide for State enforcement of all or a portion of these
standards.  In accordance with the intent of Congress, and
to further the objective of new federalism, high priority
has been placed on encouraging states to request delegation

           of these  standards.   After  delegation,  EPA will  actively
           overview  the  enforcement  of these  standards.
?  *
4-1        1975  Program  Plans
           State  Implementation  Plans:

               Success  in  enforcing  State  implementation  plans  is
           hinged upon the  accomplishment of four major tasks:

               -  The identification and investigation of possible
                   violators  to  determine their  compliance status;

               -  Assurance  that  expeditious compliance schedules are
                   established for violators;

               -  Assurance  that  the increments  of  progress  in  compliance
                   schedules  are met  in  a timely  manner; and

               -  Assurance  that  sources initially  found  in  compliance
                   or sources that come  into compliance continue to
                   meet  emission requirements.

               State and Federal  programs  face  an immense task  since
           there  are estimated to  be  over 200,000 stationary  sources
           subject to SIP emission standards.  Of this  number, between
           18  and 20 thousand are  "point sources" (facilities individually
           capable of emitting over 100  tons per  year of a single
           pollutant, as a  class responsible for  approximately 85 percent
           of  all pollutants  from  stationary sources).   EPA enforcement
           efforts have  been  directed almost exclusively therefore, to
           ensure compliance  by  this  class  of emitters.

               By the end  of 1974, some 16,400  "point" sources  had been
           identified and investigated by States  and EPA.   Of these,
           over 10,200 sources were complying with applicable emission
           standards and about 2,500  were on EPA  and State approved
           compliance schedules.   Of  the roughly  3,800  remaining 100
           ton sources,  about 1,500 had  State schedules which were being
           reviewed by EPA  for Federal approval;  the compliance  status
           of  roughly 2,000 more was  in  the process  of  being  verified,
           and State or  EPA enforcement  actions were pending  for the

               In 1974,  EPA conducted 3,155 investigations (1,987 formal
           inquiries and 1,168 plant  inspections  or  emission  tests) to
           determine source compliance status and took  275 enforcement
           actions (228  notices  of violation and  47  enforcement  orders
           rtV*  r*4 I*"I T //***•! m-l-M^l  i*»^'I*Mr»*»l +• ^ f* f\r*t* wts\  f*f\* ih*nn  ^xwm T 4 •* M A>*

In numerous instances, the initiation of an EPA enforcement
action has triggered action by the States.

     Implicit in EPA's role of ensuring Jthat the Clean Air
Act is implemented  is the responsibility to ensure that source
compliance is maintained once achieved.  To ensure that the
environmental gains produced by the initial enforcement effort
are not lost, efforts by both the States and EPA were initiated
in 1975 to annually verify the compliance status of all point

     Barring discovery of serious compliance problems in
State programs by EPA's compliance monitoring efforts, 85
percent of all point sources will be brought into final
compliance by July 1975.  Although this will significantly
reduce air pollution emissions, it is anticipated that in some
80 or more Air Quality Control Regions, achievement of health
related ambient air quality standards for particulate matter
and sulfur oxides will be delayed beyond the attainment dates
set by the Clean Air Act.  The 15 percent of point sources
in violation after July 1975 will contain many of the Nation's
largest polluters (including power plants, industrial/
commercial boilers, and heavy industries such as steel
manufacturing). Priority  enforcement programs are being
conducted during 1975 to ensure that expeditious compliance
schedules are established for these categories of point sources.
In many of the "problem" AQCRs, however, compliance by major
emitters alone will be insufficient to achieve the air quality
goals set pursuant to the Act.  Numerous violations by smaller
sources are thought to be the reason for poor air quality in
most of these areas.  In 1976, EPA and State resources utilized
to obtain compliance by point sources, not needed to ensure
their continued compliance in compliance monitoring programs,
will be directed towards ensuring compliance by these lesser
emi tters.

New Source Performace Standards and National Emission Standards.
 for Hazardous Air Pollutants:

     The first five categories of sources subject to NSPS
affect the design of between 20 to 70 new and modified sources
each year.  A second group of NSPS new source standards covering
an additional seven source categories was promulgated on
March 8, 1974; additional standards to be promugated in 1975
will bring the total number of sources annually subject to
these standards to 1,500 in 1976.

     NESHAP regulations were first promulgated requlatinq the

              fixed  installations  and an estimated 30,000 annual building
» -          •-   demolitions  and  asbestos spray operations, Amendments to
              these  standards  were proposed to  include an additional 200
              fixed  installations.   Further amendments (except perhaps for
              vinyl  chloride)  to these regulations are not anticipated
              before 1976.
                  In  1974, over 100 detailed investigations were made
 -             which  produced about 25 sources that were subject to the
 •             first  set  of NSPS; five of these  are now operating in full
              compliance while the remainder are still being built.  With
 ,             respect  to NESHAP, all 600 of the fixed stationary emitters
 7             of hazardous pollutants have been investigated .by the EPA
              regions; 500 of  these  were determined to be in compliance with
              the  allowed  emission limits while the remaining 100 were
"'             placed on  schedules  to comply before April 1975.  Less than
              10 percent of the 30,000 building demolitions and asbestos
              spraying operations  were investigated, however, due to
 ,            limited  EPA  resources.

                  Delegation  of the major portions of NSPS and NESHAP
              enforcement  authority  to States is a high priority of the
 " |            Agency's air enforcement effort.  The 1975 program plans
 : -            target delegation of NESHAP enforcement to 38 States and
              NSPS to  37 States,   The delegation process has been stream-
              lined  and  the degree of delegation can .be tailored to the
 ^ t            State's  strengths (i.e., delegations can be made for a
              single pollutant, source category, or even program effort
 , .            such as  compliance monitoring, field investigation, or
 > ;            enforcement  proceedings). In addition, about five percent
 - '            of the State control agency grants from EPA are set aside
              for  issuance to  those  States which are delegated significant
 *             portions of  NSPS and NESHAP.  It  is hoped that this inducement,
              coupled  with the tailoring of delegations and simplification
              of procedures, will  result in close to the targeted amount
              of delegation in 1975.

              1 975 Accompl i shments
                  The  1975 program is designed to:

                  -  Identify  and investigate 98 percent of the 100 ton
                     sources,  through EPA and State efforts;

Since proper operation and maintenance of abatement controls
is difficult and expensive., widespread violations of standards
may occur without an adequate State and EPA surveillance effort.
As in 1975, EPA will also need to devote special attention
to ensuring that some categories of heavy emitters achieve
and maintain compliance with applicable emission limitations.

    Tentative projection from air quality data indicates that
a significant number of Air Quality Control Regions (primarily
major urban areas) will not meet NAAQS by the statutory
deadline.  The reasons for this are manifold  but among them
is the need to more effectively enforce the present require-
ments in SIP's and to revise those requirements that need to
be made more stringent.  In those areas not meeting health
related standards, EPA and State enforcement efforts will not
only have to strengthen their surveillance/enforcement related
to point sources but may also have to focus increased
attention on sources emitting less than 100 tons annually.

    The attainment and maintenance of NAAQS in 1976 will
undoubtedly require EPA and the States to focus on a much
larger universe of sources in certain areas.  Compliance
schedules will have to be developed for the sources coming
under control for the first time as well as for a number of
minor sources.  In some instances compliance schedules
now in place will have to be made more stringent.  In both
instances, the challenge facing the EPA and State compliance
monitoring and enforcement efforts will be significantly
greater than in past fiscal years.  Resources not required for
monitoring the compliance of major emitters brought into
conformance with applicable emission limits in past fiscal
years will be applied to ensuring compliance by selected
categories  of minor emitters in 1976.  While full compliance
will not be achieved in 1976 by all these smaller sources,
the increased effort should result in the most rapid
progress towards clean air.


    An estimated 19500 sources are expected to be covered
by 30 NSPS source categories in 1976 as compared to the
750 sources affected during 1975.  This increasing coverage
will require EPA to focus more attention on NSPS enforcement
activities pending delegation to States.

    For NESHAPj it is anticipated that approximately 250
asbestos sources and 200 sewage sludge (mercury) incinerators
are expected to be added to the universe of sources covered by

is difficult and expensive,, widespread violations of standards
may occur without an adequate State and EPA surveillance effort.
As in 19759 EPA will also need to devote special attention
to ensuring that some categories of heavy emitters achieve
and maintain compliance with applicable emission limitations.

    Tentative projection from air quality data indicates that
a significant number of Air Quality Control Regions (primarily
major urban areas) will not meet NAAQS b,y the statutory
deadline.  The reasons for this are manifold  but among them
is the need to more effectively enforce the present require-
ments in SIP's and to revise those requirements that need to
be made more stringent.  In those areas not meeting health
related standards, EPA and State enforcement efforts will not
only have to strengthen their surveillance/enforcement related
to point sources but may also have to focus increased
attention on sources emitting less than TOO tons annually.

    The attainment and maintenance of NAAQS in 1976 will
undoubtedly require EPA and the States to focus on a much
larger universe of sources in certain areas.  Compliance
schedules will have to be developed for the sources coming
under control for the first time as well as for a number of
minor sources.  In some instances compliance schedules
now in place will have to be made more stringent.  In both
instances, the challenge facing the EPA and State compliance
monitoring and enforcement efforts will be significantly
greater than in past fiscal years.  Resources not required for
monitoring the compliance of major emitters brought into
conformance with applicable emission limits in past fiscal
years will be applied to ensuring compliance by selected
categories  of minor emitters in 1976.  While full compliance
will not be achieved in 1976 by all these smaller sources,
the increased effort should result in the most rapid
progress towards clean air.


    An estimated 1S500 sources are expected to be covered
by 30 NSPS source categories in 1976 as compared to the
750 sources affected during 1975.  This increasing coverage
will require EPA to focus more attention on NSPS enforcement
activities pending delegation to States.

    For NESHAP, it is anticipated that approximately 250
asbestos sources and 200 sewage sludge (mercury) incinerators
are expected to be added to the universe of sources covered by

tilven the anticipated level of State delegation,, this increase
in coverage will require additional EPA effort to assure

     In addition to the increased coverage of sources as a
result of NSPS/NESHAP promulgationss EPA is expected to
publish regulations to implement Section lll(d) of the Clean
Air Act relating to "noncriteria" pollutants.  Standards are
expected during 1975 for fluorides and sulfuric acid mist
covering more than 450 major industrial facilities.   Both of
these programs will rely heavily on delegated State activity
as no additional resources are available within EPA.

1976 Objectives


     The 1976 program is designed to:

     -  Achieve 90-95 percent compliance by 100 ton sources
        with SIP emission limitations;

     -  Verify compliance status of 100 percent of 100 ton
        sources through coordinated "EPA and State compliance
        monitoring programsi

     -  Continue to utilize control agency grants as an
        incentive to improve State efforts;

     -  Continue to provide technical  and legal assistance
        to States to ensure strong and effective enforce-
        ment programs;

     -  Conduct 3,500 EPA field investigations to determine
        source compliance status;

     -  Initiate 700 EPA enforcement actions (notices of
        violation, Enforcement Orders, civil/criminal suit
        referralsjto the Justice Department;

     -  Continue to implement priority enforcement programs
        for categories of major emitters;

     -  Initiate intensive enforcement program for Air
        Quality Control Regions exceeding the health related
        air quality standards; and

         Estabiisn  centra11
        capability as part of existing ORD/NERC Durham
     -  Achieve 98 percent compliance by sources subject to
        NESHAPS, excluding spraying''and demolition sources;

     -  Achieve 80 percent compliance by spraying and
        demolition sources subject to NESHAPS;

     -  Delegate new amendments of NESHAPS to 30 States and
        increase the number of States delegated major
        portions of NESHAPS to 45; and

     -  Implement coordinated EPA and State compliance
        monitoring programs for sources subject to NESHAPS.


     -  Achieve 90 percent compliance by sources subject to

     -  Delegate new categories of NSPS to 35 States and
        increase the number of States delegated major portions
        of NSPS to 48; and

     *  Implement coordinated EPA and State compliance
        monitoring programs for NSPS sources.

Purpose of Increase

     Resources requested will allow for continuation of EPA
efforts to strengthen and bolster SIP compliance and compliance
with NSPS/NESHAPS.  In addition to a continuation of on-going
efforts, the requested increase will give EPA the ability to
provide the additional technical capability to regions which
they require in support of their stationary source surveil-
lance enforcement efforts.  This capability, located at the
existing Research Triangle Park, North Carolina facility,
will also provide essential interface with the National
Environmental Research Center/Office of Research and Develop-
ment operations impacting enforcement. The staff will consist
of specialists with expertise in air pollution monitoring
(stack and ambient) measurement needed at various times by
regions but which have not been easily available since it is

r •";•
' -. 4
uie main purpose or tms sma 11  out talented group will be
to provide expert technical support to EPA Regional and
State enforcement programs in  the development and defense
of compliance status of stationary sources throughout the
country.  The staff will interface with the Office of
Research and Development to ensure that studies concerning
remote sensing monitoring and  emissions recording produce
viable field enforcement  tools.


                   Mobile Source Enforcement
                            1975          1976       Change

Mobile source
 enforcement	   $2,205,200    $3,128,500    +$923,300

     The mobile source enforcement program is directed
primarily toward achieving compliance with vehicle emission
standards and fuel regulations promulgated by EPA under
provisions of the Clean Air Act.  The activities of the
program include preventing introduction of uncertified new
domestic and  imported vehicles into commerce; auditing
certification procedures of domestic and foreign automobile
manufacturers; enforcing vehicle assembly line emission
test activity and the recall, warranty and tampering
provisions of the Act; developing and enforcing Federal
regulations on the availability of regulated fuels; and
ensuring compliance with Transportation Control Plans and
mobile source aspects of the Air Quality Maintenance Plans.

     The activities of the mobile source enforcement program
complement the Agency's certification program for prototype
new motor vehicles by assuring that manufacturers follow
acceptable certification practices; that assembly line
vehicles also meet emission limitations; that imported
vehicles meet the same standards as domestically produced
automobiles; and that the in-use regulatory provisions on
recall, warranty and tampering are applied to ensure that
vehicles continue to meet standards throughout their useful

     Enforcement of the transportation control plans is
included as part of the mobile source enforcement program
since these plans basically require regulation of automobile
emissions and usage in order to achieve the national ambient
air quality standards.   Enforcement efforts include
monitoring State and local implementation of control
strategies which include motor vehicle inspection and
maintenance programs, vapor recovery control systems, and
vehicle mile travel reduction measuresk  In addition, the
mobile source enforcement staff will be involved in the
development and implementation of air quality maintenance

1975 Program and Accomplishments

New Source.Actlvi 11es:

     The 1975 program is designed to:

     -  Perform 25 inspections of all major domestic and
        foreign vehicle manufacturers certification and
        production compliance programs and conduct 10
        investigations  of possible violations and refer
        violations to the Department of Justice for

     -  Promulgate regulations and begin implementation of
        a selective enforcement audit program for production
        vehicles and issue 30 test orders to assembly plants
        to test vehicles on the assembly line;

     -  Proniugate exemption and exclusion regulations
        defining which  vehicles are subject to Clean Air Act
        Requirements; and

     -  Promulgate regulations for catalyst replacement of
        imported vehicles which have been operated overseas
        where unleaded  fuel is not available.

In-Use Activities:
     -  Initiate 20 investigations of potential  tampering
        violations and refer cases requiring enforcement
        action to the Department of'Justice for  prosecution;

     -  Update Inspector's Guidebook on tampering;

     -  Initiate investigations for potential  recall  orders,
        issue and audit recall orders, and review self-
        initiated recalls by manufacturers;

     -  Promulgate recall regulations establishing procedures
        for implementing recall provisions for the Clean Air

     -  Promulgate defect reporting regulations  for use in
        enforcing recall and warranty provisions of the
        Clean Air Act;

        area of coverage by manufacturer vehicle emission
        warranty; and

        Monitor the importation of over three million vehicles
        and engines for compliance with emission control
        regulations* initiate investigations of illegal
        importations, issue 360 orders that nonconforming
        vehicles be modified, exported, or bonds thereon
        forefeited, and refer violations to the Department
        of Justice for prosecution,
Fuel s
     -  Initiate a national fuels enforcement program and
        conduct 20,000 fuel inspections of gasoline retail

     -  Promulgate leadfree fuel regulations for issuance
        of step sale notices of contamination at retail
        gasoline outletss establish hearing procedures for
        penalty assessment for violations of gasoline
        regulationSs and for imposition of reporting require-
        ments on suppliers and retailers of leadfree gasoline;

     -  Promulgate regulations increasing the general avail-
        ability of unleaded gasoline in rural counties.

1976 Plan

Hew Sources:

     Although the Clean Air Act provided EPA with the
authority and responsibility to test production line vehicless
the Agency has not yet implemented such a program and has
relied primarily on the certification of prototype vehicles
to assure that new vehicles meet emission standards.  Al-
though there have been some reductions in vehicle emissions
since the start of the certification programs data available
to the Agency suggests that certification alone does not
assure that production vehicles will meet standards.  Mass
production techniques may result in vehicles having different
emission characteristics than prototypess even though designs
are identical.  Therefores the Agency  has  launched  a pilot
program to test assembly line vehicles in 1975.  .

      -aii ivr mspcunny utmi uumestit ona roreign assemoiy
plants which number at least 68 (50 in North America, 10
in Europe, and eight in Japan).  The requested increase
provides for the development of an EPA Mobile Enforcement
Testing System (METS).  The METS system will be used for the
purpose of qualifying manufacturers assembly line test facilities
where additional  testing capability is required to enable the
manufacturer to respond to an SEA test order.  The METS
concept will  also be used to perform enforcement related
emissions testing at high altitude locations such as Denver,

    The 1975 fuels program consists of six headquarters and
20 regional office positions.  It is the responsibility of
the regional staff to sample and test gasoline retail outlets
using a mobile laboratory van and a quick screening test.
Laboratory, legal, and administrative support must also be
provided to the field outlet inspection aspect of the
program.  We plan to inspect 2,000 suppliers per region or
20,000 nationally.  In 1976 we will seek greater assistance
from the States to enable a greater volume of retail service
station inspections in those regions or the country having
relatively larger volumes of service stations.  This will
assure that each service station would have about a 17 percent
probability of being inspected each year.

    The activity of the recall program is expected to
increase in 1976,  Plans call for the  promulgation of  regula-
tions requiring manufacturers to  report defects  in emission
control components, formalization of fleet and State contacts
to obtain defects data, and computerization of a defect
reporting system to handle the volume of data anticipated.
Caseload is expected to triple as a result of the defect
reporting regulations. Quarterly and annual publications
of recall activity are also required by the recall procedural
regulations and substantial public interest can be expected
in this area.

related to emission controls.  The warranty provisions are
intended to help assure that manufacturers develop and
produce vehicles which meet emission standards throughout
their defined useful life of 50,000 miles or five years.
The resources requested in 1976 will enable EPA to enforce
final regulations covering defects which cause emissions to
exceed standards.  Although the "defects list" is intended
to be largely self-enforcing through consumers claims for
service under the warranty, EPA resources will be needed to
monitor manufacturers' responses and to update the defects
list. A significant increase in warranty investigation is
anticipated as a result of publication of the defects list,

     The aftermarket parts program is an integral part of
EPA's warranty and recall functions,  In order to alleviate
the potentially anticompetitive impact of recall and warranty
provisions on the aftermarket parts industry, EPA has committed
itself to implementing in 1976 a voluntary self-certification
program for certain emission related aftermarket parts.   This
program will allow the aftermarket parts industry to
compete with the original equipment manufacturers while at
the same time protecting warranty provisions and controlling
emissions.  Implementation of the aftermarket program is
planned for 1976 and resources are requested to enable EPA
to support industry efforts to identify emission related
aftermarket parts and to establish test procedures for
certifying these parts.  EPA resources will also be used
to audit and monitor manufacturers' test procedures and to
establish test procedures for certifying these parts.  EPA
resources will also be used to audit and monitor manufacturers'
test procedures and to monitor aftermarket parts sales to
ensure that actual sales conform with certification.

     Implementation of the performance warranty provision
with a short test correlatable to the Federal test procedure
is also planned far 1975.  If the Agency is successful in
developing a short test in 1975S regulations will be promul-
gated and State and local authorities will be encouraged to
adopt the short test So that preperly maintained and used
vehicles failing such a test could have their emission related
parts replaced under the warranty.

    Transportation Control Plans have been promulgated for
20 States and the District of Columbia covering 34 metro-
politan areas.  During 1975 and 1976, additional plans may
be required for up to 15 additional metropolitan areas.  In
addition, Air Quality Maintenance Plans will require approx-
imately 160 urban areas to undergo extensive air quality
analysis and a number of revisions to existing TCP's can
be expected.  In 1976 we plan to monitor and enforce imple-
mentation of existing TCP's to work extensively with local
agencies to assure enforceability of new or revised plans,
and to take necessary actions against those localities in the
event that TCP's are not implemented as proposed.

1976 Objectives

New Source Activities:

    In 1976S EPA plans full implementation of the Mobile
Enforcement Testing System for production vehicles and antic-
ipates the issuance of about 60 test orders to assembly plants
to test vehicles on the assembly line.  EPA will perform
inspections of all major domestic and foreign vehicle man-
ufacturers' certification and production compliance programs,
and will conduct investigations of possible violations.

In-Use Activities:

    EPA will continue to investigate potential tampering
violations, monitor the importation of vehicles and engines
for compliance with emiss.ion control regulations, investi-
gate illegal importations, and issue orders that nonconforming
vehicles be modified or exported.

    The Agency expects to initiate investigations for potential
recall orders, issue recall orders, review self-initiated
recalls, and implement the performance and defect warranty
provisions of the Act.

    A voluntary aftermarket parts certification program to
protect competition in the after market will also be imple-

    The fuels enforcement program with State assistance will
be expanded to allow EPA to increase inspections of gasoline
retail outlets from approximately 20 thousand in 1975 to about
30 thousand in 1976.

Transportati on PIans:

    EPA will continue to monitor the implementation of TCP's
for metropolitan areas, will participate in the development
and implementation of new TCP's for those Air Quality Control
Regions requiring additional control measures, and will
assist in the reviews developments and implementation of
air quality maintenance plans.

Purpose of Increase

    The requested increase will provide resources for additional
new source and in-use activities which include implementation of
the METS program; continued monitoring of the importation of
vehicles; implementation of the defect warranty  provisions;
Implementation of the performance warranty provision; ensuring
compliance by retail gasoline outlets with unleaded fuel
regulations; continued surveillance of in-use vehicles to
ensure compliance with recall and tampering provisions of the
Clean Air Act; implementation of a voluntary aftermarket parts
certification program; and ensuring State enforcement of

Research and


                                    Research and Development

                                                1975          1976     Decrease

                  Budget Authority
                    Processes and
                     Effects	    $38,426,300   $38,437,000     +$10,700
                     Technol ogy	     17,5.32,500     9.536,600   -7.995.900

                        Total........     55,958.800    47,973,600   -7.985,200

                  End-of-Year Employment
                    Processes and
                     Effects	....

                       The air research and development program is designed to
                  furnish EPA with the knowledge to establish prudent
                  environmental controls based upon known or potentially adverse
                  health and ecological effects; to define, develop, and
                  demonstrate  systems for controlling stationary sources; and
                  to evolve strategies for minimizing the emission of pollutants.

                       To achieve these ends, the program is structured to
                  quantify the effects of air pollutants on man, animals, plants,
$                  and the general environment; develop predictive models for
                  pollutant emission, transport., transformation, and removal,
                  and verify these models by actual measurements; develop and
                  standardize techniques for the management of pollutants; and
\                  develop new and improved technology for preventing and
                  controlling air pollution and demonstrate the cost effective-
                  ness of such technologies.

                                              Ai F

r;j                                  Research and Development
                                      Processes and Effects

I ''                                                    1975          1976     Change
C  .,                                                     	 -          LJ_..._I_-. ni ..•_...!        " -

                    Processes and effects	$38,426,300   $38,437,000   +$10,700

.  '                       Research on air processes and effects provides  a sound
                    scientific basis upon which to establish and continually
                    evaluate both primary and secondary ambient air quality
,  ;                  standards.  Research is accomplished in a number of  program
                    areas including health effects, ecological processes and
                    effects, equipment and techniques research, and socio-economic

                         Health effects research involves epidemiclogical, clinical,
  !               _   and toxicological studies of the impact of air pollutants on
  '               "   the health of man.

                         Ecological processes and effects research encompasses
                    four major catergories, (1) meteorological research to
                    determine pollutant transport mechanisms; (2)  investigations
                    of chemical and physical pollutant processes;  (3) determination
                    of the environmental impact of fuel, fuel additives, and
                    catalytic reactor emission-control devices; and (4)  assessment
                    of the effects of pollutants upon plants and animals.

                         Equipment and techniques research develops and  improves
                    methods and instrumentation for the measurement of air
                    pollutants in ambient a,ir and from mobile stationary emission

                         The socio-economic research effort develops cost benefit
                    analyses of various air,pollution control strategies.

                    1975 Program

  ^s                       The objectives for air processes and effects research in
                    1975 included: (1) expansion of on-going epidemiological and
                    toxicological studies on health effects of exposure  to carbon
                    monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, photochemical
  1                  oxidants, and hydrocarbons; (2) expansion and acceleration of
                 ,   studies of the health effects of exposure to mobile  source
                    emissions and emission products, particularly those  associated
                    with vehicles equipped with oxidation catalysts; (3) continuation

of the assessment of toxicologic effects of trace metals,
Including lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium; (4) expansion
of studies to determine roadside levels of sulfate and catalytic
reactor attrition products; (5) expansion of studies on the
chemical and physical processes of atmospheric pollutants
with special emphasis on the transformation and transport and
photochemical oxidants and sulfates; (6) strengthening  support
of the National Secondary Air Quality Standards for sulfur
dioxide by providing plant biochemical indices of air pollution
damage; (7) development of measurement methods for partieulate
organic matter; (8) validation of improved mobile source
pollution control methods; (9) improvement of particulate mass
and siie determination methods, (10) development of odor
measurement methods; (11) field test of open path spectral
monitors; (12) development and evaluation of multipollutant
analyzers; (13) Development  and evaluation  of  prototype  x-ray
fluorescence analyzer; (14) assessment of the social and
administrative feasibility of least-cost control strategies
for stationary air pollution sources; and (1-5) comparision
of the effectiveness of regulations vs.  emissions charges
for achieving ambient SOg standards.

1975 Accomplishments

     The past year's achievements of the processes and effects
program on air pollution include the:

     -  Publication of the first annual  research report on
        pollutants from vehicles equipped with oxidation
        catalysts.  Results were compiled on all catalyst-
        related studies in the Office of Research and
        Development and the Office of Air and Waste Management,
        including all current results from studies on roadside
        sulfate levels and noble metal attrition products.
        Results are expected to contribute to EPA's assessment
        of mobile emission standards for regulated and non-
        regulated pollutants;

     -  Completion of preliminary assessments on potential
        effects of exposure to compounds of mangenese and
        cerium which may be associated with mobile source
        emissions — this information will  be used to evaluate
        the health impact of fuel additives which may be
        substituted for lead;

     -  Publication of a monograph on the health effects of
        exposure to sulfur oxides—results compiled were
        obtained from the human epidemiology studies or

Community Health Environmental Surveillance Study (CHESS).
program and indicate that adverse health effects may
be more closely associated with exposure to sulfate
compounds  than to sulfur dioxide;

Completion of developmental phases of design and
hardware for a system for intensive environmental and
human health character!zation--this system includes
the Community Health Air Monitoring Program (CHAMP),
the Clinical Laboratory Evaluation and Assessment of
Noxious Substances (CLEANS), and the Clinical
Laboratory Evaluation and Verification of Epidemio-
logical Results (CLEVER);

Expansion of on-going research on air pollutants for
which primary ambient air quality standards have been
promulgated as well as on certain pollutants such as
sulfate compounds which are currently unregulated.
Such studies are aimed at improving information on
these pollutants to allow the refinement of the
standards themselves and to provide scientific health
bases for promulgation of new standards should this
become necessary;

Completion of an 18-city survey of carboxyhemoglobin
levels in humans as part of a continuing evaluation
of the primary ambient air quality standard for carbon
monoxide.  It indicated that carboxyhemoglobin may be
an indicator of ambient CO levels but that it is also
a function of smoking habits;

Completion of annual reviews of available research
results on nitrogen oxides and particulates as part
of a continuing evaluation of the primary ambient air
quality standards for nitrogen dioxide, and total
suspended particulates.  The data suggest that short-
term peak exposures to nitrogen oxide may be important
in health considerations for this class of compounds5
and that health information is needed on the effects
of particulate size distribution and chemical/physical

Drafting of comprehensive scientific and technical
assessment reports on specific pollutants including
cadmiums lead from stationary sources9 and chromium—
these documents provide compilations of what is known
about the subject pollutant and indi-cate areas requiring
additional data for the development of effects criteria;

Initiated a survey of existing repositories of tissue
samples with a view toward the establishment of a
coordinated, nationwide tissue sample banking system--
tnfttfnM^tou obtained through tissue analysts would
include data on exposure trends in the population with
respect to trace metals, for example;

Compiled a series of animal studies on nitrogen oxides
and ozone which showed exposure to be associated with
lowered resistance to infection;

Established a comprehensive User's Network for the
Applied Modeling of Air Pollution (UNAMP)  providing
user communities with mathematical models  for
projections of air quality from pofnt and  area
pollution sources;

Made a preliminary determination on the urban, regional
and multiregional distribution of atmospheric sulfate
levels in the United States.  Results suggest wide-
spead distribution of sulfate at levels which may be
near expected thresholds for health effects;

Conducted a preliminary field investigation on the
extent of long range transport of oxidant  and its
precursors from urban to rural locations.   Results
suggest that oxidant from one urban area may achieve
significant levels in regions 100 km distant;

Preliminary finding of field studies conducted in the
St. Loans area indicate that (a) the conversion rates
of sulfur dioxide to sulfate in coal-fired power plant
plumes are usually low, with values typically on the
order of one to two percent per hour, while oil-fired
plants exhibit much higher conversion rates; and
(b) negative uptake constitutes one of the major
removal mechanisms of sulfur dioxide emitted from low
level sources (e.g.,urban plumes), and

Two reports on the expected impacts of auto-catalyst
generated sulfuric acid aerosols have been issued,
which indicate that significant adverse health effects
could occur after operation of two model years of
catalyst-equipped cars in California and four model
years nationwide.

t   •                 1976 Plan

r *,                      The objectives for air processes and effects research in
  y                 1976 will include continued efforts to obtain and strengthen
                    the health effects basis  for air quality criteria for carbon
,:^'                 monoxide, nitrogen oxides, oxidants, hydrocarbons, sulfur
;   :                 dioxide, and total suspended particulates; to characterize
                    the health effects on important noncriteria pollutants with
  i                  major emphasis on parti oil ate sulfates, nitrates, and trace
                    metals; and to accelerate work on the potential health impact
                    of catalytic muffler related emissions.

   i                      Investigation of possible interactive health effects of
                    air pollutants, such as combination  of  ozone and nitrogen
                    oxides, as well as of the mechanisms of atmospheric pollutant
                    processes including the conversion of NO^ to nitrates and
                    S02 to sulfates, and the possible extent of stratospheric Q3
                    (ozone) destruction by halocarbons, e.g., Freons, will be

   :                      Monitoring efforts will be aimed at development of
                    measurement methods for ammonia and odor for mobile sources,
                    an advance open-path prototype monitor for gaseous pollutants,
                    an x-ray diffraction method for airborne asbestos, techniques
                    for testing of multipollutant least-cost strategies, and a
                    miniaturized S0« detection instrument.

-  -                      We also plan to validate photochemical models used to
                    provide  estimates of atmospheric oxidant concentrations; '
                    provide information on the intensity and extent of oxidant
                    transport from urban areas to rural locations; demonstrate a
                    fast nitrate determination method; evaluate and compare the
                    desirability of utilizing emission standards versus ambient
                    air standards; and provide an updated report on benefits of
                    air pollution control.

                    Purpose of Increase

                         An increase of 15 positions is requested to support
   ,                 on-going research on the health effects of emission products
   ;t                 of catalytic converter equipped vehicles.  Early findings
                    suggesting possible adverse health impacts of these devices,
                    now coming into wide use, underscore the need to accelerate
                    this research.


                   Research and Development

                      Control Technology

                              1975         1976        Change

Control technology...  $17,532,500   $9S536,600   -$7,995,900
     The air control technology research program was formerly
divided into two areas — stationary source control technology
and mobile source control technology.   The base mobile source
control technology program has now been reassigned to the
Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), with ,a  small
residual effort remaining to provide standards and regulations
support for the abatement and control  mobile source program.
Discussion of this effort will be found in the air abatement
and control justification.  These resources will be transferred
to the abatement and control account during FY 1976.

Stationary source control technology

     The stationary source control technology program
categorizes pollutants into four typess nitrogen oxides,
sulfur oxides, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants.

     Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) are produced in about equal
quantities from vehicles and stationary sources.  EPA's
future control strategy may place primary emphasis on control
of NOX from stationary sources, and allow increased emission
from mobile sources.  This strategy would require the
development and demonstration of improved NOx control
technology.  Key to the.successful development and application
of stationary source NOx control technology is an understanding
of the application of combustion theory to principal source
types.  The theory has been largely developed.  The next step
is its application through field tests and demonstrations.
EPA has an RID program that will apply and demonstrate NO^
control theory to major sources.  Since the larger demonstration
projects on power generation will be done as part of the energy
R&D program, the on-going base program will concentrate on
smaller systems permitting a major reduction in resource
requirements for this program.

     Historically s the Sulfur oxides  (SOX5 control technology
program has been oriented toward the  control of utility power
stations which have long been recognized as the major source
of SOX emissions in the United States.  This emphasis upon
control of utility emissions has resulted in the development
and demonstration of several viable processes for control of
this source.  Recent studies, however, have established that
in most U.S. industrial cities the most important contributors
to ambient concentrations of S0xare  industrial processes,
industrial scale boilers* and area sources.  The large complex
techniques developed for the electric utility plant are not
applicable to those sources.  Also* recent studies have impli-
cated  sulfuric acid mist and parti cul ate sul fates as a serious
causative factor in respiratory distress and increased morbidity*
In view of these factors , emphasis on control of these non-      ,
utility sources may be increased.  Decreased program emphasis
on utility sources of S0xwill permit a substantial decrease
in resources required for this program.

     The principal sources of parti cul ate pollution are
industry, agriculture, and transportation, with the formation
of particulates in the atmosphere from gaseous pollutants also
providing a substantial contribution.  Fine particulates (less
than three microns in diameter) remain airborne for long periods
of time and accumulate in the atmosphere.   They have maxiwum
effect on atmospheric visibility and are inhaled deeply into
the lungs where they may have significant health effects.  These
fine particulates frequently have catalytic effects, with
potential to thus contribute to atmospheric reactions causing
smog.  Control technology for these fine particulates is not
adequate and the air pollution control technology program will
emphasize improving the control of these fine particulates.
Coordination of this program  with  energy  programs permits  a
substantial  reduction  in  this  program.
     Most air pollutants defined as ^haz-areteus-*, or considered
to be potentially hazardous are emitted from industrial sources,
presenting a difficult control problem  since these sources
are diverse.  Also definitive information regarding the health
effects and applica&le control technology for the potentially
hazardous pollutants is limited.  There is not enough  quanti-
tative data available for setting standards and consequently
the required level of control is unknown.  Sources of these
pollutants have not been fully identified.  This program
focuses on the identification and characterization of potentially
hazardous pollutants and is supported by the above parti cul ate and
gaseous programs to develop control technology.

     A substantial Investment of resources has been made in the
energy related research program.  Since a significant fraction
of air pollution comes from energy production and consumtng
processes it is reasonable to expect considerable overlap.
The stationary sources control program, and the energy-related
research program have therefore been carefully structured to
complement each other.

1975 Program

     The 1975 nitrogen oxide program is focused on th.e
development and application of fundamental combustion contol
technology.  This work has advanced to the point where
prototypes are needed to demonstrate the most promising
systems on full-scale NOx sources.  The present program is
directed primarily toward control of combustion sources of
N0j4 by modifications of combustion equipment designs and

     In response to the primary need for control of smaller,
non-utility sources of SOo the 1975 program was aimed at
developing small, simple TOW cost control systems.
Demonstrations of several large scale utility source S02
processes, initiated in prior years, are being completed.

     The stationary source particulate control program has
been focused on fine particulate contol.  Measurement and
control methods are being emphasized.

     A program to identify, characterize and prioritize
industrial sources of hazardous pollutants is being pursued
and control methods for known, hazardous pollutants are being

1975 Accomplishments

     -  A hazardous materials source assessment program was
        initiated to provide information for future standards
        and hazardous pollutant control;

     -  Demonstrated NOX con-trol using molecular sieve
        sorption systems;

    —  Achieved substantial progress in developing low
        emission burners and providing understanding of NQx
        formation in flames!

     -  Assessed mobile source pollution control technology

        for use 1n stationary internal  combustion engines and
        gas turbinesj

     -  Completed demonstration  of the  Mag^Gx scrubbing process,
        proving the avatiability of this process for control
        of S02 tn power plant flue gas;

     -  Completed 'long-term testing of  the lime  and limestone
        scrubbing processes, providing  sound design data for
        the engineering and application of cheaper more
        effective SOx control systems for power  plant flue

     -  Completed demonstration  test program on  a high
        efficiency (99.6 percent) electrostatic  prectpitator
        establishing the capability of  this device as a total
        (including fine) particulate dust collector, and

     -  Constructed and placed in operation a mobile test unit.
        This unit will  provide basic dust collector design
        information and will provide data for setting and
        enforcing particulate standards.

1976 Plan

     The 1976 program for NOX control technology development
includes the demonstration of catalytic and surface combustion
for the control of area sources  such as gas-fired space heaters„
and small  industrial combustion  sources.  Design concepts for low
polluting  combustion equipment ranging  in size from space
heaters to  large  utility boilers will  be developed.  Proto-
type and demonstration  projects  to provide the application
technology  required  for a wide variety  of combustion sources
are also planned.  These projects will   include retrofit design
concepts.   The program to  control NOX  with other than com-
bustion control techniques  will  be expanded to develope
control procedures being  identified  in the existing 1975

     The most promising options  identified in the 1975 program
for the control of S02  from small stationary.sources will be
given  principal support in  1976.  A  substantial  effort will be
initiated  to  determine  the  lower limits for adaptation of the
present large-scale  flue gas desulfurization technology to
small  area  sources.

     The particulate program will continue existing efforts
in control  technology.  Emphasis will  be placed on the control

of sources of fine participates identified in the hazardous
pollutant control technology program.  This will include an
accelerated program of source assessment of potentially
hazardous pollutants in order to define problems and
develop control technology more rapidly, development of
short-term  screening tests for identifying pollutant-re-
lated health effects, and  establishment of a definitive and
dependable list of potentially harmful pollutants.
Development of control techniques for open source pollutants
(i.e., agricultural burning, fugitive dust from road, etc.)
as well as measurement techniques for fugitive dust emission,,
will be continued.

Purpose of Decrease

     A substantial investment of resources has been made in
the energy-related research program.  Since a significant
fraction of air pollution comes from energy production and
consuming processes, it is reasonable to expect overlap
between the base and energy programs.  The stationary sources
control program and the energy related research program have
been therefore carefully structured to complement each other.
For example, large HQ% control demonstration projects on
electric power generation plants will be done as part of the
energy R&D program.  The base program will continue to con-
centrate on smaller and non-energy related sources including
industrial processes and area sources.  Similarly, energy
resources will supplement base program particulate control
technology developments.  As a result a reduction of
$8 million in base program resources is possible.

