ENVIRONMENTAL
      PROTECTION
           AGENCY
 JUSTIFICATION OF APPROPRIATION ESTIMATES FOR

COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS, FISCAL YEAR 1977

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                           ERRATA
Page Number     Line                            Correction
                                               from           to

WQ-32         1975 Accomplishments
                    line 3                   3^646            6,052

              Active New Law Projects                    #            $
                    Add:                Step 1&2       2,406         283.5
WQ-50         Obligations 1977               67998?3§9        6,076,420

                Contract Authority           6*9981359        6,076,420
              ANALYSIS OF INCREASES & DECREASES
                (same change)                6-r998-3§9        6,076,420
                                                              6,076,420
WQ-52         Active Projects   1975         .3?64.6            6.052

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Summary
   SECTION TAB

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                                Environmental  Protection Agency

                                     1977 Budget Estimates

                                       Table of Contents
                                                                              .Page
SummaryTables	,	          I

Air.	       A- 1
  Abatement and Control	,	       A- 7
    Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards	       A- 9
    Mobile Source Standards and Guidelines	,		       A-13
    State Program Resource Assistance	       A-16
    Air Quality Strategies Implementation...		       A-18
    Mobile Source Certification and Testing	       A-21
    Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment	       A-24
  Enforcement	,		       A-27
    Stationary Source Enforcement	       A-29
    Mobile Source Enforcement	       A-32
  Research and Development	       A-36
    Health and Ecological Effects			       A-37
    Industrial Processes	,	       A-42
    Monitoring and Technical Support	v	       A-44
    Advanced Automotive  Propulsion Systems	,	       A-46

Hater Quality.			      WQ- 1
  Abatement and Control	      WQ- 8
    Water Quality Planning and Standards	,	      WQ-10
    Eff 1 uent Standards and Gui del i nes	      WQ-15
    Grants Assistance Programs	      WQ-18
    Water Quality Strategies Implementation		      WQ-22
    Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis			      WQ-28
    Municipal Source Control	      WQ-31
  Enforcement	      WQ-36
    Water Quality Enforcement..,	,	,	      WQ-36
  Research and Devel opment	      WQ-40
    Health and Ecological Effects	      WQ-41
    Industrial Processes.		      WQ-44
    Public Sector Activities...,	      WQ-46
    Monitoring and Technical Support	      WQ-48
  Construction Grants	,	,	,	      WQ-50

Water Supply	      WS-  1
  Abatement and Control	      WS-  5
    Criteria, Standards,  and Guidelines	      WS-  6
    State Program Resource Assistance	,	,	      WS-  7
    Strategy Implementation	.	      WS-  9
  Enforcement	      WS-11
    Water Supply Enforcement	      WS-11
  Research and Development	      WS-13
    Public Sector "ctivities	      WS-14

Solid Waste.	      SW-  1
  Abatement and Control	,	      SW-  4
    Waste Management Practices,  Procedures, and Guidelines		      SW-  6
    Waste Management Strategies  Implementation	,.	      SW-  8
    Resource Conservation	,	,	      SW-10
  Research and Development	      SW-12
    Public Sector Activities.			      SW-12

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' y        Pesticides	         P-  1
             Abatement and Control....	,	         P-  6
               Registration and Tolerances	.,	         P-  8
               Hazard Evaluation	         P-l 1
*1p            Federal  and State Program Support.	         P-l3
,! :f          Enforcement	         P-l6
** *            Pesticides Enforcement	         P-16
             Research and Development	*		;	         P-18
|M            Health and Ecological Effects	         P-13

 ' I        Radiation	,	...,         R-  I
             Abatement and Control	         R-  5
I***            Criteria, Standards, and Guidelines	     .    R-  7
$  ^            Environmental Impact Assessment	         R-  9
 v.          Research and Development	         R-ll
               Health and Ecological Effects...	         R-ll
*»-"^
  !4        Noise	         N-  I
  ^          Abatement and Control	         N-  7
               Environmental Noise Strategies an.d Standards		         N-  9
               Program Implementation	,	         N-ll
"j.          Enforcement	'	         N-13
 ^]            Noise Enforcement	         N-13
 l*           Research and Development	»	         N-15
               Health and Ecological Effects		'.		         N-15
,„,
  (        Interdisciplinary	,	         I-  1
• *"'          Abatement and Control	         I-  5
               Environmental Impact Statement Preparation	,	         I-  5
s  *•          Research and Development	..".....	,	         1-7
 . >            Health and Ecological Effects	         I-  8
-  5            Industrial  Processes	:	,	         1-10
               Public Sector Activities	         1-13
 v,N            Monitoring and Technical  Support	         1-15
   \
           Toxic Substances	       TS-  1
             Abatement and Control	       TS-  4
 ^ft            Toxic Substances Strategies	       TS-  4
 ht          Research and Development	       TS-  6
 J            Health and Ecological Effects	,	       TS-  6

           Energy	         E-  1
  ;          Research and Devel opment	         E-  6
  {            Interdisciplinary.	         E-  6

           Program Management and Support	       PMS-  1
 *           Abatement and Control	,				       PMS-  5
  J            Program Management	       PMS-  6
 ^            Program Support	;.	       PMS-  7
             Enforcement	,..,..,	       PMS-  8
 ,«             Program Management	     •  PMS-  9
 •y            Program Support	       PMS-11
 ft          Research and Development	       PMS-12
               Program Management	       PMS-13
  -.             Program Support	       PMS-14
 'f          Energy	       PMS-15
 
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Buildings and Faciliti'es	
Scientific Activities Overseas.
 Page
 BF- 1
SAO- 1

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                                                              .**

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                                           ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                                   Budget Summary


                The Environmental Protection Agency's 1977 budget proposal provides for a
           decrease of $53.3 million and is presented under eight appropriations.  A
           summary of each area and the major changes for 1977 follows.

                1.  Abatement and Control programs provide for development and implementation
           of environmental standards, monitoring and surveillance of pollution, pollution
           control planning, financial and technical assistance to State and local pollution
           control agencies, assistance to other Federal agencies to minimize adverse impact
           of their activities on the environment, and training of personnel engaged in
           pollution control activities.

                Funds budgeted for the air program decrease by $1.6 million.  This results
           from the reduction of funds for air pollution control training programs, offset
r-t        by a number of small increases.  The water quality abatement and control program
j J        shows a reduction of $59.3 million in 1977.  Thirty-eight million dollars of this
* *        decrease occurs in assistance to areawide water quality management planning agencies
           funded under Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  The bulk
ifv,«        of the remainder of the decrease arises from $15 million appropriated in 1976 for
< "*        the Clean Lakes program which will not be required in 1977.
  t
                The water supply program will be increased significantly In 1977.  An
           additional $10 million will double the amount of grant support to the States for
           the support of public water system supervision programs and underground injection
           control programs.  Additional funds have also been included to support 35 additional
           positions,.most of which will provide technical assistance to the States in their
           assumption of primary enforcement responsibilities for these programs.

                A reduction of $5.3 million in the pesticides abatement and control program will
           be made possible by the anticipated completion of the initial peak workload required
           to implement the new provisions of the 1972 amendements to the Federal Insecticide,
           Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.  The major item ($4 million) in the reduction will
           result from the phase-out of funding to support the joint EPA/Department of
           Agriculture-Extension Service applicator training program which will be substantially
           completed during 1976.

                Other changes in the abatement and control program are a decrease of $464
           thousand  in the radiation program which will result in the termination of
           technical assistance support to States, an increase of $1.9 million in the
           interdisciplinary media for contracts to support the preparation of environmental
           impact statements, a reduction of $838 thousand in the toxic substances program, and
           an increase of $1 million in program management and support.

                2.   Enforcement program responsibilities are in the areas of air pollution
           control,  water quality, water supply, pesticides and noise.  The EPA enforcement
           program is conducted in cooperation with, and in support of, State and community
           enforcement programs.  Major increases totalling $2.7 million are planned for air
           and water quality enforcement in 1977.  The air enforcement increase will support
           additional positions to be assigned to regional offices to step up enforcement
           efforts,  particularly in areas of concentrated population where the primary
           health related standards, particularly those for particulates and sulfur dioxide,
           are not being met.  Additional resources are also planned for regional water quality
           enforcement.  Most of the positions will be allocated to the enforcement of water
           discharge permits.  Grants-in-aid to States for pesticides enforcement will be
           increased by $1 million in 1977.  This will permit-a reduction of 10 positions.
           A reduction of $321 thousand in the noise enforcement program is possible due to
           the completion of funding requirements associated with the establishment of a
           noise test facility.

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     3.   Researchand Development programs produce the scientific information and
technical tools onwhich to basenational policy and effective control strategies
in the regulation, prevention, and abatement of environmental pollution.

     The program will decrease by $7.0 million, principally because the full $7.6
million added to the 1976 request by the Congress was not carried forward.
Reductions will be effected in the air program ($2.6 million), water quality
($2.2 million), radiation ($800 thousand), and interdisciplinary research
($2.8 million).  The water supply program will be increased by $1 million.

     4-   EnergyResearch and Development programs provide for development of a
scientific basisto ensure (1) protection of human health, (2) environmental
protection necessary to facilitate the use of domestic energy supplies, (3)
implementation of energy systems initiatives without delays caused by inadequate
and insufficient environmental impact data, and (4) the concurrent development
of appropriate control technologies and emerging energy systems to minimize
control costs and environmental impact.  The energy related research program
will be reduced by $3.6 million.  This adjustment reflects the results of a
review of the governmentwide energy research program, aimed at fully
coordinating this effort.

     5.  Agency and Regional Management activities provide for Agencywide program
direction and management carried on at EPA headquarters and in the regional offices;
it also covers a variety of common service or support functions which serve
Agencywide needs.  An increase of $5.5 million is budgeted for management and
support activities.  This will permit audit coverage of the construction grants
program to be expanded; strengthening of civil rights, public information,
evaluation, and employee training programs; and provide for increased rental,
communications, and ADP costs.

     6.  •Construction Grants are made to local public agencies for construction
of municipal waste water treatment facilities to assist States and localities in
attaining and maintaining water quality standards.  The Federal Water Pollution
Control Act Amendments of 1972 authorized $18 billion for this purpose.  As of
December 1975, $8.1 billion of these funds had been obligated.

     7.  Buildings and Facilities activities provide for the design and construction
of new EPA facilities as well as necessary repairs and improvements to federally
installations which are occupied by EPA.  No increase is being requested for
these purposes in 1977 and activities will be limited to necessary repairs and
alteration to existing facilities.

     8.  Scientific Activities Overseas  (Special Foreign Currency Program) supports
cooperative research and demonstration programs in other countries, using excess
currencies available.  No funds were appropriated in 1975.  The 1976 level of
$4 million will be increased to $6 million for 1977 to allow participation in a
special cooperative energy related environmental studies program with Poland.
                                                                II

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                                            Summary

      Budget Authority, Contract Authority:, Obligations, Outlays, End-of-Year Employment
                                       By Appropriation
                                    (dollars in thousands)
Abatement and Control
  Budget authority	...
    Contract authority...
  Obligations	
    Contract authority...
  Outlays	
    Contract authority...
  End-of-year employment.
Enforcement
  Budget authority.	
  Obligations		
  Outlays	
  End-of-year employment.

Research and Development
  Budget authority........
  Obiigations	
  Outlays.	
  End-of-year employment.
Energy Research and Deve.1.opment
  Budget authority	..........
  Obi igations.	
  Outlays—	
  End-of-year employment	
Agency and Regional Management
  Budget authority	
  Obligations	
  Outlays	
  End-of-year employment	
Buildings and Facilities
  Budget authori ty	
  Obligations.	
  Outlays	
Construction Grants
  Budget authority	,
    Contract authority.
  Obi igations	
    Contract authority.
  Outlays	
    Contract authority.
_Sp.i e n t_j_f i c Ac t i v i t i e s Overseas
  Budget authority....	
  Obiigations.	
  Outlays	
Operations, Research and Facilities
  Obi igations		
  Outl ays	
  End-of-year employment	
                                           Actual
                                            1975
 5206,816
  150.000
  267,634
  149,977
  .259,227
    6,122
    3,653
     ,096
   50,747
   51,637
    1,662
^166,532
  166,675
  166,608
    1,810
^134,000
   88,339
   23,204
    60,364
    58,779
    53,868
     1 ,823
    1,529
      341
        3
7,666,230
  581,037
3,645,899
1,063,417
  874,158
    1,243
    3,512
    6,285
   28,691
       61
Budget
Estimate
1976
5339,548
346,548
287, DOO
65,000
3,998
53,162
53,162
54,000
1,525
162,632
164,632
167,000
1,779
112,000
125,000
113,000
40
67,35P.
67,358
63,000
1,837
2,100
2,100
1,500
5,200,000
700,000
1 ,600,000
6,000
6,000
4,000
25,000
Current
Estimate
1976
5374,788
397,136
300,000
92,000
4,1.02
52,744
52,856
53,000
1,568
166,466
170,463
177,000
1 ,688
100,550
136,156
120,000
123
70,872
70,872
68,000
1 ,952
2,100
2,959
612
100,000
4,400,000
580,000
1,770,000
4,000
4,198
5,000
15,446
27,0.00
Es tiiiuU"
1977
$329,544
330, .51 9
260,000
45,000
4,?41
56,56!
56,561
56,000
1 ,595
159,476
152,155
160,000
1,679
96,973
88,333
120,000
123
67,538
67,538
66,000
1 ,795
2,100
2,186
2,000
h, 07 6, 420
400,000
3,370,000
6,000
6,000
5,000
3,600
16,000
                                                                      III

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                                           Actual
                                            1975
 Budget      Current
Estimate    Estimate   Estimate
  1976'       1976       1977
Revolving Fund
  Obligations	              403          500         500         500
  Outlays....	             -246           50         -39-        -50

Trust Funds
  Budget authority	               28          ...           9
  Obligations	                9          ...          72
  Outlays	                6           24          90

Reimbursements
  Obligations	            4,399        6,000       6,000       6,000.
  End-of-year employment	              135          105         111         105

Advances and A11pcations Accounts
  End-of-year employment		               16           16           6          12

Consolidated Working Fund
  Obligations	..7.....	              530
  Outlays	              487          439         337

Total, Environmental! Protection
""Agency
  Budget authority	          700,365      742,800     771,529     718,192
    Contract authority	        7,816,230
  Obligations	        1,226,421      771,300     956,658     713,392
    Contract authority	        3,795,876    5,200,000   4,400,000   6,076,420
  Outlays	        1,650,414    1,415,013   1,331,000   1,084,950
    Contract authority	          880,280    "1,665,000   1,862,000   3,415,000
  End-of-year employment		            9,160        9,300       9,550       9,550


NOTE:  Excludes comparative transfer of Environmental Impact Statement activities from
       Agency and Regional Management to Abatement and Control:

            Budget authority	       5,016        8,789       8,789
            Obligations	       3,728        8,789       8,789
            Outlays	       3,728        8,700       8,700
            End-of-year employment.••          50          130         130
        All  subsequent tables and text include this comparative transfer.

End-of-year employment = permanent positions.
                                                                       IV

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                                                                   Budget      Current
                                                       Actual      Estimate     Estimate     Estimate
                                                        1975        1976         19.76         1977
               Reimbursements
                 Obligations..., ...................      4,399        6,000        6,000        6,000
                 End-of-year employment ............        135          105          111          105

               Advances and All ocations Accounts
                 End-of-year employment ............         16           16            6           12

               Consolidated Working, Fund
                 Obligations — ....................        530
                 Outlays ................. . ...... ...        487          439          337

               Total , Environmental Protection Agency
                 Budget authority......... .........    700,365      742,800      771,529      718,192
                   Contract authority ..............  7,816,230
                 Obligations .......................  1,226,421      771,300      956,658      713,392
                   Contract authority ..............  3,795,876    5,200,000    4,400,000    6,076,420
:" 1              Outlays ............ . ...............  1,650,414    1,415,013    1,331,000    1,084,9.50
,< <                Contract authority ..............    880,280b/  1,665,000    1,862,000    3,415,000
                 End-of-year employment ............      9,160"       9,300        9,550        9,550
               a/  Includes comparative transfer of EIS from Agency and Regional  Management to
                   Interdisciplinary:

                      Budget authority		     5,016        8,789        8,789
                      Obligations		     3,728        8,789        8,789
                      Outlays	     3,728        8,700        8,700
                      End-of-year employment	        50          130          130


               b/  Excludes 43 vacancies.
                                                                                    VII

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                                Summary  of Increase  or Decrease
                          Budget Authority and  End-of-Year  Employment
                                    (dollars  in thousands)

Abatement and Control
Budget authority 	 	 .' 	
End-of-year employment . . 	
Enforcement
Budget authori ty 	 	
End-of-year employment 	
Research and Development
Budget authori ty 	
End-of-year employment. . 	
Energy Research and Development
Budget 'authori ty 	
End-of-year employment 	
Agency and Regional Management
Budget authori ty 	 .... 	
End-of-ypar employment 	 , 	
Buildings and Facilities
Budget authori ty 	
Scientific Activities Overseas
Budget authori "tv. 	 	 	
Current
Estimate
1976

	 $383,577*
	 4, ,232*
	 52,744
	 1 ,568

	 166,, 466
	 1 ,688

	 TOO.,-550
T23

	 62,083*
	 1 ,822*

	 2,100

	 4,00.0
Estimate
1977

$.3.29^574
•4 ',230
56..55.T
1 ,604

159., 422
1 ,678

96,,973
123

67,572
1 ,798

2,100

6,000
Increase +
Decrease -

-$54,003
_2
+3,807
+36

-7,044
-TO

-3,577


+5,489
-24



+2,000
Reimbursements
 . End-of-year employment	       Ill         105           -6

Advances and Allocations
  End-of-year employment	         6         12           +6

Irust Funds
  Budget authority..-	,	         9        ...           -9

Total, Environmental Protection Agency
  Budget authority	,		   771,529    718,192      -53,,337
  End-of-year employment	     9,550      9,550          ...


*  Includes comparative transfer of Environmental Impact Statement activities from
   Agency and Regional Management to Abatement and Control:

      Budget authority....	,	;	,.   $8,789
      End-of-year  employment	      130

   End-of-year employment = permanent positions.
                                                                       VIII

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                                Summary  of Budget Authority,  Contract  Authority,
                                Obligations,  Outlays  and  End-of-Year Employment
                                                   By Media
                                            (dollars  in thousands)

Air
Budget authority 	
Obi igations 	
Outl ays 	 	
End-of-year employment 	
Water Quality
Budget authority 	
Contract authority 	
Obi igations 	
Contract authority.. 	
Outlays 	
Contract authority 	
End-of-year employment 	
Water Supply
Budget authority 	
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
End-of-year empl oyment 	
Solid Wastes
Budget authority 	
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
End-of-vear employment 	
Actual
1975

	 $155,190
	 152,221
	 159,498
	 1,559

	 178,462
	 150,000
	 167,270
	 149,977
	 173,350
..... 6,122
	 3,050

	 12,704
	 7,714
	 5,240
	 169

	 19,421
	 20,184
	 11 ,623
	 174
Budget
Estimate
1976

$137,229
142,036
158,000
1,671

210,708

214,199

175,400
65,000
3,054

32,325
27,647
21,500
255

15,620
21,510
14,000
184
Current
Estimate
1976

$145,757
158,932
170,452
1 ,738

238,279

246,873

189,160
92,000
3,105

32,174
32,281
17,620
264

15,685
16,213
13,800
183
Estimate
1977

$142.824
139,082
148 720
1 763

178 237

176 564

138,655
45,000
3 132

43,754
42,594
29,480
298

15,737
16,346
13,200
183
        Pesticides
          Budget  authority	     35,213       44,333       44,290       39,807
          Obligations	     33,722       42,948       44,561       39,862
          Outlays	     29,016       33,000       35,520       34,880
          End-of-year  employment		        965          972          994          952

        Radiation
')         Budget authority	      7,115        5,977        6,166        4,901
          Obligations	      7,070        5,965        6,244        4,991
          Outlays	      9,574        5,700        6,100        5,270
          End-of-year  empl oyment	        262          23]          234          204
\H
I       Noise
          Budget authority	      5,304       10,159       10,574       10,285
          Obligations		      4,673       10,081       10,631       10,345
          Outlays		,	,.,      4,057        6,900        6,513        9,045
          End-of-year employment.	         56           86           95           95

        Interdi scipl inary                               ,             ,             ,
          Budget authority		     21,659§->      29,565§->      36,944-0      36,020
          Obligations	     24,953f/      _28,189f>      37,743f/      36,390
          Outlays	     18.197T-/      26,200r/      265140f/      26,500
          End-of-year employment	        313-         382-         334-         350

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                                                    Budget      Current
                                        Actual     Estimate     Estimate     Estimate
                                         1975        1976         1976         1977

Toxi'c' Substances
  Budget authority	     9,444        8,05.9        8,205        7,367
  Obligations	     4,888        9,429        8,744        3,188
  Outlays	     2,445        8,200        4,100        5,100
  End-of-year employment	,	        50           56           52           52

Program Management and Support
  Budget authority.	    64.94S       70,156       65,263       67,195
  Obligations	    66,08.9       71,127       67,5.72       65,385
  Outlays	    68,200       67,800       69,295       65,150
  End-of-year empl oyment	       577          541          489          486

Agency and Regional Management                ,/           ,/           ,/
  Budget authority	    55,348fy     58,569r/     62,083-,     67,538
  Obligations	    55,05lT/     58,569r>     62,083e/     67,538
  Outlays	    50,14th:/     54,300r/     59,300t/     6.6,000
  End-of-year .employment.	     1,773-      1..707-       1,822^        1,795

Energy '

  Budget authority	   134,000      112,000       100,0.00       96,427
  Obligations	    88,339      125,000       135,606       8.7,787
  Outlays	    23,204      113,000       120,000       120,000
  End-of-year employment	       ,,.           40          123          123

Buildings and •Facilities
  Budget authority.	     1,529        2,100        2,100         2,100
  Obligations	       341        2,100        2,959         2,186
  Outlays..	          3        1,500          612         2,000.

Construeti on Grants
  Budget authority..	,.	       ...           ...           ....           ...
    Contract authority	  7,666,230
  Obligations	   581,037           ...       100,000
    Contract authority	  3,645,899     5,200,000     4,400,000     6,076,420
  Outlays	  1,063,417      700,000       580,000       400,000
    Contract authority	   874,158     1,600,000     1,770,000     3,370,000

Scientific Activities Overseas
  Budget authority ..................        ...         6,000         4,000        6,000
  Obligations ..................... .. .      1,243         6,000         4,198        6,000
  Outlays ..... ............... , ......      3,512         4,000         5,000        5,000

Operations,  Research  and  Facilities
  Obligations ........... . ....... ....      6,285           ...        15,446        3,600
  Outlays ......................... .. .     28,691        25,000        27,000       16,000
  End-of-year  employment .......... , .         61           —           ...          ...

Revolving  Fund
  Obligations .......................        403           500           500          500
  Outlays ...........................       -246            50           -39        ,  -50

Jrust Funds
  Budget authority ____ ... ...........         28          ...             9
  Obligations ............ ...........          9          ...            72
  Outlays.. .................. .......          6       -24            90
                                                                      VI

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                                      Transition Quarter
                   Budget Authority, Contract Authority, Obligations,Outlays
                                     ..  By Appropriation
                                   (in thousands of dollars)

                                                                                 Total

Abatement and Control
  Budget authority	    $94,700
  Obi igations	,	    126,229
  Out!ays	,	,.,..-..    Ill .000
    Contract authority	—	     15,000

Enforcement
  Budget authority ......................... . ............... .................     13,931
  Obligations ..... . ................ , ........ , ---- . ............... ... .........     13,931
  Outlays .............................. . . ......... ______ ......................     15,000

Research -and Development
  Budget authority.. ................... ........................................     42,923
  Obligations ......... . ................ . ---- .. ----- .......... » .................     55,925
  Outlays ...... . ................ .................. , ......... .................     56,000

Energy Research and Development
  Budget authority..... .................... ............... ....................     21 ,000
  Obligations .................................... . ................... ........     30,138
  Out! ays ., ... ......... . ................. ............. . .......... .-. .............     24 ,000

Agency and Regional Management
  Budget authority ................ ..... ..................... .« . ----- ..... ......     14,3.62
  Obligations ....... ... ............................................ .........     14,362
  Outlays, ----- .......... ....... ...............................................     13,000

Buildings and Facilities
  Budget authority.. ..... ______ ........................ , — ....................        500
  Obligations [[[        533
  Outl ays ............... . ............................................... .....      1 ,000

Construction Grants
  Obligations .............................. . ............. ........ ...... .....
    Contract authority [[[  1 ,000,000
  Outlays. .......... . ...... .... ....................... . ......... ...............   110,000
    Contract authority. ...... . ......... , ---- , ................. . ........... ..   490,000

Scientific Activities Overseas
  Budget authority ............................................... ..... ......        670
  Obligations ............................................... .......... . ......        670
  Outlays,. ........................... ; ................................. . ......      1,000

Miscellaneous Accounts
  Obligations ............ . .............. . .................. , .............. ,.      2,425
  Outl ays ............ .....•- .............. . .......... .................. ......... ,      1 ,990

Total, Environmental Protection Agency
  Budget authority ..................................... .................... :.   188,586
  Obligations ......... ........... .............. , ......... ., .....................   244,713
    .Contract authority ............. . ....................... ,...., ...........  1,000,000
  Outl ays ......... ... ........... ---- . ............. , ....................... ...   332,990
    Contract authority ................. . ..................... ................   505,000


NOTE:  Includes comparative transfer of $2,061 for  Environmental  Impact Statement
       activities  from  Agency Regional  Management to Abatement  and  Control.:

  Budget authority., ...... ........ . ----- .............. ........................      2,061
  Obi igations ... ---- . .............. . ..........................................      2,061

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                               Liquidation of Contract Authority
                                    (in thousands  of dollars^

                                                               Trans ft ion
                                            1916       1975     Quarter            1977

Construction Grants.	 $1,400,000   $5QQ.,0,aO      $600,000    $4,100,000

Abatement and Control
  (Areawide Waste Treatment
   .Management Grants)	     Z6..0PO      65.,Q.OO        19,000        49,182

           Total..	  1,4Z6,000    565JTO       619,DOO    4,149,182

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     The 1977 Environmental Protection Agency appropriation request, summarized on
the preceding pages, is identical to the President's Budget submission of
January 21, 1976.  Subsequent to the transmission of th,e President's Budget, the
Agency has made a number of small 1976 appropriation transfers consistent with the
seven percent transfer authority provided in the 1976 Appropriation Act (Department
of Housing and Urban Development—Independent Agencies Appropriation Act, 1976,
P.L. 94-116, 89 STAT. 590).  Some of these changes affect the planned 1977 program.
Consistent with the Appropriations Committees' interest in reviewing a "current"
budget, these reprogramming actions are reflected in the following analyses and
justifications.

     Since reprogramming actions occur frequently, other changes may be expected
before congressional action is completed.  The President's Budget reflects the
situation at one point in time as a basis for congressional action.
                                                                    XI

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                            COMPARISON OF  1977  PRESIDENT'S  BUDGET AND
                            , '  CURRENT OPERATING  PLAN  ADJUSTMENTS
                                        BY APPROPRIATION
                                     (dollars in  thousands)
Abatement and Control
  Budget authority		
  End-of-year employment	

Enforcement
  Budget authority	
  End-of-year employment	

Research and Development
  Budget authori ty	
  End-of-year employment	

Energy Research and Development
  Budget authority.		
  End-of-year employment	

Agency and Regional Management
  Budget authori ty	
  End-of-year employment	

Buildings and Facilities
  Budget authori ty	

Sc1entif ic Activ i ties Overseas
  Budget authority	

Reimbursements
  End-of-year employment..	

Allocation Accounts
  End-of-year employment	

Total
  Budget authori ty		
  End-of-year employment	
                                          1977
                                       Presi dent' s
                                         Budget
$329,544
   4,241
  56,561
   1,595
 159,476
   1,679
  96,973
     123
  67,538
   1,795
   2, TOO


   6,000


     105


      12
 718,192
   9,550
                    1977
                   Current
                 Plan  N.  B-.
$329,574
   4,230
  56,551
   1,604
 159,422
   1,678
  96,973
     123
  67,572
   1,798
   2,100


   6,000


     105


      12
 718,192
   9,550
               Difference

4-3-
a/ AbatementandControl                *

     A transfer of +1 position and +$30,000 from Enforcement to reflect a transfer
of functions to the Office of Uater Supply pursuant to the closing of the Cincinnati
National Field Investigation Center.

     A transfer of -3 positions from the Abatement and Control pesticides registrations
and tolerances program to Enforcement to provide pesticides technical support in
enforcement case reviews.

     A transfer of -1 position from program management to Enforcement for the Office
of General Counsel to provide additional legal support for water quality
programs.

     A transfer of -8 positions from interdisciplinary to  Enforcement to strengthen
air regional enforcement programs.
                                                                      XII

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b/  Enforcement

      A transfer of +1 position and +$20,000 from Agency and Regional  Management
to the Office of General Counsel pursuant to the decentralization of routine
administrative services.

      A transfer of -3 positions to Research and Development to reflect the
transfer of the stationary source enforcement function to the Denver National
Environmental Investigations Center and to the Office of Research and Development.

      A transfer of -1 position and -$30,000 to Abatement and Control  to reflect
a transfer of functions to the Office of Water Supply pursuant to the closing  of
the Cincinnati National Field Investigation Center.

      A transfer of +3 positions from the Abatement and Control pesticides
registrations and tolerances program to pesticide enforcement to provide
technical support in enforcement case reviews.

      A transfer of +1 position  from Abatement and Control to the Office of
General Counsel to provide additional legal support for water quality programs.

      A transfer of +8 positions from Abatement and Control to air enforcement
to strengthen  regional air enforcement programs.

c/  Research and Development

      A transfer of -4 positions and -$54,000 to Agency and Regional Management
to reflect the transfer and consolidation of financial management services from
the Office of Research and Development in Con/all is to the Office of Resources
Management in Las Vegas.

      A transfer of +3 positions from Enforcement to reflect the transfer of the
stationary source enforcement function to the Denver National Environmental
Investigations Center and to the Office of Research and Development.

d/  Agency and Regional Management

      A transfer of +4 positions and +$54,000 from Research and Development to
reflect the transfer and consolidation of financial management services from the
Office of Research and Development in Corvallis to the Office of Resources
Management in Las Vegas.

      A transfer of -1 position and -$20,000 from the Office of the Administrator
to Enforcement for the Office of General Counsel pursuant to the decentralization
of routine administrative services.


N.B.   The 1977 "current plan" reflects the impact  on 1977 of 1976 reprogramming
actions made subsequent to the presentation of the 1977 President's Budget.  These
transfers,  which are listed above,  were made pursuant to the  authority  contained  in
tne Department of Housing  and Urban Development—Independent  Agencies Appropriation
Act,  1976 (89 STAT.  590).
                                                                     XIII

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                             COMPARISON OF 1977 PRESIDENT'S BUDGET AND
                               CURRENT OPERATING PLAN ADJUSTMENTS
                                            BY MEDIA
                                     (dollars in. thousands)
                                           1977
                                        President's
                                         JBudget

Air
  Budget authority..,	      $142,824
  End-of-year employment	»         1,763

Mater Quality
  Budget authority	       178,237
  End-of-year employment	         3,132

Mater Supply
  Budget..authority...		        43,754
  End-of-year empl oynient	           298

Solid Waste
  Budget authority	        15,737
  End-of-year employment...........           183

Pesticides
  Budget authority..	,		        39,807
  End-of-year employment.	           952

Radiation
  Budget authority	         4,901
  End-of-year employment	           204

Noise
  Budget authority	        10,285
  End-of-year employment	            95

Interdisciplinary
  Budget authority	        36,020
  End-of-year employment	           350

Toxic Substances
  Budget author!ty	         7,367
  End-of-year employment	            52

Program[Management and Suppjort
  Budget authority..	        67,195
  End-of-year employment	           486

Agencyand Regional  Management
  Budget authority..		        67,53?
  End-of'-year employment	          1,795

Energy
  Budget authority	        96,427
  End-of-year employemnt	           123

Facilities
  Budget authority	         2,100

Scientific Activities Overseas
  Budget authority	         6,000
   1977
  in
Plan
Curr?l
$142,824
   T ,770
 178,183
   3,128
  43,78,4
     299
  15,737
     183
  39,807
     952
   4,901
     204
  10,215
      is
  36,020
     343
   7,367
      52
  67,185
     466
  67,572
   1,798
  96,427
     123
   2,100


   6,000
             Difference
                  +7
                 -54
                  -4
                 +30
                  +1
                                              •?>*>,
                  -10
                  +34
                   +3
                                                                       XIV

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                                          1977               1977
                                       President's         Current
                                         Budget           Plan N-B.     Difference
Reimbursements
  End-of-year employment	         105                105

Advances and Allocations
  End-of-year employment	          12                 12

Total, Environmental Protection
  Agency                                                      •
  Budget Authority		     718,192            718,192
  End-of-year employment	       9,550              9,550'
N.B.  The 1977 "current plan" reflects the impact  on 1977  of 1976  reprogramming
actions made subsequent to the presentation of the 1977  President's  Budget.  These
transfers, which are listed above,  were made pursuant to the authority  contained  in
the Department of Housing and Urban Development—Independent Agencies Appropriation
Act, 1976 (89 STAT.  590).
                                                                         XV

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Page Intentionally Blank

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 Air
SECTION TAB

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Page Intentionally Blank

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                                              AIR
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                              Actual
                               1975
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	 $84,899
  Permanent Positions	     735
  Transition Quarter	     N/A

Enforcement:
  Appropriation	  10,870
  Permanent Positions	     401
  Transition Quarter	     N/A

Research and Development:
  Appropriation,	  56,452
  Permanent Positions	     423
  Transition Quarter	     N/A

Total, Air Program:
  Appropriation	.,.. 152,221
  Permanent Positions	   1,559
  Transition Quarter	     N/A
  Outlays	 159,498
  Authorization  Levels	 490,000

*  Authorization pending, $225,486.
** Authorization pending.
 Budget
Estimate
  1976
 Current
Estimate
  1976
Estimate
  1977
                                               (dollars in thousands)
$77,235
773
20,858
12,020
444
3,447
47,974
454
13,120
137,229
1,671
37,425
158,000
$84,715
803
23,258
12,499
462
3,447
48,542
473
13,120
145,756
1,738
39,825
170,452
240,486*
$83,139
815
N/A
13,743
482
N/A
45,342
473
N/A
142,824
1,770
N/A
148,720
219,621
 Increase +
 Decrease •«•
1977 vs.  1976
                                      -$1,576
                                          +12
                                          N/A
                                       +1,244
                                          +20
                                          N/A
                                       -2,600

                                          N/A
                                       -2,932
                                          +32
                                          N/A
                                      -21,732
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Clean Air Act authorizes a national program of air pollution research,
regulation, and enforcement activities.  Primary responsibility for the prevention
and control of air pollution rests with State and local governments.   The program  •
is directed at the Federal  level  by the Environmental  Protection Agency (EPA).
EPA's role is to conduct research and development programs, set national  environmental
goals, ensure that adequate standards and regulations  are established to  meet these
goals, provide assistance to the  States, and ensure that the standards and regulations
are effectively enforced.

     The environmental goals are quantified in the National Ambient Air Quality
Standards  (NAAQS), which set forth the allowable concentration in air of pollutants
which affect human health and public welfare.  The health and other effects of
pollutants are delineated in criteria documents which are the basis for the
standards.  National Ambient Air Quality Standards have been set for total suspended
particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, photochemical  oxidants,
and hydrocarbons.  Two types of. standards are set:  primary standards to protect human
health and secondary standards to protect the public welfare (prevention  of damage to
property, animals, vegetation, crops, visibility, etc.).  Controlling emissions to
meet the standards is handled through two major types of activities:   (1) States carry
out State  implementation plans (SIPs) which control pollution primarily by prescribing
specific emission limitations or control actions for types of polluters, and (2) EPA
controls, by regulation, emissions from new motor vehicles and new industrial sources.

     The attainment of the primary air qualify standards has been the primary objective
of the air program under the Glean Air Act.  The combined Federal-State-!oca! effort
to control air pollution has achieved a.notable degree of success in reducing air
pollutant emission levels and in improving ambient air quality across the Nation.
The number of air quality control regions (AQCRs) where violations of the standards
are recorded has decreased between 1973 and 1974.  In terms of the primary annual
standard, the percentage of AQCRs reporting violations of the total suspended
                                                                                   A-l

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particulates primary standard  has dropped from 63 percent in 1973 to 55 percent
in 1974.  For sulfur dioxide, the comparable figures are 13 percent and six
percent.  A similar trend is evident for automotive related pollutants.  For
carbon monoxide, the one-hour standard was violated at 20 percent of the reporting          ,
AQCRS in 1974, while in 1973, 17 percent reported violations.  However, the eight-
hour carbon monoxide standard violations show a decline—from 77 percent in 1973
to 64 percent in 1974.  The oxidants standard was violated in 89 percent of the
reporting AQCRs in 1974 and 84 percent in 1973.  In assessing attainment progress,
it should be noted that yearly fluctuations in ambient air quality measurements can
be influenced by both meteorological conditions and levels of economic activity as
well  as by emission reductions resulting from control  programs per se.                     \ ,
                                    '           :                    ~"                      Ja
     In spite of the progress that has been made, however, there still remain many          *•<*
AQCRs where one or more of the primary standards is exceeded; many of these AQCRs
will  continue to have ambient air quality levels in excess of the primary standards         ,,
in the future.  Nonattainment is defined as the primary standard being exceeded at          ^ -
one or more monitoring sites in the AQCR.  Current projections indicate that 132
AQCRs will not attain the particulate standard  by statutory dates.  For SOg, 35
AQCRs will not attain the standard.  It is further projected that 79 AQCRs will
have ambient air quality levels in excess of the primary standard for oxidants by
the statutory attainment dates (which for this pollutant is generally beyond mid-
1975), 69 AQCRs will exceed the primary standard for carbon monoxide, and 16 AQCRs
will  exceed it for nitrogen dioxide.

     The program emphasis for 1977 will continue to be on the attainment of the
National Ambient Air Quality Standards.  Emphasis will be given to the enforcement
of State implementation plans, concentrating on those regions of high population
density where the air quality exceeds primary health related standards.  States
and communities will continue to bear most of the responsibility for enforcing
State implementation plans both for stationary sources, the origin of most of
the controllable particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, and for automotive related
pollutants.  State and community efforts to control stationary source pollution
will  be abetted by 20 additional positions assigned to EPA regional enforcement
programs in 1977.  The control of automotive pollutants will include State and
community implementation of Transportation Control Plans (TCPs) in areas where
the emission reductions achieved as a result of the Federal motor vehicle pollu-
tion control program will not be sufficient to meet the primary standards for
the automotive related pollutants (primarily carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and
oxidants).  Emphasis will be placed on the implementation of the vehicle inspection
and maintenance provisions of the TCPs and, where necessary, reasonable measures to
reduce vehicle miles traveled.

     In many air quality control regions, State implementation plans will not be
adequate to meet primary standards.  In 1977, emphasis will be put on revising
SIPs where  it has been determined they are clearly inadequate for attainment.
An additional 20 positions have been added to EPAs regional abatement and
control program for this purpose.  Revision of State plans will also be necessary
to include  the controls required to assure that the standards, once attained, are
not violated in the future.

     The maintenance of standards in the long run will also be facilitated by
Federal programs that lead to the minimization of emissions from new- sources,
i.e., new motor vehicle emission standards and standards of performance for new
stationary  sources.  The Clean Afr Act requires EPA to set national emission
standards for new motor vehicles.  The burden for compliance with auto emission
standards is with the manufacturer.  EPA assures compliance primarily by certifying
prototype vehicles.  EPA also has the responsibility to ensure that  in-use vehicles
meet standards through implementation of the recall, warranty, tampering, and               !j
import  provisions of the Clean Air Act.  The emphasis  in the New Source Performance         (,j,
Standards program for the control of emissions from new stationary sources will be
Shifted from the control of  sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions to the control
of pollutants that  lead to photochemical" pollutants formation, i.e., on sources of          j
nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.  This action is expected to result  in a greater           '^
impact  on long-term nationwide emissions.                                                   ~"
                                                                               A-2

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                         The nature and magnitude of the problems associated with attainment and maintenance
                    of the standards varies with the specific pollutant involved.  Particulate matter
                    problems are related in many cases to sources that are not generally controllable by
                    the application of commonly available particulate emission controls.  Examples of such
   ]                sources are "fugitive dust" and "urban partlculate background," which result from
 '  ;                activities such as farming operations, construction, the abrasion of road surfaces,
                    and atmospheric reactions Involving pollutants emitted as gases.  Development of control
                    strategies for particulates that take into account these problems will require definition
 f "!                of sources, development of appropriate analytical tools (including, in some cases,
 '  j                measurement technology), and the Identification of control technology.  The 1977 program
 ' "*                addresses these problems.

 p*i                     For sulfur dioxide, the national problem 1s generally related to the need to mini-
 }  ,,                mize the impact on energy supplies of the specific control technologies that are to
 <  *•'                 be applied for attainment and maintenance of the standard; the attainment of standards
                    for this pollutant is relatively well in hand although significant problems must be
 »'-n                 resolved with respect to compliance with emissions limitations by power plants.
   ]                 Similarly, problems associated with carbon monoxide do not require extensive develop^
 «                   ment work; implementation of reasonable controls, rather than development of controls,
                    seems to be required.  The 1977 program 1s aimed at such implementation.

 -  ,                      Problems associated with the atmospheric transformation of pollutants are related
 ^  ,;                 to our understanding of the formation of photochemical oxidants and other pollutants,
                    such as nitrogen dioxide, sulfates, and nitrates.  Understanding of the atmospheric
                    transformation and the Impact that resulting pollutants have on public health and
 ;"?                 welfare 1s essential 1f adequate control strategies are to be developed.  The research
 I  |                 program addressing these issues will be continued in 1977.   Implementation plans
                    will be reassessed as to their control requirements in view of  improved understanding
                    of the transport and transformation processes.  The definition of the Impacts on
 !""%                 human health of many substances emitted to the atmosphere in small amounts, such as
   '                 many trace metals, also requires attention.
 4  }                        ..'•••                           .            '
                         In summary, the EPA program is aimed at  supporting States  and localities in
 ,  -                 their air pollution control efforts, at providing an adequate level of Federal
                    activity  in those areas for which the Federal Government has the primary  responsi-
 K                   billty  (e.g., the setting of emissions standards for new sources) or where Federal
                    activity would  result  -in a high environmental pay-off  (e.g., enforcement  actions
 „  ,                 against major air pollution sources  in cases  where States do not have the resources
                    to take action), and at the development of air pollution control related  knowledge
 h  ;                 and  techniques  supportive of the national air pollution control effort  (e.g.,
                    control technology  for NOX, health  effects of air pollutants).

 '  !                 SUMMARY OF  INCREASES AND DECREASES
   I                                                                                     (in  thousands
 '                                                                                       of  dollars)

   ]                    1976 Air  Program	       $145,756

   -                         Abatement and Control	        -1,576

   ,                             The net  resource reduction for the air  abatement and control
   !                         program  includes  both  increases and decreases  for  specific  programs.
„,  I                         The  resource  level will  decline primarily as a  result of a  $3.2
                            million  reduction which  will  eliminate the academic
                            training programs.   Regional  resources will  Increase  by $.4 million
 >  '                         to supplement activities related  to State Implementation Program
 ., j                         assessment  and  revision  for  the attainment  and  maintenance  of
                            ambient air quality  standards.  The mobile  source  program will  increase
                            $1.4 million  due  to  the  new  obligation authority required  for  activities
  i                         previously  funded from  available  prior year  funds.

  1                         Enforcement...		   •     +1,244

                                 Resource  levels for the air  enforcement program  will
                            increase $.6 million to provide  additional  regional enforcement
                            capability  1n  nonattainment  AQCRs and $.6 million  for mobile source
                            enforcement for the implementation of vehicle  assembly  line testing
                            and recall  programs*

  ;                                                                                             A-3

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     Research and Development ............. , .......... ................ *     -2,600

          Research levels for the air research and development program
     will decrease as a result of carrying forward only $1 million of
     the nonrecurring 1976 Congressional Increment of $3 million, and
     the reprogrammlng of $600 thousand to other priority areas.         _

1977 «1r Program. ........................... ..........................    142,824

SUMMARY OF BtlQSET ESTIMATES

     1 •  Summary of Budget Request

              An appropriation of $142,824,200 1s requested for 1977.  This request,
by appropriation account, Is as follows:

              Abatement and Control ........................... .......    $83,1 39,000
              Enforcement. ...........................................     13,743,000
              Research and Development .............. ... .. ________ .......     45,942,200

     This represents a decrease of $2,333,100 from the 1976 air program and Includes
the termination of the academic training program  (-$3,189,800); annual Izatton
of  the  October  1975 pay  raise  (-+334,200); an Increase In the mobile sources
standards and guidelines, mobile source certification and testing, and trends
monitoring and progress assessment subactivities which is primarily attributable to
activities which' have been previously funded from available prior year funds
(+$1,185,400); an Increase in regional air quality strategies implementation related
to the  support of 10 additional positions (+$297,000); miscellaneous operating
adjustments  (-$01,000);  an Increase in stationary source enforcement to provide
additional regional capabilities in nonattainment air quality control regions
(+$557,400); and an increase for mobile source enforcement for the implementation
of  vehicle assembly line  testing and recall programs (+$514,000).  the resource
level for the research and development program will decrease by $2,600,000.  In
1976, the Congress added-on $3 million to this program.  $1 million |11] remain
in  the  base  to continue,  at a reduced level, the  program In atmospheric pollutant
carcinogen studies which  has been Initiated with  a portion of the 1976 add-on.
Also,  $600 thousand has  been reprograrrened from the Industrial processes program
to  support other priority research efforts.
     2.  dtanges from Original  1976 Budget Estimate
                                                            (1n thousands of dollars)

              Changes from  the  budget are as follows:

                   Original  1976 estimate ........... ......          $137,229

                   Congressional Increases:
                     Control Agency grants ................            +3 ,750
                     Training... ......................... .              +800
                     Research ............................ ,            +3S000

                   Operating adjustments. . ........ , .......            +1,113

                   Miscellaneous Increases and decreases..              -136

                   Current  1976 estimate.. ____ ............            145,756

     Most  of the additional  funds  currently  estimated  for A1r  Programs were provided
 by congressional Increases  to  the  1976  budget  request.   The Increase  of $3,750,000
 for State  and local  air pollution  control  agency  grants  restored  this program  to
 the 1975 appropriated  level  (however, because  pf  a  deferral of 1975 budget authority
 to 1976, this additional  amount does produce a net  Increase in funds  available for
 1976 grants).  The additional  $800,000  for training 1s part of the $2 million
 increase appropriated  for academic training  grants  (the  remaining $1,200,000 Is
 allocated  to Water Quality  activities).  The $3 million  provided  for  research  1s
                                                                                    A-4

-------
directed toward health effects research on emissions from catalyst-equipped vehicles .
and research on pollutant carcinogen relationships.   Most of the remaining change
consists of adjustments to actual  operating conditions.   In the process of applying
the budget to the specific needs of each regional office, laboratory, and headquarters
program office, numerous small changes are frequently required.  Since Air programs
are among the Agency's highest priority objectives,  operating adjustments are often
necessary which result in an overall increase.
ANALYSIS OF .INCREASES: AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
     Prior year obligations.
 Current
Estimate     Estimate
  1976         1977
 (dollars 1n thousands)

$152,221     $158,932
          Additional cost of air control
            agency grant funds brought
            forward	,
          Congressional add-on for research and
            development, air control agency
            grants, and training	,	
          Decrease in amount of carryover
            funds estimated to be available.
          Decrease in training program...	

          Miscellaneous increases and decreases..
          Total estimated obligations.......
             (From new obligation authority).
             (From prior year funds)	
  +3,750



  +4,520


  -1,559
 158,932
(133,816)
 (25,116)
  -3,750



  -1,600


 -13,175

  -2,000

    +675

 139,082
(127,141)
 (11,941)
EXPLANATION OF  INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
      Increases provided by the Congress account for most changes in obligations in
 1976.  The total additional budget authority of $7,550,000 in 1976 plus a congressional
 increase of $3,750,000 deferred from 1975 are expected to increase obligations by
 $8,270,000.  This  is partially offset by a decrease in the amount of obligations from
 prior year funds which were brought forward into 1976.