Water Quality

                        Water Quality
Budget Authority
  Abatement and
  Research and

  Abatement and
  Research and

$111,190,800  $144,521,900  +$33,331,100
  24,064,800    21,293,500    -2,771,300

  46.373.200    44.892,400    -1,480,800

 181,628,800   210,707,800   +29,079,000
Overview and Strategy

     Evidence has been gathered to indicate that almost one
stream or river mile out of every three is markedly polluted
whether measured by oxygen demanding loads and bacteria
count, nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, other
pollutants such as industrial compounds and suspended solids,
or heavy metals and pesticides.  These impacts result from
the point source discharge of waste from industrial,
commercial, agricultural, and municipal sources and the non-
point source  discharge and runoff from activities that
cover a broad land area and are mostly diffuse in nature.
These nonpoint sources include agricultural, siIvicultural,
mining, and construction activities and runoff from urban

     Activities have initially focused on the abatement of
industrial and municipal point sources.
     The relative magnitude of pollution is fairly evenly
divided among industry, agriculture, and communities.   The

biggest user of water is industry—over 200 billion gallons
a day, two-thirds of which is used for cooling.   It is
estimated that over 30,000 applications will  be received
from this sector for discharge permits.  The next biggest
user of water is agriculture with a daily intake of about
130 billion gallons.  The Nation's farm animals produce
about as muchwaste  as two billion people although only a
portion of that ends up in our waterways.  The largest
agriculture discharge, however, is irrigation water often
infused with pesticide and fertilizer residues and natural
salts.  Additional pollutant loads include an estimated four
billion tons of sediment a year, most of it from farm and
forest land and the drainage of acid and other contaminants
from some 11 million acres of mined land.  An estimated
6,500 discharge permit applications are expected from the
agricultural sector.  Communities use only about 30 billion
gallons of water a day.  However, only half of the Nation's
population is served by sewage systems that provide adequate
treatment.  Over 30,000 discharge permit applications,
including 10,000 to 15,000 from privately owned treatment
works, are expected to be ultimately received from
community waste treatment sources.

     As a means for evaluating actual progress in improving
the Nation's water quality, EPA conducted a National  Water
Quality Inventory in 1974.  The Inventory Report focused on
22 major waterways, approximately 5,000 major point sources,
and major problem areas in 56 States and territories.  The
Report shows that the pollutants that have received the
most widespread controls, including oxygen demanding  loads
and bacteria, are improving..  On the other hand, nitrogen
and phosphorus, the nutrients most often associated with
eutrophication, showed worsening trends.

     Legislated Federal involvement in water pollution
control began  in 1948 in a very limited way.  There  were
antecedent laws such as the Rivers and Harbors Act at the
turn of the century whose water pollution control
authorities were not utliied until 1970.  The Congress, in
a series of six amendments to the 1948 Federal Water
Pollution Control Act from 1952 through 1970, gradually
broadened the scope of Federal participation and assistance.

     It was recognized that the pollution of the Nation's
water was continuing to increase; that differences in the
degree of emphasis among States were fostering economic
and competitive inequities; that existing legal  mechanisms

for abating discharges were often weak and insufficient;
that costs of control required increased Federal funding
and that uniform national norms were needed to protect the
progress that had been achieved.  In response, the Congress
established as law the most comprehensive pollution control
act ever enacted—the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Amendments of 1972, which significantly accelerated the
Nation's pollution abatement program.

    Federal and State governments have now been operating under
the provisions of the Act for over two years.  Top priority
has been given to issuance of waste discharge permits to point
sources, funding of publicly owned waste treatment works,
and the compliance monitoring, technical assistance, and
enforcement necessary to assure that permit conditions are
met and that waste treatment plants are operated effectively.
These activities are supported by monitoring and analyses
to determine water quality dictated levels of control for
critical stretches of water, promulgating guidelines and
standards, setting national norms for comparable levels of
control for all industrial discharges, and planning to
assess and structure future program needs and solutions.

    The Act basically encompasses a 10 year period from
October 1972 to June 1983.  Two important dates by which all
point sources should have achieved a legislatively specified
level of control occur in 1977 and 1983.  By July 1, 1977,
industries are to use the best practicable technology to control
water pollution and the best available technology by July 1,
1983.  Publicly owned waste treatment plants are required
to provide a minimum of secondary treatment by July 1, 1977,
and to apply the best practicable technology by July 1, 1983.
Various interim steps occur on a continuing basis leading
up to these dates.  These include some of the activities
previously described which are complemented by enforcement
and research and development, and which are supplemented
by other specifically focused programs such as lake restoration,
economic studies, annual quality assessments, and management
of nonpoint sources.

    The costs which will be required to implement these
controls levels are estimated in the 1974 Clean Water Report
to Congress.  It was estimated that about $12 billion would
be required by industries to meet the 1977 goal of best
practicable control technology.  The total need to achieve
the secondary treatment level for the municipal sector was
estimated to be approximately $36 billion in the 1973

Municipal Needs Survey.  This figure excludes needs for
collection systems, storm water overflow, and correction of
infiltration problems.  Total needs including these problems
were estimated at more than $60 billion.

     The principal responsibility for conducting many of the
tasks under the Act is assigned to the States.  Local
communities conduct several types of planning and construct
treatment facilities.  EPA's role is to coordinate nationally
all the many and various aspects of the Act, overseeing
their implementation, and where a State is unable  to act,
to carry out the activity.  Additionally, EPA performs those
activities which are singularly assigned to it under the law.
The magnitude of the task demands that a continuing
cooperation exist among all levels of government as each
conducts its appropriate role.

     Because of the long term phased nature of the Act,
many activities are proceeding in a sequenced fashion.  Top
priority has been given to research and development efforts
concentrating on the technological and informational needs
related to the 1983 objective.  Areawide and basin planning
are also oriented toward this date.  As permits are issued
and their requirements come into effect, enforcement
activities to assure compliance with these terms will
accelerate.  Much of the preparatory activity such as
.planning and permits related to the achievement of the
1977 goal have been completed.  Under a continuing cycle,
efforts leading to the second round of permit issuance are
commencing.  These include stream analyses of water quality,
development of water quality.based pollutant reduction where
needed, and revised criteria.  Research studies lead directly
into revised criteria by providing more complete data and
better values.

     The great bulk of Federal environmental funding is
allocated to the water program.  These Federal funds are
supplemented by sizeable amounts of State and local monies.
This funding level reflects the major investment in publicly
owned facilities that must be constructed to abate a principal
source of water pollution—the discharge from municipal
sewerage facilities.

     The investment in municipal facilities is supported by
Federal and State review of grant applications for cost
effectiveness and compliance with the various requirements
of the law; by an operations and maintenance program to

assure that the facility operates at its capability; and by
assistance in the training of operators.  Research and
development projects examine more effective and economical
technologies in an effort to reduce the total cost.

     Initial studies and efforts to develop the frame work
for managing nonpoint source pollution are being initiated.
As point sources are increasingly abated, nonpoint pollution
will become an ever larger factor.

     Technological research will assist in formulating
effluent standards for industrial discharges.  Existing
effluent guidelines need to be reviewed and revised so that
they can be successfully utilized in the second round of
permit issuance which will occur in several years.

Summary of Increases and Decreases

1975 Water Quality Program	   $181,628,800

     Abatement and Control	    +33,331,100

       Net Increase results from including
       areawi.de planning as budget authority
       partially offset by the reprogramming
       of resources.

     Enforcement	....		     -2,771,300

       Reduction in manpower from the permit
       program due to shift from permit issuance
       to compliance monitoring and enforcement
       and a decrease in funds resulting from the
       termination of the General Point Source
       File (GPSF).

     Research and Development	,'.,...     -1,480,800

       Net reduction results from a "one-time"
       1975 congressional increase of $5.0 million
       for municipal control technology, partially
       offset by increases for water quality health
       effects and for accelerated research in non-
       point source management.
1976 Water Quality Program Request.—	    210,707,800

                            Water Quality
                        Summary of Resources
                       (dollars In thousands)

Budget Authority

  Abatement and Control
    Ambient Trend Monitoring...  $6,204.9
    Technical  Assistance and
     Planning		22,651.7
    Academic Training	   2,770.0
    Control Agency Support	  45,664.3
    Municipal  Source Control...  17,946.4
    Industrial  Source Control..   8,986.9
    Nonpoint Source Control	   1,617.9
    Ocean Disposal and Spill
     Prevention		.   5,348.7

      Subtotal	111,190.8

    Water Quality Enforcement..  24,064.8

  Research and Development
    Processes  and Effects	  18,779.7
    Control Technology	  27.593.5

      Subtotal	  46.373.2

         Total...	,	181,628.8

End-of-Year Employment

  Abatement and Control
    Ambient Trend Monitoring...       248
    Technical  Assistance and
     Planning..	       506
    Academic Training	
    Control Agency Support	
    Municipal  Source Control...       681
    Industrial Source Control..        46-
    Nonpoint Source Control	        28
    Ocean Disposal and Spill
     Preventi on	       155









  Water Quality
                                  1975           1976       Decrease
Research and Development
Processes and Effects.,,.,
Control Technology 	 	




Abatement and

                                     Abatement and Control
I; 4
t T
                Budget Authority
                  Ambient Trend
                   Monitoring,.	  $6,204,900    $5,167,800    -$1,037,100
                  Technical Assist-
                   ance & Planning..  22,651,700    70,878,000    +48,226,300
                  Academic Training,   2,770,000     1,870,000       -900,000
                  Control Agency
                   Support	  45,664,300    34,375,000    -11,289,300
                  Municipal Source
                   Control	  17,946,400    18,305,000       +358,600
                  Industrial Source
                   Control...	   8,986,900     6,999,200     -1,987,700
                  Nonpoint Source
                   Control...	   1,617,900     1,606,700        -11,200
                  Ocean Disposal
                   and Spill Pre-                   •              ,
                   vention	,...,   5,348,700     5.320.200        -28.500

                     Total	 111,190,800   144,521,900    +33,331,100

                Contract Authori ty

                  Areawide Waste
                    Management Grants:
                    Liquidation of
                     Contract Au-
                     thority.	  26,000,000    65,000,000    +39,000,000
                    Contract Au-
                     thority.	 150,000,000           ...   -150,000,000

                End-pf-Year Ernployrnent
                  Ambient Trend
                   Monitoring.......         248           190            -58
                  Technical Assist-
                   ance & Planning..         506           527            +21
                  Academic Training.         ...           ...
                  Control Agency
                  Municipal Source
                   Control,.,	         681           791           +110

                            1975           1976       Decrease


   Industrial  Source
    Control	           46             45              -1
   Nonpoint  Source
    Control	           28             27              -1
   Ocean  Disposal
    and Spill  Pre-
    vention	          155            149              -6

      Total	        1,664          1,729             +65

   Note:   1976 funds  for Technical  Assistance and  Planning
          include  $53,000,000  in budget  authority  for Areawide
          Waste Treatment Management Planning Grants, formerly
          funded under contract authority.


      The water abatement and  control program encompasses those
 activities  carried out  by EPA to  implement the Federal  Water
 Pollution Control Act Amendments of'1972,  with  the exception
 of activities related directly to  research and  development
 and to enforcement,  which are covered under  separate appro-

      The objective of abatement and control  programs is
 primarily to  assist  State and local agencies in abating  and
 controlling water pollution,by providing management, technical,
 and resource  assistance and through disseminating guidelines
 and standards.  These guidelines set methods and  procedures
 and levels  of control for sources  of pollution.   Water quality
 criteria and  standards  are applied to the  receiving  waters
 and are  subsequently reflected in  the level  of  control placed
 on the source.  Management assistance is  provided in developing
 regional planning agencies, improving municipal waste control
 management, and in monitoring and  reporting  on  ambient water
 quality  and changes  in  quality.  Technical assistance includes

general assistance on controlling persistent and complex
pollution problems as well as specific response assistance
for spills or other pollution emergencies.

     Because a primary responsibility for the control of
pollution lies with the States, most of EPA's abatement and
control efforts are oriented toward support of State and
local efforts.  States are responsible for detailed planning,
monitoring, and enforcement efforts, as well as establishing
the priorities for commitment of Federal funds for the
construction of sewage treatment plants.

     Federal funds support planning at the State level.
Additional grants support development and operation of
State water pollution control agencies, which include the
functions of construction grants review, permits, monitoring,
and other implementation measures.  States are encouraged
to undertake the issuance of industrial and municipal permits
and conduct the enforcement program to ensure compliance with

     EPA monitoring and surveillance activities are coordinated
with State and other Federal efforts and include ambient
water quality monitoring, collection and dissemination of
information and water quality data, and compliance monitoring
of specific types of pollution sources.

     Technical assistance and information is provided to
assist in applying technology, developing standards, and
instituting effective programs and source management-  A
major program thrust involves the development and establish-
ment of industrial effluent (point source) guidelines on best
practicable and available technologies, effluent and pre-
treatment standards, and regulations for all industrial
categories.  Assistance and technical development efforts
will continue on nonpoint sources that could lead to eventual
development of a national control program.  A spill pre-
vention program focuses on developing and maintaining re-
gional and State contingency plans to mitigate the effects
of pollutant spills.

     EPA provides or supports training to improve the skills
of State and local water pollution control personnel as well
as to increase the availability of water pollution control
manpower.  Skills which are addressed range from plant'operators
to plant designers and managers. Also, under this program,
EPA assists other Federal agencies to bring their facilities

miU CUnruniianue W I wi picvaiitny puiiui^iun OUQMUUIUJ uiiw ,
helps-to ensure that the programs/projects and other activities
of Federal agencies produce a minimum water pollution impact.

An immediate practical objective of this training and assist-
ance is to assure compliance, by a maximum number of treat-
ment authorities, with discharge permit conditions established
under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.
An equally important objective, for municipal wastewater
treatment authorities, is to assure the cost effective
operation and maintenance of treatment works built with
Federal construction grant funds.

1975 Accomplishments

     Major accomplishments or  outputs in 1975 include:

     -  All States in possession of fully approved standards
        for all of their water;

     -  Approval of 86 areawide planning agency designations;

     -  Full implementation of the Oil Pollution Prevention

     -  Final regulations for 28 industrial categories and
        final pretreatment regulation for some existing

     -  Development of guidelines and regulations with respect
        to State planning efforts, under Section 208;

     -  Full implementation of 10 regional nonpoint source
        pilot projects;

     -  Issuance of all major and virtually all minor
        municipal permits in 1975;

     -  Submission of Section 305(a) Water Quality Inventory
        to Congress;

     -  Revised regulations relating to the control of sewage
        from vessels and the approval of no discharge areas;

     -  Regulation pertaining to placement of dredged or
        fill material;

     -  tsTtaDnsnmem; or j>u btate programs  to assure the cost
        effective operation and maintenance of municipal  waste-
        water treatment works constructed with Federal  funds,
        and to assure compliance by all  municipal  treatment
        works with NPDES permit requirements; and

     -  Initiation of a clean lake program  to evaluate  lake
        restoration technology.
1976 Plan
     Some primary objectives for 1976 include:

     -  Completion of plans  for all  navigable waters under
        Section 303(e) to provide the basis  for examining  the
        appropriate  . levels of control  for  point and nonpoint
        sources within the basin;

     -  Development of areawide plans under  Section 208 in 66
        designated areas;

     -  Development of guidelines for the issuance of discharge
        permits specifying effluent  limitations to industries,
        and guidelines representing  best practicable and best
        available technology for various industries;

     -  Approval of Federal  grants for the construction of
        municipal sewage treatment works to  enable them to
        achieve required effluent levels;

     -  Study of the nature and extent of nonpoint sources
        of pollution; and

     -  Assessment of areas in which water pollution is most

                        Water Quality

                    Abatement and Control

                  Ambient Trend Monitoring

                           1975          1976

Ambient trend
 monitoring.......   $6,204,900    $5,167,800  -$1,037,100

    The water quality monitoring program provides for the
collection, processing, and analysis of water quality and
water management data to implement the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972.  The main analytical
tasks are to determine water quality, to measure changes in
this quality, and to relate these changes to policy alter-
natives.  The main data processing activities are to main-
tain water quality data files to support policy analyses and
permit issuance, and to maintain operational data files in
order to manage programs such as permit issuance and permit
enforcement.  The main data collection programs are for water
management data (largely for the permit program), for the
National Water Quality Surveillance System, for State
monitoring programs, and for compliance and enforcement programs.

1975 Program

    The ambient trend monitoring subactivity includes monitoring
programs, data processing activities and analyses.  For 1975,
the monitoring programs will focus on the completion of selected
waste load allocations; compliance and effluent monitoring to
determine compliance with permit effluent conditions and to
characterize waste discharges; collection of paired station
(upstream and downstream from pollution source) data for the
National Water Quality Surveillance System and the determination
of cause and effect  relationships on water quality; assistance
in the development of State monitoring strategies; and the
systems design of the groundwater portion of the National  Water
Quality Surveillance System.

    Data processing activities will be directed toward ensuring
the quality and completeness of data in the General Point
Source File; operation and maintenance of the General Point
Source File, the State Program Reporting System and

               the  Water Quality  File and the training assistance of users;
               and  the establishment of management procedures so that the
               data processed reflects monitoring priorities and so that
               data quality  and availability are enhanced.

                    Analysis efforts in 1975 will focus on analysis of State
               Section 305(b) Water Quality Inventory submissions and
j4 '             completion of the  National Water  Quality  Inventory under
               Section 305{a); analysis of water quality  trends through
               paired station data obtained through the National Water
               Quality Surveillance System; development of a list of
               municipal  permit nonfilers;  and  analysis"of  the  impact of
               effluent guidelines on water quality.
r 1
;              1975 Accompli shments

                    -  Establish  a management program for the Water Quality
  j                    File;

                    -  Regional analyses of State Water Quality Inventories;

                    -  Final effluent guideline for residual category of

  '                  -  Analysis of implications of EPA's  municipal construc-
                      tion  grant program, using data merged together from
                      separate municipal data  files;

                    -  Pilot laboratory quality evaluation projects  (Region
                      I will evaluate quality  control procedures for its

                    -  Model State monitoring program will be updated to
                      include priorities and small States;

                    -  Guidelines on regional/State monitoring  relationships;

                    -  Agreement  with each  State on monitoring  strategies
                      to ensure  reorientation  of State monitoring programs
                      to be consistent with the Federal  Water  Pollution
  .                    Control Act, as amended;
I *
'* ''                  -  Collectionof paired  station data for National Water
                      Quality Surveillance System-(NWQSS), systems  design
1 ]                    of groundwater sectionof NWQSS  analysis of  paired
                      station data for national overview section of
                      Section 305(b) Water Quality  Inventory,  and conduct

                         of Intensive surveys between selected pairs to
                         determine cause and effect relationships (pilot
•   /                     projects}; and

f ,|                    -  Submission of Section 30l?(a) Water Quality Inven-
f;3                       tory to Congress.

                 1976 Plan
                —~"	~
                      The ambient trend monitoring program win feature a
                 reorientation of emphasis  from 1975 to 1976 that will  be
                 consistent with the Agency shift from a permit Issuance pro-
                 gram to a permit compliance program,  Thus,  monitoring and
                 analysis for permit issuance will be replaced by monitoring
                 and analysis for permit compliance, and for evaluation  of the
                 ambient impact of water pollution control programs.  By
                 1976, a program for the management of EPA ambient water
                 quality data will have been established and file cleanup
                 and control procedures for input clata will be implemented,

                 Purpose of Decrease

                      The decrease results  from the termination qf the
                 development of a computerized inventory of point source
                 dischargers known as the General Point Source File (GPSF).
                 The important management needs that GP$F would have met will be
                 provided by other, less expensive, data systems.  Thus, our
                 Information needs will not be seriously hurt by this decision,
                 and we will be able to redistribute the resulting.personnel
                 savings to higher priority agency programs,  Other monitoring
                 resources have also been redirected to higher priority pro-
                 grams .


                                        Water Quality

                                    Abatement and Control

 1                             Technical Assistance and Planning
e 1

                                         1975          1976       Change

             Technical assistance
               and planning	 $22,651,700   $70,878,000 +$48,22:6,300

                  This area includes funds for water quality planning,
             technical information, Federal activities, £nd standards
             and regulations development.

             Water quality
               planning	 ($9,495,800) ($61,112,400) (+$51,616,600)

                  Three major planning activities are conducted under the
             Act.  These are (1) basin water quality management plans
             prepared by the States, covering all Interstate waters; (2.)
             areawide waste treatment management plans t,0 develop a,
             comprehensive control strategy; and .(3) facilities plans
             which are the first step in the construption of municipal
             waste treatment facilities.

                  Basin planning activities conducted by a State or
             municipal control agencies are funded by EPA under Sec. 106
             of the Act, areawide planning under Sec. 208, and sewage
             treatment facilities planning under the construction grants

                  Basin plans provide for collecting water quality and
             waste discharge data; establishing the amount of pollutant
             removal required to achieve water quality standards and, as
             necessary, setting pollutant removal targets for major
             sources; providing the data  base for the annual water quality
             assessment and projection report; develpping the framework
             for assessing the appropriate methods and procedures for
             nonpoint sources management; and developing a mechanism for
             alleviating the effects of residual solid waste disposal.

                  Facilities plans evaluate alternative waste management
             techniques prior to the selection of a facility design.  An
             essential element in this planning is the Incorporation of
             cost effectiveness consideration.

     Funds are provided under this subactivity for Great Lakes
demonstration projects under Section 108 of the Act.  These
projects demonstrate various management techniques to control
and abate pollution in the Great Lakes.

     Through its water quality planning efforts, EPA provides
assistance in the development of plans, provides technical
support in the preparation and analyses of stream waste
load analyses, and reviews and approves plans as they are
completed.  In addition, EPA develops and disseminates
regulations and guidelines to assist in these various planning

1975 Program

     Planning activity in 1975 focuses on development of
guidelines and regulations to assist State planning efforts
in the development of areawide plans under Section 208 and
in the implementation of nonpoint source control.   Assistance
is also being provided to the States in review and approval of
basin plans.  In addition, review and assistance is provided
on facilities plans developed by local communities.  Finally,
funding in support of Great Lakes demonstration projects is
being continued.

1975 Accomplishments

     1975 planned accomplishments include:

          -  Development of guidelines and regulations
             with respect to States planning efforts
             under Section 208;

          -  Review of 400 facilities plans;

          -  Review of approximately 600 basin plans and
             approval of 300; and
             Approval of 100-130 areawide planning agency
             designations.         \
1976 Plan
     Water quality planning in 1976 will feature a build-up
in areawide planning activities as additional areas are
designated and planning activities commence.  The initial
phase of basin planning under Section 303(e) will have been
completed and resources will be directed to support develop-

ment of areawide plans.  Some of these resources will also be
directed to support facilities plans review in areas where
this workload is also expected to increase substantially.

     An extension of the Areawide Waste Treatment Management
Planning program is planned for 1976 at a reduced funding
level in order to extend Section 208 areawide planning to an
additional 66 designated urban areas.  This will provide for
the development of areawide plans for an additional 20 per-
cent of all metropolitan areas and will initiate statewide
Section 208 planning for nonpoint sources in nonurban areas.
1976 will mark the beginning of a major effort to attack the
problem of nonpoint source pollution.

Purpose ofIncrease

     The apparent increase is due to the shift in funding
of Section 208 Areawide Waste Treatment Management. Planning
Grants from contract authority to budget authority.  In
actuality, the funds available to fund water planning
activities in 1976 will be substantially reduced.  This
results from a"one-time" 1975 congressional increase of
$1.0 million for nonpoint source control to be conducted
under areawide planning activities.

                            1975        1976         Change

Technical information
  and assistance	($10,316,600)($6,933,900)   (-$3,382,700)

     EPA provides technical guidance, assistance and informa-
tion to States, other Federal agencies, and local agencies
to assist with the development of water pollution control
programs.  These activities include assisting States in the
preparation of their annual plans for the prevention, reducing,
and elimination of water pollution; providing guidance on the
setting of standards; developing uniform laws and international
agreements for controlling border pollution; disseminating
technical information concerning scientific and engineering
advances; and providing technical consultations, as required.
Also included under this subactivity is:  an assessment of
the status of pollution in the Nation's estuaries and pre-
paration of a report to Congress on the assessment; identi-
fication and designation of priority for removal and removal
of in-place toxic pollutants in harbors and waterways; develop-
ment and publication of quality criteria for water; develop-
ment and publication of lake restorative methods and procedures;
promulgation of a regulation to control aquaculture; and

               promulgation of a regulation to control the placement of
               dredged or fill material.  Because water quality criteria
 f '*             provide the technical basis for many Agency programs and
               regulations, major emphasis has been placed on their develop-
 ,|              ment.  Finally, funding is also provided under Section 104(h)
 5          '    of the Act to develop the most environmentally sound and cost
               effective methods for the restoration of lakes.
 \              1975 Program

                    Technical information and assistance will emphasize
               preparatory work on evaluating and revising the triannual
               report on the Nation's estuaries and publishing several
               regulations on aquaculture projects and vessel wastes.  A
 !              clean lakes program will be initiated to evaluate methods
 ;              and procedures for the cost effective restoration of lakes.

 '!              1975 Accpmpl i s hments

                    Planned outputs for 1975 include:

                    -  Develop quality criteria for water, based on the
                       latest scientific information;

                    -  Conduct a symposium on water" quality integrity

                    -  Conduct a symposium workshop on the status of
 „ >                     the Nation's estuaries and complete the report to

                    -  Publish the proposed regulation relating to the
                       control of sewage from vessels and the approval
                       of no discharge areas;

                    -  Publish a regulation pertaining to aquacultural

                    -  Propose a regulation pertaining to placement of
 ,•                      dredged or fill material;

 ,j                   -  Complete the report assessing current knowledge about
 i                      in-place toxic pollutants in harbors and waterways
                       and develop a method of assigning priorities for the
                       removal of the in-place toxicants; and

 ;                   -  Initiate 8 to  10 clean lakes projeqts.

               1976 Plan

^                   Activities for 1976 will include:

?                    -  Completion and publication of a report on water
5                       quality integrity factors;

                    -  Completion of a documentary film on the status of
:                       estuaries, publication of a regulation on control
                       of sewage from vessels, approval of no discharge
                       areas, and of a regulation on placement of dredged
                       or fill material;

                    -  Continuation of water quality criteria development
•                       in concert with latest scientific information;

                    -  Issuance of pollution discharge permits for approved
                       aquaculture projects; and

                    -  Investigation of harbors and waterways that are of
                       critical importance and which require additional
                       study to provide the basis for a decision for the
                       removal of in-place pollutants.

               Purpose of Decrease

                    The decrease  results from a "one-time" 197E congressional
               increase of $4.0 million to initiate a clean lakes program.

                                           1975        1976         Change

               Federal activities.. ($2,?82,600)($2,365,500)     (+$82,SQO)

                    EPA supports other Federal agencies in ensuring that
               their activities produce a minimum water pollution effect
               and do not violate applicable standards.  Executive Order
               11752 requires that all installations owned or leased by
               the Federal Government comply with established Federal, State
 ,              and local air and water pollution control standards.  In
               addition, Executive Order 11514 requires that Federal agencies
               prepare environmental impact statements (E.IS) on proposed
 ]              actions.  The statements are submitted to EPA for review
 |              and comment.

 I                   The water quality Federal activities program includes
 I              development of guidelines relating to the control of water
               pollution from Federal facilities, consultation and technical
               assistance to Federal agencies  in development and

implementation of their water pollution control programs,
preparation of EIS's on certain EPA actions having a signi-
ficant impact on the environment, review of agencies' draft
and final environmental impact statements to determine the
impact on the water environment of proposed Federal projects
or federally funded or Keensed actions; and assistance to
the agencies in improving the environmental protection
measures associated with such actions.

     EPA guidelines (and OMB circulars) provide specific
instruction to Federal agencies in such matters as com-
pliance planning, monitoring, exemptions, data needs, operator
training and certification, and land management.  Such activ-
ities have been instrumental in attaining several environment-
ally protective measures.  For example, in regard to oil lease
drilling/pipeline operations, EPA has successfully urged
biological baseline studies in the Gulf of Mexico, limita-
tion on multiple operations on single platforms, use of pipe-
line corridors to minimize biotic disturbance, and use of
pipeline transport instead of barging of offshore production.

     A recently initiated activity involves development of
model municipal EIS's and specific stepwise procedures using
established guidelines.  The purpose is to guide the regions
in preparing EIS's more efficiently and improving their

1975 Program

     Federal activities will highlight the development of a
compliance strategy for Federal agencies, development of model
environmental impact statement; review and comment on environ-
mental impact statements from EPA and other Federal agencies;
and review of water pollution abatement projects.

1975Accompli shments

     1975 planned accomplishments include:

     »  Develop good quality model environmental impact
        statements which document EIS preparation
        procedures for planning construction of municipal
        waste water treatment works;

     -  Review and comment on about 1,500 environmental
        impact statements from EPA and other Federal

     -  Contribute significantly to an EPA manual  on prepara-
        tion of impact statements for waste water treatment
        works and Title II Plans;

     -  Develop a water compliance strategy for Federal
        agencies, for incorporation into intermedia strategy
        required by Executive Order 11752;

     -  Develop evaluation procedures for use in prioritizing
        pollution abatement projects proposed for funding
        by Federal agencies; and

     -  Review nearly 500 water pollution abatement projects
        and recommend funding priorities to OMB.

1976 Plan

     Planned activities for 1976 will include:

     -  Providing continued consultation to Federal agencies
        on Federal installation water pollution control  and
        environmental matters;

     -  Reviewing NPDES water discharge permit applications
        from Federal  facilities and recommending conditions
        of issuance;

     -  Reviewing and commenting on about 1,600 new environ-
        mental impact statements and emphasizing follow-up
        on implementation of projects covered by previously
        reviewed statements;

     -  Monitoring Federal facility compliance with applicable
        water quality standards and implementation schedules;

     -  Reviewing and evaluating Federal agency budget
        proposals for installing water pollution control
        measures and  recommending funding priorities to

     -  Developing comprehensive water quality related program
        guidance to regional offices, Federal agencies,  and
        States for implementing the requirements of Executive
        Order 11752;  and

     -r  Developing and refining water quality related guidance
        for the preparation and review of EPA and other
        Federal agency environmental impact statements.

Purpose of Increase

     To support the full-year cost of the October 1974
pay raise,

                            1975        1976         Change

Standards, regulations
  and guidelines....   {$§56.700}  ($466,200)     (-$90,500)

     EPA Is responsible for revisions to Intrastate water and  inter-
state water quality standards.   Standards establish  the  uses  of water
bodies, water quality criteria needed to protect these uses,
and implementation plans detailing pollution control measures
necessary to achieve these criteria.  In addition, EPA con-
tinues to update all approved standards to include new inform-
ation on toxic substances.

1975 Program

     Activities for 1975 include development and publication
of guidelines for the review and revision of water quality
standards to guide the States in their standard revision

1975 Accomplishments

     -  Attainment by all States of approved water quality
        standards, and

     -  Assistance to all States in their revision and
        review of standards.

1976 Plan

     The Act requires that all State water quality standards
be  reviewed and, if necessary, revised at least once every
three years.  The initial review was principally conducted
in 1973 and completed in 1974,  The second review of these
standards will occur beginning in 1976 and will encompass
introduction of revised water quality criteria values, an
antldegradation policy, and inclusion of standards for wet
weather flow.

Purpose of Decrease

     The decrease reflects the reprogrammlng of four positions
and associated funds to support  Increased construction grants

                       Water Quality

                   Abatement and Control

                     Academic Training
                            1975          1976       Change

Academic training,,   $2,770,000    $1,870,000    -$900,000

     Academic training is the focal point for all professional
training and education activities under EPA's water program.
It is through this academic training support that national
professional manpower needs are addressed.  Grants are awarded
to institutions of higher education to meet a variety of
legislated and required programs.  Efforts in this area are
divided into four primary categories:  the professional
training grant program, .the graduate fellowship program,
professional training curriculum activities, and undergraduate
training grants.

1975 Program

     The professional training grant program provides for
training graduate level students in water related engineering
and environmental sciences.  In 1975, 645 graduate trainees
will be supported at 54 institutions.  Under the graduate
fellowship program, one employee from each of the 53 State
and territorial water pollution control agencies is selected
by the director of that agency to spend one year in a water
related graduate program.  Upon completion of their training,
the employees will return to their respective agencies.
Professional training curriculum activities for 1975 include
a joint project with the Ohio State Environmental Protection
Agency to train high school teachers in monitoring techniques,
the development of a curriculum for the land disposal of
agricultural wastes, and the analysis of program objectives
in the environmental training and engineering field.  Under-
graduate training grants will be provided for 11 institutions
in water related engineering and environmental disciplines
to support 104 students.

1976 Plan

     In 1976, 425 graduate trainees will be supported at 32
institutions.  Professional training curriculum activities
will continue in 1976 at a reduced level.  The funds will

be used to complete a curriculum development grant for land
use disposal of agricultural  wastes and for development of a
plan for graduate training in water quality based on present
legislation and water quality goals.  Also, funding of a
cooperative demonstration program with the Ohio State
Environmental Protection Agency, five Ohio universities^ the
Institute for Environmental Education, and EPA will be continued.

     Undergraduate training grants will be funded at the same
level as in 1975 with funds being applied to curriculum
development and demonstration projects for design and operation
of municipal water/waste water facilities and for training to
meet NPDES municipal permit requirements.

Purpose of Decrease

     The decrease reflects the phased reduction in academic

                       Water Quality

                   Abatement and Control

                   Control Agency Support
                            1975          1976       Change

Control agency
   support........   $45,664,300   $34,3.75,000 -$11,289,300

     The water control agency support program provides Federal
support to State and interstate water pollution control
agencies.  In virtually every program activity (e.g.spermitting,
monitoring, enforcement, and municipal facilities management),
EPA and the States each perform functions which must be
coordinated if they are to be effective.  EPA develops the
strategy for coordination of effort between EPA and the States
as well as the sequencing of this effort from year to year.
These broad guidelines are translated into operational program
terms in the annual program prepared by each State.

     Upon approval of the program, EPA funds each State
agency to enable it to conduct its program activity.  EPA
also monitors State performance to ensure that the outputs
specified in the program are accomplished.

1975 Program

     In 1975, combined State and Federal funding for State
programs totals about $130 million, of which $48.5 million
is being provided by EPA.  In accordance with the policies
of the new federalism, we are pursuing a strategy of
maximizing State roles.  The States are being expected to
accept responsibility for increasingly greater shares of the
total water quality program, including compliance monitoring
of NPDES permits, increased activities in support of the
construction grants program, and greater responsibilities
for ambient trend monitoring, planning, enforcement,
technical support, and training.

1975 Accomplishments

     1975 accomplishments and planned outputs include:

*   *                  - Use of grant resources to support priority program
                       areas including permits, municipal facilities manage-
7>f                    ment, compliance monitoring, and planning;

                     - Issuance of all major municipal  permits and virtually
P.*                    all minor permits;
t -1
                     - Increased capacity of State compliance monitoring to
                       strengthen the enforcement of tens of thousands of
                       recently issued permits; and

                     - Increased capacity of State agencies to manage the
                       construction of municipal facilities.

                1976 Plan

                     In 1976, compliance monitoring and enforcement will
                receive increased emphasis while permitting activities will
                decline.  The point source control phase of planning will be
                completed in most basins in 1975 and 1976 will see a beginning
   ;             of nonpoint source planning.  Additionally, a recent EPA
                draft study reveals a large resource gap in the management
                of the construction grant program.  The study concludes that
                as many as 2,000 new positions are required to manage this
                multi-billion dollar program in an effective manner so as to
                avoid misuse of funds.

                     EPA manpower resources will be inadequate to undertake
                all required increased activities in areas of program emphasis.
                Thus, State programs roust respond by shifting personnel to
                carry out priority activities.  Resources will be moved from
                permitting to compliance monitoring and enforcement.  Manpower
                will be shifted from point source planning to nonpoint source
                planning.  However, additional staffing must be provided to
                increase State capacity to manage the construction grant

                        of '--
                     Although State agency grants will be decreased in 1976,
                support to the States for the 1975-1976 period will be
                maintained at a funding level of $40.0 million.  In addition,
                $8.5 million in funds added by the Congress to our 1974
                budget request has been made available in 1975.

                        Water Quality

                    Abatement and Control

                  Municipal Source Control

                            1975          1976       Change

Municipal source
 control	  $17,946,400   $18,305,000    +$358,600

    The municipal source control program encompasses three
interrelated activities:  administration of the construction
grants, municipal permits/operation and maintenance, and
operator and direct training.  All of these activities are
conducted jointly with the States.  A>1 are coordinated and
directed toward abating municipal wastewater discharges.

Construction grants
 administration	  (11,159,300)  (11,493,100)   (+333,800)

    This activity encompasses administration of the construc-
tion grants program pursuant to EPA's Ti-tle II regulations.
This includes the technical and administrative review of
grant applications, amendments, and supporting materials;
facilities plans; construction drawings and specifications;
operation and maintenance manuals; user charge and industrial
cost recovery systems; and other documents required by the
regulations.  It also includes awarding of grants, conduct
of interim and final construction, inspection and preparation
of environmental impact statements or negative declarations.
This activity does not include the construction grants
audit activity which is covered under Agency Management and
Support nor does it include any of the postconstruction
activities of operation and maintenance inspections or munici-
pal permit compliance assurance inspections and related tasks
which are covered by the municipal permits operations and
maintenance area.  Also, this activity does not include that
part of the staffing assigned to the technical review of
facilities plans which is covered under technical assistance
(water quality planning), nor that part of the staffing
assigned to preparing environmental impact statements which is
covered under the Agency Management and Support activity.
These excluded activities, however, are integral and essential
parts of the overall construction grants program.

    This activity covers only staffing costs:  salaries, benefits,
travels and other personnel related costs.  The grant funds
are included in a separate appropriations account (Construc-
tion Grants) and there are no extramural activity costs
funded through contracts.  This activity is predominantly
located in the regions where all of the grant making and
associated administration of the construction grants program
reside.  The remainder of the activity resides in headquarters
in the form of the Municipal Waste Water System Division
which provides program policy and oversight-

1975Program andAccomplishments

    During 1975, it is estimated that this activity will admin-
ister 4,335 active projects carried over from 1974 (of which
1,560 will be completed during the year) and 3,560 new projects
initiated during the year.  More specifically, the activity will
be managing the foil owing estimated numbers of projects during
1975 as compared to 1974:

Types of Projects                         1974       1975

New Step 1 projects	      560      1,200
New Step 2 projects	     100      1,100
New Step 3 projects(in preconstruc-
 tion stage)	      470      1,260
Active Step 3 projects in construc-
 tion phase	    1,270      1,640
Active Section 8 projects in con-
 structi on phase	    1,935      1,135

  Total	    4,335      6,335

The new projects will result in estimated obligations of
$3.5 billion.

    As can be seen in the above table, the apparent 1975 work-
load increases 46 percent over that of 1974.  The actual
workload, however, will increase by about 119 percent because
of the relatively greater manpower requirements of new Step 1,
2, and 3 projects which increase by 215 percent, as against
active Step 3 and Section 8 projects which together, decrease
slightly.  Against this increased workload, the 1975 budget
provides for an increase of nine positions an.d the Agency
has reprogrammed 54 positions from other activities.  In
addition, the Agency intends to contract out a large portion
of the preparation of environmental impact statements.

1976 Plan

     In 1976, an additional increase In workload is expected
as indicated 6y the following:

Type of Projects                          1975       1976

New Step 1 projects.		   1,200      1,950
New Step 2 projects		..   1,100      1,800
New Step 3 projects (in preconstru-
  tion stage)	,.   1,260      1,950
Active Step 3 projects in constru-
  tion stage.	   1,640      2,600
Active Section 8 projects in construc-
  tion phase	,	   1,135        235

     Total	,		..   6,335      8,535

     The Agency intends to significantly reorient its  opera-
ting strategy for the program toward increased delegation of
functions to the States.  Beginning in 1975, the Agency will
authorize and encourage delegation of virtually all functions
to those States willing and capable of accepting them.  Because
the Agency cannot delegate its responsibilities for actual
grant making, approval of various documents, and stewardship
of grants, these delegations will involve State technical and
administrative review of all required documents, with  the
State certifying as to their adequacy.  The Agency will rely
on these certifications as the basis for awarding grants,
approval documents, and otherwise discharging responsibilities
that cannot be delegated.  In effect, EPA will be delegating
(where States accept such delegation) virtually all of the
workload except award of grants, approval of documents, pre-
paration of environmental impact statements, and conduct of
final construction inspection.  To enable this strategy to
work, it is believed that the States will insist on additional
funding to cover the added administrative costs of the delegated
functions.  Accordingly, enactment of the legislation  which
would allow delegated States to use a small portion of their
annual construction grant allotments to defray the administra-
tive costs of delegated functions would be highly desirable,

Purpose of Increase

     It is believed that only 15 States will be willing, ca-
pable, and ready in 1976 to fully assume and implement the  •
delegations described above.  This will reduce EPA*s 1976 workload

(processing but not total workload) by approximately 30
percent.  With a 1975 staffing level of 453 positions
(inclusive of Agency reprogranming), a 1976 staffing increase
of 107 positions is proposed.  Also, it is planned to continue
contracting for the preparation of environmental impact
statements, with about 38 positions to be saved through
this device.

                            1975          1976       Change

Municipal permit/
 operation and
 maintenance	.    ($3,483,000)  ($3,513,500)   (+$30,500)

    This activity covers resources which are part of the
National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
program which is described under the water quality permit pro-
gram activity under the Enforcement appropriation.  These
resources provide for the technical review of municipal
permit applications and the development of municipal permit
conditions.  They also provide for compliance inspection of
permitees when self-monitoring reports indicate that they are
out of compliance and for technical assistance to noncomplying
permitees where such assistance is deemed more appropriate
than taking some form of enforcement action.  Such compliance
inspections also serve as operation and maintenance inspections
of completed projects required under the construction
grants program.  All other resources devoted to the
municipal permit program to cover administration and
enforcement functions and the review of self-monitoring reports
are assigned to the water quality permit program and are
described in that activity.

1975 Program

    During 1975, the program will be principally devoted to
completing the issuance of original permits to 2,582 major
municipal sources (by the middle of 1975) and to 15,100 minor
municipal dischargers by the end of 1975, The reissuance of
expired municipal permits and the revision of permits to
accomodate changed conditions, new information, or industrial
pretreatment requirements will also be accomplished.  Finally
the review of self-monitoring reports, the conduct of com-
pliance inspections, and follow-up actions with respect to
noncompliers will be carried out.  Thus work will be shared
with the States under delegation of the NPDES program.  Fifteen

States have already been delegated responsibility for the
program and an additional 1.5  States  could  gain the' program
by the end of 1975.

1975 Accompli shments

    - Issue about 2,150 major permits (EPA and States);

    - Reissue or revise up to 4,000 permits;

    - Conduct approximately 35,000 compliance inspection
      (EPA and States);

    - Issue about 12,200 minor permits (EPA and States); and

    - Provide technical assistance to an estimated 140
      noncomplying permitees.

1976 Program

    During 1976, compliance inspection and follow-up technical
assistance to correct noncompliance will be the principal
activities of this program.  It is estimated that approximately
4,700 permitees (1,100 major and 3,600 minor permitees) will
have to be inspected.  Technical assistance and nonenforcement
follow-up actions to correct noncompliance will be required
on at least one third of those inspected.

    In addition, the 1976 program will continue to encompass
the reissuanee or revision of significant numbers of permits
(an estimated 520 major and 5,000 minor permits).  Revision
to accommodate industrial pretreatment requirements and to
accommodate effluent data not available in issuing the
original conditional permits will comprise the bulk of this
effort.  Reissuance of permits that expire in 1976 will make
up the remainder of the effort.

Purpose of  Increase

    To provide for the full-year cost of the October 1974
pay raise.

                            1975          1976       Change

Operator and direct
 training...	 ($3,304,100)   ($3,298,400)    (-$5,700)

    This activity encompasses the training and certification

f   «           of waste treatment plant operators, technicians, and managers
               and the training of other State and local personnel engaged
H'|             in water pollution control.  Operator training includes funds
*' )'             for development, demonstration grants, State training grants,
               certification, Section 109(b) training facilities, and admin-
^             i strati on-.  Included are grants for schools for operation and
>. j             maintenance training and grants for laboratory programs for
               support of the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System
„. .             (NPDES).  Direct training includes the headquarters programs
;               and the programs at the National Training Center at Cincinnati,

  *             1975 Program and Accomplishments

                   The program for 1975 features the development of State
               manpower and training self-sufficiency.  Included are those
  !             projects that provide the State or municipality with instruc-
  :             tional capability, specialized new methods, skills such as
               are required under the NPDES, new technology and innovative
  ;             training projects, and development of certification criteria.

               1976 Plan

  i                 The program for 1976 will follow-along the 1975 outline with
               increased activity in developing State capability.  The
               curriculum developed with 1975 grants will be widely distributed
               to any school that has facilities and the desire to promote
  '•>             the programs.  State certification programs will be evaluated
               and testing criteria developed.  Administrative costs and
               grants to minority schools will continue at the same funding
               level as 1975.

                   1976 funding for Section 104 (g) (1) in the amount of
               $650,000 for State and local operator training will stress
               the development of State manpower development and training
               capabilities through projects that provide States and
               municipalities with instructional capability, specialized new
               methods and skills required under NPDES, or new technology
               and innovative training programs and projects.

                   The National Training Center will provide increased
               emphasis in 1976 on the development of training materials
               for use by State agencies and training institutions.

               Purpose of Decrease

                   The decrease is related to $200 thousand added by Congress
               in 1975 on a "one-time" basis, offset by the full-year cost of the
               October 1974 pay raise.

                          Water Quality

                      Abatement and Control

                    Industrial Source Control

                           1975           1976        Change

Industrial source
  control.........   $8,986,900    $6,999,200    -$1,987,700

     Industries discharge a broad range of pollutants into
our Nation's waters.  In the aggregate, they form the largest
and most toxic of all concentrated sources of pollution.  On
the average, industry discharges about three times the amount
of waste that is discharged by all the sewered private
residences in the United States and the volume is increasing
several times as fast as that of sanitary sewage.

     The 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act provide for a vigorous attack on industrial
water pollution, with deadlines for a number of specific
control actions.  Guiding the control program are two
legislatively mandated goals: (1) existing industries
discharging pollutants into the Nation's waters must use the
best practicable water pollution control technology currently
available by July 1, 1977, and (2) they must employ the best
available technology by July 1, 1§83.

     EPA is publishing effluent limitations guidelines to
define the best practicable and best available technologies
for various industries.  The development of the effluent
limitations guidelines takes into account adjustments for
several factors, including the cost of pollution control,
the age of the industrial facility, the process used, and
the environmental impact (other than water quality) of the
controls.  EPA is also identifying, where possible,
pollution control measures for completely eliminating
industrial discharges.

     In addition, new.sources of industrial pollution must
use the best available demonstrated, technology which is
being defined by EPA in the form of standards of performance
for various industries.  Where practicable, EPA is requiring
that there be no discharge of pollutants from new industrial

     EPA is also promulgating pretreatment standards for new
sources and proposing regulations on the application of
effluent limitations for users of publicly owned treatment
works which are subject to pretreatment standards under
Section 307(b) of the Act.

1975 Program

     Activity for 1975 will focus on the development of
industrial waste water limitation guidelines and standards
and revisions to them as necessary for meeting the 1977 and
1983 goals and new source requirements.  A related activity
in support of the NPDES program is to provide technical
assistance and training for implementation of industrial
standards.  Updated and current information is also provided
on process technology to control and abate industrially
caused water pollution.  In addition, a data base is being
developed on industrial wasteuse, pollution loads,
technology achievements, costs, and other information
necessary to assess and correct industrial pollution
problems.  Finally, assistance will be provided to State
water pollution control agencies, other Federal agencies,
industry, and other groups in matters concerning industrial
waste water discharges.

1975 Accomplishments

     - Publication of final regulations for the 18 Group I,
       Phase II categories;

     - Publication of final regulations for nine of the 19
       Group II categories (remainder to be published by
       October 1975);

     - Publication of final pretreatment regulations for
       existing sources for the Group I, Phase I and II
       categori es;

     - Publication of proposed pretreatment regulations for
       existing sources for nine of the 19 Group II categories
       (remainder to be published by October 1975); and

     - Awarding of level of effort contracts for data
       gathering and evaluation (includes field verification
       fnd sampling)—data to be used in annual review of
       the guidelines.

•  '               1976  Plan

|:|                    - Complete  development  of  industrial waste water
I )                      effluent  limitations  guidelines and  standards for
                         1977 and  1983  and  new source  requirements;
^3S ?
  ',                    - Development of and promulgation of proposed pre-
                         treatment standards for  existing sources for the
, j                      19  Group  II industrial categories;

                       ;• Development of technical  information as required
                         resulting from the judicial review of effluent
  I                      limitations guidelines and new source performance

- ;                    - Development and analysis  of data to  be used in the
                         annual  review  of the  effluent limitations guidelines
                         and new source performance standards (the guidelines
                         and standards  must be revised every  five years); and

                       - Provision of technical assistance to the Office of
                         General Counsel» the  regions, and the States on
                         industrial  waste water treatment technology and

                  Purpose of Decrease

   3                    The decrease results from  a "one-time" 1975
                  congressional  increase of $2,000,000 which  is being used to
                  support the promulgation  of  toxic effluent  standards under
                  Section 307 and  to cover  increasedcosts due to the revision
                  and legal  defense of  existing effluent guidelines.

                        Water Quality

                    Abatement and Control

                   Nonpoint Source Control

                            1975          1976       Change

Nonpoint source
 control		  $1,617,900    $1,606,700     -$11,200

    Nonpoint source pollution is a significant portion of the
total water pollution load of the waters of the'Nation.  For
the Nation as a whole, about one-third of water pollution is
from nonpoint sources.  Such sources include agricultural
activities, siIvicultural activities such as forestry and
logging, mining, urban and rural runoff, construction
activities, and salt water intrusion.

    The immediate objectives of the nonpoint source control
program are to direct, support, and coordinate the regional
nonpoint source control pilot program; develop and issue cost
effective technical guidelines and information on the best
practicable control technologies; develop model State laws
and regulations; coordinate point source and nonpoint source
control activities; and coordinate programs of other Federal
agencies to ensure the greatest reduction of nonpoint source
pollution from Federal lands.  It is planned for the program,
presently in its infancy, to become a fully implemented special
source program in 1977-1978.  An integrated point/nonpoint
source control program is necessary to reach the 1983 goals
of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended.

    The regional nonpoint source control pilot program is
designed to conserve resources through regional projects
directed to specific special source categories.  The projects
not only accomplish controls in limited areas for the specific
source category, but also provide basic technical, legal, and
institutional control information for use in control of the
sources throughout the Nation.  The pilot project information,
together with that developed by research, will be published
and widely distributed.  In those cases where specific guidance
is necessary, Section 304(e) documents will be developed and
distributed as required by the Act.

    An objective of the nonpoint source control program is to
extend the point source permits to many sources that presently

must be treated as nonpoint sources.  This generally involves
the extension of permit requirements to small sources not
covered in existing point source regulations.  This program,
presently in the development stage, is directed to the orderly
progressive application of the permits to the smaller sources
within available resources.  Technical assistance is provided
to Federal, State, and local agencies with emphasis on
permitting and monitoring activities.

1975 Program

    During 1975, a number of activities will be continued or
initiated.  Npnpoint source pilot projects will be fully
implemented in all regions.  A model State law to manage. po^lu-
tion from silviculture! activities will be developed as part
of the continuing program to develop model State laws and
regulations.  Technical guidelines, information, and reports
will also be issued relating to control technologies atnd
cost effective techniques.  In additions coordination with other
Federal agencies will be continued in the effort to influence
current practices pn Federal lands to reduce nonpoint source

1975 Accomplishments

    - Full implementation of 10 regional"pilot control  projects
      on mining, irrigation return flows, ground water,
      silviculture, individual domestic systems, urban
      runoff, salt water intrusion, agriculture, and oil
      fields and natural brines;

    - Completion of the 45 State Sediment Control Institutes.;

    - Development of a State model law to manage pollution
      from silvicultural activities and subsequent submission
      to the Council of State Governments;

    - Development and issuance of five information reports and
      of one Section 304(e) guidance document;

    - Participation in meetings and symposia with other Federal
      agencies to modify current practices on Federal lands
      to reduce nonpoint source pollution;

    - Completion of statistical data and determination of
      resource requirements for extending animal waste permits;

    - Initiation of development of cost effective technical
      guidelines to define best practicable control techno!o-
      giesvfor mining and construction activities.   Guidelines
      would be implemented by the States in the management
      of nonpoint source pollution.

1976 Plan

    Implementation of pilot control projects in each of the
regions will continue in 1976.  The results from these pro-
jects will be used to assist in the development of specific
Section 304{e) guidance.  Cost effective technical  guidelines
will be developed for, mining, construction, and agricultural
nonpoint source wastes.  In addition, two model laws will be
completed for the States to adopt for the control of nonpoint
source pollutants.  Finally, the coordinating effort within
other Federal agencies will be continued to promote installation
of best practicable management technologies for the control
of nonpoint source pollutants on Federal lands.

Purpose of Decrease

    The decrease reflects the reprogramming of one position
and associated funds to the administration of construction

                          Water Quality

                      Abatement and Control
         -:f. -~i •'     .  - •  -                ~-       ...

               •Oceah Disposal and Spill Prevention

                           1975 :..        1976      Change

Ocean disposal and
  spill prevention..  $5,348,700    $5,320,200    T$28,5pQ

     Since enactment of the Marine Protection, Research,
and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (PL 92-532), the previously
uncontrolled practice of transporting and dumping wastes
in ocean waters is now being regulated.   The Ocean Disposal
Permit Program was initiated in 1974.  Since then, EPA has
developed criteria'for the evaluation of permit applications,
prepared procedural regulations, identified some 110 ocean
disposal sites, on an interim basis and issued over 80

     Of the 110 .dumpsites identified, 11 are now in active
use for dumping of municipal and industrial wastes.  Four
of these are beyond the edge of the continental shelf.  Site
surveys are being conducted on four sites at present and
additional surveys will be initiated in 1975.

     The primary objective of the spill  prevention program
is to protect water quality through establishment of
standards and regulations for. toxic and hazardous materials,
prevention of oil and other spills, and miniminzing the
impact of spills on the environment.  This authority is
covered under Sections 307 (a) and 311.

     Section 311  of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
as amended, specifies a threefold approach to the control of
spills: response, prevention, and enforcement.   Essential to
implementation of Section 311 is the promulgation of key
regulations, development of the National Contingency Plan,
establishment of spill response programs, and development of
an aggressive spill prevention program.   The spill response
program is shared with the U.S. Coast Guard and jurisdictional
lines between the agencies are drawn geographically between
inland (including the Great Lakes) and coastal  water.  It is
EPA's position that the discharger should take action to
remove the spilled material; however, if the violator fails

:-                      to do so, cleanup will  be undertaken by EPA and the discharger
r                       charged for the cost of removal.   To provide efficient and
                        coordinated response actions, national  and regional
                        contingency plans are required which delineate procedures,
| |                      techniques, (chemical'uses), and responsibilities of the
z .'                      various Federal, State and local  authorities.

!';*                           The prevention program is also divided between EPA and
4 '                      the U.S. Coast Guard, in accordance with facility function,
                        with EPA having responsibility for nontransportation related
4,                       operations.  Initially, the EPA program is being directed at
                        repeat violators and major dischargers.

                             The enforcement aspect of the program serves as a
  ?                      deterrent to dischargers through  assessment of the penalties
- '                      provided for in the Act.  For hazardous substances, the
                        enforcement program will have greater significance because
                        of the severe penalties that can  be assessed for discharges
• ,                      of nonremovable hazardous substances.  More aggressive field
                        investigation will be required becaused hazardous substances
 , ,                      spills are more likely to go undetected than oil.

                             EPA is also.responsible for  establishing and revising
                        regulations, standards, and guidelines  under Section 311
                        (hazardous substances)  and Section 307  (a) (toxic substances).
                        Lists of these substances must be proposed and standards  and
                        regulations proposed and promulgated within the time con-
                        straints imposed by Congress and  court  decisions.

                             Under Section 307  (a), each  toxic  material listed must
                        be carefully justified by the preparation of criteria
                        documentation, economic and technical feasibility studies,
                        and development of a defensible statement of basis and
                        purpose, including detailed studies of  hydrodynamics,
                        available treatment technology, analytical methodology,
                        ambient water quality criteria, and justification of source
                        categories.  Public hearings must be held on all proposed
  \                                          t

                             A similar procedure is required under Section 311
                        (hazardous substances).  While no public hearings are
 r !                      required by law, workshops and symposia are necessary.  A
 ., >                      list of 370 hazardous substances  has been published in an
                        Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.   Regulations must
                        designate substances, harmful quantities, and rate of
  '                      penalty for nonremovable substances.  Continued inter-
                        national effort is required, especially with Canada, to

ensure compatability of our regulations with other countries.

1975 Program

     In the ocean dumping permit program, the major effort
will be directed toward the designation of ocean disposal
sites and the preparation of environmental impact state-
ments for each site.  Efforts will also be made to develop
better analytical procedures and to revise the existing
criteria for permit application evaluation.

     During 1975, the major efforts in the remainder of the
program will be to initiate compliance inspections and
enforcement actions, review spill prevention control and
countermeasure plans, fully implement EPA'1 s oil pollution
prevention regulations, revise proposed standards for nine
toxic materials, and develop methodologies for rates of
penalty and harmful quantity regulation under Section 311.
Also, development of draft regulations and definitions of
small facilities liabilities will be a vital part of the program.


     Accomplishments and 1975 planned outputs include:

     - Studies and designation of two ocean disposal sites;

     - Public hearings and workshops to revise ocean
       disposal criteria;

     - Processing of 50 permit applications;

     - Full implementation of oil pollution prevention

     - Completion of a draft regulation for preventing
       spills of hazardous substances from nontransportation
       related facilities;

     - Completion of a major revision of the National
       Contingency Plan to incorporate removal  actions for
       hazardous substances;

     - Completion of a draft regulation for removal of
       hazardous substances;

     - Revision of proposed standards on nine tox>c

* i                         - Re-proposal of new standards for toxic materials to
   *                          support standards for proposed rulemaking;

^                         - Introduction of evidence to support standards for
                             proposed jruleniaking;

                           - Publication of advanced notice for new list of toxic

                           - Publication of final standards for nine listed toxic

                           - Publication of Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
                             list of Section 311 hazardous substances; and

                           - Development of methodologies for rates of penalty and
                             harmful quantity regulation, and publication of
                             proposed regulations.

                      1976 Plan

                           In T976, the ocean dumping permit program will continue
                      dumpsite designation studies along with the review of permit
                      applications and using new research data, will propose
                      revised criteria for evaluating ocean dumping permit

                           During 1976, it will be necessary to prepare evidence,
                      propose standards, conduct public hearings and promulgate
                      regulations for those hazardous substances identified in the
                      Advance Notice published in 1975.  For hazardous materials,
                      publication of regulations identifying harmful quanities and
                      rates of penalty will be required.  Accomplishments are
                      expected to include:

                           - Study and designation of six  ocean disposal sites;

                           - Review and evaluate 50 ocean dumping permit applications;

                           - Proposed revisions of criteria;

                           - Designation of hazardous substances, harmful quantities,
                             and rates of penalty for nonremoval substances
                             regulations responding to Section 311;

                           - Proposed standards, public hearings, and promulgation
                             of regulations on toxic substances on the proposed

r                              -  list; and
                               - Continuation of international  activities  to insure
                                 eampatability of regulations.

t;                        Purpose of Decrease

                               The decrease reflects the reprogramming of  six positions
                          and associated funds to Construction  Grants,

                                       Water Quality

                                   Abatement and Control

                         Areawide Waste Treatment Management Grants


  1                                       1975          1976         Change

'""]           Areawide waste
  J             treatment
               management grants:
 "i             Liquidation of con-
  |              tract authority... $26,000,000   $65,000,000   +$39,000,000
               Contract authority 150,000,000           ...   -150S000,000
                  The Act provides for the establishment of areawide
             waste treatment management and planning agencies under
             Section 208.  Through Section 2085 planning agencies are
             provided a unique opportunity to plan and manage a compre-
             hensive program based on integrated planning and control
             over such activites as municipal and industrial waste water,
             storm and combined sewer runoff, nonpoint source pollutants,
             and land use as it relates to water quality.  These agencies
             will develop comprehensive plans, examing nonstructural as
             well as structural alternatives, which will affect the
             investment of both public and private resources over an
             extended period of time.  They are developed for both
             metropolitan and those other areas with critical water
             conditions and water quality control problems.  The designated
             agencies, upon receipt of an acceptable grant application,
             receive grants for 100 percent of their eligible planning

                  A management system is developed to carry out the
             objectives and requirements of,the plans.  This comprehensive
             management system in designated areas is expected to be the
             keystone of efforts for attaining the 1983 goals of the Act
             as it incorporates all the principal functions of water
             pollution control planning, construction, and regulation.

             1975 Program

                  During 1975, the number of Agency designations is greatly
             increasing as States and local coranunities are able to
             coordinate and prepare the necessary documentation to permit


                          Water Quality

                            1975          1976       Decrease
  Water Quaity
    Enforcement....  $24,064,800   $21,293,500    -$2,771,300

  Water Quality
    Enforcement ----          890           744           -146


     The water quality enforcement program emphasizes the
compliance monitoring, enforcement* and continuing issuance
of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
waste water discharge permits.  Other activities include the
enforcement actions necessary to achieve compliance with regu-
lations on oil and hazardous material discharge, water supply,
ocean dumping, and related requirements of the Act.  Most
water quality enforcement activities are conducted coopera-
tively with the States and maximum State assumption of these
responsibilities is a primary goal.

     The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit
program is part of the comprehensive effort initiated by the
1972 Amendments to reduce or eliminate point source pollution
from industrial, municipal, commercial, and agricultural facil-
ities.  The Act prohibits discharge of pollutants to virtually
all waters of the United States unless a permit is issued by
EPA or an EPA-approved State program.  The permit is the focal
point of the tight regulatory system with precise and detailed
abatement requirements, streamlined enforcement procedures,
and heavy penalties for permit violation.

     The permit is the mechanism for imposing on point source
dischargers the uniform national effluent limitations and
national performance standards which EPA is required to
promulgate.  These standards, set by the abatement and control
function, establish the maximum amounts of various pollutants
which can legally be discharged into a water body.  If, at a
given facility, the established national effluent limits will

not reduce pollution enough to meet the ambient water quality
standards set by the State or EPA, the permit will impose
stricter effluent limitations as necessary to meet the water
quality standards.  These more stringent effluent limits are
set by the permit program in coordination with pollution load
allocation activities covered under the abatement and control

     Permits are issued on condition that their pollutant
reductions be accomplished according to given time schedules.
Compliance with the limitations and the schedules are assured
by review of permittee self-monitoring reports, routine and
case preparation facility inspections, conferences with permit
violators, issuance of letters and administrative orders, and
development and referral of cases to the Justice Department.

     The primary objectives for 1976 are (1) to assure, in
cooperation with the States, a high degree of compliance by
the most significant dischargers with their compliance sched-
ules and final effluent limitations; (2) to pursue full imple-
mentation of approved State programs and additional approvals
to qualified States; (3) to achieve a high degree of compliance
with other non-NPDES water enforcement program responsibilities;
(4) to expedite issuance and modification of adjudicated, new
source, and power plant permits; and (5) to complete issuance
and assure compliance with all other NPDES permits.

T975 Program and Accomplishments

     With the issuance of nearly all of the first round of
permits in 1975, the first step in the NPDES water quality
enforcement program will have been completed.  Most signifi-
cantly, all "major discharger", i.e., 6300 permits will have
been issued.

     The goal of turning over NPDES authority to all qualified
States also is expected to continue to progress significantly
this year.  Approximately 11 new programs should be approved
for a total of 30.  ;                                            -

     1975 saw the first significant results of the NPDES permit
enforcement authorities.  While we have found significant
voluntary compliance with the permit requirements, we will
have issued 800 administrative orders and referred 40 NPDES
cases to U.S. Attorneys.  These formal actions generally were
preceded by informal compliance efforts including telephone
calls, letters, and meetings.  Most permit violations are
being identified through review of a substantial number of

self-monitoring reports submitted by permittees.

     Implementation of NEPA requirements related to new source
permits has been initiated in 1975.  This has involved prin-
cipally the preparation of regulations and guidance for
developing impact statements and negative declarations for
new source permits in 1976.

     Enforcement also began implementation of the Section
316(a) provision for appeal from the thermal effluent limits,
holding 20 hearings.  Thirty enforcement actions were initiated
under Refuse Act and the Marine Protection, Research and
Sanctuaries Act.

     In addition to permit enforcement activities, we have
maintained our continuing program with the Coast Guard and Justice
Department in enforcements of oil spill .prevention and abatement
authorities resulting in approximately 700 referrals to the
Coast Guard and 50 referrals to U.S. Attorneys for action on

     EPA has also taken enforcement action for violation of
the Section 404 prohibition against disposal of dredged or
fill material without a Corps of Engineers permit-   We will
have taken 20 such actions this year.

1976 Plan

     The basic change in the water quality enforcement program
is the significant increase in compliance monitoring and
enforcement resulting from the issuance of a large number of
discharge permits and the increased number of other water
pollution control requirements now in effect.  The primary
EPA/State objective for 1976 will be to assure a high degree
of compliance with NPDES permits by the most significant or
"principal" industrial and municipal dischargers-.  Principal
dischargers include "major dischargers" and any additional
large facilities haying high potential for violation of water
quality standards or who are required to install substantial
pollution abatement.  Water enforcement resources that were
previously dedicated to the enormous task of getting out the
initial round of discharge permits will now, to a great extent,
be dealing with permit compliance and enforcement.  We feel
that vigorous and effective enforcement of permit conditions
must be established from the outset in order to maintain the
integrity of the regulatory permit program.  The program will
concentrate compliance efforts on those dischargers who have

demonstrated or have high potential for significant violations
of permit conditions.

     Duritig 197<5, the water quality enforcement program will:

     -  Accelerate the development of all State permit
        programs and approve 10 additional State programs;

     -  Review all self-monitoring reports, facility
        compliance schedules and discharge monitoring
        reports, both for receipt and substantial-compliance;

     -  In participation with States, undertake on-site
        facility inspections at principal dischargers
        to review violations identified in permittee self-
        monitoring reports, to identify and define permit
        violations.not identified in reports;

     -  Follow-up on violations with letters, telephone
        calls, conferences, and administrative orders,
        as appropriate;

     -  Monitor and enforce appropriate compliance with
        oil spill prevention requirements; toxic, pre-
        treatment and marine sanitation standards; and
        aquaculture and sewage sludge disposal permits;

     -  Enforce ocean dumping regulations of the Marine
        Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972,
        review Section 404 dredge spoil disposal site
        designations for possible disapproval, participate
        in Section 10 Refuse Act dredge spoil actions; and
        certify Section 8 applications for SBA loans for
        installation of pollution control equipment)

     -  Implement Section 504 of the Federal Water Pollution
        Control Act, as amended, which provides EPA with
        emergency power to bring suit where a pollution source
        presents an imminent and substantial danger to public
        health and welfare;

     -  Complete review and adjudication of approximately
        100 Section 316 appeals dealing with thermal
        effluent requirements;

     -  Prepare approximately 250 cases for permit violation
        to be referred to the U.S. Attorney;

     -  In participation with the States, issue or reissue
        approximately 950 major and 10,000 minor permits.
        These will be issued to new or modified facilities^
        to dischargers which had not applied, had not been
        issued a permit, or whose permit had expired or
        required modification-, and

     -  Implement National Environmental Policy Act require-
        ments for new source discharge permits, including
        preparation of environmental impact statements and
        negative declarations.

Purpose of Decrease

     Completion of the issuance of most initial permits and
the increasing number of approved State programs will enable
us to make a reduction of 146 positions and $2.8 million.
It is expected that significantly less EPA technical support
will be needed in 1976 for such tasks as developing permit
conditions, reviewing State permit conditions, issuing permits,
reviewing industry appeals from application of the effluent
guidelines, assisting in State program development, parti-
cipating in adjudicatory hearings, and supporting administra-
tive and judicial enforcement actions.

     Overall administrative support, including application
receipt and files maintenance, compliance tracking, data
systems support, program management, and public notice and
program inquiry review and response, will be maintained during
1976 at approximately the same level as in 1975 since they
both support the permitting and the compliance monitoring/
enforcement functions.

Research and

                        Water Quality

                  Research and Development
Budget Authority
  Processes and
       Total.	.

  Processes and
$18,779,700   $19,790,500  +$1,010,800

 27.593,500    25,101,900  - 2,491,600

 46,373,200    44,892,400  - 1,480,800
» • *
- 7
_ 7

     The role of research and development in EPA's water
quality program is to provide the scientific information
needed to support its standard setting and enforcement
activities.  To do this, a multifaceted research program has
been established.  The goals of this program include  the
development of inexpensive, efficient, and effective waste-
water treatment technology for both municipalities and
industries; useful and defensible monitoring methods; and criteria
for clean, safe, ecologically stable water in various aquatic
environments-, and the establishment of strategies for control
of pollution from spills of oil and hazardous materials and
from farming, mining, and construction activities (nonpoint
sources).  An overall goal is to provide the scientific basis
for economical and socially viable environmental management.

                         Water Quality

                   Research and Development

                    Processes and Effects
                             1975          1976       Change
                                -             '          .....
Processes and
  effects ..... ....    $18,779,700   $19,790,500  +$1,010,800

     This program includes: (1) the development of criteria
for the safe treatment and disposal of wastewaters and sludges
and the development of health related criteria for fresh and
marine recreational waters; (2) research on the toxicological
effects of water pollutants on aquatic organisms; (3) research
on the movement, transformation, degradation, accumulation,
and fate of water pollutants; and (4) the development of new
and improved sampling and analytical methods and instrumentation
for measuring water and effluent quality.  The toxicological
and fates research 1s directed toward development of water
quality standards.  The analytical methods and Instrumentation
development is directed toward providing new and improved
techniques for water quality and effluent monitoring and sur-
veillance of standards compliance.

     The construction grant program calls for alternative
waste treatment management techniques and systems to implement
Section 201 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as
amended.  One such technique is land disposal.  However, many
State agencies are reluctant to use land for the treatment and
disposal of wastewater and sludge because of a lack of pre-
cise information on the health hazards associated with such
a practice.  Research on valid criteria for the safe treatment
and disposal of wastewaters and sludges 1s, therefore, of
high priority to EPA's Office of Water and Hazardous Materials.

     Furthermore, ft is a national goal that water be suitable
for recreation by 1983, yet the delta base available for
development of recreational water quality standards Is still
deficient.  Indeed, it 1s possible that current standards
are too stringent, resulting in unnecessary closing of beaches,
excessive chlorlnation costs, and discharge of chlorinated
effluents which are known to be ecologically harmful.
Recreational water quality criteria directly impact municipal
and industrial effluent standards and ocean dumping regulations.

tional water quality criteria cannot be overemphasized since
it affects the multibillion dollar water pollution regulatory
program.  There is little scientific basis for the currently
used microbiological criteria for recreational waters.  The
National Academy of Sciences has found no basis on which
to develop a new criteria.  Yet much will be spent on treat-
ment plants and their operation to meet surface water stan-
dards based on these old and inadequate criteria.

     EPA is conducting research to provide data and informa-
tion for the establishment of water quality criteria that
will provide a sound scientific basis for setting legally
defensible standards for public water supplies and industrial
purposes.  Studies are conducted to determine the effects of
physical, chemical, biological, microbiological, pesticidal,
and radiological pollutants on water use.  In addition, to
enable description of the interaction of these pollutants
within total aquatic ecosystems, research is conducted to
determine movement, transformation and ultimate fate of
pollutants in fresh surface, ground, marine and large lake
waters.  This information is required In order to relate the
concentration and form of pollutants to the size, character,
composition, and location of their sources and to establish
effective water quality standards, treatment, and control
requirements.  The analytical methods and instrumentation
development program is designed to provide new and improved
techniques for water quality and effluent monitoring and
surveillance of standards compliance.  There is also a
need to have rapid methods for the detection and enumeration
of pathogenic and indicator bacteria and chemicals in drinking,
recreational, and other, waters.

1975 Program

     Efforts have been under way to determine the dispersion
of pathogens and toxic chemicals in aerosols from conventional
secondary wastewater treatment plants. In 1975, health effects
work was expanded to include an epidemiological study on
human populations associated with conventional wastewater
treatment plants. In addition, studies were initiated to
determine the transport and fate in air, water, and soil of
pathogens and toxic chemicals produced by application of
wastewater and sludge to the land.

     The recreational water research program is conducting
studies at two New York marine beaches, one "clean", the
other relatively polluted, to relate quantitatively the

                       incident of diseases-among swiraners  to  various  microbial
                       indices  of pollution.

                           Emphasis is  being  given to the study of the  acute and
I                      chronic toxicological effects of metals,  pesticides,  and
                      complex effluents on all  life stages of aquatic organisms,
                      and on the determination  of the pathways  of movement  and
»                      behavior of these materials in multiphase systems.  EPA is
                      also developing increased capability to describe  the
                      eutrophication processs implement lake restoration  techniques,
.1                      and derive criteria for ocean dumping  and ocean outfalls.
                      Finally,  work is  being  done on predictive mathematical
                      models of the fate and  effects of pollutants in streams,
                      rivers, estuaries, subsurface water, and  lakes.

                      1975 Accomplishments

                           - Developed  preliminary information  on asbestos
                             (asbestiform minerals) types and concentrations in
                             Lake Superior and  devised interim  procedures for
                             determination of Asbestos particle ? concentration in
                             Duluth, Minnesota, water supply source;

                           - Completed  evaluation of principal  sources  of natural
                             and man-caused groundwater contamination in  the
                             northeastern, northcentral, and southeastern States in
                             order to determine research priorities for pollutant
                             source reduction and control  methods for protecting
                             against further  groundwater quality degradation;

                           - Published  various  reports on fates of pesticides in
                             water, assessment  of the impact of nutrients on lake
                             water quality in the eastern United States and on
                             results of Great Lakes Reference Study;

                           - Completed  first  year of monitoring of a eutrophic
                             lake following nutrient source  reduction by advanced
                             water treatment  and developed preliminary  mathematical
                             model  for  the recovery process;

                           - Determined the effect of closed cycle cooling  systems
j                            on the quality of  aquatic plumes from cooling towers
t                            and developed preliminary determination of the be-
                             havior of atmospheric plumes from  cooling  towers;

                           - Completed  reports  on research knowledge regarding the
                             Natipn's estuaries for the congressionally\mandated
                             "National  Estuary  Report'," and

     - Completed analytical methods manual for EPA's ocean
       disposal permit program,

1976 Plan

     Asbestos fiber identification and quantification pro-
cedures will be expanded to include tissue analysis.  Research
and predictive model development will be continued for the
determination of the fate of additional pesticides and
metallic pollutants.  A river basin model will be developed
for predicting loading rates from nonpoint sources of
pollution.  Groundwater pollution problems in additional
regions of the United States will be assessed, as will
groundwater pollution originating from septic tanks and
from irrigation return flow disposal.  A design, construction,
operation, training, and maintenance handbook for  :
environmentally safe subsurface waste injection will be
developed, and alternative methods of environmentally
acceptable underground injection techniques will be inves-
tigated.  A study of nutrient inflow to eastern and mid-
continent lakes will be continued and several additional
lake restoration techniques will be evaluated, including lake
drawdown and nutrient inactivation.  Spray cooling and cooling
water plume prediction models will be field tested.  In the
Great Lakes study effort, the combined U.S.-Canada Upper
Great Lakes Reference Study report will be completed; a final
report on the biological assessment of Lake Erie nutrient
control programs will be issued; the predictive mathematical
model developed during the IFYGL-Lake Ontario program will
undergo verification; and similar predictive models for
Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron will be developed.

     For the marine program, reports on the fate of micro-
biological agents originating from ocean outfalls, on the
effects of municipal sewage sludge deposition on continental
shelf benthos, on biological indices of pollution in estuarine
ecosystems, and on the effects of crude oil on Gulf of Mexico
salt marsh ecosystems will be completed.

     Broad epidemiological studies will be conducted to
derive recreational water quality criteria based on scien-
tific health effects data.  Extensive studies will be conducted
to determine the transport and health effects of contaminants
resulting from the application of wastewaters and sludges to
the land.

                      Purpose of Increase

                           We are requesting an Increase of $1.0 million for the
fra                    health effects program.  This increase will support conduct
;' j                    of intensive studies on the health effects of the land
'"••'                    application of wastewaters and sludges (spray irrigation, in-
                      filtration-percolation, etc,).  The possible transport of
f |                    toxic substances and pathogens (especially virus) from waste-
F- ^                    water and sludge to man's food chain and drinking water will
                      be determined.  Such studies will require extensive monitoring
;' j                    of waste components and waste breakdown products in air, water,
  <                    and food and the determination of the effects of such con-
                      taminants on man through toxicological and epidemic!ogical
.  ,                    studies.  Inadequate funding will result in delayed formu-
                      lation of health related criteria for the safe treatment and
                      disposal of wastewaters and sludges.  Such criteria are
                      urgently needed by EPA to formulate regulations for alterna-
                      tive cost effective waste treatment techniques.

;  ".                                             Water Quality
|   \
                                          Research and Development
If                                           Control Technology
« vC I

n                                                   1975          1976       Change
f  s
;                          technology	    $27,593,500   $25,101,900  -$2,491,600

                             This activity covers the research, development, and
                        demonstration of new, improved, cost effective technology for
                        the control and treatment of wastewaters and sludges from
                        urban and rural populations and industrial sources, and the
                        prevention, control and management of wastewaters from
•                        agriculture, mining, construction, spills,and other sources.
                        For municipal and rural populations, efforts are directed to
                        the development and demonstration of treatment processes and
                        control systems capable of removing organic and other pollut-
                        ants from sewage, combined sewer overflows (sewage and storm
                        water), and urban stormwater discharges.  This research
                        directly supports the Agency's multibillion dollar grant
                        program for construction of publicly owned wastewater treat-
                        ment works.  The industrial water pollution control technology
                        program is aimed towards accelerating improved treatment
                        practices and decreasing the cost of "Best Available
                        Technology" (BAT) treatment.  It provides the primary data
                        base for the establishment of economically and technically
                        feasible effluent guidelines and treatment parameters for
                        industrial liquid waste discharge permits.  The control
                        technology research program relating to mining, agricultural,
                        and other nonpoint sources includes:  development and valida-
                        tion of analytical methods to assess the magnitude and char-
                        acter of these sources and to verify effectiveness of source
                        management procedures under local conditions; demonstration
                        and documentation of the effectiveness, cost, and range of
                        applicability of currently available pollution control or
                        source management options; and the development and demonstra-
                        tion of new, cost effective systems,

                        1975 Program

   :                          The program addressed to municipal-rural technology in
   !                     1975 emphasizes development and demonstration of cost-effec-
                        tive methods of sludge processing, soil treatment systems.

consolidation of results obtained from completed combined
sewer overflow control technology studies, stabilization pond
upgrading techniques, and alternate disinfection processes.
The $5 million inqrease mandated by Congress was utilized to
accelerate the demonstration of cost-effective sludge manage-
ment systems, substantially complete the lagoon upgrading
program, and provide preliminary design guidelines and criteria
for irrigation type soil treatment systems.  The industrial
control technology research program for 1975 concentrates on
demonstration of innovative cost-effective technology required
to support the Agency*.s effluent guidelines.  The research
activity in nonpoint pollution control is directed to land
disposal of animal wastes, reduction of pollution from
cropland runoff, abandoned mine pollution control, and control
of oil and hazardous materials spills.  The nonpoint pollution
management program also- includes the development of predictive
tools to determine the magnitude of runoff problems from non-
point sources under a wide variation of local conditions.

1975 Accomplishments

     - Completed guidelines for application of municipal waste-
       water effluents and sludges to the land for use of
       regional offices, municipalities, and design engineers
       in planning and evaluating control facilities;

     - Initiated evaluation of feasibility of joint sludge/re-
       fuse processing and utilization, implemented wet oxida-
       tion and pyrolysis pilot plant investigations to provide
       additional, sludge processing utilization alternatives
       and to more effectively utilize on-site energy sources;

     - Completed a nationwide characterization and evaluation
       of impact from urban stormwater and nonsewered urban
       runoff to provide an improved base for evaluating
       total urban runoff pollution control alternatives;

     - Developed two algae  removal processes for upgrading
       ponds and completed the pilot scale'evaluations of
       three new disinfection processes for activated sludge

     - Completed a national assessment of pollutant discharges
       from nonpoint sources, including a compilation and
       evaluation of readily useable methods for estimating
       discharges from nonpoint sources;

     - Developed, in cooperation with USDA, a user's manual
       describing farm management practices for preventing,  or
       reducing to a minimum, the runoff of fertilizers and
       pesticides from cropland;

     - Published a comprehensive technical  manual  based upon
       demonstrated technology for control  of pollution from
       surface coal mines in the eastern United States;

     - Conducted a demonstration of a cost-effective closed
       water cycle system in a semichemical pulp mill;

     - Conducted a demonstration of a method to recover the
       valuable protein from meat packing wastewater
       effluents; and

     - Evaluated the economics of the application of pretreat-
       ment toxic and secondary treatment standards on the
       joint industrial-municipal system of Buffalo, New York.