     Although there is no major change in the total program level between 1976 and
 1977, obligations  will decrease in 1977 because of a reduction in
 carryover funds expected to be available in 1977 and the nonrecurrence of 19/b
 obligations which  resulted from congressional increases.  The decrease in the training
 programs reflects  the termination of academic training in 1977.  "Miscellaneous
 increases and decreases" consist largely of annual1zation of the October 1975 pay raise,
 plus  the net change of increases and decreases In mobile source programs, monitoring,
 and enforcement.   Detailed explanations of these changes are contained in the following
 sections.
                                                                             A-5

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                                              AIR
                                                   Current               Increase +
                                         Actual    Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                          1975      1976       1977     1977 vs,  1976
PROGRAM LEVELS

Total Identified point sources
 in U.S	,		
Identified point sources In
 nonattainment AQCRs..'...........
Identified nonpoint Sources in
 nonattainment AQCRs..	
Number of EPA field surveillance
 actions (under SIPs).V.	
Number of EPA enforcement actions
 (under SIPs).	
Number of sources subject to NSPS
Number of States delegated NSPS
 enforcement authority.	
Number of States delegated
 NESHAPS enforcement authority...
Assembly line testing test orders
Certification, Inspection/
 Investigation	
Fuels inspection	
Tampering, Imports, and Recall
 Investigations.	,
Number of pollutants covered by
 hazardous pollutant standards...
Number of source categories
 covered by NSPS	,	,
Number of engine families certi-
 fied for conformity with
 emission standards	
Number of emission tests carried
 out for motor vehicle certifica-
 tion purposes	
Number of fuel economy tests
 carried out-.,	
Number of ambient air quality
 monitoring stations reporting
 data to EPA for:
  Sulfur Dioxide	
  Participates.	
  Carbon Monoxide	
  Oxidants	,
  Nitrogen Dioxide.....	
Number of stationary sources
 included in the emissions data
 bank	
Number of ambient air quality
 values stored in the aerometric
 data bank.,	
19,360
NA
NA
5,882
593
300
4
4
53
18,955
104
3
13
250
2,111
1,516
2,259
3,792
370
343
1,834
125,000
58 million
19,500
10,035
130,000
4,000
700
1,500
42
34
10
60
25,000
85
4
19
300
2,180
1,810
2,100
3,500
400
350
1 ,900
145,000
73 million
20,000
10,200
130,000
5,200
875
4,000
48
48
20
60
20,000
115
4
25
300
2,890
1,810
2,000
3,000
425
375
2,000
155,000
88 million
+500
+165
• • •
+1 ,200
+175
+2,500
+6
-H4
+10
-5,666
+30
. . .
+6
• * i
+710
....
-100
-500
+25
+25
+100
+10,000
+15 million
                                                                                 A-6

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Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

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Page Intentionally Blank

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                                              AIR

                                    Abatement and Control
                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs. 1976
                                              (dollars in thousands)
                                                  Page
Budget Authority
  Air Quality and
   Stationary Source
   Planning and Standards.. $7,777
  Mobile Source Standards
   and Guidelines	  5,299
  State Program  Resource
   Assistance	 54,456
  Air Quality Strategies
   Implementation	  4,797
  Mobile Source Certification
   and Testing		  5,940
  Trends Monitoring and
   Progress Assessment	  6,630
$7,777
5,299
54,456
4,797
in
5,940
6,630
$7,466
2,027
50,265
5,095
6,126 '
6,256
$8,001
3,907
54,731
5,411
6,384
6,281
$8,058
4,320
51 ,554
5,676
6,827
6,704
+JE7
+413
-3,177
+265
+443
+423
A-9
A-13
A-16
A-18
A-21
A-24
               Total....... 84,899   77,235    84,715    83,139
.Permanent Positions
  Air Quality and
   Stationary Source
   Planning and Standards..
  Mobile Source Standards
   and Guidelines.	
  State Program  Resource
   Assistance	
  Air Quality Strategies
   Implementation	
  Mobile Source Certification
   and Testing.	
  Trends Monitoring and
   Progress Assessment	
                                        -1,576
160
50
33
217
125
150
165
53
33
212
162
148
182
60
15
240
165
141
1.81
60
15
250
158
151
-1
...

+10
-7
+10
A-9
A-13
A-16
A-18
A-21
A-24
               Total.
735
773
803
815
+12
    The Abatement and Control appropriation encompasses air program activities related
to the development of control strategies, and control programs, and the implementation
of such programs.  This objective is accomplished in two basic ways.  First, State
and local agencies are encouraged to implement requisite programs by the provision of
assistance in all .areas of technical and policy matters.  Second, direct Federal  action
is taken in cases of State or local  failure to act as required by the Clean Air Act.

    Abatement and control activities in the air program are aimed at supporting
the overall air  program objectives of attaining and maintaining the National Ambient
Air Quality Standards.  Support of State and local programs is the highest priority
objective under  abatement and control, followed by the implementation of comple-
mentary Federal  controls, i.e., New Source Performance Standards for new stationary
sources of pollution and motor vehicle emission controls.  Lower emphasis must be
placed on other  important environmental problems, such as the control of pollutants
with localized effects and the control of pollutants with no direct human health impact.
                                                                           A-7

-------
    Supportive of the primary air program objective are activities related to the
assessment of the adequacy of State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for attaining and
maintaining primary NAAQS in view of widespread lack of attainment for participates,              s-s
carbon monoxide, and oxidants.  The assessment of SIPs in relation to sulfur dioxide
standards is related to the energy impacts of these SIPs rather than attainment                  »
since attainment is generally well in hand.  The maintenance of all standards in
the future (and, in many cases, their eventual attainment) will require long-range              -o
planning of controls with an ever increasing level of sophistication.  The impacts               ~!
of air pollution control requirements on society, economic activity, and energy                  *'
supplies will be minimized and air pollution control goals will be adequately
considered along with other social goals only if improved planning processes are               .•#*
implemented.   Program emphasis in 1977 win be on the development of analytical                *$
tools, data bases, and State and local planning and control processes that will                  5 '
foster implementation of control programs at the State and local  level in order to
alleviate the need for Federal intervention.                                                     »,

    The abatement and control activities are categorized under the following                      s
subactivities:

    Air quality and StationarySource Planning and Standards.  This subactivity                  *'
is related to (1) the development of nationwide control strategies for both
regulated and unregulated pollutants, the assessment and modification of these
strategies, and the translation of decisions on appropriate control requirements
into regulatory actions, and (2) the development of emissions standards for                     '  <
stationary sources of air pollution, and the requisite supporting analyses and                    I
technology assessments.  Control strategies developed under this subactivity are                 *'
translated into criteria for State action, e.g., SIPs, or directly into Federal
control requirements, e.g., New Source Performance Standards.                                     s

    Mobile Sources Standards and Guidelines.  This subactivity involves the setting
of emissions standards for mobile sources (including the associated technical
analyses and technology assessments) and the development of mobile  sources technical
procedures and guidelines for the control of emissions from new and in-use vehicles.
Under this subactivity, findings made as to the need for control  of mobile source                 '
emissions under the research and development activities or under the air quality
and stationary source planning and standards subactivity are translated into
practical control programs.

    State Programs Resource Assistance.  This .subactivity involves the provision
of resources to support State and local governments' activities in implementing
air pollution control programs.  The primary responsibility for controlling air
pollution rests on the States and localities.  If these governments are to
effectively implement air pollution control programs, thereby eliminating or
reducing the need for direct Federal intervention, supplementation of State and
local resources is required.  Resource supplementation complements the activities                 \
carried out under the other subactivities of the Abatement and Control appropriation.

    Air Quality Strategies Implementation.  This subactivity is related to the
implementation of regulatory requirements for which the Federal Government has                    ,
primary responsibility, such as the implementation of air quality standards and                  >-|
control strategies when States or communities fail to act, the interaction with                  . J
State and local governments in the implementation of air pollution control activities,
the consultation with, and overview of air pollution control activities carried
out by Federal facilities, and the review of environmental impact statements prepared            ^j
by other Federal agencies for air pollution impact.  These activities result in the             ~,i|
implementation of the general control strategies (developed under the standards
subactivities), through State and local control programs.
                                                                                                 "
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                                           AIR

                                 Abatement and Control

                 Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
          Budget
Actual   Estimate
 1975      1976
Appropriation
Permanent Positions
$7,777
   160
 Current
Estimate
  1976
                                                            Estimate
                                                              1977
                                              (dollars In thousanHsT
         $7,466
            165
$8,001
   182
                                                            $8,058
                                                               181
                                                                        Increase +
                                                                        Decrease -
                                                                      .1977 vs.  1976
                                                                          +$57
                                                                            -1
Budget Request

     An appropriation of $8,057,700 is requested for 1977.
increase of $56,700 over the 1976 appropriation.

Program Descri pti on
                                                            This represents an
     This subactivity includes the setting of emission standards for stationary
sources and all industry studies, cost studies, and other analyses which support
the standard setting function.  Also included is the setting of ambient air
quality standards, the development of control strategies for noncriteria
pollutants, and the translation of all control strategies into regulatory actions,

     New Source Performance Standards are set for production processes within
specific designated industries for the control of specific pollutants.  An
example is the standard for electric arc furnaces within the ferroalloy industry
to control particulates.  They provide the basis for controlling emerging
industries, such as oil shale use and coal gasification , and  are  a major  long-run
tool to prevent significant deterioration and to maintain air quality.  The
standards define best available control  technology (BACT) for specific
production units of the industries studied.; the technical data used for
determining BACT are documented and made available with the standards.  These
data are useful to State agencies who are frequently engaged in dialogues with
industry on the subject of control technology.

     The standard setting activity for new stationary sources has been largely
concerned with sources of particulate (TSP) and SOg emissions.  A study prepared
in 1075 by the Argonne National Laboratory showed that the standard setting
activity can have a greater impact on long-term nationwide emissions by changing
its emphasis to control of sources of substantial hydrocarbon (HC) and
nitrogen oxides (MOX) emissions.  This change in direction is underway; a listing
of sources emitting large amounts of HC and HOX has been prepared.  Some sources
in this category are small but very numerous, and therefore the category
contributes a  large amount of emissions.  Standard setting for these small
sources has been somewhat inhibited by the requirement for compliance testing of
new sources.  Since individual compliance testing for many small sources would be
extremely burdensome, a design verification program is planned.  In this program
the design of equipment to be used by the small sources will  be "verified"
as to its control  capability, at the source of its manufacturer, rather than at the
source of its use.  This places the responsibility for conforming to standards
on the manufacturers of equipment, rather than on individual  operators, who are
less wel 1 -equipped to bear the technical and economic burdens of compliance.
                                                                           A-9

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     National Ambient Air Quality Standards have been set for six pollutants;
attainment of the standards is envisioned by the Clean Air Act by 1975-1977.
Although most readily available control methods have been employed nationally,
many regions have not attained standards and most likely will not attain
them in the 1975-1977 time frame.  Available air quality  data  indicate  that
16 AQCRs will not attain the standard for N02  79 for oxidants and 69 for
CO; 132 AQCRs have concentrations of TSP exceeding the standard and 35
AQCRs show values exceedinq the standards for 502-   In addition, the analyses
required by  Section  4 of the  Energy  Supply  and  Environmental  Coordination Act
(ESECA) have identified many areas with potentially inadequate SIP regulations for
control of TSP and S0?.  Presently, there are 15 to  30 areas  currently without
specific controls for CO and oxidants which are experiencing levels of  these
pollutants higher than the primary standards.  These areas may require  the
addition 0:f specific controls to their SIPs.  Additional plan revisions will be
required for maintenance of standards in many .areas now attaining standards.

     This situation requires a reassessment of control strategies.
Methodologies and criteria for control strategy development for large
geographic areas and for specific areas must be developed.  In addition, air
.pollution problems related to atmospheric transformations (e.g., nitrogen dioxide
and nitrates formed from nitrogen oxide emissions, photochemical oxidants from
hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides, and sulfates from sulfur dioxide) are  proving
to involve large-scale geographical areas,  i.e., multi-States areas, far
exceeding the size of AQCRs.  New approaches to air pollution control for areas
of this magnitude are required.  In other cases  (e.g., sulfur dioxide or carbon
monoxide-related air quality problems), refinements and improvements in well-
understood techniques may be in order for optimization of control requirements.
The current situation with respect to EPA involvement in energy projects such
as the Clean Fuels Policy, the oil-to-coal  program and other aspects of ESECA
has made it apparent that the availability  of energy and fuels information, in
a readily useable form,  is necessary to conduct these activities.  The
gathering and interpretation of energy information, and the subsequent  analysis
using this information have become significant tasks in themselves which have
been taken on without additional resources.

     This subactivity covers the development of control strategies and  the
preparation of the analytical tools needed  by State and local agencies  to plan
for attainment and maintenance of air quality goals.  The analytical tools will aid
in the control strategy  reassessment and development task; guidelines will be  issued
for ordering SIP revisions where needed to  attain and maintain standards.  EPA
activities supporting States in these tasks are decribed under the air  quality
strategies implementation subactivity.

     Control strategies  for noncriteria pollutants are also required by the Clean
Air Act.  The regulatory pathway for controlling these pollutants may be any
of a series of authorities provided by the  Clean Air Act, e.g., Section 111  (MSPS)
or Section 112, National Emission Standards for Hazardous  Air Pollutants (NESHAP}.
to control a pollutant via Section 112, the Administrator must make a determination
that the pollutant "may  cause or contribute to, an  increase  in mortality or an
increase In serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible,   illness."  Thus
far, NESHAP has been applied to mercury, asbestos, and beryllium  from specific
sources.  During 1976, vinyl chloride was a,dded to  the  list of hazardous
pollutants controlled under Section 112 and" the standards for asbestos  and
mercury will be expanded to include additional sources.   Section  111 also allows
the Agency to promulgate standards for control of noncriteria pollutants from not
only new sources, but from existing sources as well.  Thus far, sulfuric acid
mist is the only noncriteria pollutant controlled under NSPS.  However', during
1976, fluorides from  phosphate fertilizer plants and from aluminum reduction
plants will be controlled in this manner.   In addition, standards  to control
total reduced sulfur  (TRS) from  Kraft  pulp  mills will be  proposed  during 1976.
Now under review to identify specific  environmental damages are several multimedia
pollutants such as lead,  chromium, arsenic,  and mercury.   The  health effects  and
environmental damage  of  approximately  20 high volume  industrial organic
substances, presumed  to  be prevalent  in the environment,  are  being assessed.   The
need for action, if any, will be determined and  the regulatory pathway  will be
recommended at the conclusion of each  assessment.   In addition, control strategies
for sulfates, nitrates and other acid  aerosols must be developed  and regulatory
pathways determined.

                                                                         A-10

-------
     Activities which support the development of these standards include
comprehensive industry studies, emissions testing, economic studies of specific
industries, analyses of source-receptor relationships, and analyses of national
regulatory strategies.  This work is documented in guidance for use by State and
local control agencies.

1975 Accomplishments

     New Source Performance Standards were proposed for phosphate fertilizer plants
(five separate processes), electric arc furnaces in the iron and steel industry,
electric arc furnaces  in the ferroalloy industry, primary aluminum plants,  and
coal preparation plants.  These standards are to be promulgated in 1976.

     Most actions required by the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination
Act were completed.  In addition to reports to Congress, Section 4 required the
Agency to review every SIP to determine whether any regulations which limit
emissions from fuel burning sources could be revised without jeopardizing
attainment and maintenance of NAAQS.  The findings resulting from each individual
review were reported to each State and territory, as required by the Law.  Other
ESECA-mandated activities included the preparation of guidance regarding
application of environmental limitations to sources receiving conversion orders.

     To ensure the accuracy of the oxidant control strategy, the Agency has
conducted a continuing program of research studies and data collection and
analysis.  An assessment of the findings to date from these studies was made
during 1975; the findings supported present control measures but indicated that
additional control may be needed in both urban and nonurban areas to attain
the standards.

1976 Program

     NSPS for phosphate fertilizer plants, electric arc furnaces in the iron and
steel industry, electric arc furnaces in the ferroalloy industry, primary
aluminum plants, and coal preparation plants will be promulgated.  Additional
standards will be proposed for Kraft pulp mills, petroleum refineries, by-product
coke ovens, refuse-fired steam generators, lignite-fired steam generators, and
grain terminals.

     National emission standards for hazardous pollutants were proposed and will
be promulgated for vinyl chloride, and the coverage will be expanded by the
addition of two manufacturing processes for asbestos, and by including sewage
sludge incinerators for mercury.

     Regulations defining requirements for source modification and for
continuous emission monitors will be promulgated.  State guidelines for
standards of performance under Section l'll(d) for existing primary aluminum
plants (fluoride), and sulfuric acid plants (sulfuric acid mist) will be issued
in 1976.

     Additional regulations which will be promulgated in 1976 include criteria
for SIP revisions for air quality maintenance.   Several guidelines will also
be issued: the use of models in control strategy demonstrations, criteria for
ordering revisions to approved SIPs, the approval procedure for SIP revisions,
and policy with respect to "tall  stacks":  A policy document for application:
of the nonregulated pollutant (significant risk) provision of ESECA will be
issued.

     A review of scientific knowledge of health effects, atmospheric chemistry
and transpor1«$>and control technology for sulfates will be completed in 1976.
Preliminary  fiMYngs indicate that some forms of sulfates are more toxic than SOg.
that environmental detmaae probably occurs through acid rain, that higher levels
of sulfates occur in a SCtState area of the eastern U.S. than in any other ar.ea,
and that reductions  in  S02 emissions will reduce sulfates, although at a ratio of
less than one to one.  The implication for control is to minimize the increase in
S0? emissions in the 24-State area until sulfate-specific control strategies can
be developed.
                                                                         A-ll

-------
1977 Plan

     In 1977, NSPS will  be promulgated for:   Kraft pulp mills, petroleum
refineries, by-product coke ovens, refuse-fired steam generators,  lignite-fired
steam generators, and grain terminals.  Additional standards are being considered
for gas turbines, chloralkali plants, crushed stone plants,  degreasing operations,
phosphate rock preparation, carbon black plants, sintering plants, gasification
of fossil fuels, stationary internal  combustion engines, lime plants,  melting
of printing type, electric arc furnaces in gray iron foundries, and asphalt
roofing plants.

     The regulatory pathway for five of the 20 high volume industrial  organic
substances now undergoing review will be determined.  An industrial design
verification program should be ready for implementation by the end of  1977,
to replace individual compliance testing for small sources that may be subject
to NSPS.

     A reference method and equivalent methods for N0£ are expected to be designated,
and recommendation on the need for a short-term ambient air quality standard for
N02 is to be made.
                                                                       A-12

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                                              AIR

                                     Abatement and Control

                            Mobile Source Standards and Guidelines

PROGRAMHIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975	     1976       1976     	1971.,,   1977 ys>  1976
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	      $5,299      $2,027     $3,907     $4,320       +$413
Permanent Positions	          50          53         60         60


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $4,320,600 is requested for 1977.  This represents  an increase
of $413,800 over the 1976 appropriation.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes the development of emission standards for mobile so.urces
of air pollution (i.e., passenger motor vehicles, heavy-duty and light-duty  trucks,
motorcycles, and aircraft) and associated technical  activities.   Work related to any
specific category of mobile sources and pov/er source combination involves a  character-
ization and analysis process.   First,  air pollutant emissions from representative
individual vehicles are characterized.  Follow-up work involves  the characterization of
the use of these vehicles and  the characterization of emissions  on the basis of vehicle
samples representative of actual  in-use vehicle populations.  At this stage,  the
development of appropriate emissions sampling and testing procedures may have to be
carried out.  The development  of  appropriate recommendations for control  actions follows
the acquisition of an appropriate data base.  After the  initiation  of a  regulatory
action, further definition of  issues raised during the regulatory process may be
required.  After a regulatory  action has  been completed, the reassessment of control
requirements or procedures may be indicated; such reassessments  may involve  a process
similar to that of new regulatory actions.   An essential part of the reassessment
process is the continous assessment of new or improved technologies for potential
changes in the nature and magnitude of air pollutant emissions and other related
factors, e.g., fuel economy.

     The emphasis for 1977 will  stress two general areas, (1) characterization of
unregulated pollutants, and (2)  the control  of other than light-duty vehicles.
Characterization of unregulated pollutants for current and, more importantly, future
control technologies must be  implemented  if we are to be aware of the types  and
quantities of pollutants which can be  expected to result from the introduction of  new
technologies.  A strong characterization  program will  help avoid the kinds of problems
that have arisen in the case  of light-duty vehicle sulfate emissions.  In the vehicle
control area final emission standards  will  be proposed for heavy-duty trucks as well
as revised evaporative emissions  from  light-duty motor vehicles.

     This subactivity covers  the  analytical  and contractual testing aspects  of this
work, while the in-house testing  carried  out for these purposes  is covered by the
mobile source certification and testing subactivity

1975 Accomplishments

     The most significant element of work during 1975 was the analysis and testing
performed in support of the hearings (and the subsequent decision by the  Administrator)
on the application for suspension of the  light-duty motor vehicle exhaust emission
standards applicable to the 1977  model year.  The requested suspension was granted,
based on the need to prevent  an increase  in sulfuric acid emissions from catalyst-
equipped vehicles.  Continuing sulfates-related work represented a significant effort
during 1975 as did the technology assessment prior to and pursuant to the hearings.
                                                                            A-13

-------
     The report "Potential for Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvements",.prepared
pursuant to Section 10 of ESECA, was submitted to the Congress.
                                                                                                     J,
     Regulations requiring that light duty vehicles sold at high altitudes                          "j
(i.e., more than 4,000 feet) meet emission standards at those altitudes were
promulgated.  Manufacturers are required to prove (for vehicles to be sold at
high altitudes) that their vehicle designs are capable of meeting emission                           i
standards when operated at high altitudes.                                                          "^
                                                                                                    X
     Emission standards applicable to SST aircraft were proposed early in the fiscal
year; work in support of these standards (as well as in support of standards for                     s
other types of aircraft) was carried out during the year.  EPA is required to                      ,"i
continually assess the progress of technology being developed to meet the standards                -*)
applicable to aircraft in 1979 and 1981.

     Pursuant to an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking published January 17, 1974,              !',
technical work on setting emissions standards for motorcycles was carried out'through               fcs;
the year.  Similarly, extensive work leading to the development of more stringent
emission standards (based on new data on operational and use characteristics) for
heavy-duty trucks was carried out.  During 1975, studies and analyses that will                     ^
provide the basis for implementing the provisions of Section 207(b) of the Clean                     '
Air Act (warranties for in-use vehicles that fail a State emissions test)  were
carried out.  Additionally, work to facilitate State adoption of in-use vehicle
emissions inspection and maintenance programs was carried out.                                     "  j

     Responses to an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking  for a nonmethane
hydrocarbon emission standard were analyzed.  This action has been taken pursuant
to a Ford Motor Company petition requesting such a standard.                                         ^

1976 Program

     The program of motor vehicle emissions control technology assessments will
continue to be carried out.  The definition of sulfate/sulfuric acid emissions
from catalyst-equipped vehicles (on the basis of tests of in-use vehicles) and
the development of an appropriate control strategy for these emissions is the
highest priority objective of these activities for 1976.  Sulfate/sulfuric acid
assessments utilize the full range of expertise available to the Agency, with
significant resources dedicated to this work under the Research and Development
appropriation; the results of work carried out by manufacturers are also
available to EPA.  Under this subactivity, the following sulfates-related work
will be carried out:  characterization of sulfate emissions from (1) a representative
in-use vehicle population, and (2) heavy and light-duty diesel engines; assessment
of the impact on sulfate emissions of catalyst modifications and control of
oxygen in the catalyst; and assessments of catalysts with low sulfates emission
characteristics.

     Other planned standard setting activity includes the promulgation of SST
aircraft emission standards, the promulgation of  exhaust emissions standards for
motorcycles, light-duty trucks, and heavy-duty trucks, and the proposal of revised
evaporative emission standards for light-duty motor vehicles..   Work on                              i
development of an emission test for Section 207(b) implementation will have reached
a stage such that the development of regulations establishing a short test will
have been initiated.

     It is also planned that laboratory certification procedures will be established                :j
by the end of the fiscal year.  Work will continue on the development of long-term
(as opposed to interim) emission standards, for motorcycles and light-duty and
heavy-duty trucks.  Work on characterization of emissions from diesel engines,                       fj
turbine aircraft, two-stroke cycle engines, emissions from catalyst other than                      ^
sulfuric acid/sulfates, and the effects of ambient temperatures on emissions will
also be carried out.
1977 Plan

     Characterization of the  impact of changing technologies and manufacturer efforts
towards meeting statutory standards will have to be continuously assessed'during 1977
as a continuation of the 1975 and 1976 work.  Special attention will be placed on the
impact that evolving technologies will have on the emissions of uncontrolled
substances and on the fuel economy of motor vehicles.  It is expected that by 1977

                                                                              A-14

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revised standards will be set for evaporative emissions from light-duty motor vehicles,
and that final emissions standards for heavy-duty trucks will  be proposed.   In
addition, the results of characterization work carried out during 1976 may  indicate
the need for setting emissions standards for pollutants not currently controlled, such
as sulfates/sulfuric acid from diesel powered vehicles, or particulates.

     Some changes in test procedures will likely be implemented.  Changes may include
those resulting from studies on the operational  characteristics of motor vehicles
(leading to changes in the driving cycles used to characterize typical vehicle use
patterns), those resulting from studies on the effects of different types of tires on
dynamometer performance (which may affect fuel economy test results as well  as
emissions test results) and those resulting from studies on variations that  may be
possible in emissions testing without affecting test validity by improving  testing
efficiency, e.g., reducing "soak" periods between the various phases of the  Federal
Test Procedure.

     Although there is an increase of $413,800 reflected in 1977, there are  no
additional or new program activities attributable to this increase.  This merely
reflects the additional new obligational authority required in 1977 to provide for
activities previously funded from prior year funds available to the Agency.
                                                                           A-15

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                                              AIR

                                     Abatement and Control

                              State Program  Resource Assistance

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                        Budget     Current              Increase +
                              Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                               1975      1976       1976       1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                               (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation.	  $54,456    $50,265    $54,731     $51,554        -$3,177
Permanent Positions	       33         33         15         15


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $51,553,900 is requested for 1977,   This  represents  a
decrease of $3,176,600 from the 1976 level.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes the resources and assistance  provided  to support  State
and local governments' activities in implementing air pollution control  programs.
Support is provided as grants to control  agencies, grants for demonstrating improve-
ments in agency operations, services of contractors,  assignment of personnel  to  State
agencies, and training provided to personnel of State/local  control agencies.

Control Agency Resource Supplementation

     Grants to State and local control  agencies, which have  a major role in carrying
out State implementation plans (SIPs),  constitute the major  form of EPA assistance.
These funds support the full range of activities required of a control  agency including
ambient air quality monitoring, plan development (including  control regulations),
source surveillance, enforcement actions against violators,  and support functions.

     For cases in which States require  special  assistance for the  performance of
specialized tasks, such as the development of emission inventories, revisions
related to attainment and maintenance of standards, and plans to prevent significant
deterioration, the services of EPA contractors are available.  EPA enters into
contracts with a series of firms for services to be provided upon  call.   This
arrangement greatly speeds up the availability of contractors'  services to States
and permits States to comply with the short deadlines imposed by the  Clean Air Act
and related court orders.

Training

     The training program complements other support to control  agencies.  Without
skilled personnel, these agencies cannot be, expected to execute appropriate air
pollution control actions.  All control agencies have indicated a  continued need
for the training provided by EPA.  In 1976, direct training  is being  provided by
EPA primarily for State and local control agency personnel.   These short courses
are developed to provide state-of-the-art information and specialized hands-on
laboratory and instrument training for the purpose of improving the skills of both
entry level and advanced personnel of pollution control agencies.   No academic
training program  is  intended during  1977.

1975 Accomplishments

     Funds appropriated for control agency grants totalled $56.5 million in 1975.
However, the $3.75 million added on by the Congress was deferred to 1976.  Grants
were apportioned to 54 State and 150 local agencies which had a major role in
either planning revisions to the SIP, such as maintenance plans, transportation
control plans, or significant deterioration plans, or in implementing the SIP
                                                                     A-16

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regulations.   In return for grant dollars,  regional  offices  received  State and  local
commitments to specific outputs considered  desirable by EPA,   Approximately 44  EPA
employees were assigned to State programs in 1975,  and contractual  assistance was
provided, much of it to aid States and local agencies to gather data  needed for
preparation of air quality maintenance plans.

     The training program developed and delivered 77 short courses  to more than 2,000
students; it also developed eight packaged  self-instructional  courses on  specific
subprofessiona] topics, such as the basics  of automotive inspection,  environmental
statistics, what to look for when observing stack tests, special  topics  in air
pollution, air pollution effects on vegetation,  auto mechanics' training, and legal
aspects of air pollution for agency decision makers.  A part of a former  course
dealing with odors was also developed into  a short self-instructional package.   All
of these packages were distributed to regions for their use.   Through fellowships,
70 State and local professional employees were trained at the university  graduate
level.   This was made possible by the curriculum development supported at 12
universities through academic grants.

1976 Program

     Funds appropriated for control agency  grants totalled $51.5 million  in 1976-  An
additional $3.75 million was available from funds deferred from 1975. Although the
1975 deferral resulted in an increase in funds available for control  agency grants,
requirements for additional control strategies for purposes  of attainment and mainte-
nance of standards will necessitate a conscious  choice of activities  agencies will
agree to perform.  The Agency expects again to make contract support  available  for
necessary projects which States otherwise could  not do.

     In 1976, the training program is in a  transition period between  in-house
training, and training performed by contractors.  As a result, no new courses will
be developed, but at least five manuals will be  updated for  use by  contractors  for
delivery of courses.  Approximately 60 courses previously developed will  be delivered
by contractors in 1976.  Graduate training will  continue to  be supported  at a
lower level.

1977 Plan

     Although there is no change in the appropriated level of funds for  control
agency grants, the total amount of funds available will be reduced  by $3.75 million
from the 1976 level because deferred funds  which were available in  1976 will not be
carried forward to 1977.  State and local agencies will be encouraged to  accept
additional responsibilities related to a large number of SIP revisions required in
nonattaintnent areas, coupled with maintenance plans in many  areas.   Increased
activity for new source reviews and enforcement of NSPS and  NESHAPS will  be required,
since by 1977 additional sources will be subject to these standards.   In  addition,
States will have to begin making plans to control the noncriteria pollutants for which
EPA will be issuing standards under Section lll(d) of the Clean Air Act.

      Academic training  will  be  eliminated in 1977.
                                                                        A-17

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                                              AIR
                                                                                                  «, -
                                     Abatement and Control                                         ,S

                             A1r Quality Strategies Implementation
                                                                                                  ."^
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS                                                                                i!\
	L"  •	""                       Budget     Current              Increase +                »l
                              Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                               1975      1976       1976       1977    1977 vs. 1976            , ,,
                                               (dollars in thousands)                            ' f\
                                                                                                * V
Appropriation	  $4,797     $5,095     $5,411     $5,676          +$265
Permanent Positions	     217        212        240        250            +10              ,;


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $5,676,000 1s requested for 1977.  This represents an                    J
Increase of $264,700 over 1976.                                                                   J

Program Oescr1ptlon

     This subactlvlty Involves activities related to the development of control
strategies for  areas of the country where States do not carry out their responsi-                 >*
b1lit1es under  the Clean A1r Act, the Incorporation of these control strategies
Into appropriate regulatory actions, the Interaction with State and local                         •*
governments 1n  implementing air pollution control programs, evaluation of State                   I
and local control agencies, consultation with State and local control agencies                    *
on specific air pollution control problems, and management of the State and local
support resources and their allocation.  It also involves EPA responsibilities in
monitoring'Federal facilities' air pollution control activities, in providing                     •'
advice to other Federal agencies 1n their air pollution control activities, and                   ,
reviewing the Environmental Impact Statements (EIS's)  prepared by other Federal
agencies Insofar as air pollution impacts are concerned.                                          %
                                                                                                  .?
A1r Quality Management Implementation                                                             I

     High levels of activity are foreseen in the area of State Implementation
plans reassessment, development, and execution.  Many of these plans will prove                   *
to be inadequate for the attainment of the standards, requiring redevelopment.                    f
During 1977, it 1s  expected that a substantial number of plan revisions will                      '
be asked of States; EPA personnel will have to participate in such planning
and,  in some cases, do the planning required.  Likewise, plans for the maintenance                j
of standards will have to be developed.  Implementation of additional SIP related                 [
controls, e.g., the new hazardous air pollutant  standards, will require increased                 '
EPA activity.

     All of these activities require the application of more  sophisticated                        )
analytical  techniques than has been the case to  date.   Increased awareness of                   /I
the Impacts that air pollution controls have on  other economic and social
factors, such  as energy supplies, mandates exhaustive analyses (based on well-
developed and  understood data bases) of the Implications of control actions.                      *

      Planning  of controls will have to be approached with an  area-specific
orientation not heretofore required.   "Example region"  and "rollback" approaches
to control  strategy development  are no longer acceptable; control requirements                    |
so developed are too broad and,  although they can  lead  to standard attainment                     \
and maintenance at  little expense  in terms of control agency  planning expendi-
tures, they may lead to many unforeseen and unexpected  adverse Impacts such as
exhaustion  of  available clean fuels supplies.  More detailed  assessment for
each  geographic area that is relevant  from an air  pollution control perspective                   ,;
will  result in optimum control strategies.                    .                                    •
                                                                         A-18

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     Area-specific and diffusion model-based planning will  be required for pollutants
that have generally localized sources or impacts.   Carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide
control strategies would fall under this category.   Very complex control  strategies
will have to be developed for the control of particulates and those pollutants that
are produced in atmospheric reactions, such as s.ulfates, photochemical oxidants, and
nitrogen dioxide.  These pollutants are characterized by originating from many sources
spread over wide geographical areas and by the transport, over large .distances, of their
precursors, e.g., HC and NOx-  The improvement of  analytical  tools related to these
activities is covered by the air quality and stationary source planning and standards
activity; the activities required to use those tools for the  development of appropriate
control strategies and to encourage State and local activity  in such planning are
covered by this activity.

     The EPA role in implementation of the Energy  Supply and  Environmental Coordination
Act when specific prohibition orders are issued by FEA is also covered in this
activity.  The issuance of a prohibition order by  FEA requires EPA to make individual
determinations as to compliance date extensions and the amount of pollution control
required of power plants subject to the prohibition order.

Federal Activities/EIS Review

     This activity includes EPA activities in connection with the process of assuring
Federal agency compliance with pollution control  requirements and the review of
Environmental Impact Statements (EIS's).  All Federal agencies are, under Executive
Order 11752, to ensure that their facilities comply with Federal, State, interstate,
and local substantive standards and limitations for the prevention and control of
environmental pollution,  EPA activities in relation to other Federal agencies
include providing technical advice and assistance  in air pollution control, monitoring
their programs for achieving air quality standards, and reviewing compliance strategies.
Activities also include the review, for air quality impact, of EIS's prepared by other
Federal agencies pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).  Equivalent
reviews are carried out pursuant to Section 309 of the Clean  Air Act.

1975 Accomplishments

     Assessments of the attainment status of AQCRs were completed.  Such assessments are
a continuing activity, involving the assessment of the specific SIP's control
strategy (e.g., emission control regulations), status of source compliance, and
projected control agency activity.  Reports required by Section 4 of  ESECA,
assessing the potential for SIP changes that would reduce demands for clean fuels
or otherwise minimize the energy impacts of air pollution controls related to
sulfur oxides and particulates, were transmitted to the States.  The identification
of air quality maintenance areas was completed.

     Air pollution control agencies receiving grants assistance were evaluated as
to their ability to carry out air pollution control tasks, in areas such as
monitoring, laboratory and engineering services, and enforcement.  Commitments for
the performance of high-priority program outputs were obtained from these agencies.

     Approximately 1,100 environmental impact statements were reviewed for air
pollution impact.  Assistance was provided to Federal facilities for ass-ring
their compliance with air pollution control requirements.

1976Program

     Designation of approximately 170 air quality maintenance areas (used as the
basis for SIP air quality maintenance planning) will have been completed.  By the
end of 1976, the need for specific SIP revisions for assuring that ambient air
quality  standards are maintained will be determined.  As part of this process, it
is  expected  that attainment dates for the standards will be reassessed in view of
the control measures necessary for attainment under current statutory deadlines
and extensions  in such dates to be made possible by prospective amendments of the
Clean Air Act.   The attainment status of AQCRs will continue to-be assessed and
recommendations  for corrective action will be made.
                                                                      A-19

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     The SIP emission limitations for primary nonferrous smelters will be approved
or promulgated.  Regulations for these sources involve complex issues of control
technology availability, costs of control, and the use of supplementary control
systems.  The impact that FEA-issued conversion orders (issued under the provisions
of ESECA) will have on air quality will  be assessed.  Recommendations related to
regional limitations, primary standard conditions, and significant risk constraints
of ESECA will be made.  SIP revisions implementing recommendations made in reports
prepared pursuant to Section 4 of ESECA will be reviewed.  States will be provided
guidance on the development of such revisions.

     Air pollution control agencies will be evaluated and output commitments will
be obtained.  EI-S reviews, assistance to Federal  facilities for air pollution
control, and assessment of Federal  progress towards complying with Clean Air Act
mandates will be carried out.

1977 Plan

     SIP revisions for the attainment and maintenance of air quality standards
will have been initiated.  Such revisions are envisioned for areas where the
current SIP is clearly deficient in providing for the attainment and maintenance
of the standards.  The attainment status of all AQCRs will continue to be assessed
and recommendations for corrective action will be made.  All of the 10 additional
positions in 1977 will be allocated to the Regional offices to conduct these high
priority activities.  This action will improve EPA's ability to provide assistance
to the State and local agencies and to take action where these agencies fail to
fulfill their obligations under the Clean Air Act.  Air pollution control agencies
will be evaluated and output commitments will be obtained.  EIS reviews and
activities related to Federal agencies'  air pollution control efforts will continue
to be carried out.
                                                                                                  M
                                                                                                  \i
                                                                     A-20

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                                             AIR

                                    Abatement and  Control

                            Mobile  Source  Certification and Testing
 PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                         Budget
                              Actual    Estimate
                                1975       1976
 Appropriation........
 Permanent  Positions.
55,940
   125
                     Current              Increase +
                    Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                      1976       1277    1977 vs.  1976
                                                (dollars in thousands
56,126
   162
56,334
   165
56,827
   158
+5443
   -7
     An appropriation of $6,827,100 is requested for 1977,
increase of $442,900 over 1976.

Program Oescription_
                             This represents an
     This subactivity includes the certification of prototype motor vehicles and
engines for conformity with applicable emission standards, the operation of a
voluntary program by which manufacturers label  new automobiles with fuel economy
data, and the operation of EPA's motor vehicle  emissions laboratory at Ann Arbor,
Michigan.  Two distinct areas of activity are covered by this subactivity:  (1)
activities related to engineering review of the data used to certify motor vehicles
for compliance with emission standards and associated technical support, and (2)
the operation of the Ann Arbor moLor vehicle emissions testing laboratory, including
data processing and analysis support, for both  certification of motor vehicles and
engines and the development of standards and guidelines.  The certification process
for light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty engines  involves the submission to EPA of
applications for certification, the development of emissions performance information
by manufacturers and EPA on the basis of prototype vehicle testing, and the review
of these data by EPA for the purpose of determining compliance with standards and
approval or disapproval of a certificate of conformity.

     Automobile manufacturers apply for certification by submitting an application
for certification to EPA (Part I application) which describes the vehicles and
engines the manufacturer plans to offer for sale.   EPA reviews the manufacturer's
application and determines what actions the manufacturer is to take to demonstrate
compliance with emission standards.  EPA reviews the application for acceptability
of proposed procedures for mileage accumulation and emission testing, and the
proposed maintenance procedures for the vehicles and engines.

     EPA selects durability vehicles and engines (i.e., those tested to determine
emission control system durability to 50,000 miles for purposes of deriving
deterioration factors) and emission data vehicles  and engines (i.e., those tested
to determine typical engine class emissions) based on information supplied in the
application for certification.  During the testing of vehicles, EPA oersonnel
carry out surveillance of manufacturers' testing.   During visits to manufacturers'
facilities, EPA personnel also inspect the procedures and controls used by the
manufacturers in their own test facilities to insure that these facilities and
certification procedures comply with Federal requirements and that data submitted
to EPA 1s obtained using valid procedures..

     After completion of the testing program (including confirmatory testing at
the EPA laboratory), manufacturers submit a Part I.I application, which summarizes
the certification test results.  Review of this application involves the final
review of test data, the review of manufacturers'  engineering reports, the
calculation of the deterioration factors to ensure that emission levels do not
exceed the applicable standards, and the final  decision to certify an engine
family.  Certification review also involves the review of manufacturers' mainte-
nance instructions to the ultimate purchaser, manufacturers'  warranties, and
manufacturers' service and technical bulletins.
                                                                        A-21

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     After the issuance of the certificate of conformity, manufacturers are allowed
to submit requests for "running changes" to their certified products to reflect
technological changes in product lines.   Review of "running changes" may involve,
at EPA's discretion, additional testing at the manufacturer's facility or at thp
EPA facility.  Since "running:..changes"  are approved  after the certificate of conformity
has been issued and vehicles may be in  production, their impact on changing emissions
is monitored closely by EPA.

     Additional activity is required in the constant revaluation of certification
procedures.  The automotive industry is characterized by constant engineering changes
resulting from technological changes or the constraints imposed by the marketplace.
All changes in vehicle and engine configurations which may affect emissions are
reviewed and analyzed by EPA.  Manufacturers, in order ,to evaluate the impact on
emissions of proposed changes they wish to make, request interpretation from EPA of
the Federal regulations, advisory circulars (used to document EPA-approved procedures
and policy that do not require regulatory action) and general policy.  These activities
are expected to increase in the future.

     The changing nature of the emissions standards for light-duty motor vehicles
(with congressional action expected to  provide a phased scheduling of standards to
the statutory levels for a manufacturer's full vehicle line by model year 1982),
coupled with industry's certain attempts to meet the standards with a changing
technology aimed at lowering costs and  improving fuel economy, necessitate the
continuation of the design verification (by actual emissions testing) function
represented by the certification program.  For 1977, workloads associated with
the certification program are expected  to increase due to the need to certify
additional classes of motor vehicles that will be covered by emissions standards,
such as motorcycles, and expanded class of light-duty trucks, and a revised heavy-
duty engine standard.
                                                                                   '
     It should be noted that motor vehicle manufacturers' full line of vehicles
and engines undergoes the certification process each fiscal year.  In general, each
fiscal year covers the premanufacture certification of each model year, e.g., fiscal
year 1977 covers the certification of 1978 model year, with production changes, i.e.,
"running changes", processed in the following year, e.g., fiscal year 1978.  An
additional factor impacting on the certification and testing process is the availability
of a real-time computer system to.handle much of the data collection and processing
function in the testing laboratory.  It is expected that the. computer system will  be
fully operational during 1977, permitting emissions testing to be carried out with
increased accuracy, reliability, and speed.

     The 1975 accomplishments, 1976 program and 1977 plan related to these activities
are summarized in the Tables of this section.   The reduction of seven positions in 1977
is part of the Agency effort to reprogram additional resources to the regions.  It
is expected that the operation of the real-time computer system will minimize the
program impact of this action.  Although there is an increase of $442,900 reflected
in 1977, there are no additional or new program activities attributable to this
increase.  This merely reflects the additional new obligational authority required
in-1 1977 to provide for activities previously funded from prior year funds available
to the Agency.

                              Table 1 - Summary of Certification
                              Tests Carried Out at EPA by Model             .
                         Years and Fiscal Years— Light-Duty Vehicles

            Model             Total Number of           Testsby Fiscal Year
            Year               Emission Tests         1JT75         1976     1977

            1975                   2,773             1,589
            1976                   1,989               522        1,465
            1977                   1,575                            715      860
            1978                   2,752             	        	   2,030

                                   Total             2,111        2,180    2,890
                                                                        A-22

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                    Table 2 - Summary of Certification  Tests
                     Carriedout by EPA - Heavy-Duty Engines

' .1975
	 	 	 4
Fiscal Years
1976
0

1977
30
Number of tests
                      Table 3 - Summary Of Number of Engine
                        Families Certified and Number of
                        Certificates of Conformity Issued

                                              Number of Engine Families  and
                                           Certificates of Conformity (in
Type of Vehicle                              parentheses) by Fiscal  Year
                                           1975        1976          1977

Light-duty vehicles	                    312         405           405
                                           (250)       (300)         (300)
Running changes and up-
  dating of applications.                    300         320           324
Heavy-duty engines	                    107         107           107
                                           (107)       (107)         (107)
Running changes and up-
  dating of applications.                    107         107           107
Motorcycles	                    ...          ...            59
Light-duty trucks	                     40          53            64
                                            (27)         (40)          (51)
                                                                A-23

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                                               AIR

                                      Abatement and Control

                            Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs.  1976
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	         $6,630     $6,256     $6,281      $6,704           +$423
Permanent Positions...            150        148        141         151             +10


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $6,703,700 is requested for 1977.  This represents an increase
of $422,300 over 1976.

Program Descri ption

     This subactivity covers the work related to determining ambient air quality
levels and air pollution source emission levels, determining and analyzing their
relationships, and assessing the progress made toward the attainment of environmental
goals.                                     )
                                           /
     Ambient Air Quality Monitoring andEmissions and Monitoring Data Analysis

     This element includes the operation of EPA's ambient monitoring network (the
National Air Surveillance Network, or NASN) by regional offices, associated laboratory
support, special field monitoring studies, and the interaction with State and local
agencies concerning the operation of the SIP monitoring networks.  Most ambient air
quality and source monitoring is carried out by State and local agencies who provide
these data to EPA.  The EPA regional offices oversee State monitoring efforts, assure
that data quality is consistent, and process data submitted to EPA by the States.
Determinations of attainment or nonattainment of ambient air quality data are made
on the basis of these data.  It is expected that monitoring activities and data
analyses will increase due to the need for reassessing the SIPs in nonattainment
areas as to their adequacy for attaining standards, the need to assess all SIPs as
to adequacy for maintaining standards, and the likely need to develop revised control
plans.  In addition to SIPs, (i.e., criteria pollutants and related monitoring),
acquisition of available State data on nonregulated pollutants is in process.  These
data will aid in understanding relationships between sources and receptors of
currently unregulated pollutants, and they will be used for making long- and short-
term trends analyses supportive of decisions on the need for control.  Also included
are the development, updating, and maintenance of systems for storage and retrieval
of air quality and emissions data gathered by monitoring activities.  The data
systems are composed mainly of an inventory of point sources and their emissions*
and a storage file forjambient air quality data.

     Mobile Source Monitoring

     This element includes activities aimed at determining mobile sources'-emissions
performance.  These data are used to assess the effectiveness of control programs,
to assess the need for additional or new controls, and to develop the basis for
regulatory actions.   In this program, vehicles in consumer use are tested in the
condition in which they are received  (i.e.,  without any consideration as to state
of maintenance),  in order to determine their emissions.  The data are used to
determine the average emissions that are to be expected from average in-use
vehicle populations.  Samples tested are generally defined by model year and are
representative of diverse geographical areas.  The data so obtained are used to
calculate emission reductions to be  required by control strategies developed for
attainment and maintenance of air quality standards.  The model year and type of
vehicles to be tested each year varies.  In general, a sample of 180 vehicles,
selected to be representative of the in-use vehicle population mix, are tested in
six locations 1n  the country.  The areas covered to date have been Denver, Detroit,
Houston, Los Angeles, Newark, St. Louis, and Washington.  Results are available

                                                                           A-24

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from programs initiated in fiscal  years 1971, 1972, and 1973.   Approximately 900
vehicles were tested by the 1971  and 1972 programs, covering 1957 through 1972
model year vehicles.  The 1973 testing program covered 1,080 vehicles from 1967
through 1974 model year.  Coverage has been extended to 1975 model  year vehicles,
(i.e., those equipped with catalysts) under later testing programs.

    The In-Use Compliance Testing Program (IUCP) has been discontinued.  Under
IUCP, approximately 3,000 vehicles for 1972 model year and 3,000 vehicles covering
1972, 1973, and 1974 model years were tested by programs initiated in fiscal years
1972 and 1973.  This testing was carried out on properly used and maintained
vehicles.  Prior to testing, vehicles were tuned to manufacturers"  specifications.
The data so gathered can be used to determine the differences in emission between
those vehicles that are properly used and maintained and those that are more repi*esen-
tative of an average in-use vehicle population, i.e., it permits a determination to be
made as to the potential improvements in vehicle emissions performance that may be
gained by inspection and/or maintenance of vehicles.  The data also permits determina-
tions to be made as to the manufacturers' ability to produce vehicles that will
continue to meet emissions standards when in actual use.

1975 Accompli shmen ts

    The status of attainment of air quality standards by air quality control regions
was determined.  These assessments indicated-that, as of the end of the fiscal year,
the national status of attainment of the primary standards was not as advanced as
would be desirable or as is envisioned in the legislation.  For total suspended
particulates, 132 air quality control regions were classified as nonattainment
(33 of these  are so  classified due to fugitive dust problems); for sulfur dioxide,
35 AQCRs were classified as nonattainment areas.   It is expected that standards
for Oxidants, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide will be violated (by the
statutory attainment dates) in 79, 69, and 16 AQCRs, respectively.

    A study of oxidant levels in rural areas indicated that photochemical oxidants
continued to be formed in rural areas, removed from large population centers, from
the hydrocarbons transported from population centers.

    Analyses of the data obtained from the 1972 and 1973 IUCP were completed.  These
data identified classes of light-duty motor vehicles which had emission levels in
excess of the applicable standards.  Due to technical documentation problems, the
Agency has not found it possible to use these data to support a recall of high-
emitting vehicle classes.

    The motor vehicle  emissions data analysis led to the issuance of Supplement
No. 5 to publication  AP-42, the compilation used for estimating current and
projected air pollutant emissions as part of air pollution control strategies
development.

    Technical guidance and direction was provided  to State and local agencies to
ensure that State monitoring sites are operating and generating valid data.  Assistance
to States in data processing systems improvements  was also provided; the installation
of the Comprehensive Data Handling System  (CDHS) at States will improve and stream-
line the processing of data (which,  in many cases, was  based on manual systems) and
its  submission to EPA for national trends assessments.