1976 Plan

     Several existing tasks will continue into 1976,  The
program addressed to municipal-rural technology will continue
emphasis on development and demonstration of cost-effective
methods of sludge processing, utilization, and disposal; soil
treatment systems; alternative disinfection techniques; and
consolidation of results obtained from completed combined sewer
overflow* control .technology and stabilisation ,pond upgrading
techniques studies.  Demonstrations focused on the beneficial
utilization of wastewater sludges will include sludge pasteur-
ization^ sludge composting, refuse/sludge pyrolysis and wet
oxidation, spray irrigation and infiltration-percolation soil
treatment systems, and nitrogen control systems.  These pro-
jects will expand the availability of demonstrated, cost-
effective technologies for wastewater management and reduce
the cost of treatment.  New programs will include initiation
of small or full scale evaluation/demonstration projects to
scale-up cost effective control technology developed at bench
or pilot scale.  The areas involved would be storm and combined
sewers, advanced waste treatment trains, and technology for
small wastewater flows.  Also, a report will be prepared on
performance and reliability of publicly owned biological waste-
water treatment works as a function of operation and maintenance.

     In the nonpoint area, cost effective techniques will be
studied for predicting and reducing the runoff of pollutants
from cropland.  Controls for discharges from the mining of

   ?                 ores,  minerals9  and other nonfuel  substances  will  also  be
                    demonstrated.  A comprehensive technical  manual  will  be pre-
:~|                  pared  for the control  of pollution from abandoned  coal  mines
t  ^                  in the eastern United  States.   Industrial  control  technology
                    will concentrate on demonstration  of cost effective technology
,-sq                  required to support the Agency effluent guidelines for  BAT.

                        New efforts will  include  projects  to verify BAT for
                    recycling of biologically treated  paper board wastewaters,
  }                  demonstration of a closed water cycle on one  stream of  a
                    steel  mill, BAT  confirmation on combined refinery/petrochem-
                    ical plant wastewaters, and textile wastewater abatement by
  f                  process modification.

                    Purpose of Decrease

                        The $2.5 million  funding  decrease  in this program  is the
                    net of the "one-time"  1975 congressional  increase  of $5 million
                    for municipal  control  technology and a  requested 1976 increase
                    of $2,5 million  for accelerated nonpoint source management
                    research.  The seven position  decrease  is the net  of a  1976
                    three  position increase in the nonpoint program coupled with
                    a 10 position decrease in the  municipal  program.  These 10
                    positions will be reprogrammed to  higher priority  programs
                    and greater use  will be made of the contract  and grant
                    mechanisms to achieve  the objectives of the municipal control

                         In the nonpoint source management  program,  the additional
        ,            $2.5 million and three positions will serve to accelerate the
                    production of technology required  to determine the reduction
                    in pollutant load resulting from application  of specific
                    nonpoint control measures, and to  evaluate the cost and
                    technical feasibility  of such  measures.   Efforts will also
                    be made to establish limits of reasonable control  for non-
                    point  sources and to establish specific control  guidelines
                    to serve as the  basis  for application of management systems.


                              1975       1976         Decrease

Contract Authority. $9,000*000,000        ...  -$9,000,000,000
Liquidate Contract
 Authority....,...,  1,400,000,000 $500,000,000    -900,000,000

     This program provides grants to municipal, intermunicipal,
State, and interstate agencies to assist.in financing the
planning, design, and construction of municipal wastewater
treatment facilities.  Amounts approved from authorizations for
contract authority are allotted to each State on the basis
of formulas set forth in the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act Amendments of 1972 and subsequent legislation.  Within
these allotments, grants are awarded on a priority basis for
individual projects.  Each project is eligible for 75 percent
in Federal assistance.

     The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of
1972 substantially altered methods of funding the construction
grants program and the methods of providing assistance to
individual projects.  Under the Amendments, both the per-
centages of Federal grants and the annual amount of monies
authorized and appropriated has been increased in several steps.
The current percentage of Federal assistance is 75 percent of
total eligible costs. Rather than awarding a grant to the
applicant for the Federal share of a project, EPA is,authorized
to enter into a  contractual obligation for payment of the
eligible proportional costs of the separate elements of each
project.  Under this authority, a new three step approach
to funding projects has been adopted.  The first step is
development of the facilities plan which includes a preliminary
description of the project, a cost effectiveness analysis, an
environmental assessment, an infiltration/inflow analysis,
and identification of effluent discharge limitations.   The
second step is development of design plans and specifications.
The third and final step is to fund the actual construction
of the treatment work.  Grants are made for each of these
steps with more than one grant possible during the construc-
tion phase.  Payments against these contractual obligations
will be made to the applicant as all or portions of each of
these elements are completed.  Under this contractual  method
of providing financial assistance, EPA is obliged to estimate

all contractual obligations and to seek appropriations to
cover these payments.

1975 Program and 1976 Plan

     To implement this method of funding* EPA has allotted
a total of $9 billion of contract authority to the States
and other jurisdictions during the 1973-1975 period.  As
prescribed by regulations promulgated pursuant to provisions
of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of
1972, the allotment of 1973/1974 funds was based on a
formula utilizing the needs identified in the 1971 municipal
needs survey.  The $9,000,000,000 in funds will be allotted
in 1975 for 1976.  This represents the remaining contract
authority authorized by legislation for the 1973-1975 period^
recently ordered to be released by the Supreme Court.


     Federal grant assistance for construction of municipal
wastewater treatment works has been authorized  since 1956.
Since that time, through June 30, 1974, $8.2 billion of
assistance has been provided for 15,200 projects having a
total cost of $20.3 billion.  Based on an analysis of actual
obligations to date, as well as projected future obligations
of contract authority funds, EPA is requesting an appropria-
tion for liquidation of contract authority in the amount of
$500 million for 1976.

Water Supply

                                             Water Supply
?. i
i «
                      Budget Authority
                        Abatement and
                        Research and

                        Abatement and
                        Research and


       • • «

$19,860,900  +$16,824,100
    100,000  +    100,000

^2,364,200  +  7,602,200
 32,325,100  + 24,526,300

+ 5
                      Overview and Strategy

                           The original statutory authority of the water supply
                      program was granted under the Public Health Service Act and
                      the Interstate Quarantine Regulations.  With the passage of
                      the Safe Drinking Water Act (an amendment to the Public
                      Health Service Act) last December, the water supply program
                      was significantly changed.  This law provides for the safety
                      of drinking water supplies throughout the United States
                      through the establishment and enforcement of national
                      drinking water regulations.  These regulations will be
                      established by the Federal Government and will provide
                      standards which specify the constituent levels required
                      to protect the public health.  Furthermore, the Safe Drinking
                      Water Act (P.L, 93-523) provides the mechanism by which
                      States may ensure compliance with these regulations by
                      establishing their own programs with the aid of grants from
                      the Federal Government,

                           A strong Federal-State cooperative effort is necessary

                     to .successfully achieve  the objective of the Safe Drinking
                     Water Act.   Failure of the States to implement the provisions
                     of the Safe  Drinking Water Act would place an additional
 }                    burden on the Agency's resources for this program, since the
 |                    Environmental Protection Agency is empowered and directed to
                     take action  should an imminent and substantial health hazard
v,                    develop  in drinking water supplies.  Therefore, to achieve
 ]                    the objective of the Act, the Agency's water supply program
 '                    will be  working closely with the States in many areas.

                        The  abatement and control and research and development
                     programs are the major EPA programs charged with implementing
                     the Safe Drinking Water Act.  The abatement and control pro-
                     gram is  implementing provisions of this Act by preparing
                     national primary and secondary drinking water regulations,
                     State program regulations, and underground injection control
                     regulations.  In addition to establishing regulations, this
                     program  will also be involved in carrying out numerous studies
                     and surveys  covering carcinogens in major metropolitan drinking
                     water supplies, quantity and quality of rural water supplies,
                     underground  injection wells, and means of controlling waste
                     disposal that may pollute underground sources of drinking
                     water.   Other mandates of this Act call for an aggressive
                     technical assistance program to assist States in developing
                     their own enforcement programs and other programs involved
                     with the control of underground injection of contaminants.
                     To facilitate these efforts, grants will be made available
                     to States in both 1976 and 1977 to assist in these State

                        The  water supply research and development program will
                     continue to  provide research on the effects of water quality
                     on human health, the development of analytical methods for
                     assessing quality of drinking water, and continued develop-
                     ment of  water treatment methods for undesirable contaminants
                     in water supplies for which current methods are ineffective.
                     With the enactment of the water supply legislation, the
                     research and development program will be recommending
                     maximum  contaminant levels in public water supplies; conducting
                     research into underground water supplies with emphasis on
                     injection wells, pesticides and fertilizers from surface
 f                    discharge and/or disposal; expanding studies concerning
                     carcinogens  in drinking water; and conducting surveys and
                     studies  on rural water supplies and underground waste
 ;                    disposal.

                        Other activities which will be undertaken by research

and development will be in the areas of water health effects
and water supply control technology.  The major objective
of the water health effects program will be to develop
valid criteria for setting water quality standards for
drinking purposes.  It will also provide for the development
of scientific knowledge necessary for establishing standards
for organic and microbiological contaminants of drinking

     The primary purpose of the water supply control
technology program is to evaluate, improve, and develop
control technology necessary to economically attain the
standards developed for drinking and recreational water.
This involves both the adaptation of large-scale technology
to small water supply systems and the development of new or
special technologies.

     The water supply enforcement program will be initiated
this year.  Staff and resources will be used to respond to
emergency situations under the authorities granted in
Section 1431 of the Safe Drinking Water Act and to provide
backup assistance in the establishment of regulations.

summary ot increases and Decreases

1975 Water Supply Program.	        $ 7,798,800

  Abatement and Control,...	       +$16,824,100

    .The increase is for development of a
    viable water supply program in order to
    meet the mandates of the Safe Drinking
    Water Act.  Resources will be used to
    develop, maintain, and fund grant programs
    for underground injection and State program
    development.  Additional resources are also
    requested for technical  assistance in order
    for EPA to assist the States in developing
    State programs and underground control
    programs through the interpretation of the
    attendant regulations and guidelines;  aid
    in the development and completion of the
    carcinogen study and rural water survey;
    provide additional information to States,
    local utilities, and private organizations
    on the provisions of the Act; and implement
    other provisions of the Act.

  Enforcement......	        +   100,000

    The increase will establish a minimum
    agency capability for enforcing the
    mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

  Research and Devel opment	,	        + 7,602,200

    The increase will provide additional
    resources for health effects research
    and control technology research.
1976 Water Supply Program Request........        32,325,100

                            Water Supply
                        Summary of Resources
                       (dollars in thousands)
Budget Authority

  Abatement and Control
    Technical Assistance...,
    State Program Grants	
      Subtotal	     3,036.8

    Water Supply Enforcement

  Research and Development
    Processes and Effects...     3,448.3
    Control Technology..	     1,313.7

      Subtotal	     4,762.0

         Total	     7,798.8

End-of-year Employment

  Abatement and Control
    Technical Assistance....        94
    State Program Grants	.    ___L_^J__

      Subtotal	        94

    Water Supply Enforcement

  Research and Development
    Processes and Effects...        44
    Control Technology	        20

      Subtotal	        64

         Total	       158




Abatement and

                     Water Supply

                Abatement and Control
                           1975          1976      Decrease
                             J '                        •-'-.' ~

Budget Authority
    assistance...     $3,036,800    $9,860,900   +$6,824,100
  State Program
    Grants .......     _       1 0 , OOP , OOP   +10, OOP , OOP

      Total.. ____     $3,036,800    19,860,900   +16,824,100

    assistance...             94           175           +81
  State Program
    Grants .......
      Total......            94           175           +81

     The water supply abatement and control program directs
the national effort to ensure the safety of the Nation's
drinking water.  Prior to the enactment of the Safe Drinking
Water Act, the major program activity was the annual certi-
fication of approximately 700 interstate carriers.  With the
passage of this legislation, the activities of this program
have been expanded to include promulgation of regulations
required to protect the public health and welfare; studies
and surveys to evaluate various aspects of water supplies;
technical assistance to the States, local utilities, and
private organizations to assist implementation of the pro-
visions of the Act; and establishment of two grant programs
to assist the States in implementing mandates of this Act.

     In 1976, program emphasis will be placed on developing
a strong Federal-State relationship.  Regulations will be
established by the Federal government and through these
regulations, States will be provided with the mechanism to

assure the safety of the Natipn's drinking water.  To
encourage and enable the States to qualify for primary
enforcement authority, grant programs have been established,
It is expected that most States will  be able to accept
primary enforcement by mid-1977 when the interim primary
drinking water regulations become effective.

t, ,,

T                      1975 Program
                                                 Water Supply

                                            Abatement and Control

                                             Technical Assistance

                                                  1975          1976        Change

                         assistance.	.   $3,036,800    $9,860,90.0   +$6,824,100
                            Technical assistance encompasses the activities required
                       to direct the national effort to assure the safety of the
                       Nation's drinking water.  The primary activities for this
                       program under the Safe Drinking Water Act include development
                       of regulations covering primary and secondary drinking water
                       standards, State program and underground injection control;
                       comprehensive studies on organics and underground injection
                       of contaminants; surveys of the quality and quantity of rural
                       water supplies-,  and dissemination of information to the States,
                       local utilities, and private organizations on the provisions
                       of the Act and the attendant regulations and guidelines.

                            Previous activities, which will continue, include the
                       annual certification of all drinking water supply systems
                       serving interstate carriers, development and maintenance of
                       a comprehensive inventory of public and Federal recreational
                       facilities water supply systems, and technical assistance
                       to the States to improve water supply systems and programs.

                            During  1976, technical assistance will continue to
                       develop and  promulgate regulations; provide assistance  to
                       States, local utilities, and private organizations on pro-
                       visions of the Act and attendant regulations and guidelines;
                       complete studies and/or surveys on the quality and quantity
                       of rural water supplies, underground injection of pollutants,
                       waste disposal and means of control, and maximum safe levels
                       of contaminants in drinking water; aid in the development of
                       State programs; establish the mechanism for program grants;
                       and aid in the awarding of program grants to eligible States.

                       1975 Accomplishments

                            - Certification of 700 interstate carrier water supply

   ~J	-,..- 3
-  Completion and publication of an inventory of water
   supply systems serving a resident population;
-  Promulgation of the interim primary drinking water
-  Preparation of the interim report on the comprehensive
   study of carcinogens in drinking water supplies;
-  Proposed State program and underground Injection
-  Publication of a list of States requiring underground
   control programs;
-  Preparation of the annual  report to Congress on the
   Safe Drinking Water Act;
-  Initiation of National Academy of Sciences study  on
   the maximum safe level of contaminants found in
   drinking water supplies
-  Collection of information on. existing grant regulations;
-  Collection of information needed for determining  equttable
   grant allocation factors;
-  Development of a funding formula for public water
   systems supervision programs;
-  Development of a funding formula for underground  water
   source protection programs;
-  Publication of proposed State program regulations;
-  Publication of proposed underground injection control
-  Development of grant application procedures for under-
   ground water source protection grants;
-  Development of trant application procedures for public
   water systems supervision  program grants;
-  Proposing of draft regulations for both types of
   grants; and

                         -  Publication of proposed guidelines  for grant application
                            procedures  and definition of acceptable activities  for
                            each type of program.
I- I                 1976 Plan
« .. i                 	••	'—>-
                         -  Promulgate State program regulations;

                         -  Promulgate national  secondary and underground injection

                         -  Complete studies of  rural  water supplies;

                         -  Complete a study and  survey of waste disposal  and means
                            of control of substances which may endanger underground
                            water supplies;

                         -  Develop a State ADP  system;

                         -  Complete the  validation of inventories of  water supplies
                            serving the traveling public;

                         -  Develop additional standards and guidelines for constituents
                            found in drinking water as research data become

                         -  Certify 700 interstate carrier supply  systems;

                         -  Review and approve State primacy applications within 90
                            days of receipt as provided by the law.  Provide
                            guidance and  assistance to the States  on primacy require-
                            ments and procedures for submitting applications;

                         -  Review and approve State plans submitted for  an under-
                            ground injection control program.   Provide guidance
                            and assistance on State program plan requirements;

                         -  Review and approve applications for 1976 State program

                         -  Review and approve applications for 1976 underground
                            injection control grants;

                         -  Review entire grant  program for unexpected problems and
                            develop revised program for 1977;

     -  Improve information on:

          *  number of public water systems,

          *  cost of conducting  a public water systems
             supervision program., and

          *  cost of conducting  an underground water source
             protection programj

     -  Revise  the funding formula for both  types of grants
        for 1977 as experience dictates;

     -  Revise grant application procedures for 1977 as
        experience dictates; and

     -  Prepare the Annual  Report to Congress on the imple-
        mentation of the Safe Drinking Water  Act,

Purpose of Increase

    The increase for FY 1976 is  to provide funds for the
implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

                       Water Supply

                  Abatement and Control

                  State Program Grants

                      1975         1976         Change

State primacy grants,.  *..  $7,500,000    +$7,500,000
Underground injection
  control grants......  ,..   2,500,000     +2,500,000

            Total.....  ....  10,000,000    +10,000,000

     Section 1443 of the Safe Drinking Water Act provides a
means to strengthen the cooperative relationship between
Federal and State agen'cies by awarding State primacy grants
and underground injection control grants in both 1976 and
1977.  State primacy grants will be awarded to encourage and
enable States to assume primary enforcement responsibilities
to carry out public water system supervision programs by the
effective date of the primary drinking water regulations.
Similarly, underground injection control grants will be
awarded to States to help provide the means for them to
assume primary enforcement responsibilities for the protection
of underground water sources by the effective date of the
Underground.Injection Control Regulations.

1976 Plan

     - Support State primacy programs, and

     - Support State underground water source protection
       (underground injection control) programs.

Purpose of Increase

     The increase in 1976 is to provide grant funds for the
implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act.


If- H
                                                Water Supply

                            1975          1976       Decrease

Budget Authority
  Water Supply
   Enforcement	     ...      $100,000      +$100,000

End-of-Year Employment
  Water Supply
   Enforcement.	     ...             5             +5


     The Safe Drinking Water Act provides that the States
are to have primary responsibility for enforcing the drinking
water regulations, with Federal authority to be exercised
only when States fail to act.  The regulations are not
enforceable, however, until December 1976.  The basic
relationship holds for underground injection control programs

1976 Plan

     The resources provided herein will support such EPA
regional enforcement activity as may be required (1) during
emergency situations (Sec. 1431); (2) in the implementation
of interim regulation of underground injections (Sec. 1424);
or (3) with regard to records, monitoring, and inspection
requirements (Sec. 1445).

     These resources will also support the development of
the enforcement elements for regulations and procedures
relating to the following:

     -  Application and approval of programs for State
        primary enforcement responsibility;

     -  Quality control and testing procedures to assure
        compliance with drinking water regulations;

     -  Public water systems records, reports, monitoring,
  f     and information and inspection requirements;

'   ,                        -   Variances and exemptions;

                           -   Public notification of failure to comply with drinking
I- f                           water regulations;
*  4
                           -   State underground  injection  control programs; and

                           -   Interim underground injection regulation.

                      Purpose  of  Increase

                           This increase will provide the  basis for  EPA's water
                      supply enforcement program and will  allow us to begin to
                      assist the  States in the development of enforcement activities.

Research and

                  Research and Development
Budget Authority
  Processes and
  Control  Tech-
End-of-Year Employ-
  Processes and
   Effects	..
  Control  Tech-
 4,762,000    12,364,200
$3,448,300    $9,399,800    +$5,951,500

 1,313.700     2,964,400     +1,650,700
    The water supply processes and effects program provides
for research on the effects of water quality on human health
and the development of analytical methods for assessing the
quality of drinking water.  The major objective of the water
health effects program is to develop valid criteria for
setting water quality standards for drinking water.  This
program will also provide for development of  scientific  know-
ledge necessary for establishing standards for organic, in-
organic, and microbiological  contaminants of drinking water.

    The primary purpose of the water supply control technology
program is to evaluate, improve, and develop new control  tech-
nology necessary to economically attain the standards for
drinking water.  Attainment of this goal involves both the
adaptation of large-scale technology to small water supply
systems and the development of new or special technologies.

                                                Water Supply

                                           Research  and  Development

                                            Processes and  Effects
'¥                                                1975          1976        Change
 •i                                               ~~          ~~
                      Processes and
«|                      effects	....     $3,448,300    $9,399,800 '  +$5,951,500

                           It is the intent of EPA to issue drinking water standards
_?                     or guidelines.  Valid health effects data need to be developed
 ?                     if these standards are to protect the public  health without  -
 *                     being unnecessarily stringent.

 }                     1975 Program
                           The scientific basis of the proposed EPA drinking water
                      standards for organics, lead, manganese,  cadmium, nitrate,
                      barium, and arsenic will be strengthened.  Health effects
                      data will be generated for contaminants that  are not on the
                      proposed drinking  water standards li-st but are of potential
 j                     health significance (asbestos,  silicate,  selenium, molybdenum,
•*                     antimony).  Research will be initiated to determine the
                      suitability of reusing highly treated municipal  or industrial
 v|                    effluents as a water supply source.   A sensitive analytical
 ^                     method will be developed for benzidene and development of
                      techniques for asbestos will be pursued.

 I                     1975 Accomplishments

                           - Studies are in progress  on acute toxicity of organic
                             compounds concentrated from tap water  by  semipermeable
                             membrane processes;

                           - Additional  health effects data have been  provided
                             related to  the nitrate problem in  drinking water.
                             Based on the information, it is recommended that the
                             standard for nitrate not be raised above  its present
 (                            level;
                           - A report was completed on virus occurrences in 10
                             water supply systems; and
                           - A survey to determine the nature and concentration

       of organic compounds in drinking water has been Ini-
       tiated for a variety of water supplies,  A method for
       benzidene will be available by the end of the fiscal

1976 Plan

     Many toxic and carcinogenic substances are of concern
at concentration levels below one part per billion, requiring
an increase in sensitivity of the methods now being applied.
To meet these requirements, special concentration and sepa-
ration techniques must be developed.  The present methodology
for organics is applicable to volatile compounds only, thus
detecting only about 2 percent of the total organic content.
An increased effort to develop methods for nonvolatile organics
will be undertaken.  Procedures for the identification of the
sources of water supply contaminants will be developed.

     There will be an increased effort in the development of
virus detection methods and rapid instrumental methods for
detection of toxic'elements.

     To carry through and complement current program objectives
in 1976, EPA intends to continue or .initiate studies to
determine the health effects of organics, tin, manganese,
cadmium, arsenic, selenium, barium, molybdenum, antimony,
nitrates, and asbestos.  The Agency also believes it will be
necessary to expand significantly the water supply health
effects research program in the area of organics.

     Ecological processes and effects studies will be under-
taken to determine the extent and nature of groundwater
contamination stemming from abandoned extraction and injection
wells, intensive application of pesticides and fertilizers,
and the surface disposal of contaminants in underground
water recharge areas,

Purpose of Increase

     A total increase of $5,951,500 and eight positions is
requested:  $500,000 to support studies of the health effects
of wastewater reuse, and $5,451,500 and eight positions for
research in direct support of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

     An increase in the ecological processes and effects
program will be used to study the nature and extent of the
impact on underground water of: (1) abandoned injection or

                       v_/\ ui u^biwii HC i i o 5  V- /  "i vciio i vc app i i wa i, i uii u i  [JCi u I ^ lues
,-l                    and fertilizers; and (3) surface disposal  of contaminants in
*                       water recharge  areas.   Research also  will  be conducted to
p,, ,                    determine methods  of protecting underground drinking  water
;-j •                    sources.   Studies  will  evaluate the formation pressure in-
*'1                      creases  attributable to underground injection,  develop a
                       model  capable of predicting and estimating the impact of
^1~                    such increases,  and determine  the effects  of pressure in-
,i ,                    creases  on waste migration.

f-                           Increased  effort  in the water monitoring program will
t                       aim at the development of practical  techniques  for the
                       identification,  measurement, and determination  of sources of
                       contaminants  (particularly organic substances and viral  agents)
                       in drinking water.   The techniques will  be designed for use
                       by State  and  local  public health officials charged with
                       responsibility  for safeguarding public drinking water supplies.

                            Defensible  health  effects data will  be developed for
                       organic,  inorganic,  and microbiological  contaminants  of
--. ;                    drinking  water  through  the conduct of  short and long  term
                       toxicological studies  and through comparative epidemiological
                       studies of populations  exposed to high and low  levels of

     - riiui. jJiaiiL SLUUICS nave UCCH uumyieucu
       good removal of methyl mercury with either virgin or
       exhausted granular activated carbons; and

     - Asbestos-like fibers are being removed from the Duluth,
       Minnesota, water supply in a pilot facility using
       granular media filtration and diatomaceous earth

1976 Plan

     EPA is planning to continue or to initiate studies for
removal and/or inactivation of cadmium, chromium, lead,
asbestos, nitrate, radium, organic compounds, bacteria and
viruses.  We also feel that alternate methods of chlorine
disinfection should be thoroughly studied in this next fiscal
year.  As a continuation of the 1975 program, the Agency
intends to determine how to prevent water quality deterio-
ration during distribution of drinking water.  Technology
that is applicable to small water supply systems will be

Purpose of Increase

     An increase of $1,650,700 and three positions is requested
to provide additional research efforts in support of the
Sa-fe Drinking Water Act requirements.  A substantial effort
will be aimed at controlling organic contaminants in drinking
water.  The mechanism of formation   of halogenated organics
through normal disinfection practices will be determined and
methods of control will be developed.  Alternate methods to
chlorine disinfection will be thoroughly investigated.
Candidate disinfectants are ozone and ultra violet light.

Solid Wastes

                             1975          1976     Decrease

Budget Authority
  Abatement and
    Control .......    $10,332,000   $11,622,700  +$1,290,700
  Research and
    Devel opment. .  .      9.196,500     3,997,300  - 5.199,200

       Total......     19,528,500    15,620,000  - 3,908,500

  Abatement and
    Control .......            151           161          +10
  Research and
    Development. .  .    _ 23 _ 23 _ . ...

       Total ......            174           184          +10
Overview and Strategy

     Solid wastes management presents a spectrum of problems,
from health and environmental hazards to waste management
inefficiency, due to diversity in the nature of the waste1
sources and composition.  The basic problem, however, is
improper wastes disposal which causes adverse environmental
and economic consequences such as ground and surface water
pollution, air pollution, aesthetic problems associated with
uncontrolled dumping, decreased land values, and resource

     Over four billion tons of waste are generated in the
United States every year, of which over 10 million tons are
hazardous— that is to say toxic, flammable, radioactive,
explosive, or infectious.  As these wastes represent a
potential threat to human health and safety, they require
special control through chemical transformation,  detoxi-
ifi.cati.on,  recovery or,  if such  steps are  impossible,  by
deposition on land.

     Potential health and environmental effects vary

sludge, abandoned cars, municipal solid wastes, waste oil,
rubber tires, wastes from confined animal  feeding operations,
and infectious hospital wastes.  These effects depend upon
the waste volume, composition, and concentration,

     A principal problem from disposal sites is the generation
of leachate—water that has soaked through and absorbed
soluble, or biological agents from the deposited waste.
Where high rainfall and high water tables  coexist (9,000-
12,000 disposal sites are located in these areas), ground-
water contamination may occur.

     Resource conservation and recovery presents an
alternative to disposal and can usually be achieved at a
lower cost.  The potential exists to recover, from mixed
municipal waste, seven percent of the annual national iron
consumption, eight percent of aluminum, five percent of
copper, three percent of lead, 19 percent  of tin, and 14
percent of paper.  The tonnages these figures represent for
aluminum and tin are greater than all domestic production of
the raw materials.

     The basic legislative authority for the solid wastes
program is the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended.  The
program has two strategic goals:  to achieve acceptable and
safe waste management that will protect public health and
welfare and the environment and to conserve resources.  The
basic tools the solid wastes program employs are (1) stimu-
lation of regulatory action at the State and local level
through the use of guidelines and recommended procedures;
(2) research, development, and demonstrations aimed at
greater understanding of the problems of solid waste disposal,
development of improved disposal and recovery methods, and
demonstrations of advanced technology; and (3) technical
assistance to facilitate project development.

        ui  imreaaea emu ucui
1975 Solid Wastes Program ....... , .........        $19,528,500

  Abatement and Control.,... ---- ,.,,,.,,..        + 1,290,700

     An increase to do material and source
     definitions, effects identification
     and technology assessment work
     necessary to develop Section 209
     guidelines for the disposal,  storage,,
     treatment, and transport of hazardous
     and other wastes.

  Research and Development ____ . ...........        - 5,199,200

     A reduction resulting from $5.2 million
     added by the Congress in 1975 not being
     required in 1976.
1976 Solid Wastes Program Request.	        15,620,000

                          Summary of Resources
                        (dollars in thousands)

Budget Authority

  Abatement and Control
    Technical Assistance.	  $10,332.0

  Research and Development
    Processes and Effects....      351.9
    Control Technology	    8.844.6

        Subtotal	    9,196.5

           Total	   19,528.5

En d- of-Ye a r Emp 1 oyrnen t

  Abatement and Control
    Technical Assistance	      151

  Research and Development
    Processes and EffectsV...        3
    Control Technology	       20

        Subtotal.............       23

           Total	      174
      + .1

                    Abatement and Control
                             1975          1976     Decrease

Budget Authority
    Assistance....    $10,332,0.00   $11,622,700  +$1,290.700

       Total	     10,332,000    11,622,700  +1,290,700

    Assistance....    	151	161        /+10

       Total	            151           161

     Under the solid wastes abatement and control program,
EPA provides support to State and local governments through
information dissemination, technical assistance, and guide-
line promulgation which draws upon past and current research,
studies, and demonstrations.  The program also performs a
monitoring and compliance function for Federal facility
activity.  EPA considers the achievement of effective solid
waste management to be a joint Federal, State and local
effort with the EPA focusing on areas of waste management
problems having a significant impact in terms of national
implications (e.g., hazardous waste disposal, disposal of
sludges resulting from air and water pollution control,
demonstration of resource recovery technology) and State
efforts directed towards the local management of municipal
and other types of wastes.

     The purpose of this program is to illustrate and
encourage the use of the most advanced practices in solid
waste management and technology.  This is accomplished by
stimulating at the State and local levels institutional
changes which optimize disposal and resource conservation
practices.  In 1975-1976, program emphasis will be placed on
development of State level programs for dealing with disposal
of toxic and hazardous wastes.

Abatement and

                                                iu ireas uci
                                         Abatement and Control

jL>                                       Technical Assistance

P                                                1975          1976        Change

s                      assistance	     $10,332,000   $11,622,700   +$1,290,700

                          Technical  assistance is" provided to other Federal  agenices,
                     States, and localities with the objective of improving
                     environmental  performance while significantly lowering  total
                     solid wastes management costs.  Technical  assistance includes
                     extensive efforts in working with cities to solve problems,
                     providing technical  information, and performing analyses to
                     determine appropriate ways to resolve various solid wastes
                     management problems. EPA issues solid wastes management guide-
                     lines (Section  209 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act) which
                     Federal agencies will be required to meet and which will be
                     recommended for public use.

 \. \                       The hazardous waste program activities in 1975-1976
  1                  focus on problem characterization which includes materials
                     and source definitions, effects identification, and technology
                     assessment. These actions will lead to guideline standards
                     being promulgated in 1977 and 1978.   Some effort will be
                     directed toward working with States  and providing emergency
                     response-type  technical assistance.

                          The 13 major industries which generate 75 percent  of the
                     total 10 million tons of hazardous wastes that are primarily
                     sludges containing various metal, organics, and inorganics
                     of toxic nature, are the focal point of program efforts.  This
                     effort includes comprehensive assessments of these industries
                     which, upon completion, will present total waste profiles for
                     the  industries., identify the actual  disposal methods now used,
                     and provide a  qualitative and economic assessment of those

   '>.                       Technology assessment work is directed toward three
                     major activity areas:  incineration  of organic hazardous
   *                  wastes (with and without energy recovery); land disposal of
   :                  hazardous wastes in highly controlled chemical waste landfills;
                     and treatment  of wastes (ion exchange, neutralization,
                     chelation, etc.).  As 60 percent of the hazardous wastes are

the first priority activity; second priority is placed on the
remaining 40 percent of the wastes, which are inorganic, and
must be either treated or placed on land.  Each is a multi-
year demonstration and assessment effort, both from a funding
and performance standpoint.  All of these activities will
culminate in 1977-1978 and result in a revision of Section
209 guidelines which will include information on incineration,
landfill, treatment, recycling, and tranport of hazardous

     Section 209 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act requires
that EPA publish in the Federal Register guidelines for
solid waste recovery, collection, separation, and disposal
(including private as well as public sector systems).  To
date EPA has published three guidelines:  Land Disposal,
Thermal Processing, and Disposal and Storage of Pesticides.
Five guidelines will be promulgated in 1976; one in waste
collection and four in resource recovery—separation, resource
recovery facilities, procurement of recycled material, and
beverage containers.

     Work on other wastes will include an assessment of the
effects and characteristics of leachate from disposal sites,
assessment of sewage sludge disposal methods, and provision
of limited technical assistance.

     Investigatory work on describing the effects of leachate
from disposal sites will be undertaken in 1975 and 1976.
This work will include technology assessment and will result
in revised Section 209 guidelines for land disposal, incor-
porating leachate groundwater protection procedures, in 1978.
Control of leachate may be possible in two ways:  through the
use of the natural treatment characteristics of soils or
through collection of leachate (e.g., by lining land disposal
sites with natural or artifical membranes  and by using
drainage pipes) with subsequent treatment.  Four methods for
leachate treatment have been identified for assessment; two
methods will be initiated in 1975 and two in 1976.  Comple-
tion of these projects in 1978 will then be followed by pre-
paration of a technical document on the basis of which guide-
line revisions will be made.

     Sewage sludge is the chief residual of sewage treatment
activities and currently occurs at the rate of about seven
million tons dryweight yearly.  Sludges are disposed of in
a variety of ways—by incineration, land spreading, in sludge-
only landfills, and in combination with municipal solid wastes

to a sludge disposal guideline in 1977 are assessment of
current practices, assessment of the heavy metals problem
associated with sludges (which dictates the type of control
on land or underground), and assessment of the adequacy of
current methods of disposal.

     Other areas of solid waste management now undergoing
state-of-the-art studies include disposal or recovery of
waste oi!9 tiress and other products that may be salvaged
from mixed municipal solid waste.  Once these studies are
completed (late 1975) decisions will be made as to whether
or not Section 209 guidelines will be prepared.

     In resource recovery, technical assistance efforts are
directed toward stimulation of energy recovery system
implementation.  Accelerating fuel costs have made energy
recovery from waste a sound solid waste option.  Implemen-
tation is impeded largely by institutional constraints
(e.g., lack of knowledges resistance to enter into long-
term contracts) that can be solved by technical assistance.
These efforts will result in community adoption of resource
recovery systems in new areas.

1975 Program and Accomplishments

     - Characterize hazardous waste amounts and sources for
       nine industries;

     - Publish two documents emphasizing tranport mechanism
       and health effects of land disposal of wastes con-
       taining mercury and asbestos;

     - Prepare an interim assessment indicating the adverse
       effects of leachate from landfill;

     - Propose guidelines (Section 209) for collection,
       beverage containers, Federal procurement, source
       separation and separate collection, and recovery
       from mixed municipal wastes;

     - Revise the Decision Makers Guide in solid wastes
       management to improve local decisions—incorporating
       additional chapters on balefields and landfill liners;

     - Complete evaluation of the Franklin, Ohio, resource
       recovery technology demonstration;

       as fertilizer;

     - Assess the technology of methane gas recovery at

     - Assess the impact of export controls on secondary
       materials recovery;

     - Complete an environmental assessment comparing paper
       recovery for material value vs.  paper recovery for
       fuel  value,

     - Complete a cost benefit assessment of separate
       collection; and

     - Complete an annual report to Congress on resource
       conservation (Section 205).
1976 Plan
     <- Define hazardous wastes generated by four other

     - Assess damages and costs associated with the disposal
       of hazardous wastes;

     - Complete an in-depth assessment of five land disposal
       sites to determine the characteristics of .leachate,
       attenuation, and flow;

     - Publish documents on the transport and health effects
       of wastes disposed of on land containing cadmium,
       chromium, lead, poly chlorinated biphenyl, beryllium,
       selenium, and cyanides;

     - Evaluate pollution from subsurface sludge disposal:;

     - Assess two technology options for treatment of leachate;

     - Finalize Section 209 guidelines for collection and
       resource recovery,

     - Complete evaluations of Baltimore, San Diego and
       Lowell resource recovery technology demonstrations;

       conservation (Section 205).
Purpose of Increase

     The increase for technical assistance will  be directed
toward the development of a hazardous and other  wastes data
base program which includes (1) an assessment of chemicals
and waste streams as an evidentiary base for guidelines
setting; (2) quantification of the waste disposal  problem;
(3) technology assessment, development, and demonstration;
and (4) the necessary benefit/cost tradeoff analyses  for
guidelines setting justification.

Research and

                  Research and Development
Budget Authority
  Processes and Effects,
  Control  Technology..,
 $351,900    $352,000
8,844,600   3,645,300
         Total....	   9,196,500   3,997,300   -5,199,200
End-of-Year Employment
  Processes and Effects.
  Control Technology	
     EPA's research and development efforts in the solid waste
program are directed toward the development of improved solid
waste management, disposal technology, and resource recovery
technology.  These technological  advances will enable local
agencies to handle their solid waste problems in an effective
and economical manner.  In addition, the program is expanding
efforts to develop the scientific base for the establishment
of standards for hazardous wastes disposal.  In particular,
information on the fate and processes of such materials in
groundwater systems is being developed and formulated into
criteria documents.

                      Research, and Development

                        Processes and Effects
                                       1975       1976  Change

Processes and effects...........   $35". ,500   $352,000   +$100

     This program encompasses identification and evaluation of
potentially toxic and pathogenic products of solid wastes incineration,
landfilling and recycling operations, and the assessment of their
public health impact.  Investigation of the pathogenic con-
tamination of solid waste incineration and the movement of
viruses and pathogens from disposal sites will lay the scientific
foundation for the development of standard? to protect the public

     The program also involves the evaluation of deep well disposal
of toxic materials, the study of groundwater contamination from
sanitary landfill operations, and the study of the fate, in soils
and groundwaters9 of heavy metals and other hazardous materials
from sludge and industrial waste by-products.

1975 PrograjTi

     -  The 1975 objectives of this program include: A study on
        the migration of hazardous materials from land disposal
        sites; determination of quality and quantity of leachate
        and gas from sanitary landfills; publication of health
        effects data on specific hazardous materials (i.e.,
        metals); and an analysis of ecological effects of
        sanitary landfills.


     -  Provided assessments and interpretations of effects
        data and initiated effects research on an expanded
        list of substances including arsenic, asbestos,
        beryllium, cadmium, chromiums copper, cyanides, lead,
        mercury, selenium, zinc, aldrin/dieldrin, benzidine,
        DDD/DDE/DDT, endrin, polychlorinated biphenyls, and
        toxaphene.  These assessments provide the basis for
        scientific criteria documents for Office of Solid
        Waste regulatory decision making;

                  ji  iia^araous materials through soils.   A
        research seminar at Rutgers University thts fiscal
        year will disseminate results;

     -  Completed a major portion of the research on the
        environmental effects of sanitary landfill effluents;

     -  Investigated the movement and retention, transformation,
        and volatilization of pesticides,polychlorinated
        biphyenyls and hexachlorabenzene in soils.  Criteria
        for safe disposal by thermal destruction have been
        developed for some pesticides;

     -  Investigated the retention of hazardous substances
        by soils from electroplating, chlorine production,
        nickel-cadmium battery production,  inorganic pigment
        manufacturing, and water-based paint production  in
        industrial waste streams; and

     -  Assessed environmental effects of current disposal
        practices for polyvinyl chlorides.
1976 Plan
     -  The 1976 plan provides for continued assessment and
        interpretations of effects data to support disposal
        standards setting by responsible State  and local
        authorities.   There will  be continuing investigation
        of the environmental protection afforded by landfill
        liners, encapsulation, chemical fixation of hazardous
        wastes, and other control techniques.   Also, a con-
        tinuation will be made of investigations on effects of
        disposal  of infectious  and  health  care  facility wastes.
        Finally,  a continuing investigation will be conducted
        on transport  mechanisms of hazardous waste disposal.
        Plans also include studies of soil retention of
        hazardous waste substances for up  to 28 additional
        waste streams.