1976 Program

    A Federal-State program for collection and analysis of ambient data for non-
regulated pollutants will be inititated.  Nationally, much of these data are
collected by  State and local agencies, but at this time these data are not available
for  national  assessments of the need for control action and to determine trends
for  these pollutants.  Related to these types of assessments, the development  of  a
rapid response capability for obtaining air quality  information for special studies
is planned.   During the year, the need for assessing the impacts of unregulated
substances  (past  examples are lead,  sulfates, vinyl  chloride, hexachlorobenzene)
can  be expected  to arise.

     The motor vehicle emission surveillance  program data will be used  for updating
AP-42, for the first time  including  data on  emissions from in-use  production
vehicles that were equipped with catalysts.  These data will permit an assessment
to be made of in-use catalyst deterioration  and  the  impact that such deterioration

                                                                            A-25

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may have on new and in-use vehicle control strategies as well  as stationary sources
control.  This program will also provide improved data on heavy-duty vehicle
emissions on the basis of actual measurements over a road route.

    The installation of automated air quality data handling systems (CDHS)  in an
additional 12 to 15 States and local control  agencies will  have been completed.

1977 Plan
    Activities of the same nature as those described for 1975 and 1976 will  be
carried out.  Motor vehicle surveillance data will provide additional  data on in-use
catalyst-equipped vehicles with more mileage than those covered by the 1976 revisions
to AP-42.  Additional data on emissions for heavy-duty and light-duty trucks,
motorcycles, and less common mobile sources (e.g., diesel engines) will be available.

    An improvement in the overall emissions data base for N02, NOX, and SOx Is also
contemplated in support of the need to reassess control strategies for these
pollutants.  Similarly, expanded availability of air quality data will permit
more precise assessments of control strategy potentials for attaining standards
and will provide guidance to control strategy reassessment activities.

    All of the 10  additional positions in 1977 will be allocated to the regions
to increase the quality and level of monitoring support necessary for the accurate
assessment of control strategies, for the determination of attainment status, and
the development of high priority SIP revisions.  Although there is an increase of
$422,300 reflected in 1977, there are no additional or new program activities
attributable to this increase.  This merely reflects the additional new obligational
authority required in 1977 to provide for activities previously funded from prior
year funds available to the Agency.
                                                                          A-26

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Enforcement
    SECTION TAB

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Page Intentionally Blank

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                                              AIR

                                          Enforcement
                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual  'Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                               (dollars in thousands]"~
Budget Authority
Stationary Source
  Enforcement	:	   $8,800
Mobile Source
  Enforcement		

         Total	

Permanent Positions
Stationary Source
  Enforcement	
Mobile Source
  Enforcement.
         Total.
$8,800
2,070
$8,892
3,128
$9,196
3,303
$9,841
3,902
+$645
+599
10,870    12,020    12,499    13,743
   401
444
462
482
                                                      Page
                                                      A-29

                                                      A-32
                             +1,244
321
80
333
111
342
120
362
120
+20
                                                      A-29

                                                      A-32
+20
     The air enforcement program is directed toward achieving compliance with the
standards and regulations established for stationary and mobile sources of air
pollution under the provisions of the Clean Air Act.  The stationary source
enforcement program is undertaken to bolster and stimulate State enforcement of
State Implementation Plans, New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and National
Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS).  The mobile source
enforcement program is primarily a Federal  effort directed toward achieving
compliance with fuel and motor vehicle emission standards and regulations.

     The Clean Air Act places the primary responsibility for development and
enforcement of regulations limiting emission of air pollutants upon the States.
EPA's primary objective regarding the stationary source enforcement program is to
assist and stimulate State enforcement programs.  Activities under State Implementation
Plans (SIPs) thus far have focused on identifying major existing sources of pollution,
ascertaining compliance status, developing enforceable compliance schedules for sources
not in final compliance, and assuring compliance with final emission limitations or
increments of progress contained in compliance schedules.  In 1976, attention is also
being placed on determining which smaller sources of pollution are haying an impact on
nonattainment of primary health-related standards.

     In 1977, more resources will be placed into stationary source enforcement against
the remaining major violators and the many smaller violators havinq a direct impact on
attainment of the ambient standards.  In addition, more effort will be channeled into
maintaining compliance by those sources now on schedules or complying with the final
emission limits in order to ensure that advances made toward clean air goals are not
lost.  The promulgation of additional new source performance standards and NESHAPS
regulations, plus a substantial increase in sources subject to NSPS and NESHAPS, will
call for greater effort in the enforcement of these standards.

     Efforts in the mobile source enforcement program support the prototype
certification program funded under the Abatement and Control appropriation by ensuring
that production vehicles and vehicles in-use meet the standards-for which the model
prototypes have been certified.
                                                                          A-27

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    The Clean Air Act provides a variety of enforcement tools to achieve the
reductions in pollutants associated with the statutory emission standards applicable
to cars and trucks.   Since the ambient air quality benefits expected  from the Federal
motor vehicles control  program will not be realized unless the Agency assures
compliance of vehicles  with the standards, it is essential that tfiese tools be
utilized.   Full  implementation of the enforcement measures provided in the Act,
including  assembly line testing, in-use warranty testing and recall,  will be accom-
plished during 1977.  The established level of compliance monitoring  associated  with
certification, vehicle  production, imports, and fuels will be maintained.
                                                                         A-28

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                                               AIR

                                           Enforcement

                                  Stationary Source Enforcement

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975.'      1976       1979       1977     1977 VS.J976
                                                (dollars in thousands)"

Appropriation	      $8,800     $8,8.92     $9,196     $9.,841       +$645
Permanent Positions	..         321         333        342        362         +20


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $9,840,-800 is requested for 1977.   This represents an
increase of $644,800 over 1976.

Program Description

     The stationary source air enforcement program is designed to effectively utilize
the enforcement authorities provided by the Clean Air Act to ensure nationwide
compliance with State Implementation Plans (SIPs), New Source Performance Standards
(NSPS), and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS).
EPA's stationary source enforcement .program consists of monitoring major sources,
encouraging States to request enforcement authority for NSPS and NESHAPS, and
enforcing SIP, NSPS and NESHAP requirements to support and  stimulate State efforts.

     The responsibility for enforcing State-developed, E.PA-approved emission
limitations is shared by EPA and the States.  The Clean Air Act recognizes that
States have primary responsibility for achieving cTean air  within their jurisdiction.
When States do not enforce air pollution standards, however, the Act requires EPA
to take action.  In accordance with the intent of the Act,  the EPA air enforcement
program is designed to ensure that all sources achieve compliance with applicable
standards.  EPA bolsters State air enforcement efforts by supporting State control
agencies through control agency grants, providing specialized skill and expertise
or. special .contractual efforts, and by taking enforcement actions against selected
sources when the States cannot or will not enforce.

     EPA has primary responsibility .for the enforcement of the Federal emission
standards it promulgates.  However, both Section 11] (New Source Performance) and
Section 112 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) provide for
State enforcement of all or a portion of these standards.  In accordance with the
intent of Congress, EPA is placing a high- priority on delegating enforcement
authority for NSPS and NESHAPS to the States.  After delegation, EPA will actively
monitor the enforcement of these standards.

1975 Accomplishments

     -  Achieved compliance with standards or compliance schedules by 84 percent of
        the point sources subject to SIPs-~up from 59 percent at the end of 1974;

     *  Increased the number of enforcement actions taken (593 actions in 1975) by
        more than 50 percent over the 1974 level, making possible the large increase
        in point source compliance;

     <-  Reduced the percentage of point sources of unknown compliance status from
        31 percent to 5 percent.  This accomplishment is substantial considering
        that about 3.000 additional .point sources were identified during the year.,
        This large improvement is a direct result of nearly 6,000 field investigations
        undertaken by EPA in 1975;

     -  Achieved 90 percent compliance of new sources subject-to NSPS, a significant
        increase over the 66 percent compliance at the beginning of 1975;

                                                                            A-29

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        Increased the usability of the compliance  tracking  system  through  a  major
        effort to establish a data base for the compliance  data  system (CDS);

        Achieved nearly 90 percent compliance of NESHAPS sources (excluding  spraying
        and demolition operations); and

        Delegated enforcement authority for NSPS and NESHAPS  to  four States  and
        six local agencies, and received formal  requests from eight additional
        States.
1976 Program                                         .

     -  Increase compliance levels for point sources to achieve 97  percent compliance
        in nonattainment AQCRs and reach 97 percent compliance in all  AQCRs,   EPA
        enforcement actions will  be maintained at 600,  about 570 of which  will  be
        initiated in problem areas.  An estimated 3,500 field surveillance actions
        will be undertaken to ascertain .and verify compliance status of major
        emitters;

     -  Focus on nonpoint sources in problem areas to achieve 98 percent compliance
        among 3,000 already identified problem sources.  About 500  surveillance
        actions will be conducted and about 100 Federal enforcement actions will  be
        initiated;

     -  Delegate NSPS to 42 States and achieve 94 percent compliance with  NSPS;

     -  Delegate NESHAPS to 34 States; and

     -  Use CDS as a management tool to track compliance and to further enforcement
        coordination with State agencies.

1977 Plan

     Stationary source enforcement efforts during 1977 will  remain  focused on the
Agency's foremost goal: attainment of the primary NAAQS for particulates and  sulfur
dioxide.  Although considerable progress has been made in reducing  pollutant  levels,
preliminary estimates show that more than half of the air quality  control  regions
(AQCRs) in the country are now failing to meet either the primary  particulate
standard or the primary sulfur dioxide standard.   In working toward attainment, past
efforts have concentrated on compliance by an estimated 20,000 point sources, which
contribute about 85 percent of air pollutants from stationary sources.  By the
beginning of 1977, nearly all of these point sources will either be in final
compliance or on schedules, leading to compliance in the very near  future.   The
next task facing enforcement in assuring attainment of the primary  standards  is
achieving compliance with emission limitations by .a substantial number of  minor
emitters contributing to nonattainment problems.   .Enforcement attention will
therefore be centered on two groups of sources duning 1977:  the remaining  hard
core of major violator ; and the numerous minor sources that are judged by  State
and local agencies to be causing nonattainment in ^heir jurisdictions.  The
increased resources for 1977 will be utilized by the regions to increase their
enforcement capabilities for these high priority activities.

Attainment:  Major Sources                             \

     Although most of the major emitters will be complying with final  emission
limitations or on compliance schedules by 1977, the last group of  major polluters
will probably be the primary cause of nonattainment in about one-half of those
areas where standards will not be achieved, and EPA expects to have particular
difficulty with this group of sources.  In obtaining compliance, much effort  will
go into negotiating consent agreements in attempts to avoid lengthy litigation,
into monitoring and enforcing increments of progress contained in  compliance
schedules, and into preparing actions and cases against the most recalcitrant
of these sources.

Attainment:  Minor Sources

      It is estimated that minor sources now total about 200,000.  Although neither
local, State, nor Federal  inventories of such sources are complete  enough  to  precisely

                                                                           A-30

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  ^              determine  the number or  types  of  these  sources  that  are  contributing to  nonattainment
                 problems  in each AQCR,  it is estimated  that more than half of these sources  present
                 important  attainment problems.  During  1976,  EPA in  conjunction with State and  local
                 control agencies, will  assess  the specific  problems  posed  by  minor  emitters  and will
T ^,              formulate  local  strategies to  abate  emissions from those smaller  sources  in  nonattainment
  ^<              areas.

                 Maintenance
»"*
t -ij                   Enforcement efforts will  also be channeled into maintaining  primary  standards.
?» $              This  includes establishing and operating  an expanded inspection and monitoring
                 program to ensure that  sources in final compliance in both attainment  and non-
f -1              attainment AQCRs remain  in compliance,  and  that those on schedules  meet  their
,  ,.>;              increments of progress.   For example, all point sources  in finaT7 compliance  will
^  Tj              have  to be checked frequently  (at a  minimum once a year),  and all complying  nonpoint
                 sources more or  less frequently,  depending  on type and location of ythe sources  in
                 order to  ensure  standards maintenance.  This  objective also requires more emphasis
                 than  in previous years  for enforcing new  source performance standards  to  assure that
  J              new sources comply with  applicable standards.   EPA will  .also  be assisting States in
                 implementing a comprehensive program for  .new source  review', an important  element in
                 maintaining ambient standards  that still  needs  much  work.                 >
   a
   i              Hazardous  Pollutants

                      Enforcement of NESHAPS and delegation  to States of  the authority  to  enforce
'" >              NESHAPS will continue to receive  priority enforcement attention.
   I                                                                                        i
                      Existing NESHAPS will  be  amended to  cover  more  processes and operations that
                 generate  hazardous emissions of either  beryllium, asbestos, or mercury—increasing
                 the number of sources requiring enforcement attention.   There are now approximately
                 700 fixed  sources of hazardous pollutants in  the country;  in  addition, an estimated
                 30,000 transitory asbestos spraying  and demolition operations occur each  year.
                 State :and  local  agencies will  be  especially encouraged to  mount a comprehensive
                 program to regulate these transitory spraying and demolition  operations.
                                                                                      A-31

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PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                              AIR

                                          Enforcement

                                   Mobile Source Enforcement
Appropriation..	
Permanent Positions.,,
          Budget
Actual   Estimate
JL975     ...1976
$2,070
    80
                                                   Current
                                                  Estimate
                                                    1976
                               Estimate
                                 1977
                                               (dollars  in thousands.
$3,128
   111
                      $3,303
                         120
$3,902
   120
                               Increase  +
                               Decrease  •>
                              1977  vs.  1976
+$599
BudgetRequest

     .An appropriation of $3,902,200 is requested in 1977,
increase of $598,900 over 1976.

Program Description
                             This represents an
     The mobile source enforcement program is directed primarily toward achieving
compliance with vehicle emission standards and fuel  regulations promulgated by EPA
under provisions of the Clean Air Act.  The activities of the program include pre-^-
venting introduction of uncertified new domestic and imported vehicles into commerce;
auditing certification procedures of domestic and foreign automobile manufacturers;
enforcing vehicle assembly line emission test activity and the recall, warranty and
tampering provisions of the Act; developing and enforcing Federal  regulations on
the availability of regulated fuels; and ensuring compliance with  mobile source
aspects of State implementation plans.

     In the past years, EPA has relied primarily on the certification of prototype
vehicles to assure that new vehicles meet emission standards.  Although there have
been reductions in vehicle emissions since the start of the certification program,
data available to the Agency suggests that certification alone does not assure that
production vehicles will meet standards.  Mass production techniques may result in
vehicles having different emission characteristics than prototypes even though
designs are identical.

     The activities of the nobile source enforcement program complement the Agency's
certification program for prototype new motor vehicles by assuring that manufacturers
follow acceptable certification practices; that assembly line vehicles also meet
emission limitations; that imported vehicles meet the same standards as domestically
producted automobiles; and that the in-use regulatory provisions on recall, warranty,
and tampering are applied to ensure that vehicles continue to meet standards throughou
their useful life.

     Enforcement of the transportation control plans is included as part of the
mobile source enforcement program since these plans basically require, regulation of
automobile emissions and usage in order to achieve the national ambient air quality
standards.  Enforcement efforts include monitoring State and local implementation of
control strategies which include motor vehicle inspection and maintenance programs,
vapor recovery control systems, and measures to reduce vehicle miles traveled.  In
addition, the mobile source enforcement staff will be involved in  the implementation
of air quality maintenance plans in those areas with automotive related pollution
problems.  However, in 1977, the mobile source air enforcement program will place
primary emphasis on programs to reduce the failure of vehicles to  meet emission
standards.  The States will be relied upon to implement transportation control plans
with limited EPA enforcement assistance and guidance, primarily in the certification
of vapor recovery control systems and preparation of air quality maintenance plans.
                                                                         A-32

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                         Assembly line testing will be increased to the level  of full  implementation to
                    assure compliance with emission standards before vehicles  are introduced into commerce.
                    This activity will serve as an incentive for manufacturers to improve quality control
                    and manufacturing processes which will result in improved  emission performance for
                    production vehicles.   Data from the California assembly line test indicate that some
                    classes of production vehicles, although built like the certified prototype vehicle,
                    do not meet the emission standards.  This data indicates that the establishment of a
    i I             quality standard as contemplated by the Selective Enforcement Auditing (SEA) program
                    is necessary if the emission performance of production vehicles is to be controlled.
    ^ r4
    ¥ \|                  During 1977, the implementation of vehicle inspection and maintenance programs
    4^|             by the States will be encouraged so that the emissions of  noncomplying vehicles in
                    use can be reduced.  The data from this program will be fed into the recall program
                    so that classes of noncomplying vehicles which have been properly maintained can be
    *°'|             recalled and remedied by the manufacturers.  Emphasis will be placed on the warranty
    ,  I             and aftermarket parts program so that defective vehicles which fail to meet the
    : '              emission standards can be remedied at the manufacturer's expense without having
                    anticompetitive effects on the aftermarket parts industry.
    *™'»
     'i              1975 Accomplishments

                         -  Conducted A3 inspections of major domestic and foreign vehicle
    *••-»                      manufacturers' certification and production compliance programs
                            and conducted 10 investigations of possible violations.  Referred
      ^                      one violation to the Department of Justice for prosecution;

    r .                   -  Initiated procurement of the mobile enforcement test facility;

    ;                     -  Promulgated exemption and exclusion regulations defining which
 i                           vehicles are subject to Clean Air Act requirements;
 i
 I   '                     -  Promulgated regulations for catalyst replacement of imported
                            vehicles which have been operated overseas where unleaded
 I                           fuel is not available;
 \
 <                        -  Initiated 15 investigations of potential tampering violations
 ^     '                      and referred cases requiring enforcement action to the
 *<                           Department of Justice for prosecution;

 '•    f                   -  Updated the Inspector's Guidebook on tampering;
 j?     1
 ]    ^                    -  Initiated 17 investigations for potential recall orders, and
 i                          monitored three self-initiated recalls by manufacturers;
      «
 5                       -  Promulgated recall regulations establishing procedures for
 \   •                       implementing recall provisions for the Clean Air Act;
  j
  )   5                   -  Proposed  defect reporting regulations for use in enforcing
  \                         recall and warranty provisions of the Clean Air Act;
  1  i
  I                      -  Initiated development of a Section 207(a) warranty defects
     ,                      list defining area of coverage by manufacturer vehicle emission
  (  I                      warranty;

  I  '                   -  Monitored the importation of  over three million vehicles and
  I       '                  engines for compliance with emission control regulations,
  i  f                      initiated  investigations of illegal importation,  issued 360
  I   I                      orders that nonconforming  vehicles be modified, exported, or
 I                          bonds  thereon forfeited;

     i                   -  Initiated a national  fuels enforcement program and conducted
 i                           18,955 fuel  inspections  of gasoline retail  outlets; and

f                        -  Promulgated  lead-free  fuel regulations for  issuance of stop
•   -                         sale notices  of contamination at retail gasoline  outlets,
                            established hearing procedures for penalty  assessment  for
                            violators of  gasoline  regulations, and developed  reporting
                            requirements  for  suppliers and retailers of lead-free  gasoline.

                                                                                               A-33

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1976 Program

New Sources:

     The Clean Air Act provides EPA with the authority and responsibility to
test production line vehicles.   In 1976, EPA is developing selective enforcement
auditing (SEA) regulations for  assembly line testing and planning to implement a
pilot SEA program.  The pilot SEA program will  issue in 1976 an estimated 10 test
orders to manufacturers to inspect a portion of the 68 domestic and foreign
assembly plants.

     As part of the SEA program, an EPA mobile  enforcement test facility (METFac)
is being developed to be used where additional  testing capability is required to
enable the manufacturer to respond to an SEA test order.  The METFac will also
be used to perform other enforcement related emission testing in connection with
the tampering, warranty, and import programs.

Fuels:

     In 1976, plans call for 25,000 fuel inspections of gasoline retail  outlets
nationwide.  EPA will also seek greater assistance from the States to enable a
greater volume of retail service station inspections in those regions of the
country having relatively larger number of service stations.  This will  assure
that each service station would have the same probability of being inspected
each year.

In-Use:

     An increase in activity in the recall program is planned for 1976.   Regulations
are being developed which will  require manufacturers to report defects in emission
control components, will formalize fleet and State contacts to obtain defects data,
and will computerize a defect reporting system to handle the volume of data antic-
ipated.  It is estimated that 20 recall investigations will be conducted in 1976.

     The two warranty provisions of the Clean Air Act are intended to help assure
that manufacturers develop and produce vehicles which meet emission standards
throughout their defined useful life of 50,000 miles or five years.  Under Section
207(a) of the Act, EPA is developing regulations to implement the defects li^t,
which  is intended to be largely self-enforcing through consumer claims for service
under warranty.

     In 1976, performance warranty regulations will be developed under Section 207(b)
of the Act.  These regulations  will be promulgated when a short test correctable to
the Federal test procedure has  been developed.

     EPA will also develop in 1976 aftermarket parts guidelines in order to alleviate
the potentially anticompetitive impact of the recall and warranty provisions on the
aftermarket parts industry.

     EPA will continue in 1976 to investigate potential tampering violations, monitor
the importation of vehicles and engines for compliance with emission control regula-
tions, investigate illegal importations, and issue orders requiring nonconforming
vehicles to be modified or exported.1

Transportation Control Plans:

     EPA enforcement personnel  will assure enforcement of TCPs in effect and assist
in TCP revisions.  In 1976, enforcement effort will be used to certify Stage I
vapor  recovery  systems in TCPs.i '
                                                                          A-34 /

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1977 Plan

New Source:

     In 1977, EPA plans full implementation of the selective enforcement
auditing program for assembly line testing of new motor vehicles.   The issuance
of 20 test orders is anticipated.  The increase in resources for mobile source
enforcement will be partially allocated to this activity.

     EPA will perform approximately 60 inspections of major domestic and foreign
manufacturers' certification and production compliance programs in direct support
of the EPA certification program, and will conduct investigations of possible
violations.

Fuels:

     The number of inspections of gasoline retail outlets conducted under the
fuels enforcement program in 1977 will be reduced from about 25,000 in 1976 to
about 20,000.  States will be encouraged to assist in the inspection program.

In-Use:

     In 1977, EPA will enforce the defect reporting regulations and conduct an
estimated 20 recall investigations.  The Agency will also establish a recall
enforcement surveillance program.  Data from inspection and maintenance programs
will be used to recall classes of noncomplying vehicles.  A portion of the 1977
resource increase will be devoted  to these recall activities,

     Development will continue on the Section 207(a) defect warranty regulations,
the Section 2Q7(b) performance warranty regulations, and the aftermarket parts
guidelines for self-certification.

     EPA will continue to monitor the importation of vehicles and engines for
compliance with emission control regulations and begin enforcement of regulations
governing the importation of catalyst equipped vehicles.

Transportation Control Plans:

     In 1977, EPA will continue to assist States in the implementation of TCPs
for metropolitan areas.  EPA will also oversee Stage II certification for vapor
recovery systems in TCPs.
                                                                        A-35

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                                                                .*




                                                               tafe'S

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Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

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Page Intentionally Blank

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                                              AIR

                                    Research,and  Development
BudgetAuthority

Health and Ecological
  Effects	'	
Industrial Processes	
Monitoring and Technical
  Support	—
Advanced Automotive
  Propulsion Systems	
                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual   Estimate  Estimate  Estimate    Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977     1977  vs. 1976    Page,
                                              (dollars in thousands!
$33,648   $33,490   $32,705   $30,705     -$2,000
 15,777     7,372     5,665     5,065        -600
4,958
2,069
4,947
2,165
10,172
10,172
         Total	   56,452    47,974    48,542    45,942
Permanent Positions

Health and Ecological
  Effects	
Industrial Processes	
Monitoring and Technical
  Support	
Advanced Automotive
  Propulsion Systems	
    258
    101
282
101
303
 49
303
 49
         Total
                               423
              454
                                                   473
                    473
                                        A-37
                                        A-42

                                        A-44

                                        A-46
                                           -2,600
A-37
A-42
64
64
7
121
121
A-44
A-46
     The Clean Air Act, as amended, directs EPA to conduct research on the causes,
effects, extent, and methods of controlling air pollution.  The air research and
development program is designed to furnish EPA with the knowledge to establish
prudent environmental controls based upon known or potentially adverse health and
ecological effects;  to  Jefine, develop, and demonstrate systems for controlling
stationary sources; and to evolve strategies for minimizing the emission of
pollutants.

     To achieve these ends, the program is structured to quantify the effects of air
pollutants on man, animals, plants, and the general environment; develop predictive
models for pollutant emission, transport, transformation, and removal, and verify
these models by actual measurements; develop and standardize techniques for the
monitoring of pollutants; and develop :new and improved technology for preventing and
controlling air pollution and demonstrate the cost effectiveness of such technologies.
                                                                         A-36

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                                                AIR

                                     Research  and  Development

                                  Health and Ecological  Effects


 PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                          Budget     Current                Increase +
                                Actual    Estimate    Estimate   Estimate     Decrease -
                                 1975      1976        1976        1977      1977  vs. 1976
                                                 (dollars in thousands)

 Appropriation	      $33,648     $33,490     $32,705    $30,705       -$2,000
 Permanent  Positions..	          258         282        303        303


 Budget  Request

      An appropriation  of $30,705,300 is requested for 1977. This  represents  a  decrease of
 $2 million  from  the  1976 level.

 Programi Description

      Research on air health  and ecological effects,  coordinated with  research  in other
 media,  is  conducted  to provide a sound  scientific basis upon which to establish and
 continually evaluate ;both  primary and secondary air  quality standards and  air  pollution
 control  strategies.  Research  is accomplished in  three  subprogram areas of this
 activity:  health effects;  ecological processes  and  effects; and  transport  and  fate of
 pollutants.

      Health  effects  research is comprised of  epidemiological, clinical, and
 toxicological studies  of the impact  of  air pollutants upon man's  health.   Studies
 are  continued on pollutants  with established  ambient air quality  standards as  part
 of a continuing  reevaluation of such standards  and  increased emphasis is  being
 given to selected noncriteria  air pollutants.   A  research program on environmentally-
 induced carcinogenesis has just begun in 1976.

      Air ecological  processes  and effects research focuses upon the effects  of
 air pollutants on the  structure and  functions of  ecosystems and  their components.
 Projects involving laboratory  and/or field studies,  and mathematical  and/or
 theoretical  simulations are  conducted to support  the establishment and continuing
 evaluation of air pollutant  criteria as well  as to  provide policy makers with
 guidelines to assess the environmental  impact of  municipal, industrial, agricultural,
 and  energy resource  development.

      Development of  effective  pollution control strategies requires the ability to
 link the impact  of pollutants  to their  sources.   Therefore, research  is also
.conducted  in the transport and fate  program to  determine, characterize, and  measure
 the  transport and  transformation  of  pollutants  in the atmosphere.  Air transport and
 fate research encompasses  three major, categories:

      (1 )meteorologica1 research to  determine air pollutant transport mechanisms;

      (2) investigations of chemical  and physical  plant  processes; and

      (3) determination of  the  environmental impact  of and catalytic reactor
         emission-control  devices.
                                                                          A-37

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1975 _Accomp11 shments

     The air health and ecological  effects  program  research  accomplishments  in  1975
included:

     -  Publication of the first annual  research  report  on pollutants  from vehicles
        equipped with oxidation catalysts.   Results were compiled  on all  catalyst
        related studies in the Office of Research and  Development  and  the Office of
        Air and Waste Management, including all  current  results  from studies  of
        roadside sulfate levels and noble metal  attrition products.  Results  are
        expected  to  contribute  to EPA's assessment  of mobile emission standards for
        regulated and non-regulated pollutants;

     -  Completion of preliminary assessments  on  potential effects of  exposure  to
        compounds of manganese and  cerium,  which  may be  associated with mobile
        source emissions—this information  will  be  used  to evaluate the health  impact
        of fuel additives which may be substituted  for lead;

     -  Publication of a monograph  on the health  effects of  exposure to
        sulfur-oxides—results compiled were obtained  from the human epidemiology
        studies or Community Health Environmental Surveillance Study  (CHESS)
        program and indicate that adverse health  effects may be  more closely
        associated with exposure to sulfate compounds  than to sulfur dioxide;

     -  Completion of developmental phases  of design and hardware  for  a system
        for intensive environmental and human  health characterization-this system
        includes the Community Health Air Monitoring Program (CHAMP),  the Clinical
        Laboratory Evaluation and Assessment of Noxious  Substances (CLEANS),  and
        the Clinical Laboratory Evaluation  and Verification  of Epidemiologies!
        Results (CLEVER);

     -  Expansion of ongoing research on air pollutants  for  which  primary ambient
        air quality standards have been promulgated and  on certain pollutants,  such
        as sulfate compounds, which are currently unregulated.  Such studies  are
        aimed at improving information on these pollutants to allow the refinement of
        the standards themselves and to provide scientific health  bases for
        promulgation of new standards should this become necessary;

     -  Completion of an 18 city survey of  carboxyhemoglobin levels in humans as
        part of a continuing evaluation of  the primary ambient air quality
        standard for carbon monoxide.  It indicated that carboxyhemoglobin may  be an
        indicator of ambient CO levels, but that it is also  a function of smoking habits;

     -  Completion of annual reviews of available research results on  nitrogen  oxides
        and particulates as part of a continuting evaluation of the primary
        ambient air quality standards for nitrogen  dioxide and total  suspended
        particulates.  The data suggest that short-term peak exposures to nitrogen
        oxide may be important in health considerations  for  this class of compounds
        and that health  information  is needed on effects of  particulate size distri-
        bution and cKenrical/phystcaT  characteristics;

     -  Initiation of  a  survey of existing  repositories of tissue samples with a view
        toward the establishment of a coordinated,  nationwide tissue  sample  banking
        system—information obtained through tissue analysis would include  data on
        exposure trends  in the population with respect to trace metals,  for
        example;

     -  Compilation of a series of animal studies on nitrogen oxides  and  ozone  which
        showed exposure  to be associated with lowered  resistance to infection;

     -  A preliminary determination on the urban, regional,  and multiregional
        distribution of atmospheric sulfate levels  in  the United States.   Results
        suggest widespread distribution of sulfate  at  levels which may be near
        expected thresholds for health effects;
                                                                          A-38

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                 -   A preliminary field investigation  on  the  extent  of  long-range  transport
                    of oxiclant and its  precursors  from urban  to  rural locations.   Results  suggest
                    that oxidants from  one urban area  may achieve  significant  levels  in  regions
                    100 Km distant;

                 -   Preliminary findings of field  studies conducted  in  the  St.  Louis  area
                    indicate that (a) the conversion  rates of sulfur dioxide to sulfate  in
                    coal-fired power plant plumes  are  usually low, with values  typically on  the
;'-  -'                 order of one to  two percent per hour, while  oil-fired plants exhibit much
£ ;]                 higher conversion rates; and  (b)  vegetative  uptake  constitutes one of  the
                    major removal mechanisms of sulfur dioxide emitted  from low-level sources
                    (e.g., urban plumes).
I: 1
j-  i         1976 Program

                 The objectives for  air health and ecological effects research  in  1976 include:

                 -   Focusing studies toward selected population  subgroups to describe health
                    effects of short and long-term exposure to sulfur oxides,  respirable
                    particulates, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide,  and photochemical oxidants;

                 -   Refining the data on acid sulfate aerosol health impact and impact of
                    trace metals in  primary smelter communities;

.  -              -   Strengthening support for secondary air quality  standards  by completing
                    research on bioenvironmental effects  of hydrocarbons and photochemical
                    oxidants on plants  and animals;

                 -   Continued development of empirical and anlytical techniques to relate  air
                    pollution source emissions to  ambient exposures;

                 -   Continued determination of the effects of air  pollutants on visibility,
                    rainfall, and climate;

                 -   Expanding research  on the health effects  of  emissions  from catalytic
                    converter equipped  vehicles by quantifying the health  effects  of exposure
                    to mobile source pollutants,  particularly sulfuric  acid; conducting  studies
                    to more accurately  determine  pollutant concentrations  at which adverse
                    health effects can  be expected to occur;  and including  studies on complex
                    sinks such as parking garages  and shopping centers; and

                 -   Initiation of a cohesive research program to study  environmentally  induced
                    carcinogenesis, which will include not only  the  quantitative assessment
                    (carcinogenic vs. noncarcinogenic) of atmospheric pollutants,  but also,
                    their quantitative  effects (i.e., dose-response  relationships) in order  to
                    determine estimates of risk to human populations.

   ;         1977 Plan

                 Health and ecological  effects research in 1977  is basically  similar to  that
            for 1976 and can be divided into four areas:  (1)  studies of criteria pollutants,
            (2) studies of noncriteria  pollutants, (3) studies of non-pesticide organic  and
            inorganic substances, and  (4) studies  of pollutants  particularly  associated  with
            transportation (i.e. emissions from vehicles equipped with  catalytic converters).
:  ;         Health effects information  and the data on ambient air quality criteria pollutants
   ;         will continue to be refined, with a view toward assessing exposure averaging times,
            the adequacy of existing safety margins, the health  benefits of meeting the  standards
            and the health risks of exceeding the standards.   Studies will  also be conducted to
•   \         identify populations most at risk, to refine exposure effects  data for such
            populations and to  assess the effects  of exposure to pollutants in combinations.
                                                                                      A-39

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     Health effects research will also continue on noncriteria pollutants with
emphasis on sulfate, nitrates and respirable participates.  Questions which will
continue to be addressed include determinations of exposure-response relationships
for these pollutants, and their effects when present in air in combination with other
pollutants..

     In the third area, the program will continue to address similar questions about
the health effects of such inorganic substances as trace metals—lead, zinc, cadmium,
and arsenic.  One important research area in the case of the ubiquitous trace metals
to be addressed concerns the relative contributions of the various possible routes
of exposure to observed health effects.

     The relatively modest effort i.n environmental carcinogens initiated in 1976 will
be continued.  This effort is unique in that it will  seek a quantitative evaluation
of environmental levels and sink factors associated with carcinogens.  Among the
primary objectives of the planned effort are the identification of carcinogens
present in the environment, characterization of human exposure to them and deter-
mination of possible dose-response relationships.

     The fourth area is specially concerned with the health Implications of
automotive emissions—essentially those from catalyst-equipped vehicles.  Efforts
will be continued to determine exposure to pollutants emitted in terms of both
current and predicted future levels, as well as to determine the health response to
exposure.

     Like the health program, the ecological effects portion .of the program addresses
both the criteria and noncriteria air pollutants and trace metals.   This effort will
continue in 1977 to research and describe the effects of air pollutants on disrupted
and/or natural terrestrial ecosystems or their components, particularly those of
economic value.  Effects will be researched with regard to pollutants occurring both
singly and in combination, at varying concentrations and for varying periods of
exposure.  The resulting data will be useful for assessing current and predicting
future ecological impacts of airborne pollutants.

     Included in the program will be studies to characterize particular terrestrial
ecosystems (i.e., identify their components and discern the dynamic interrelation-
ships between them).  Among the studies will be those on grass lands, deciduous and
.mixed forests, soil microbiotic communities and soil  microorganisms.  Both field and
laboratory studies will be conducted on the effects of pollutants on single animal
and plant species, including effluents on growth and reproduction.

     In the area of transport and fate of air pollutants, specific planned
.accomplishments include:

     -  Evaluation of urban sulfate model based on RAPS data base;

     -  Report on climate of air quality trends;

     -  Report on IR analysis for tropospheric halogenated compounds; chemistry of
        degradation;

     -  Report of long-range transport of ozone/precursors;

        Evaluation of highway model  based on Long Island Expressway field study;

     -  Development and application of measurement methodology to study emissions of
        unregulated pollutants'such as HCN, HC1, HBr, and H2S from current and
       'future light-duty vehicles;

     -  Development of emission measurement instrumentation, for proposed stationary
        source regulation such as monitoring systems for specific halocarbons and
        mass concentration particulate emissions;
                                                                          A-40

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Development and application of techniques and instrumentation to measure
carcinogenic air pollutants in the air and in the vicinity of sources;

Development of techniques and instrumentation to measure specific toxic
organic chemicals in the air; and

Development of techniques to measure specific sulfate species in the  air
and in source emissions.
                                                                  A-41

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                                               AIR

                                    Research and Development

                                      Industrial Processes

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977,    1977 vs.  1976
                                                (dollars in thoUsan^s)

Appropriation	     $15,777     $7,372     $5,665     $5,065       -$600
Permanent Positions	         101        101         49   /     49


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $5,065,000 is requested for 1977.  There represents  a decrease
of $600,000 from the 1976 level.

Program Des cription

     The industrial processes program concentrates' on point sources of air pollution
arising from the industrial sector of the economy and is focused on those mining,
manufacturing, service, and trade industries which are involved in the extraction,
production and processing of materials into consumer products.   This  research'
activity supports the technology requirements of the Clean Air Act through the
development and demonstration of new or improved cost-effective technology having
industry-wide applicability, short-term achievability and long-term viability.

     Since a significant amount of air pollution comes from energy -production and
consuming processes, there is considerable overlap in the problems addressed by the
industrial processes program and the energy related research program.  These programs
have therefore been carefully structured to complement each other.

1975 AccompJ.1 shrnents

     In 1975, the air industrial processes program:

     -  Initiated a hazardous materials source assessment program in order to provide
        information for developing future standards and hazardous pollution controls;

     -  Demonstrated HOX control using molecular sieve sorption systems;

     -  Achieved substantial progress in developing low emission burners and providing
        understanding of NO  formation in flames;

     -  Assessed mobile source pollution control technology for application to
        stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines;

     -  Completed a demonstration test program on a high efficiency  (99.6 percent)
        electrostatic precipitator, establishing the capability of this device as  a
        total (including fine) particulate dust collector; and

     -  Constructed and placed in operation a mobile particulate test unit.  This
        unit will provide data for setting and enforcing particulate standards.

1976 Program

     The 1976 program focuses on assessing the magnitude of the problem and the
state-of-the-art for control of noncriteria and hazardous pollutants, while finishing
several development and demonstration projects on criteria pollutant control systems.
In addition, work has begun on transferring technology for particulate control to  the
industrial sector.  The results of the assessment studies will provide identification,
characterization, and prioritization of industrial sources of hazardous pollutants.
The information will enable development of national strategies for control of
industrial air pollution.
                                                                           A-42

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     Major outputs to be achieved in 1976 include:

     -  Completion of a system for controlling both air and water discharge from
        pushing and quenching operations in the iron and steel  industry;  and

     -  Initiation of two demonstrations of technology for control  of fine
        particulates in steel making processes and  in the production of
        ferroalloys.

1977 Plan
~
     In 1977, activities will continue to characterize and assess the air
pollution problems associated with industrial sources and to identify the
available technology for pollution control  (as well as the economic implications
of such controls).  This information will continue  to be used in formulating
specific technology requirements and strategies for control of air pollution
from these sources.  Accomplishments will include:

     -  Completion of a preliminary design  for an air pollution abatement
        system for copper and lead smalters; and

     -  Completion of a study on feasibility of using a solventless sheet
        .metal coating process.
                                                       A-43

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                                               AIR

                                    Research and Development

                                Monitoring and Technical  Support

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase  +
                               Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease  -
                                1975      1976       1976     _J977      1977  vs. 1976
                                                (dollars  in thousands]

Appropriation	,.      $4,958      $4,947    $10,172    $10,172
Permanent Positions	          64          64        121        121


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $10,171,900 is requested for 1977.  There is no change
from the 1976 level.

Program Description

     The air monitoring and technical  support program has two program activities:
(1) research, development, and standardization of methods, equipment, and techniques
to quantify and characterize air pollutants in ambient air and emissions from mobile
and stationary sources, and (2) the provision of technical support through which
the results of the research and development programs, and the expertise of researchers
throughout the research and development organization, are made available to other
parts of the Agency.  This technical support activity provides resources to respond
to both continuing requests for assistance as well as immediate-response requests  on
any given technical subject.

1975 Accomplishments

     1975 accomplishments in the methods, equipment, and techniques research and
development program included:

     -Development of improved measurement methods for particulate organic matter;

     -Validation of improved mobile source pollution control methods;

     -Improvement of particulate mass and size determination methods;

     -Development of odor measurement methods;

     -Field test of open path spectral monitors;

     -Research, development and evaluation of multipollutant analyzers; and

     -Research, developments and evaluation of a prototype  x-ray fluorescense
      analyzer.
                                    i
     In the air technical support.area, major accomplishments inlcuded conducting
a program to monitor burning of tpxic industrial wastes in the Gulf of Mexico by
a shipboard incinerator, provision of the airborne sampling capability for the
Regional Air Pollution Study, and assisting.several regions by conducting airborne
compliance monitoring.

1976 Program

     The 1976 objectiyas—o£-t*ne""me'€h~ods', equipment, and techniques program include:
(1) sajpli^v-awff'anaTytical techniques for identification  and measurement of pollutants
fronTvarious sources;  (2) characterization of the gaseous  and aerosol components of
air pollution; (3) characterization of mobile source and  stationary source emissions;
(4) developing*sampling, and analytical techniques for characterization of ambient air;
and (5) establishing criteria for "equivalent" measurement and monitoring systems.

                                                                        A-44

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     During 1976, research and development technical support has been identified
separately as a program activity in order to improve the responsiveness of the
research and development program to the scientific and technical needs of the Agency.
During 1976, a resource data base will be developed and a unified planning and
management system will be implemented for technical support.  The exact nature of
this technical support can only partly be documented because requirements cannot
be completely predicted.  However, the type of support to be provided includes
conducting routine chemical analysis of samples from operational air pollution
monitoring networks, and chemical analysis support of registration of fuel and
fuel additives.

1977 Plan

     The 1977 measurement techniques and equipment program will  continue
development and assessment of air pollutant monitoring and measurement methodologies,
techniques, and instrumentation.  It will concentrate on considerable emissions
from mobile sources, nonregulated pollutant characterization in urban-rural  areas,
characterization of toxic trace metals and organic emissions from stationary sources,
and methods for identification of carcinogens and mutagens,  The 1977 air technical
support program will continue and enhance the support given by ORD to other Agency
programs.  •
                                                             A-45

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PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Appropriation	
Permanent Positions.
                                              AIR

                                    Research and Development

                              Advanced Automotive Propulsion Systems
                                         Budget
                               Actual   Estimate
                                1975      1976
$2,069
$2,165
     7
                     Current
                    Estimate
                      1976
                    Estimate
                      1977
                                                  (dollars in thousands)
 Increase +
 Decrease -
1977 vs. 1976
Explanation of'Change in Program

    With the creation of the Energy Research and Development Administration during
1975, the majority of the resources allocated to the Advanced Automotive Propulsion
Systems research activity was transferred to that agency.  Residual resources,
amounting to $2,164,600 were transferred to the Air abatement and control account
during 1976.
                                                                        A-46

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Water Quality
     SECTION TAB

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Page Intentionally Blank

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PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                         WATER QUALITY
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions.,
  Transition Quarter...
Enforcement:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions —
  Transition Quarter	
Actual
1975

$101,837
1,534
N/A
24,284
962
N/A
41,149
554
N/A
i:
167,270
3,050
N/A
173,350
9,476,536
Budget
Estimate
1976

$144,522
1,729
24,960
21,294
744
5,245
44,892
581
11,900
210,708
3,054
42,105
175,400
Current
Estimate
1976
(dollars
$174,547
1,819
37,860
19,793
738
5,245
43,940
548
11,900
238,280
3,105
55,005
189,160
1,499,913
Estimate
1977
in thousands)
$115,173
1,816
N/A
21,242
764
N/A
41,769
548
N/A
178,184
3,128
N/A
138,655
211,051*
Increase +
Decrease -
1977 vs.. 1976

-$59,374
-3
N/A
+1,449
+26
N/A
-2,171
N/A
-60,096
+23
N/A
-50,505
Research and Development;
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	
  Transition Quarter.—.

Total, Water Quality Program:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	
  Transition Quarter	
  Outlays,.	
  Authorization Levels...

*Authorization pending.

NOTE:  The program highlights and description of the Construction Grants activity
       will be found in  the Construction Grants section of this submission.

•OVERVIEW AND  STRATEGY

      Evidence has been gathered to indicate that almost one stream or river mile
out of every three is markedly polluted, whether measured by oxygen demanding loads
and-bacteria count,  nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, other pollutants such
as industrial compounds  and suspended solids, heavy metals, or pesticides.  These
impacts  result from  point source discharge of waste from industrial, commercial,
agricultural, and municipal sources, and the nonpoint source discharge (including
spills and runoff) from  activities that cover a broad land area and are mostly diffuse
in nature.  These nonpoint sources include agriculture, silviculture, construction
activities, mining, and  runoff from urban areas.

      Pollution control activities have focused initially on the abatement of industrial
and municipal point sources.  The relative extent of point source pollution is fairly
evenly divided among industry and communities, with a much smaller portion attributed
to agriculture.                          ;

      The biggest user of water is industry—over 200 billion gallons a day, two-thirds
of which is used for cooling.  Over 33,000 applications have been received from
industry for discharge permits under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination
System.  The next biggest user of water is agriculture with a daily intake of about
130 billion gallons.  The Nation's farm animals produce about as much waste as two
billion  people although  only a portion of that ends up in our waterways.  The largest
agricultural discharge is irrigation water, often infused with pesticide and fertilizer
residues and natural salts.  Additional pollutant loads include an estimated four
billion  tons of sediment a year, most of it from farm and forest land and the drainage
of acid  and other contaminants from some 11 million acres of mined land.  An estimated
6,500 discharge permit applications are expected from the agricultural sector.
Communities use only about 30 billion gallons of water a day.  However, only half of
the Nation's  population  is served by sewage systems that provide adequate treatment.
                                                                      WQ-1

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Over 20,000 municipal discharge permit applications, plus an additional  50,000 to
100,000 from privately owned treatment works  (excluding those serving single family
homes), are expected to be received ultimately.

     The process of analyzing and reporting on the quality of the Nation's water
continued during 1975 with the preparation of the second National Water Quality
Inventory Report to Congress.  This year's report includes, for the first time,
full reports from each of the 50 States and six Territories of the United States.
The States generally agreed with the findings of the 1974 report—that the
parameters which have been the focus of pollution control efforts, oxygen-demanding
loads and coliform bacteria, are showing overall improvement while nutrient
parameter levels were becoming worse in many areas.

     Legislated Federal involvement in water pollution control began in 1948 in a
very limited way.  There were antecedent laws such as the River and Harbor Act at
the turn of the century whose  water pollution control authorities were not utilized
until 1970.  The Congress, in a series of six amendments from 1952 through 1970,
gradually broadened the scope of Federal .participation and  assistance  as  stipulated
in the 1948 Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

     It was recognized that (1) the pollution of the Nation's water was continuing to
increase, (2) differences in the degree of emphasis among States were fostering
economic and competitive inequities, (3) existing legal mechanisms for abating
discharges were often weak and insufficient, (4) costs of control required increased
Federal funding, and (5) uniform national  norms were needed to protect the progress
that had been achieved.  In response, the Congress established as law the most
comprehensive pollution control act ever enacted—the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act Amendments of 1972, which significantly accelerated the Nation's pollution abate-
ment program.

     Federal and State governments have now been operating under the provisions of
this Act for over three years.  Top priority has been given to issuance of waste
discharge permits to point sources; funding of publicly-owned waste treatment works;
and the compliance monitoring, technical assistance, and enforcement necessary to
assure that permit conditions are met and the waste treatment plants are operated
effectively.  These activities are supported by monitoring and analyses to determine
water quality dictated levels of control for critical stretches of water, promulgating
guidelines and standards, setting national norms for comparable levels of control for
all industrial discharges, and assessing and structuring future program needs and
solutions.

     The Act basically encompasses a 10 year period from October 1972, to June 1983.
Two important dates by which all point sources should have achieved a legislatively
specified level of control occur in 1977 and 1983.  By July 1, 1977, industries are
to use the best practicable control technology currently available to control water
pollution and the best available technology economically achievable is to be in-use
by July 1, 1983.  Publicly owned waste treatment plants are required to provide a
minimum of secondary treatment by July 1, 1977, and to apply the best practicable
waste treatment technology by July 1, 1983.  Various  interim steps occur on a
continuing basis leading up to these dates.  These include those activities
previously described which are complemented by other  specifically focused programs
such as lake restoration, economic studies, annual quality assessments, and management
of nonpoint sources.  The Agency is turning additional attention to nonpoint sources
in the revision of its regulations on water quality management planning.

     The total cost over the 1974-1990 period of achieving the highest priorities
for the municipal sector  [construction of treatment plants and interceptors) was
estimated at $46.3 billion in the 1974 Needs Survey.  This omits estimated costs
for collection sewers, correction of infiltration/inflow, major sewer rehabilitation,
and correction of combined sewer overflows (totalling $61.1 billion).  The costs for
providing treatment and/or control of storm water, a  category which is receiving
particular scrutiny by the Agency, are estimated to be $235 billion.

     The principal responsibility for conducting many of the tasks under the Act is
assigned to the States.  Local communities conduct several types of planning and
•construct and operate treatment facilities.  EPA's role is to coordinate nationally
all the many and various aspects of the Act, overseeing their implementation and, where
a State is unable to act, to carry out the activity.  Additionaliy, EPA performs those

                                                                      WQ-2

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activities which are singularly assigned to it under the law.  The magnitude of the
tasks demands that a continuing cooperation exist among all levels of government as
each conducts its appropriate role.