                             ou i i u

                      Research and Development

                         Control  Technology

                               1975         1976        Change

Control technology....   $8,844,600   $3,645,300   -$5,199,300

     This program involves the development of control  techniques
and technology for the safe disposal  of toxic and hazardous
solid wastes.  The effort supports the setting of meaningful
and comprehensive standards and regulations by the authorities
responsible, and will provide the means for evaluating and
fostering improvement of disposal  practices for toxic  and
hazardous solid wastes.   Initial  emphasis will center  on
disposal techniques for materials exhibiting known hazardous
effects.  To a lesser extent, resource recovery and municipal
solid waste disposal technologies, including studies of the
combustion of solid waste to produce energy, will be developed
and evaluated.

1975 Program

     -  The objectives of the 1975 program include the generation
        of a cost analysis of disposal methods of selected
        hazardous materials and development of a report on the
        economic analysis of solid and hazardous waste handling.
        Also included in the program is an update of new accept-
        able techniques for recovery/disposal of hazardous  wastes.
        Technical assistance is being provided for improvement of
        existing methods for disposal of municipal refuse and
        hazardous wastes.  Finally, a determination is being made
        of the feasibility of conversion of solid waste into
        energy and reuseable products.

1975 Accomplishments,

     -  Conducted experimental incineration studies to
        establish time-temperature relationships for accept-
        able decomposition of various pesticides;

     -  Conducted investigations of chemical treatment and
        degradation methods for pesticides, including  the
        establishment  of safe procedures for using caustic
        soda, hypochlorite, peroxides, and acids;

    - investigated new hazardous waste treatment technol-
      ogies including chlorinolysis, wet air oxidation,
      decomposition by acids and bases, chemical oxidation,
      biological degradation, ion exchange, photochemical,
      low temperature microwave discharge, osmosis/ultra-
      filtration, and activated carbon absorption;

    - Initiated an evaluation of unit processes for resource
      recovery.  Results may be used by municipalities
      contemplating the use of resource recovery technology;

    - Conduct a test program to evaluate promising organic
      and inorganic processes for fixing and coating pesticides,
      soluble organics, and heavy oil residues.  Samples of
      various toxic wastes fixed by various techniques will
      undergo long-term field and laboratory testing;

    - Conducted a test program to evaluate landfill liners
      of clay, cement, asphalt, and plastic membranes to test
      resistance to acids, bases, solvents and physical impact.
      Results will provide criteria for safe disposal of
      various' classes of wastes, both hazardous and non-
      hazardous; and

    - Completed test of CPU-400 energy recovery system, using
      "dry scrubber" filter system to attempt to solve problems
      of alumina deposition on turbine wheel.

1976 Plan

    - Objectives for 1976 include preparation of a field manual
      for use by farmers and home owners on safe disposal of
      pesticides, and evaluations of several commercial chemical
      fixation processes and several processes developed by
      the Corps of Engineers.

    - Efforts will continue to develop and evaluate new technologies
      for safer disposal of hazardous wastes.

    - A primary objective in the field of energy conservation
      will be to investigate energy and fuel recovery processes
      to obtain valuable methane, alcohol, and other materials
      from waste products.

Purpose of Decrease

    The decrease of $5.2 million reflects the impact of the one-
time FY 1975 Congressional increase for research on energy
recovery through combustion of solid wastes.


Budget Authority
  Abatement and
    Control	   $19,521,900   $29,552,100   +$10,030,200
  Research and


  Abatement and
  Research and



34,123,400    44,332,900    +10,209,500
Qvervi ew and Strategy

     The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
(FIFRA), amended in 1972, gives the Environmental  Protection
Agency broad new responsibilities and authorities  to protect
man and his environment from the adverse effects of chemical
pesticides.  It places many new responsibilities on States
and calls for extensive cooperative efforts not previously
required.  The new Act continues EPA's responsibilities under
the 1947 FIFRA and adds new areas of control of the routes by
which almost all pesticides reach the environment.  The full
implementation of the Act by October 1976 dictates four major
approaches over the next two years.

     1.  EPA must reregister and classify over 30,000 inter-
state and 15,000 intrastate previously registered products
for "general" or "restricted" use.  This calls for action
based on assessment of the unreasonable adverse effects of
pesticides including the costs and benefits of their uses.

     2.  EPA now has the authority to insure control of local
health and environmental problems arising from misuse of

M <
                                     I ii i 3  mill  uc  av*i*vmp i > oncu  uy  i cifu i I i ny  (.na <-
                        applicators  of potentially hazardous  pesticides  be properly
                        certified; by improved  labeling and packaging;  by imposing
                        regulatory restrictions as needed; by applicator training
y'i                      and public education; and  by timely enforcement,

                             3,   EPA will  undertake a comprehensive hazard evaluation
-^                      system to better understand the nature  and extent of adverse
                        effects of pesticides on man and  the  environment.

                             4.   EPA is  conducting near-term  research studies  in
                        ecological and human health effects for hazard  evaluation and
                        in  the development of alternative pest  control  techniques.

                             While these four major approaches  are being implemented,
                        EPA will  develop a long-term strategy for  the period commencing
                        in  1977.  This strategy design will be  based on  the  experience
                        gained in administering pesticide supply and use control
                        programs, in improving  evaluation of  pesticide  hazards, and
                        from new knowledge gained  from research and special  scientific

                             About one billion  pounds of  pesticide active ingredients
                        are used each year in the  United  States, over 50 percent by
                        the agricultural sector and 30 percent  by  industrial and
                        institutional users.  It is important,  therefore, that any
                        action regulating  pesticide use be based on careful  assessment
                        of  its effects on  the activities  in the sector  of use.

                             Because of  the acknowledged  benefits  from  pesticides, they
                        have now become  increasingly important  to  agricultural produc-
                        tion, to public  health  and sanitation and  to protection of
                        capital  investments and natural resources, as well as  to the
                        improvement  of human well-being.   There are, however,  adverse
                        pesticide impacts.  Impacts on human beings are the most
                        important and include large numbers of  non-fatal poisonings,
                        a significant portion of which require  hospitalization.  (For
                        the most part the  principal causes of these poisonings are
                        poor application techniques, Tack of  protective  clothing,
                        faulty equipment,  and failure to  read,  understand, or  heed
                        label instructions.)  Environmental impacts are  not  easy to
                        assess due to the  complexity of pesticide  movements  in an
                        ecosystem, but improper use or disposal of pesticides  often
                        results in wildlife or  domestic animal  poisonings.

                             Immediate operational objectives and  tactics are  based
                        on  four specific strategic approaches:

                        off the market through the registration process and through
                        labeling, classification, and other regulatory restrictions.

                             2.  Use control to restrict the use of pesticides
                        classified for "restricted use" to certified applicators; to
;p7|                      improve label directions for safe use; to educate the consuming
|'1                      public in proper use of pesticides; and to take civil or
*••                       criminal enforcement measures when necessary,

                             3.  Hazard evaluation, to conduct human effect monitoring,
                        ambient residue monitoring, and accident surveillance which
                        serve to alert EPA and provide supporting data for adminis-
i ^                      trative actions to remove from the market registered products
 " •                      whose use causes unreasonable adverse effects.

                             4,  Research and special studies, to develop data and
                        analytical techniques, to discover unknown hazards of pesticides,
 • •  .                    and to gain knowledge on the behavior of pesticides and their
                        effects on human health and ecosystems.

Summary of Increases and Decreases

1975 Pesticides Program	.,.	   $34,123,400
......_..._—----- - .- -   ,        -—, .-. _

  Abatement and Control.		   +10,030,200

    The increase will support:  reregistrati on
    and classification of an estimated 22,000
    interstate and intrastate products and to
    meet the effective date (October 1976).of
    the FIFRA; development of cooperative
    programs with States for implementation of
    applicator certification and training
    programs; $1.8 million to provide grant
    and contract support for State development
    and implementation of applicator certifi-
    cation and $7.2 million to provide grant
    and contract support to States including
    cooperative state extension services for
    the implementation of applicator training

  Enforcement	      +174,400

    The increase will support the full year
    costs of the October 1974 pay raise.
  Research and Development.	        +4,900

    This increase is required for a minor
    adjustment in personnel compensation and
1976 Pesticides Program Request	   44,332,900

                          nummary of Resources
                         (dollars in thousands)

Budget Authority
Abatement and Control
Registrations and Tolerances.
Monitorinq 	 , 	
Technical Assistance 	
Pesticides Enforcement. ......
Research and Development
Processes ancT Effects 	
Total 	 , 	
End-of-Year Employment
Abatement and Control
Registrations and Tolerances.
Technical Assistance. 	 	
Pesticides Enforcement. 	
Research and Development
Processes and Effects 	















* * •

* * «

NOTE:  Registrations and tolerances manpower includes 51 positions
       formerly carried against the Revolving Fund for tolerance
       petitions. Labor costs for processing fee bearing tolerance
       petitions will continue to be charged against Revolving Fund

Abatement and

                    Abatement and Control
Budget Authority
  Registration and
   Tolerances.......   $7,654,200    $8,114,200      +$460,000
  Monitoring........    4,543,200     4,564,500        +21,300
  Technical  Assis-
   tance	    7,324,500    16.873.400     +9,548,900

    Total	   19,521,900    29,552,100    +10,030,200

End-of-Year Bnploy-
  Registration and
   Tolerances	...          407           407
  Moni tori ng........           80            80
  Technical  Assis-
    tance-	   	184    '       184   	...

    Total.		          671           671            ...

    EPA's pesticide abatement and control program plays a major
role in the pursuit of the Agency's total pesticide control
strategy.  Registration and tolerance activities support the
supply control strategy by requiring all pesticide products
to be registered.  Review of registration applications and
their supporting data allows EPA to keep unsafe or ineffective
products off the market.  The registration review process gets
in-depth scientific and socio-economic information from special
studies of suspect chemicals and of substitue chemicals, each
area of review being found increasingly essential to sound
administrative decisions.  When it is necessary to protect
health or the environment, registration may be cancelled,or
suspended, or under the authorities of the new Act, products
may be registered for "restricted use".  These activities also
support the use control strategy by establishing residue
tolerances for pesticides applied to feed or. food crops, by
specifying proper labeling, and safety precautions, and by re-
quiring "restricted use" products to be applied only by properly

vivini^u unu v-ci 1,1 iicu app i icauui a.  r\caeai Lii anu put icy bLUC]
are pursued to Improve laboratory methodology and guide policy
direction.  Monitoring activities support the hazard evalua-
tion strategy by gathering data on the health effects of long-
term pesticide exposure and the distribution of pesticide
residues in the environment and by the analysis of marketed
pesticide products.  Data gathered by these efforts support
improvement of registration standards.

    Technical assistance efforts support States and other
Federal agencies in development and implementation of State
Certification Plans and applicator certification programs; in
the development and operation of applicator training programs;
and by providing general technical support to State and Federal
pesticide programs.  Hazard evaluation is supported by inves-
tigations of the causes and effects of pesticide accidents.

    The major influence on program operations in 1976 is the
October 21, 1976, deadline for full implementation of the
FIFRA, as amended.  On the basis of regulations and guidelines
promulgated in 1975, reregistration and classification action
will have to be completed on 30,000 federally registered
products, in addition to the normal yearly base workload of
new applications  and amendments.  October 1976 is equally
significant to the States since they are required by that time
to have certified and trained most, if not all, of the
estimated 2,0 million private applicators and 100,000 commer-
cial applicators.  Failure by any States to have certified
enough applicators to adequately meet their  pest control needs
by October 1976 would have serious repercussions on the
economic and food production capabilities in those States.

Summary Output Table

                                          1975       1976

Normal yearly base workload of reg-
 istration and tolerance actions	    15,000     15,000

Reregistration and classification of
 presently registered interstate
 and intrastate products...	     5,000     22,000

State certification plans submitted
 for review action		        20         35

                                          I y/j
States with limited applicator
 training programs in operation _____         15         40
States with certification programs
 in operation... ....... , ..... , ---- ,          5         50
Final publication of regulations:
Registration of pesticides.. ....... ...... ,   March 1975
Guidelines for registration. . .. ....... .....   April 1975
Appl icator certification  standards. . . ..... ,   October 1974
Requirements for approval of State Plans..   March 1975
State registration for special local  needs   May 1975

                    Abatement and Control

                 Registration and Tolerances

                            1975          1976       Change

Registration and
 tolerances	   $7,654,200    $8,114_,200    +$460,000

    The registration and tolerances program's major efforts
include registration of all pesticide products, setting residue
tolerances for pesticide products applied to food and feed
crops, establishment of criteria and standards for product
registration, classification, and tolerances, and conduct of
special chemical reviews and other studies.  The major thrust
of the program during 1975, 1976 and part of 1977 will be to
accomplish registration and classification of 15,000 intra-
state  products and the reregistration and classification of
all 30,000 federally registered pesticide products by October
21, 1976,in order to comply with the deadline specified by
Section 4 (c)(2) of the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control
Act of 1972.

1975 Program

    During 1975, final regulations governing the registration
and classification of pesticides will be promulgated, and
the actual reregistration and classification of products will
begin.  It is expected that only about 10 percent of the most
widely used products are likely to be reregistered and classi-
fied  by the end of the year, including a few of the more
widely used intrastate products.  These efforts will be in
addition to the normal annual workload of processing new pro-
ducts, amendments, supplementary registrations, and tolerance
petitions.  The Agency also expects to review and approve some
State plans for experimental use permits under Section 5 of
FIFRA and also some State plans to register pesticides for
special local needs.  Prompt review and approval action on
these plans will be essential for the timely initiation of
these programs by the States.

1975 Accgmplishments

    - Complete reregistration and classification of about
      5,000 products;

      tolerance actions;

    - Review about five State experimental  use permits
      plans; and

    - Review and approve about 10 State plans to register
      pesticides for special local needs.

1976 Program

    During 1976, our efforts to complete the reregistration
and classification of all registered products will have top
priority.  It is expected that action will  be completed on
22,000 products or more, in addition to the normal workload
during 1976, with the remaining  reregistration and classifica-
tion actions being completed by October 21, 1976.  Marked
improvement is expected in the efficiency of registration
processing during the 1975-1976 period as a result of a more
responsive reorganization and procedural improvements and
better registration guidelines.  Even so, demands placed on
the Registration Division are expected to stretch its manpower
to the limit.  In addition to product reregistration, there
will be a significant increase in required standard-setting
activities as part of the overall classification procedures.
In 1976, about 200 product groups will need to be reviewed to
determine suitable terms of classification to offset acute
local hazard.  The more stringent use restrictions under
Section 32(a)(2)(G) of FIFRA will require us to evaluate con-
siderable more minor crop registration applications and toler-
ance petitions.  An increased rate of intensive socio-economic
cost/benefit reviews is also expected.  Also, most States have
indicated they intend to take advantage of Section 24(c) to
register products to meet special local needs.  This will
require the agency to work closely with States in the prepara-
tion of submissions for certification under Section 24(c) and
subsequently to take review actions to assist States in
implementing these plans.

Purpose of  Increase

    The increase will provide funds to contract out some sub-
professional, clerical, and data  support functions to expedite
peak workload processing and will provide for the full-year
cost of the October 1974 pay raise.

                       Abatement and Control


                            1975          1976       Change

Monitoring.......     $4,543,200    $4,564,500     +$21,300

     EPA's pesticides mom tonng program implements the haz-
ard evaluation strategy.  It includes:  epidomiologic studies
on the acute and chronic long-term human health effects from
pesticide exposure; monitoring of pesticide residues in air,
water, soils, and other media to determine levels and trends
and anticipate the development of hazardous conditions; and
analysis of routine samples of pesticide products taken from
processing establishments and the market place to determine
conformity with their labels.  All monitoring activities are
coordinated within the framework of the National Pesticides
Monitoring Plan.   Under this plan, data developed by other
Federal and State agencies are also evaluated to provide a
means for evaluating the hazard of pesticides in the environ-
ment and establishing an early alert system.

     The new epidemiologic studies program, which was re-
designed in 1975 to be directly responsive to regulatory
decision making needs, has been conducting pesticide hazard
evaluations in 12 States through contracts with universities
or State health departments.  Studies will now be made on new
pesticides for which 15 to 20 new permits are issued each
year and for which industry developed human exposure data has
previously been poor or nonexistent.  In addition, a new
approach is being taken to obtain an incidence rate on the
number of acute poisonings occuring from pesticides each
year.  A team of specialists will review admission records
of 10 percent of the Nation's hospitals to obtain medically
verified data on acute cases.  Major emphasis will be given
to chronic effect determinations through studies of highly
exposed persons (about 3,000) from occupations such as
pesticide manufacturing and formulating workers, pesticide
applicators, farm workers, and householders.   These individuals
will be matched with control subjects and medically examined
for suspected toxicologic effects.  In addition, about 30
special studies will be undertaken and specifically oriented
to short-term problem oriented needs including collection of

reviews, and substitute chemical reviews.

1975 Accompli shments

     -  Implementation of the redesigned epidemic!ogic
        studies programj

     -  Continued sampling and analysis of pesticide residues
        in soil, water and air; and

     -  Chemical analysis of 4,500 pesticide product samples
        for conformity to label.

1976 Plan

     During 1976, the pesticide monitoring program will con-
tinue to provide data to evaluate the hazard of pesticides
in the environment with increased emphasis on those problems
requiring hard monitoring data to support pending regulatory
decisions.  Responsiveness of monitoring activities will be
increased, and turn around time of the chemical analysis of
product samples will be reduced.  The epidemiologic studies
program will carry on efforts to obtain data on acute pesti-
cide poisonings by investigating hospital admission records,
and will increase efforts to monitor for unforeseen health
effects in the vicinity of pesticide applications under
experimental use permits issued by EPA and the States.
Residue profile monitoring will be continued, particularly to
develop a quick response and alert system on pesticide
problems of current concern.  Analysis of market samples will
continue, with increased efficacy testing being performed with-
in the limits of available resources.

Purpose of Increase

     The increase will cover the full-year cost of the
October 1974 pay raise.

                        Abatement and Control

                        Technical Assistance
Technical assistance..$7,324,500   $16,873,400  +$9,548,900

     The top priority of EPA's pesticides technical assistance
program is to support States in the development and full scale
implementation of applicator training and certification
programs.  This is the key element in the implementation of
the use control strategy.  By October 21, 1976, FIFRA requires
that "restricted use" pesticides be available only to appli-
tions governing applicator  standards and requirements for
approval of State plans.  Since there will be no Federal certi-
fication programs, it will be necessary for each State to
develop and implement its own certification program or face
the unavailability of restricted use pesticides.

     As a basis for certification, applicators must have a
required level of competency which meets the Standards for
Pesticide Applicators published in the Federal Register,
October 1974.  A major part of EPA's technical assistance
resources will be devoted to the accomplishment of these
objectives during 1975 and 1976.  However, additional tech-
nical assistance will also be needed by States to ensure they
meet their other responsibilities under statutory require-
ments of the Act, including experimental use permits and
State registrations for special local needs.

     Technical assistance resources also support EPA's accident
investigation program, which contributes to the hazard evalua-
tion strategy by determing the cause and effects of pesticide

1975 Program

     Top priority efforts in 1975 are applicator training
and certification.  Following the promulgation of EPA's
"Applicator Certification Standards" in October 1974 and
"Regulations for Approval of State Plans" expected in March
1975, the States with EPA assistance will develop and, after

tor applicator certification.

     EPA and the Department of Agriculture's Extension
Service have jointly developed a program for training pesti-
cide applicators to meet the certification standards.  It is
estimated that over two million private applicators and over
100,000 commercial applicators will require certification.
Agreement has been reached on a joint EPA/USDA-CES training
program approach wherein EPA will provide funds and training
materials and the State Cooperative Extension Service in
coordination with the State local agency will provide the
necessary applicator training.  In order to meet the October
1976 effective date of the Act, this training program must
be largely completed during 1976.

FY 1975 Accomplishments                   Completion gaieg

     -  Publish regulations on applicator
          certification standards	          October 1974

     -  Publish regulations for approval
          of State plans....	            March 1975

     -  State draft certification plans
          submitted for EPA review
          action	   20 States by June 1975

     -  States with limited applicator
          training programs in
          operation	   15 States by June 1975

     -  States with applicator certi-
          fication programs in
          operation	,	    5 States by June 1975

1976 Plan

     Most States have designated a lead agency to administer
their applicator certification plans and programs, and about
20 will have submitted their plans for approval and publica-
tion in the Federal Register by the end of 1975.  Key factors
in the delayed timetable are- many States have biennial
sessions of their legislatures in late 1975 and only one
State in each EPA region is expected to complete an acceptable
Certification Plan in "f
(2) of FIFRA to "tool up" and get their programs Into operation.
It is anticipated that fees and/or State appropriations will
be sufficient after two years or so to finance future certi-
fication programs after the initial first round certification
efforts are completed.  We are therefore, requesting $1.8
million to assist the States, through grants and contracts,
in financing the initial start up costs for the program.

     1976 will be the key year for training pesticide appli-
cators to meet certification standards.  While we hope to
have most State training programs fully operational early in
1976S over two million  applicators  will have to be certified
by October 1975.  The major  training  seasons coincide with
the period between crop seasons, i.e., November-March.  The
winter of 1975-1976 is the period when most of the applicator
training must take place.

     Support of these State and joint EPA-State activities
will place an overwhelming burden on the technical assistance
resources available through regional offices.  We are there-
fore requesting an increase in funding to meet these needs.
1976 activities will concentrate on the extension of
certification and training efforts by States, as well as
directing assistance to those States which initiated programs
in 1975 and which have operational problems in early implemen-
tati on.

     The increase will provide $1,8 million for grant and
contract support for States' certification programs under
Section 23(a)(2) of FIFRA; and $7.2 million to provide grant
and contract support for State applicator training, including
funding through USDA/ES to State Cooperative Extension Services;
$500 thousand to support increased regional technical assist-
ance to assist States in the implementation of their applica-
tor certification programs and other State responsibilities
under the Act; and $48,900 to cover the full-year cost of
the October 1974 pay raise.



                            1975          1976       Decrease

Budget Authority
    enforcement...     $3.408,500    $3.582.900      +$174,400
Total ....... 3
End-of-Year Employment
Pesticides enforcement



* * *
    Total........            153           153


     The EPA pesticides enforcement program includes the
registration and inspection of pesticide producing establish-
ments; the surveillance of pesticides products on the market
place, imported pesticide products, experimental use permits
and pesticide uses; and the initiation of enforcement actions
when violations are detected, including civil actions,
criminal prosecutions, stop sales, and injunctive actions as
required to implement the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,
and Rodenticide Act, as amended.  The major enforcement
program goal is to insure compliance with the FIFRA through
the use of these tools.

     There are an estimated 6,500 producers of pesticides,
as well as millions of users of pesticides, all with a
potential toward causing human health problems.  The major
role of enforcement in the total EPA pesticides program is to
insure that the registration requirements of the Act, dis-
cussed under the pesticides abatement and control program,
are being adhered to and that pesticides are being used in
accordance with their registered labels.  In addition, FIFRA
gives EPA the futhorfty to enter into cooperative enforcement
agreements with States,  In this regard, EPA expeets to bjojn
involving the Stites 1n a major role 1n implanting the FIFRA
during 1976, particularly with regard to market surveillance,
use surveillance, and sharing evident for enforcement actions,

cnannei singular state actions toward a national enrgrcemem,
program.  EPA intends to pursue such agreements with States in
1976.  Emphasis will be placed on developing a cooperative
climate whereby the Federal Government manages overall
national policy within which States can operateAbased on
local need.

1975 Program and Accomplishments

     In 1975S EPA plans to develop an inspection program of
the required books and records of producer establishments
and check a cross-section of these firms1 records with those
required under Section 7 of the Act.  The Agency will register
approximately 6,500 establishments producing pesticides and
prepare assessments of current State enforcement authorities,
capabilities, programs, and resources with a view toward
greater Federal/State cooperation.  A program of pesticide
use surveillance of products suspected of presenting hazards
to human health and the environment will be developed and EPA
will check shipment and use of 100 experimental use permits.
EPA will inspect approximately 2,500 pesticide producer
establishments; collect approximately 4,500 product  samples;
and initiate an estimated 200 stop sales, 600 civil  actions,
and 20 criminal prosecutions.  Finally, EPA is assisting the
U.S. Customs Service in developing regulations for the
importation of pesticides and devices under Section 17 of the

1976 Plan

     The pesticides enforcement program for 1976 will be a
continuation of on-going activity to inspect products on the
market to determine if they comply with the terms under which
they were registered.  In addition, the program will provide
for the continuation of the activities and responsibilities
initiated in 1974 to implement the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended.  These include
the inspection of manufacturers and formulators of pesticides,
the registration of pesticide producers, and the surveillance
of pesticide usage with a view toward checking environmental
insults and protecting human health.  Also, the surveillance
of experimental use pesticides will be continued.  Pest
control operators will be interviewed to aquaint them with
their new responsibilities under FI.F-RA.  The sampling program
will be refined to shift from a somewhat random approach
against violative products to factor in information on pro-

                                                                    _	»,,M».IIUUI  nanit.

                               In keeping with the emphasis on greater Federal/State
                          cooperation as defined in Section 23(a)(1) of  the Act,  the
  ^                        Agency expects to involve a number of States in the enforce-
                          ment of FIFRA.  State officials are more  closely associated
, .5                        with both the pesticide producers and users than are EPA
 "i                        headquarters or regional offices.  Therefore,  State agencies
                          are in a unique position to complement the Federal pesticide
?,_,                        enforcement program, particularly in the  areas of market
  *                        and use surveillance and in the sharing of evidence for enforce-
                          ment actions.  Although all 50 States have some type of
                          pesticide control program, in general, resource limitations
 "1                        and staff capabilities hamper the effectiveness of these
  1                        programs.

                               The most significant change in the pesticides enforce-
  i                        ment program will be the shift in emphasis from separate
                          Federal and State pesticide programs toward integrated
                          programs with EPA serving as a coordinating focal point.

                               The Agency is developing a general Federal-State Coopera-
                          tive Enforcement Agreement which will outline  areas of  respon-
  i                       sibility for EPA and the States and will  encourage States to
  i                       cooperate by reducing Federal presence in States that do
                          cooperate.  This shift will be gradual with EPA encouraging
                          one State in each region to cooperate in  the enforcement of

                               In 1976, EPA will also develop a strategy for surveillance
                          of the use of restricted pesticides by certified applicators
                          and develop guidance for the enforcement  of pesticide dis-
                          posal regulations.  A sampling program for those devices
                          declared to be subject to the Act under Section 25(c)(4) will
                          also be prepared.

                          Purpose of Increase

                               The proposed increase will provide for the full-year
                          cost of the  October 1974 pay raise.

Research and

                  Research and Development
                             1975            1976   Decrease

Budget Authority
  Processess and
    Effects...	    $11,193,000     $11,197,900    +$4,900

En d-o f- Ye a r Empl oyme nt
  Processes and
    Effects...	            148             148

     This program supports the Agency's pesticide programs
including development of data required to support administrative
reviews and litigations; monitoring;  development of new
methods of pest control; and development of long term
pesticides strategy.   Major areas of on-going research include:
(1) determination of human health effects; (2) development  of
pesticide residue analytical methods; (3) development of
model ecosystems; and (4) determination of ecological effects.

                    Research and Development

                      Processes and Effects

                                    1975          1976   Change

Processes and effects......  $11sl93,000   $11,197,900  +$4,900

     EPA conducts an extensive research program on pesticides
released into the environment to determine more precisely
their effects on human, animal, and aquatic life and to develop
better analytical methods for measuring pesticide residues in
plant and animal tissue,  A variety of toxicological studies
are carried out to determine the acute toxicities of pesticides
in mammals and aquatic organisms, the distribution and effects
of pesticides on mammalian organ systems, and their effects
on metabolic reactions, reproduction, and behavioral responses.
Laboratory bioassaysof aquatic animals and organisms are
conducted to determine acute and chronic toxic effects of
pesticides on fresh and salt water life.  This effort provides
the knowledge of levels and pathways of pesticides contamination
necessary to support pesticide registration, toxic effluent
standards, water quality criteria for estuarine and coastal
waters, and ocean disposal permits.  Analytical methods for
pesticides residues are developed for the monitoring programs
of EPA, State, and local governments.  These include deter-
mination of pesticides in human tissue (National Human
Monitoring Program), soil, air; and water.    Research is being
carried out in cooperation wi.th the National Science
Foundation   and the Department of Agriculture on new and
improved pest control methods to further the search for
environmentally safe alternative control techniques.  In the
substitute chemicals program, initiated  in late 1974,
emphasis is being placed on a thorough evaluation of chemicals
commonly used as substitutes for pesticides recently cancelled
or under litigation.  Mammalian toxicology studies in this
program emphasize, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, and new
methods are being developed in inhalation toxicology.  These
compounds are being examined in laboratory models of ter-
restrial and aquatic ecosystems, and are being analyzed
chemically for impurities known to be toxic.

     The pesticide  research program for 1975 includes the
development of inhalation toxicology methods for pesticides
and a study of acute inhalation effects of alternate chemicals.
Also to be conducted are complete mutagenesis tests on
alternate pesticides and the development of human exposure
studies relating to the safe handling of pesticides (storage,
spillage, and disposal) with special emphasis on application
to crops and reentry into sprayed fields.  Development and
evaluation of alternative methods of pest control to minimize
the use of some pesticides by the strategic use of natural
pest enemies, pathogens, genetic modifications, and insect
hormones will be initiated.  Analytical methods will be
developed to determine  pesticides, their metabolites,  their
degradation products, and formulation contaminants in tissues
and environmental medta.  Finally, technical  assistance will  be
provided to EPA regional and program offices  through provision
of special studies, consultation, and expert testimony in
legal proceedings.

1975 Accomplishments

     -  Completed a study of agricultural workers which
        verified a direct correlation between exposure to
        organophosphate pesticides and urinary metabolites,
        as measured by a new method developed at EPA

     -  In people accidentally poisoned with a chlorinated
        organophosphate pesticide, it was found that patients
        show symptoms as long as tissue residues persist,  and
        that the effects last much longer than with non-
        chlorinated organophosphates;

     -  Developed methods for determining hexachlorobenzene
        in air and human tissue:

     -  Reported that malathion inhibited the population
        growth of marine protozoa;

     -  Identified the presence of an arthropod virus in
        shrimp exposed to environmental levels of poly-
        chlorinated biphenyls; and

     -  Revised the bioassay procedures for EPA's ocean
        disposal permit program.

     Elements of the 1975 program to be continued in 1976
Include development of inhalation toxicology methods,
studies of alternate pesticides, development of mutagenesis
screening systems, and development and evaluation of alter-
native methods of pesticide control.  Studies on the
relationship between viral  infection and polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCB) exposure in shrimp and studies on the effect
of mi rex and heptachlor In marfne ecosystems will be completed
tn 1976.  Development will  be initiated on a sensitive,
specific  detector for pesticides containing chlorine, sulfur
and/or nitrogen as well as an efficient system for collecting
and determining pesticides in air*  Also, analytic methods for
the dioxins in tissues, in environmental media, and in pesticide
formulations will be developed.

Purpose of Increase

     This increase is required for  a minor adjustment in
personnel compensation and benefits.


                            1975          1976       Decrease

Budget Authority
  Abatement and
    Control.......... $4,569,900    $4,337,100      -$232,800
  Research and
    Development	,  2,637.700     1.640.000       -997.700

      Total..	  7,207,600     5,977,100     -1,230,500
End-of-Year Employment
Abatement and Control
Research and Development
      Total..........        263           231            -32*

                  *There is an additional reduction
                   of 30 positions for off-site
                   monitoring, which is reflected
                   under Advances and Reimbursements
                   in the summary tables,

Overview and Strategy

     Radiation presents an environmental public health risk
from numerous sources, to which some public exposure is
inevitable.  All radiation exposures result in some adverse
health effect.  This basic concept governs EPA's approach to
assessing and preventing public health risk from environmental

     Public exposure to ionizing radiation results from natural
background levels, medical x-rays, manufacturing processes,
from fallout due to weapons tests, occupational exposure, and
from various aspects of the nuclear power industry (fuel
processing, reactor operations, waste handling, etc.).  Of
these, natural background forms the largest part, followed
by man-made sources-, exposure to nonionizing radiation comes
from radio transmissions; radar, microwave sources, and others.

     Given the diverse nature of radiation sources and the
rapid development of new ones, there is a Federal responsi-
bility to carry out research on radiation and health, to assess

and exposures that occur.  EPA's role in radiation is unique
in that it encompasses all sources of ionizing and nonionizing
radiation whether environmental or nonenviornmental in nature-,
no other Federal agency has this broad responsibility.

     The EPA radiation program is directed toward preventing
all unnecessary environmental exposures to ionizing radiation.
The need for standards of exposure to nonionizing radiation
is undergoing review.  The basic authority for these activities
is set forth in the Atomic Energy Act (the responsibility for
portions of which were transferred to EPA in Reorganization
Plan No. 3), the Public Health Service Act, and the authorities
of the Federal Radiation Council which were also transferred
to EPA in Reorganization Plan No. 3.  Additional authority is
contained under the National Environmental Policy Act wherein
environmental impact statements are reviewed for proposed
Federal nuclear energy facilities and programs.

     In order to fulfill its responsibilities, EPA pursues its
basic radiation protection strategy through three inter-
dependent functions:  criteria and standards development,
technology assessment, and environmental assessment.

     EPA conducts health effects research for ionizing and
nonionizing radiation to better assess the potential risk of
ambient radiation exposure.  This is necessary in order to
set standards for environmental radiation from the uranium
fuel cycle, to set medical x-ray guidance, and to assess the
impact of radioactive discharges associated with various
manufacturing processes.  The priority and timing of these
efforts are determined by several factors:  the degree of
control possible, the anticipated growth of the sources,
and the extent of exposure due to the source.  As a result,
EPA will be completing an environmental standard for the
uranium fuel cycle in 1975 since a large increase in nuclear
generated electric power is projected.

     Technology assessment provides the capability to perform
independent environmental analyses of radiation technologies
being applied by other .agencies.  As a result, a base is
established from which substantive reviews of environmental
impact statements are possible and from which, the requirements
of the National Environmental Policy Act can be carried out.

public, EPA carries out extensive monitoring activities and
other environmental assessments, making this information
available in publication form.  EPA will continue to reorient
the monitoring networks toward specific sources of radiation
and away from the fallout oriented ambient measurements, since
the reduction of above ground nuclear testing makes fallout a
less significant part of the total exposure la standby network
will be maintained).

     One significant aspect of monitoring is the radiological
surveillance EPA performs for the Energy Research and Develop-
ment Administration (ERDA) in off-site areas adjacent to ERDA's
Nevada Test Site,  The program is organized around three kinds
of surveillance —  routine,  special, and test oriented.  In
the routine surveillance program, sampling (air, milk, and
water) and radiation exposure measurement networks are main-
tained to record environmental radiation levels and their
variations.  "Special" surveillance includes monitoring for
possible migration of test related radioactive debris in
groundwater on and around the site and soil sampling programs.
The test oriented program involves positioning radiation
monitoring teams in the area most likely to be affected by a
release of radioactive material to the atmosphere.  Test
oriented surveillance includes sampling by aircraft and long
range tracking of debris in the event of a radioactive release.
The work that EPA does for ERDA is reflected under the Advances
and Reimbursements accounts.

     The legislative authorities in radiation set out enforce-
ment responsibilities for other agencies, notably the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission, and therefore EPA has no activities in
this area with the exception of regulating the issuance of
permits to discharge wastewater that may contain radioactive
material.  EPA does maintain an overview, however, in order to
assure that the standards and Federal radiation guidance which
are set are followed.

     EPA also makes assistance available to States and
localities through its regional offices and laboratories.
This includes assistance with drafting Emergency Response
Plans and analysis of monitoring samples.

     The 1976 program includes a decrease of 62 positions:
17 positions from the abatement and control program, 15 from
research and development and 30 from the ERDA reimbursed off-
site monitoring program in Nevada.  In addition, in 1975,10
positions are being transferred from the radiation program to
the noise control program. The abatement and control  reductions

regulations development and ambient monitoring will  not be
affected.  Research efforts will   be redirected to
critical areas and gaps in knowledge where no other agency
has an on-going program or where there is a specific
environmental problem which requires EPA attention.   The
30 position reduction from the 88 people currently
performing off-site monitoring will be implemented after
March 31, 1976, at which time initiation of the Test Ban
Treaty and Threshold Limitation Agreement is expected to
decrease the level of test activity at the Nevada Test Site.

1975 Radiation Program......		 $7,207,600

  Abatement and Control		.,   -232,800

       A decrease associated with the reduction of
       program personnel.

  Research ajid Development.	   -997,700

       A decrease associated with the reduction of
       personnel and narrowing the scope of the
1976 Radiation Program Request	  5,977,100

       *  This program also reflects the reduction of
          30 positions from the ERDA off-site monitoring
          program. : (Funds are reimbursed from the Energy
          Research and Development Administration).

Budget Authority
  Abatement and Control
    Standards and Guidelines...    $789.4
    Monitoring	   1,558.5
    Technical Assistance	   2,222.0
       Subtotal	,.   4,569.9
  Research and Development
    Processes and Effects	,.   2.637.7
          Total-..	   7,207.6
End-of-Year Employment
  Abatement and Control
    Standards and GUI delines...      27
    Monitoring..		      59
    Technical Assistance	     105
       Subtotal		..     191
  Research and Development
    Processes and Effects.	      72
          Total	     263



Abatement and

                     Abatement and Control
Budget Authority
  Standards and
   Guidelines...	   $789,400      $796,700
  Monitoring...,	  1,558,500     1,407,800
   Assistance........  2,222.000     2.132.600

        Total...	  4,569,900     4,337,100

End-of-Year Ernpl oyment
  Standards and
   Guidelines	....         27            27
  Monitoring....	         59            50
   Assistance..	        IPS	97

        Total...	        191           174


     The radiation program's abatement and control activities
have, as their main focus, EPA's responsibilities for setting
specific standards for radiation levels in the general
environment and for setting the basic policies which provide
the basis for all Federal radiation protection programs.
Other components of the program contribute to guidelines  and
standards effort, or to the improvement of State, local,  or
other Federal radiation control programs.  These include
surveillance and monitoring to determine levels of environ-
mental radiation; provisions of technical assistance to
other governmental agencies; and the conduct of reviews of
federally supported or licensed projects which are a source
of environmental radiation and related engineering studies.

                   Standards and Guidelines

                            1975          1976       Change
Standards and
 guidelines.....	    $789,400      $796,700      +$7,300
     EPA has two primary responsibilities associated with
radiation protection standards and guidance.  The first
responsibility is to establish environmental protection
standards to limit radiation  levels in the general environ-
ment for both ionizing and nonionizing radiation.  The
second involves the formulation of basic Federal policies on
radiation protection standards.
1975 Program and Accomplishments
     -  Complete the uranium fuel cycle standards;
     -  Review the need for plutonium standard;- and
     -  Review the need for nonionizing radiation standards.

1976 Plan
     -  Publish guidance further defining the limit, "as
        low as practicable", presently contained in Federal
        Radi ati on Gui dance;
     -  Evaluate x-ray exposure reduction in Federal health
        care programs; and
     -  Develop medical x-ray guidance.
Purpose of Increase
     The $75300 increase is to provide for the full-year
cost of the October 1974 pay raise.

                     Abatement and Control


                            1975          1976       Change

Monitoring	  $1,558,500    $1,407,800    -$150,700

     The purpose of EPA's radiation monitoring activity is
to determine the levels of existing radiation from specific
sources,identify critical pathways, and evaluate the impact

     -  collect and analyze data on radioactivity in air,
        water and milk;

     -  Establish an actinide soil monitoring program; and

     -  Complete dose summaries from all sources and compare
        with standards.