     Because of the long-term phased nature of the Act, many activities are proceeding
in a sequenced fashion.  Top priority has been given to research and development
efforts concentrating on the technological and informational needs related to the 1983
objective,  Areawide and Phase II basin planning are also oriented toward this date.
Since most of the first round of waste discharge permits have been issued and their
schedules have taken effect, enforcement activities to assure compliance with these
requirements are being intensified.  Under a continuing cycle, efforts leading to the
second round of permit issuance are commencing.  These include stream analyses  of
water quality, development of water quality based pollutant reduction where needed,
and revised criteria.  Research studies "have pointed the way directly into revised
criteria by providing more complete data and better values.  Accordingly, guidance
is being prepared for the States to follow in revising their water quality standards.
Overall, the fiscal  year 1977 permit program strategy is to continue the process of
putting first round enforceable permits into effect, to begin the issuance of second
round permits and, with particular reference to municipal permits, reissue major
permits assuring compatibility between funding and compliance schedules.  Upgrading
the enforcement quality of permits in force is also a feature of the 1977 permit
program- strategy.

     The great bulk of Federal environmental funding is allocated to the water program.
These Federal funds are supplemented by sizeable amounts of State and local monies.
This funding level reflects the major investment in publicly owned facilities that
must be constructed to abate a principal source of water pollution—the discharge
from municipal sewage facilities.

     The investment in municipal  facilities is supported by Federal and State review
of grant applications for cost effectiveness and compliance with the various require-
ments of the law.  Funding for municipal treatment works has been significantly
accelerated.   A national municipal operations program strategy is being drafted
to broaden and intensify Federal, State, local, and private sector efforts to assure
that plants built and permitted under the Federal Water Pollution and Control Act
(FWPCA) reliably meet operating and design specifications and permit requirements.
Assistance in the training of operators and in the development and training of State
and local water pollution control professionals will continue to be provided.  Research
and development projects examine more effective and economical technologies in an
effort to reduce the total cost.   A major reorientation of the municipal permit program
is under way to ensure more effective support of the Agency effort to grant $18 billion
for municipal sewage treatment construction projects.  Another major concern in the
municipal permit area is the revision of existing policies which will ultimately
necessitate the modification or reissuance of most of the 20,000 municipal permits.

     Initial studies and efforts to develop the framework for managing nonpoint source
pollution are being carried out.   As point sources are increasingly abated, nonpoint
pollution will become an ever larger factor.

    Technologjcal research will assist  in formulating effluent standards for industrial
discharges.  Existing effluent guidelines need to be reviewed and revised so that they
can be successfully utilized in the second round of permit issuance.
SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES
                                                                         (in thousands
                                                                           of dollars)
1976 Water Quality Program	,	       $238,280

    Abatement and Control...	        -59,374

      The net reduction results from a 1976 congressional increase of
      $15.0 million for clean lakes that will not be required in 1977,
      a $38.0 million decrease for Section 208 water quality manage-
      ment planning grants, a $3.1 million decrease resulting from
      the termination of academic training grants, a $4.5 million
                                                                     WQ-3

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      reduction in State control  agency grants,  and a $2.7 million
      reduction in water quality planning.   These decreases are
      partially offset by increases for the funding of an interagency
      agreement to conduct interim construction  inspections for
      municipal facilities and for the full-year cost of the
      October 1975 pay increase.

    Enforcement	         +1,449

      The increase will provide for 26 additional positions to be used
      to enforce permit conditions now in effect and to modify, issue,
      or reissue additional permits.

    Research and Development	         -2,171

      The decrease is due to carrying forward only a portion
      of the $3.6 million added-on by the Congress in 1976.	
1977 Water Quality Program	,	        178,184

SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATES

     1.  Summary of Budget Request

              An appropriation of $178,183,300 is requested for 1977.  This request,
     by appropriation account, is as follows:

                         Abatement and Control.		   $115,172,900
                         Enforcement	     21,241,900
                         Research and Development	     41,768,500

              This represents a decrease of $59,695,700 from the 1976 water quality
     program and includes a decrease of $38 million  for areawide waste treatment
     management grants as a result of the change in  emphasis  from areawide to
     Statewide grants.  Also included is a $15 million decrease for the clean lakes
     program; these funds were added-on by the Congress in 1976 and will be .  'equate
     tor 1977. There is a reduction in the training  program due to the termination
     of the academic training grants (-$3,070,000);  a reduction in the State control
     agency grants (-$4,456,500); and a reduction in the water quality planning and
     standards activity (-$2,570,900).

              These decreases are partially offset by an increase for the annualization
     of the October 1975 pay raise (+$661,600); for  the funding of an interagency
     agreement to conduct interim construction inspections for municipal facilities
     (+$2,500,000); and for increased staffing and miscellaneous program items
     (+$2,011,200).

              The resources for the research and development program decrease by
     $2,171,100 due to carrying forward only a portion of the $3.6 million funds
     added-on by the Congress in 1976.  The remaining $1,428,900 will be used to
     continue ecological effects research on ocean outfalls, ocean dumping, and
     dredge spoil; health effects research on the potential health hazards associated
     with waste water treatment facilities and utilization/disposal of waste waters
     and sludge; and to continue work in sludge treatment and utilization.


     2.  Changes from Original 1976 Budget Estimate

              Changes from the budget are as follows:
                                                                         (in thousands
                                                                           of dollars)

                Original 1976 estimate.,	       $210,708
                Congressional increases:
                  Control agency grants	        +10,000
                  Academic training	'	         +1,200
                  Clean lakes grants	,	        +15,000
                  Construction grants administration	  $6,000
                    Less: transfers to Agency and Regional
                      Management	    -588         +5,412
                  Research.	,	         +3,600


                                                                      WQ-4

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1
I     /
                              Research activities transferred to Interdisciplinary
                                media.	.	.	»	       -4,777
  ^  >'                          Manpower planning activities transferred to Agency
                                and Regional  Management	         -166
  I  ,5                          Operating adjustments	—	       -1,949
  i  |                          Transfer of resources to strengthen Noise enforcement
  ;% s                            program.	          -80
                              Transfer of accounting activity to Agency and
  _, n                            Regional Management...		.	..          -47
                              Cost reduction savings transferred to other media	         -185
                              Miscellaneous increases  and decreases.	,	         -436
                              Current 1976 estimate	      238,280

                            Most of the additional funds currently estimated for water quality
                   programs were provided by congressional increases to the 1976 budget request.
                   The increase for water pollution control  agency qrants restored
                   this program to the 1975 appropriations level (the availability of funds
                   deferred from 1975 results in an increase in total  funds available in 1976,
                   however).  The additional  $1,200,000 for training is part of the $2 million
                   increase appropriated for academic  training programs (the remaining $800,000
                   is allocated to Air programs).  Grants to improve water quality in the Nation's
                   lakes were increased by $15 million.  An increase of $6 million was provided
                   for administration of the municipal waste water treatment facility construction
                   grants program, of which $588,000 has been allocated to construction grants
                   activities in the Agency and Regional Management media.  Although the core of
                   this program is included in water quality, some key functions such as audit
                   and contract compliance are classified under Agency and Regional Management.
                   Finally, $3,600,000 was added for research on ocean disposal, waste water
                   disinfection and sludge disposal.

                            Current estimates for water quality research include a transfer of
                   $4,777,000 from water quality to interdisciplinary.  This change is part of
                   a broad restructuring of research and development activities in order to achieve
                   an integrated approach to the identification, measurement and control of
                   pollutants which transmigrate through various media,  the objectives and
                   purposes of the functions transferred, primarily the development of methods
                   and management practices for the abatement and control of 'pollution from
                   agriculture and silviculture, are essentially unchanged except for the greater
                   emphasis on ntulti-media relationships.

                            A similar transfer of resources has been made in the ca.se of manpower
                   planning activities.  The overall manpower planning function, which cuts across
                   media lines and is centrally located organizationally, has been financed partially
                   by water quality resources and partially by Agency and Regional Management.  This
                   transfer consolidates the funding of the program, but does not change the function.

                            Operating adjustments are changes required to adjust the budget to
                   actual operating conditions.  In the process of applying the budget to the
                   specific needs of each regional  office, laboratory, and headquarters program
                   office, it is often necessary to make small adjustments to the planned budget.
                   The $1,949,000 reduction is the  cumulative effect of these changes on water
                   quality programs in 1976.  Most  of these funds were transferred to air programs
                   to support activities aimed at the attainment of National ;'Ambient Air Quality
                   Standards and the maintenance of high air quality levels.1 Reductions were
                   applied selectively to avoid the impairment of high priority water quality
                   programs.  No priority activities were eliminated.

                            Other transfers include $80,000 to. noise enforcement to help enable
                   the Agency to establish a centralized noise testing facility, and a shift of
                   $47,000 to Agency and Regional Management to cover the transfer of a small
                   financial management office.  Resources for the financial management activity
                   are more properly classified under agency management than water quality.  An
                   additional $185,000 of savings realized in an Agencywide cost reduction program
                   was also transferred to other media.
                                                                                     WQ-5

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ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

                                                                 Current
                                                                Estimate      Estimate
                                                                  1976          1977
                                                                (dollars in thousands)

    Prior year obligations	    $166,785      $246,873

      Additional cost of water quality control  agency
        grant funds brought forward	      +5,625        -5,625
      Congressional add-ons for water quality grants,
        academic training, clean lakes, research and
        development, and construction grants administration..     +29,300       -17,000
      Areawide waste treatment grants previously.reflected
        as contract authority	.,	     +45,000       -35,000
      Miscellaneous increases and decreases	        +163        -1,990
      Decrease in amount of carryover funds estimated to be
        available.	         ...        -8,594
      Decrease in training program	         ...	-2,100

          Total estimated obligations	     246,873       176,564
            (From new obligation authority)..	    (223,279)     (161,564)
            (From prior year funds).	•.,	     (23,594)      (15,000)

EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

     Obligations are expected to grow substantially in 1976 because of congressional
increases to the 1976 budget request as well as a change in the financing of areawide
waste treatment management grants.  Over $35 million was added to the water quality
budget by Congress for control agency grants, academic training, clean lakes grants,
construction grants administration, and research and development.  A total of $29.3
million of these increases is expected to be obligated in 1976.  A 1975 increase of
$5,625,000 for water pollution control agency grants which was deferred to 1976 will
also be obligated in 1976.

     The largest increase in 1976 obligations results from the funding-of Section  208
areawide waste treatment management grants from new obligational authority.  This
program was financed from contract authority in 1974 and 1975.  Although obligations
for this program will actually decrease in 1976, this change in financing results  in
an increase to the water quality media.

     Estimated 1977 obligations decrease sharply because congressional increase in
1976 are not carried forward to 1977; the Section 208 areawide waste treatment manage-
ment grant program is being phased downward; the academic training grant program is
being terminated; and the amount of prior year funds available for obligation is
expected to decrease.  Of the congressional increases, only construction grants
administration, control agency grants, and a portion of research and development
funds are being carried forward.  No funds for clean lakes grants are proposed for
1977.  Elimination of academic training grants will cause a reduction in obligations
of $2.1 million.  The remaining major decrease is in prior year funds available for
obligation.  Such carryover funds are expected to result in obligations of $23,594,000
in 1976, but only $15 million in 1977, a "decrease of $8,594,000.

     Other changes in the 1977 budget will  result in a net decrease  in obligations
of $1,990,000.  This change reflects decreases in water planning and technical
assistance activities, partially offset by increases for construction grants
administration  and annualization of  the October  1975  pay  raise.  Detailed
explanations of these changes are provided in the following sections.
                                                                      WQ-6

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                                         WATER QUALITY
PROGRAM LEVELS

Section 208 Regional  Planning
  Agency Designations..		,
Review of Environmental  Impact
  Statement-Drafts	
Cl ean Lakes Projects		
Ocean Dumping Permits..	
Construction Grants Awards	
    Step I Awards	
    Step 11 Awards	
    Step III Awards	
State Program Approvals (NPDES)	
Enforcement Actions (Referrals and
  Admi n Orders)	
Adjudicatory Hearings:
  (a) Prehearing conferences	
  (b) Settled	
Permits Issued by EPA:
  Municipal
    major	,	
    minor	
  Nonmunicipal
    major	,	.
    minor	
Sampling and Reconnaisance
  Inspections Conducted	
                                          Actual
                                           1975
    149

    500

    ioo
  2,591
 (1,693)
   (266)
   (632)
     24

    782

(a)  114
(b)  123
  1,599
  6,402

  1,527
  7,233
           Current
          Estimate
            1976
     40

    500
     20
     53
  3,375
 (1,800)
 (1,000)
 (1,075)
     34

  1,423

(a)  150
(b)  600
    268
  1,644

    584
  5,492
          Estimate
            1977
  l,075(est)  2*872
    500
  50-60
     60
  4,825
 (1,000)
 (2,300)
 (1,525)
     36

  1,380

(a)   70
(b)  300
  2,000
  1,500

  3,000
  2,500

  3,072
           Increase  +
           Decrease  -
          1977  vs. 1976
                    -35
 +(30-40)
      +7
    +950
   (-800)
 (+1,300)
   (+450)
      +2

     -43

(a)   -80
(b)  -300
  +1,732
    -144

  +2,416
  -2,992

    +200
                                                                     wq-7

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Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

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                                         WATER QUALITY

                                     Abatement and Control
                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual   Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                              (dollars in thousands;!

Budget Authority

Water Quality Planning
  and Standards	
Effluent Standards and
  Guidelines	
Grants Assistance
  Programs	
Water Quality Strategies
  Implementation	
Water Quality Monitoring
  and Analysis	
Municipal  Source Control

     Total,..,	    101,837   144,522   174,547   115,173

Permanent  Positions
$15,737
7,961
50,604
7,361
6,074
14,100
$17,285
6,999
89,245
7,686
5,168
18,139
$32,393
7,127
100,527
7,479
4,495
22,526
$14,927
7,141
55,000
7,534
4,515
26,056
-$17,466
+14 .
-45,527
+55
+20
+3,530
Water Quality  Planning
  and Standards	
Effluent  Standards and
  Guidelines	
Grants Assistance
  Programs	
Water Quality  Strategies
  Implementation.	
Water Quality  Monitoring
  and Analysis.	
Municipal  Source Control
  408

   47
  441

   45
  424

   54
  403

   54
                                         -59,374
-21
                                                    WQ-10

                                                    WQ-15

                                                    WQ-18

                                                    WQ-22

                                                    WQ-28
                                                    WQ-31
WQ-10

WQ-15

WQ-18
261
245 •
573
267
190
786
243
176
922
241
176
942
-2
+20
WQ-22
WQ-28
WQ-31
      Total.
1,534
1,729
1,819
1,816
                                                                            -3
     The objective of the water quality abatement and control program is primarily
to assist State and local agencies in controlling water pollution by providing
management, technical, and resource assistance and through disseminating guidelines
and standards.  These guidelines set methods and procedures and levels of control
for sources of pollution.  Water quality criteria and standards are applied to the
receiving waters and are subsequently reflected in the level of control placed on
the source.  Management assistance is provided in the preconstruction and
construction of waste water treatment facilities and their operation.  One-half .of
the water program manpower is used to manage and monitor this multibill ion dollar
program.  Additional management assistance is provided in developing areawide
planning agencies, improving municipal waste control management, and in monitoring
and reporting on ambient water quality and changes in quality.  Technical assistance
includes general assistance on controlling persistent and complex pollution problems
as well as specific response assistance for spills or other pollution emergencies.

     Because a primary responsibility for the control of pollution lies with the
States, most of EPA's abatement and control efforts are oriented toward support
of State and local efforts.  States are responsible for detailed planning, monitoring,
and enforcement efforts, as well as for establishing the priorities for commitment
of Federal funds for the construction of sewage treatment plants.
                                                                       WQ-8

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                                                              J

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     Grants support development and operation of State water pollutions control
agencies, which include the functions of construction grants review, permits,
monitoring, and other implementation measures.  States are .encouraged to
undertake the issuance of industrial and municipal permits and conduct the
enforcement program to ensure compliance with permits.

     EPA monitoring and surveillance activities are coordinated with State and
other Federal efforts and include ambient water quality monitoring, collection,
and dissemination of information and water quality data, an.d compliance monitoring
of specific types of pollution sources.

     Technical assistance and information is provided to assist in applying
technology, developing standards, and instituting effective programs and source
management.  A major program thrust involves the development and establishment of
industrial effluent (point source) guidelines on best practicable and available
technologies, effluent and pretreatment standards, and regulations for all industrial
categories.  Limited assistance and technical development efforts will continue  on
nonpoint sources to support Phase II (1977-1983) planning.  A spill prevention and
control program focuses on implementing spill prevention plans at non-transportation
related onshore and offshore facilities, and responding to major spill events to
mitigate the effects of polluting spills on the environment,

     EPA provides or supports training to improve the skills of State and local
water pollution control personnel as well as to increase the .availability of
water pollution control manpower.  Skills which are addressed range from sewage
treatment plant operation to plant design and management.  Also under this program,
EPA assists other Federal agencies to bring their facilities into conformance
with prevailing pollution standards and helps to ensure that the programs, projects,
and other activities of Federal agencies produce a minimum water pollution impact.

     The Marine Protection, Research and Santuaries Act of 1972, as amended,
authorizes the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate
the disposition of materials into the ocean, excepting dredged material.
Under this authority, a permit program for ocean disposal of waste was implemented
in 1973.  Primary objectives for 1977 include:

     -  Designation  and funding of approximately five new areawide planning agencies
        to develop water quality management plans in those areas that are not
        designated for State conducted planning;

     -  Promulgation of final regulations for hazardous substances spill  prevention;

     -  .Full  implementation of oil removal regulations;

     -  Approximately 4,825 new awards obligating $6.0 billion for the planning,
        design, and construction of waste treatment facilities;

        Final promulgation of fill and dredged material guidelines;

        Implementation of the merged Section 208 and Section 303 (e) regulations
        governing planning activities;

     -  Initiation of two ocean disposal site surveys and continuation of five site
        surveys;

        Initiation of an expanded and intensified national municipal operations
        program;

     -  Development of a detailed national water monitoring strategy, based on
        50 individual  State strategies developed as part of the State program
        process; and

     -  Management of an estimated 50 to 60 clean lake restoration projects.
                                                                       WQ-9

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                                         WATER QUALITY

                                     Abatement and Control

                              Water Quality Planning and Standards                           y  *

                                                                                             ' 1
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS                                                                             ,f,

                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -         ^ -?
                                1975      1976       1976       1977	   J97_7_vs. 1975        4
                                                   (dollars" in thousands)                    •>  «

Appropriation	,	,      $15,737    $17,285    $32,393    $14,927     -$17,466            ,
Permanent Positions	          408        441        424        403          -21            j


Budget Request

    An appropriation of $14,927,000  is requested for 1977.  This represents a decrease         M
of $17,465,600 from 1976.

Program Description.                                                                          '  "j

    The water quality planning and standards subactivity  includes four program                 ^
elements.  The state programs regulations and guidelines  element covers a broad
range of activities including providing technical guidance, assistance, and
information to States, other Federal agencies, and local  agencies to assist with
the development of water pollution control programs.  These activities include                  !
assisting States in the preparation  of their annual plans for the prevention,
reduction, and elimination of water  pollution; providing  guidance on the setting
of standards; disseminating technical information concerning scientific and                     j
engineering advances; and providing  technical consultation.  Also included under                |
this program element is an assessment of the status of poll.ution in the Nation's
estuaries and preparation of a report to Congress, identification and designa-
tion of priority for removal of in-place toxic pollutants in harbors and water-                1
ways, development and publication of quality criteria for water, promulgation of               ^
a regulation to control aquaculture  and nonpoint source studies and guidelines.

    The second program element covered by this subactivity is the Great Lakes                   <
program which includes both funding  for the Great Lakes initiative program as                   <,
well" as demonstration grants authorized by Section 108(a) of the FWPCA.  The                   "
Great Lakes initiative program was established in 1973 to provide the principal
source of funding for United States  activities in direct  support of the Canadian-
United States Agreement including the Upper Lakes Study,  the Pollution from Land               ^
Use Study, Great Lakes water quality surveillance, International Joint Commission               J
support activities, special studies  of water quality problem areas, and demonstration
grants authorized by Section 108(a).

    The third program element covered by this subactivity is the clean lakes program.          ,1
Under this program, the Agency provides financial assistance to the States to
carry out methods and procedures to  restore the  quality of .publicly owned fresh                 ,
water lakes.                                                                                    J
                                                                                             «  J
    The fourth program element covered by this subactivity is support provided the
Water Resources Council.  This program has three principal activities:   (1) Head-
quarters participation  in Water Resources Council meetings as a member agency;               '  *•!
 (2) participation by both headquarters and regions in the National Assessment                  >j
through furnishing data on  water supplies and water quality, along with appropriate
analysis of the total assessment data and findings; and (3) regional  participation
in comprehensive water and  related  land resource planning studies and in the                    "|
activities of River Basin Commission, established under Title II of P.L. 89-80.                 >

1975Accomplishments

StateProgram Regulations and Guidelines                                                        :

    -  Developed water quality criteria based on the  latest scientific information;

                                                                       WQ-10                    '

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     -   Completed  basic  water  quality criteria  documents  for  interagency  review;

     -   Conducted  a  symposium  on  water quality  integrity  factors;

     -   Conducted  a  symposium  workshop on  the status  of the Nation's  estuaries;

     -   Developed  a  proposed regulation relating  to the control  of  sewage from
        vessels;

     -   Developed  a  final  regulation  pertaining to aquacultural  projects;

     -   Developed  regulations  for State Water Quality Management Planning;

        Developed  an Agency policy on water quality standards;

     -   Used Section 106 grant resources to support priority  program  areas  including
        permits, municipal facilities management, compliance  monitoring,  and
        planning;

     -   Implemented  the  SBA Loan  Program nationwide;

     -   Initiated  a  project to aid .State water pollution  control agencies in upgrading
        and reclassifying  key  environmental control positions;

        Developed  a  resource/output data base to  evaluate the progress of State
        water pollution  control  agencies;

     -   Draft first  phase  nonpoint source  study of Santa  Maria  basin  in California
        completed, covering analysis  of pollution soruces and legal,  regulatory,
        and institutional  means currently  available for nonpoint source control
        in the area; and

     -   Three .nonpoint source  planning demonstration  projects were  initiated.

 Great  Lakes Program

     The Land Use  Activities Reference Group Studies  were initiated in 1974. This
 basinwide study will  be continued in 1975 and will result in recommendations for
 the abatement and control of  pollution resulting from land drainage.   The Upper
 Great  Lakes Reference Group Studies  were  also started in 1974 and  comprise a
 comprehensive investigation of the water quality and remedial  programs on  Lakes
 Superior and .Huron.  These studies were continued during 1975 in which all field
, and laboratory investigations were initiated.   During 1975 demonstration projects
 were under way for  eight  projects funded under Section 108(a)  of the Federal Water
 Pollution Control Act.   These demonstration projects include the Muskegon, Michigan,
 Land Disposal Project;  East Lansing  Spray Irrigation and Lagoon Project; Black
 Creek  Study; Rochester  Storm  and Combined Sewer  Overflow Study; Douglas  County,
 Wisconsin, Red Clay Project;  Erie, Pennsylvania, Waste Water Management  Study;
 Washington County Project; and Southeastern Michigan Waste Water Management Study.
 An additional project,  Cleveland Watershed, was  completed during 1975.  Support
 for the Water Quality Board and  Research  Advisory Board  of the International Joint
 Commission will  be  continued.  Lake-Wide surveillance was initiated.

 Clean  Lakes Program

     In 1975, the  Congress appropriated $4 million for the Clean Lakes program.
 These  funds were  to "provide  for adequate planning so that .EPA could get the program
 under  way".  These  funds were brought forward and will  be used in  1976 to gain
 additional knowledge on the .benefit-cost  and effectiveness of methods and procedures
 to restore fresh  water  lakes.

 Water  Resources  Council
     For 1975,  four planning studies were completed, including the Connecticut
 supplemental,  Long Island Sound, Platte, and Southeastern New England studies.
 In addition,  a new study on the Hudson River was started.
                                                                       WQ-11

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1976 Program

State Programs Regulations and Guidelines

    In 1976, program emphasis will be placed on the merging of Section 208 planning
with 303(e) planning to include the management of programs addressing nonpoint
source pollution.  In the past, EPA and the States have concentrated virtually all
of their resources on abating point sources of pollution.  The States will begin
to .develop strategies which include nonpoint source abatement in accordance with
regulations and guidance issued by EPA.  Based on the Agency policy developed in
1975, regulations will be written to address revisions of State Water Quality
Standards.

    Through contracting services, EPA will provide technical assistance through
1976 to State water pollution control agencies to aid them in upgrading and
reclassifying environmental control positions.  This will enable States to fill
present vacancies with the well qualified staff necessary to meet increasing
responsibilities.  The development of a Continuing Planning Process Handbook and
a State Strategy Handbook are planned to assist the States in developing well
integrated planning and decision making processes.

    Additional delegations of Federal functions to the States are planned for 1976.
The recommendations of a task force on decentralization will be incorporated into
the 1977 operating guidance.

    In 1976, plans for the S.BA Loan Program include a substantial increase in the
number of loans approved and the delegation of this program to several States.

    In 1976, under the State Programs Regulations and Guidelines program, EPA
will also:

    -  Publish quality criteria for water;

    -  Publish the report on water quality integrity factors;

    -  Complete and publish the report to Congress on the status of the Nation's
       estuaries;           •

    -  Fund three nonpoint source demonstration projects dealing with sediment
       control, the  reclamation  of abandoned mine tailings dumps, and nutrient
       control ;

    -  Publish a regulation pertaining to aquaculture projects;

    -  Publish the proposed regulation for the control of sewage from vessels and
       the approval of.no discharge areas;

    -  Complete the report assessing current  knowledge about in-place toxicants in
       harbors and waterways;

    -  Develop a method of assigning priorities for the  removal of in-place
       toxicants;                        ;

    -  Complete a documentary film on  the status  of estuaries; and

    -  Make initial attempts to  identify controls for polltuion from  urban stormwater
       and other nonpoint pollution sources and to disseminate this technology.

Great Lakes Program

    During 1976, the  final report on the  Upper Great Lakes  Reference  Group Studies
will be presented to  the  International Joint  Commission.  The Land Use Activities
Reference Group Studies will continue with additional emphasis on gathering  more
data on erosion rates and sediment characteristics.  Work on the ^eight demonstration
projects  funded under Section  108,(a) of  the FWPCA will continue during the year,
Support for the Water Quality  Board and  Research  Advisory Board of the International
Joint Commission will be  continued, including  surveillance  activities.         .
                                                                        WQ-12

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Clean Lakes Program

    The $4 million appropriated in 1975 for Clean Lakes will  be used to fund an
estimated 20 lake restoration projects.  Additional fresh water lake restoration
grant applications will be solicited for funding from the $15 million added by
the Congress for 197.6.

Water Resources Council
    In 1976, six comprehensive planning studies will be completed for Hawaii, the
Hudson River, Maumee, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Monongahela, and Pacific Northwest.
Two new studies will be started for the Ohio Main Stem and Yellowstone.

1977 Plan

State ProgramsRegulations and Guidelines

    Implementation of the merged Section 208 and Section 303(e) basin plan will
begin in 1977.  Federal funding for statewide Section 208 plans in nondesignated
areas is provided to assist State a.nd local government in complying with
U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia ruling that Section 208 plans
must be developed by late 1978 for the entire Nation.

    Decentralization of functions and responsibilities will be in a major Section
106 program emphasis.  The development of policies and guidance to ensure State
emphasis on and commitment to national priorities will continue.

    Other activities to be undertaken in 1977 are:

    -  Continued development of water quality criteria in concert with latest
       scientific information;

    -  Assistance in issuance of pollution discharge permits for approved aquaculture
       projects;

    -  Investigations of harbors and waterways of critical importance w.hich requires
       additional studies and provide the basis for a decision on the removal of
       in-place toxic pollutants;

       Investigations and approval of six to 10 applications for States to prohibit
       the discharge of vessel waste;

    -  Continued provision of technical support rationale for toxic pollutants,
       effluent guidelines, ocean dumping, hazardous spills, and dredged or fill
       materials;

    •*  Initiation of a reevaluation of the aquatic integrity;

    -  Promulgation of final modified standard for marine sanitation devices;

    -  Initiation of the reevaluation of the status of the Nation's estuaries,
       a three-year cycle report to Congress; and

    -  Continuation of the three nonpoint source planning projects (sediment control,
       livestock water, and new institutional arrangements for nonpoint source
       control).

Great Lakes Program

    The 1977 plan will support the implementation phase of the Upper Great Lakes
Reference Group Studies final report recommendations.  The Land Use Activities
Reference Group Studies will continue through 1977 and into 1978 when the final
report is presented to the International Joint Commission.  Work on the Section
108(a) demonstration projects will be continued.  Support for the Water Quality
Board and Research Advisory Board of the International Joint Commission will be
continued.  Surveillance activities will be continued.
                                                                        WQ-13

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Clean Lakes Program

     In 1977, activity will  be devoted to the management of an expanded clean  lakes
program funded in 1976, and, in conjunction with the EPA Office of Research  and
Development, initiation of the evaluation of selected projects.

Water Resources Council
     In 1977, the Ohio Main Stem and Yellowstone stuides will  be completed.   A
national  assessment study will also be completed.

     The  bulk of the decrease in funds fpr water quality planning and standards  is
due to the $15.0 million appropriated by the Congress in 1976  for the Clean  Lakes
program that will not be required in 1977.  The $15 million will be sufficient to
meet 1977 needs and will fund an estimated 50-60 projects over a three-year period.
The balance of the decrease is due to reduced contract support of the nonpoint source
program and development of start-up, nonrecurring guidance to  support Section 208
planning.  The decrease of 21 positions reflects reduced water quality monitoring
support and technical assistance.
                                                                WQ-14

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                                         WATER QUALITY    .   ..

                                     Abatement and Control

                               Effluent Standards and Guidelines
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                         Budget     Current              -Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs.  1976
                                                   (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	      $7,961     $6,999     $7,127     $7,141      +$14
Permanent Positions	          47         45         54         54


 Budget  Request

     An appropriation  of $7,141,400  is  requested  in  1977.  This represents an increas
 of $14,000  over  1976.                                             .

 Program Description

     The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments  of 1972 require  the  Environmental
 Protection  Agency  to establish effluent limitations  which must be achieved by point
 sources of  discharges  into  the navigable waters of the United States,  Section 301 of
 the Act requires the achievement by  July ], 1977, of effluent limitations which require
 the application  of the "best  practicable control  technology currently available," and
 the achievement  by July 1,  1983, of  effluent limitations which require the application
 of the  "best available technology  economically achievable."  Section  306 of  the Act
 requires the establishment  of new  source standards and 307(b) and (c) requires pre-
 treatment standards for industry.

     The first major effort of developing and promulgating effluent limitations,
 standards,  and guidelines for 52 major  industrial categories has largely been
 completed,  with  the exception of final  pretreatment  standards for existing industry
 sources.  These  industrial  categories include the 30 industries identified in the
 FWPCA  (Group I)  and the 22  that were later  identified  (Group I.I).  The 30 Group I
 Industries  have  been split  into two  phases  to reflect  available resource levels.
 Future  activity will be devoted to completing standards  for industrial subcategories
 which  have  been  published as  interim final  or deferred,  development of pretreatment
 standards for industries for  which effluent limitations  have been developed, the
 promulgation of  standards of  performance for new  resources, development of technical
 information to support the  judicial review  of standards  already promulgated, review
 and revision of  all standards within five years of promulgation, and  the development
 of standards for toxic substances.

 1975 flccompl i shments                  •'•

     -   Published  final regulations  for the remaining  30 Group I,
         Phase  I  industries  such as textile  and steam electric
         industries;

     »   Published  proposed  regulations  for  18 of  the 22  Group I,
         Phase  II  industries such as  glass,  phosphate,  rubber, ferroalloys,
         asbestos,  meats, poultry,  inorganics,-cane sugar,  grain
         mills, electroplating, plastics and synthetics,  nonferrous,
         fertilizer, timber, insulation  board, pulp and paper, and
         seafood;

     -   Promulgated eight of  Group I, Phase II and published eight
         interim  finals for  Phase  II;

     -   Published  final pretreatment regulations  for existing sources
         for Group  I, Phase  II industries;

         Initiated  a toxic task force to evaluate  alternative approaches
         for initial list of nine substances;
                                                                        WQ-15

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     -  Developed regulatory strategy for nine toxic substances;  and

     -  Prepared contracts to evaluate the technology available for
        the treatment of the nine substances.
1976 Program
     -  Publish final  pretreatment regulations for existing sources  for                              '
        remaining 20 segments of the 30 Group I,  Phase II  industries;                                 1

     T  Publish final  regulations for existing sources for 14 of Group I,                          T •*,
        Phase II industries;                                                                      *' *^
                                                                                                   *t ^
     -  Publish final  regulations for 11  of the Group II  industries;

     -  Develop regulations for specific categories not covered under                                 *
        Group 1 and II;                                                                           ,  '*

     -  Review all  1983 effluent guidelines and standards  and, as appropriate,
        revise and  publish;                                                                          ;

     -  Develop and analyze data and background information to be used in
        the annual  review of established limitations.  The  effluent limitations
        nust be revised every five years;   •                                                       •  *

     -  Provide technical support and assistance  to the Office of Enforcement                        5
        on enforcement proceedings involving industrial discharges;
                                                                   •    .                              "\
     -  Provide technical support and assistance  to the Office of Enforcement,                        !
        regionSt and States on enforcement proceedings involving industrial                         ,  ;
        waste water treatment technology and control;

     -  Develop technical information necessitated by legal reconsiderations                          '
        and remands  as a result of court challenges to Phase I and  Phase  II                         '
        of Group I;                                                            '    '

     -  Development technical information required by the  judicial review  of                         j
        Group II effluent limitations and standards;                                                 >

     -  Conduct studies to evaluate the effect of effluent limitations    *  *
        guidelines  on  energy, solid wastes, air,  and radiation impact  and                             >
        to identify alternative technologies to reduce such impacts;                                  I

     -  Provide scientific and engineering technology to  control the
        discharge of industrial pollutants affecting the  quality of  drinking                         -,
        water;

     -  Evaluate alternative methodology for developing and establishing
        effluent limitations and guidelines as recommended by the Effluent
        Standard and Water Quality Information Advisory Committee (ESWQIAC),                         ?
        and other interested organizations;                                                          |

     -  Quantitatively evaluate the environmental effects  of the regulations
        applicable  to industrial point sources under Section 301(b), 304(b)                           \
        and (c), 306,  and 307(b) and (c)  as BPT,  BAT,  NSPS, and pretreatment                         ,j
        regulations are implemented;

     -  Provide profiles of discrete industrial sources for use in preparing                         '.',
        new source  environmental impact assessments;                                                 I
                                                                                                     *'*
     -  Provide technical assistance to the Data  and Monitoring Support
        Division on the economic studies in the form of investment costs,                             i
        operating costs,and energy requirements for various treatment  models;

     -  Provide technical assistance to the regions and States on the  appli-
        cability of the guidelines and standards  to the NPDES permit program;                         ,
                                                                                                      I
     -  Conduct regional industrial workshops for the pxirpose of introducing                          >
        new regulations and training permit writing personnel in the application
        of effluent limitation guidelines for the purpose  of issuing permits;                        ,,

                                                               ,         WQ-16

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    -  Continue technology assessment  of the nine toxic  substances;

    -  Prepare draft revision of proposed standards  for  the  nine toxic  substances
       and conduct an initial review;  and

       Prepare environmental  assessments on the nine toxic substances and  prepare
       new candidate list for additional  toxic  pollutants.
1977 Plan
       Develop and analyze data and background information  to  be used  in  the annual
       review of Section 306 New Source Performance Standards  (NSPS).   Information
       must be gathered on growth patterns in  all  industrial categories in  order
       to establish priorities for the revision of NSPS;

       Develop, propose, and promulgate pretreatment standards based  on mass
       limitations.  This is an extension of pretreatment standards  originally
       promulgated on the basis of concentration;

       Develop, propose.and promulgate effluent limitations and standards for nuclear
       power plants, uranium mills, uranium mines, and other selected  nuclear sources;

       Develop, propose, and promulgate effluent limitations and standards for sub--
       categories omitted from coverage by the Group I and  Group II  industries;

       .Publish final regulations for the remaining Group  II industries such as
       photographic processing, pharmacenticals, and machinery and mechanical
       products;

       Develop technical  information required  by the judicial  review,  technical
       reconsiderations, and remands of the Group II industries and  those subcategories
       finalized in the above item;

       Repropose new standards for three industrial categories for one of the nine
       toxic substances or one .industrial subcategory for three of the nine toxic
       substances to support standards for proposed rulemaking;               '

       Add one additional pollutant to the toxic pollutant  list with one  industrial
       subcategory; and

       .Subsequently publish proposed toxic rulemaking, conduct public  hearings,  and
       promulgate final standards.
                                                                       WQ-17

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                                         WATER QUALITY

                                     Abatement and Control

                                  Grants Assistance Programs
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976__     1976       1977     1977 vs." 1976
                                                   (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	     $50,604    $89,245   $100,527    $55,000      -$45,527
Permanent POST ti ons	         ...        ...        ...        ...           ...


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $55,000,000 is requested for 1977.  This represents a
decrease of $45,526,500 from the 197.6 level.

Program Description

     The water quality grants assistance programs include three grant assistance
activities: control agency resource supplementation grants, Section 208 planning
grants, and training grants.

     The water control Agency resource supplementation program provides Federal
support to State and interstate water pollution control agencies.  In virtually
every program activity (e.g., permitting, monitoring, planning, enforcement,
and municipal facilites management), EPA and the States each perform functions
.which must be coordinated if they are to :be effective.  EPA develops the strategy
for coordination of effort between EPA and the States as well as the sequencing of
this effort from year to year.  These broad guidelines are translated into
operational program terms in the annual program prepared by each State
.and approved by the EPA regional office.

     Upon approval of the program, EPA funds each State agency to enable it to
conduct its program activity.  The EPA regions also  monitor State performance
to ensure that the outputs specified in the programs are accomplished.

     In 1975, the last year for which figures are available, the role of the
States is clearly shown in that State manyears of effort total  approximately
5,500, compared to EPA regional manyears totaling about 2,200,  Thus, the
States are providing about 71 percent of the manpower resources in the water
program.  To help fund the State efforts,  EPA provided $40 million in State
grants, or 34 percent of the total State spending of $117 million for 1975.

     The Act provides for the establ is.hment of areawide waste treatment
management and planning  agencies under Section 208.  Through Section 208, State
and areawide planning agencies  are provided a unique opportunity to plan and manage
A comprehensive program based on integrated planning and control over such activities
as municipal and industrial waste water, storm and combined sewer runoff, nonpoint
source pollutants, and land  use as it relates to water quality.  From a pollution
control standpoint, Section  208 provides the unique opportunity to examine all
sources of pollution  in  an  area and  develop the most beneficial cost effective
trade-offs between sources  to reach  the desired ambient water quality level.

     The designated agencies, upon receipt of an acceptable grant application
will receive grants for  75  percent of their eligible planning costs.  This
represents a reduction in Federal participation  since areawide. planning agencies
designated and funded in  1974 and 1975 received 100 percent funding for  their
two-year planning period.
                                                                       WQ-18

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     A management system will be developed to carry out the objectives and
requirements of the plans.  This comprehensive management system is expected to
be the cornerstone of efforts for attaining the 1983 goals of the Act as it
incorporates all the principal functions of water pollution control planning,
construction, and regulation.

     Academic training grants are awarded to institutions of higher education to
meet a variety of professional manpower needs.  Efforts in this area are
divided into four primary categories: the professional training grant program,  the
graduate fellowship program, professional training curriculum activities,
and undergraduate training grants.

1975 Ac comp1i shment s

Control Agency Resource SuppJementation

     -  Use of grant resources to support priority program areas including permits,
        municipal facilities management, compliance monitoring, and planning;

     -  State issuance of 1,100 major permits and 9,900 minor permits;

        Increased capacity of State compliance monitoring to strengthen the
        enforcement of more than 30,000 issued permits; and

        Increased capacity of State agencies to manage the construction of
        municipal facilities, and expedite the award of more than $3.6 billion of
        construction grants.

Section 200 Planning Grants
     During  the past fiscal year, the areawide designated agency portion .of the
Section 203  areawide waste treatment management planning program became fully
operational.  This involved not only management of the 13 areawide agencies
funded in 1974, but included the initiation of planning activities by 136 newly
designated areawide agencies.  This brought 149 waste treatment management plans
under development throughout the Nation.  Completion of most of these plans is
expected in  mid-1978 (six months ahead of the Court imposed deadline) with
the content  of the plans to have a major impact on decisions to award contruction
grants and issue, reissue, and modify permits.

Irajjri_nc[ GJrants.

     The professional training grant program provides for training graduate level
students in  water-related engineering and environmental sciences.  In 1975, 640
graduate trainees were supported at 52 institutions.  Under the graduate fellowship
program 74 employees from 53 State and territorial water pollution control agencies
were selected by the director of that agency to spend one year in a water-related
graduate or  undergraduate program.  Upon completion of this training, the
employees returned to their respective agencies.  Professional training curriculum
activities for 1975 included a j.oint project with the Ohio State Environmental
Protection Agency to train high school teachers in monitoring techniques, the
development  of an operation and maintenance technical assistance course, and a
waste water  collection systems operator training course.  Undergraduate
training grants were provided for 11 institutions in water-related engineering and
environmental disciplines to support 104 students.

1976 Program

Control Agency Resource  S u pp j erne n t a t i p n

     Compliance monitoring .and enforcement will recieve increase emphasis while
permitting activities will decline.  The point source control phase of planning will
be completed in most basins  in 1975, .and 1976 will see a beginning of nonpoint source
planning.  Additional State  personnel must be provided to properly manage the
multibillion dollar construction grants program.  The Agency is depending on
increasing program delegations to the State in such areas as plans and specifications
review, operation and maintenance manual review, bid tabulation, etc.
                                                                         WQ-19

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                                                                                                  1


     EPA manpower resources will  be inadequate to undertake all  required increased
activities in areas of program emphasis.   Thus, States must be encouraged to respond              's
by shifting and adding personnel  to carry out priority activities.   Resources will                '>{
be moved from permitting to compliance monitoring and enforcement.   Manpower will                  »:
be shifted from point source planning to  nonpoint source planning.   However,
additional staffing must be provided to increase State capacity to  manage the                    -$
construction grant program, and simultaneously to carry out the other requirements              .  :)
of the Act.                                                                                       i

Section 208 Planning Grants
            _,,,^,

     Approximately 40 additional  high priority areawide agencies will be designated,              j!
Funds will also be provided to State agencies to assist in their development of
work plans and to initiate State water quality management planning  efforts
incorporating the requirements of Section 208.                                                  '  |

Training Grants

     In 1976, 425 graduate trainees will  be supported at 33 institutions.  Funds                   \
will also be used to continue curriculum development in the Ohio Model  Monitoring                   !
Programs, Operations and Maintenance, Tech Assistance and Collection System                       -'
Correspondence Course.  In addition, demonstration grants will be developed
for professional training in the 208 Program, and in certification  of senior                      i
operators in the local water pollution control facilities. •

     Undergraduate training grants will be funded at the same level as  in 1975
with funds being applied to curriculum development and demonstration projects for
design and operation of municipal water/waste water facilities at the Associate
of Art and Bachelor of Environmental Technology levels and for training to meet
MPDES municipal permit requirements.

1977Plan  .

                ResourceSun

     The water strategy points to 1977 as an  important period, because the Act
designates July 1977 as one of the two major milestones.  In  1977,  there is no
legislatively specified ambient goal.  However, the objective of the Act,
"to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the
Nation's water," has been administratively interpreted by EPA as requiring
standards which generally protect indigenous aquatic life and secondary contact
recreation.  Appropriate uses and associated criteria will be incorporated into
the water quality standards during the next revision cycle (October  1975-October 197':

     The major means of achieving the  1977 goal are the issuance and enforcement
of permits and the construction of large numbers of municipal treatment plants.
Additional program emphasis will be placed on compliance monitoring  and permit
reissuance; the merging of Section 208 planning with Section  303(e)  planning;
preparation of water quality standards revisions; and the planning and managing
of programs addressing nonpoint source pollution.  In the past-, EPA  and the States
have concentrated virtually all of theiV resources on abating point  sources of
pollution.  The area of concentration will now expand to include nonpoint sources
to a limited extent.  Control strategies will begin to be developed  in 1976
by the States, based on "best management practices."  Beginning in 1977,
specific controls and regulatory programs are to be developed by the States to cover
their nonpoint source problems for selected categories.

     State agency grants under Section 106 of the Act will decrease  by $4.5 million.
This level of funding will provide continued  support to high  priority State
program activities.
                                                                         HQ-20

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Section 208 Planning Grants

     Approximately five new designations of regional planning agencies are expected
to be made during 1977:.  State agencies will be funded to further develop State
water quality management plans for areas that are not designated.

     Section 208 planning grants decrease by $38 million for 1977.  This reflects a
downward phase of the areawide grants to statewide grants with a corresponding
reduction in the number and valude of grants to ,be made.  The $15 million for
Section 208 planning will fund the remaining high priority areawide designations as
well as initial support for statewide planning.

TrainjngGrantj

     Training grants will be terminated after 1976.  This concludes the policy of a
gradual phase-out of this activity that has been pursued over the past few years.
Termination of the professional training program reflects the decision to rely on
State and local government as well as the private sector to support these costs.
The reduction of $3.1 million for professional training grants reflects the
termination of this program.
                                                            WQ-21

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                                         WATER .QUALITY

                                     Abatement .and Control

                            Water Quality Strategies Implementation
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Actual
1975
	 $7,361
itions 	 261
Budget
Estimate
1976
$7,686
267
.Current Increase *•
Estimate Estimate Decrease -
1976 1977 1977 vs. 1976
(dollars in thousands)
' $7,479 $7,534 +$55
243 241 -2
Appropriation
Budget Request

    An appropriation of $7,533,900 is requested for 1977.  This represents an
increase of $54,700 over 1976.

Program Description

    The water quality strategies implementation subactivity covers the program areas
of Federal activities  and EIS reviews, ocean disposal permits, dredge and fill
regulations, and spill prevention and response.

    The Federal activities and EIS review activity includes the evaluation of
projects and programs of other Federal agencies in light of the requirements and
goals of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act, as amended (FWPCA).

    The EIS activity includes both review (of other agencies' .EIS's) and preparation
of EPA's own EIS's.  The EJS review function includes:

    1.  Providing critical review and comments on the water quality aspects of
        nationally significant environmental impact statements and proposed
        regulations of other Federal agencies.

    2.  Providing guidance and encouragement to the regions in the decentralization
        program, supplying Agency direction with regard to water related .programs.

    3.  Providing technical review, guidance, and assistance to the regions and
        other program offices in the preparation of the water aspects of EIS's.

    4.  Developing policy guidance regarding the implementation of NEPA in
        relation to P..L. 92-500, especially in the construction grants area.

    The Federal activities function focuses on Federal agency compliance with water
quality management practices and covers the following functions:

    1.  Developing water quality related parts of EPA guidelines to Federal agencies
        and instructions to regions covering compliance planning, monitoring,
        exemptions, data needs, operator training/certification, land management,
        nonpoint sources, water resource planning and new OMB Circular A-106
        (replaces Circular A-81 and A-78).

    2.  Developing water quality related instructions to regions for Federal agency
        project evaluations for use in preparation of annual priority recommendations
        to OMB.

    The ocean disposal permit program is authorized by the Marine Protection,  Research,
and Sanctuaries Act of 1972.  Under Title I of this Act, k.he Administrator of EPA is
authorized to strictly regulate the disposition of all materials except dredged
material which  is regulated by the Corps of Engineers.   It further prohibits the
                                                                        WQ-22

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transportation for the purpose of dumping and the dumping in ocean waters of chemical,
biological, and radiological warfare agents and high level radioactive materials.
Under this authority, a permit program for ocean disposal of wastes was implemented
in 1973,  and has been .operational since then.

    In conjunction with the U.S. Corps of Engineers in its responsibility to
issue permits for the discharge of dredged or fill materials in navigable waters,
EPA is to prepare guidelines with authority to prohibit such discharges in the
event of an .unacceptable adverse impact.  EPA's involvement in the implementation'
of these guidelines is to furnish technical information to delimit navigable waters
and wetlands, to assist in the preparation of general  or categorical  permits, and
to contribute to program development involving full State participation to ensure
that the Corps permit program is modified in a timely manner to protect the
aquatic environment  from dredged or fill material discharges.

    The primary objective of EPA's spill prevention and response program is to
protect water quality through the prevention of spills and minimize the impact of
spills on the environment.  Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
specifies a three-fold approach to the control of spills which consists of res_ponse,
prevention, and enforcement.  Essential  to the implementation of Section 311  is  the
promulgation of key regulations (including the designation of about 307 hazardous
materials), development of the National Contingency Plan, establishment of spill
response programs, and development of an aggressive spill prevention program.-  The
Spill Response Program is shared with the U.S. Coast Guard and jurisdictional
lines between the agencies are drawn geographically between inland and coastal
(including the Great Lakes) waters.  It is EPA's position that the discharger
should take actions to remove the spilled material; however, if the violator fails
to do so, clean-up will be  undertaken  by  EPA  an
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Ocean Disposal  Permits

    The ocean disposal permit program has been operational for slightly more than
two years.  In  this time, EPA has developed criteria for the evaluation of permit
applications, prepared procedural regulations, identified on an interim approved
basis, some 110 ocean disposal sites including 100 Corps of Engineers sites and
issued approximately 100 permits.  Violations of the Act have been reported and
civil enforcement actions have been taken with fines levied and paid.  During
1975, baseline surveys of three sites were conducted.

Dredge and Fill Regulations
                 -1.Ljm.^L.U..,.J1.,...i,..,JL..,J.,J,U,.L,.UJ,,....

    - Participated with the Corps of Engineers to publish proposed regulations for
      navigable waters, and

    - Developed and prepared guidelines for the discharge of dredged or fill material.

Spill Prevention and Response

    - Published Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for designating hazardous
      substances and determining removability;

    - Completed contract study and conducted symposium on methodologies for
      determining harmful quantities and rates of penalty;

    - Oil spill prevention program became fully operational in January 1975;

    - Conducted oil spill prevention training program (two sessions);

    - Established management information control system for the oil pollution
      prevention program;

    - Initiated advanced planning to incorporate reliability analysis techniques
      for offshore oil drilling, production, and service operations;

    - Initiated oil prevention monitoring by aerial photography;

    - Revised the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution  Contingency Plan;

    - Finalized development of technical document to support oil removal regulation
      (Section 311 (j)(l) (A)};

    - Established  management program requirements for implementing the National
      Chemical   Use Schedule  (Annex X National Contingency Plan);

    - Provided  technical support to the regions for oil and hazardous materials
      spills;  and

    - Initiated agreement with the U.S. Coast Guard to develop and implement local
      area oil surveillance systems utilizing a variety of fixed remote and in-situ
      sensors for continuous surveillance of ports, estuaries and  inland waters.

1976  Program

Federal Actiyities/EIS_Revigws

    - Provide continuing consultation to Federal agencies on Federal  installation
      water  pollution  control and environmental- impact matters;

    - Develop  and refine water  quality related guidelines for  the preparation
      and review of EPA  and other Federal agency EIS's;

     - Develop  techniques to expedite the preparation of EIS's and  negative  declara-
      tions, yet maintain a quality product;

     - Review and comment on about 1,600 environmental impact statements and
      emphasize follow-up on  implementation of  projects covered by previously
      reviewed statements, including the newly  added category of EIS's on new source
      discharge permits, and  EPA  regulatory program  (approximately 200  in headquarters);

                                                                        WQ-24

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    -  Review and evaluate Federal  agency budget proposals for ^installing water
       pollution control measures and recommend funding priorities to OMB;
       Review NPDES water discharge permit applications for Federal facilities
       and recommend conditions of issuance;
    -  Monitor Federal  facility compliance with applicable water quality standards
       and implementation schedules;
    -  Develop comprehensive water quality related program guidance to regional
       offices, Federal agencies, and States for implementing the requirements
       of Executive Order 11752; and
    -  Contribute to improvement of the quality of environmental assessments
       prepared by non-Federal applicants to assure an increased evaluation of
       environmental effects of project during the planning phase.
Ocean Disposal Permits
    The ocean disposal  permit program will continue to improve the criteria for
permit applications evaluation.  The number of ocean disposal permits is expected to
increase reflecting a rise in ocean disposal activity.  Ocean disposal site selection
will involve close scrutiny and assessment of a limited number of sites.  Violations
will continue to be reported with civil enforcement actions taken and fines levied.
Baseline surveys of two additional sites will be initiated and surveys of three
sites will be continued.
Dredge and Fill Regulations
    -  Publish interim final guidelines for the discharge of dredged or fill material;
       Prepare guidelines for the evaluation of Corps of  Engineers designated
       disposal sites and criteria to be used for the denial and approval of sites;
    -  Design categorical and general permits;
    -  Develop test procedures in conjunction with the Corps of Engineers for
       District Engineers and Regional Administrators to  be used in granting
       404 dredge and fill permits;
    -  Participate  in Corps of Engineers public hearings  on final regulations;
    -  Develop vegetation list to delineate wetlands;
       Review individual proposed projects  (often including EIS review) to  insure
       that permits are not  issued for projects that will have unacceptable
       adverse effects on the aquatic environment; and
       Refine and clarify where navigable waters of U.S.  begin and end.
Spill Prevention and Response
    -  Publish proposed hazardous pollutant rules for designation, removability,
       harmful quantities, and rates of penalty;
    -  Promulgate hazardous pollutant regulations;
    -  Conduct  regulations workshop  at National Hazardous Substances Meeting;
    -  Conduct  contract study on spill prevention impact;
    -  Conduct  contract study on the  relationship of  96-hour bioassay data  to
       chemical  spills;
    -  Continue,,wQj?k;;i.ng with  Government of  Canada on  spill  prevention related
       annexes'''of  the  Gre~at,.Lakes  Water  Quality Agreement;
                                                                         WQ-25

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    -   Continue to  implement the oil  pollution prevention program through review
       of  appeals of technical  amendments  to spill "prevention  plans,  providing
       maintenance  and operational  support of management information  control   •
       system,  and  technical  field  assistance to special  enforcement  cases;

    -   Design technical  approach for  development of  the Hazardous Substances
       Spill  Prevention Program (Section 311(j )(1 }(C));

    -   Continue oil  spill  prevention  monitoring for  compliance;

    -   Promulgate Oil  Removal  Regulations  (Section   311(j )(1)(A));                                    I

    -   Complete contract studies which may lead to development of regulations                      •  ,
       for Non-Harmful Discharges of  Oil Regulation  (Section  311(b)(3)(B));                           <
                                                                                                     i
    -   Implement training  program for hazardous substances response personnel
       in  the field; and
                                                                                                     t
    -   Complete contractual  studies for development  of regulation for Small                           J
       Facilities  Liability for Hazardous  Substances.
1977 Plan
Federal  Activities/EIS Reviews

    The  1977 program will  consist of the continued review of EIS's prepared by
EPA and  other Federal agencies with added focus on pre-EIS and post-El S liaison
to insure the early consideration of environmental effects and the subsequent
implementation of measures to mitigate the adverse effects.    Guidelines,
techniques and regulations developed during 1975 and 1976 will be revised and
refined  to further improve the quality and expedite the EIS  and negative declara^
tion process.  It is anticipated that the review process for EIS's and other
Federal  agency facilities  will be especially .critical  and time consuming during
1977, because of the Section 301 secondary treatment requirements which come
due in 1977-1978.  Increased emphasis will also be placed on assisting and
reviewing non-Federal environmental assessments submitted to EPA and other
Federal  agencies.

Ocean Disposal Permits

    During 1977, baseline and trend assessment surveys will  be continued at the
present  rate.  Environmental assessments will be conducted and where sufficient
data are obtained and available, Environmental Impact Statements will be made.

    tin conjunction with the Corps of Engineers, baseline surv'eys of two additional
sites will be initiated .and surveys of five sites will be continued.

Dredge and Fill Regulations

    EPA anticipates a fully operational program with the first six months of
1977.  This  will include:

       Final promulgation of Corps of Engineers regulations after EPA input;

    -  Final promulgation of .EPA guidelines;

    -  Review of high priority permit applications only;

    -  Granting of categorical and general permits; and

       Intensifying  exchange of technical information and coordination with States
       and other Federal agencies for further implementation of Section 404.

Spill Prevention and  Response

       Promulgate final regulations of Hazardous  Substances Spill Prevention
       (Section 311(j )(1 ) (C) );
                                                                        WQ-26

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-  If required, amend Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation to include specifica-
   tion requirements for selected prevention features;

-  Expand management information control system to incorporate .hazardous sub-
   stances prevention;

-  Continue oil prevention monitoring and implement hazardous substances
   prevention monitoring techniques;

-  Finalize technical .approach for Development of Removal and Mitigating
   Actions Regulations (Section 311(j)(l)(A));

-  Fully implement Oil Removal Regulation (Section 311 (j) (1 )(A));

-  Provide special equipment and technical assistance to regions in hazardous
   substances spill removal operations;

-  Revise National Contingency Plan;

   Implement training program for field inspections in hazardous substances
   prevention;

-  Promulgate Small Facilities Liability Regulations for Hazardous Substances;

-  Continue training program for hazardous substances response personnel;

-  Prepare hazardous pollutant guidelines for EPA and Coast Guard on appropriate
   response actions by discharger;

-  Update and refine hazardous pollutant regulations based on economic and
   environmental  impacts;

-  Continue expansion of hazardous pollutant regulations to include :new problem
   chemicals;

-  Based on contract study, advise and  assist in development of  spill prevention
   regulations;

-  Defend regulations and provide technical expertise to headquarters and
   regional enforcement personnel (also Coast Guard); and

   Continue participation in the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative
   Organization (IMCO), Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine
   Pollution (GESAMP), and ..United States-Canada efforts  to insure compatible
   regulations.
                                                                    WQ-27

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PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                         WATER QUALITY

                                     Abatement and Control

                             Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis
                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                 075_     1976       1976       1977     1977 vs.  1976
                                    _
                                                   (dol lars in thousands)

Appropriation ____ » .......      $6,074     $5,168     $4,495     $4,515        +$20
Permanent Positions _______         245        190        176        176


 Budget  Request

     An appropriation  of $4,515,300  is  requested  for  1977.  This represents an
 increase of  $20,300  over 1976.

 Program Description                               •

     This  program  includes  (1)  the operation of monitoring stations and surveys,
 including  survey design, field  sampling  and data  collection,  laboratory analyses,
 and  quality  control  operations;  (2)  data interpretation, reporting, and evaluation;
 (3)  technical guidelines, direction, overview,  review, and assistance to State and
 regional  monitoring  programs;  (4) water  quality and effluent  progress measurement,
 reporting, and  analysis; and  (5) maintenance, operation and improvement of a  national
 water quality data  system.

     The Federal  Water Pollution Control  Act Amendments of 1972 require the Environmental
 Protection Agency,  in  cooperation with  the States and their political subdivisions and
 other Federal agencies,  to  establish, equip, and  maintain  a water quality surveillance
 system  for the  purpose of monitoring the quality  of the navigable waters and  ground
 waters  and the  contiguous zone  and' the  ocean.   EPA has established this program for  the
 Nation's streams and rivers,  by selecting several areas representing  a variety of
 drainage areas,  and  funding monitoring  stations (188  stations) upstream and downstream
 of these areas  through the  transfer  of  funds to the United States Geological  Survey.
 To date, the national  water quality  surveillance  system has not been  extended to
 estuaries, lakes,  ground water,  and  oceans.

     The Act (Section  305)  requires  that States prepare annually and  submit to :EPA
 a  description of the water  quality of all navigable waters during the preceding year;
 an analysis  of  the  extent to  which all  navigable  waters provide for the protection
 and  propagation  of  a balanced  population of shellfish, fish and wildlife, and allow
 recreational activities  in  or on the water; an  analysis of the extent to which the
 elimination  of  the  discharge  of pollutants and  a  level of  water quality has been or
 will be achieved which provides for  the  protection and propagation of a balanced
 population of shellfish, fish,  and wildlife and allows recreational activities in
 or on the water, together with  recommendations  as to  additional action necessary to
 achieve such objectives  and for what waters such  additional action is necessary; and
 an estimate  of  (1)  the environmental impact, (2)  economic  and social  costs necessary
 to achieve the  objective of this Act,  (3) the economic and social benefits of such
 achievement, and (4) an estimate of the date  on 'such achievements;  and  a  description of
 the  nature and  extent  of nonpoint sources of pollutants, and  recommendations  as to
 the  programs which  must be  undertaken to control  each category of such sources,
 including an estimate  of the  costs of  implementing such programs.  These State reports,
 together with an EPA analysis thereof,  are sent annually to Congress,  EPA provides
 guidance, technical  assistance, review,  and independent analysis for  the above
 questions through  this program.
                                                                        WQ-28

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     The Act requires that no grant under Section 106 (Grants for Pollution Control
Programs) shall  be made to any State or interstate agency which has not provided
or is not carrying out as part of its program the establishment and operation  of
appropriate devices, methods, systems, and procedures necessary to monitor, and to
compile and analyze data on the quality of navigable waters and, to the extent
practicable, ground waters including biological  monitoring; and provision for  anually
updating such data.  Under this section EPA provides technical  guidance,  direction,
overview, review, and assistance to State and regional  monitoring programs.  EPA
endeavors to ensure adequate State programs to support .permitting, compliance,
enforcement, planning and program evaluation activities.

     EPA operates the STORE! water quality file  as a service to Federal  agencies,
States, and other governmental agencies to ensure their ability to store, retrieve,
and manipulate water quality data in support of  water quality evaluation, planning,
permitting, compliance, and enforcement programs.  In addition, this data system
provides data for responding to questions concerning water quality.  Under this
program, EPA is conducting a feasibility study to determine the necessity for  a
data system oriented around  questions concerning effluent data and 'effluent
trends.  The EPA Office of Planning and Management has recently completed an
evaluation of .STORET which will result in the further installation of management
controls, such as chargeback of computer costs to users,  editing of data  at time of
entry, putting unnecessary data in archives, and cleanup  of data remaining in  STORET.

1975 Accompl i shment s

     -  Establishment of national water quality  surveillance system;

     -  Submission to Congress of the first national water quality
        inventory analyzing national water quality trends for 22
        major rivers and analyzing in detail eight of these major
        rivers;

     -  Training and assistance to users of the  STORET water quality
        file.  Maintenance of STORET system and  extensive software
        reprogramming to hold costs constant, despite system growth;

     -  Development of regulations specifying minimum requirements
        for State monitoring programs;

     -  Termination of the, general point source  file; and

     -  Drafting and distribution of Model State Monitoring Program.

1976
        Evaluation of the economic impact of proposed water quality
        criteria and of State water monitoring regulations;

        Operation of the STORET water quality file.   Reprogramming
        to decrease storage space by 30 percent.   Introduction of
        automatic editing of data at input time.   Standardization of
        effluent data storage.  Distribution of a package providing
        for determination of which STORET data should be put in archives,
        and providing for  cleanup of remaining data;

        Initial analysis of national water quality surveillance system
        data;

        First analysis of State water quality inventory questions,
        review of State water quality inventories, and transmittal
        to Congress;

        Publication of regulations for State water monitoring programs;
        and

        Performance of feasibility study on necessity of system for
        storage of effluent data.
                                                                       WQ-29

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1977 Plan
     -  Implementation of a system to  charge  computer costs  to  users  of the
        STORE! water quality file;

     -  Second evaluation of national  water quality surveillance  system data;

     -  Expansion of edits of input data for  STORE! water quality data to
        permit edit ranges to vary from station  to station;

     -  Development of a detailed national  water monitoring  strategy,
        based on 50 individual  State strategies  developed as part
        of State program process;

     -  Evaluation of State quality assurance programs by Regional
        Surveillance and Analysis Divisions;

     -  Second analysis of State water quality inventory questions,
        review of State water quality  inventories, and transmittal
        to Congress;

     -  Monitoring support of Phase II water  quality management plans
        (Section 303 and 208 of P.L. 92-500); and

     -  Operation and possible expansion of the  National  Water  Quality
        Surveillance System to include estuaries, lakes, ground water,
        oceans and coastal zones, and  a broader  range of pollutants
        including toxic substances.
                                                                       WQ-30

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                                         WATER  QUALITY

                                     Abatement  and  Control

                                   Municipal  Source Control
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs.  1976
                                                   "(dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	     $14,100    $18,139    $22,526    $26,056      +$3.530
Permanent Positions.	         573        786        y<^        a<^          T^u


Budget Request

    An appropriation of $26,055,300 is requested for 1977.  This represents an increase
of $3,529,300 over 1976.

Program Description

     The municipal waste water treatment facility construction program derives
its legislative authority from Title II of the Federal  Water Pollution Control
Act Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-500).   The funding required under this Municipal
Source Control  subactivity covers only staffing costs such as salaries, benefits,
travel, contracts, and other related costs in support of construction grants
personnel.  The municipal construction grant funds are  included in a separate
appropriation account, Construction Grants.

     This subactivity is located predominantly in the EPA regional offices, where
all the grant activity and associated administration of the grants program and
postconstruction activities take place.  The remainder of the subactivity (i.e.,
program policy, administrative oversight, needs estimates) resides in headquarters,
primarily in the Municipal Construction Division of the Office of Water Program
Operations.

     The municipal source control subactivity includes  two distinct functions:
The administration of the grants program and the monitoring of the operation and
maintenance of treatment facilities.  Within these two functions are a number of
activities in  fulfillment of the legislative and administrative requirements
outlined  in the Title II regulations.   They are conducted jointly by EPA and
the States and are directed toward the abatement and control of municipal
waste water discharges.

     The first function—the administration and operation of the construction
grants program—includes the following activities:  (1) The technical and
administrative review of grant applications, amendments, and supporting materials;
(2) the review of facilities plans and construction plans and specifications;
(3) an assessment of the environmental impact of proposed waste water treatment
facilities; (4) the review of operation and maintenance manuals; and (5) the
review of user charge and industrial cost recovery systems.  It also includes
various post-award management activities related to monitoring on-going
construction projects:   (1) The  periodic review of vouchers and subsequent
payments to grantees; (2) the conducting of interim and final construction
inspections of treatment facilities; and (3) the analysis and processing of
change orders  and qrant amendments.  Many of the States have accepted
delegation of  certain parts of these activities, particularly the review of
construction drawings and specifications and the review of the operations
and maintenance manual.  The funding requirements reflect actual and planried
delegation through  1977.

     The  second function—the postconstruction  monitoring of the operation
and maintenance of  treatment facilities—includes three interrelated activities:


                                                                        UQ-31

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     (1)  The training and certification of waste treatment plant personnel  and
related State and local support personnel"  This "includes the funding for develop-
ment and demonstration grants, State training grants, the certification of operators,
training facilities, operator training courses, and overall administration of the
training program.  Direct training in water pollution control is provided through
the National Training Center in Cincinnati.

     (2)  The development of manpower capabilities of the State and localagencies
involved in water pollutiorrcontrol.The EPA regional offices, in conduction with
State water pollution control agencies, develop (a) training programs for State
planners, (b) systems and procedures to conduct manpower planning activities, and
(c) sets of occupational definitions and staffing guide:s for quantification of
manpower data.

     (3)  The development and maintenance of State municipal operations programs.
This, includes technical and programmatic assistance for development of State post-
construction monitoring programs and supporting positions, and funds to allow EPA
personnel to provide guidance, initial assistance, and overview to the developing
State municipal operations programs.

1975 Accomplisnments

     During 1975, the Environmental Protection Acjency awarded 2,591 new grants,
totalling $3,615,900,000, for the planning, design, and construction of treat-
ment facilities.  The number of active projects on June 30, 1975, totaled 3,646
with a grant award total of $10,703,200,000.  Also during 1975, a total of
$1,937,575,000 in payments was made for work completed on these active projects
and on projects funded under the reimbursement program.  On June 30, 3,008 projects
were under construction and 638 projects had received construction awards and were
awaiting construction initiation.  The following table summarizes these activities:

                                                               1975
                                                                       Amount of
     Item                                           Number         dollars in millions

New  Step 1  (facility planning) awards	  1,693                 $107.4
New  Step 2  (design and specification) awards....    266   '               87.5
New  Step 3  (construction) awards	    632                3,421.0

Active New  Law  (P.L. 92-500) Projects:
  Under construction	    932                3,497.4
  Preconstruction	,	    533                2,517.3

Active Section  8 (P.L. 84-660) Projects:
  Under construction	  2,076                4,211.6
  Preconstruction..	    105                  193.4

Total Outlays (all  programs)	    N/A                1,937.6


      In comparing the grant  activity in  1975 with 1974 (e.g.  2,591 awards
vs.  1,130 awards),  it is evident that the program is accelerating and that the
workload under  the  municipal source control subactivity is increasing substantially.
A number of other program accomplishments in 1975 should also be noted:

      (1)  The Agency initiated a second  round of obligations under the reimbursement
program  (P.L. 93-243), resulting in obligations for 1975 of $420,000,000.  The
obligations from inception to June 30, 1975, totaled $1,735,400,000 of the
$1,900,000,000  appropriated  for  that purpose.  Th'ese obligations cover over 5,000
eligible projects,  allowing  payments of  up  to almost 70 percent of the total project
costs.

      (2)  The Agency construction  nrant  outlays of $1,937,575,000 exceeded by almost
$300 million the  1974 outlays.   The 1975 total was the highest level of  payment  in
a single fiscal year since the program began.
                                                                         WQ-32

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      (3) A program management system was inititated that provided a mechanism to
aid   in project scheduling and performance tracking for the largest projects in each
State.  By providing such a mechanism, the regional offices and headquarters were
able  to identify serious scheduling problems  in advance, set targets and monitor
obligations by month, and estimate  (from close analysis of the relatively few
large projects) the total obligations by State by month for the foreseeable future,

      (4) The regional offices began to reorganize their construction grants personnel
into  a "project manager" alignment, in order  to more closely coordinate all the
activities associated with individual projects.  This  "cradle to grave" approach was
recommended by the Administrator's  Special Construction Grants_TaskForce, which
completed its report during 1975..

      (5) The 1974 Needs Survey was  completed  and issued during 1975, which
considerably revised the estimated  needs derived from  the 1973 Needs Survey.

      (6) The Agency initiated the development of State manpower and training
self-sufficiency.  Included were initiation of projects that provided the State
or municipality with instructional  capability, specialized new methods, skills
such  as are required under the NPDES, new technology and innovative training
projects and development of certification criteria.

      (7) Through the direct training activity, a total of 20 established
curriculum courses were developed and conducted for 407 trainees at the National
Training Center.  Fourteen regional training  courses were also supported.

1976  Program

      In 1976,  it is estimated that  3:,875 new  awards, totalling approximately
$4.5  billion  (including reimbursement projects), will  be made for the planning,
design, and construction of treatment facilities and that 6,800 projects will be
in various stages of preconstruction or construction activity.  The following
table summarizes these activities:

                                                       1976
                                                               Amount of
     Item                                    Number        dollars  in millions
 New  Step  1  (facility planning) awards...      1,800                 $250
 New  Step  2  (design  and  specification)
  awards	,	,.....,	      1,000                  300
 New  Step  3  (construction) awards	      1,075               3,850
 Active  projects	,	      6,800               13,000

      As  a result of the continuing  acceleration  of  the  program  and  related workload
 increases,  an  increase  of 407  positions  (including  250  new  positions  and  157
 reprogramed) was allocated  to  the  construction grants program in 1976.  The 1976
 current estimate includes a  $6 million  increase  for support costs  of  these additional
 positions.   The  407 position  increase .includes a 1976/1975  actual  increase of 349
 positions to the Municipal  Source  ContVol  subactivity with  the  balance of the
'407  positions  included  elsewhere  in the  budget,  including EIS preparation (included
 in the  interdisciplinary media within Abatement  and Control), equal employment
 opportunity, contract compliance,  audit,  and  others.

      These  additional  resources  are needed to improve the program  administration
 in a number of areas,  including:   (1)  increased  preapplicatiOn  conference and
 project assistance; (2) actions  to  ensure that projects are constructed expedi-
 tiously;  (3) improve facilities  planning  to ensure  cost effectiveness and adequate
 environmental  assessment;  (4)  programs  to ensure fiscal integrity;  and  (.5)
 activities  to  improve operation  and maintenance.

      A number  of other activities  are anticipated in  1976:

      -Delegations of key functions  to State offices are expected to increase.  The
 current plans  for 1976 include (a)  an  increase of 12  States (totalling 40) for
 review of plans  and specifications, (b)  an increase of  six  States  (totalling 38)
                                                                         WQ-33

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for review of the operation and maintenance manuals, (c) an increase of nine States
(totalling 11) for bid review, (d) an increase of 12 States (totalling 36) for review of
change orders, and (e) an initial  delegation to seven States for interim construction
inspections.

     -The Agency will complete the entire construction grants manual during 1976,
which will be used by the regional offices to administer the program and give
technical assistance to the States.

     -The second round of reimbursable obligations and payments will be completed
during 1976, with over 5,000 projects funded to 70 percent of their eligible cost.

     -An internal Agency study was initiated in 1976 to determine the feasibility
of an expanded automated regional  management system to aid in the  management of
the construction grants program.  It is expected that implementation of the system
will be under way by early 1977.

     -The Agency's municipal operations program will continue to work in 1976
toward increased State and local self-sufficiency in this program area.   It
will expand technical assistance efforts, improve the technological base of the
States., and integrate its efforts closely with the training programs. A national
municipal operations program strategy will be developed during 1976 by an EPA/
State work group which will result in a program similar to construction grants,
permitting, planning, etc., in scope and stature.  The purpose of this strategy
will be to assure a national focus on the operations of municipal waste treatment
facilities built and permitted under the FWPCA.  State certification programs for
treatment plant operators and development of testing criteria will continue to be
developed,

     -The water pollution control  training program will continue with increased
activity in developing State capability.  Administrative costs and grants to
minority schools will continue at the 1975 level.

     -The National Training Center will provide increased emphasis in 1976 on
the development of training materials for use by State agencies and training
institutions.  The National Training Center will plan and conduct 21 short-term
training courses for an estimated 500 students.

1977 Plan

     In 1977, the construction grants program is anticipated to obligate a total
of $6.0 billion, comprising approximately 4,825 new awards for the planning,
design, and construction of waste treatment facilities.  The $6.0 billion program
will allow for a smooth, even, uninterrupted flow of construction funds to
municipalities without undue delay.  The active projects on September 30, 1977,
will total approximately 8,000 .and be increasingly concentrated in the design and
construction phase of the project activity.  The following table summarizes the
proposed program:

                                            ;         (dollars in millions)
                                                     1976             1977

   Item

Total obligation level	      $4,500           $6,0.08
Total new awards.	       3,875            4,825
(Number of Step 1)...		      (1,800)          (1,000)
(Number of Step 2)	      •( 1,000)          (2,300)
(Number of Step 3)	      (1,075)          (1,525)
Active projects	       6,800            8,000

     The large program increase, both in dollars and in numbers of projects, is
made necess.ary by the increased needs derived from prior year planning and design
activity.

     Positions will remain constant for 1976 and 1977 despite an apparent 20 position
increase.  These positions provide direct support, primarily Environmental Impact
Statement preparation and facilities planning to the Municipal Source Control
subactivity in 1976 but are not included under this subactivity for that year.

                                                                        WQ-34

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     The 1977 program will  include a number of other activities that both support
and supplement the anticipated award and project levels.

     (1)  The Agency will  begin delegation of many preaward facilities planning
activities upon enactment of pending legislation making allotment funds available
to State operations, which is expected prior to the beginning of 1977.  By the
end of 1977, approximately six States are expected to take over those planning
activities previously done solely by EPA.

     (2)  The Agency will  continue to negotiate interagency agreements with the
Corps of Egnineers and GSA to perform interim construction inspections.  One-
half of the workload associated with these  interim inspections are expected  to
be contracted out during 1977.

     (3)  Additional delegation in other areas should continue to increase.  The
current plans are to have delegated (a) 75 percent of all  .plans and specifications
reviews, (b) 75 percent of the review of operations and maintenance manuals,  (c)
60 percent of the change orders processing, (d) 20 percent of the bid tabulation
review, and (e) 15 percent of the interim construction inspections.

     (4)  The 1976 Needs Survey will be completed and released during 1977 and used
as a basis for funds allotment as required.  In addition,  work on the 1978 Needs
Survey will be initiated.

     (5)  The training and certification of treatment plant operators will be
expanded to develop operator training self-sufficiency at the State and local
level.  This will involve seven to nine community collegesand provide comprehensive
training on effluent monitoring procedures for operators.

     (6)  The direct training program will develop, prepare, and distribute student
reference texts and instructor guides for four new courses for 144 State-agency
instructors in operations and treatment technology.  Fifteen short courses  will
be conducted at the National Training Center for 360 students.  Instruction and
material support will be provided for an expected 28 courses in the EPA regions
for an estimated 670 students.

     (7)  The Agency will initiate technical assistance to 15 State and local water
pollution control agencies through manpower planning courses developed by the Agency.
The intent of such technical assistance will be to encourage increased State
self-sufficiency in manpower planning and training.

     (8)  The Agency will initiate technical and programmatic assistance to  the States
under the national municipal program strategy developed during 1976.

     The  increase for 1977 includes $2.5 million to fund an interagency agreement
with the  General Services Administration  and the Corps of Engineers to conduct
interim construction inspections.  The increase also includes support costs
for the 20 positions identified under this subactivity for 1977.
                                                                       WQ-35

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Enforcement
    SECTION TAB

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                                         WATER QUALITY

                                          Enforcement
                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs.  1976
Budget Authority

Water Quality Enforcement  $24,284

Permanent Positions

Water Quality Enforcement      962
         (dollars in thousands)


$21,294   $19,793   $21,242     +$1,449
    744
              738
764
+26
Budget Request

     An appropriation of $21,241,900 is requested for 1977.
increase of $1,449,200 over 1976.
                        This represents an
     The water quality enforcement program emphasizes the compliance monitoring,
enforcement, and continuing issuance of National  Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (RPDES) waste water discharge permits.   Other activities  include the
enforcement actions necessary to achieve compliance with regulations on oil  and
hazardous material discharge, ocean dumping, and  related requirements of the Act.
Most water quality enforcement activities are conducted cooperatively with the
States and maximum State assumption of these responsibilities is a primary goal.

     The NPDES permit program is part of the comprehensive effort initiated by
the 1972 Amendments to reduce or eliminate point  source pollution from industrial,
municipal, commercial,and agricultural facilities.   The Act prohibits discharge
of pollutants to virtually all waters of the United States unless a permit is
issued by EPA or an EPA approved State program.  The permit is the focal
point of the tight regulatory system with precise and detailed abatement
requirements, streamlined enforcement procedures, and heavy penalties for permit
violation.

     The permit is the mechanism for imposing on  point source dischargers the
uniform national effluent limitations and national  performance standards which
EPA is required to promul.gate. These limitations  and standards,  set by the
abatement and control function, establish the maximum amounts of various pollutants
which can legally be discharged into a water body.   If, at a given facility, the
established national effluent limits will not reduce pollution enough to meet
the ambient water quality standards set by the State or EPA, the permit will
impose stricter effluent limitations as necessary to meet the water quality
standards.  These more stringent effluent limits  are set by the permit program
in coordination with pollution load allocation activities covered under the
abatement and control function.

     Permits are issued on condition that their pollutant reductions be
accomplished according to given time schedules.  Compliance with the limitations
and the schedules is assured  by review of permittee self-monitoring reports,
routine and case preparation  facility inspections, conferences with permit violators,
issuance of letters and administrative orders, and development and referral of cases
to the Ju'*ice Department for legal action. •
                                                                       WQ-36

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             1975 Accomplishments

                  The issuance of 28,455 discharge permits by EPA and States in 1975 represented
 -  '          the first step in the NPDES water quality enforcement program.  Most significantly,
             by the end of 1975, permits were issued to virtually all major dischargers.   These
             included the 6,200 major pollution sources in the country.

\  *               The goal of turning over NPDES authority ta all qualified States continued and
 '<  1          progressed significantly this year; nine new programs were approved for a total of
'%"          24.

JX  5               In 1975, the first -significant results of the NPDES permit enforcement
T  *          authorities were seen.  While EPA found significant voluntary compliance with the
             permit requirements, 710 administrative orders were issued, and 72 NPD.ES cases were
             referred to U,S. Attorneys.  These formal actions generally were preceded by
.''V  •          informal compliance efforts including telephone calls, letters, and meetings.  Most
             permit violations were identified through review of the self-monitoring reports
             submitted by permittees.

 
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      EPA will, in 1976, issue or reissue approximately 852 major1 and" 7,136
minor permits.  These will  be issued to new or modified facilities, and to
dischargers which had not applied, had not been issued a permit,  or whose permit                ^
had expired or required modification.  In addition, a review of the municipal                    *
permit policy will be initiated  which will likely require modifying or reissuing
many municipal permits.

      In 1976, EPA will continue to monitor and enforce compliance with oil spill               *<
prevention requirements, toxic, pretreatment and marine sanitation requirements,
and aquaculture and sewage sludge disposal permits.  The Agency will enforce the
ocean dumping regulation of the Marine Protection Research, end Sanctuaries Act               %'i
of 1972, review Section 404 dredge spoil  disposal site designations for possible              '$
disapproval, participate in Section 10 Refuse Act dredge spoil  actions, and                   'ly*
certify Section 8 applications for SBA loans for installation of pollution
control equipment,  EPA will also implement Section 504 of the Federal  Water
Pollution Control Act, as amended, which provides EPA with emergency power to                   N
bring suit where a pollution source presents an imminent and substantial danger
to public health and welfare.

      The resolution of outstanding adjudicatory hearing requests is also                       ,,
scheduled for 1976.  The  enforcement effort will include completing review and
adjudication of approximately 100 Section 316 appeals dealing' with thermal
effluent requirements.  Implementation of NEPA requirements for new source
discharge permits are continuing in 1976, including preparation of environmental
impact statements and negative declarations.

1977.Plan

      The primary objectives for 1977 are for the water enforcement program first to
continue to assure a high level of compliance schedule and final  effluent limit
compliance of major nonmunicipal and municipal dischargers; second, to expand and
enhance overall State participation, in both approved and unapproved States;
third, to complete the process of putting enforceable permits into effect with
priority to (a) resolution of major adjudicated permits, (b) reissuance of major
municipal permits, (c) minor but energy related initial and new source permits
issuance, and (d) court ordered agricultural and storm sewer permits issuance.

      Major industrial dischargers on permits will be reaching final effluent
limits in 1977.  Additional vigilance in compliance monitoring will be necessary
during 1977 to ensure that final effluent limitations have in fact been achieved
and are being maintained.  This will involve an increase in the number of
facility and sampling inspections conducted by EPA and States, and an increase in
the number of referrals to U. S. Attorneys for civil and criminal enforcement
action under Sections 309(b), (c), and (d) is   also expected.   It is anticipated
that the cases brought in 1977 will be more resource intensive since it will be
:more difficult to establish a violation of a final permit effluent limitation
than to establish a violation of a compliance schedule deadline.

      Efforts will continue to increase State participation in the program.  It                  >
13 anticipated that two additional State programs will be approved in 1977.
However, EPA maintains an obligation to review ongoing State programs and
participate in implementing those programs that are resource constrained.

      In 1977, EPA will continue efforts to resolve adjudicatory hearing requests               .',
although the expected output will be lower than  for 1976.  The Agency has in                  '"v
1976, received requests for adjudicatory hearings  in excess of the number
.originally estimated.  Resolution of the requests  and hearings has been quite                 <  ;;.
resource intensive and will become even more  so  in 1977.  Those requests will,                  '>i
on the average, require greater time, preparation, and resources to settle                      ;
because they will involve recalcitrant dischargers intent upon employing every
delay and appeal device available under the regulations.
                                                                       3-38

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      The number of permits to be issued, reissued or modified will  increase to
22,000 in 1977.  It is estimated that most of the 20,OOCTmuni.cip:al  permits will
have to be reissued or modified by EPA in 1977.  Many municipal  permits were
issued fpr a short-term and will expire in 1977, requiring reissuance.   In
addition, EPA objectives to prepare and issue permits which are tied to available
construction grant funding and which have reasonable schedules for  planning,
design, and construction are expected to result in the need in 1977  to  modify
most, if. not all, of the long-term permits that would have extended  beyond 1977.
The proposed modification of the secondary treatment definition regarding fecal
coliform limits, issuance of the best practicable waste treatement  technology
information, and emerging pretreatment requirements may all be expected to
contribute to the need to modify municipal permits.  Virtually all  municipal
permits will need to be reexamined and either reissued or modified.   These
resource intensive efforts, which are not amendable to "batching",  will
result in enforceable permits that are effective in assuring the optimum
utilization of readily available construction grant funds and continued progress
toward meeting the national goals for pollution abatement.

      The need for technical support will accelerate as adjudica.tory .hearing issues
become more complex, and as data submissions for thermal variance requests
require evaluation. . Reissuance of short-term industrial permits and modification of
other industrial permits to conform to court ordered changes in effluent
guidelines will likewise demand heavy resources in 1977.

      The issuance of new source industrial permits will be a resource  intensive
activity in 1977.  Permits will be issued not only to new major industrial facilities
but also for energy related new source discharges from such activities  as coal
mining, oil exploration, and uranium mining, most of which will be  subject to
NEPA requirements.

      The 1977 increase of 26 positions reflects increased emphasis on  enforcing
permit conditions now in effect and the need to modify, issue, or reissue
additional permits.
                                                                      WQ-39

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Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

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                                         WATER QUALITY

                                   Research and Development
Budget Authori ty

Health and Ecological
  Effects	,
Industrial Processes	.
Public Sector Activities.
Monitoring and Technical
  Support.	,
                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977
                                              T3oTlars in thousandsl
         Total
PermajTent Pos it i ons

Health and Ecological
  Effects	
Industrial Processes	
Public Sector Activities.
Monitoring and Technical
  Support.	
  3.356
$15,760   $17,925   $19,457  '$18,886
  8,473    13,588     8,285     8,285
 13,560    10,115    11,614    10,014
3^264,
4.584     4,584
                              -$571

                             -1 .630
 41,149    44,892    43,940    42,169    -1,771
WQ-41
WQ-44
WQ-46

WQ-4B
         Total.
233
100
130
91
554
268
101
121
91
581
272
49
118
109
548
272
49
118
109
548



                                                      WQ-41
                                                      WQ-44
                                                      WQ-46

                                                      WQ-48
     The role of research and development in EPA's water quality program is to
provide the scientific information needed to support its standard setting and
enforcement activities.  To do this, a multifaceted research program has been
established.  The goals of this program include the development of efficient and
cost-effective waste water treatment technology for both municipalities and
industries; useful and defensible monitoring methods; criteria for water use in
various aquatic environments; and the establishment of strategies for control
of pollution from spills of hazardous materials.   An  overall  goal  is to  provide
the scientific basis for economical and socially  viable  environmental management.
                                                                         WQ-40

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                                         WATER QUALITY

                                   Research  and Development

                                 Health and  Ecological  Effects
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs.  1976
                                                   (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	      $15,760    $17,925    $19,457    $18,886      -$571
Permanent Positions	          233        268        272        272


Budget Request

    An appropriation of $18,885,600 is requested for 1977.   This represents a decrease
of $571,100 from the 1976 level.

Program Description

    This program includes:  (1) the development of criteria for the safe treatment
and disposal of waste waters and sludges and health related criteria for fish and
marine recreational waters; (2) research on the toxicological  effects of water
pollutants on aquatic organisms; and (3) research on the movement, transformation,
degradation, accumulation, and fate of water pollutants.

    The construction grant program calls for alternative waste treatment management
techniques and systems to implement Section 201 of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act (FWPCA), as amended.  One such technique is land disposal.  However,
many State agencies are reluctant to use land for the treatment and disposal of
waste waters and sludge because of a lack of precise information on the health
hazards associated with such a practice.  Research on valid criteria for the safe
treatment and disposal of waste waters and sludges is, therefore, of high priority.

    Furthermore, although it is a national goal that water be suitable for recreation
by 1983, the data base available for recreational water quality standards is still
deficient.  There is little scientific basis for the microbiological criteria
currently used for recreational waters.  It is possible that current standards are
too stringent, resulting  in unnecessary closing of beaches, excessive chlorination
costs, and discharge of chlorinated effluents which are known to be ecologically
harmful.  The importance  of developing valid, health related recreational water
quality criteria cannot be over emphasized, since these criteria affect the
multibill ion dollar water pollution regulatory program through its effluent  standards
and ocean dumping regulations.  A great deal of money may be spent on treatment
plants and their operation to meet  surface water standards based upon these  inadequate
criteria.

    The EPA is also conducting  research that will provide a sound scientific basis
for setting effective, legally  defensible standards and determining treatment and
control strategies.  Studies are performed concerning the effects of physical,
chemical, biological, and microbiological pollutants on water use; the interaction
of these pollutants within total aquatic ecosystem; and the movement, transformation,
and ultimate  fate of pollutants in  fresh surface, ground, marine, and large  lake
waters.  This information is required  in order to relate the concentration and form
of pollutants to the size, character,  composition, and  location of their sources.

    Specific  areas of concern within this area of health and ecological effects
research  include determining the atmospheric transport  of viruses from land  disposal
sites  and treatment  facilities, the transport of heavy  metals and viruses through
the soil, survlvability of viruses, and uptake and effects of pollutants in  plants,
animals, and man.   Recent  laboratory studies have indicated that viruses and  heavy
metals are  usually removed  in  the upper few inches of soil.  However, depending upon
the soil  condition  and rate of loading, these agents have been identified  in
ground water at  depths of  10 to  20 feet.  In addition, uptake of metals into  plants
varies with  soil type, application  rate, and types of crops.                  .

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    Another specific area of concern is in ocean outfalls, ocean dumping, and
dredge spoil  disposal  research to support the setting of standards and regulatory
activities.  This research focuses attention on site studies of existing outfalls,
examine the ecosystem response to different degrees of treated effluent, and
provide information to be used in establishing legally defensible water quality
standards.  Ecological response is investigated in field studies of phytoplankton,
attached plants, benthic invertebrates, and anomalous fish populations; and in
laboratory studies using various simulations of marine conditions to study the
behavior of specific pollutants.  In addition, both field and laboratory
investigations will emphasize the study of ecosystem perturbations caused by
heavy metals, persistent synthetic organics (e.g., pesticides, PCBs), petroleum
hydrocarbons, and the .environmental fate of viruses discharged into the ocean.

1975 Ace ompl i shnjgnts_

    The following research was accomplished in 1975:

    -  Development of preliminary information on asbestos (asbestiform minerals)
       types and concentrations in Lake Superior and devised interim procedures
       for determination of asbestos particle  concentration in the Duluth,
       Minnesota, water supply source;

    -  Completion of evaluation of principal  source of natural and man-caused
       ground water contamination in the northeastern, northcentral, and
       southeastern States in order to determine research priorities for  -
       pollutant source reduction and control methods for protecting against
       further ground water quality degradation;

    -  Publication of various reports on fates of pesticides in water, the  impact
       of  nutrients on lake quality in the  eastern United States, and the .Upper
       Great Lakes Reference Study;

    -  Determination  of the effect of closed-cycle cooling systems on the quality
       of  aquatic plumes from cooling towers  and developed preliminary determina-
       tion of the behavior of atmospheric  plumes from cooling towers; an'd

    -  Completion of  reports on research  knowledge regarding the Nation1s estuaries
       for the congressionally mandated National Estuary  Report.
     The  1976 water quality  health  and ecological effects program will emphasize:

     -   Identification  of  the  health  hazards  associated  with  the treatment and
        disposal  of waste  water  and sludge on land;

     -   Determination of human health criteria for pathogen concentrations in
        marine  recreational  waters;

     -   Studies on  the  etiology  of  amoebic meningoencephalitis; and

     -   Characterization of  pollutants and assessment  of their ecological
        impact  on aquatic  ecosystems.

 1977	Plan                              ^

     This plan  reflects a  decrease  of $571,100 in health and  ecological  effects
 research,  due  to not carrying forward the full  $2 million  added by  the  Congress
 to our 1976 request.

     Research  initiated in 1976  with  funds added by  Congress  to our  budget will be
 continued; specifically,  ecological  effects  research  on ocean outfalls, ocean
 dumping, and  disposal  of  dredge spoil, and health effects  research  on waste
 water  and  sludge treatment, disposal, and use.

     Fundamental  to the operation of  EPA's ocean disposal  permit program is  the
 technical  evaluation of permit  applications  to predict  the ecological  impact
 of proposed dumping  operations;  Research  information which  will  aid   in this
 technical  evaluation will be developed during T977.   Emphasis will  be given not
 only to studying the ecosystem perturbations  caused  by heavy  metals, persistent
 synthetic  organics,  and petroleum hydrocarbons; but also to  revising bioassay    • WQ-42

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technology, establishing criteria for assessing both old and new dump sites  and
establishing routes, rates, and mechanisms for the recycling of materials from
disposal sites.

     Research in the ecological effects of dredge spoil  will also be continued,
Areas to be emphasized include development of monitoring techniques  to determine
ecological  upset resulting'from dredge spoil  disposal, verification   of a
transport model of dredge spoil disposal, and development .of methods to
determine the diversity and viability of benthic populations impacted by
dredging operations.  This research will  be used in the setting of standards
and in regulatory activities as they relate to Section 404 of P.L. 92-500.

     Widespread concern about potential health hazards exists within communities
faced with  the need to select sites for treatment facilities and the
disposal/utilization of waste waters and sludge.  In addition, as a  result of
ongoing litigation and formal complaints in at least six regions, millions of
dollars in  additional construction grant funds may be required to implement
design modifications to reduce emission of aerosols from sewage treatment
facilities.  This area of research is critical to avoid unnecessary  expenditures
of construction grant funds while, at the same time, expanding community options
for treatment facility and sludge disposal/utilization sites.

     In addition to those program activities  described above, the 1977 program will:

        Continue ongoing health effects research in the disposal and use of  waste
        water siudges;

     -  Continue research to determine the economic and social benefits of water
        pollution control;

     -  Continue predictive modeling efforts  to permit more efficient monitoring
        and assessment of complex ecosystems; and

        Conduct epidemiological studies to determine whether existing marine
        recreational water quality standards  are adequate to assure  protection
        of bathers.
                                                           WQ-43

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                                         WATER .QUALITY

                                   Research and Development

                                     Industrial Processes
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1_977vs. 1976
                                                  (dollars in thousands)                        / |

Appropriation^	      $8,473    $13,588     $8,285     $8,285
Permanent Positions	         100        101         49         49

.Budget Request                                                                                    i

     An appropriation of $8,285,000 is requested for 1977.  There is no change to the
1976 level.
                                                                                                  !
                                                                                                  \
P rog ram Des c r i pt i_o n                                  .

     The water industrial processes program concentrates on point sources of water             .  --\
pollution resulting from the industrial sector of the economy in those mining,                    •
manufacturing, service, and trade industries which must meet "best available techno,-              >
logy"  (BAT) standards of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA).  The pro-
gram develops and demonstrates new or improved cost-effective technology having
industry wide applicability, short-term achievability and long-term viability.  It                |
provides the primary data for the establishment of •economically and technically fea-              \
sible effluent guidelines and treatment parameters for industrial liquid waste
discharge permits.  The toxic standards required under Section 301 are supported by
research to identify best feasible technology.  In addition, this program addresses              ' }
technology for prevention and control of accidental spills of hazardous materials in              i
support of Section  311 of P.L.  92-500-

1975 Accompl ishments                                                                              ,',

     In 1975, the water industrial processes program:                                             •'

     _  Initiated evaluation of the feasibility of joint .sludge/refuse processing and
        utilization, and implemented wet oxidation and pyrolysis pilot plant studies              '
        to provide  additional sludge processing utilization alternatives and to more              '
        effectively utilize on-site energy resources;

     •--  Conducted a demonstration of a cost-effective closed water cycle system in                {
        a semi-chemical pulp mill;                                                                ,J

     -  Conducted a demonstration of a method to  recover the valuable protein from
        meat packing waste water effluents;                                                       "i
                                                                                                  i
     -  Demonstrated advanced membrane to provide closed cycle technology for some
        electroplating solutions; and

     -  Demonstrated a model hazardous'spill clean-up system in  the field.                        t

1976 Program
                                                                                                 1
     In 1976,  industrial processes water research  is focusing on  the development and              $
demonstration  of  technologies for closed cycle systems,  except when open cycle tech-              »
nology research  is  required for standards verification,  or when  closed cycle  is not
feasible.  Roughly  32 of the total 593 regulatory  categories will be  impacted by the              ,
demonstration  of  more viable technologies.  The areawide combined water  research will             t|
continue to demonstrate  the economic  and technical  viability of  combined point source             ,*
waste water management, with special  emphasis on  providing  technical  criteria for
pending pretreatment standards.

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     The hazardous incident program will continue efforts to control and minimize
hazardous material spills and damages, and will initiate research to implement the
new EPA spill regulations.  A second clean-up system for spills will be demonstra-
ted in the field.

1977 Plan

     In 1977, the industrial processes water quality program will continue to respond
to technology requirements of the FWPCA.  Increased effort will be directed toward
hazardous waste disposal and demonstrations of technology for specific critical in-
dustrial sources.  Construction of the integrated regional hazardous waste disposal
facility will be completed.

     The following outputs are planned for 1977:

     -  Complete assessment of water pollution problems associated with the production
        of petroleum products;

     -  Complete assessment of water pollution and ground water problems from the
        production of construction materials;

     -  Demonstrate feasibility of several control methods for reducing pollution from
        the metal finishing industry;

     -  Demonstrate technique for removal of nitrocellulose from waste water by
        ultrafiltration;

     -  Complete pilot demonstration of new technology for recycle of treated
        effluents from paper .and board production;

     -  Demonstration  of technique for nitrogen removal from meat packing plant
        effluent; and

        Complete manual of practice for the control and removal of accidental
        spills of hazardous materials.
                                                                        WQ-45

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                                         WATER QUALITY

                                   Research and Development

                                   Public Sector Activities
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Appropriation	
Permanent Positions.

Budget Request
                               Actual
                                1975
$13,5.60
    130
           Budget
          Estimate
            1976
           Current
          .Estimate
            1976
          Estimate
            1977
                                                 (dollars in thousands)
$10,115
    121
$11,614
    118
$10,014
    118
           Increase -+
           Decrease -
          1977 vs.  1976
-$1 ,600
     An appropriation of $10,014,300 is requested for 1977.   This  represents  a  de-
crease of $1,600,000 from the 1976 level.