Purpose of Decrease

     The decrease reflects lower personnel costs due to
conversion of Radiation Data and Reports from a monthly
publication to an annual report.

                     Abatement and Control

                     Technical Assistance

                            1975          1976       Change

Technical assistance. $2,222,000    $2,132,600     -$89,400

     Technical assistance is a broad classification which
can be divided into three major components: (1) State
assistance, training, and regional program development; (2)
technology assessment, including the environmental impact
statement review of nuclear facilities; and (3) engineering
studies of new technology.  The primary efforts of the
State assistance element are oriented toward working with
State radiation control programs in their developmental
efforts and bringing to this effort a national perspective.
This is accomplished by a small staff in each of EPA's
regional offices.  The technology assessment effort is
concerned with evaluating the impact of nuclear technology
on the environment.  As part of its Overall responsibilities
in technology assessment, EPA reviews environmental impact
statements submitted by other Federal agencies and conducts
detailed evaluations of proposals for the design,construction,
and   modification of radiation  producing facilities which
are to be operated by Federal agencies or are subject to
Federal regulation.  In order to provide the technical base
necessary to conduct these environmental assessments, EPA
also conducts engineering studies aimed at providing a
better understanding of the design and operation of new
technologies as they impact on the environment (e.g., new
types of power reactors or designs of fuel processing plants).

1975 Program and Accomplishments

     -  Continue the review of environmental impact statements
     -   (estimated 45 routine reviews);

     -  Continue an analysis of the environmental impact of
        low-level waste disposal;

     -  Continue providing technical  information and
        assistance to State and local  governments,  including
        promotion of State Control  programs,  laboratory
        analysis of special samples,  and development and
        testing of emergency plans.
1976 Plan

     -  Continue the review of environmental  impact state-
        ments (estimated 65 routine reviews);

     -  Assess the environmental  impact of new power reactor
        technology-high temperature gas-cooled reactor and
        liquid metal fast breeder reactor; and

     -  Continue providing technical  information and assist-
        ance to State and local governments,  including
        laboratory analysis of special  samples, and develop-
        ment and testing of emergency plans.

Purpose of Decrease

     The decrease reflects lower personnel costs due to the
consolidation of some program activities.

Research and

"  1
-  I
                                    1975           1976       Decrease

Budget Authority
  Processes and effects	   $2,637,700     $1,640.000      -$997.700

    Total.		........    2,637,700      1,640,000       -997,700

End-of-Year Employment
  Processes and effects	   	72	57	-15

    Total	           72             57            -15


    The radiation research and development program provides EPA with an
information base for standards setting and regulatory actions.   The
program consists of two parts:  studies of the health effects resulting
from exposure to radiation and studies of the transport of radiation
through the environment.

                      rvcacai \.u aitu ucvc lupineil U

                       Processes and Effects

                                    1975           1976          Change

Processes and effects.....    $2,637,700     $1,640,000       -$997,700

    The health effects of radiation are studied by epidemiological and
toxicological methods.  Adverse health effects can result from exposure
to Ionizing radiation such as radionuclides emitted by nuclear power
reactors or from high dose exposure to nonionizing radiation as found
in the near field of high power transmitting antennae.  The scope of the
radiation program in health effects of ionizing radiation is narrow,
being restricted to support of epidemiological studies by the Atomic
Bomb Casualty Commission and to limited laboratory studies of the
radiotoxicity of krypton-85 and tritium, radionuelides arising from
present nuclear power reactor operation.  The primary aim  of the
program of studies of nonionizing radiation is to determine the
potential biological significance of chronic exposure at levels below
that which can cause thermal stress.  Transport studies are concerned
with describing the pathways by which selected radionuclides can
reach man.  The radiation pathways research Is an integral part of
the program to understand human exposure and consequent health effects.
The problem is one of describing the transport of radionuclides through
the biosphere by the various pathways which govern their movement,
chemical and physical change, and ultimate fate.  The program has been
focused on the most important radionuclides from the point of view of
the long range problems associated with the fast breeder reactor

1975 Program '

    The objectives of the health effects program include the evaluation
of the latent effects of acute exposure to ionizing radiation (Atomic
Bomb Casualty Commission) and definition of the dose response curve
for incidence of thyroid tumors in children exposed to diagnostic
levels of radioiodine.  Determination of the carcinogenic potential.of
implanted particules of plutonium in the lungs of hamsters is being
completed in the 1975 program.  Also, the acute and chronic effects of
inhalation and whole body exposure of guinea pigs to krypton-85/air
mixtures are being defined.  Finally, an identification of the biological
effects of nonionizing radiation in animal models is being made.

surfaces are being quantified.  Also, an investigation is being
conducted on the chemical kinetics of plutonium in soil as affected
by soil type and indigenous plants.  Finally, a determination is
being made of the magnitude of plutom'um absorption by aquatic plants.

1975 Accompl1shments

    - Initial studies of teratogenicity  of electromagnetic radiation
      have been negative;

    - Tissue analyses from juvenile goats have indicated that intestinal
      absorption of plutonium from in vivo and in vitro labeled milk
       is approximately the same;

    - Four different chemical/physical forms of plutonium particulates
      have been identified from resuspended soil;

    - Concentrations of plutonium on root systems of,aquatic plants
      have been observed under laboratory conditions; and

    - Uptake of  tritiated  hydrogen gas has been demonstrated for
      plant species.

1976 Plan

    In 19763 median lethal exposure data for krypton-85 inhalation will
be correlated with tissue distribution studies.  Epidemiological
studies will be continued using retrospective data from singularly
exposed population groups such as is the case with the Atomic Bomb
Casualty Commission studies.  Radiotoxicological studies of tumori-
genesis, life span shortening and effects on reproduction of rats
exposed continuously to tritiated water will be conducted.  Effects
on the fetal and embryonic stages of growth will be emphasized.
Studies of the effects of nonionizing radiation on biopolymers
 (bovine serum albumin, ribonuclease) will be completed.  Studies on
teratologic and neurobehavior of small animals will be conducted using
nonionizing radiation as the stressor.  Also, a determination will be
made of the isotopic differences between 238 Pu and 239 Pu soil plant
transfer and storage for correlation with biological effects.  A
determination will be made on the effects of rainfall, irrigation, and
fertilization on the migration of selected radionuclides in soil.
Finally, an investigation will be made on the exchange rates and effects
on vegetation of gaseous tritium with an accompanying determination on
the environmental variables controlling this exchange.

                                       i uuuocu  in  i3/u uii  uit; ned i en
effects of nonionizing radiation and on a limited group of long lived
ionizing radionuclides associated with the fast breeder reactor program.
The Agency will also continue to participate in the Atomic Bomb
Casualty Commission Study.  This will permit a reduction in funding
of $1 million9 and a decrease of 15 positions.


Budget Authority
  Abatement and
  Research and
      Total	,

  Abatement and
  Enforcement —
  Research and
+ 500,400
- 499,900
+ 4,703,700
+ 9
- 2
Overview _and Strategy

     Inferential data implies that urban environmental  levels
of noise are increasing at about 1-2 db (decibels) per
decade.  This increase is occurring despite the availability
of substantial control technology applicable to most major
sources of noise.  Competitive cost factors and lack of
regulation or enforcement have acted as deterrents to the
application of such technology.  Recent increased public
concern has stimulated the need for Federal control of new
products sold in interstate commerce and Federal control of
noise levels in interstate transportation.

     Evaluation by EPA indicates that continuous exposures
to urban environmental noise levels averaging above 70 Ldn
(weighted day-night decibel level) may be harmful to health,
especially when coupled with shorter, more intense exposures
in the workplace, in travel, and in various recreational and
hobby and home maintenance pursuits.  It is estimated that
about 13 million people presently reside in areas where the

of most common models of transportation are exposed to noise
substantially above 70 dB(A), as is a substantial portion
of the working population.

     Approximately 100 million people reside in areas where
the Ldn exceeds 55, a level clearly identified with marked
annoyance.  While this level of community noise results from
a blending of all types of sources, vehicular traffic, air-
craft operations and construction site noise are major
factors in the sustained  levels.

     The Noise Control Act of 1972 provides the basis for
the national environmental noise control  program in EPA.
The legislation generally recognizes the need for Federal
regulation of new product noise sources and is preemptive
of State regulation for such products.  It provides EPA
with such regulatory authority and recognizes the unique
roles of the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).  With respect to
interstate  surface commercial carriers, EPA promulgates
standards for new and in-use vehicles and DOT enforces the
in-use standards; with aircraft, EPA recommends regulations
and standards for emissions and operations of aircraft and
around airports and FAA promulgates and enforces.  State and
local agencies retain the right to control other in-use
product noise problems and can adopt in-use regulations
consistent with the Federal regulations in the above in-use
situations.  The legislation charges EPA with the role of
coordinating Federal noise control and research and develop-
ment activities.

     EPA goals are to:

     1.  Reduce the urban noise levels above 70 Ldn so that
         less than one million of the estimated 13 million
         population residing in such areas remains exposed
         to such high community levels by 1992;

     2.  Reduce urban noise levels above 55 Ldn so that less
         than 40 million of the estimated 100 million
         population residing in such areas remain exposed
         to such community levels by 1992;

     3,  Require by 1978 that warning labels be  applied to
         engine powered equipment posing a threat to the
         operator's hearing and used in a nonoccupational

                             setting;  and

                         4,   Reduce noise levels  inside  new public  transportation
                             equipment to 75  dB(A)  by  1980.

# *                       These  goals are  generally  achievable  by  implementing
* -                  presently available  technology or that anticipated  from on-
                    going research.  In the case  of the  first  two goalss  the
                    technology  is  to be implemented through new product  regulations
                    by 1982  with an estimated 10  year  turn-over in  the product
                    population,  i.e.,  by  1992. However, the attainment  of  these
                    two goals also requires complementary State and local
                    regulatory  and enforcement action  allowed  by  the Federal
                    legislation.   Emphasis  must thus be  given  to  appropriate
                    Federal  technical  assistance.

                         Labeling  will  be used to augment regulation in  those
                    situations  where the  individual's  exposure has  health
                    significance and can  be substantially controlled by  personal
                    protective  equipment.   Potential nuisances resulting  from
                    such equipment can best be controlled by State  and local use

                         Goal four can  be achieved by direct regulation or by the
                    Federal  influence  on  equipment  standards through support of
                    mass transit programs.

                         In  order  of priority, the  major actions  EPA is  under-
                    taking are:

                         (1) Reduction of airport  and aircraft noise.

                         (2) Reduction of noise  from  interstate  motor carriers
                             and  railroads.

                         (3) Protection  against  voluntary high level
                             individual  exposure through product labeling.

                         (4) Reduction of noise  from  construction  sites.

                         (5) Reduction of noise  in the  interior  of public

                    Workplace  noise exposure is  hot included  in  this list  of EPA
                    priorities  in   recognition of separate legislation specifi-
                    cally charging The Occupational  Safety and Health Adminis-
                    traction (OSHA)  with  regulatory and  enforcement functions

     The strategy envisions active, cooperative working
relationships with DOT, FAA, the Consumer Product Safety
Commission, and OSHA in addition to State and local  agencies
in carrying out abatement and control and enforcement
programs.  EPA intends to make full use of research  and
development programs conducted by the above agencies and
DOD, NASA, and the private sector in lieu of establishing
a substantial independent research and development effort.
As implied by the law, EPA will continue its coordinative
function with respect to control and research and develop-

     EPA enforcement of new product regulations is scheduled
to begin in late 1976 for air compressors and in 1977 for
heavy and medium duty trucks.  Steps must be taken in 1976
through completion of the necessary planning, rulemaking,
and informational programs in preparation for*enforcement
of new product regulationsin 1977.  Manufacturers have also
indicated that they desire the flexibility to verify production
before the regulations are effective, i.e.., as soon  as they
are promulgated.  EPA will strengthen technical assistance
to the States in preparation for the-ir complementary in-use
enforcement role, both in areas where new product regulations
have been established and in localized problem areas more
susceptible to State rather than Federal enforcement.

1975 Noise Program....,...-.,...	,....,..   $5,455,200
  Abatement and Control,..,	,.,,.,.,.,.   +4,703,200
    An Increase associated with additional
    personnel and contract support to hasten
    the development of standards and guide-
  Enforcement	..../.	,	   +  500»400
    An increase to provide a noise enforcement
  Research and Development	........   -  499,900
    A decrease associated with reprpgramming
    of personnel and funds to higher priority
    areas.                                             . .
1976 Noise Program Request.	,.    10,158,900

                       Summary of Resources
                      (dollars In thousands)
Budget Authority
Abatement and Control
Standards and
Guidelines 	 $3
Subtotal... 4
Noise Enforcement
Research and Development
Processes and
Control Technology
Subtotal . . .
351 .0

              Total...   5,455.2

End-Of-Year Employment
Abatement and Control
Standards and
Subtotal . . .
Noise Enforcement
Research and Development
» « «
      Processes and
        Effects......          1

Abatement and

imp t
of all these activities, EPA disseminates  information on  the
effects of noise, acceptable noise levels, and techniques
for noise measurement and control.


                 Abatement and Control

               Standards and Guidelines
                           1975          1976         Change

Standards and
  guidelines	    $3S467S600    $8,264,400    +$4,796,800

     The Noise Control Act of 1972 requires the Environmental
Protection Agency to promote an environment   free from
noise that jeopardizes public health and welfare.  The major
regulatory thrusts of this legislation are establishing noise
emission standards for newly manufactured products which are
major sources of noise and designating products for labeling
as to noise levels; development and promulgation of standards
for interstate railroad and motor carriers (enforced by the
Department of Transportation); and developing and recommending
to the Federal Aviation Administration standards for the
control of aircraft and airport noise.

1975 Program and Accomplishments

     All actions with mandatory deadlines under the legis-
lation will be completed in 1975.  These actions include:

     - Publication of a criteria document (Section 5 of the
       Noise Control Act);  .

     - Publication of a document defining requisite noise
       levels protective of health and welfare (Section 5 of
       the Act);

     - Promulgation of initial regulations for in-use
       interstate motor carriers (Section 18) and railroads
       (Section 17)(enforced by DOT);

     - Publication of the first and second lists in a series
       identifying major sources of noise (Section 5);

     - Promulgation of the two new product (portable air
       compressor and medium and heavy duty trucks)
       regulations required by the initial listing of major
       noise sources; and

     - mo 11 cation or a report to Congress on airport-
       aircraft noise problems.

     Other major actions will include the proposal of
eight aircraft regulations to the FAA and proposal of
labeling regulations for hearing protectors.  In addition,
active interagency panels have been established for the
coordination of Federal noise research and development.
Environmental impact statements will also be reviewed.

1976 Plan

     - Obtain cost, technology, and health effects assessment
       data for 19 potential product regulations.  These   ,
       include actions relative to 11 transportation, six
       construction and two general products;

     - Publish five proposed product regulations;

     - Promulgate three and publish several proposed labeling

     - Obtain preliminary advanced planning cost, technology,
       and health effects data on future possible candidates
       for regulations; and

     - Provide inputs to FAA aircraft and airport regulations.

Purpose of Increase

     In 1975, regulations suggested by the aircraft and
airport noise report completed in 1974 will be developed and
proposed to FAA for promulgation.  To ensure adoption and
implementation of these regulations, man-years must continue
to be devoted to maintaining a close working relationship
with the FAA and to defending or revising the proposals.
Also, the rate at which noise emission standards for surface
transportation and other new products are developed and
proposed must be significantly stepped up.  The maior
program increase in funding is fn this area.   While  a
significant beginning was made in this area in 1975, the
funding recognizes the necessary increase in rate of
regulation to meet the program goals and the fact that it
requires between two and three years of time to carry a
regulation and supporting documentation from inception
to promulgation.  The proposed budget increase will  allow
needed expansion of those activities.

                                       Abatement and Control
I  •!                                     Technical Assistance

       development and implementation of noise control

     - Updating a report on State and local  governments'
       nonoccupational noise programs for use in preparing
       a report to Congress on the status of noise control

     - Conducting community noise surveys to characterize
       public health and welfare effects of noise which
       will  be useful in the development of noise product
       regulations and become part of an on-going national
       community environmental noise assessment program;

     - Consultation with all Federal agencies which propose
       standards and regulations for noise control;

     - Stimulation of Federal interagency and intergovern-
       mental coordination to deal with noise control

     - Submission of the first report to the Congress  on
       the status of noise control and research programs
       of all Federal agencies; and .

     - Stimulation of the development of low noise
       emission products by certifying certain products as
       eligible for preference in Federal Government
       purchasing practices.
1976 Plan
     - Publish model  local  government noise ordiances;

     - Publish noise  guidelines for local  building codes;

     - Continue technical  assistance to States and local
       governments in development of noise control programs;

     - Collect information and data (noise surveys, etc.)  to
       be used in development of product regulations;

     - Complete second report on the status and progress of
       Federal noise  research and control  programs;

     - Assist Federal installations to comply with State
       and local  noise requirements; and

                                   aeveiopment of trend noise monitoring systems
                          for future assessment of noise impacts.

                   Purpose of Decrease

                        In order to fully support the development of standards
                   and regulations, some technical assistance resources will be
                   redirected to the collection and interpretation of product
                   source emission data and measuring techniques.




                         1975           1976      Decrease

Budget Authority
    Enforcement...     $21,300	$521,700     +$500,400

       Total.	      21,300        52197QQ     +500,400

  Noi se
    Enforcement...	1     	10    	±9.

       Total......           1             10            +9

     The purpose of the noise enforcement program is to
achieve compliance with Federal noise standards and labeling
requirements for new products as authorized by the Noise
Control Act of 1972 and developed as discussed in the
abatement and control section.

     The noise enforcement program will assure compliance
with the noise emission standards promulgated under the
Noise Control Act by the Office of Noise Abatement and

     After satisfying the increased costs for personnel,
the primary emphasis will be upon the selection and develop-
ment of a Noise Test Facility with which to implement the
enforcement of the standards.

1975 Program and Accomplishments

     In 1975, emphasis in the noise enforcement program
will be on locating and developing a Noise Test Facility
site and strategy, and developing policy and regulations for
achieving compliance with Federal noise standards and labeling

requirements for new products.  In 1975, the Agency plans
to promulgate regulations for implementing the enforcement
strategy for new product noise emission standards (medium
and heavy duty trucks and portable air compressors), to
develop the strategy for Federal enforcement of such stan-
dards in-use, and to participate in finalization of labeling
requirements for new products.  EPA will consult with the
Department of Treasury on development and finalization or
regulations for new products offered for importation which
are subject to noise standards, and will develop procedures
for coordinating with the Department of Transportation in
the enforcement of new truck* new compressor, and motor
carrier standards.

     A Noise Test Facility site will be selected and develop-
ment begun to provide the means for carrying out enforcement
of new truck, new compressors and motor carrier standards.
We will also develop policies for assisting State/local
enforcement authorities in regulating products in-use.

1976 Plan

New Product Noise.Enforcement

     The new product noise emission standards for medium and
heavy duty trucks and portable air compressors are scheduled
to be promulgated in the spring of 1975.  These new truck
noise emission standards are to be effective for 1977 model
year vehicles which will be produced in the fall of 1976;
the new compressor standards will be effective in the spring
of 1976.  EPA enforcement of these standards will begin as
soon as manufacturers notify EPA that they wish to begin
production verification,  Manufacturers have indicated that
they desire the flexibility to verify production models before
the regulations are effective.  This may be as soon as they
are promulgated.  This verification will require evaluation
and monitoring by EPA.

     The strategy for enforcement of new product noise
emission standards for medium and heavy duty trucks and
portable air compressors, consists of a two part enforcement
strategy - (1) auditing of noise emission performance of
new products, and (2) production verification.

     Resources requested provide for the development of an
EPA standard test capability.  This capability is essential
to support the enforcement activities for enforcement of

new products subject to noise emission standards by audit
and for new product verification.

     Auditing of noise emission performance of new products
is a continuing audit conducted pursuant to a test request
issued by EPA to determine whether manufacturers produce
complying products.  An EPA audit staff will be required to
select the manufacturers and products to be tested, prepare
the test orders, monitor compliance with the test orders,
perform such confirmatory testing as may be required, take
appropriate action in the case of nonconformity, and conduct
investigations as necessary.

     The second part of the enforcement strategy, production
verification, calls for each manufacturer to verify that he
possesses the required technology and ability to enable his
new products to conform to the applicable noise standards.
Productions verification is required at the beginning of the
model year when a new model is introduced during the year or
when a significant change occurs to a previously verified
product.  Although production verification is for the most
part conducted by the individual manufacturers, EPA staff
will be responsible for evaluating the production verification
reports, monitoring in a selective basis production verifi-
cation testing, and conducting inspections and investigations
concerning manufacturers' activities as necessary.

In-Use Noi se JEnfgrcemenjt

     Under the Noise Control Act, both States and, in some
respects, the Federal Government have the authority to regulate
products in-use.  Federal responsibility in this area extends
to enforcement of Federal useful life standards through recall
and warranty requirements, enforcement of the Federal pro-
hibition against tampering, and assisting States in setting
up enforcement programs for products in-use.

     At the present time, no major State enforcement programs
for noise sources have been developed.  The Federal Government
must help States to lay the groundwork for establishing such
programs if there is to be adequate in-use enforcement of
products subject to noise emission standards.  A model
State enforcement program, including model legislation, must
be developed.  This will require close contact with regional
offices, 50 States, and many local jurisdictions,

     The State programs will succeed only to the extent that
they are based on a well conceived Federal program.  A

Federal recall program must be established, since most States
and local governments would not be able to establish a recall
program on their own.  In addition to a recall activity, the
noise enforcement program will also require a warranty and
tampering activity.  Planning for the Federal in-use noise
enforcement program will occur in 1976 with implementation
slated for 1977.

Purpose of Increase

     New Sources

     The purpose of the increase in 1976 is to enforce new
product noise emission standards for medium and heavy duty
trucks and portable air compressors through:  production
verification, auditing of noise emission performance of new
products, and the establishment of a standard test facility
in support of these activities and to support development of
the enforcement test facility.

     In-Use Sources

     The purpose of the increase in 1976 for in-use sources
is to establish Federal recall, warranty, and tampering pro-
grams for new products in-use, and to provide direction to
State and local in-use noise enforcement programs through
the development of a model State enforcement program.

Research and


                      Research and Development

                                    1975           1976       Decrease

Budget Authority
  Processes and Effects..       $351,000            ...      -$351,000
  Control Technology ---- ,        193,900        $45,000 _ -148,900

    Total ........ ... ____ .        544,900         45,000       -499,900

End-of-Year Employment
  Processes and Effects..              1            ....             -1
  Control Technology .....       _ 2 _ 1     _ £I_
    Total ..... ..... ......              3              1             -2


    The noise research and development effort concentrates on coordinating
the research programs of all Federal agencies in accordance with the
Noise Control Act of 1972 in order to expand and improve the scientific
and technical base for noise control and abatement programs.


        ,              Research and Development

                        Processes and Effects

                                    1975           1976          Change

Processes and effects...        $351S000            ...       -$351,000

    In support of EPA's responsibilities related to the standard setting
and enforcement role of the Agency, health effects research is directed
to the development and improvement of criteria which Congress has stated
will be the basis for setting any noise emission standards.  There are
numerous gaps in knowledge and extensive areas of technical and scientific
disagreements which require a research effort.

1975 Program

    This year, studies are being conducted on the effects of hearing
impairment from various types of noise exposure of greater than eight
hour duration, and on the effects of body vibrations combined with noise
on potential hearing loss.  Investigations are also under way to study
behavioral correlates of varying noise environments, as well as studies
to explore the role of various stimuli in the adaptation of nonauditory
physiological system reactions to noise.  Additionally, studies are
planned on response effects to time-varying noise.  A symposium is
scheduled to discuss the critical issues on the effects of environmental
noise on hearing.

1975 Accomplishments

    The health effects program was begun in 1974.  There have been no
significant accomplishments to date.

Purpose of Decrease

    To effectively meet the research needs to support and/or revise
existing environmental noise criteria and subsequent standards, a program
with resources of approximately $2 million is required.  Because these
resources are not available and a significant research effort cannot be
maintained at the present low level of funding, current noise resources
could more effectively be used in another program area.  It Is, therefores
necessary for EPA to rely on other Federal agencies to provide noise
health effects research,


                   Research and Development

                     Control Technology

                           1975          1976       Change

Control technology..   $193S900       $45,000    -$148,900

    From the legislative history of the Noise Control Act,
and the limited funds assigned for implementing the Act, it is
clear that Congress intends that EPA utilize the research and
technology generated by other Federal agencies to help fulfill
the provisions of the Act.  Therefore, Federal noise research
coordination is viewed as a major resource whereby EPA will
achieve its research, development and demonstration requirements
to support the regulatory and enforcement activities of the

    The coordination task is extensive.  Federal agencies or
departments having noise research activities are Department of
Transportations NASA3 Department of Defense (Army and Navy),
Department of Interior, Department of Agriculture, Post Office,
and the Veterans Administration.  Aircraft noise control
research accounts for 87 percent or more of the total Federal
allocation from 1973 through 1976.  Other major Federal efforts
are under way in research on noise health effects, surface
transportation noise control, stationary machinery noise control,
and noise measurements methodology.

1975 Program

    EPA has developed a program to coordinate federally sponsored
noise research, development, and demonstration activities that
utilizes four noise research panels:  (1) aircraft, (2) surface
transportation, (3) stationary machinery, and (4) noise health
effects.  This approach assures EPA continuing access to
agencies' noise research arid development programs and scientific
expertise.  The current program will complete an inventory of
Federal noise research and development programs and the ability
of these activities to satisfy environmental health and welfare

1975 Accomplishments

    - A plan to coordinate Federal noise research activities
      has been developed and intiated, and

    - A preliminary inventory of Federal noise research and
      development has hepn

1976 Plan

    Starting in 1976, the noise program will perform only coordination
of the Federal noise research program in accordance with provision
of the Noise Control Act,

Purpose of Decrease

    The proposed decrease reflects the consolidation of noise research
and development efforts into a single coordination program, allowing
an increased effort by the EPA regulatory program.



                       Summary of Resources
                      (dollars in thousands)
Budget Authority
  Research and Development
  ""   Processes and
        Effects.,.,    $17,452.9
        Technology.      1,314.6
            Total.,     18,767.5

End-of-Year Employment

  Research and Development
      Processes andr~
        Effects,..         240
        Technology    	12



Research and


                     Research  and Development

Budget Authority
  Processes and
    Effects.......... $17,452,900
  Control Technology   1,314,600
    Total	   18,767,500    20,775,800

End-of-Year imployjient
  Processes and~~
  Control Technology
Overyi ew and Strategy
« * *
• * »
     It is clear that EPA is responsible for making and
implementing decisions concerning the use of common property
environmental resources, i.e., the air, water, wilderness,
'etc., and must consider the interrelationship of these resources
and our social and economic wellbeing.  Thus, EPA functions
in many ways as an environmental manager.  This function
requires the use of a wide range of assessment vehicles —
theoretical, operational, and managerial.  The interdisciplinary
research program is designed to supply these vehicles through
conduct of socio-economic research, the development of quality
assurance procedures for use in regional and State programs,
the development of standard setting methodologies, and the
production of assessment documents on pollutants for which
standards may be established.


                     Research and Development

                       Processes and Effects

                            1975          1976       Change

Processes and
  effects	...    $17,452,900   $19,460,800  +$2,007,900

     The components of this program are socio-economic
research, minority institutions research support, monitoring,
the National Center for lexicological Research, program inte-
gration, and the Science Advisory Board.

     A program of research grants to minority institutions
in the area of environmental research is conducted by EPA.
Minority institutions which have or can develop capability
to conduct effective environmental research are actively
sought, assisted in preparation of grant applications, and
encouraged to submit them.

     The Office of Monitoring Systems has the responsibility
for development and demonstration of new monitoring methods
and instrumentation.  Improved technical data and information
systems are required to satisfy Agency monitoring data needs
in the most effective manner.  There is also a quality assur-
ance program to maintain uniform, scientifically correct
analytical methods and assure and document the satisfactory
use of those methods throughout EPA's numerous laboratories.
In addition, it provides technical assistance in the remote
conventional and contingency monitoring areas.

     The National Center for Toxicological Research is being
funded jointly by the Food and Drug Administration and EPA
as a national facility to study the long-term effects of
low doses of chemical toxicants.  Past research efforts
associated with these toxicants has been concentrated on high
doses and their effects on man.  Concern has arisen in the
scientific community regarding the possibility that much more
severe damage to man and the environment may be occurring
through low dose exposure to toxicants over a long period
of time.  Research must be undertaken to evaluate such
cumulative, low dosage effects.

     The Office of Program Integration was established to
assure that research and engineering strategies and programs

provide maximum responsiveness to Agency goals.  This activity
also includes the coordination and preparation of reports on
criteria,, guidelines., and standards and the preparation of
other special reports.

     The Science Advisory Board was established to provide a
strongs direct link between EPA's Administrator and the
scientific community.  The Science Advisory Board functions
to provide independent reviews., to render advice on EPA's
major scientific programs9 and to perform special tasks
and program review assignments for EPA.  This Board also
provides advice on broad scientific and policy matters, on
new emerging environmental problemss and assesses the results
of specific research efforts to solve these problems.

1975 Program and Accomplishments

     Minority Institutions Research Support(MIRS)

     MIRS provides assistance to minority institutions in
utilizing their environmental research capabilities.  Program
efforts are directed to identifying their potential and award-
ing grants to develop their research capabilities.  The 1975
program supports 10 to 12 new projects.

     Socio-economic Research
     This effort is directed to development techniques for
setting environmental quality standardss preparation of
technical materials for standardizing EPA review of environ-
mental impact statements, and development of precise mechanisms
to quantify effects of investments on highway and wastewater
treatment facilities.  Additionally* work advanced toward com-
pletion of Phase III of the strategic environmental assessment
system (SEAS) which will be used for long-range comprehensive
analysis.  The research program also assumed responsibility
for preparation of the congressionally mandated 1975 "Cost of
a Clean Environment Report."


     There are many active projects in the quality control
area.  These include completion of first phases of on-site
evaluation of EPA regional laboratories and selected State
laboratories; the first step in expansion of quality control
procedures to cover State monitoring laboratories; completion
of phase one of a series of performance evaluations (analyses

                    of standard samples)  of EPA and State facilities with  respect
                    to their routine analyses of air,  water,  pesticides, and radio-
                    activity samples; development of quality  control manuals for
                    pesticide residues and radiochemical  analyses;  completion of
                    the feasibility study of EPA certification of environmental
                    monitoring laboratories! completion of projects to fully
                    automate (using mini-computers) three EPA laboratoriesj  and
I  '                  completion of a time-shared laboratory data management system
                    at two regional laboratories.

                         In the area of methodology^ active projects include
;                    validation of ambient air and stationary  source measurement
                    methods specified in  Federal Regulations, evaluation of  five
                    measurement methods for analyses of water and wastewater,
                    determination of equivalent methods for ambient air analyses
                    as required by regulation, field testing  and evaluation  of
                    commercially available ambient air instrumentation, and  the
  '-                  design of an airborne laser pollutant measurement system.

                         Efforts in technical support  include the analysis of
                    2,000 samples associated with the  national fuel and fuel
                    additive network, monitoring of sulfate background level's,
                    continuing support of the World Meteorological  Organization
                    particulate studiess  rural ozone studies  and monitoring
                    of CO in connection with transportation control strategies,
                    and the provision on  a regular basis of a photo interpreta-
                    tion capability in support of regional and other monitoring

                         Contingency monitoring assistance indicated vinyl chloride
                    to be an environmental problem, and demonstrated that  acid
                    mist from the Vulcanus burning of  chloride-containing  wastes
                    was not a significant environmental problem.

                         Reports will be  prepared on the subjects of nonpoint
                    source pollutions groundwater monitorings and biological
                    indicators.  An Agency plan will be developed in cooperation
  :                 with the Department of the Air Force for  the use of a
                    sophisticated data and information storage and  retrieval system
                    in support of monitoring activities.

  ;                      National Center  for lexicological Research (NCTR)

  ,                      The program at NCTR is a long range  effort involving
  \                 animal testing over extended periods and  maintenance of  a
                    pathogen-free environment with associated chemical and micro-
                    biological facilities.  Included in the on-going programs
                    are low-dose two year chronic studies in  "barrier systems,"

additional chronic studies in conventional animal rooms and
mutagenic research involving assay techniques and methodology
development.  During this year, it is also planned to complete.
the 2S 49 5-T multidisciplinary study, expand teratological
dose-response experiments and complete protocol development

     In the maintenance program., important efforts are establish-
ment of pathology capability to accommodate 750 mice per week
preparation of pathogen-free animal feed which is chemically
defined and uniformly mixed with very low levels of test

     Program Integration

     In program integration, the primary objective is com-
pletion of development of integrated media strategies for
the Office of Research and Development.

1976 Plan

     Minority Institutions Research Support

     The grant program will be continued at the 1975 level.

     Sacio-economic Research

     The 1976 effort is concentrating research in five areas:
(1) Continued development of comprehensive analysis techniques
(the SEAS program) but with greatly increased stress on
application; (2) Work on the benefits of EPA programs with
the air and water results being Incorporated into comprehensive
new versions of "Cost of Clean Air and Cost of Clean Water";
(3) Continued land-use work leading to practical guidelines
and manuals for implementation of integrated Air Quality
Maintenance and Section 208 Regulations; (4) An assessment
of the practicality of finding and implementing economically
more efficient means of meeting environmental ambient standards;
and (5) Work to define the problems of secondary impacts and
to discover technical and managerial measures to avoid them.


     There will be a continued.effort on interlaboratory
performance tests9 validation of new methods for determining
air pollutants, including sulfates in automobile exhausts;
on-site performance evaluation of EPA regional and State
monitoring laboratories; data screening quality control for

an EPA data system; and demonstration of advanced airborne

     Instrumentation work includes the development of a
detector for airborne mercury and methodology for the measure-
ment of sulphur in low sulphur fuels.  Mercury is one of three
air pollutants designated as hazardous and to be closely con-
trolled.  Sulfur measurement procedures are required in the
identification of fuels that can be burned with minimum
pollution control requirements.

     In the general monitoring area9 monitoring network
optimization guides and overhead monitoring techniques will
be developed.

     National Center for Toxi'cological Research (NCTR)

     The plan for 1976 is a continuation of the 1975 program.
Because the fundamental basis for toxicological research is
long-term, the program is extended beyond a single year.  Thes
program details have been included above in the discussion of
the 1975 program.  A new objective has been added involving
inhalation studies of toxic substances of interest to EPA.

     Program Integration

     The effort for 1976 will be directed to establishing
procedures and coordinating the development of scientific
technical assessment reports, updating the media strategies
of the Office of Research and Development and continuing
coordination of the integrated, research and development
program with other EPA programs.

Purpose of Increase

     National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR)

     The potentially adverse effects of long-terms low level
exposure to air pollutants are not currently being studied.
The work at NCTR will be expanded to study these effects
and fill a crucial information need of the Agency by establish-
ing an inhalation toxicology capability.  Current inhalation
toxicology capability is limited to exposing relatively
small numbers of animals with the result that only gross effects
(frequently occurring) are detectable.  The operation of this
inhalation capability requires a budget increase of $2.0
mi 11 ion.


                     Research and Development

                        Control  Technology

                            1975          1976       Change

Control technology..  $1,314,600    $1,315,000        +$400

     This activity supports EPA's technology transfer program.
In the coming decade» billions of dollars will be invested
In the construction of pollution control3 water quality, waste
managements and resource recovery facilities.  The objective
of the technology transfer program is to ensure that the
latest viable technologies are transferred to potential users,
The technology transfer program is designed to bridge the gap
between research and full-scale use by evaluating and trans-
ferring newly developed successful technology to industries,
consulting engineers, municipal  and State design engineers,
administrative decision makers, and others exerting influence
over the design and construction of pollution control, water
quality, waste management, and resource recovery facilities.

1975 Plan and Accomplishments

     The technology transfer program will have conducted 25
seminars on various aspects of pollution control technology,
developed design manuals for a variety of technologies,
and distributed over 250,000 publications of various degrees
of technical complexity.

1976 Plan

     The 1976 program will concentrate on disseminating
information via seminars and manuals.  The number of seminars
already developed in the municipal and industrial sectors will
be increased and new ones conducted in the area of stationary
source air pollution control technologys industrial control
processes, air monitoring, nonpoint source pollution, ground
water quality, land disposal of effluents and sludges, and
solid waste management and resource recovery.

     Municipal wastewater treatment design manuals, industrial
pollution control process design manualss and industrial
technology status manuals will be prepared covering such sub-
jects as land disposal of effluents and sludges, individual

home waste treatment and disposal, combined flow treatment,
solid waste -management9 resource recovery9 Ion exchange, carbon
absorption, reverse osmosis, NO  and SCL control, fine parti-
eulate control, nitrogen controls pollution control  in the
pulp and paper Industry, power industry, and air monitoring.
Publications will also be prepared on other areas of pollution
control and water supply.

Toxic Substances

                        Toxic Substances
Budget Authority
  Abatement and
  Research and
    Devel opment , .

  Abatement and
    Control ---- .
  Research and
    Devel opment.
$6,838,200    $6,850,300

 1.208,600     1, 209 s OOP
                                                     +$12,1 OP

 8,046,800    8,059,300
» • *
* • *
Overview and Strategy

     Today there are more than 20,000 chemical substances
being produced in the United States for commercial purposes,
with 500 to 700 new chemicals introduced into the marketplace
each year.  Of this number about 80 percent are toxic under
some conditions, and about 1.5 percent are sufficiently
hazardous to cause environmental concern.  A number of these
chemical compounds, such as vinyl chloride, arsenic, pol-
ychlorinated biphenyls, asbestos, and others, have been in-
volved in incidents which have created widespread public
attention.  These factors and others led EPA to create its
toxic substances program.

     EPA's current toxic substances program is carried on
under the authorities granted in the Agency's major legisla-
tive mandates, such as the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act, and other authorities.  Major program
activities include development and coordination of Agency
efforts under these authorities addressed to the problems
of toxic materials which cross traditional media lines, use
and development of predictive techniques for early warning
in identification of substances most likely "to pose a

hazard to man or the environment, implementation of methods
for monitoring air, water, and soil for selected toxic
chemicalss and development of control strategies for multi-
media toxic pollutants.  Research is being conducted into
the health effects of selected toxic substances and their
metabolites to provide data on chemicals of current concern
and provide background to support future regulatory efforts.

     EPA will continue to deal with toxic substance problems
by relying on other legislative authorities, either singularly
or in combinations to mitigate as much of the hazard as
possible.  In addition, the Agency is increasingly encour-
aging the major chemical producers and processors to take
more substantive voluntary steps to reduce chemical risks
and contribute to environmental goals.

 Summary  of  Increases and Decreases
••                '    '    '
 1975  Toxic  Substances Program		        $8,046,800
  Abatement and Control	           +12,100
      The Increase requested will  support
      the full-year cost of the October
      1974 pay raise.
  Research  and Development		......              HOO
      This increase is required for a
      minor  adjustment in personnel
      compensation and benefits.	
 1976 Toxic  Substances Program Request	         8,059,300

                         Toxic Substances

                       Summary of Resources
                      (dollars in thousands)
Budget Authority

  Abatement and Control
      Standards and
  Research and Development
      Standards and
  Research and Development
      Processes and
        Effects	          11
Processes and
Effects 	 1,208.6 1,209.0
Total... 8,046.8 8,059.3
End"0f-Year Employment
Abatement and Control
+ .4


Abatement and

                          Toxic Substances

                        Abatement and Control

                                    1975           1976       Decrease

Budget Authority
  Standards and Guidelines.   $6,838.,200     $6.850.300       +$12.100

    Total	    6,838,200      6,850,300        +12,100

End-of-Year Employment
  Standards and Guidelines.   	45	45	    _.^.:

    Total	           45             45            f.,


    The primary goal of the toxic substances abatement and control
program is to reduce the danger to man and the environment posed by
toxip substances,  EPA plans to achieve this goal without placing
needless burdens on industry.  Accordingly the toxic substances program
1s designed to reduce the probability of incidents harmful to health
or the environment resulting from toxic substances.  Program activities
are directed to:  clarification of the risks to health and the environ-
ment associated with the manufacture, distribution, use, and disposal
Of new and existing chemical substances, with particular regard to
chemical properties, production levels and trends, and exposure of the
chemicals to man and the environment; more effective utilization of
regulatory authorities and related tools available to the Agency to
mitigate such risks, taking into account the economic and social impact
of restrictions on toxic substances; and increasing the concern of and
appropriate actions by the chemical and related industries to reduce
risks to health and the environment associated with their activities.