Program Description

     Water quality research in the public  sector activities  area focuses  on the pre-
vention, control, treatment, and management of pollution resulting from community,
residential, or other nom'ndustrial  activities.Program areas  include  municipal
and domestic waste water treatment and collection systems, air pollutants  associ-
ated with treatment, and land surface runoff.   In addition,  this program  provides
technical information for the Agency's programs in construction grants, compre-
hensive planning, and waste management.

1975 Accomplishments

     In 1975, the water quality research program in public  sector activities:

     -  Developed a low cost method  for upgrading the performance of  lagoons.
        The intermittent slow-sand filter  has  proven to b.e the most effective
        and potentially widely .used  applicable technique. A  number of new
        full scale installations are under design and/or construction,

     -  Completed a nationwide characterisation and evaluation of the impact
        from urban storm water and nonsewered  urban runoff  to provide an
        improved base for evaluating total urban runoff pollution control  alter-
        natives.

1976 Program

     The municipal/technology program will continue to emphasize development  of
cost-effective methods of sludge processing, utilization, and disposal; soil
treatment systems; alternative disinfection techniques; and  consolidation of results
obtained from studies on combined sewer overflow control technology and stabiliza-
tion pond upgrading techniques.  Evaluations will focus on  the beneficial  utilization
of waste water sludges, including sludge pasteurization, .sludge composting, refuse/
sludge pyrolysis, wet oxidation, spray irrigation and infiltration-percolation  soil
treatment systems, and nitrogen control systems.  These projects increase the avail-
ability of cost-effective technologies for waste water management. New programs
include development efforts such as  the use of rotating biological contactors to
upgrade primary treatment to secondary levels, evaluation of  aerated  lagoon tech-
nology, evaluation of ultraviolet disinfection and evaluation of septage  treatment
technology.
                                                                      *•>
                                                                       i

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     In the area of urban nonpolnt pollution control, limited research was conducted
in the past on storm water control, but a comprehensive evaluation of nonpoint sources
and pollution effects from the urban-suburban area is needed and will be .undertaken.
Current management systems are being investigated for both urban and suburban areas,
and methods are being developed for predicting the quality and quantity of pollutants
which will result from development and hydrologic changes.

     As a result of a $1.6 million increment added by Congress to our 1976 budget
request, research will be conducted to develop/demonstrate/evaluate the following:

     -  Specific ocean discharge treatment technologies as alternatives to extant
        secondary treatment technology,

     -  Ozone and ultraviolet radiation as alternative (to chlorine) disinfection
        technologies; and

        Sludge processing, sludge treatment and/or beneficial utilization and land
        application of sludge.

1977 Plan

     A reduction of $1,600,000 is reflected in this area of research as compared to
1976, representing the effect of not carrying forward the 51,600,000.
nonrecurring congressional increment to our iy/6 budget request..

     The program in sludge treatment and utilization will be continued.  Emphasis will
be placed upon further development of a sludge pasteurization process utilizing the
high energy  electron  process; completion of work and issuance of guidelines for
disposing of sludge on forestland, mine wasteland, and to the extent possible on
nonfood crop land.

     In the effort addressing urban runoff, the evaluation of storm and combined sewer
technology and preparation of a users manual will be initiated and increased effort
will be placed upon determining impacts of urban runoff.
                                                                        WQ-47

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                                          WATER  QUALITY

                                    Research  and Development

                                Monitoring and Technical  Support

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget      Current               Increase  +
                               Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease  >-
                                1975      JHJ76        1976       1977     1977  vs.  1976
                                                 (dollars in  thousands)

Appropriation	       $3,356     $3,264     $4,584     $4,584
Permanent Positions	           91          91        109        109


Budget Request                                                                                    J

     A=n appropriation of $4,583,600 is requested for 1977,  There is no  change from             ,  ,
the 1976 level.                                                                                   j
                                                                                                  i
Prog ram Descr i pt i on

     The water quality monitoring and technical  support  program supports two                      !
activities:  (1)  the development and adaptation of equipment and techniques to                   j
measure pollutants contained in surface and ground waters,  sludges a.nd soils,  and
the effluents from municipal, industrial, and nonpoint sources, and (2)  the provision
of technical support by which the results of  research and development programs and  the             t
expertise of researchers are made available for  Agencywide  use.  This technical  support           j
activity provides  resources to respond to both  continuing and emergency  requests for
laboratory and monitoring  support.
                                                                                                  •\
1975 Accomplishments                                                                              ,
                                                                                                i  i
     Accomplishments in equipment and techniques research in  1975 include;

     -  Development and improvement of methods  and instruments to measure pollutants               (
        in fresh water, marine water, sludges,  dredge spoils, soils, and sediments;

     -  Development of nonpoint source measurement techniques;

     -  Continued  development of automated laboratory techniques  and data
        handling systems;

     -  Completion of an interim analytical methods manual  for EPA's ocean                        i
        disposal permit program; and                                                            ,  ;

     -  Completion of the  first year of monitoring of an eutrophic lake  after
        nutrient source reduction by advanced water treatment, and development of  a               't
        preliminary mathematical model for the  recovery process.                                   1

     In the technical support area, accomplishments include airborne monitoring of
the trophic condition of a large number of lakes as part of the national lake  survey
program, and airborne thermal mapping of industrial and  municipal discharges.                       \

1976 Program
                                                                                                  ^
     The 1976 objectives of the techniques and  equipment development portion of this               0]
program include development of sampling and analytical techniques for identification             \ J
and measurement of organic and inorganic chemical constituents needed for assessing,
improving, and maintaining water quality; development of methods  for identification               ^
of biological and  microbiological pollution indicators;  development of bioassay                   /J
techniques; improvement of candidate and reference methods  for monitoring water                   ^!
quality; and further development of automated laboratory systems.
                                                                          WQ-4.8

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     During 1976, research and development technical  support has been identified
separately as a program activity in order to improve  the responsiveness of the research
and development program to the scientific and technical  needs of the Agency.   Under
technical support, the knowledge and expertise which  results from the conduct of
research is made available to the Agency for use in solving scientific and technical
problems and in developing environmental standards and regulations.   During 1976,  a
resource data base will be developed and a unified planning and management system
will be implemented for technical support.  The exact nature of this technical support
can only be partly documented because requirements cannot be completely predicted.
However, the type of support to be provided includes:

     -  Conducting routine chemical analyses of samples  from water pollution  sources,
        drinking water supplies, and industrial discharges, and

     -  Providing expertise to a.ssist in the preparation and defense of industrial
        effluent limitation guidelines and NPDES permits.

1977 Program

     In 1977, the monitoring and technical support program will continue development
and evaluation of monitoring and measurement methodologies, techniques, and
instrumentation which support both the water quality  and water supply programs.
Areas of focus will include:  (1) advanced monitoring systems for determining the
state of the marine environment; (2) techniques for sampling preconcentrating, and
identifying potentially toxic organic and inorganic constituents and viruses; and
(3) developing guidelines for ground water monitoring.

     The 1977 water quality technical support program will continue the technical
support provided to the Agency, .including support to  the regions on thermal pollution
monitoring and source identification.
                                                                          WQ-49

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Construction
   Grants
    SECTION TAB

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                                        WATER QUALITY

                                     Construction Grants

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                      Budget     Current
                            Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Transition   Estimate
                             1975      1976       1976      Quarter       1977
                                             (dollars in thousands)

Authority	 $7,666,230*
  Appropriation	        •••         •••     ,   ...
  Contract Authority	 (7,666,230)*       ...     .   ....

Funds Available....	 11,576,420  $2,058,088 $7,076,420 $6,076,420     $68,070
  Appropriation, at
   end of year	   (168,070)        ...   .(68,070)   (68,070)    (68,070)
  Contract Authority, at
   end of year	(11,408,350) (2,058,088)(7,008,350)(6,008,350)

Obligations..	  4,226,936   5,200,000  4,500,000  1,000,000   6,008,350
  Appropriation	   (581,037)        ...   (100,000)
  Contract Authority	 (3,645,099) (5,200,000)(4,400,000)(1,000,000) (6,008,350)

Outlays	  1,937,575   2,300,000  2,350,000    600,000   3,770,000
  Appropriation	   (874,158)   (700,000)  (580,000)   (110,000)   (400,000)
  Contract Authority	 (1,063,417) (1,600,000)(1,770,000)   (490,000) (3,370,000)

Liquidation of Contract
  Authority	  1,400,000     500,000    500,000    600,000   4,100,000


*Exc1udes $1,333,770 of funds previously reserved by court order to total $9,000,000
 in  1975.

SUMMARY OF BUDGET  ESTIMATES

Summary of Budget  Request

     An appropriation of $4.1 billion is requested for 1977 for the liquidation
of obligations incurred pursuant to authority contained in Section 203 of the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended.

ANALYSISOFINCREASESAND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

                                                 Current
                                                Estimate       Estimate
                                                  1976           1977
                                                 ^(j0yiars ^n  thousands)

  Prior year obligations	$4,226,936     $4,500,000
  Nonrecurring awards	'.	  -4,226,936      -4,500,000
  Estimated  awards in 1976  (3,875)		  +4,400,000          N/A
  Projects funded  under reimbursable program..   +100,000
  Estimated  awards in 1977  (4,825)	     N/A        	6.008.J50.
          Total estimated obligations.	  4,500,000      6,008,350

Program Description

     This program  provides  grants  to municipal",  intermunicipal, State  and
interstate agencies to assist in  financing  the  planning, design, and •construction
of municipal waste water treatment facilities.  Amounts approved from  authorizations
for  contract authority are  allotted to each State on the basis of  formulas set forth
                                                                         WQ-50

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in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and subsequent   ;
legislation.  Within these allotments, grants are awarded on a priority basis for
individual  projects.  Each project is eligible for 75 percent Federal  assistance.

     The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 substantially altered
methods of funding the construction grants program and the methods of providing
assistance to inidvidual projects.  Under the Amendments, both the percentages of
FederaT slants and the annual amount of monies authorized and appropriated have been
increased irrsevjjral steps.  The current percentage of Federal assistance is 75
percent of total ^Ttg4b.lk_costs.  Rather than awarding a grant to the applicant
for the Federal share of a project, EPA is authorized to enter into a contractual
obligation for payment of the eligible proportional costs of the separate elements
of each project.  Under this authority, a new three step approach to funding projects
has been adopted.  The first step is development of the facilities plan which includes
ar preliminary description of the project, a cost effectiveness analysis, an
environmental assessment, an infiltration/inflow analysis, and identification
of effluent discharge limitations.  The second step is the development of design
plans and specification.  The third and final step is to fund the actual con-
struction of the treatment work.  Grants are made for each of these steps with
more than one grant possible during the construction phase.  Payments against these
contractual obligations will be made to the applicant as all or portions of each of
these elements are completed.  Under this contractual method of providing financial
assistance, EPA is obliged to estimate each year the amount of payments that are
required to meet all contractual obligations and to seek appropriations to cover
these payments.

1975rAccornp1 i shments

     During 1975, EPA awarded 2,591 new grants totaling $3.6 billion.  An additional
$.6 billion of reimbursable  funds were obligated resulting in a total of $4.2
billion of  obligations.  Total outalys for this program, the reimbursement program,
and projects under  authority of  P.L. 84-600 exceeded $1.9 billion.   This level
exceeded the 1974 outlay level by almost $400 million, and was the highest level
of payments  in a single fiscal year  since the program  began.  The Agency also
initiated a second  round of obligations of $528 million under the reimbursement
program  (P.L. 93-243), resulting in  cumulative obi igations of $1.7  billion against
the $1.9 billion appropriated for this purpose,

1976 Program

     It is expected that  3,875 new awards totaling about $4,4 billion will  be made
for th"e planning, design, and construction of waste water treatment facilities,
and the projects will be in various  stages of preconstruction or construction
activity.  Additional projects totalling almost  $80 million will  be reimbursed.


     Total  outlays  for  1976 for all  portions  of this program are estimated to be
nearly $2.4 billion.

1977 Program

      In 1977,  the construction grants  program is anticipated to obligate a
total of $6.0  billion,  comprising approximately  4..82S new awards.  This  reflects
the  increased  needs derived from prior year  planning and design activity.  The
total outlays  for 1977  for all portions of this program are estimated to be nearly
$3.8  billion.
                                                                        UQ-51

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                                         CONSTRUCTION GRANTS
                                                      Current
                                            Actual    Estimate   Transition   Estimate
                                              1975       1976        Quarter      1977
                                            •' '   "-JJJ--'"   - :™-™m    ™"™'  ™''™™™™tj™v""   J ------ =l="  '
PROGRAM LEVELS
  New Awards
Step I 	
Step II
Step III... 	
Total 	
Active Projects 	
	 1,693
266
	 	 632
	 2,591
3,646
1 ,800
1 000
1 ,075
3,875
6,800
400
300
200
900
7,500
1 ,000
2,31)0
1 ,525
4,825
8,000
                                                                                3-52

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Water Supply
     SECTION TAB

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Page Intentionally Blank

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                                         WATER SUPPLY
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	,
  Permanent Positions —
  Transition Quarter.	
Enforcement:
  Appropriation..	
  Permanent Positions.
  Transition Quarter..
Research and Development:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions....
  Transition Quarter	
Total, Water Supply
   Program:
   Appropriation	
   Permanent Positions....
   Transition Quarter	
   Outlays........		
   Authorization  Levels..,
                                        Budget
                              Actual    Estimate
                               1975      1976
$3,155
    96
   N/A
   N/A
 4,559
    73
   N/A
 7,714
   169
   N/A
 5,240
23,500
                     Current               Increase  +
                    Estimate    Estimate   Decrease  -
                      1976        1977    1977  v_s, J976
                                               "(dollars in thousands)
$19,861
    175
  5,427
    100
      5
     21
 12,364
     75
  3,202
 32,325
    255
  8,650
 21,500
 54,500
$19,840
    175
  5,427
     80
      4
     21
 12,254
     85
  3,202
 32,174
    264
  8,650
 17,620
 54,500
$30,449
    210
    N/A
     81
      4
    N/A
 13,254
     85
    N/A
 43,784
    299
    N/A
 29,480
 78,500
+$10,609
     +35
     N/A
      +1

     N/A


    ,OUO

     N/A
 +11,610
     +35
     N/A
 +11,860
 OVERVIEW AND  STRATEGY

     The Public  Health Service Act and the  Interstate Quarantine Regulations
 provided the  original statutory authority for the Federal water supply program.
 At  that time, the  program applied to approximately 700 water supply systems
 serving interstate carriers, and was limited to the  control of communicable
 diseases.  The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, an amendment to the Public
 Health Service Act,  increased the program coverage to include all public water
 systems having at  least  15  service connections or regularly serving at least
 25  individuals,  and provided for the regulation of chemical, radiological, and
 bacteriological  constituents of drinking water.  The Act provides assurance for
 the safety of the  drinking  water through the establishment and enforcement of
 national drinking  water  regulations, specifying the maximum permissible
 bacteriological  and chemical constituent levels required to protect the public
 health and welfare.   In  order to insure compliance with these national drinking
 water regulations,  the Act  provides for the States, with the aid of technical
 assistance and grants from  the Federal Government, to establish public water
 system supervision programs to comply with  the primary drinking water standards,
 and to establish underground injection control programs to protect the Nation's
 ground water  sources.

     To help  States assume  primary enforcement responsibility for the water supply
 programs and  to  build a  stronger State-Federal cooperative effort, Congress
 authorized EPA to  provide technical assistance, grant support, and training to
 improve State capabilities.

     State participation in the program is  fundamental to the successful
 implementation of  the Safe  Drinking Water Act.  To achieve this participation,
 considerable  Federal  technical assistance is required if the institutional
 capabilities  of  States are  to expand as necessary to fulfill the breadth of
 requirements  of  the Safe Drinking Water Act.  Should a State refraia from seeking
 primary enforcement responsibility in either  the public water system super-
 vision or the underground injection control programs, the Federal Government
 is  required by law to establish and enforce a program in the State.
                                                                        WS-1

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     EPA is responsible for the implementation and revision of (1) the national primary
and secondary drinking water regulations for the protection of the public health and
welfare; (2) State drinking water implementation regulations which specify minimum
requirements for State public water supervision programs; (3) regulations governing the
underground injection control program; (4) program grant regulations; and (5) other
regulations, such as those needed to govern the allocation of water treatment chemicals.
In addition, EPA conducts studies and surveys relating to carcinogens in major
metropolitan drinking water supplies, the quantity and quality of rural water supplies,            *
waste disposal practices, and means of control to protect ground water sources.                    j
                                                                                                  «j
     Resources available to the Agency's water supply enforcement program will be used
to (1) respond to emergency situations under the authorities granted by the Safe            .    ,„ ,„
Drinking Water Act, and (2) provide backup assistance in implementing and enforcing                j
State regulations.                                                                                ,a

     The objectives of the research and development effort will be to develop criteria
for drinking water constituent limits with particular emphasis on organic and micro-             - • ;
biological contaminants of drinking water.  Research efforts will continue on: (1) the             >j
health effects of drinking water contaminants; (2) the development of analytical
methods for assessing the drinking water; (3) the establishment of a quality assurance
program; and (4) improved methods of protecting under ground water sources from                   • j
contamination.  Efforts to develop treatment techniques for the removal of undesirable              j
contaminants (particularly organics), for which current techniques are ineffective,                 r
will be expanded.

     One of the most pressing problems is the setting of maximum contaminant levels for          '  ]
organic chemicals.  Additional research on the organic chemicals question is needed to             |
improve monitoring techniques, evaluate the effectiveness of known control strategies,
and evaluate the health effects of specific organic contaminants.  Accordingly, EPA
is directing substantial resources to the nationwide monitoring of organic chemicals,              j
research into treatment techniques  and health effects, and development of tests                    ;
for surrogate groups of organic chemicals which can serve as the basis for future                   <
standards.

SUMMARY OF  INCREASES AND DECREASES                             (dollars in thousands)                '
                                                                                                    i
1976 Water  Supply Program ....... .................................    $32,174

     Abatement and Control. .......................... ........... ,    +10,609
         The  increase  is primarily for State  grants for  public                                      >
         water system  supervision and underground injection
         control programs.   The funds are to  assist the  States
          in establishing and maintaining  primary enforcement
         responsibility.   An increase in  EPA  manpower  is also                                       !
         requested to  assist the States  in attaining these  goals.                                "  ,
      Enforcement ..... . .............. ........... , .................         +1
          The  increase  is  for the  annual izati on  of  the October
          1975 pay raise.

      Research and Development ............ ........... . ..... .......     +1,000
          The  increase  will  expand research  on treatment
          techniques   for  the removal  of undesirable  contaminants.     ...........

 1977 Water Supply Program Request .......... ---- , ......... . ..... ..     43,784

 SUMMARY OF BUDGET EST IHATE5

      1 .  Summary o f  Budget Reg ues t

               An  appropriation of $43,784,100 is requested  for 1977.  This  request,
          by appropriation account, is as follows:

               Abatement and Control .................................    $30,449,200
               Enforcement. ..... .....................................        81 ,000
               Research and Development ......................... .....     13,253,900
                                                *
               This request represents an increase  of $11,610,300 from the 1976
          water supply program and includes  an increase  to provide for the annuali-
          zation of the October 1975 pay raise  (+$55,300); an increase for State grants
          for public  water system supervision and underground injection  control  programs


                                                                                  WS-2

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        {+$10,000,000); for research on treatment techniques (+$1,000,000); an
        increase for the development of standards, regulations, and guidelines
        (+$1,662,000); and an increase for additional staff to assist the States
        in meeting their goals which is offset by a decrease in program imple-
        mentation and technical assistance activities (-$1,107,000).

     2.   Changes from Original  1976 Budget Estimate

           Changes from the original  budget are as follows:

                                                           (dpi 1ars i n  thousands)

           Original  estimate	,	   $32,325
           Transfer of Enforcement position to General  Counsel	       -20
           Transfer of Cincinnati  NFIC functions...,	       +30
           Transfer to regional  construction grants administration.       -60
           Establ i sh central  AOP system	       +38
           Operating plan adjustments	      -229
           Miscellaneous increases and decreases..	       +90
                                                                       32,174

     All of the changes to the water supply program have been  relatively small
shifts with little impact on program content or priorities.   One position  and
funds were shifted to the Office of General Counsel  to permit  that office  to
hire an attorney specializing in drinking  water problems.   Similarly,  a small
function and associated resources  formerly carried under the water quality
program were shifted to water supply with  the closing of the Cincinnati
National Field Investigation Center.   These changes are  offset by the  transfer of
$60,000 out of water supply headquarters  programs to regional  construction
grants activities in order to help accelerate the construction grants  program.
Subsequent to these changes, a total  of $38,000 was added to water supply  to
assist in t'he development of an ADP system needed in the implementation of
the new Safe Drinking Water Act.  Finally, adjustments to actual  operating
conditions required a net transfer from water supply of  $229,000.
ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
                                                      Current
                                                     Estimate
                                                       1976
                Estimate
                  1977
                                                       (dollars in thousands")
     Prior year obii gations	
     Additional cost of program increases..
     Change in amount of carryover
       funds avai 1 abl e	
     Miscellaneous increases and decreases.
     Total estimated obligations	
       (From new obligation authority).
       (From prior year funds)	
 $7,714
+19,400

 +5,205
    -38

 32,281
(26,864)
 (5,417)
$32,281
+10,309

   -107
   +111

 42,594
(37,284)
 (5,310)
EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
     With the passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act in December 1974, EPA
responsibilities for water supply programs were greatly increased.   The 1976
budget included major increases in both Abatement and Control  ($16.8 million) and
Research and Development ($7.6 million).  Most of these increases will be obligated
in 1976, resulting in major growth in obligations from 1975 to 1976.  At the same
time, the Agency expects to obligate over $5 million in prior year funds carried
forward to 1976, of which $4 million is for a demonstration project in Duluth,
Minnesota.

     The amount of obligations for this program will increase in 1977 primarily
due to the increases being requested for the grants to States and for the develop-
ment of standards, regulations, and guidelines.  The change in the amount of
carryover estimated to be available creates a reduction to the estimated
obligations which is offset by minor miscellaneous changes in the program.
                                                                         WS-3

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                                           WATER SUPPLY
PROGRAM LEVELS

State applications for Public Water
  System Supervision grants	
States applying for primary
  enforcement responsibility for
  Public Water System Supervision
  programs,	
Value of Grants Awarded:
Underground Injection Control...
Public Water System Supervision.
                                                   Current
                                                  Estimate
                                                    1976
       40
              Estimate
                1977
50
                 40
         Increase +
         Decrease -
        1977 vs. 1976
+10
            +40
$2.5 million  $5 million  +$2.5 million
$7.5 million $15 million  +$7.5 million
                                                                        WS-4

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Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

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Page Intentionally Blank

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                           Actual
                            1975

Budget Authority
  Criteria, Standards,
    and Guidelines	  $1,194
  State Program Resource
    Assistance	
  Strategy Implementation
         Total	

Permatient Pos itjons
  Criteria, Standards,
    and Guidelines	
  State Program Resource
    Assistance		
  Strategy Implementation
36
60
                                         WATER SUPPLY

                                     Abatement and Control
     Budget
    Estimate
      1976
       Current
      Estimate  Estimate
        1976      1977
                 Increase +
                 Decrease -
                1977 vs. 1976
              (dollars in thousands;
     $3,232    $3,299    $4,973
1 ,96l"
3,155
10,000
6,629
19,861
10,000
6,541
19,840
20,000
5,476
30,449
+10,000
-1,065
+10,609
 48
127
 49
126
 48
162
 -1
+36
                       Page
                                + $1,674   WS-6
                                                   WS-7
                                                   WS-9
WS-6

WS-7
WS-9
         Total.
96
175
175
210
+35
     The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 requires EPA to promulgate primary and
secondary drinking water regulations designed to protect the public health and
welfare, State public system supervision and underground injection control program
regulations which specify minimum State program requirements, and State program
grant and sole source aquifer designation regulations.  EPA is also required to
conduct several special studies.

     The Safe Drinking Water Act places the primary responsibility for program
implementation and compliance upon the States.  During 1977, EPA's primary
objective is to assist the States to achieve primacy through the revision of
existing statutes, regulations, and procedures,, the development of State
supervision programs, the conduct of inventories, the assessment of compliance
with the regulations, expert technical advice on special problems and the
determination of the eligibility for variances and exemptions.

     In 1977, EPA will begin to monitor the performance of the States
having primary enforcement responsibility to ensure compliance with the regulations.
In those States which do not have primary  enforcement responsibility, EPA will
establish a program, with State cooperation, to enforce the regulations as
required by the Act.

     Simultaneously, EPA will devote additional resources to develop revised primary
drinking water regulations which will include the maximum contaminant levels for
constituents in drinking water as recommended by the National Academy of Sciences.
The revised regulations will include treatment technology, site selection, operation
and maintenance, and surveillance requirements.  It is expected that this will be a
fairly major revision of the interim primary regulations.  In addition, specific
treatment techniques must be developed and documented for all new contaminants added
to the standards as required by the Act.  Economic analyses of the impact of the
revised regulations will also be required.
                                                                        WS-5

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                                          WATER SUPPLY

                                      Abatement and  Control

                               Criteria,  Standards, and Guidelines

PROGRAM HIGHLI6HTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase  +
                               Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease  -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs.  1976
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	      $1,194     $3,232     $3,299     $4,973       +$1,674
Permanent Positions	          36         48         49         48            -1


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $4,973,300 is requested for 1977.   This represents an increase
of $1,674,500 over 1976.

Program Description

     The criteria, standards, and guidelines subactivity has two major programs:
(1) drinking water standards and regulations development,  and (2) State program
guidelines and regulations development.

     Section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Mater Act requires  the promulgation of primary
and secondary drinking water regulations needed to protect public health and welfare.
Interim primary regulations were promulgated in 1976;  in 1977, the revised primary
drinking water regulations will be promulgated based on the National Academy of Sciences
(NAS) study to identify the maximum permissible contaminant levels for all substances
which may be found in drinking water and the associated adverse health effects of
those contaminants.  These revised regulations will  include requirements for operation
airf maintenance, quality control, treatment, and site selection.  Cost analyses on  the
impact of implementing these regulations at the Federal, State, and local levels will
also be prepared.

     The State program guidelines and regulations development program focuses on the
strategies and procedures for the implementation programs,  the responsibility for
which is at the State, local, or regional levels.

1975 Accompl1shments

     Interim primary drinking water regulations were proposed in 1975.

1976 Program

     During 1976, the primary objective of the criteria, standards, and guidelines
program will be to promulgate the interim primary regulations and to propose and  promulgate
the secondary drinking water regulations, the drinking  water standards implementation
"egulations, the underground injection control regulations, and the associated State
program grant regulations.  Also during this fiscal  year,  this program will publish a
list of States requiring an underground injection control  program, develop regional
guidance, and propose and promulgate drinking water standards for radioactivity.   EPA
will complete the special organic monitoring survey to  obtain data necessary to
establish organic limits in drinking water.

1977 Plan

     The criteria, standards, and guidelines efforts during 1977 will remain focused on
the proposed revision of the primary drinking water regulations that are to be proposed
in March 1977.  These regulations will be based-on the NAS study and will specify
maximum contaminant  levels for substances found in drinking water.  These revised
regulations will  include requirements  for operation and maintenance, quality control,
treatment,  and  site  selection.   It is  expected  that this will be a fairly major
revision of the  interim primary  regulations.   In additions specific treatment
techniques must be developed and documented for all new contaminants added to the
standards as required by the Act.  Economic analyses of the impact of the revised   WS-6
regulations will  also be required.

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                                         WATER SUPPLY

                                     Abatement and Control

                               State Program Resource Assistance
PROGRAM, HIGHLIGHT!
Actual
 1 975
 Budget
Estimate
   97 .........
                                                   Current
                                                  Estimate
                                                    1976
                      Estimate
                        1977
Appropriation.. .....
Permanent Positions
     .........
       (dollars in thousands)

$10,000    $10,000     $20,000
                                                                         Increase +
                                                                         Decrease -
                                                                        1977 vs.  1976
                                                                             +$10,000
Budget Request

     An appropriation of $20 million is requested for 1977.  This represents an
increase of $10 million over 1976.

P r og r am. Description

     Sections 1443 and 1444 of the Safe Drinking Water Act provide for Federal
financial support to encourage and assist States in the implementation of (1) public
water system supervision programs that comply with the national  primary drinking
water regulations, and (2) underground injection control  programs for the protection
of underground sources of drinking water.  In addition, the Act authorized financial
support for the conduct of special studies and demonstrations.

     these assistance programs have been provided as a means to strengthen the
cooperative. relationship between the Federal  and State governments.  It is the
intent that through this partnership and assistance, the States will  be able to
develop and maintain programs that enable them to assume and maintain primary
enforcement responsibility.

     The State program resource assistance subactivity consists of three program
activities: public water system supervision grants, underground injection control
grants, and special studies and demonstrations t

     The public water system supervision grant program provides grants to States to
carry out their drinking water programs.  These grants are awarded to encourage and
assist the States in the assumption of primary enforcement responsibility for the
primary drinking water regulations.

     The underground injection control program provides grants to States so that
they may assume primary enforcement responsibilities for the protection of underground
drinking water sources by the effective date  of the underground injection control
regulations.

     The special studies and demonstration program provides financial support for  the
development and demonstration of new or improved methods, approaches, technology,  or
demonstration of the health implications of recycling, reclamation and reuse of waste
waters for drinking water.

1976 Program

     Program grants on the public water system supervision and underground injection
control programs will be available to the States for the first time in 1 976.

     The States will be eligible for grants should they submit an application with a
letter specifying that the State has, or will establish within the required time,  an
acceptable program and affirming that the State plans to assume primary enforcement
responsibility within one year.  The major outputs will include:

     -  Grant awards to those eligible States based on the formula specified in the
        State program grant regulations;
                                                                            WS-7

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     -  Reallocation of unobligated funds as specified by the regulations during the
        latter part of the fiscal year; and

     -  Award of a demonstration grant from 1975 appropriations to the City of Duluth
        for removal of asbestos fibers from the city's drinking water,

1977 Plan                                                                     ,

     The primary drinking water regulations will become effective in 1977.   The States
will require financial assistance to implement their programs,   The major output will
include:

     -  Issuance of the tentative grant allocations to each State based on the grant
        formula.  With the aid of grant monies, State activities will  include:
        enforcement of the primary drinking water and underground injection control
        regulations; keeping records and reports on chemical, radiological, and
        bacteriological analyses; monitoring and inspection of water supply systems;
        and granting variances and exemptions as prescribed by law.
                                                                          WS-8

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                                         WATER SUPPLY

                                     Abatement and Control

                                    Strategy Implementation

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
	'Budget     Current                Increase +
                              Actual   Estimate   Estimate     Estimate   Decrease -
                               1975      1976       1976        1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                               (dollars in  thousands)

Appropriation	   $1,961     $6,629     $6,541       $5,476        -$1,065
Permanent Positions	       60        127        126          162            +36


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $5,475,900 is requested for 1977.   This represents a decrease
of $1,065,200 from the 1976 program.

Program Description

     The Safe Drinking Water Act places primary responsibility for the implementation
and enforcement of the primary drinking water regulations and of the underground
injection control regulations upon the States.  The water supply program activities
are directed toward providing technical assistance to those States with primary
enforcement responsibility, establishing Federal  programs in those States without
primary enforcement responsibility, providing technical advice in emergency
situations,  compliance monitoring to ensure an acceptable level  of performance,
reviewing grant allocations, and certifying grant eligibility.  The strategy
implementation subactivity encompasses the activities and outputs related to the
implementation of regulations, the review and evaluation of State and local programs
on specific drinking water problems, assistance to other Federal agencies in areas
which have an impact on drinking water activities, and the  review of federally
financed projects in aquifer areas designated as the sole or principal  source of
drinking water.

     The strategy implementation subactivity consists of two programs:  (1) Federal
activities and EIS review, and (2) drinking water management implementation.
The Federal  activities and EIS review program covers EPA's  responsibilities to
provide assistance to other Federal agencies, to review federally financed projects
in areas in which the aquifer has been designated the "sole or principal" source  of
drinking water, and to review EIS's to determine project impact on drinking water
supplies.

     The drinking water management implementation program consists of the activities
and outputs related to the implementation of primary drinking water regulations and
underground injection control regulations.  It includes the review of State programs
to insure that the basic requirements for primary enforcement responsibility are
satisfied, assistance to States in developing acceptable State programs, the
certification and award of grants to eligible States, and the administration of
programs in those States which do not have  primary enforcement responsibility.

1975 Accomplishments

     Published the initial draft of the water supply strategy describing the
step-by-step approach to implementing the program.

1976 Program

     Some of the major program outputs in 1976 are to:

     -  Review State applications for primary enforcement responsibility for the
        public water system supervision and underground injection control programs, and
                                                                         WS-9

-------
      -   Issue  determinations on  petitions for  sole  source aquifer designations after
         a  technical  review of available data.

 1977  Plan

      EPA will  provide  technical  assistance  to  those States with  primary enforcement
 responsibility and will  continue to  encourage  the remaining States  to assume  primary
 enforcement  responsibility for both  the public water system supervision and underground
 injection  control programs.  The Agency will also establish and  enforce programs
 required by  the Act.   the significant  program  outputs will include:

      -   Technical assistance to  those  States with primary enforcement responsibility.
         Primary drinking water regulations  will  be  effective  in  1977.  The States
         and  EPA must implement the monitoring  and enforcement provisions of the
         Act.   Since  existing State capabilities  are severely  limited by budget
         constraints, the initial years of the  program will require  significant
         EPA  technical  assistance and shared responsibilities  as  the States assume
         primary enforcement responsibility.  EPA will assist  the States in the review
         of statutes  and  procedures,  the establishment of record  keeping and ADP
         systems,  the development of  the capability  to conduct sanitary surveys, and
         the  review of  technical  information for  the issuance  of  variances and
         exemptions;

      -   Compliance monitoring in those States  with  primary enforcement responsibility
         to ensure compliance with regulations;

      "   Establishment  of programs in those  States which do not have primary
         enforcement  responsibility.  EPA will  assume the major program requirements
         with State cooperation;

      -   Review of federally financed projects  in aquifer areas designated as  the
         sole or principal  source of  drinking water; and

      -   Review of State  applications for primary enforcement  responsibility for
         the  public water system  and  underground  injection control programs.

     The reduction of $1,065,200 results  from the reprogramming of contract  funds  to
Criteria, Standards  and Guidelines  to support the revision  of  the primary  drinking
water regulations.  This reduction  is partly offset  by  the  addition  of salary  and
support costs for the 36 positions  to be  added  to this  subactivity and funds to cover
the cost of the October 1975  Federal  pay  raise.
                                                                         WS-10

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            WATER SUPPLY            :

             EdforfMent            \
                    *  '            l
        Budget   Current           Ir|
Actual  Estimate Estimate  Estimate   Dei
 1975     1976     1976     1977   197|
               (dollars in thousands
          $100
$80
$81
ir Act provides that the States are to have
ig the drinking water regulations, with Fedi
states fail to act.  The regulations are no
This basic relationship is also true for u
: encouraging the  highest level of State pr|
 requested  resources will support (1) deve|
 implementing regulations; (2) the provisidl
egard to the enforcement elements of their|
 enforcement as may be required.         I

r water supply enforcement in 1977 remain a;
supply enforcement demands for 1977 are hig
er of State programs approved and the gener
s primary objective is to encourage States
ibility, we do not forecast a large "Federal
                                                Enforcem
1,000 is requested for 1977.  This represent,
5.
 enforcement program supports EPA regional
 "ing emergency situations; (2) in the implemi
 water regulations and  underground injection
 agard to records, monitoring, and inspection
 >rts technical assistance to States relating
 ir programs,

 >urces support the development of the enforce!
 i procedures relating to the following:     I

 •oval of programs for State primary enforceme|
 testing procedures to assure compliance with!
 ations;                               \

 , records,   reports,  monitoring, and informal!
 rements;                               ]

 ions;                                 I

 of failure  to comply with drinking water regu
                                                                                        SECTION TAB

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Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

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                                         WATER SUPPLY

                                   Research, and Development

                                    Budget    Current             Increase +
                           Actual   Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                            1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs.  1976
Budget Authority
Tub! i c Sector
  Activities	
                                              {dollars in thousands)
$4,559  $12,364    $12,2.54   $13,254
Permanent Positions
	Public Sector
  Activities	
    73
75
85
85
                              +•$1,000   WS-14
WS-14
    The research and demonstration effort in this program area supports implementation
of P.L. 92-523, the Safe Drinking Water Act.  Research, studies, and demonstrations
are conducted relating to (1) the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention
of diseases and other impairments of man resulting directly or indirectly from
contaminants in water, and (2) the provision of dependable safe supplies of water.

    The products of these activities include:  (a) improved methods to identify and
measure the existence of contaminants in drinking water and to identify the source
of such contaminants; (b) improved methods to identify and measure the health effects
of contaminants in drinking water; (c)  new or improved methods of treating raw water
to prepare it for drinking, so as to improve the efficiency of water treatment and
remove contaminants from water; (d) improved methods for providing a dependable safe
supply of drinking water, including improvements in water purification and distribu-
tion, and methods of assessing the health related hazards of drinking water; and
(e) improved methods of protecting underground water sources of public water systems
from contamination.

    Research is also conducted to develop and implement quality assurance procedures
and protocols for water supply laboratories to assure that data is accurate and
legally defensible.  Resources for this effort are included under the interdisciplinary
activity as part of a comprehensive quality assurance program for all environmental
media.
                                                                         WS-T3

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1976 Program

     Water supply research during 1976 has three areas of concentration:  health
effects, wa±er treatment and systems management, and ground water management.

     The objectives in the health effects area are to:

     - Determine the nature and concentrations of organic, inorganic, and micro-
       biological contaminants present in water supplies;

     - Evaluate through literature searches the health effects of drinking water
      "contaminants; and

     - Derive concentration limits necessary for the protection of the public  health.

     In the technology and system management area, efforts are directed toward:

     - Developing technologies for removal of infectious agents and potentially  toxic
       or aesthetically displeasing contaminants, so that municipal, water supplies
       will be able to achieve compliance with present and future drinking  water
       quality standards, and

     - Developing and demonstrating improved methods of operating both new and
       existing water supply facilities.

     The ground water management program is directed at protecting existing and
potential underground drinking water.  The 1976 objectives include:

     - Determining the extent of ground water contamination;

     - Identifying sources of pollutants in the underground environment;

     - Establishing waste disposal site selection criteria;

     - ijeveloping management technology for underground drinking water basins; and

     - investigating deep well injection and other waste disposal technology in
       terms of underground drinking water contamination^

1977 Plan

     In 1977, work will continue in the health effects area to determine tolerances
to a variety of drinking water contaminants.  Research-will be conducted to determine
the nature and concentration of organic compounds present in a variety of water
supplies, and to determine the long- and short-term health effects of these organic
compounds, both individually and in combination.  Information obtained from this
research will be used to derive operational and scientifically valid criteria  for
organics in drinking water.  In addition, investigations will be undertaken to
determine the toxicity of the reaction by-products of the leading disinfectants,
chlorine and ozone.

     Efforts in the control technology area will continue to emphasize the development
of methods for detecting and measuring low level concentrations of pollutants, and
the development of cost-effective techniques for the control of drinking water
contaminants during storage, treatment, and distribution.  In this area, increased
by $1 million over the 1976 level, the main problem is to reduce the concentration
of organic compounds present in drinking water to a safe level.  Methods that  will
be thoroughly investigated include removal'of organics by adsorption (e.g., activated
carbon) or by oxidation (e.g., ozone).  Disinfection process modifications to  minimize
or eliminate the formation of halogenated organics will also be researched, such as
the removal of the organic precursors, substitution of another disinfectant for
chlorine, removal of the halogenated organics after their formation, control of
water treatment parameters (e.g., pH, free residual chlorine) that are found to
influence the rate of formation of these halogenated organic compounds.  In addition,
treatment techniques applicable to small water supplies will be studied, such  as the
use of ultraviolet radiation and perhaps ozone as promising substitutes for chlorine
in the disinfection of small systems.  Finally, economical and effective treatment
technology will be investigated for the removal of natural and man-made radioactive
contaminants of water supplies.


                                                                                WS-15

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Solid Wastes
     SECTION TAB

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                                                    SOLID  WASTE
I'
          PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation........
  Permanent Positions,
  Transition Quarter..

Research and Development:
  Appropriation.......
  Permanent Positrons.
  Transition Quarter:.

Total, Solid Waste
  Program:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions.
  Transition Quarter..
  Outlays	L	-
  Authorization Levels
          OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY
                                                   Budget
                                         Actual    Estimate
                                         .1975      1976
                                                    Current
                                                   Estimate
                                                     1976
                                Estimate
                                  1977
                                 Increase +
                                 Decrease -
                                1977 vs.  1976
                                                             (dollars  in thousands)
$12,810
    151
    N/A
                                          7,374
                                             23
                                            N/A
                                         20,184
                                            174
                                            N/A
                                         11,623
                                         76,000
$11,623
    161
  3,185
             3,997
                23
             1,275
            15,620
               184
             4,460
            14,000
$11,619
    161
  3,185
             4,066
                22
             1,275
            15,685
               183
             4,460
            13,800
            20,957*
$11,671
    161
    N/A
             4,066
                22
               N/A
            15,737
               183
               N/A
            13,200
            20,949*
+52

N/A
               N/A
               +•52

               N/A
              -600
                                                  *Authorization pending.
              Solid waste management nationwide presents a spectrum of problems, from generation
          of health and environmental hazards to inefficient waste management.   The basic solid
          waste management problem is improper waste disposal practices.  These practices
          cause adverse environmental and economic impacts, such as ground and  surface water polluti
          air pollution, problems associated with uncontrolled dumping, decreased land values,
          and resource wastage.  Aesthetic damages (e.g., litter), which have varying impacts
          on human health or animal life, are easily visualized and usually are the focus
          of public concern.  However, problems associated with improper waste  management
          practices are not always visible and therefore are not easily understood.  For example,
          ground water qoritamination (which is not visible) can result if the engineering
          practices foi^ siting, constructing, and operating a land disposal site are not
          understood apd, applied.

             •Environmental problems exist for a number of interrelated reasons.  Some States
          do no regulate disposal effectively and most do not enforce regulations
          vigorously due to lack of resources.  Municipalities do not always devote required
          resources to ensure environmentally sound disposal and efficient management.  Since
          litter and ugliness are typically the most obvious targets of popular displeasure,1
          often municipalities manage disposal "cosmetically" but not environmentally (i.e., no
          blowing phper, no odor, but allow leachate to seep into the ground water).  ^Especially
          acute is the absence of regulation in the industrial sector and, above all, the
          •hazardous wastes area where the problem is due to the cost differential between
          dumping and proper treatment.  Operation of inexpensive disposal systems al^o affects
          the economics of resource recovery.

              Absence of regulatory control (environmental standards, strictly enrorced) is due
          to the fact that recognition of the special nature of potentially hazardous wastes
          is recent and the potential of ground water contamination from land disposal of
          vastes by leachate wastes or effluents is not a well known phenomenon.   In addition,
          public resistance to the siting of a new disposal site often eliminates viable
          alternatives.  All of these factors contribute to perpetuating the status quo by
          preventing the application of urban planning priciples, and thwarting enforcement
          of regulations where they are in force.  In the case of hazardous wastes, the
          absence of proven disposal technology and available disposal sites are additional
          contributing  factors.   For example, although it is known that 60 percent of the
          hazardous wastes  are organic and that they can be burned, it is not known how
          effective the burning of these wastes will be in disposing of them or reducing the
          hazards associated with  th£m.  It is also difficult to mandate the disposal of
          pesticides in landfills wha'ch are not connected to aquifers unless such sites exist.
          EstablisWng  such sites  requires engineering and testing programs to identify
          appropriate designs  and to ascertain their viability.                         SW-1
                                                                                         ion,

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SUMMARY OF BUDGETESTIMATES

    1.   Summary of BudgetRequest

   "'.An appropriation of $15,736,400 is requested for 1977.   This request,  by
appropriation account, is as follows:

                  Abatement and Control	       $11,670,400
                  Research and Development	,.         4,066,000

        This represents an increase of $51,800 over the 1976 solid waste program
and includes funds for annualization of the October 1975 pay raise (+$41,800)  and
a minor operating program increase (+$10,000).

    2.   Changesfrom Original 1976 BudgetEstimate

        Changes from the original budget are as follows:

                                                           (Pollars in thousands)
                  Original estimate	      '  $15,620
                  Operating adjustments	            +26
                  Miscellaneous increases and decreases..            +39
                  Current 1976 estimate	         15,685

        There have been no major changes to the 1976 budget for solid waste programs.
The net change from operating adjustments made in applying the budget to actual
needs at the beginning of the fiscal year amounts to only $26,200.  Minor miscellaneous
adjustments  amount to only $39,000, making the total change less than one percent.
ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
                                                    Current
                                                    Estimate             Estimate
                                                      1976                 1977
    Prior year obligations,.,	...         $20,184              $16,213

      Reduction of costs due to program
       decrease	          -2,200

      Change in amount of carryover
       funds available	          -1,719                 -528

      Miscellaneous increases and decreases.             -52                 +661
    Total estimated obligations.,..	,.          16,213    '           16,346

    .   (From new obligation authority)..	,          (11,375)             (12,033)

       (From prior year funds)		          (4,838)              (4,310)

EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND  DECREASES  TJLOBLIGATIONS

    Solid Waste obligations will decline  in 1976 as the result of a congressional
increase of $5.2 million to the 1975 budget for energy recovery which was not
continued in  1976 and a reduction  of the  amount of prior year funds available for
obligation in 1976 in comparison to 1975.   The accelerated obligation rate which
reduced the carryover of prior year funds  into 1976 will continue through 1976
ancT'1977.  The carryover of prior  year  funds will continue to decrease with a
corresponding decline in obligations.   This decrease  will be offset, however,
by a  faster rate of obligation of  current year funds.  These factors, along with
a small budget increase for the partial annual ization of the October 1975 pay
raise, will produce a small increase in obligations in 1977.
                                                                            SW-3

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                                           SOLID WASTE

                                      Abatement and Control
 Budget Authority

 Waste Management
   Practices,  Procedures,
   and Guidelines....	
 Waste Management
   Strategies
   Imp! ementation	,	
 Resource Conservation	
                                      Budget    Current             Increase +
                             Actual   Estimate  Estimate  Estimate  ..^Decrease -
                              1975     1976      1976      1977    1977. vs.  1976   .Page
                                              (cfbTl ars 1 n thbu sandsp
$5,550    $4,380    $4,420    $4,442
      Total,
 Permanent Positions

 Waste Management
   Practices, Procedures,
   and Guidelines	
 Waste Management
   Strategies
   Implementation	.....
 Resource Conservation	
12,810    11,623    11,619    11,671
    40
    82
    29
      Total,
   151
 47
 85
 29
 47
 85
 29
 47
 85
 29
161
161
161
                            +$22
4,299
2,961
4,968
2,275
4,924
2,275
4,946
2,283
+22
+8
                               SW-6
                                                      SW-8
                                                      .SW-10
                             +52
.SW-6
SW-8
SW-10
     The Abatement and  Control  appropriation encdmpasses the activities of the
 solid waste program devoted to the development of waste management strategies,  the
 translation of the strategies  into guidelines and management tools,  interaction
 with Federal,  State, and local agencies, and the demonstration  of energy and
 materials recovery systems. The activities included differ from those covered  under \
 the research and development appropriation in that they are related  to implementa-
 tion of solid  waste management practices for specific problems  rather than the
 development of knowledge on environmental problems or on the development of
 control technologies.                      ,

     The hazardous waste program activities in 1975-1977 focus on problem characteriza-
 tion; this includes contract work which leads to the identification  of hazardous
-xwaste materials and their sources, and, the ^assessment of technology  alternatives •
 f-or .handling these wastes.   These'data are then used for the development of guidelines
 which include  information on the incineration, landfill, treatment,  transportation,
 and recycling  o.f hazardous  waste materials.
                                         /
     "Other" waste program activities f^cus on the demonstration,of environmentally
 acceptable waste management practices for dealing with, mi^ed municipal waste streams,
'e.g., various  sludges,  residues, and urban waste often di-sposed of in a single  site.
 Information in this area is inadequate, particularly/in relation to  the availability
 of proven technology for collecting and treating le^chate in landfills, and the
 methodologies  for handling  sewage treatment sludges in landfills.  Evaluations  of
 landfill practices and  demonstrations of landfill technologies  are being conducted
 to provide the basis for guidance to Federal, .State^and-local agencies.  Specific
 emphasis in 1975-1977   is being-directed towards the development 0f  Jnformation on
 the effect^ of -leachate generated from disposal sites and disposal of sewage
 sludges'.  ;
                                                                           SW-4

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     The approach to natural ^resource conservation is through recovery of resources
 from wastes and waste reduction.  The primary barriers -to resource recovery implementa-
 tion are institutionalconstraints*  The program concentrates on"Federal evaluation
 and provision of consultant services, dissemination of information about existing
 systems to reduce perceived risk, and providing  front-end  planning funds to
.communities to facilitate implementation of resource recovery systems.     ",    "
 '               .  .'    ,    -'        .    .'.-..•-'-..      •   .   /	"'  '.••••:. ;-•-'••'  '"
     The abatement and control activities are categorized .under the foilowin§ sub-
 activities:                  ''',,'•                    ^      _  v     '
          .-.'•.•          ,          .  •      '            • '    ""    '. .   ""    '  '      ••
     Waste Management Practices, Procedures, and Guidelines.  This subactivity includes
 the work related to the development of strategies for the management of solid waste-
 problems having nationwide applicability, the reassessment and modification of these •••...
 strategies, and the translation/of these strategies into appropriate guideline documents.

     Waste Management Strategies Implementation.  This subactivity includes work related
 to the implementation of requirements for which the Federal Government has primary
 responsibility (i.e., the management of solid waste at Federal facilities  in accordance
 with published guidelines), review of EIS's for their solid waste management impact,
 and ^'the development of State program capability to implement solid waste management
 activities.  Included are the development and delivery of management tools and
 technical information for use by Federal, State, and local governments, the review and
 evaluation of State programs, consultation with State and local governments on
 specific waste management^problems, and financial assistance for State solid waste
 management programs.
                i.'                       •                    •  '  '            ' •*".
     Resou rce Con s firvati on.  This subactivity includes work related to the  evaluation,
 demon strati on, and impl imen tati on of energy and material recovery systems arid waste  -
 reduction techniques. , This ^progrram promotes energy and materials recovery (including
 utilizati&n of secondary materials;) through demonstrations of new technology and
 waste management practices, providing front-end planning funds and disseminating
 information.
                                                                            SW-5

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     The "other" waste program focuses on wastes  primarily related to  solid waste
disposal problems of municipalities.   In 1975-1977,  emphasis  is  being  placed on
finding solutions to problems associated with leachate from landfills  and  with the
disposal problems associated with landfilling of  sewage treatment sludges.  Included
are demonstrations of technology for  the collection  and treatment of leachate, and
evaluations of existing landfill sites to determine  the site  criteria  and
engineering practices required to design landfills that will  minimize  the
attenuation and flow of leachate from the fill.

     Sewage sludge is the chief residual of sewage treatment  activities;  it is
currently produced at the rate of about seven million tons per year (dry weight).
Sludges are disposed of in a variety  of ways—by  incineration, land spreading,
in sludge-only landfills, and in combination with municipal solid wastes  in
sanitary landfills and dumps.  The principal tasks leading to a  sludge disposal
guideline are assessment of current practices, assessment of  the heavy metals
problem associated with sludges (which dictates type of control  on land or
underground), and assessment of the adequacy of current methods  of disposal.
Evaluations of methodologies for handling sewage  sludges in a landfill,
alternatives to land filling (e.g., utilizing sewage sludge for  fertilizers),
and current sewage sludge disposal practices are  carried out.

1975 Accomplishments

     Potentially hazardous wastes generated by two  industries (batteries  and
inorganic chemicals) were defined and published.  An interim  assessment
indicating the adverse effects of leachate from landfills, based on 1968  data,
and an in-depth assessment of five land disposal  sites indicating chemical
characteristics, attenuation, and flow of leachate were published.  A  summary
report on the role of heavy metals in sludges and a  policy statement on disposal
of nonmunicipal sludges were published.

1976 Program

     Potentially hazardous wastes generated by eight industries  (petroleum,
pharmaceutical, paint and allied products, metals mining, organics, pesticides
and explosive, electroplating and metal finishing, primary metals, textiles)
will be defined.  Damage incidents from improper  waste management and  detailed
damage reports will be published.  Engineering and design of  the chemical  waste
landfill will be completed and construction will  be  initiated.  Individual
hazardous waste technology assessments and guidance  documents for disposal of
significant potentially hazardous materials will  be  published.  Interim
recommended procedures for hazardous  waste transportation will be published.
A leachate damage assessment report and investigations of environmental damages
from sludge utilization practices (e.g., heavy metals uptake, etc.) will  be
published.  A cost analysis workbook  on sludge utilization and disposal will be
completed.  The first draft of the sludge utilization and disposal decision
guide will be available.  Section 209 Guidelines  for collection  and resource
recovery will be published in the Federal Register.

1977 Plan

     An analysis of treatment alternatives for specific hazardous wastes will
be completed.  An evaluation of incineration of organic hazardous wastes,
development of standard soil attenuation procedure for hazardous wastes
applied to land disposal sites, and a feasibility study of energy recovery from
industrial wastes will be completed.   Hazardous waste management guidelines for
North Atlantic Treaty Organization/Committee on the  Challenge of Modern Society
will be completed.  Recommended procedures for State permit programs for
hazardous waste management will be available.  A  report on sludge disposal damage
assessment will be published.  Leachate technology demonstrations will  be
completed.  A sludge utilization and  disposal decision guide  will be published.
                                                                      SW-7

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1977 Plan

     Final  reports on results of waste streams energy recovery potentials will be
published.   A manual  of disposal site acquisition strategies, for use by local
government officials, will be published.   The third edition of the Decision Maker's
Guide, with methods for updating all  costs on an annual  basis, will be published.
COLMIS will be installed in 15 communities.
                                                                           SW-9

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                  1975  Accomplishments.

                      Construction  of  the Baltimore,  Maryland demonstration facility was completed.  A
                  national  conference  on  waste reduction was held.   A study of the implementation and
                  enforcement of other agencies'  product  reflations was completed.  A study on the
                  economics of recovering waste oil  was completed.

                  1976  Program

                      The St. Louis demonstration and publication of the final evaluation report will
                  be completed.   Routine  operation of the Baltimore pyrolysis demonstration facility
                  will  begin.  The  San Diego facility will be constructed.  The demonstration of the
w |!4,               glass/aluminum recovery subsystem at Franklin, Ohio, will be completed.  The first
' '"'               year  of operation of the multimaterial separation and collection demonstrations  in
                  Massachusetts will be completed.  A new separate collection vehicle will be evaluated.
- «••               A resource recovery plant implementation guide will be published.  The third annual
  •M               Report on Resource and  Waste Reduction will be submitted to Congress.

                  1977  Plan
 •
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                                          SOLID  WASTE

                                   Research and  Development
                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual   Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                      "       (dollars in thousands")
Budget Authority
Public Sector
  Activities.. ......         $7,374    $3,997    $4,066    $4,066

Permanent Positions

Publ ic Sector
  Activities....,,/.             23        2.3        22        22
     EPA's research and development efforts in the solid waste program are directed
toward the development of improved solid waste management, disposal  technology,
and resource recovery technology.  These technological advances will enable local
agencies to handle their solid waste problems in an effective and economical  manner.
In addition, the program is developing the scientific base for the possible
establishment of standards for hazaroud wastes disposal.  Information on the  fate
and processes of such materials in ground water systems is also being developed  and
formulated into criteria documents.

BudgetRequest

     An appropriation of $4,066,000 is requested in 1977, the same level as
appropriated for 1976.

Prog ram De scriptip n

     The major thrust of the solid waste  research program includes the preparation
of comprehensive effects documents which are designed to support development of
a regulatory program for the treatment and disposal of pesticides and other toxic
chemicals, investigations to determine the potential for migration through soils
of hazardous industrial wastes, studies to evaluate the environmental effects of
sanitary  landfills, and the development of resource recovery systems.

1975 Accomplishments
       In  1975, the solid waste  research'and development program:

     -  Provided assessments and  interpretations of effects data and initiated
        effects research on an expanded  list of substances, including arsenic,
        asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanides, lead, mercury,
        selenium, zinc, aldrin/dieldrin, benzidine, DDD/DDE/DDT, endrin, poly-
        chlorinated biphenyls  and  toxaphene.  These assessments provide scientific
        criteria documents for the  Office of Solid Waste regulatory decision making;

     •  Conducted transport process  investigations on the migration of hazardous
        materials through  soils;

     -  Completed a major  portion  of the research on the environmental effects of
        sanitary landfill  effluents;

     -  Investigated the movement   and retention, transformation, and volatilization
        of pesticides,  polychlorinated biphyenyls, and  hexachlorabenzene in soils.
        Criteria for safe  disposal  by thermal destruction have  been developed for some
        pesticides.

                                                                         SW-12

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     -j I 'Investigated the retention of hazardous substances by soils from electroplating,
        chlorine production, nickel-cadmium battery production, inorganic pigment
        manufacturing, and water-based paint production in industrial  waste  streams;

     -  Assessed environmental  effects of current disposal practices for polyvinyl
        chlorides;                                                       /

     -  Conducted experimental  incineration studies to establish time-temperature
        relationships for acceptable decomposition of various pesticides;

     -  Conducted investigations of chemical treatment and degradation methods  for
        pesticides, including the establishment of safe procedures for using caustic
        soda, hypochlorite, peroxides, and acids;

     -  Investigated new hazardous waste treatment technologies, including chlorinolysis,
        wet air oxidation, decomposition by acids and bases,  chemical  oxidation,  biological
        degradation, ion exchange, photochemical, low temperature microwave  discharge,
        osmosis/ultrafiltration, and activated carbon absorption;

        Initiated an evaluation of unit processes for resource recovery.  Results
        may be used by municipalities contemplating the use of resource recovery
        technology;

     -  Conducted a test program to evaluate promising organic and inorganic processes
        for fixing and coating  pesticides, soluble organics,  and heavy oil residues.
        Sample of various toxic wastes fixed by various techniques will undergo long-
        term field and laboratory testing; and

     -  Conducted a test program to evaluate landfill liners  of clay,  cement, asphalt,
        and plastic membranes to test resistance to acids, bases, solvents,  and physical
        impact.  Results will provide criteria for safe disposal of various  classes of
        wastes, both hazardous  and nonhazardous.

1976 Program

     The objectives of the research in 1976 include:

     -  Identifying any adverse health and welfare effects due to the  release of  hazardous
        materials present in solid waste in the environment,  and developing  methods to
        eliminate such effects;

     -  Developing and applying new and improved methods of collecting and disposing of
        solid waste, and of processing and recovering usable  resources from  solid waste;

        Identifying solid waste components and potential usable resources recoverable
        from such waste components;

     -  Establishing data to support the Agency's efforts in  developing guidelines for
        solid and hazardous waste management;

     -  Evaluating several leachate treatment methods and determining  kinetic parameters,
        technical feasibility and costs;

     -  Developing and evaluating methods for stabilizing landfills so  that settlement
        will be minimized; and

     -  Publishing a compendium of analytical methods used by researchers and State
        regulatory officials in characterizing leachate.

1977 Plan

     In 1977, efforts will continue in the identification and elimination of adverse
health and welfare effects due  to solid and hazardous wastes, and the  development of'
cost-effective techniques for collecting and disposing, of waste, and for recovering
usable resources from waste.
                                                                           SW-13

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Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

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Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

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Pesticides
   SECTION TAB

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PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                           PESTICIDES
                                         Budget     Current
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate
                                1975      1976       1976       1977
                                                (dollars in thousands)
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation		
  Permanent Positions....
  Transition Quarter	,

Enforcement:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	
  Transition Quarter	
Research and Development:
  Appropriation.....	,
  Permanent Positions....
  Transition Quarter	

Total, Pesticides Program:
  Appropriation	,,	
  Permanent Positions	
  Transition Quarter....,
  Outlays	,
  Authorization Levels ...
$20,294
    665
    N/A
  3,238
    149
    N/A
 10,190
    151
    N/A
 33,722
    965
    N/A
 29,016
$29,552
    671
  8,083
  3,583
    153
  1,011
 11,198
    148
  2,726
 44,333
    972
 11,820
 33,000
 47,868
$29,492
    671
  8,083
  3,911
    166
  1, OH-
 IO,887
    157
  2,726
 44,290
    994
 11,820
 35,520
 47,868
$24,175
    639
    N/A
  4,745
    156
    N/A
 10,887
    157
    N/A
 39,807
    952
    N/A
 34,880
 43,335**
                                            Increase +
                                            Decrease -
                                           1977 vs.  1976
-$5,317
    -32
    N/A
   +834
    ,-lD
    N/A
    N/A
 -4,483
    -42
    N/A
   -640
                               *Specific authorization required only after 1975.
                              **The 1977 level is only through March 31, 1977,in
                                amount of $23,600.  Authorization pending for
                                balance.
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY
     The 1972 amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
becomes fully effective on October 21, 1977.  New regulations published in 1974
and 1975 reflect broad new responsibilities and authorities given EPA under the
new Act.  States either have or will have promulgated new pesticides legislation
in order to reflect many new responsibilities and cooperative efforts not
previously required of them.  Not withstanding the significant start already made
on the FIFRA requirements in the areas of reregistration, classification, certi-
fication and training of pesticide applicators and monitoring, there are substantial
mandated program efforts that need to be completed during 1977 and will be determining
factors in overall pesticides operations.  Thus, 1977 is the key year for the completion
of all reregistration actions and the certification of applicators.  This will  dictate
four major approaches in 1977:       ,

     1.  Supply control to keep highly hazardous chemicals off the market through
the registration process including labeling and classification.  EPA must complete
^registration actions on the estimated 35,000 previously federally registered
pesticides.

     2-  Use control to prevent the misuse of pesticides and thereby minimize
related local health and environmental problems.  This will be achieved by:
(a) certification of applicators of "restricted use" pesticides, which was
started in 1976 and must be completed in  1977;  (b)  better packaging
and labeling; (c) more extensive and timely enforcement; (d) extensive applicator
training; and (e) dissemination of information to the consumer and interested public*

     3.  Hazard evaluation through human effect monitoring, ambient residue
monitoring, and accident surveillance.  This serves to provide data and prompt
alerts on use problems and provides supporting data for decisions on administrative
actions to remove from the market registered products whose use has the potential
for or causes unreasonable adverse effects.
                                                                          P-l

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SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES  '   '
                                                                        (in thousands
                                                                         of dollars)

  1976 Pesticides Program	,	        $44,290

          Abatement and Control	         -5,317

             The decrease is due to a partial completion of pesticide
             applicator training through the Department of Agriculture
             Extension Service cooperative training program,  partially
             offset by an increase for the annualization of the October
             1975 pay raise.

          Enforcement.	,	           +834

             The increase is for the establishment of new Federal-
             State cooperative enforcement agreements and for the
             annualization of the October 1975 pay raise, offset by
             a reduction of staff and related support costs.                   	
 1977 Pesticides Program	         39,807

SMMARY, QJL BUDGET ESTIMATES

  1.   Summary of Budget Reguest

          An appropriation of $39,807,100 is requested for 1977.   This request, by
appropriation account, is as follows:

          Abatement and Control—	,	    $24,175,000
          Enforcement			      4,745,100
          Research and Development	,     10,887,000

     This represents a decrease of $4,483,200 from the 1976 pesticides program
and includes a funding decrease made possible by the expected 75  percent completion
of pesticide applicator training through  the U.S.  Department of Agriculture -
Extension Service cooperative training program (-$4.8 million); the decrease in staff
will  be accomplished by phasing out headquarters activities in the accident control
and certification programs by the end of  1977 and  by the reduction of laboratory
services support on enforcement sample analyses (-$684,000).  These decreases are
offset by an increase for the annualization of the October 1975 pay raise (+$204,400).
An increase is also requested for the establishment of new Federal-State cooperative
enforcement agreements under the authorities of Section 23(a)(l)  of FI.FRA; however,
with the increased levels of State enforcement activity supported by these grant funds,
it will be possible to net this increase  by the reduction of 10 positions and associated
salary and support costs (+$796,400).

  2.   Change from Original 1976 BudgetEstimate

          Changes from the original  budget estimate are as follows:

                                                                        (in thousands
                                                                         of dollars)

             Original estimate		        $44,333
             Transfer to Interdisciplinary	         -1,492
             Increase to support research needs...	         +1,182
             Transfer ADP funds...	".	,	           -158
             Increase registration and technical support	            +52
             Expand National Environmental Investigations Center
               Pesticides capability—	,	,	,	            +50
             Operating plan adjustments	            +37
             Miscellaneous increases and  decreases	           +286
                                                                               44,290
                                                                         P-3

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                                         PESTICIDES

PROGRAM LEVELS

                                                  Current                Increase +
                                         Actual    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                          1975      1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Complete registration actions
  on product base	,	       15,000      13,500      19,000          +5,500

Complete reregistrati on and
  classification of previously
' States/Territories applicator
certification plans:
» Approved 	
Operational 	
States/Territories with applicator
, training programs in operation...
Producer establishment inspections.
Use and reentry investigations 	
t
j
.Number of product samples
col 1 ected 	

56
4-5
56
2,226 1,718
593 791
5,037 5,000

'56
56
56
1 ,480
(2,380)
600
(3,600)
4,360
(7,360)

+11

-238
(+662)
-191
(+2,809)
-640
(+2,360)
(') indicates level including State activity under cooperative enforcement agreements.
                                                                      P-5

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     - To ensure products are better used and thereby effectively reduce acute and'
       chronic effects from work and accidental  exposure to pesticides;  and

     - To have developed sufficient data, methodologies, and systems for assessing
       hazards from pesticides and providing the bases for more effective control
       and regulatory programs and decisions.

     1977 objectives and priorities are to complete reregistration actions on previously
registered products by October 21, 1977; to keep current on registration actions
on all new chemicals, new product uses, and amendments;  to substantially complete
applicator certification by the States by the 1977 growing season; and to have an
integrated comprehensive hazard evaluation system.
                                                                    P-7

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197.6 Program

     During 1976, EPA expects to complete reregistration and classification,- decisions
on 6,000 registered products..  Previously unforeseen issues on Section" 3.(.cj(-l }(D) have
been the primary cause for the delayed start on reregistration.  The key to meeting
this objective will be the call-in of batches of products, by chemical  and broad use
pattern, for which registrants are given a detailed label guidance package;.  Call-ins
for full reregistration will be made for batches with .a full supporting data base, or
for which unfulfilled requirements for short-term studies exist but can be satisfied
by the deadline.  If there are unsatisfied requirements for long-term data (over 12
months studies), temporary reregistratlons will be granted pending submission of data.

     Interaction between registration and suspect chemical review program reviews now
has critical significance under the new situation of rebuttable presumptions during
the registration process.  Because of the more stringent use restrictions resulting
from Section ]2(a).(2)(G) of the Act, EPA will be issuing a new crop grouping plan for
case-by-case consideration of tolerances for minor food uses.  Many States will also
be submitting interim requests (pending issuance of final Section 24(c) regulations)
for approval to register products to meet special local needs.  The Agency will be
working closely with States in the preparation of their submissions and subsequent
review actions so as to expedite implementation of programs under Section 24(c) of
the Act.

1976 Objectives

     -  To complete reregistration and classification of an estimated 6,000 products
        by June 30, 1976;

     -  To complete registration and classification of a product base of 500 new
        chemicals and/or new uses, 5,000 new products, and 8,000 amendments;

     -  To complete review action on 40 State submissions for interim certification
        to register pesticides for local use and to review an estimated 500 State
        registrations;

     -  To complete scientific studies on 12 suspect chemicals;

     -  Final Publication of Regulations:

        Section 3  (Registration of
          Pesticides)...	  July 3, 1975 (actual)
        Section 3(c)(l)(D) (Use of another
          applicant's data in support of a
          registration application) (Proposed)..,	  March 1976
        Section 24(c) (State Registration for
   •       Special Local Needs) and 5(f)
          (Experimental Use Permit)	  September 3, 1975 (actual'
                                                                 July 1976 (final)

1977 Plan                          ,

     The key factor in 1977 registration operations will be meeting the full scope of
new and expanded responsibilities under the  1972 amended FIFRA and particularly
meeting the amendment of the 94th Congress deferring the effective date to' October 21,
1977.   Decisions on Federal ^registrations  and  intrastate registrations are expected
to be completed by October 21, 1977.  The Agency will also be starting to receive
some of the feed-back of long-range data referrals  (presently estimated at 35 percent
of the  Federal  reregistration product base)  on temporary nonrenewable reregistrations,
certain rebuttable presumptions, and probably a  portion of deferred 1976 base workload,
in addition to  the normal base input of new  registration applications.  Since needed
long-range  studies cannot be completed before the end of the reregistration period,
affected products  will be granted temporary  nonrenewable renegistrations to allow
continued marketing while missing data are developed.  Such data will be submitted
for review  during  the period 1977-^1979, entirely independent of the base load of new
registrations,  and will  demand timely review actions.  Also, during 1976,  1977, and
the ensuing three  years, there is expected to  be a  need  to  resolve rebuttable
presumptions against registration and  objections arising over classification
decisions.  Present estimates are that upwards of 15 percent of present pesticide
registrations may  fall into  restricted use categories; a  significant number of these   \
can be  expected to be'appealed by the  registrant,   Rebuttable presumptions
are expected to arise against registration of about three  percent of          P-9

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                                           PESTICIDES

                                      Abatement and Control

                                        Hazard Evaluation

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       197'6       1977     19.7.7_.ys..__1976
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	      $4,942     $5,179     $5,078     $4,890       -$188
Permanent Positions	,         105        103        103         93         -10


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $4,890,200  is requested for 1977.  This  represents a
decrease of $188,000 over  1976.

Program Description

     EPA's pesticides monitoring  programs feed  into the hazard evaluation system.
Included are the epidemiologic field studies  on acute  and  chronic long-term human
effects; pesticide accident  reporting; monitoring  of pesticide residues in air, water,
soils, and other media  to  determine  levels  and  trends  as well as  to anticipate the
development of  hazardous conditions  and establish  alert levels; and analyses of
samples of pesticide products taken  from processing establishments and market place.
The  integration of these operations  into a  comprehensive hazard evaluation system is
expected to-provide more valid information  on evironmental and human  health hazards
and  means for evaluating pesticide hazards  in the  environment and for establishing
an early alert  system.

1975 Accomplishments

     As part of the National Monitoring Program, the ambient networks for monitoring
water, soil, estuaries, arid  human tissue provided  samples  needed  to establish baseline
levels of pesticides in components of food  and  feed, humans, wildlife, fish, soil,
and  water.  A pilot monitoring program of irrigation waters was initiated jointly
by the Department of the Interior and EPA late  in  the  year.  Cropland soil samples
were taken from over 2,000 sites  in  45 States.  Urban  monitoring  included eight
cities selected to coincide  with  collection sites  for  human monitoring.  Water
monitoring was  conducted cooperatively with the U.S. Geological Survey and presently
covers 153 sampling sites  located in 17 major basins.   Estuarine  monitoring covering
113  estuaries provided  samples for residue  levels  in shellfish and fin fish.

     Long-term  epidemiologic studies were, conducted  in 12  States  on acute pesticide
poisonings and  to determine  the short-and long-term  chronic health effects on a
cohort of persons exposed  to organophosphastes  and/or  chlorophenoxy comnounris.  A
six  State pilot pesticide  usage study was completed  as a basis for getting an expanded
program under hoy.

1976Program

     The hazard evaluation system design  is to  be  completed early in  1976 and
implementation  of the system will be immediately accelerated so as to provide a
quick response  and alert system on pesticide  problems, and to ensure  better risk-
.benefit evaluations on  effects of pesticide use.   Implementation  of the system
will call for extensive interaction  between present  national pesticide monitoring
programs and States and other organizations for data acquisition  and  will require
more extensive  and organized cataloging of  hazard  data. EPA is encouraging
 (through  its regions)  increased State participation  in reporting  and  follow-up
on pesticide accidents, as  well  as  promoting better inputs from  other Federal
agencies with  related  programs.   Until there  is a  fully integrated hazard
evaluation  system designed in  1976,  pesticide monitoring programs will continue
to provide  data through presenlr-chanuels.   The  epidemiologic studies  program will
carry on efforts to obtain data on acute  pesticide poisoning by investigating
hospital admission records and coordinating findings with  regional-State accident
                                                                         P-ll

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                                           PESTICIDES

                                      Abatement  and  Control

                                Federal and State Program Support

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget      Current                Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate  Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976        1977      1977  vs. 1976
                                                (dollars in  thousands)

Appropriation	      $7,752    $16,259    $15,901     $11,035       -$4,866
Permanent Positions	         176        161        180         175            -5


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $11,035,000 is requested for Iy77.   This represents a
decrease of $4,865,800 from the  1976 level.

Program Description

     The major direction of EPA's pesticides  Federal and State program support is
to cooperate with States in the development and full scale implementation of applica-
tor certification and training programs.   EPA believes that  the use of pesticides will
be greatly improved with the training and certification of applicators, resulting  in
better control of pests, fewer episodes of misuse and accidents, and, where overuse
of pesticides now exists, less cost to the applicator due to a higher level of expertise.
This is the key approach in the implementation of the Agency's use control strategy.
EPA has every expectation that states will fully cooperate to ensure applicators being
certified by the beginning of the 1977 growing season, or by October 1977.  There  is
no mandated date by which applicators must be certified, only a requirement that the
individual who uses a "restricted use" pesticide must be a certified applicator or a
person under his supervision.  EPA regulations on "Standards for Applicators"  were
published in the Federal Register in October 1974,  and regulations on "State Certi-
fication Plans" were issued in March 1975.  An EPA policy paper which was given wide
State distribution in March 1975, outlined various  methods of determining competency
that would not require examination.  Training is only mandatory where a State makes
it so.

     Although the major  part of EPA's Federal and State program support will be
directed to certification and training in 1976 and  1977, States will  need guidance
and assistance in other  areas of new responsibilities under the Act,  including State
registration of pesticides for special local  needs,  State issuance of experimental
use permits, improved accident reporting, and adequate understanding of EPA's re-
entry standards.

1975 Accomplishments                 ;

     Key regulations issued:

          Standards for  Applicators	,	October 1974
          Regulations on State Certification Plans	.March 1975

     Key guidelines issued:

          Preliminary listing of Restricted Use Pesticides	.February 1975
          State Options  for Certification of Private
            Applicators...,	,		March 1975
                                                              (Updated June)

          EPA/USDA Sponsored State  Intrastate Service
            Agreement	June 1975

     An EPA/USDA  interagency agreement on applicator training was completed in
December 1974, and supplemental to the  basic agreement were completed in April
and December  1975.

                                                                      P-13

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                certify applicators might be a problem with some States, EPA can make accommodations
                between October 1977, and March 1978, to complete certification as lona as applicators
                are certified prior to use of a "restricted use" pesticide.   Although faced with a
                manpower reduction in this prqqram area in 1977, the Agency will continue to assist
                States meet the October 1977 effective date.

                     Assuming that by mid-1977 most States will have substantially completed immediate
                needs for certification and training of applicators, EPA regions will move into a
                monitoring phase of State performance, and the State cooperative extension services
T,'?f             will undertake the maintenance of applicator training programs.  Regional operational
                attention will be increasingly redirected to misuse, reentry, integrated pest manage-
                ment, the surveillance of State activities under Section Z4(c) and  5{f) and partici-
                pating States in the integration of their systems into a nationwide comprehensive
                hazard evaluation system.   In addition to soliciting public participation in the
                Agency decision process, EPA will coordinate with farmer and other agricultural  users,
                applicator groups and industry, State officials, USDA, and other Federal agencies
                to establish various media  to better inform these groups and to develop better
                understanding of the Office of Pesticides Programs'  policies, functions, and
                responsibilities.

                     Within the requirements of having substantially met the October 1977 effective
                date, some budgetary costs  can be phased down  in 1977.  The remaining funds will
                provide support to States in maintaining effective operating levels for certifica-
                tion and other nonenforcement control programs through 1977 as well as supporting
                a strong level of EPA staff guidance and assistance for State programs.  The five
                position decrease will result from a reduction in the level of technical support
                to regions and States on certification and training and on public relations
                activities with consumer groups and the interested public.
     \
                                                                                     P-15

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Enforcement
    SECTION TAB

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                                           PESTICIDES

                                           Enforcement


                                     Budget    Current             Increase  +
                            Actual   Estimate  Estimate  Estimate    Decrease  -
                             1975     1976	    1976      1977     1977  vs.  1976
                                              (dol1ars in thousands!

Budget Authority

Pesticides Enforcement...   $3,238    $3,583    $3,911    $4,745      +$834

Permanent Pos i ti gns

Pesticides Enforcement...      149       153       166       156        -10


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $4,745,100 is requested for 1977.   This  represents  an
increase of $834,000 over 1976.
     The EPA pesticides enforcement program includes the registration  and
inspection of pesticide producing establishments; the surveillance  of  pesticides
on the marketplace, imported pesticide products, experimental  use permits and
pesticide uses; and the initiation of enforcement actions including civil  actions,
criminal prosecutions, stop sales, and injunctive actions as  required  to
implement the Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended.
The major goal  of the enforcement program is to ensure compliance with the FIFRA
through the use of these tools.

     EPA's pesticide enforcement program supports both the supply control  and use
control strategies.  Supply control is achieved by registration and inspection of
producer establishments, and sampling and analysis of pesticide products at the
producing establishment, in the marketplace, and, for imported products, at the
port of entry.   Use control is achieved by making use and reentry inspections to
determine whether pesticide users are complying with label directions  for use and
EPA's regulations regarding minimum times for reentering areas after pesticide
treatment.

     To make the Federal pesticides regulatory program more effective, the Agency
has begun development of Federal-State cooperative enforcement agreements pursuant
to the authority of Section 23 (a)(l) of the FIFRA, as amended.  Through these
agreements, which involve the participation of States in inspections,  sampling,
marketplace surveillance, use investigations, and laboratory  analyses, the program
can be extended to a level  which Agency1-manpower alone could  not attain.

1975 Accomplishments

     During 1975, significant accomplishments were realized in the  pesticides
enforcement program.  In the producer and product compliance  area,  2,226 producer
establishments  were inspected, 5,037 samples were obtained, and 480 port visits
were made; in addition, 1,493 intrastate establishments were  registered.  In the
use compliance area, there were 593 use and reentry investigations.

     As a result of these efforts, the following enforcement  actions were taken:
224. civil actions and 101 stop sale, use, or removal orders or seizures resulting
from marketplace inspections; 847 notices of warning to producers for minor
violations; 70 recalls; 134 import detentions and 37 warnings to private applicators
of violations of the Act under the civil penalty provisions;  4 civil actions,
8 criminal prosecutions, and 8 stop sale, use, or removal orders or seizures
resulting from use and reentry investigations.
                                                                    P-16

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     During 1975, 676 Federal-State cooperative enforcement efforts were undertaken,
and regions prepared profiles on State enforcement capabilities.   Furthermore, national
Federal-State cooperative enforcement guidance was issued with the aid of State
enforcement capability reports; guidance for establishment books  and records
inspection was issued; guidance was issued for investigating incidents where a
registered pesticide tias-allegedly been used in a manner inconsistent, with its
labeling; and guidance for surveillance of products suspected of  presenting hazards
to human health and the evnironment was issued.

1976 Program

     In 1976, the pesticides enforcement program is focused on three major activities.
The first is final implementation of a pesticides use compliance  program.  In
accordance with the FIFRA prohibition of pesticide use in a manner inconsistent with
.its labeling, the Agency is developing a comprehensive use surveillance and misuse
follow-up strategy.  In this area, regions have committed themselves to 403 experimental
use investigations and 791 use and reentry investigations.

     The second component of the program is continued assurance of product and
producer compliance through producer establishment inspections, market surveillance,
and import investigations.  The Agency plans to make over 1,700 producer establishment
inspections, nearly 500 import investigations, and over 1,700 marketplace investigations
in 1976.

     Finally, the Agency is engaged in developing Federal-State cooperative
agreements and expects to accomplish 14 nonmonetary agreements in 1976.  Although
such agreements cannot provide reliable participation without grant support, it is
hoped that by involving States in the enforcement of the FIFRA, regulatory presence
can be furthered to an extent not attainable by Agency manpower alone.

1977 Plan

     The emphasis in 1977 will be to develop and implement additional  Federal-State
cooperative agreements with grant-in-aid.   These agreements will  involve State
participation in existing regulatory activities.  Through the performance of these
activities, individual State efforts will  be channeled into the Federal program and
create a comprehensive and uniform administration of pesticides enforcement.

     In combination with the States in 1977, we expect to conduct 2,380 establishment
inspections, obtain 7,360 establishment inspections, marketplace  and use samples, and
perform 3,600 use and reentry investigations.
                                                                     P-17

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Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

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                                           PESTICIDES

                                    Research and Development
                                     Budget    Current             Increase  +
                            Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease  •»
                             1975     1976      197.6.      1977    1977 vs. 1976
                                              fdoTlars in thousand?}"
Budget Authority
Health and Ecological
  Effects	  $10,190   $11,198   $10,887   $10,887

Permanent Positions

Health and Ecological
 'Effects	:..      151       148       157       157
     This program supports the Agency's pesticide programs, including the development
of data required to support administrati/e reviews and litigation; monitoring;
development of new methods of pest controls; and development of long-term pesticides
strategy.  Major areas of ongoing research include;  (1) deteptnination of human health
effects;  (2) development of pesticide residue analytical metfiods; (3) development
of model ecosystems;  (4) determination of ecological effects; and  (5) investigations
of substitute chemicals as alternatives for those pesticides under litigation or
review as potentially detrimental.

Budget Request

     An appropriation of $10,887,000 is requested for 1977.  There is no change from
the 1976 level.

Program Description

x    Pesticide research must be conducted to investigate the potential health and
ecological effects of the  major classes of pesticides now registered by EPA and
in common use and also of those chemicals considered as possible substitutes; to
evaluate the safety of the "new generation" pest control agents such as insect
viruses and pathogenic bacteria, sterility agents, attractants, and insect hormones;
to develop and validate new toxicological methods which can be used for registering
pesticides; and to develop and applv analytical methods for determination of these
agents in tissues and environmental media.

     These research efforts are essential to the administration of the Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FlFRA) because they are used to assist
the reregistration process and the formulation of policies on registering new
classes of pest control agents; to  improve the protocols required in registering
pesticides; to support the human monitoring, substitute chemicals, and integrated
pest management programs; and to provide health and ecological information in
public hearings.  Pesticide research is also used to support toxic effluent
standards and issuance of permits, water quality criteria for estuarine and
coastal waters, and ocean disposal permits.  Analytical methods developed are
useful to the monitoring programs  of EPA;, State, and local governments.
In addition, valuable technical assistance is supplied to EPA regional and
program offices by pesticide research through provision of special studies,
consultation, and expert testimony in legal proceedings.

1975 Accomplishments

     In 1975, this program:

     -  Completed a study of agricultural workers which verified a direct correlation
        between exposure to organophosphate pesticides and urinary metabolites, as
        measured by ,a new method developed at EPA laboratories;
                                                                     P-18

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                  -   Determined  that  people  accidentally  poisoned with  a  chlorinated
                     organophosphate  pesticide  exhibit  symptoms  as  long as  tissue  residues
                     persist,  and  that  the effects  last much  longer than  with  nonchlorinated
                     organophosphates;

                  -   Developed methods  for determining  hexachlorobenzene  in air  and human
 j                    tissue;

•'                  -   Reported  that malathion inhibited  the  population growth of  marine  protozoa;

 -i                 -   Revised the bioassay procedures  for  EPA's ocean disposal  permit  program;  and
4-(
                  -   Investigated  the suitability of  registered  pesticide chemicals as  substitutes
                     for 2, 4, 5-T, EBDC, DDT,  chlordane, heptachlor, and aldrin-dieldrin.

             1976Program

                  In  1976, toxicological  studies are  being  conducted to determine  the acute
,,            effects  of pesticides on mammals,  the  identification of pesticide metabolites,
 ]            the distribution  and  effects of pesticides and their metabolities in  animal tissues,
             their biochemical effects  on metabolic activity  and central  nervous function, their
             ability  to cause  birth defects  and other reproductive  malfunctions, and  their
             potential  for causing gene mutations and cancer.  Inhalation toxicology  studies are
             being initiated to  assess  the importance of  inhalation, as compared with ingestion
             and skin contact, in  the toxicity  of pesticides.  These health effects studies will
             yield determination of the acute effects of  at least eight pesticide  aerosols of
             controlled particle sizes, and  measurement of  the distribution of the parent  compound
             and its  metabolities  in  body tissues,  urine  and  feces.

                  Studies are  being completed on the  effect of Mirex and  heptachlor in  marine
             ecosystems.  In addition,  studies  are  being  undertaken to  refine  and  report the
             effects  of pesticide  pollutants on estuarine and coastal environments and  on the
             impact of pesticide applications on terrestrial  ecosystems.  These  ecological
             processes and effects studies will result  in production and  evaluation of
             preliminary microcosm work on chemical,  photochemcial, and microbial  degradation
             of trifluralin, endosulfan, and hexachlorobenzene;  bioassays on acute and  chronic
             toxicity and residual build-up  for 20  major  pesticides in  fresh water ecosystems;
             development of an evaluative model for predicting the  distribution  and half-life
             of pesticides among the  various substrates of  fresh surface  water ecosystems; model
             calibration for malathion, atrazine, and trifluralin;  completion  of chronic egg
             to egg bioassay on  toxaphene; and, determination of the effects of  selected
             organic  and inorganic pesticide compounds  on marine species  and ecosystems.

                  In  the area  of analytic techniques, attention  will be given  to developing
             a sensitive, specific detector  for pesticides  containing chloride,  sulfur  and/or
             nitrogen; and efficient  system  for collecting  and determining  pesticides in air;
             and analytic methods  for determining dioxins in  tissues, environmental media, and
             pesticide formulations.  Other  objectives  include completing a manual for  analysis
             of pesticides in  water and waste water,  incorporating  carbamate and organophosphate
             pesticides into a more inclusive multiresidue  analytic procedures,  and establishing
             Standardized procedures  for identification of  insect viruses in tissue.

                  In  1976, the substitute chemical  program  intends  to complete about  24 initial
             scientific reviews  and eight bio-  and  socioeconomic reviews  of substitutes for
s it           problematic pesticides,

             J977___P]an
., >t           ~~~~~™~~
                  The proposed 1977 pesticide research  program will:

                  -   Expand analytic  methodology research to  develop and  improve quality control
                     activities  and to  detect new generation  and.other  pesticide agents in tissue,
                     environmental samples,  and ambient air;

                  -   Continue  study of  the toxicological  effects of commonly used  pesticides on
                     laboratory  animals and  cell cultures,  the  toxicological effects  of
                     substitute  chemicals, inhalation toxicology, arid the potential hazards of
                     new generation pesticides;


                                                                                P-19

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Radiation
   SECTION TAB

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                                            RADIATION
f J'l
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions....
  Transition Quarter	
Research and Development:
  Appropriation	,
  Permanent Positions....
  Transition Quarter	

Total, Radiation  Program;
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions	
  Transition Quarter	
  Outlays.	
  Authorization Levels...

OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY
                               Actual
                                1975
$4,620
   190
   N/A
 2,450
    72
   N/A
 7,070
   262
   N/A
 9,574
          Budget
         Estimate
           1976
          Current
         Estimate
           1976
         Estimate
           1977
                                               "(dollars in thousands)"
$4,337
   174
 1,227
 1,640
    57
   403
 5,977
   231
 1,630
 5,700
$4,487
   184
 1,227
 1,679
    50
   403
 6,166
   234
 1,630
 6,100
$4,022
   174
   N/A
   879
    30
   N/A
 4,901
   204
   N/A
 5,270
          Increase +
          Decrease -
         1977 vs.  1976
 -$465
   -10
   N/A
  -800
   -20
   N/A
-1,265
   -30
   N/A
  -830
 Authorization is by virtue of the Appropriation Act.
     Exposure to  ionizing radiation results from natural background, medical and
 industrial applications of x-rays and radioactive materials, from various aspects
 of  the nuclear power industry, from processing of certain raw materials (phosphates,
 for example), and from fallout due to weapons testing.  Exposure to "natural"
 sources  can be substantially increased through man's intervention with mininq or
 manufacturing processes.  Low-level radiation health effects are carcinogenesis
 and genetic damage.  EPA accepts, as a prudent public health assumption, the
 concept  that any radiation exposure results in some adverse health effects and
 believes  that while public exposure is inevitable, no avoidable risk due to
 radiation exposure should occur to individuals, the population at  large, or the
 environment without the existence of off-setting benefits.  The bases for this
 judgment  are recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences Report on "The
 Effects  on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation" (Report
 of  the Advisory  Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation).

     The  current  annual incidence of serious health effects from natural, medical,
 and occupational exposures are estimated to be about 11,000, 10,000, and 100
 respectively - a total of about 21,000 effects per year.  Almost all of the
 potential  health effects from natural exposure result from uncontrollable back-
 ground levels.   However, an estimated 100 to 500 health effects resulting from
 increased exposure above usual  background levels due to industrial processes
 can be avoided through various control measures.  Previous efforts to reduce
 unnecessary exposure to x-rays have been in the form of perfontiair-a standards
 for equipment; improved medical practices in the use of x-rays could avoid an
 additions.'.   ,000 health effects each year.  The health effects impact of improved
 occupations" exposure control has not been quantified.

     Although the potential health impact from the existing nuclear energy sector
 is  low,  EPA has  estimated that projected nuclear energy growth could greatly
 increase this problem.  The estimates indicate that as many as 13,500 serious
 health effects could be committed by a combination of krypton, tritium, iodine-129,
 and carbon-14 releases from nuclear industry activities by the year 2000, aiven
 no  additional controls beyond those currently in effect. ' EPA has held hearings on
 the need for an  environmental plutonium standard and, as result of these hearings,
 ir,  J-"!V2loping Federal radiation guidance setting out clean-up and decontamination
 criteria.  The health impact of this and other possible plutonium controls has
 not yet  been fully quantified.
                                                                            R-l

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                              Abai
                            ,Budg
                    Actual   Estim]
                     1975     197
uthority

,  Standards,
idelines	
ental Impact
merit	
$1,150

 3,470
$1,

 3,
al	

t Positions
, Standards,
idelines	
ental Impact
fnent	•....
al.
 4,620     4,



    48

   142

   190
 radiation program's abatement an
PA's- responsibilities for setting!
eneral environment and for settinjj
r all Federal radiation protection
contribute to guidelines and stari
, local, or other Federal radiati
ince and monitoring to determine
g technical assistance to other g
Df federally supported or license
sntal radiation, and related engi

 primary objective of the radiati
ie risk of individuals, the popul
3 radiation exposure without off-
 1,500 cases of serious health ef
 appears to be achievable.  The s|
reventing 90 percent of the healtj
jclear energy industry by the yea
lose currently in effect.

 radiation abatement and control
ities:

teria, Standards, and Guidelines.
to the development and issuance o
m of the general environment fro:
;  (3) drinking water standards; a|
 Federal agencies.  Effluent guid|
2s are also  included in this subai
idelines  is presently under delibf
 =ntal standards for radioactive mi
 an form  the  parameters for the Nu<
 3n of individual  licensed facilit
                                    KAj
                                  regulations  (this is set out in NRC's Appendix I to 10CFR50 of May  5,  197
                                  some overview  is maintained to insure that  established  standards  and  guic
                                  followed.  Enforcement of drinking water standards and  effluent discharge
                                  navigable waters is, of course, carried out by appropriate EPA offices.
                                  SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND  DECREASES
                                                            1976 .Radiation  Program.
Abatement and Control	
   The decrease is associated with
   a reduction of technical
   assistance support to the States.
      r""\
Research and Development.	
   The decrease is associated with
   a redirection of emphasis upon the
   health effects of nonionizing
   radiation and a phase-out of health
   and ecological effects  research in
   ionizing radiation.
                                                                                           (in  thousands  of

                                                                                                $6,166

                                                                                                   -465
                                                                                                                      -800
                                                                                                                     4,901
                lecj
                cont)
                --B.L.1,*.
                irco
                •rin
                «"i
                tirj
                :ts>
                              1977  Radiation  Program	,.

                        SUMMARY  OF BUDGET  ESTIMATES

                             1.   Summary  of Budget  Request

                                  In 1977,  a  total  of  $4,901,300   is  requested  to  be  appropriated.
                        represents a  decrease  of $1,264,400  from  the 1976  appropriation.

                             2.   Changes  from Original  1976 Budget Estimate

                                  Changes from  the  original budget estimate are as follows:

                                                                                (dollars  in  thousc
                                  Original  estimate	
                                  Operati ng adjustments	
                                  Miscellaneous  increases  and  decreases..
                                            Current  1976  estimate.
                                                    $5,977
                                                      +160
                                                       +29

                                                     6,166
                                      The  principal  change  in  the  1976  estimate  occurred in operating adjus
                                   early  in the year.    The  1976  budget  required  reductions of 12 percent in
                                   17  percent  in  funding.  In order to;make  a  smooth  transition  to  a  lower  pt
                                   level, especially  in  the  regional  offices which  had  radiation  program  <;ta1
                                   only one or two  positions, a small  amount of relief  was  essential.   Keducl
                                   wi 11 conti, 'e  in 1977.
                 (4)
                •ar i
                                   ANALYSIS  OF  INCREASES  AND DECREASES  TO  OBLIGATIONS
                                       Prior year  obligations.
                                                                                 (dollars in thous<
                                         Reduction  of costs  due  to  program
                                          decrease	
                                         Change  in  amount  of carryover  funds
                                          avai Table.	,	
                                                                              Current
                                                                             Estimate
                                                                               1976

                                                                            $7,070
                                                                                                             -650

                                                                                                             -150
                                                           Estima
                                                             1977

                                                            $6,24
                                                                                              -1,18

                                                                                                 -7

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                                            RADIATION

                                      Abatement and Control

                               Criteria^ Standards, and Guidelines

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs. 1976
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	      $1,150     $1,196     $1,241      $1,254       +$13
Permanent Positions	          48         48         51          51


BudgetRequest

     An appropriation of $1,254,000 is requested for 1977.  This represents an
increase of $13,200 over the 1976 program.

Program Des_cription

     Activities are reilated to the development and promulgation of standards and
guidelines for the protection of the general environment from radioactive materials.
Environmental standards established for materials in nuclear fuel cycles are enforced
by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at licensed facility sites; EPA is
responsible for enforcement of radiation limits established under the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) and the Safe Drinking Water Act.

     Water'quality criteria and drinking water standards are established to control
radioactivity in water pathways, including domestic water supplies.  Effluent
guidelines remit the discharge of radioactive materials under the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act.  Application of this authority to discharges from NRG
licensed facilities will be determined by the Supreme Court of the United States
(COPRIG vs. Train).

     Federal radiation guidance (Section 204 of the Atomic Energy Act) directs the
Administrator to advise the President with respect to radiation matters directly
or indirectly affecting health, including guidance for all Federal agencies in
the formulation of radiation standards.  EPA has the responsibility to assess the
impact of radiation sources, develop policies for their control, and to document
radiation levels and exposures that occur.  Selection of areas requiring guidance
is based on the extent to which the source contributes to the total public exposure
to radiation, anticipated growth in sources, or development of new information on
control techniques or health effects.  For example, the Agency is currently
revising the present Federal Radiation Council (FRC) occupational standards based
on an anticipated growth in exposure and .information indicating that the present
standards are not sufficiently comprehensive.

1975Accpmplishmgnts

     In 1975, EPA published its proposed environmental standard for the uranium
fuel cycle in the Federal Registe.r, completed technical analysis of existing data,
and held hearings on the need for development of standards or guidelines for
plutonium.  Initial criteria for ocean disposal of radioactive wastes was completed.
The proposed Federal standard for radioactivity in drinking water was completed.
Effluent criteria for release of radioactive discharges from the phosphate industry
under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit programs was
developed.  EPA also established an interagency working group for the purpose of
developing guidance regarding medical uses of x-rays and radioactive materials.
Basic information on trends, risks, and benefit perspectives of occupational
exposure to radioactivity were analyzed.  An interagency working group to develop
revised occupational exposure guidance was established.  Draft protective action
guides  (under FRC Authority) for evacuation, decontamination, and reentry in the
event of radioactive gaseous arc' particulate releases as a result of accident were
completed.

                                                                             R-7

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                                           RADIATION

                                     Abatement and Control

                                Environmental  Impact Assessment

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS,

                                        Budget     Current               Increase +
                              Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                               1975      1976        1976       1977     1977 vs.  1976
                                              (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	        $3,470     $3,141     $3,246     $2,768           -$478
Permanent  Positions..           142        126        133        123             -10

Budget Reguest

     An appropriation of $2,768,400 is requested for 1977.   This represents a decrease
of $477,600 from the 1976 program.

ProgramDescription

     Data collection and analysis provide the basis for identifying the need for
standards and determining conformance with established standards.  In addition to
information processed through the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System
(ERAMS), EPA collects and analyzes data from specialized sources to determine the
scope of a problem, the need for remedial action, and effectiveness of the applied
remedy.  Many industries disturb, distribute,  or redistribute naturally occurring
radioactive materials.  The mining industry which produces phosphate fertilizer and
elemental phosphorus also increases the potential for population exposure to radon
and its daughters found in the mined materials.

     A major focus of the EPA radiation protection program is the review of
Environmental Impact Statements  (EIS's) prepared for the design, construction, and
organization of facilities to Federal regulation or operated by other Federal
agencies as required by the National Environmental Policy Act.  The ability to
make intelligent reviews and judicious comments on EIS's requires maintenance of a
base level of information acquired through engineering studies of new and developing
technologies, such as new types of power reactors, designs of fuel reprocessing
plans and waste disposal facilities.

     The primary focus of the State program support activity is working with States
in the development phases of their radiation control programs, including technical
information and assistance on localized problems.  Much of this assistance is
provided through small staffs located in regional offices.  This effort also
includes the provision of laboratory support for radiochemical analysis of air,
water, soil, food, or milk samples.  Support of ionizing radiation control
activities will be reduced in 1977.

1975 Accompli shments

     In  1T75, the Agency supported two technician training courses (total of 60
students).  Sample analysis in special situations (such as the Mound Laboratories,
Ohio, plutonium leak) was provided.  The inventory on instrumentation available
to States for use in emergencies was completed.  Operation of the radium disposal
facility continued.