1975 Program

    The following activities are being pursued in 1975:

    - New Approaches to Testing:  This activity emphasizes encouraging
      increased industrial concern and appropriate actions in testing
      both new and existing chemicals entering commerce.  Particular
      interest centers on those chemicals for which there are inadequate
      data concerning environmental risks but which are suspected pf
      posing a hazard.

        Is directed to identifying and prioritizing previously
        unsuspected chemicals  entering the environment which
        are most likely to pose a hazard in the near future.

     "  Data System:  This activity will  improve the ready
        availability in a usable  form of authoritative
        information concerning the manufacture, use, dis-
        tributions  and disposal of chemical substances.  This
        information base will  assist in  identifying those
        new chemical  substances entering commerce which
        deserve in-depth analyses to determine whether they
        pose a threat.

     -  Strategy Development and Coordination: This effort
        emphasizes  identification of interrelationships and
        common purposes of toxic substances; regulatory
        strategies  and standards required under different
        authorities;  multiple applications and transferability
        of principles used in  setting standards on the same
        or similar  substances  under different authorities;
        and multiple sources of the same toxic substances,
        their accumulation in  different media, their routes
        through the environment, and their pathways to
        human exposure.  Also  of concern is the interface
        between EPA activities and the authorities and
        interests of other agencies, including FDA, QSHA, NQI,
        and CPSC.

     -  Response to Crises:  Significant  resources will continue
        to be committed to coordinating  EPA responses to crises
        involving toxic substances that  unexpectedly occur
        throughout  the country.

     -  Chemical and Economic Assesment: EPA analyses classes of
        chemicals as the basis for determining the risks
        associated  with new products in  these classes which
        are likely  to appear on the market in the near future.
        Central to  consideration of options is the balancing
        of risks and benefits.

1975 Accompl1s hments

     -  Initiation  of action programs to clarify and reduce
        the risks associated with several highly texfc chemicals,
        and substances (e.g. asbestoss vinyl chloride and
        polyvinyl chloride); and

    - Response to crises involving sucn toxic cnemicais
      as vinyl chloride, conduct of monitoring to establish
      the scope and magnitude of the problem, and suggestion
      of means for mitigating or eliminating the hazards .
1976 Plan
    - Continue review and evaluation of testing methods;
    - Continue development of criteria and techniques for  early
      warning through identification of toxic substances which
      may pose a hazard;
    " Complete development of a data system that will enable quick
      identification on chemicals of concern;
    - Continue response to crises involving toxic substances; and
    - Begin analysis of chemical classes as the basis for
      determining the risks associated with new products.
Purpose of Increase
    The requested increase will support the full-year costs of
the October 1974 pay raise.

Research and

                      Toxic Substances

                  Research and Development

                           1975          1976       Decrease

Budget Authority
  Processes and
   Effects........   $1,208,600    $1.209.000	*$400

    Total...	    1,208,600     1,209,000           +400

  Processes and
   Effects........           11            11            ...
    Total.........           11            11


    This program supports EPA's Office of Toxic Substances
by carrying out research on the effects of toxic substances and
their metabolites on human health and the ecosystem.  Protocols
for testing substances to determine the potential hazard'of
their release into the environment are developed.  Information
is needed on the transport and persistence of toxic substances
as well as their ecological and health effects.  Analytical
chemistry methods are being developed to measure and identify
these pollutants.

                       loxic instances

                   Research and Development

                     Processes and Effects

                                1975       1976        Change

Processes and effects...   $1,208,600 $1,209,000         +$400

    A program of research on the effects of toxic substances and
their metabolites on human health is essential to suppprt the
activities of EPA's Office of Toxic Substances.  Protocols for
premarket testing of toxic substances must be established and
validated, and criteria must be established for deciding which
toxic substances should be declared hazardous to human health.

    A program to determine the ecological processes and effects
of pollutants designated as toxic substances is under way.  Data
are collected to provide a sound scientific basis for the
establishment of water quality standards for such uses as public
water supply, recreation, fish and wildlife propagation, agricultural
supply and industrial purposes.  Information is developed to
relate the concentration, form, transport processes, and acute
and chronic effects of toxic substances to the size, character,
compositions and location of these sources.

1975 Program

    An evaluation of the hazards of human contact with toxic
substances is being implemented by conducting animal toxicology
studies of specific compounds.  The development of laboratory
methods for toxicological screening of toxic substances to
identify which compounds are likely to persist in the environment
or have adverse effects on man or aquatic and terrestrial life
is being conducted.  To evaluate mammalian effects, a variety
of tissues are exposed to the compounds.  To evaluate ecolpgical
effects, the compounds are tested in model ecosystems designed
to study specific characteristics,

1975 Accomplishments

    - Discovered in a chronic feeding study that hexachlorobenzene
      accumulates to more toxic levels in the second generation
      than the first generation of animals;

                       - Discovered  that cadmium is a moderately strong agent in
                        inducing  birth defects; and

                       - Published an  interim  analytical method for asbestos in
»-1                 1976  Plan
                       - Toxicology  studies on substances of current interest will
                        be  continued,  as will development of screening methods
                        by  which  toxic substances can be identified.  In addition,
                        studies of  the sources, transport, and biological
                        effects of  toxic substances  in terrestial ecosystems are
                        being  planned.  Another significant objective planned for
                        1976 is completion of the design of an automated
                        analytical  method for asbestos in water and development
                        of  sampling techniques,

                   Purpose of Increase

                       This  increase is  required for  a minor adjustment in personnel
                   compensation and  benefits.

Management and

                 Program Management and Support
Budget Authority
  Abatement and
  Research and


  Abatement and
    Control	,
  Research and

$31,529,800   $35,975,600  +$4,445,800
 13,425,800    15,643,900  + 2,218,100

 18,587,300    18,536,400  -    50,900

 63,542,900    70,155,900   +6,613,000
- 2

     This media encompasses the overall management and
support of the action oriented programs described in the
foregoing media sections.  Resources for the Assistant
Administrators, their principal deputies, office directors
and their immediate staffs are provided directly through
the Program Management and Support media, rather than
through charges to each of the program media.  Management
functions covered include the development of program
policies and strategies, planning of media activities,
monitoring and review of program performance, including
that performed in the regions, and the direction of program
activities carried out in headquarters.  In the enforcement
area, program management also includes the staffing and
funds for EPA's Office of General Counsel at headquarters
and Offices of Regional Counsel in the ten regions.

     Basic support services provided to all Agency functions
are managed centrally and charged back to each appropriation
on a prorated basis.  The program support subactivity in each
appropriation includes that portion of costs required to

             support the programs conducted and funded under the
             appropriation.  Specific descriptions of support services
             and proposed changes for 1976 are included in the section
|             on Agency and Regional Management.

1975 Program Management and Support..	     $63,542,900

  Abatement and Control..................        + 4,445,800

    Program Support - see Agency and
    Regional Management

  Enforcement................	........        + 2,218,100

    Program Management.  An increase of
    25 positions is required for the Office
    of General  Counsel  and Offices of
    Regional Counsel  which will  be somewhat
    offset by a decrease of 5 water enforce-
    ment support positions.  The growing
    number of grants, contracts, and
    similar documents requiring  legal
    review and increased litigation have
    produced a rapidly growing workload.

    Program Support - +1,772,700,   See
    Agency and Regional Management. .

  Research and Development,...	        -    50,900

     Program Support - see Agency and
     Regional Management,                       	
1976 Program Management and Support Request      70,155,900

                       Summary of Resources
                      (dollars in thousands)

Budget Authority

  Abatement and Control
        Management,...  $6,163.9
      Program Support.  25,365.9
            Subtotal.,  18,587,3

      Program Support


              Total.,.  639542.9

End-of-Year Employment
  Abatement and Control
      Program Support.
            Subtotal,.  31,529.8      35,975.6       +4S445.8

  Research and Development
        Management....   6,987.5       4,876.5       -2s111.0
      Program Support.  11.599.8      13,659.9       +2,060.1

Research and Development
Management ....
Program Support.
Subtotal . .
Program Support.
Subtotal . .
Total .
» * 8
• * *
» a »
* » »
• a a
e * e

Abatement and

                Program Management and Support

                     Abatement and Control
Budget Authority

$6,163,900    $6,398,000    +$234,100

25,365,900    29,577,600   +4,211.700

31,529,800    35,975,600    4,445,800

     This'subactivi'ty provides the resources for management
and support services required for each of the media programs
funded through the Abatement and Control appropriation.

               Program Management and Support

                    Abatement and Control

                      Program Management

                           1975          1976        Change

Program management..  $6,163,900    $6,398,000     +$234,100

     This subactivity provides for the overall  management of
the Office of Air and Waste Management and the  Office of
Water and Hazardous Materials, including program planning,
policy and strategy development, performance monitoring and
review (including those portions of the program carried out
in the ten regional offices), and direction of  headquarters
activities.  To carry out these functions, managerial
positions are provided to each office as follows:

                                         1975          1976

   Office of Air and Waste Management      37            37
   Office of Air Quality Planning and
     Standards...........	      11            11
   Office of Mobile Sources Air
     Pol 1 ution Control	,..,        13            14
   Office of Solid Waste Management
     Programs		         9             9
   Office of Radiation Programs	        25            25
   Office of Noise Abatement and
     Control....		         8	8

     Total, Office of Air and Waste
       Management........	,	       103           104

   Office of Water and Hazardous
     Materials	,...,	        31            31
   Office of Water Programs Operations      6             3
   Office of Water Planning and
     Standards..,,	         8             8
   Office of Pesticides Programs....        38            38
   Office of Toxic Substances..,»...      	5          	5_

     Total, Office of Water and
       Hazardous Materials..,.......        88            85

     Another six positions and $173S500 are provided to the
Intergovernmental Relations Division of the Office of
Legislation.  This Division provides liaison and coordination
with State, interstate, and local government organizations.

Purpose of Increase

     This increase represents the full-year cost of the
October 1974 pay raise as well as a transfer of funds between

                 program Management and Support

                     Abatement and Control

                       Program Support

                            1975          1976       Change

Program support..... $25,365,900   $2935775600  +.$4,211,700

     This subacttvlty Includes the prorated share of EPA's
total funding requirements of common support services.
These funding requirements cover certain agency wide and
regional leases, communications, and other common service
costs which are managed through a single headquarters and
ten regional accounts.  These requirements are fully
described in the section covering Agency and Regional
Management,  The prorated share charged under this element
represents that portion required to support the programs
funded and conducted under the Abatement and Control appro-
priation account,


     This increase, together with those under similar
elements in the Research and Development and Enforcement
appropriation accounts, are described under the section
covering Agency and Regional Management.


t -1
                                              1975           1976

                     Budget Authority
                         Management	  $3,859,700     $4,305,100
                       Program Support.   9,566,100     1153383800
                             Total.....  13,425,800     15,643,900
                     End-of-Year Employment
                       Program Support.  	

                          This activity encompasses  the  overall  management  and
                     Support of media programs  funded through  the  Enforcement
                     appropriation.   It also provides for the  staffing  and
                     funding of EPA's Office of General  Counsel  in headquarters
                     and the Office  of Regional  Counsel  in the 10  regions.

                nuyiaiu riaiiayeiuen c, auu ouppur L


                       Program Management

                          1975           1976        Change

Program management. 8$3, 859 s 700     $4,305,100   +$  445,400

     This subactivity provides for overall management of the
Office of Enforcements including the development of program
policies and strategies, the overall planning of enforcement
activities, the monitoring and review of the program, in-
cluding those activities performed in the regions, and the
direction of the program activities performed in headquarters,
It also covers the staffing of the Offices of General Counsel
and Regional Counsel which serve the legal needs of all
components of the Agency.  Furthermore, this activity is re-
sponsible for overseeing the achievement of management-by-
objective (MBO) items which involve enforcement activities
and through legal review contributes to the improved
management of the construction grants program.

     To carry out these functions, positions are allocated
as follows:

                                         1975          1976

       Office of Assistant
        Administrator for Enforcement..    31            26
       Office of Water Enforcement ---- ,     5             5
       Office of General Enforcement.       4             4
       Office of General Counsel ..... . .    72            77
       Office of Regional Counsel ......    37            57

                Total..,.,. ..... . ......   149           169
Purpose of Increase

     The requested increase is to provide for additional
staff for the Office of General /Regional Counsel to meet the
increased workload of expanding Agency programs and new and
existing legislation, examples of which include:

                           dollar volumes and complexity of construction grants
                           which are a result of the creation of the multi-step
 -;  ,                        construction grant process and more detailed statu-
 *  5                        tory requirements;

 »-]                      - Significant legal review of environmental impact
 ,J,j                        statements required for these grants;

 .  .                      - Increased grants-connected litigation due to growing
 c-  ,                        number of grant awards;

                         - Increased legal work in the area of indirect source
 •  ,                        review required under the Clean Air Act;
                         - Litigation related to the Clean Air Act and permit
                           issuance activities under the Federal Water Pollution
                           Control Act (FWPCA)9 as amended;

                         - Expanded legal support resulting from the re-regis-
                           tration of 35S000 existing pesticides under the
                           Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act;

                         - Litigation involving at least .30 of the effluent
                           guidelines under the FWPCA;

                         - Expanded legal activity involved in the administration
                           of the new energy legislation;

                         - Substantial legal supervision in the preparation of
                           environmental impact statements;

                         - Significant litigation and legal review of toxic
                           pollutant standards;

                         - Increased workload in the area of review of new
                           legislations particularly concerning toxic substances
                           and drinking water;

                         - Increased workload due to the administrative penalties
                           and public hearings requirements of the pesticides and
.."-.'                        water legislation; and

 . ^                      - The legal review needed for the standards and regula-
 j!: .i                        tions required under the pesticides and water

tance of the Offices of Regional Counsel,   As EPA has moved
to decentralize its many activitiesa the Regional Adminis*-
trator has looked to his Regional Counsel  for legal support.
This is particularly true in the construction grants program
where legal review of grant documents is critical.  As the
grant program has grown in size and complexity, so has the
resultant Agency responsibility for adequate overview.
Another area of related concern in 1976 is the legal review
of environmental impact statements related to grant issuance.
Litigation activity is also expected to increase in 1976
related to the construction grant program, the permit issuance
process, the adequacy of effluent guidelines and decisions
as to the need to prepare environmental impact statements.


                      Program Support

                           1975           1976       Change
                           ~   '
Program support..    $9,566,100    $11,338,800  +$1S772S700

     This activity constitutes the prorated share of EPA's
total funding requirements for common support services.  These
funding requirements cover certain agencywide and regional
leases and communication and other common service costs
which are managed through the Agency and Regional Management
account.  The prorated share charged under this element
represents that portion required to support the programs
funded and conducted under the Enforcement appropriation

Purpose of Increase

     This increase, together with those under similar
elments under the Abatement and Control and Research and
Development appropriation accounts, are described under the
section covering Agency and Regional Management.

Research and

                 Program Management and Support

                    Research and Development
BudgetAuthor 1 ty
  Program Support.

  Program Support.
&  6,987,500
\  4,876,500   -$2,111,000
13,659,900   +  2,060.100
 18,587,300     18,536,400

     This activity provides the resources for management and
support services required for each of the media programs
funded through the Research and Development appropriation.

              Program Management and Support

                 Research and Development

                   Program Management

  management.... $6,987S500
                          $4,876,500   -$2,111,0.00
     Resources for the overall management of the Office of
Research and Development, Including the four National
Environmental Research Centers and the Washington Environ-
mental Research Center are provided through program management.
These functions include development of program policies and
strategies, overall planning of research and development
activitieSs monitoring and review of program performance,
and direction of the program activities performed in
headquarters and the Research Centers.  This activity also
provides for the regional research representative and staff
in each of the 10 regional offices.
  To carry out these functions, positions are allocated
  National Environmental Research
    Center, Durham	
  National Environmental Research
    Center, Las Vegas...................
  National Environmental Research
    Center, Corvallis...		.
  National Environmental Research
    Center, Cincinnati.................
  Office of Research and Development...
  Regional offices..	






                        Total...........  217

P u rp os e of De c reas e

     Reorganization plans currently being developed are
pointed at reducing the amount of effort expended on overall
management within the Office of Research and Development.
More effective use of manpower is the aim of the new plans.
More effective utilization will result in less demand for
pure overhead activities, allowing the indicated reduction
of $2 million and 40 positions.

                 Program Management and Support

                     Research and Development

                         Program Support

                            1975          1976       Change

Program support. .     $11,599,800   $13,659,900  +$2,060,100

     This subactivity includes the prorated share of EPA's
total funding requirements for common support services.
These funding requirements cover certain agencywide and
regional leases, communications, and other common service
accounts.  These requirements are fully described in the
section covering Agency and Regional Management.  The pro-
rated share charged under this element represents that
portion required to support the programs funded and conducted
under the Research and Development appropriation account.
     This increase, together with those under similar
elements in the Abatement and Control  and Enforcement
appropriation accounts, are described  under the section
covering Agency and Regional Management.



                   Research and Development
                            1975          1976       Decrease

Budget Authority
  Processes and
   Effects....	 $53,000,000   $47,000,000    -$6,000,000
  Control Technology  81,000S000    653OOOaOOO    -16,000,000

     Total.......... 134,000,000   112,000,000    -22,000,000

End-of-Year Employment
  Processes and
   Effects	         ...            22            +22
  Control Technology         ...	18	  +18

     Total..........         ...            40            +40


     The purpose of the EPA energy-related research and
development program is the development of a sound technical
and scientific basis for ensuring (1) adequate protection
of human healths welfares ecosystem, and social goalsi  (2)
environmental protection necessary to facilitate the use of
energy supplies, with particular emphasis on domestic fuels-,
(3) Implementation of energy system initiatives without de-
lays caused by inadequate and insufficient environmental
impact data, (4) development of appropriate cost-effective
control technologies for emerging energy systems; and (5)
assessment of the environmental implications of energy
conservation measures in order to maximize the energy
savings and minimize the associated adverse impacts.

 Summary of Resources
(dollars in thousands)

Budget Authorl ty
Energy Research and
Processes and
Effects .....
Total . . .
End-of-Year Employment
Energy Research and
Processes and
Effects .....
Total . . ,

e 8 a





Research and

                   Research and Development

                     Processes and Effects
                            1975          1976       Change

Processes and
 effects.,,..,,..    $53,0.00,000   $473000S000  -$6,000,000

     The processes and effects program is designed to deter-
mine the environmental effects associated with energy extrac-
tion, transmission, conversion, and use so that measures can
be taken in a timely manner to protect human health and
we1fares the ecosystems and social goals.  Identification of
the pollutants released by energy related industrial opera-
tions and determination of their impact on the human and
natural environment will define the environmental control
requirements for the polluting operations.  The program will
extend and strengthen the scientific basis of the Agency's
regulatory policies and programs.

     Energy related environmental processes and effects R&D
is composed of four general subactivities: (1) health effects;
(2)  freshwaters marine, and atomospheric/ terrestrial ecolog-
ical processes and effects; (3) pollutant identifications
measurement, and monitoring; and (4) policy and implementation

1975 Program

     The health effects program is designed to identify and
assess the health implications of various options for pro-
ducing energy, including the processes of fuel extraction,
conversions and combustions as well as energy conservation.

     The watershed ecological processes and effects program
is designed to provide ecological information so that
environmentally sound decisions can be made relative to
various energy development options.  Specific pollutant
oriented studies and broader energy technology oriented
studies are designed to determine the total impact on the
freshwater ecosystem of various energy development activities.
Objectives include determining the transport and fates in
fresh surface waters and groundwaters , and the effects on

                                                   I U CCUf 1*3 9
dissolved and suspended solidss complex effluentss and thermal
discharges from energy related activities.  The major
energy technologies to be addressed are limited to oil  shale
and coal development and extractions and coal  gasification and

     The marine ecological processes and effects program is
designed to establish the background levels of relevant
contaminants in both organisms and habitats.  Funding levels
will limit study to one major geographic area  offshore of
the eastern United States.  In this area, deepwater ports
and oil rigs will be located in adjacent sites, allowing for
streamlined sampling.  The program is designed to determine
the effects on marine organisms and ecosystems of electrical
power plants, petroleum extraction and conversion operations,
and construction of deepwater ports.

     The atmospheric/terrestrial processes and effects
program is designed to determine the transport and effects
of pollutants generated from various energy activities.
Technologies to be considered are limited to oil shales coal
combustions coal extraction, and coal gasification and
liquefaction.  The major emphasis in the area  of air trans-
port research will be to determine the chemical/physical
processes associated with the conversion of sulfur and
nitrogen oxides to sulphates and nitrates, and photochemical
oxidant transport.  Work in the terrestrial area will focus
on the ecological impact of oxidants and toxic metals.   The
current program in the air/terrestrial area is oriented toward
the study of air transport and transformation  of energy derived
pollutants and the transport and effects of these pollutants in
terrestrial ecosystems.

     The pollutant identification, measuring,  and monitoring
program in 1975 will (1) accelerate the development of new and
improved sampling and analytical methods and instrumentation for
measuring pollutants and hazardous substances  associated with
energy related developments, including methods and instruments
for airs water, and solid waste, and (2) identify, measure, and
monitor those pollutants associated with development of the
national energy research and development plan.

     The policy and implementation research program will develop
comprehensive environmental protection standards for energy
production activities, attempting to balance the environmental
and economic costs.  The comprehensive evaluation of environmental,

usea as a oasis tor tKA policy formulation.

1975 Accomplishments

    Health Effects

       - Commence studies to determine health implications
         of fossil fuel  extraction and conversion, including
         studies on air and water pollution effects resulting
         from coal liquefaction and gasification activities;

       - Conduct epidemiological  and toxicological studies
         to expand existing knowledge on the spectrum of
         response associated with exposure to pollutants
         produced by fossil and waste fuel combustion;

       - Initiate further studies to assess potential health
         hazards associated with  mobile source emissions,
         including studies on selected fuels, fuel additives,
         advanced engine designs, and emission control systems;

       - Conduct studies to identify the carcinogenic potential
         of air and water contaminants resulting from energy
         product!on operations;

       - Develop screening systems to determine potential
         damage repair and protection mechanisms in biological
         systems; and

       - Conduct studies to determine health hazards associated
         with deteriorated air quality inside buildings
         resulting from energy conserving equipment and
         structural design.

    Watershed Ecological Effects

       - Determine the types and amounts of organic and
         inorganic pollutants, metals, complex effluents,
         dissolved and suspended solids and dissolved gases
         which may potentially impact the freshwater
         environment due to increases in coal productions oil
         shale development, oil and gas extraction, and coal
         gasification and liquefaction;

        gas extractions and coal gasification and liquefaction;

     -  Identify areas for development of additional offshore
        oil drilling activities, construction of oil refineries,
        power plants and supertanker ports in the coastal
        zone i

     -  Develop detailed work plans for evaluation of environ-
        mental impact at selected zones which will experience
        energy development; and

     -  Initiate surveys at selected sites to establish ambient
        concentrations of potential pollutants and augment
        historical data to provide insight to the variability
        of environmental conditions.

Atmospheri c/Terrestrial Ecologi cal Effects

     -  Provide scientific reports summarizing the current
        scientific knowledge for predicting chemicals/
        physical generations transport, and removal of sulfates
        and nitrates from stationary source plumes in areas
        of both simple and complex terrain;

     -  Preliminary reports on atmospheric effects including
        visibility reduction, haze and radiation balance
        due to airborne aerosols generated by energy related

     -  Initiate field program to determine mass balances
        of pollutants contained within the air envelope
        encompassing fuel conversion systems such as coal
        liquefaction and gasification;

     -  Document air pollution climatologies for the United
        States and include major atmospheric parameters
        that descrive dilution and depletion of  air pollutants;

     -  Initiate studies to describe pollutant removal from
        the atmosphere by dry deposition and washout/

     -  Determine the potential  consequences  to  weather and
        climate due to the emissions  of pollutants,  heat,  and
        moisture from energy related  activities;

     -  Develop predictive capability to forecast air pollution
        potential in advance of adverse conditions;

     -  Determine the effect of energy related air pollutants
        on important materials;  and

     -  Determine biological, physical, and chemical  path-
        ways and transfer mechanisms  of energy derived
        pollutants through soils,  economic crops and animals.

Pollutant Identification, Measuring,  and Monitoring

     -  Development of a compact,  portable x-ray fluorescence
        instrument to monitor sulfur  in particulate  emissions
        from power plants;

     -  Development of particulate sampling train for determining
        three-size fractions in particulate emissions from
        power plants;

     -  Development of advanced power plant emissions sampling
        system; and

     -  Comparison of instrumental methods for determining
        the chemical forms of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in
        ambient particulate from fossil fueled power plants.

Policy and Implementation Research

     -  Develop method for evaluation of environmental and health
        effects of alternative fuel cycles, especially coal and
        nuclear fission, and the application of.this work
        to alternative energy sources;

     -  Develop method for preliminary assessment of social
        and economic consequences  of alternative fuel cycles  and
        related pollution control  requirements with  specific
        attention to energy costs  and health benefits of
        alternate energy sources.   Particular attention will  also
        be paid to energy conservation potentials and their
        economic and social consequences;

       i *_vf ui E i s.inwtt wij i w i  v i *- vu i w 1.1  uii^c u i i*ci iiu u i ¥C CMC i yjr
       sources; and

     - Assessment of long-range requirements for thermal
       pollution control and the alternatives available
       related to energy and other resource costs.

1976 Plan

     The health effects plan for 1976 continues  needed
research on the health implications of new and advanced
technologies  and conservation measures.  In additions fossil
fuel and waste combustion technologies will  require new
effects assessment and information.  Specificallys the plan

     - Expansion and acceleration of health effects studies
       on fossil and waste  fuel combustion9  extraction, and

     - Continuation of studies to obtain health  .intelligence
       on mobile source emissionss including those from
       advanced engine designs and studies on emission
       control techno!ogy;

     - Initiate studies to  determine health implications
       of new and advanced  energy technologies,  including
       solars  geothermal,. and nuclear processes;

     - Conduct of epidemiological  and toxicological studies
       emphasizing long-term,  low level pollutant exposures
       to determine potential  teratogenies mutagenics and
       carcinogenic effects; and

     - Expansion and acceleration of health effects studies
       related to energy conserving methods and procedures
       in buildings.

     The 1976 ecological processes and effects program
incorporates  specific pollutant oriented studies with
broader energy technology oriented studies designed to
determine the total ecological effect of various energy
development options.  The program is ecosystem oriented and
can be subdivided into watershed ecosystem, atmospheric/
terrestrial and marine problem areas.  In the 1976 watershed
ecosystem program, energy technologies to be addressed are

     - Determine acute toxicity to freshwater organisms
       for most critical organic and inorganic pollutants,
       metals, complex effluents, dissolved and suspended
       solids and dissolved gases derived from increases
       in coal production oil shale development, oil  and
       gas extraction and coal  gasification and liquefaction;

     - Determine primary transport mechanisms and pathways
       in fresh surface and groundwaters of organic and
       inorganic pollutants, metals, and dissolved and
       suspended solids derived from increased coal
       productionj and

     - Begin baseline evaluation of aquatic ecosystems
       associated with western  coal development and oil
       shale development.

     The 1976 marine ecological processes and effects program
is limited to a study of a single geographical area.   Baseline
data will be developed in cooperation with other agencies to
study the impact of deepwater ports, floating nuclear power
plants, and offshore oil drilling.  Current plans are designed
specifically to utilize other agencies' ships already engaged
in support sampling to establish a thorough baseline  community
assessment and background levels of relevant contaminants
in organisms and habitats.  Specific plans include:

     - Initiation of a time-series research program relative
       to ecosystem variability* transport processes
       (atmospheric and water), pollutant fluxes, pollutant
       distribution, concentrations accumulation, and

     - Development from time-series data, of preliminary
       ecosystem and hydrodynamic models related to
       transport diffusion processes; and

     - Evaluation of first phase research results on
       activity in petroleum hydrocarbons, trace metals,
       thermal effects, and power plant effluentss with
       regard to physical9 chemical? and biological data
       for applicability to model development.

technology options.  Energy technologies to be addressed in
the 1976 program are limited to oil shale, coal combustion,
coal development and extractions and coal gasification and
liquefaction.  The major emphasis in the area of air trans-
port research will be to determine the chemical/physical
processes associated with the conversion of sulfur and
nitrogen oxides to sulfates and nitrates and photochemical
oxidant transport.  The terrestrial area will focus on
ecological impact from oxidants and toxic metals.  Specific
plans are to:

     -  Develop empirical methods for predicting stationary
        source plume dispersion in simple and complex
        terrains emphasizing transformation and transport
        and removal of sulfates and nitrates;

     -  Develop methods relating atmospheric visibility
        reduction to the chemical/physical properties of
        fine particulat.es;

     -  Quantify the air pollutant mass balance effects of
        coal liquefaction and gasification processes and
        identify the important atmospheric processes;

     -  Develop site study program for deposition and
        scavenging measurements in vicinity of various types of
        sources including tall power plant stacks and-smelters;

     -  Develop atmospheric forecasting capability in real
        time for single emission source; and

     -  Relate environmental parameters such as conditions of
        exposure, duration of pollutants, water vapor,
        temperature, wind, and sunlight to material loss.

     The 1976 program in pollutant identification, measuring,
and monitoring will apply advances in instrumentation sampling
systems and methodology to high priority energy technologies
such as solid waste and coal burning plants and oil shale
operations.  Additional field and remote monitoring instru-
mentation will be developed to parallel emerging technologies
for use in 1976 and subsequent years. Both remote sensing
and ground truth monitoring will be used  because  two  approaches

arm \o specific siTe monitoring.
     The 1976 program in policy and implementation research
will continue and extend analyses and assessments initiated
in 1975.  Specificallys the plan calls for:

     - Refinement and application of methods for compre-
       hensive evaluation of environmental,  economic and
       social consequences of energy alternatives to assist
       the Agency in policy formulation;

     - Development of specific suggestions and documentation
       to support proposals for comprehensive energy
       production standards.  Such standards will be based
       on considerations of multimedia^ multi pollutant and
       multiple pathway effects.  They will  include
       consideration of the economic and societal costs, and
       risks and benefits of alternatives.  They will  also
       consider the long-term requirements for environmental
       protection as determined by pollutant persistence and
       prospective health and other hazards,

     - Analyses of environmental , social, and economic
       consequences of energy conservation alternatives with
       a view to identification of major changes in life
       styles, land uses, and transportation patterns  that
       may be involved,

     - Identification of useful and feasible institutional
       improvements for the effective and economical
       implementation of energy/environmental objectives;

     - Identification and analysis of central policy issues
       for the longer term adaptation of energy systems to
       the requirements of environmental quality including
       radioactive waste management, strip mine reclamations
       thermal, and other pollution control  implementation
       problems i and

     - Analyses of environmental consequences of changes in
       the mix of economic activity brought about by energy

     Although the 1976 processes and effects program
envisions a level of effort comparable to the 1975 program,
it has been determined that the effectiveness of the total
program would be enhanced if certain research projects
being conducted by the Energy Research and Development
Administration (ERDA)S supported by the interagency transfer
of funds from EPAS were directly appropriated to that agency
for 1976.  The projects, totaling $6 million, were initated
during 1975 and will continue the same programmatic
activities in 1976 under control of ERDA.  Coordination
between the EPA and ERDA efforts will continue.   The
reduction of $6 million in the processes and effects
program reflects the impact of this transfer of project

     The additional 22 positions requested will  strengthen
direction of the program and help provide improved control
over the major portion of the program executed via contract
and transfer to other agencies,

                                      i\cb.eeircri ana ueveiopment

                                         Control Technology

                                               1975          1976       Change

                   Control technology.. $81,000,000   $65,000,000 -$16,000,000

                        The environmental control technology program is designed
                   to identifys develop, and demonstrate cost-effective control
                   techniques for energy extraction, transmission, conversion,
                   and use.  The program necessarily involves assessment of the
                   pollution potential of source effluent streams and the
                   technological processes producing  those pollutants,as well
                   as research and development on control devices and process
                   modifications to reduce the impacts of pollutants on the
                   environment.  The objective of the program is to provide
                   adequate environmental protection as the nation moves toward
                   expanding use of domestic fuels.

                        The environmental control technology research and de-
                   velopment program is subdivided into four general subactiv-
                   ities:  (1) extraction and beneficiation; (2) fossil fuel
                   combustion; (3) synthetic fuels; and (4) advanced systems
                   and conservation.
                   1975 Plan

                        Measures will be develbped in the extraction and
                   beneficiation program to reduce the environmental impacts
                   of extracting coal, oil shale, oil., and natural gas, to
                   remove potential pollutants from these fuels and to reuse
                   or properly dispose of wastes resulting from extraction and
                   processing activities.  EPA proposes to significantly expand
                   its environmental assessment with particular emphasis on
                   western surface coal and oil shale mining.  The program
                   includes initiation of programs to revegetate mined lands
                   in order to reduce the,impacts on air and water quality, to
                   dewater aquifers in order to eliminate mine acid  discharges,
                   to improve oil spill protection and cleanup measures, and
                   to stabilize spent oil shale, and the construction of a
                   chemical coal cleaning pilot plant and other process
]                   evaluation and development facilities for the study of problems
•                   associated with the removal of potential pollutants from
                   fossil fuels.  Portions of the program will involve support

the Appalacman Regional Lomirnssiuri.

     Processes for controlling air emissions of sulfur
oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulates and hazardous materials
from fossil fuels combustion sources will be developed in
the fossil fuel combustion program.  Demonstration of current
generation of stack gas scrubbers (flue gas desulfurization
systems) will be completed.  Demonstration programs for two
second generation stack gas cleaning processes will be initiated.
Pilot scale testing and evaluation of several promising flue
gas desulfurization (F6D) technologies will be performed.
Special attention will be placed on ensuring that the end
products of F6D systems can either be disposed of in an
environmentally sound manner or sold as a usable product.
Environmental assessments will be performed to determine
the impact of fine particulate and hazardous effluents from
fossil fuel combustion sources ands where appropriate,
technology will be developed to control these emissions.
Development of technology for NOV control will be accelerated.

     Additionally, the environmental impact of fluidized bed
combustion (FBC) processes, which offer promise of efficient
coal use with minimal environmental problems, will be
evaluated, and selected fluidized bed assessment programs will
be performed as part of the National Fluidized Bed Combustion
Program being evolved with EPA, the Office of Coal Research,
Federal Energy Administration, Department of Housing and
Urban Development, National Science Foundation, and Electric
Power Research Institute as the active participants.  The
development work will include continued testing of EPA's
FBC "Miniplant", and design of a 30 megawatt flexible test
facility for use in environmental assessment of future FBC systems

     The synthetic fuels program is directed toward two major
objectives: the assessment of the potential environmental
impact of synthetic fuel processing plants and the develop-
ment of control technology to minimize adverse environmental
effects.  The environmental assessment activity involves
initiation of an effort to characterize feed stock materials
with concurrent studies assessing the impact of shale oil
recovery, coal liquefaction, and high and low BTU coal
gasification processes.  In the control technology development
area, several programs will be continued and others initiated
to enable air, solid waste, and water pollution control
technology to progress concurrently with fuel processing
technology under development by the Office of Coal Research

construction efforts for a small in-house flexible gasifier
test facility to be used for control technology evaluation.

     Methods to control thermal effluents and to use solid
wastes as fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner are the
major elements of the advanced systems and energy conservation
program.  These  elements will support the Agency's thermal and
solid waste management regulatory responsibilities by providing
hardwares systems, and parametric environmental data for
regulatory and technical assistance purposes.  EPA is also
significantly expanding environmental assessment and environ-
mental technology assessment programs with respect to waste-
heat recovery, energy conserving industrial process changes,
the uranium fuel cycle, and solar and geothermal sources.
Extensive coordination between EPA, FEA, ERDA, NSF, and
other agencies is planned,

1975 Accomplishments

Extraction and Benefieiation

     -  Publish a comprehensive manual of practice for
        environmental management of surface mining operations
        in both the eastern and western United States;

     -  Publish a manual of practice for the surface disposal
        of coal refuse;

     -  Complete the extension of a method for predicting the
        acid-forming potential of overburden to all areas of
        the eastern United States and publish a technical
        instructional manual on this method;

     -  Complete an analysis of the feasibility and environ-
        mental pay-off of "down-dip" mining of deep coal
        seams, resulting in planned flooding of underground
        mines upon abandonment and reduction or elimination
        of acid discharge;

     -  Complete an evaluation of the peformance of existing
        types of sediment control basins, including those
        commonly specified by State regulations;

        oil spill control devices;

     -  Demonstrate a highly efficient oil/water separator,
        based upon chemical  flocculation methods  for use on
        offshore oil production facilities;

     -  Complete an initial evaluation of the effectiveness
        of existing and projected methods for stabilizing
        spent oil shale (finarevaluation in 1978);

     -  Initiation of the construction of the Meyers process
        coal cleaning pilot plant; and

     -  Completion of a physical coal cleaning design manual.

Fossil Fuel Combustion

     -  Initiate two demonstration programs for second
        generation FGD processes—one will  be an advanced
        throw-away (sludge producing)  system while the other
        will produce saleable elemental sulfur as a by-product;

     -  Complete the full-scale demonstration test programs for
        two current generation FGD processes;

     -  Perform an advanced test program on the lime/limestone
        prototype system to enhance process reliability,
        produce acceptable sludge  products, and minimize costs;

     -  Accelerate and continue development of technology for
        control of NOX and fine particulate effluents from
        combustion sources;

     -  Design a flexible fluidized bed test facility for
        environmental and performance evaluation; and

     -  Initiate an environmental assessment and systems
        evaluation of the use of low-sulfur western coal in
        industrial-size boilers.

Synthetic Fuels

     -  Initiate major environmental assessment studies for
        shale oil recovery, coal liquefaction,  low-Bill and
        high-BTU coal gasification processes;

     -  Continue development work aiming toward cleanup at
        high temperature of low-BTU gasifier effluents.

Advanced Systems and Conservation

     -  Ecological and health parameters of waste heat
        discharge will be assessed and linked to engineering
        criteria for discharge methods;

     -  Alternatives for the recovery of waste heat in an
        environmentally sound manner will be evaluated from
        technical, regulatory, and economic perspectives;

     -  Completion of optimization-of-mix studies concerning
        the use of animal and crop (agricultural) wastes as
        sources for noncombustion reclamation of energy

     -  Completion of more comprehensive process evaluations
        and environmental assessment testing programs for
        refuse processing and combustion (St, Louis,Missouri;
        Columbus, Ohio);

     -  An initial evaluation of the environmental aspects and
        control technology needs (emphasis on air impacts) pf
        avaiable biological, chemical, and pyrolytic systems
        for converting solid wastes to fuels;

     -  Environmental and technical assessments of energy-
        conservative industrial process modifications covering
        nine major energy consuming industries, and the
        identification of best options for development
        activities in 1976;

     -  Completion of systematic environmental assessments of
        the uranium use cycle, with emphasis on mining and
        water pollution problems; and
     -  Completion of initial environmental assessments of
        methods for using geothermal energy, with emphasis
        on pollution of ground and surface water.


               environmental  assessment activities in conjunction with the
\  i             expanding Federal  R&D program in energy conservation,  nuclear
1  '             energy* and other advanced energy systems.   Specifically:

                    -  Thermal  control  and reuse methods research will
                       increase significantly as initial assessments  of the
                       ecological and health parameters  of discharge  and
                       reuse  are completed and these assessments are  linked
                       with engineering and economic evaluations;

                    -  Research on the direct combustion of solid wastes as
                       supplementary fuels will expand to include oil-fired
                       boilers  and other types of coal-fired boilers  such as
                       fluidtzed bed combustors.  Research on non-combustive
                       methods  (fermentation, chemical,  and pyrolytic)  for
                       converting solid wastes to usable energy will  be

                    -  Development of industrial process modifications  to effect
                       environmental controls and energy conservation will
                       be initiated on the basis of detailed environmental
                       assessments of major energy using industries,  and
                       additional assessments will be undertaken; and

                    -  Detailed environmental assessments and development or
                       control  methods for energy-conservative industrial
                       process  changes will  be performed as indicated by
                       preliminary phase work-completed  in 1975.

               Purpose of Decrease

                    In most areas, the 1976 program will maintain a level
               of effort comparable to that in 1975.  The bulk ($11,000,000)
               of the decrease  reflects the fact that the two second generation
               stack gas cleaning demonstration plants were fully funded with
               1975 monies, with only modest operational expenses required to
               fully support  those projects in 1976.

                    A second  area of reduction ($2,000,000) reflects  a
               phasing down of  activities in eastern surface and underground
               mining, although efforts in western coal  surface mining  and
               oil shale mining will be maintained.

reduced operational  expenses required to fully support those
projects in 1976.

     The additional  18 positions requested will serve to
strengthen management of the program and to provide
increased control of the major portion of the effort executed
via contract and transfer to other agencies.

Agency and

                            1975          1976     Decrease
Budget  Authority
  Agency Hanagemertt
    and Support..,.  $49,262,700   $56,034,900  +$6,772,200
    Management and
      Support......   11,206,800    11,323,600  +   116,800

      Total.,,.....   60,469,500    67,358,500  +6,889,000

  Agency Management
    and Support.,.,        1,332          1,346         +14
    Management and
      Support......  	491            491         ...

      Total..,..,,.        19823          1,837         +14

Overview and Strategy

     This program area covers Agencywide policy direction
and administration as it is carried out at both headquarters
and the regional  offices.  It also covers certain common
services and functions which can be most effectively
managed   on an Agencywide basis.  A meaningful way to
characterize these activities is in terms of those which
involve management as opposed to those which are of a
supportive nature.

     Management activities are personnel related in that
they include the salaries and expenses of the Administrator
and his immediate staff and staff offices9 the 10 Regional
Administrators and their staffs, as well as the various
organizational units which provide centralized services.
These include program planning and evaluation, budgeting
and financial management, personnel services, contracts
and grants administrations .audit^ public information, legis-
lative liaison, and other activities required for the
effective management of all Agency programs.  The full cost

     Support activities do not involve personnel  and include
a variety of costs associated with items such as  office services,
rental of space, communications, housekeeping services, and
ADP support.  These Agencywide support activities are
general in nature and are controlled centrally,and costs
cannot readily be associated with a specific organization
or program; however, it is important that these costs in
some way be associated with the programs which benefit from
them.  To accomplish this, the total costs are allocated on a
prorata basis to the various appropriations where they are
included under the budget activity Program Management and
Support.  The Agency and Regional Management appropriation
includes only the prorata share of these support costs which
can be allocated to Agencywide management activities.

     The scope of these Agencywide management activities is,
of course, dictated by the direction and requirements of the
programs which they serve as well as by the budgetary con-
straints under which these estimates have been developed.
Consistent with this, the assumption has been made that the
program increases reflected elsewhere in these estimates can
be accomplished without a corresponding increase in Agency-
wide management personnel and, in fact, plans call for a
decrease of 35 positions in the headquarters management by
the end of 1976.  However, it should be recognized  that there
are increased costs associated with on-going support
activities which can be characterized as being largely man-
datory in nature.  It should also be understood that there
are certain functions covered by this account (audit and
environmental impact statement preparation) which are tied
directly to other Agency strategies and as a result require
significant resource increases.

 *                    1975 Agency and Regional Management...........  $60,469,500

                       Agency Management and Support,.,...-......,..    6,772,200
 I                        To provide for Increased costs associated
                         with various supporting activities such as
                         AOP services^ rent and'utilities, environ-
                         mental impact statement preparation, addi-
                         tional audit coverages and the full-year
                         cost of the October 1974 pay raise,

 '-                      Regional Management and Support,............      116,800

 :                        To provide for the full-year cost of the
                         October 1974 pay raise,
                     1976 Agency and Regional Management Request,..  $67,358,500

Budget Authority
  Agency Support.

  Agency Support,
$39,554,300   $44,264,000  +$4,709,700
  9.708,400    11,770.900  + 2,062,500

 49,262,700    56,034,900  + 6,772,200
• * •
a * *

     The Agency management and support activity covers the
top level policy direction of Agency programs provided by
the Administrator and his immediate staff and staff offices,
the Agencywide management functions performed by the Office
of Planning and Management, and the centralized administrative
services provided to" all operations located in Washington,
D.C.; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; and Cincinnati,
Ohio.  It also provides for certain support costs which are
budgeted on an Agencywide basis.

                       Agency Management

                            1975          1976       Change

 management.....     $39,554,300   $44,264,000  -f$4,709,700

    The Agency management subactiyity provides for staffing
and related expenses of the immediate office of the Adminis-
trator and those staff offices which report directly to the Admin-
istrator, as well as for those of the Office of Planning and Manage-
ment.  Preparation of environmental impact statements (EIS's),
covering projects or actions sponsored by EPA, is also included
in this subactivity.

    The Office of the Administrator is responsible for
establishing Agency policies and for providing the overall
direction needed to guide the Agency's activities. , The staff
offices  carry out functions which  are closely allied with
this overall direction.  This includes .legislative services
and congressional liaison, public information, management of
the Agency's equal opportunity programs, direction and
coordination of international activities, and the coordination
of EPA programs with those of other Federal agencies.  This
latter function includes coordination of EPA's responsibilities
under the National Environmental Policy Act and implementation
of Executive Orders dealing with pollution control measures
required of other Federal agencies.  The resources associated
with these offices are as follows:

                          1975                 1976
                     Pps.       Amount    Pos.Amount

Office of the
 Administrator.,..     58    2,057,400      58     2S075S100
Office of
  Legislation	     40      924,800      40       936,900
Office of Public
 Affairs	     68    2,937,200      68     2,958,100
Office of  inter-
 national -Affairs      24      781,600      24       788,900
Office of Civil
  Rights		     17      547,300      17       550,300

                    Pos.      Amount     Pos .         Amount

Office of Federal
  Activities,....    30      762,400      30        771,500
EIS preparation*,    50    5,015,800      64      8,630,900

      Total,.,.,.   287   139026»500     301     16,711,700
* Resources for EIS preparation will be allocated to both
  headquarters and the regional offices; they are shown
  here for purposes of comparability with the 1975 budget,

     The Office of Planning and Management performs the
Agencywide management functions involved in planning and
implementing EPA programs and provides the administrative
services required by headquarters and the two major field
centers located at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina,
and Cincinnati, Ohio.  The major organizational components
within the Office of Planning and Management include the
Office of Administration, which provides services in the
areas of general management and organization, grants and
contracts administrations personnel.,• data systems management,
facilities and support services, and security and inspections;
the Office of Resources Managements which is concerned with
program analysis^ budgeting, and accounting functions; the
Office of Planning and Evaluations which provides a central
independent focus for economic analysis, program evaluations,
and the coordination of Agency standards, regulations, and
guidelines; the Office of Audit, which is responsible for the
Agency's comprehensive audit program; and the Office of
Education and Manpower Planning,, which develops coordinated
plans and evaluates the effectiveness of EPA's various man-
power training programs,  The resources associated with these
various offices are:

                        1975                  1976
                    Pos,      Amount     Pps.         Amount

Office of Assist-
  ant Adminis-
    trator.. .....     5      149,800       5        151,400
Office of Adminis-
  tration........   738   15,562,200     714    -15,788,700
Office of Resources
  Management,....   183    3,760,600     173      3,8163300

                    FOS,      mioum:     KOS.        funoum:

Office of Plan-
  ning and
  Evaluation,,.,.     58    4,663,000      58      4S680S600
Office of Educa-
  tion and Man-
  power Planning.      5      20QS50Q       4        202,100
Office of Audit,.     56    2,191,700      91      2,913,200

     Total.......  1,045   '26,527,800   19045     27,552,300
     The major areas of increase proposed for 1976 are related
to the preparation of environmental impact statements and to
the Office of Audit.

     With certain exceptions, the National Environmental
Policy Act of '1969 requires that all Federal agencies pre-
pare environmental impact statements on all of their pro-
posed major actions which would significantly affect the
environment.  Accordingly, EPA has undertaken the preparation
of EIS's (or negative declaration in instances where no
significant environmental impact is involved) for municipal
wastewater treatment plant grants and for the issuance of
new source discharge permits.  In addition, the Agency has
announced a policy of voluntarily preparing EIS's for major
regulatory actions even though they are not required by law.
The estimates for 1976 are based upon the following workload

     Construction grants -133 EIS's, 2517 negative declarations
     New source discharge -100 EIS's3 400 negative declarations
     Regulatory actions «20 interim, 30 final EIS's

     The preparation of EIS's is a direct responsibility of
EPA.  The Agency intends to rely on the environmental
assessments submitted by applicants for much of the infor-
mation needed in the drafting of EIS's and plans to rely
heavily on consultants to assist the EPA staff in the
evaluation of this information and preparation of the final
EIS's.  This approach will have the least impact on EPA
direct employment.  Estimates regarding the amount of staff
and consultant time required in preparing EIS's and negative
declarations have been conservatives and further experience
may demonstrate the need for additional resources in this area.

     In the discussion of the Agency's strategy for delegating
major responsibilities for construction grants administration
to the States (which appears elsewhere in this document), it
is noted that the audit function is one which must be retained
in order to exercise an effective Federal overview.  With
1975 staffing levels, the Office of Audit is able to perform
audits only at the completion of each construction grant
project ands in these final auditss can only review the
records of the municipalities which receive the grants.
Because of their timing, final audits do not serve as an
adequate deterrent to irregularities which might potentially
occur before and during construction, and are not suffic-
iently detailed to detect any irregularities which may  have
actually occurred in the design and construction phase of
the projects.  The potential for fraud and mismanagement is
obvious in a public works program of this magnitude and a
major irregularity could result in an  embarrassment to the
Agency and to the Administration.  The increase of 35 positions
and $721,500 indicated above will permit audit coverage to
be expanded on completed projects and interim audits to be
performed on a representative sample of on-going projects.
It is felt that interim audits are particularly effective,
both in preventing irregularities and assisting grantees,
1n the effective management of Federal funds.

     The increase in audit personnel is partially offset by
a decrease of 35 positions elsewhere in the Office of
Planning and Managements to be accomplished by the end of
1976.  Twenty-four of these positions will be in the Office
of Administration and can be associated with the continued
implementation of a recently completed management study of
administrative service activities in Washington, D. C.;
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; and Cincinnati.
The remaining 11 positions will be distributed among other
Office of Planning and Management units located within head-

                       Agency Support

                           1976           1976       Change

Agency support...    $9,708,400    $11,770,900  +$2,062,500

     The Agency support subactlvity covers the costs necessary
to support all program operations carried on at headquarters;
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; and Cincinnati, Ohio.
These include a variety of office and building services in-
cluding printing and duplicating, office supplies and equip-
ment, audio visual services, motor pool operations, local
telephone services, utilities, guard and janitorial services,
library services, building maintenance contracts, and asso-
ciated activities.  Also covered are a variety of Agencywide
costs w^ich are budgeted for and managed  on a centralized
basis.  These include rental of facilities, postal charges,
security clearances, Federal Telecommunications charges,
centralized ADP services, costs of th§ initial equipment for
regional laboratories, as well as contractual services for
economic and analytical studies which are supportive of a
variety of Agency programs.

     Since Agency support costs are prorated to the various
EPA appropriations according to their personnel levels, the
amount shown above is reflective only of that portion of the
total which is allocated to the Agency and Regional Manage-
ment appropriation.  However, in order to provide a more
complete explanation of the total scope of the Agency's
supporting activities the following discussion deals with
the overall cost of providing support services.

     The total cost of providing support services to the
Agency is as follows:

                           1975           1976       Change
Building services.    8,892,000     11,139,000  +2,247,000
Office services.,.    1,752,000      2,070,000  +   318,QOO
ADP	   13,333,000     15,833,000  +2,500,000
Agencywide costs..   24.165.400     29,413,000  +5.247,600

      Total	   48,142,400     58,455,000  +10,312,600

North Carolina; and Cincinnati, Ohio.  These moves are to
occur in late 1975 or early 1976.  However, it should be
noted that many of these costs are of a nonrecurring nature
and that some of the remaining cost increases resulting from
these moves will be offset by economies and efficiencies
accruing in the program areas which occupy the new facilities.
Among the anticipated increases attributable to the occupancy
of new space are the cost of additional telephone installations;
labor services for moving offices, laboratory furniture, and
equipment to the new locations; additional guard, janitorial,
and employee health services; and contracts for equipment
maintenance made necessary by the more complex nature of the
new facilities.  Provisions are also being made for actual
or anticipated increases in the rates charged for local
telephone service, utilities, guard and janitorial services,
and other related service activities.

     The increase in the cost of providing office services
can be related almost exclusively to cost increases in office
supplies and equipment (including those provided through the
GSA supply system) and in the audio visual, printing, and
duplicating services.

     The Agency is now completing an extensive study of its
ADP operations which has been made at the request of the
Congress.  Pending the review, acceptance, and subsequent
Implementation of the study's recommendations, the 1976
budget estimates are based upon the amounts required to
provide an  adequate level of support to Agency programs
using existing ADP systems.  These estimates also take into
account anticipated cost increases related to the scheduled
renegotiation of contracts for ADP time-sharing services
and for making some improvements in existing systems which
can clearly be shown as cost-effective.

     The overall increase in Agencywide costs is related to
several factors.  The most significant is a net increase in
rental charges which takes into account additional space or
increased charges for facilities in the regional offices and
laboratories, the National Environmental Research Centers,
and the headquarters.  These are partially offset by the
savings which result from the move in Cincinnati, Ohio, from
leased to government owned space.  Others include the full-
year cost of increased charges made by the General Services

                  l i* t Wl 1 fep I UW^iEIGll U  i UL/V1 d U'UI
Annapolis, Maryland, and Washington, D,C,  These laboratories
are among those specified in the EPA National Laboratory Plan
as urgently needing replacement because the existing labora-
tories are either wholly inadequate or unsafe.

                Kegionai Management and Support
Budget Authority
    Support	..


$10,461,800   $10,612,100  +$ 150,300

    745.000       711.500  -   33,500

 11,206,800    11,323,600  +  116,800

     The regional management and support activity provides
for both the top level direction of program operations and
the general management functions which must be carried out
in each of the Agency's 10 regional offices.  It also in-
cludes those support activities required by the regional
offices which are not covered by the Agencywide common
services costs described previously under the agency support

                      Regional  Management

                            1975          1976      Change

  management,	    $10,461,800   $10,612,100  +$ 150,300

     The regional management subactivity provides for the
salaries and related expenses of the Regional  Administrators
and their immediate staffs as well  as for those staff offices
—intergovernmental relations,  public affairs, and civil
rights—which report directly to the Regional  Administrators.
It also covers the region's Management Divisions, which
perform the centralized administrative functions—program
planning and budgeting, personnel,  financial management,
procurement, and other service activities required to support
regional operations.  The resources required for these
activities in each of the regional  offices are as follows:

                           1975                 1976
Region               Pos.        Amount     Pos.       Amount

I (Boston)	      47       943,100      47      957,300
II (New York)....      51     1,048,000      51    1,063,500
III (Philadelphia)    52     1,167,700      52    1,185,100
IV (Atlanta).....      57     1,262,700      57    1,279,700
V (Chicago),.....      71     1,425,300      71    1,446,800
VI (Dallas)	      47     1,071,600      47    1,085,800
VII (Kansas City)      36       776,300      36      787,300
VIII (Denver)....      42       975,100      42      987,900
IX (.San Francisco)    50       959,400      50      974,600
X (Seattle)	      38	832.600      38      894.100

      Total,.,.,.     491    10,461,800     491   10,612,100

     No program increase is provided for 1976 in the area  of
regional management except for a minimal increase to provide
for the full-year cost of the October 1974 pay raise.   As  is
the case in Agency management, it has been assumed that the
administrative workload associated with projected program
increases can be accommodated by effecting economies in
management operations.

                • •^•wi-wj WMU i»v3"Y"ul riuiiuyclllCM L

               Regional Management a,nd, Support

                      Regional Support

                         1975          1976       Change

Regional support.    $745,000      $711,500     -$33,500

     This subactivity covers the common services which  are
provided in all of the regional offices.  These include
local telephone service, office supplies and equipment,
guard and housekeeping services ^nd similar services
required to operate regional offices.  As in the ease of
Agency support* the total cost of support services are
prorated to the various EPA appropriations on the basis
of personnel strength and the amount shown above is only
that portion of the total which is related to regional
management activities.

           Summary of Resources
          (dollars in thousands)

Budget Authority
Agency and Regional
Agency Support..
Regional Support
Total .......
End-of-Year Employment
Agency and Regional
Agency Support,
Regional Support

$39 , 554. 3

* a a
o a *


a « s
a 6 a


« 0 «
• » m
• 9 B

Buildings and

                    Buildings and Facilities
                            1975          1976       Decrease

Budget Authority
  Buildings and
    Facilities....    $1,400,000    $2,100,000    +$  700,000

     This appropriation covers the design and construction of
new EPA owned facilities as well as necessary repairs and
improvements to federally-owned installations which are
occupied by EPA.  Modifications and repairs to leased facil-
ities, to the extent that they are paid for directly by EPA,
are covered under the agency support activity under the Agency
and Regional Management appropriation.

1976 Program

     Plans for 1976 do not contemplate the construction of
new facilities or major expansion of existing facilities and
are limited to necessary repairs and improvements.   Require-
ments are based upon a recently completed survey of the
physical condition of EPA facilities and are limited essen-
tially to projects identified in this review as being neces-
sary to protect the health and safety of EPA employees so as
to meet standards set by the Labor Department under the
Occupational Health and Safety Act.  Other projects, including
those needed to protect the government's investment in these
facilities or to improve their utility for program operations,
are to be deferred and will be undertaken in 1976 only if an
urgent need develops.

     The work to be carried out in 1976 involves 18 specific
projects at 11 locations.  Included are items such as the
installation of fire suppression systems; providing safe
storage for hazardous materials; replacement of defective
wiring; upgrading of laboratory heating and ventilation
systems; changing the direction of door swings; replacing
stairs and installing safety railings; and installing fire

Scientific Activities

             (Speciaf Foreign Currency Program)
                            1975          1976       Decrease
Budget Authority
 Scientific Activities
  Overseas............       ...    $6,000,000    +$6,000,000


    Scientific Activities Overseas, developed and implemented
under the Special Foreign Currency Program, are funded from
excess foreign currencies accruing to the United States under
various U.S. programs.  The use of excess currencies creates
a unique opportunity to conduct scientific and technological
programs abroad.  Their use does not create a balance of pay-
ments deficit or contribute to domestic inflation.  Under the
Special Foreign Currency Program (SFCP), high quality studies
that are relevant to EPA's domestic programs are carried out
in the participating excess currency countries by outstanding
foreign scientists and engineers in conjunction with their
counterparts in EPA.  Each study submitted for funding under
the SFCP is reviewed within EPA and by consultants to insure
that the desired results are being achieved.  In addition to
the achievement of scientific goals, this program serves as an
important bridge in maintaining ties with the participating
countries,  EPA's scientific and technological programs are
recognized in the participating countries as visible evidence
of U.S. efforts to engage in peaceful endeavors directed
toward the development of knowledge and technological advance-
ment specific to our global environment.
Budget Authority
Poland			I......	  $3,500,000
Egypt.			   1,00.0,000
Pakistan.........		     500,000
Tunisia.			     250,000
India............			     750,000

  Total..	........		   6,000,000

    The Special Foreign Currency Program (SFCP) enables EPA to
utilize unique research and demonstration opportunities in
environmental research centers, industries and ecological
settings abroad to supplement and/or complement its domestic
programs.  Environmental studies supported with U.S.-owned
excess currencies in Poland and Egypt are providing data that
is being used to formulate water pollution, air pollution and
other environmental  standards and regulations for application
in the United States.  Further, research proposed by scientists
in those countries and in India, Pakistan and Tunisia will
enhance EPA's domestic enforcement and regulatory programs.
SFCP cooperative activities conducted in the participating
countries are based on scientific evaluations of each activity
to determine its merit and relevance to EPA's domestic goals.
Such evaluation by EPA's scientists and experts is done to insure
maximum benefit to EPA from its foreign investment in manpower
and funds.

    In 1974, $53400S000 was available for new proposals.  Of
this amount, EPA obligated approximately $4,000S000.  In 1975,
the Congress provided no additional funds, leaving only
$1,400,000 in carryover funds for support of 1975 projects.

1975 Programs and 1976 Plans

Pol and

    Polish science and technology is highly respected by EPA
scientists and both countries have similar and complementary
interests in the environment.

    The US-Polish Agreement on Joint Funding of Scientific and
Technological Cooperation was signed on October 8, 1974, on
the understanding that the equivalent of $10 million in zlotys
would be placed into the Joint Fund by U.S. agencies to be used
for energy and energy-related research.  The Polish government
will match this $10 million contribution.  Without this addi-
tional U.S. contribution1 of $10 million in zlotys, the Polish
government would not have concluded the Agreement.

    The United States Treasury agreed to the U.S. agencies
placing the equivalent of $10 million into the Joint Fund for
energy and energy-related research, subject to availability of
funds and provided the additional $10 million for the new energy
research is included in the 1976  budget  request.   In  view of  the
many opportunities for excellent energy-related environmental

under this agreement was allotted to the Environmental pro-
tection Agency.

    Energy-related projects will focus on research in the
following areas:

    (1) Identification and quantification of pollutants from
        a commercial gasification plant;

    (2) Investigation of the vortex sieve for dewatering
        and classification of fine-size coal;

    (3) Study of the effects from radioactive effluents from
        nuclear fuel reprocessing and refabrication operations;

    (4) Epidemiological study of the effects of major effluents
        from high temperature combustion of coal and from
        coal gasification processes; and

    (5) Characterization of effluents and determination of
        toxicological effects in animals arising from exposure
        to major effluents from high temperature coal com-
        bustion and from coal gasification processes.


    Cooperative activities between Egyptian and American
scientists and technical agencies are most cordial and fruitful
and recent diplomatic achievements have strengthened the
scientific and political milieu.  EPA scientists and experts
have developed with their counterparts several beneficial
projects utilizing unique Egyptian expertise and settings

    (1) Development of predictive models simulating major
        ecosystems on the Western Mediterranean coastal land
        of Egypt.  The results of the Egyptian studies are
        translatable in terms which are of value to scientists
        in the southwestern U.S.

    (2) An interdisciplinary study of the effects of water
        impoundment on large river systems (Nile).  Results of
        the Nile River study will be valuable in assessing the
        environmental impact of dam construction and impound-
        ments in the United States.

    (3) A study of the toxicological effects of newly developed

        early warning to EPA concerning the safe use of certain
        pesticides and enable the U.S. to avoid harmful-
        episodes similar to those that have occurred in Egypt.

    (4) An investigation of the effects of newly developed
        toxicants on man.   The study will involve medical,
        biochemical, chemicals toxicological, epidemic]ogical
        and pharmacological investigations on exposed individuals
        and experimental animals.  Information that will be
        obtained from this investigation will be vital to EPA
        and Egypt by providing evidence to EPA to approve or
        disapprove the registration of newly developed pesti-
        cides proposed for use in the U.S.

        The purpose of this project is to monitor the levels
        of various toxicants in water, soil and agricultural
        commodities before and after aerial and ground applica-
        tion of pesticides used to control agricultural pests.
        Establishing the levels of newly developed pesticides
        in the environment will provide urgently needed infor-
        mation about the persistence of these chemicals which
        in turn will provide data to EPA and the Egyptian
        officials to reduce the heal-th hazards to man and
        animals.  This information will also assist EPA in
        making decisions for registering newly developed pesti-
        cides for use in the U.S.

Projects proposed for 1976 include:

    (1) Studies of biological, alternatives to chemicals in
        control of agricultural pests;

    (2) Investigations of health and ecological effects and
        movements of pesticides in the environment;

    (3) Determination of health effects of bathing and related
        recreational waters;

    (4) Studies of health aspects of sewage irrigation systems;

    (5) Studies of the effect of water purification processes
        on virus removal;

    (.6) Study of low cost waste water treatment methods including
        research on improved oxidation ponds;

        and canning Industries; and

    (8) Studies of coastal zone management and water quality
        protection of a major urban center.


    Environmental agencies in India have been urged by their
government to submit proposals for funding under the SFCP.
The Government of India has expressed high-level interest in
environmental pollution problems and has submitted a listing
of program areas that will be pursued to satisfy Indian prior-
ities and to meet EPA's domestic priorities.  Cooperative pro-
grams will be developed in such broad environmental areas as
integrated pest control; hydrology and water resources; water
supply and waste treatment; and conventional and nonconventional
sources of energy.  EPA will continue to develop multi-discipli-
nary programs and institutional arrangements that will match
the resources of U.S. and Indian environmental research institu-


    Principal activity in Tunisia in 1974 and 1975 has been in
support of EPA's cooperative study of eutrophication problems
in the Lake of Tunis.  This study is intended to define the
eutrophication problems, to evaluate the potential benefits
of diverting sewage effluence from Tunis and to discover the
rate and extent of recovery of the Lake after diversion.
Data from the study will permit the development of a predictive
model that could be adopted for use in U.S. lakes undergoing
eutrophication problems.  In 1976, EPA will support research
on the effective utilization of stabilization ponds as a means
of waste water disposal.  The Tunisian government plans to
spend several million dollars in the design and construction
of stabilization ponds based on recent design studies at the
University of California (Berkeley).  EPA will support a three
year study to measure the effectiveness of these ponds and to
determine the validity of the various design criteria in actual
practice,  EPA will also study the effects of human sewage
pollution on sand beaches in Tunisia.  The disposal of sewage
on beaches presents a potential health hazard in highly developed
regions and very little is known about the processes through
which these pollutants are dispersed into the environment.

    In 1976, EPA will initiate research and applied science
programs in Pakistan.  Program areas of direct interest to
EPA which are also responsive to the massive health related
environmental problems of Pakistan have been identified.  Con-
trol of water pollution is clearly the area of highest priority.
Drinking water is a critical factor in human development and
health studies will be made to determine the effects of
polluted water on the central nervous system.  EPA efforts
will also place emphasis on problems of water reuse.  Other
applied programs concerning waste water disposal and pro-
tection of ground water supplies will be supported.  EPA
plans to encourage a study of marine biology in the Arabian
Sea, including the role of the polluted Indus River Estuary
in the productivity of the Arabian Sea.  Studies that have
been proposed include:

    (1) "Role of Drinking Water in the Developmental Anamolies
        of the Central Nervous System";

    (2) "Disposal of sewage on land for irrigation purposes.
        Effects of sewage on vegetables and other crops and its
        effect on the health of human beings and animals";

    (3) "Treatment of sewage in rural areas and the disposal of
        sewage effluent by irrigation";

    (4) "The effect of tannery waste disposal on land";

    (5) "Health effects of deliberate reuse of water supply,
        utilizing the Karachi water system"-,

    (6) "The conversion of feed lot and other animal wastes to
        gaseous fuels  (energy) and fertilizer"; and

    (7) "Marine biology in the Arabian Sea, and the role of the
        Indus River  Estuary in supporting marine life in the
        Arabian Sea".

Purpose of Increase

    The requested $6 million will permit restoration of the SAO
program to its former operating level, as well as allow partici-
pation  in the special cooperative program with the Polish

Special Analyses

                                      Special Analyses
                                                        •           •            •       Page
EPA Organization Chart	»...-	   SA-1
EPA Regional Offices—Locations	   SA-2
Summary of Resources	   SA-3
End-of-Year Employment and Budget Authority, by Media and
 Appropriation, 1975	   SA-8
End-of-Year Employment and Budget Authority, By Media and
 Appropriation, 1976		.		   SA-9
New Obligational Authority by Media for Transition Period
 (July 1 - September 30, 1976)			'		.	..   SA-10
Total Funds Available, 1975			'.	   SA-11
Total Funds Available, 1976		   SA-14

                               U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                                  DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR
                                                                                                                       OFFICE OF REGIOMAI
                                                                                                                       AND INTERGOVERN-
                                                                                                                       MENTAL OPERATION!
                  ASST. ADMINISTRATOR

                                                                          OFFICE OF
                                                                          OFFICE OF
                                                                          OFFICE at
                                                                                                                            OFFICE OF
                                                                            REGION >

     EPA Regions
Locations and States
Region I    Headquar tejrs, Bos ton, Mas sachusetts       Region VI
            Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,
            New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont

Region II   Headquarters,New York» NewYork
            New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico,
            Virgin Islands

Region III  Headjuart^                                Region VIII
            Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania,
            Virginia, West Virginia,, District
            of Columbia

Region IV   Hejidguarters^ Atlanta, ieprgla            Region IX
            Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
            Kentucky, Mississippi, North
            Carolina, South Carolina,
Region V    Headquarters.JEhTcajggJ._^IlJj_|nioj_si           Region X
            TTti'noisYIndiana, Michigan,
            Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin
                            Headquarters t Dal 1 as . Texas
                            Arkansas, New Mexico, Texas
                            Oklahoma, Louisiana
               Region VII   Headquarters , Kansas C1 ty .
                            Missouri     Iowa* Kansas,
                            Mi s sou r 1 , Nebra s ka

                            Head§yarterSj Denver^,
                            Montana, North Dakota, South
                            Dakota, Utah, Wyoming

                            Headqua rte rs,» Sa n Franc j sco >
                            Callfprnia   Ari zona ,
                            €aJT f ornl a , Hawaii, Nevada,
                            American Samoa, Guam, Trust
                            Territories of Pacific
                            Islands, Wake Island

                            Headquarters, Seattle ,
                            iashlngton     Alaska, Idahos
                            Oregon , Wa s hi n g ton

                                    Summary of Resources
Research and Development
  Budget authority......	
  End-of-year employment,....

Abatement and Control
  Budget authority.	
    Contract authority	
    Contract authority.
  Ou-tl ays	
    Contract authority	,
  End-of-year employment...

  Budget authority	
  End-of-year employment...
100,000,000 a/
242,582,343 ~
1 ,578
Increase or
-120, 000, 00<
+1 ,491 ,70

Agency and Regional Management
  Budget authority.......
  End-of-year employment.
        Researchand Develppment
  Budget author1ty	
  Obi igations	
  End-of-year empl oyment	

Bui Tdirigs, and fad 11 ties ..
  Bud|et authority.............
  End-of-year employment.......

Construction Grants
  Budget authority.	
    Contract authority.........    4,000,000,000
    Contract author1ty,.,
    Contract authority..,
  End-of-year employment.
1 ,824
* * *
• • *
» * •
• » *
• • •
• * *
* * •
1 ,823
• * *
9,000,000,000 £/
3,500,000,000   5,600,000,000
1,600,000,000     700,000,000
  700,000,000   1,650,000,000

Increase or
Scientific Activities Overseas
  Budget authority	   2,000,000
  Obligations	   3,990,573        1,440,635
  Outlays		   3,109,746        3,600,000
  End-of-year employment	

Operations, Research  and Facilities
  Budget authority	
  Obligations		    9,056,989       18,366,217
  Outlays	   77,237,138       56,000,000
  End-of-year empl oyment	           83

Revolving Fund
  Budget authority	
  Obligations.	      624,773          508,712
  Outlays	.,.      187,295  .         60,000
  End-of-year employment	

Trust Funds
  Budget authority	       -4,871
  Obligations.	        3,697           56,623
  Outlays	        2,272           36,000
  End-of-year employment	

           Increase or
1976        Decrease
Reimbursements j/
  Budget authority,.............
  Obligations..................     3,591,725         6,000,000      69000S000
  Out! ays........................
  End-of-year employment.»»,.«.           146               135            105             -30

Advances and Allocatlpns Accounts^
  Budget Author!ty.....7T77.".."."
  Outl ays	.......	
  End-of-year employment.	            16                16             16

Consolidated Working Fund
  Budget authori ty.......'.......
  Obligations	       573,827           255,026            ...        -255,026
  Outlays	       188,356           304,000        439,000        +135,000
  End-of-year employment	

Total, Environmental Protection Agency
  Budget authority..,.	    5187944,140       695,995,000    742,800,000     +46,805,000
    Contract authority,	  4,100,000,000     9,150,000,000            ...  -9,150,000,000
  Obligations..................  1,814,646,860     1,394,622,743    771,300,000    -623,322,743
J   Contract authority	  1,506,227,152     3,620,000,000  5S6008000,000  +1,980,000,000
  Outlays....	  1,867,550,940     2,211,000,000  1,415,013,000    -795,987,000
    Contract authority...	    162,816,668       726,000,000  1,715,000,000    +989,000,000
  End-of-year employment	          9,203             9,203          9,300             +97

                                                                                 - -
a/  Section 208 Areawide Waste Treatment Management.  $100 million contract authority
    authorized for 1974 of which $86,795,000 was administratively cancelled.

b/  Section 208 Areawlde Waste Treatment Management.  $150 million contract authority
    authorized for 1975 of which $120 million is expected to be obligated.

£/  Includes $1,333,770,000 allotted earlier by Court Order but not made available for
    obligation until the Supreme Court decision of February 18, 1975.

d/  Included in the President's Budget under Research and Development, Abatement and Controls
    and Agency and Regional Management.

                                             End-of-Year Employment and Budget Authority
                                                     By Media and Appropriation
                                                       (dollars in thousands)
Research and
Water Qua! i ty 	 	
(Appropriation) , 	 	
(Contract Authority)...
Water Supply. ...........
Solid Wastes.... 	 	
Toxic Substances 	
Program Management and
Agency and Regional
. 456
. 588
. (588)

. 64
. 148
. 252
. 217

Abatement and
31 ,529
. 404
• * •
Agency A Regional
EOY Amount iOY
>3 60,469
1 ,590
.5 1 ?823

    Subtotal	1,834     169,229.5

Energy Research and
Buildings and Facilities.  ...
Scientific Activities
Revol vi ng Fund	...  ...
Advances and Allocations.  ...
Trust Funds		  ...... i	

       Total	. .1,834     169,229.5
         (Appropriation)(1,834)   (169,229.5)
            Authori ty)	
 3,798     429,225.7
                1,597    51,670.3   1,823

 1,597    51,670.3   1,823
(1,597)   (51,670.3)  (1,823)

(9,200)    (

                                                 End-of-Year Employment and Budget Authority
                                                           By Media and Appropriation
                                                             (dollars in thousands)
                                 Research and
Abatement and
Agency and Regional
  Manjiaettent	,...
 Air*	     454     $47,973.6       773     $77,235.1       444      $12,030.0                           1,671
 Water Quality		....     581      44,892.4     1,729     144,521.9   ,    744       21,293.5                           3,054
   (Appropriation),	    (581)    (44,692.4)   (1,729)   (144,521.9)      (744)     (21,293.5)                         (3,054)
   (Contract Authority)...     ...           ...       ...            ...       ...            ...   '
 Water Supply		,      75      12,364.2       175      19,860.9         5          100.-Q                             255
 Solid Wastes	      23       3,997.3       161      11,622.7       ...            ...                             1«4
 Pesticides	     148      11,197.9       671      29,552.1       153        3,582.9                             972
 Radiation	      57       1,640.0       174       4,337.1       ...            ...                             231
 No4se	       1          45.0        75       9,592.2        TO          521.7                              86
 Interdisciplinary.	     252      20,775.8       ...            ...       ...            ...                             252
 Toxic Substances.	      11       1,209.0        45       6,850.3       ...            ...                              56
 Program Management and
.   Support	     177      18,536.4       195      35,975.6       169       15,643,9       ...            ...      541
 Agency and Regional
   Management....	    ^^	._._.	._._.	._^	.^	        1.837      $67,358.5    1.837

     Subtotal.............   1,779     162,631.6     3,998     339,547,9     1,525       53,162.0     1,837       67,358.5    9,139

 Energy Research and
   Development.	     ...           ...       ...  '          ...       ...            ...       ...            ...       40
 Buildings & Facilities,..
 Scientific Activities
 Reimbursements	,	     ...           ...       ...            ...       ...            ...       ...            ...      105
 Revolving Fund	     ...           ...       ...            ...
 Advances and Allocations.    __„_.	._._.	._._.	._._.	._._.	._._,	,_,_.	._._.	13_

        Total	    1,779    162,631.6     3,998     339,547.9     1,525       53,162.0     1,837       67,358.5    9,297
          (Appropriation).   (1,779)  (162,631.6)   (3,998)   (339,547.9)   (1,525)     (53,162.0)   (1,837)     (67,358.5)  (9,297)
          (Contract Authority)  ...          ...       ...            ...       ...            ...       .,.            ...      ...

Ai r	....	
Water Qua! i ty	
Water Supply.. •	,,»..,,.......,.
Solid Waste	
Pesti cides	 .
Radi ati on	.	
Yoxi c Substances	••... *	»•	
Noise.....	•.		..
Energy Research  and Development	
Program Management and Support..	
Agency and Regional Management	


Bull dings & Facilities....	

Scientific Activities Overseas...	

Construction Grants Contract
  Authority	.			

Mi seel 1aneous Trust Funds	

Advances Reimbursements  and Allocations.


                                             New Obiigational Authority by Appropriation by Media for Transition Period
                                                                    July 1, - September 30, 1976
                                                                       (dollars in thousands)
                                                   Research and
                    Abatement and



                                                          Amount    Pos.   Amount   Pos.








 .   25


                                    Agency  and
                                                     1,837   $17,400
                                                      Amount,   Pos.
 1,779    42,800   3,998   77,500  1,525    13,800   1,837    17,400


40   $21,000


1,864     42,800   4,018   77,500  1,525    13,800   1,837    17,400     56    22,500

Environmental Protection Agency
  Total Funds Available, "1975
Research and Development
Ai r . . 	 	 	
Water Oual itv 	 	 	

Sol id Wastes .-....- 	 	
Radi ati on 	 	 	 	 	 	 •

Toxic Substances .-....• 	
Program Management and Support. .
Abatement and Control
Air... 	 '.'." 	
Water Oual i tv 	 	
Water Supply. 	 	 	 ..,,,.....,
Sol id Wastes ....................
Noi se> 	 	
Toxic Substances 	 	 	
Program Management and Support. .
A, 762 ,000
> 3,036,800
51 ,670,300
Bal ance


• * •
Bal ance
Mp ,nno

* « •
47, c
A ,
5 (

18 i
1 <
87, i

19, J



Water Qual 1 ty» 	 	 	 	
Noise 	 , 	 .,
Program Management and Support. .
Agency and Regional Management
Agency Management and Support...
Regional Management and Support.
Energy Research and Development
Buildings and Facilities
Scientific Activities Overseas
Construction Grants (Appropriation)
Operations, Research and Facilities
Subtotal , 	 	 	
Contract Authority
Construct! on Grants 	 9
Areawide Waste Treatment Manage-
ment Grants 	
Total 	 	 9
Author* ty
« • •
• * *
* * •
B TQugJit

* * *
-* * *
« * •
• • *
• • *
• " ' • *•*>•'

# » *
• • t
* * •
V * «
* • *
• * «
* * *
* • •
l?,Qdi Ano n«o

701 ,5!
1 .387.8!
c nni ot

a/  Available from 1976 authority.  Includes $1,333,770,000 allotted earli^r1 by Court
    made available for obligation until the Supreme Court decision of 2/18/75.

b/  $30 million administratively cancelled.

Environmental  Protection Agency
  Total Funds Available, 1976

Research and Development
Water Qual ity 	 	
Water Supply 	 	
Solid Wastes 	 	
Interdiscipl inary. 	 	
Toxic Substances 	 	 	
Program Management and Support..
Abatement and Control
Water Qual i ty ........ 	 	
Water Supply. 	 	
Solid Wastes 	 	 	
Toxic Substances 	
Program Management and Support..

144,521 ,900
i ? n?n nnn
Unobl igated
7, 01 7-, 100

31 ,900
3,221 ,100

6,711 ,100
1 ,900,000


1 ,600,000

10, 9i

13, 4C



Program Management and Support...
Acjency and Regional Management
Agency Management and Support 	
Regional Management and Support..
Energy, Research and Development
Buildings and Facilities
Scientific Activities Overseas
Operations, Research, and Facilities
Contract Authority:
Construction Grants 	 	
Areawide Waste Treatment Manage-
ment Grants 	 	 	
Total — 	 	
21 ,293,500
521 ,700


• • *

* * •
• • «

• • *
Bal ance

* * *

• • •
21 ,293



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