     EPA continued to operate the ERAMS  (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring
System) which involved collection and analysis of data on radioactivity in air,
water, and milk.  The air/water  pathway model  for incorporation  into the Comprehensive
Dose Computational System  (CDCS), a system designed to estimate source related
exposures to radiation was developed.  Environmental pathways were validated
through  field studies at the General Electric  fuel fabrication facility at
Wilmington, North Carolina; the  H. B. Robinson, South Carolina, plant; and uranium
mill tailings sites  in eight western States.   Surveys to obtain data on levels of
nonionizing radiation in various  geographic locations were initiated.


                                                                                   R-9

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Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

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                                            RADIATION

                                    Research and  Development
                                     Budget    Current             Increase  +
                            Actual   Estimate  Estimate  Estimate    Decrease  -
                                      1976      1976    ._ 1977     1977  vs.  1976
                                              "{dollars' in' thousand!!
Budget Authority
Health and Ecological
  Effects	   $2,450    $1,640    $1,679     $879       -$800

permanent Pos it ions

Health and Ecological
  Effects	       72        57        50       3D         -20
    The radiation research and development program provides EPA with an information
 base for  standards setting and regulatory actions.  The program currently consists
 of  two parts:  studies of the health effects resulting from exposure to radiation
 and studies of the transport of radiation through the environment.  In the_future,
 it  is planned to concentrate on determining the health effects of nonionizing
 radiation.

Budget Reauest

    An appropration of $878,900 is requested for 1977.  This represents a decrease
 of  $800,000 from the 1976 level.

 ProgramDescrigtion

    The health effects of radiation are studied by epidemiological and toxicological
methods.  Adverse health effects can result from exposure to ionizing radiation such
 as  radionuclides emitted by nuclear power reactors or from high dose exposure to non-
 ionizing  radiation, .as found in close proximity to tn'gh power transmitting antennae.
 The scope of the radiation program in health effects of ionizing radiation is narrow,
 being restricted to support epidemiological studies by the Atomic Bomb Casualty
 Commission and to limited laboratory studies of the radiotoxicity of krypton-85 and
 tritium,  radionuclides arising from present nuclear power reactor operation.  The
 primary aim of the program of studies of nonionizing radiation is directed toward animal
 studies with some support for population studies relative to effects from radar
 frequencies and frequencies associated with electric power transmission.  Transport
 studies are concerned with describing the pathways by which selected radionuclides
 can reach man.  The radiation pathways; research is an integral part of the program to
 understand human exposure and consequent health effects.  The problem is one of
 describing the transport of radionuclides through the biosphere by tu° various pathways
 which govern their movement, chemical and physical change, and ultimate fate.  The
 program has been focuseo on the most important radionuclides from the point of view of
 the long  range problems associated with the fast breeder reactor program.

    One additional aspect of the program is the radiological surveillance EPA performs
 for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in the areas adjacent to
 ERDA's Nevada Test Site.  The program is organized around three kinds of surveillance—
 routine,  special, and test oriented.  In the routine surveillance program, sampling
 (air, milk, and water) and radiation exposure measurement networks are maintained to
 record existing environmental radiation levels and their variations.  "Special"
 surveillance includes monitoring for possible migration of test related radioactive
 debris in ground water on and around the site, and soil sampling programs.  The test
 oriented  program involves positioning radiation monitoring teams in the areas most
 likely to be affected by a release of radioactive material to the atmosphere, and
 includes  sampling by aircraft and long range tracking of debris in the event of a
 radioactive release.  Personnel performing these functions are included in the Agency's
 reimbursable account.
                                                                            R-ll

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Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

-------
Budget Authority
 Environmental  Noise
  Strategies and
  Standards,	
 Program Implementation

         Total	
Permanent Positions
 Environmental Noise
  Strategies and
  Standards	
 Program Implementation
         Total,
                                             NOISE

                                     Abatement and Control

                                    Budget    Current             Increase +
                           Actual   Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                            1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs.  1976   Paqe
$3,337
 1.315
 4,652
    55
$8,329
 1.263
$8,319
 1.225
$8,342
 1.234
 9,592
 9,544
 9,576
    75
    74
    74
+$23
  +9
-9
-11
 +32
29
26
49
26
49
25
49
25

                                                       -9
                                                       -11
    The Abatement and Control appropriation provides for regulation development
activities necessary to implement the Noise Control Act of 1972.   These activities
include the regulation of interstate rail  and motor carriers, specifically required
by the Act.-  The Act further requires the identification of major sources of noise
and subsequent new product regulations.   These noise emission standards are intended
to protect the public health and welfare through the application  of the best available
technology, taking into account the cost of compliance.  Labeling regulations are
required for products which emit noise capable of adversely affecting the public
health and welfare and for which new product regulations are unnecessary or insufficiently
protective.  Labeling is also required for products which are sold on the basis of
their effectiveness in reducing noise.

    The Abatement and Control appropriation also provides for technical assistance to
other Federal agencies and to State and  local governments for the development and
implementation of their noise control programs.  In addition, it  also provides for
technical assistance to the States in preparation for their complementary in-use
enforcement role both in areas where new product regulations have been established
and in localized problem areas more susceptible to State than Federal enforcement.

    Abatement and control activities carried out through the regional offices are
direct guidance to State and local agencies, environmental assessments relating to
defining the noise problem and provision of environmental sources data for use in
developing new product regulations, and  advice and assistance to  regional programs
of other Federal agencies which have noise control  implications.

    The Noise portion of the Abatement and Control  appropriation  includes the following
two subactivities:

    Environmental Noise Strategies and Standards.  This subactivity includes activities
and outputs related to the development and updating of control  strategies for various
sources of noise, and the translation of those strategies into  appropriate regulatory
actions.  The major regulatory thrusts of this program involve  establishing noise
emissions standards for newly manufactured products which are major sources of noise,
designating products for labeling as to  noise levels, development and implementation
of standards for interstate rail and motor carriers, and development and follow-up
of EPA proposed standards for the control  of aircraft and  airport noise to the Federal
Aviation Administration.
                                                                    N-7

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                                              NOISE

                                      Abatement and Control

                          Environmental Noise Strategies and Standards

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs,. 1976
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	..       $3,337     $8,329     $8,319     $8,342      +$23
Permanent Positions	,.           29         49         49         49


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $8,342,100 is requested for 1977.   This represents an increase
of $22,700 over 1976.

Program^ Description

     The development and promulgation of regulations for products which are noise sources
Involves three discrete types of effort: (1) supportive studies of products (or classes
of products) to determine noise emission levels, technology for controlling such noise,
costs associated with controls, and health and welfare benefits derived from noise
reduction and impact on environmental noise levels; (2) publication of a report in the
Federal Register identifying products to be regulated as major noise sources; and (3)
promulgation of emissions standards and/or labeling criteria for these products.  With
respect to aircraft and airport noise it includes EPA recommendations for, and review
of FAA aircraft and airport noise control  strategies.

     Development and promulgation of regulations requiring  labeling of protective and
control devices involves the identification of products sold wholly or in part on the
basis of effectively reducing noise and analysis for that capability.  Once the
effectiveness (or lack of same) is established, regulations will be developed requiring
manufacturers to label those products.

1975 Accomplishments

     In 1975, program accomplishments include the promulgation of a final rulemaking
action for interstate motor carriers, notices of proposed rulemaking for new medium
and heavy-duty trucks and portable air compressors and an advance notice of proposed
rulemaking for the labeling of hearing protectors.  The Noise program proposed five
noise abatement regulations to the FAA: minimum altitude, small propeller-driven
aircraft, retrofit, fleet noise level reporting, and limits for supersonic aircraft.
Extensive economic and technology studies  were performed on a number of products to
determine their suitability for formal identification as major sources of noise.
These efforts culminated in May 1975, with the publication  of the second Identification
of Major Noise Sources Report which identified motorcycles, buses, wheel and track
loaders and dozers, truck mounted solid waste compactors, and truck mounted
refrigeration units as candidates for immediate regulation  (within 24 months of
identification as required in the Noise Control Act).

1976 Program

     Planned activities include promulgation of final regulations on new medium and
heavy-duty trucks, new portable air compressors, interstate rail carriers, and the
labeling of hearing protectors.  Regulations for take-off procedures, approach and
landing procedures, and airport noise control wi.ll be proposed to the FAA and
follow-up actions will be taken on regulations proposed to  the FAA in 1975.

     EPA's responsibility for "Special Local Conditions" determinations under Section
17 (Interstate Rail Carrier) and Section 18 (Interstate Motor Carrier) of the Noise
Control Act will begin in 1976 and will continue in the future.

     Extensive preidentification studies will be continued  in the construction and
surface tranportation equipment areas and  will expand to encompass small engine-
                                                                   N-9

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                                              NOISE

                                      Abatement and Control

                                     Program Implementation

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS


                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs. 1976
                                               fdollars in thousands)

Appropriation	      $1,315     $1,263     $1,225     $1,234         +$9
Permanent Positions	          26         26         25         25


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $1,234,300 is requested for 1977.  This represents an increase
of $9,500 over 1976.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes programs related to the implementation of regulatory and
statutory requirements for which the Federal Government has responsibility.  It includes
the development of State and local capability to implement noise abatement activities,
including the development of guidelines and information, model  codes or model legislation,
consultation, with State and local control programs on specific  control or planning
problems, and assistance in the interpretation of Federal regulations and guidelines.

     The Federal agency coordination function incorporates: (1) the coordination of
other Federal agencies' activities in implementing Section 4 of the Noise Control Act
(which requires that other Federal agencies comply with Federal, State and local noise
regulations); (2) the responsibilities for monitoring other Federal facilities' noise
abatement activities; and (3) the review of other Federal agency environmental impact
statements insofar as their noise impacts are concerned.

     Strategy evaluation encompasses the evaluation of noise program effectiveness in
reducing the levels of noise, including environmental assessments and the evaluation of
data to determine noise reduction trends.  It also includes assisting State and local
noise programs in the evaluation of localized problems.

1975 Accomplishments

     Technical assistance was provided to State and local governments in identifying
problems and developing noise control programs.  This assistance included preparation
of ordinances, selection of equipment, training of personnel, and community noise level
measurements.  Noise control workshops were held to provide demonstrations on measurement
techniques and information on the development and implementation of local programs.

     Advice and consultation were made available to other Federal agencies in the
development of their noise control programs and a report was submitted to Congress on
the status of Federal noise control and research programs,

     A cooperative noise reduction program was implemented to inform interstate motor
carriers of noise regulations applicable to them and to encourage early, voluntary
compliance.

1976 Program

     Technical assistance to develop State and local programs will continue, as will
training of State and local personnel through workshops and seminars.  Further data and
survey information will be collected in order to assist State and local governments in
identifying and defining their noise problems.

     A "Community Noise Workbook", developed by EPA, will be published by the National
Institute of Municipal Law Officers and will aid communities in establishing noise
programs.  A model community noise ordinance will be published  and work will be initiated
on the development of noise guidelines for local building codes.          M-I-,

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Enforcement
    SECTION TAB

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                                              NOISE

                                           Enforcement

                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual   Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                              (dollars in thousands!

Budget Authority
  Noise Enforcement	        $21       $522    $1,030      $709          -$321

Permanent Positions
  Noise Enforcement	          1         10        21        21
     The noise enforcement program is designed to implement the noise enforcement
strategy developed pursuant to the Noise Act of 1972.   The program will  provide
Federal enforcement of new product emission standards  developed by the Office of
Noise Abatement and Control, establish the Federal  in-use activity, and produce
enforcement related assistance to the States and localities.   The Noise Enforcement
Test Facility will provide the necessary Federal testing capability to support the
noise enforcement program.

Budget Request

     An appropriation of $708,600 is requested for 1977.  This represents a  decrease
of $320,700 from the 1976 program.

1975 Accomplishments

     In 1975, emphasis was placed on locating and developing  a noise test facility
site, and developing policy and regulations for achieving compliance with Federal
noise standards and labeling requirements for new products.  Activities included
promulgation of regulations for implementing the enforcement  strategy for new
product noise emission standards (medium and heavy-duty trucks and portable  air
compressors), development of the strategy for Federal  enforcement of such standards
in-use, and participation in finalization of labeling  requirements for new products.

     A noise test facility was selected and EPA began  development of the means for
carrying out enforcement of new truck, new compressor, and motor carrier standards.
Initial policies were developed for assisting State/local enforcement authorities
in regulating products in-use.

1976 Program

     The new product noise emission standards for medium and  heavy-duty trucks and
portable air compressors have been promulgated.  These new truck noise emission
standards are to be effective October 1, 1977; the new compressor standards  will
also be effective in 1977.  These standards are enforced as soon as manufacturers
notify EPA that they wish to begin production verification.  Manufacturers have
indicated that they desire the flexibility to verify production models before the
regulations are effective.  This verification will  require evaluation and monitoring
by EPA.

     The strategy for enforcement of new product noise emission standards for medium
and heavy-duty trucks and portable air compressors consists of two parts:  (1) auditing
noisj emission performance of new products, and (2) production verification.   Program
activities include the development of an EPA standard  test capability.  This capability
is essential to support the enforcement activity for enforcement of new products
subject to noise emission standards by audit and for new product verification.
                                                                     N-13

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Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

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                                              NOISE

                                    Research and Development

                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                              (dollars in thousands)
Budget Authority
  Health and Ecological
    Effects..,	      ...        $45

Permanent Positions
  Health amd"Ecological
    Effects.
Explanation of Change in Program

     The $45,000 contained in the budget estimate for 1976 has been transferred to
the monitoring and technical assistance subactivity under the interdisciplinary
media.  That activity will continue to support EPA's mandated function as  Federal
coordinator qf noise research.  In 1977, it is intended to integrate the noise
coordination function with the other activities of the office of noise abatement.
                                                                     N-15

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Interdisciplinary
       SECTION TAB

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                                        INTERDISCIPLINARY

 PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                        Budget     Current               Increase +
                              Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                               1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs, 1976
                                               (dollars in thousands)
 Abatement and Control :
  Appropriation ............   $3,911         ...     $8,789    $10,665         +$1,876
  Permanent Positions ......       50         ...        130        129              -1
  Transition Quarter. ......      N/A         ...      2,061        N/A             N/A

 Research and Development:
  Appropriation ............   21,042     20,776     28,155     25,355          -2,800
  Permanent Positions ......      263         252        204        214             +10
  Transition Quarter .......      N/A      4,570      4,570        N/A             N/A

 Total, Interdisciplinary
  Program:
  Appropriation ............   24,953     20,776     36,944     36,020            -924
  Permanent Positions ......      313         252        334        343              +9
  Transition Quarter ---- ...      N/A      4,570      6,631        N/A             N/A
  Outlays ..................   18,197     22,472     26,140     26,500            +360
  Authorization Levels.,...   Authorizations are contained within amounts authorized
                              for Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Clean Air Act,
                              Solid Waste Disposal Act, Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide
                              and Rodenticide Act, as well as certain portions by virtue
                              of the Appropriation Act,

OVERVIEW  AND STRATEGY

     Effective management of environmental  programs frequently requires cutting
 across the usual  media lines.  Although most problems are best approached directly
 by specific  media programs, there are frequently cases where either the problem,
 skill, or technique for addressing it is not readily assignable to a particular
 media.  A multimedia  or interdisciplinary  approach is consequently the most
 efficient and effective  vehicle for Agency action.  EPA applies this concept
 primarily in the research and development area where both the problems and tools
 are frequently multidisciplinary.  Consequently,  the restructuring of EPA's research
 and development program which was implemented in  1976 has .resulted in the  expansion  of
 the multimedia research category in this medium.   A multimedia or inter-
 disciplinary approach is also being applied to the preparation of environmental impact
 statements.  Although this activity is often media specific, the focus is  continually
 shifting from problem to problem and media to media.  Accordingly, it can be managed
 more effectively and efficiently from an  interdisciplinary stance than by assigning
 resources to each media and reprogramming every time a  change occurs.

 SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES

                                                         (dollars in thousands)

     1976 Interdisciplinary Program ..... .......                $36,944

        Abatement and Control ..................                 +1 ,876
         The requested increase will  provide
         for additional environmental Impact
         statements for construction grants and
         new source discharge permits.  This
         program has been transferred from the
         Agency and Regional  Management appropriation.

        Research and Development...... ---- . ----                 -2,800
         The decreased funding request for
         interdisciplinary research and development
         is due to a $2 million reduction in
         support to the National  Center for
                                                                            1-1

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     (2)  $4,777,000 from the water quality media for the renewable resources program
which is concerned with developing the methods and management practices for abatement
and control of pollution from agriculture and silviculture; and

     (3)  $45,000 for noise research coordination.

     Other minor program adjustments resulted in an increase of $64,700.

'ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
                                                        Current
                                                       Estimate
                                                         1976
              Estimate
                1977
                                                        (dollars in thousands)
     Prior year obligations.	

       Change in amount of carryover funds available

       Congressional add-on.		.

       Transfer of E.IS function from Agency and
        Regional Management	
       Programmatic increases from other media.

       Miscellaneous increases and decreases...
       Net change of 1977 program increases and
        decreases —	

     Total estimated "obligations	
       (From new  obligation authority)	
       (From prior year funds)	
$24,953

 +1,968

 +1,000


  +5,061

  +4,700

     +61
  37,743
 (32,825)
 ( 4,918)
$37,743

   -798

   -800


 +1,700
 36,390
(32,270)
( 4,120)
EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
     Change in amount of carryover funds available—the funds brought forward into
 1976 exceed the amount obligated in 1975 and will therefore increase the amount
 of obligations.  The 1976 funds to be carried forward into 1977 are estimated to
 be somewhat lower than those experienced in 1976, hence the decrease in obligations
 in 1977.

     Congressional add-on—the increase of $1 million in obligations in 1976 is as
 a result of the add-on for multimedia research.  In  1977, only a portion of  these
 funds will be utilized.

     Transfer of EIS function from Agency and Regional Management--This transfer
 was addressed in the previous section.  The obligation increase in 1976 reflects
 the funding increase for this program.  The further increase 1n 1977 reflects
 the program increase reflected for this activity.

     Programmatic increases from other media—These  transfers  were discussed in the
 preceeding section and are a result   of the restructuring of the research and
 development program which was implemented in 1976.  These transfers will result
 in an  increase to 1976 obligations of approximately $4.7 million.

     Miscellaneous increases and decreases—Obligations are slightly increased due
 to minor program adjustments.

     Net change of 1977 program increases and decreases--As discussed previously,
 the reduction of funds for the National  Center for lexicological Research  and in
 Monitoring and Technical  Support will  result in a net.decrease in  1977  obligations
 of approximately $1.3 million.
                                                                           1-3

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Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

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Budget Authority

Environmental Impact
  Statement Preparation..

Permanent Positi ons

Environmental Impact
  Statement Preparation..
                                        INTERDISCIPLINARY

                                      Abatement and Control

                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                              (dollars in thousands!
$3,911
    50
5,789    $10,665
  130
129
          +$1,876
-1
                               1976 budget estimate was included under Agency
                               Management and Support and is identical  to
                               1976 current estimate.
    " With certain exceptions, the National  Environmental  Policy Act of 1969
requires that all Federal  agencies prepare environmental  impact statements  on
all of their proposed major actions which would significantly affect the environ*
ment.  Accordingly, EPA has undertaken the preparation ofEI-S's(or negative
declarations in instances  where no significant environmental  impact is involved)
for municipal waste water treatment plant grants and for the  issuance of new
source discharge permits (NSDP).   In addition, the Agency has announced a policy
of voluntarily preparing ElS'sfor major regulatory actions even though they are
not required by law.
BudgetRequest

     An appropriation of $10,664,400 is requested for 1977.
an increase of $1,875,500 over 1976.

1975Accomplishments
                                 This represents
     1975 was the first full year in which a significant amount of resources were
specifically allocated for EIS preparation.  Primary emphasis was on the pre-
paration of construction grant EIS's and new arrangements involving the use of
contract consultants working in conjunction with EPA staff were developed.   The
20 EIS's prepared covered 42 construction grants, or about five percent of  the
1975 grants which were subject to NEPA requirements.  Work leading toward the
development of regulatory and NSDP EIS'swas also initiated.

1976 Program

     In 1976, the number of construction grants to be awarded is expected to
increase by 200 percent and EIS preparation is expected to increase accordingly
from 20 to 63 EIS's, covering about five percent of al] grants issued.   The
NSDP program will be underway in 1976 and it is expected that more than 20
EIS's will be prepared covering approximately seven percent of the permits  to
be issued.  Interim EIS's on five ocean dumping sites and draft EIS's on
approximately 30 regulations are also planned for 1976.
                                                                         1-5

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Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

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BudgetAuthority
  Health and Ecological
    Effects		
  Industrial  Processes.
  Public Sector,
    Activities	
  Monitoring and Technical
    Support..	

         Total	,...
                           Actual
                            1975
$4,912
 4,121
            INTERDISCIPLINARY

        Research and Development

         Budget    Current             Increase +
        Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
        _J976_      1976      1977    1977 VS.  1976
                  (dollars in thousandsT
Permanent Positions
  Health and Ecological
    Effects	.....
  Industrial Processes.
  Public Sector
    Activities	
  Monitoring and Technical
    Support	
    21
    25
         Total,
   263
$8,763
$7 ,573
 6,416
$5,573
 6,416
21,042    20,776    28,155    25,355
    46
    14
    31
    14
    31
   252
   204
   214
-$2,000
                                   -2,800
+10
                                             Page
       1-8
       1-10
1 ,403
10,606
1,359
10,654
1,794
12,372
1,794
11,572
-800
1-13
1-15
       1-8
       1-10
13
204
13
193
12
147
12
157
-t-10
1-13
1-15
     EPA is responsible for making and implementing decisions concerning the use of
common property environmental resources, i.e., the air, water, wilderness, etc., and
must consider the interrelationship of these resources and our social and economic
well-being.  Thus, EPA functions in many ways as an environmental manager.  This
function requires the use of a wide range of assessment vehicles—theoretical,
operational, and managerial.  The interdisciplinary research program is designed to
supply these vehicles through conduct of multidisciplinary, multimedia research
activities in health and ecological effects, socioeconomic impacts of environmental
policies, monitoring, and other areas of concern.  The program also develops quality
assurance procedures for use in regional and State programs, provides standard setting
methodologies, and produces assessment documents on pollutants for which standards may
be established.  The Science Advisory Board is administratively housed under this
program.
                                                                           1-7

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1977 Plan

    In 1977, the socioeconomic research will  continue work  on  the  benefits of  water
pollution control, develop a system for ranking pollutants, and  produce  reports
and analyses on new pollutants and pollution  problems.   NCTR support will return
to the 1975 level  of $4,000,000 for long-term,  low-level  exposure  work aimed
at providing data  on the possible carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic
effects of various pollutants on man.
                                                                           1-9

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        (b)  Provide tools for the planner/decision makers to determine the
             consequences of the major agricultural and forestry pollutants,
             including appropriate predictive methods;

        (c)  Provide tools to evaluate both the pollution  and cost-effectiveness
             of individual and combined management systems;

        (d)  Develop methods that minimize agricultural and forestry related
             pollution by implementing different systems at different
             locations; and

        (e)  Develop ecologically sound integrated pest management strategies,
             tactics, and models applicable to at least six major crop
             ecosystems.

     In order to achieve these objectives, studies will be undertaken in 1976
in the following areas:

             Animal  production--!and application of wastes from confined animal
             production,  management of animal wastes from  non-National
             Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems (nbn-NPDES) operations,
             and waste disposal  where land application  is  not feasible;

             Irrigated crop production—irrigation system  management methods
             and predictive methods for management and  reduction of mass
             emission of pollutants in irrigation return flow systems;

             Nonirrigated crop production—agricultural chemicals/sediment
             management systems, predictive modeling, and  long-term trends;

             Forestry activities—the development of forestry practices
             management systems  and techniques to predict  and control
             environmental consequences; and

             Integrated pest management—continuation of interagency agree-
             ments and other studies in progress on eight  crop ecosystems
             in 24 States.

     An assessment of long- and  short-term trends in agricultural  and forestry
production, as they impact environmental quality, will  be  initiated to:

             Develop the capability to assess and predict  the environmental
             effects of existing and advanced approaches necessary for
             increased production of renewable resources at the local,  regional,
             and national levels;

             Develop prediction  capability to allow projections of the
             environmental impacts of renewable resource production
             activities;  and

             Develop cost-effective alternative technological, management,
             and institutional approaches to assure increased production
             with minimal environmental impact.

     During 1976, the renewable  resources programs will also:

             Complete a national assessment of pollutant discharges from
             nonpoint sources, including a compilation  and evaluation of
             readily usable methods for estimating discharges from nonpoint
             sources;
                                                                           I-11

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                                       INTERDISCIPLINARY

                                   Research and Development

                                   Public Sector Activities
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Appropriation.	.
Permanent Positions.
                                        Budget
                              Actual   Estimate
                               1975      1976
$1,403
    13
                     Current
                    Estimate
                      1976
                    Estimate
                      1977
                                               (dollars in thousands)
$1,359
    13
$1,794
    12
$1 ,794
    12
                     Increase +
                     Decrease -
                    1977 vs.  1976
Budget Request

     An appropriation of $1,794,100 is requested for 1977.   There is no change from
1976,

Program Description

     The objective of this program is to provide State, regional, and local  environ-
mental planners and managers with methods to determine feasible alternative solutions
for specific environmental problems and to provide techniques for selecting  the best
solutions.  The research focuses on the development of improved multinedia planning
techniques, improved methods for the collection and analysis of environmental  quality
and economic information, evaluation of alternative institutional arrangements,  and
development of comprehensive analysis and evaluation methodology.  Important efforts
involve:

     (1)   Investigation of the linkages among various residuals (solids,  liquids,
           and gases) generated by and discharged from community activities;

     (2)   The design of integrated environmental management systems, including
           analytic planning techniques, alternative implementation techniques,
           and administrative and institutional considerations; and

     (3)   The evaluation of the impacts (both positive and negative) on all media
           (air, water, land) of single-media pollution control strategies.

1975 Accomplishments

     Major accomplishments during 1975 include:

     (1)   Publication of a practical guide for local  administrators on performance
           controls for sensitive lands, including aquifer recharge areas  and wet-
           1ands;

     (2)   Completion of a major study of the efforts and techniques of State
           governments to integrate environmental programs  with other resource
           management programs;

     (3)   Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of several  alternative transportation
           control strategies for reducing mobile source air pollution;

     (4)   Preparation of a handbook to aid planners in the selection of appropriate
           water quality simulation models for various types of plans;

     (5)   Development of procedures to assist administrators in designing a cost-
           effective discharge permit compliance enforcement program; and

     (6)   Description of a broad range of economic incentives for environmental
           protection with an analysis of legal, political, and administrative
           aspects.
                                                                             1-13

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PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                       INTERDISCIPLINARY

                                   Research and Development

                               Monitoring and Technical Support
                                        Budget     Current
                              Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate
                               1975      1976       1976       1977
                                               (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation	
Permanent Positions.
$10,606
    204
$10,654
    193
$12,372
    147
$11,572
    157
                                            Increase +
                                            Decrease -
                                           1977 vs.  1976
-$800
  +10
Budget Request

    An appropriation of $11,571,900 is requested for 1977.   This represents a decrease
of $800,000 from the 1976 program.

Program Descri ption

    The components of this program activity include:  (1) measurement techniques
and equipment development; (2) monitoring quality assurance, methods, and procedures
preparation; (3) technical support; (4) technical information and technology
transfer; (5) the Science Advisory Board; and (6) the Minority Institutions
Research Support (MIRS) program.

    The basic objectives of the measurement, techniques, and equipment development
activity are to assist EPA and related State operational monitoring programs in the
identification of present and future measurement techniques, and the development
of the most efficient and effective monitoring systems for meeting their needs.
This includes the modification and adaptation of measurement and monitoring
technology to meet specific requirements of EPA and State operational monitoring
programs.

    Quality assurance serves all environmental monitoring activities of the Agency.
The quality assurance programs standardizes the monitoring methods, provides quality
control procedures for operational  use, supplies standard reference materials, and
performs quality control audits.  These services are needed by the Agency's operational
monitoring programs so that their environmental data will be accurate and legally
defensible.  The program includes development of quality control guidelines and
manuals, on-site evaluations of all regional laboratories, laboratory performance
tests, laboratory certification, studies for automation of laboratory instruments
and data handling, and participation in regional quality control workships.
Thus, the quality assurance program is responsible for the development and implementa-
tion of procedures and protocols to assure that the data generated from the use of
measurement systems by different persons in different locations and at different
times is valid and intercomparable.

    The technical support program is responsible for assuring that the expertise
of R&D personnel is made available to Agency operating programs.  This program,
in conjunction with similar elements in the air and water quality media, plans
for and provides resources to respond to requests from the Agency for technical
expertise or assistance from staff scientists throughout the research and development
organization.  The interdisciplinary technical support program also provides
support for the EPA airborne monitoring capability.

    The combined technical information and technology transfer program was recently
identified separately to provide increased emphasis and support for assuring the
timely and cost-effective dissemination and exchange of scientific and technical
information within EPA and from EPA to the environmental R&D user community.  Major
support activities performed within this program include:  the acquisition of
technical data; provision of automatic data processing planning, coordination,
and support services; operation of technical  information search, retrieval, and
referral services, including responses to requests for technical information
                                                                             1-15

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1976 Program

     In 1976, the measurement techniques and equipment program objectives include:
(1) completion of the strategy for Agencywide monitoring; (2) the development of a
detector for airborne mercury (mercury is one of three air pollutants designated as
hazardous and is to be closely controlled); (3) automation and improvement of in-situ
and remote monitoring techniques; and (4) improvement or correction of deficiencies
in methods used for regulatory measurements.

     The 1976 objectives of the quality assurance program include:   (1) continuing
validation of measurement methods for ambient air, mobile source, and stationary
source pollution measurement; (.2) continuing development of standard reference
materials and samples; (3) further development of guidelines and procedures to
evaluate and certify laboratories performing environmental quality measurement;
(4) development of a quality assurance regulation to implement part of the require-
ments of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974; (5) finalizing amendments to EPA's
regulations implementing the requirements of Section 304(g) of the Federal  Water
Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972; (6) continuing quality control  audits
of EPA monitoring systems; and (7) development of a measurement methods equivalency
program for the NPDES permit program.

     The 1976 technical  support program includes airborne monitoring and  mapping
activities as well as aerial surveillance for purposes of delineating land use
patterns  and pollution  sources, investigating sources of nonionizing radiation,
surveying strip mine areas to determine causes and sources of acid  mine wastes and
effects of rehabilitation practices, studying sanitary landfills, and determining
the movement of leachate.

     The principal technical information and technology transfer program  objectives
for 1976 will be to develop a comprehensive program plan for the dissemination and
exchange of scientific and technical information to both EPA components and the
environmental R&D user community, and to establish an initial operational  capability
for centralized managerial oversight of EPA R&D technical information activities.
Major anticipated accomplishments in support of this objective include:  review  and
assessment of existing technical information policies, procedures,  and support
systems; development of  a five-year ADP support plan; establishment of centralized
publication and information search, retrieval, and referral  services; and conduct
of special studies to determine the form and desired content of R&D outputs.   The
technology transfer program will conduct approximately 20 seminars  in the areas  of
land treatment, advanced waste treatment, industrial pollution control, multimedia
pollution control for small businesses, monitoring of industrial  waste water,  water
supply treatment processes, and analytical  methodology.   In addition, a variety  of
specialized reports and  design manuals will be developed and widely distributed.
Special emphasis will be placed on the development of publications  designed to
assist policy and decision makers at the State and local  government level  to
investigate available options for solving municipal  waste water treatment problems.

1977 Plan

     For 1977, an increase of 10 positions  and a decrease of $800,000 is  requested
from the 1976 level.  The net decrease is due to carrying forward $200,000 of  the
$1 million added by the  Congress in 1976.
                                                                    1-17

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Toxic Substances
       SECTION TAB

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                                        TOXIC SUBSTANCES
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	
  Permanent Positions....
  Transition Quarter	
Research and Development:
  Appropriation.	
  Permanent Positions	
  Transition Quarter	

Total, Toxic Substances
  Program:
  Appropri ati on	
  Permanent Positions	
  Transition Quarter	
  Outlays—	
  Authorization  Levels...
                               Actual
                                1975
$3*834
    39
   N/A
 1,054
    11
   N/A
          Budget      Current
         Estimate   Estimate    Estimate
           1976       1976       1977
                 (dollars  in  thousands)
$6,850
    45
 1,880
 1,209
    11
   500
$6,850
    45
 1,880
 1,355
     7
   500
$6,012
    45
   N/A
 1,355
     7
   N/A
                                Increase  +
                                Decrease  -
                               1977  vs.  1976
-$838

  N/A




  N/A



 -838
 4,888      8,059      .8,205      7,367
    50         56         52         52
   N/A      2,380      2,380        N/A          N/A
 2,445      8,200      4,100      5,100       +1,000
Authorizations are contained within authorizations under
the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Clean Air
Act,  the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.
 OVERVIEW  AND. STRATEGY
      Today there are  more  than  30,000  chemical  substances  being  produced  in  the
 United  States  for commercial  purposes, with  1,000  new  chemicals  introduced into
 the marketplace  each  year.   Many of these  are  toxic  under  certain conditions and
 a  considerable number are  sufficiently hazardous to  cause  environmental concern.
 A  number of these chemical  compounds,  such as  vinyl  chToride;  arsenic, polychlorinated
 biphenyls, asbestos,  and others, have  been involved  in incidents which have  created
 widespread public attention.  These factors  and others led .EPA to create  its toxic
 substances program and led  to the  introduction of  legislation  which  is aimed at
 regulating the production  and use  of these chemicals.

      EPA's current toxic substances program  is carried on  under  the  authorities
 granted in the Agency's major legislative  mandates,  such as  the  Clean Air Act,
 the Safe Drinking Water Act,  the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, and the
 Federal  Insecticide,  Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.   Major  program  activities
 include:  development and  coordination of  Agency efforts under these authorities
 to address the problems of  toxic mater-ials which cross traditional media  lines;
 use and development of .predictive  techniques for early identification of
 substances most  likely to  pose  a hazard  to man or  the  environment; implementation
 of methods for monitoring  air,  water,  and  sbil  for selected  toxic chemicals; and
 development of strategies  under a  variety  of Federal authorities to  control
 multimedia toxic pollutants.  Research is  being conducted  into the health effects
 of selected toxic substances  and their metabolites to  provide  data on chemicals of
 current concern.

      The Agency  is also preparing  to implement the proposed  Toxic Substances Control
 Act which, if  enacted, would authorize development of  reporting  and  data  processing
 systems, development  of standards  for  test protocols,  and  imposition of regulatory
 restrictions on  the importation, production, use,  and  disposal of toxic substances
 where needed to  protect health  or  the  environment.  Until  a  Toxic Substances
 Control  Act is passed, EPA  will continue to  deal with  toxic  substance problems by
 relying on other legislative  authorities,  either singly or in  combination, to
 mitigate as much of the hazard  as  possible.  In addition,  the  Agency is increasingly
 encouraging the  major chemical  producers to  take more  substantive voluntary  steps
 to reduce chemical risks and  contribute  to environmental goals.
                                                                     TS-1

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       to determine the validity of a quick,  cheap test using  the octanol/water
       coefficient to measure bioaccumulation potential.

    -  Environmental  Prediction.   This early  warning  activity  is  directed  to
       identifying and prioritizing chemicals,  previously  unsuspected  of entering
       the environment, which may pose a  hazard in the near future.

    -  Data System,  This activity will  improve the ready  availability in  a usable
       form of authoritative information  concerning the manufacture, use,  distribution,
       and disposal of chemical  substances.   This  information  base will assist  in
       identifying those new chemical  substances entering  commerce which deserve
       in-depth analyses to determine whether they pose a  threat.  Current work
       involves examining many existing data  bases to determine how  they might
       best be used to support the toxic  substances program.

    -  Strategy Development and  Coordination.  This effort emphasizes  identification
       of interrelationships and common purposes in the toxic  substances area;
       regulatory strategies and standards required under  different  authorities;
       multiple applications and transferableity of principles used  in setting
       standards on the same or  similar substances under different authorities; and
       multiple sources of the same toxic substances, their accumulation in different
       media, their routes through the environment, and their  pathways to  human
       exposure.  Also of concern is the  interface between EPA activities  and the
       authorities and interests of other agencies, including  the Food and Drug
       Administration, the Occupational Safety and Health  Administration,  the
       National Cancer Institute and the  Consumer  Product  Safey Commission.   Issuance
       of a formal strategy for  the toxic substances program  is scheduled  for 1977.

    -  Response to Crises.  Considerable  resources will continue  to  be committed to
       coordinating EPA responses to unexpected national crises involving  toxic
       substances.  During 1977, efforts  will be heavily committed to  thepolychlo-
       nfnated biphenyl, ethylene dibromide,  asbestos, and arsenic problems.

    -  Chemical and Economic Assessment.   EPA analyzes classes of chemicals as  the
       basis for determining the risks associated  with new products  in these classes
       which are likely to appear on the  market in the near future.  Central to
       consideration of options is the balancing of risks  and  benefits.
1977 Plan
    During 1977, the Toxic Substances program will:

    -  Continue review and evaluation of testing methods;

    -  Continue development of criteria and techniques for early warning through
       identification of toxic substances which may  pose a hazard;

    -  Complete development of a data system that will enable quick identification
       of chemicals of concern; and

    -  Continue analysis of chemical  classes as the  basis for determinirig the risks
       associated with new products .
                                                                   TS-5

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Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

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                                        TOXIC SUBSTANCES

                                    Research and Development
                                     Budget    Current             Increase +
                            Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs. 1976
                                              (dollars in thousands^"
Budget Authority
Health and Ecological
  Effects	   $1,054    $1,209    $1,355    $1,355

Perjnane n t Positions

Health and Ecological
  Effects	       11        11         7         7:
    The purpose of this program is to conduct research on the effects of toxic substances
(and their metabolites) on human health and the ecosystem.  This research produces
protocols for testing substances to determine the potential  hazards of their release into
the environment; provides information on the transport and persistence of toxic substances,
as well as their health and ecological effects; and develops analytical  chemistry methods
to measure and identify these pollutants.

Budget Request

    An appropriation of $1,355,000 is requested for 1977, the same level of funds as
appropriated for 1976.

Program Descri pti on

    A program of research on the effects of toxic substances (and their metabolites) on
human health is ' being undertaken.   Protocols  for premarket  testing of toxic substances
are being developed and validated, and criteria are being established for deciding which
toxic substances should be declared hazardous to human health.


    A program to determine the ecological effects of pollutants designated as toxic
substances is underway.  Data are collected to provide a sound scientific basis for the
establishment of water quality standards related to toxic substances for such uses as
protecting public water supplies, recreation, fish and wildlife propagation, agricultural
supply and industrial purposes.  Information is developed to relate the concentration,
form, transport processes, and acute  and chronic effects of toxic substances to the size,
character, composition, and location of these sources.

11975 Accomplishinents

    In 1975  the toxic substances program:

    -  Discovered in a chronic feeding study that hexachlorobenzene accumulates to more
       toxic levels in the second generation;

    -  Discovered that cadmium is a moderately strong agent in inducing birth defects; and

    -  Published an interim analytical method-for asbestos  in water.
                                                                    TS-6

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               1976 Program

   ^               In 1976, the program includes:

                   -  .Evaluating the hazards of human contact with  toxic  substances  by conducting
                      animal  toxicology studies of specific compounds;

 , j                 -  Developing laboratory methods for toxicological  screening of toxic substances
                      to identify which compounds  are likely to persist in the environment or have
                      .adverse effects on man or aquatic and terrestrial life;

 *t>*                 -  Evaluating mammalian effects of toxic compounds; and

                   -  Evaluating the ecological effects of toxic compounds by  testing them in model
 ?;•>                    ecosystems designed to study particular characteristics.
•»i
 * '             1977 Plan

 ^                 In 1977, rapid assessments of total body burdens and total  exposure to potential
               health damage  from organic and inorganic chemicals will be continued, as will  studies
 ;'             of the sources, transport, and biological effects of toxic substances in terrestrial
               ecosystems.
                                                                                   TS-7

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Energy
  SECTION TAB

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                                             ENERGY

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs. 1976
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Energy Research and
  Development:
  Appropriation	     $88,339   $112,000   $100,000    $96,427       -$3,573
  Permanent Positions	         ...         40        123        123
  Transition Quarter	         N/A     21,000     20,885        N/A           N/A
  Outlays	      23,204    113,000    120,000    120,000
  Authorization Levels...      Authorization is by virtue of the Appropriation Act.

 OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     A major mission of the Agency is to protect the public health and welfare
from the adverse effects of energy systems.   Research and development efforts
toward this end are mandated by the Clean Air Act, the Federal  Water Pollution
Control Act, and the Resources Recovery Act.   Such protection must be
accomplished through a  multimedia approach so that the control  of one form
of pollution does not result in an unacceptable impact on another media
(e.g., control  of air pollution resulting in  solid waste problems).  Also,
this mission must be accomplished at reasonable and acceptable cost in order that
national concerns such  as defense, food supply, energy supply,  and individual
liberties are not adversely impacted.

     Several approaches have been proposed in attempts to meet the Nation's
energy needs.   These include:

        (a)  the increased use of coal  through direct burning and  coal  derived
             synthetic  fuels;

        (b)  the use of alternate sources of energy such as waste, solar,
             geothermal, and nuclear; and

        (c)  more efficient energy extraction and utilization processes.

Each approach will  have some impact upon the environment.

     Because of the potentially acute health and ecological effects  --
associated with the traditional,  as well as  the new, technologies  for fuel
processing, conversion, and utilization,  the Environmental ProterjHon Agency
(EPA) has a major responsibility in this area to ensure that the environment
and human health are protected.   EPA must have programs under way now to  develop
the health and technical data  base necessary to support new source performance
standards and ambient air quality standards  when new technologies  "come on-line".
This becomes quite apparent when  the lead times for health and control  technology
efforts are considered.

     Several long-term problem areas are anticipated for~the regulatory and
enforcement components  of the  Agency.  The increased reliance on substitute
fuels from coal and oil shale, requiring cleaning, gasification, liquefaction,
and other techniques can generate new pollutants whose-effects are not known
and must be defined.  Another  problem area concerns the potentially cumulative
chronic health and ecological  effects of new an'd emerging sources  (nuclear,
geothermal, solar, etc.).  For example, the  nuclear fuel cycle presents
potential problems associated  with plutonium .dispersion in the biosphere  and
with the indefinite storage of highly radiactive wastes.
                                                                           E-l

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                    The conversion,  utilization,  and technology assessment program is  composed of the
  * ,            following subareas:   utility and industrial  power technology,  energy conservation,
               and integrated assessment.

                    Emphasis  is  focused  on the  identification,  characterization,  assessment,  and
               development of control  technology  for pollutants associated with utility and
,,| ;            industrial  combustion sources.   Attention will be focused on generating information
[|•(            which can be used to  help set environmental  standards  and guidelines, and develop
               economical  control  technology so that such standards can  be achieved.

.v?                 The objectives of.the  energy  extraction and processing technology  program
 fi '            are to enable  a rapid increase in  extraction and processing of domestic energy
"! *            resources,  and to enable  these energy sources to be utilized effectively in  an
               environmentally compatible  manner.   The program  is divided into two subareas:
               energy resource extraction  and fuel  processing.

                    The energy related health and  ecological  effects  R&D program  is designed  to
               identify all  adverse  environmental  effects (leading to regulatory  and control
,,„, ,            technology requirements)  associated with energy  extraction, conversion, and  use.
               Major goals include:   (1) adequate  protection of human health  and  the human
               ecosystem,  and (2)  assurance of environmental  protection  with  expanded  use of
               domestic energy supplies.

                    The expertise developed through the R&D program provides  the  basis for
               technical support to  EPA's  regional  and program  offices.   A multitude of different
               mechanisms, ranging from  cooperative regionally  oriented  R&D projects,  to base-
               line condition monitoring the development of scientific data for regulatory
               functions,  and the provision of expert witness testimony  are utilized.

                    For the short-term,  primary efforts are responsive to the Agency's regulatory
               requirements*   A sound technical  base is provided to support the establishment
               of standards and regulations, and  to assure a strong Agency defense in  the event
               of litigation.

                    In the intermediate  term,  research is directed toward problem identification
               and assessment.  Early knowledge of adverse energy system health and ecological
               effects are required  prior  to system implementation, thus avoiding the  need  for
               costly retrofit controls.  This  work leads to the setting of priorities for
               later work and, where possible,  to  the avoidance of environmental  insults.

                    The long-term research program is based,  to a large  extent, on a strategy
               of prevention  rather  than a purely  regulatory approach.   Hence, research is
               undertaken to  better  understand  environmental  processes and to identify the
               effects of broad social  goals and  energy policy  on environmental quality.
 1  ;            Avoidance of all  yet   unrecognized  hazards is the ultimate major objective.
                                                                                       E-3

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EXPLANATION OF  INCREASES AND DECREASES ;TO OBLIGATIONS

     Change in  amount of carryover funds available —  in  1976, obligations are
estimated to be $45.7 million from"carryover  funds which  is an increase  to 1975
obligations.  In 1977,  the amount of carryover funds estimated to he available
greatly decreases.

     Reduction  due to program decrease — the 197.7 budget estimate is «
realignment  of the government-wide energy-related environmental  researui orogifli


     Cost of new positions and related expenses  -.- represents the increased
obligations as  a result of the new positions  in  1976.

     Change due to rate of contractual obligations --  it  is estimated that
1977 obligations will be reduced by $8.6 million due to a change in the
rate of obligations and nonrecurring awards.
                                                                           E-5

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    -  A comprehensive plan based on a multidimensional  matrix to classify program
       content and resources has been developed to assure that the entire range of
       Federal energy/environmental  R&D is woven together into a manageable framework;

    -  Mag-Ox Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD)  was successfully demonstrated on
       both oil  and coal-fired generating stations and results to date indicate
       few discernible differences between oil  or coal-fired boiler applications;

    -  The FGD prototype at the TVA Shawnee Power Station successfully concluded
       2,100 hours of continuous trouble-free operation.   Data obtained from this
       demonstration indicates  that the objective of six months continuous operation
       without reliability problems is achievable;

    -  The portotype double alkali FGD installation at Gulf Power Company's 20
       MW Sholz Station steam generator attained 100 percent availability during
       June 1975 and demonstrated sulfur oxide removal of 90 to 99 percent;

    -  The Chemfix  sludge fixation process pilot demonstration at Shawnee was
       completed in December 1974,  Results to date indicate the material is
       physically stable and is suitable for  use in land-fills and similar
       reclamation projects;

    -  Successful demonstration of retrofit combustion control technology for the
       control of NOx from coal-fired tangential boilers was completed; and

    -  A mathematical model for the design of electrostatic precipitators (ESP)
       was completed.  This will allow the cost-effective design for specific
       participate control technology applications.

1975 Aceoropiishments

    Extraction and Processing Tecjinology

    -  Evaluated physical  and chemical properties of western coal:   Mining
       techniques and transportation modes for exploitation of this domestic
       energy source were assessed.   This study determined and reported the effects
       of western coal properties on combustion equipment operation and atmospheric
       emissions.  The evironmental  impact of expanded western coal  production
       and utilization were analyzed;

       Initiated a comprehensive, multimedia  environmental assessment of the
       development of a domestic oil shale industry.   This assessment program
       will pull together the available data  base on shale oil recovery technology
       environmental problems, and will  identify major environmental  problems
       and data gaps.  Achievement of project objectives is critical  for the
       orderly commercialization of oil  shale technologies;

    -  Completed a preliminary environmental  evaluation  of underground mining
       methods;                            ;

       Completed a user's manual on environmental protection and surface mining of
       coal;  and

    -  Total  characterization of seven ES-Ps operating on a number of sources ranging
       from power plants to aluminum plants was completed.  Results show that ESPs can
       collect particles of all  sizes with high efficiency when dust resistivity
       is not a problem.

    Health and Ecological  Effects,

    -  Commenced studies to determine health  implications of fossil  fuel  extraction
       and conversion, including studies on air and water pollution effects resulting
       from coal liquefaction and gasification  activities;

    -  Initiated studies to determine the types and amounts of organic and inorganic
       pollutants, metals, complex effluents, dissolved  and suspended solids and
       dissolved gases which may impact the fresh water  environment due to increases
       in coal production, oil  shale development, oil and gas extraction, and coal
       gasification and liquefaction;

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1976 Prog ram

    Eytrgctlori^^nd Proc.essing Techno!ogy

    -  Publish a report on  the assessment of high temperature/pressure participate
       control methods.  Such techniques are necessary for pollution control from
       second generation energy systems such as fluidized bed combustion and coal
       gasification processes;

    -  Publish an updated report on the sulfur reduction potential of United States
       coal.  Recent studies have indicated that physical coal cleaning and combina-
       tions of physical coal cleaning and flue gas desulfurization may be the
       most cost-effective  strategies for meeting emission regulations.  Data
       contained in the updated report will allow selection of the most eco.nomic.al
       methods of meeting air pollution regulations;

    -  Initiate construction of the Meyers Process test facility for coal  cleaning
       (desulfurization).  This process, if successfully scaled-up, would  release
       up to 40 percent of  Appalachian Basin coal for direct combustion in new
       stationary sources without the need for flue gas desulfurization.  The
       process would be especially appropriate for application to small utility
       and industrial/commercial boilers.   Data from a test facility operation
       would provide the basis for scale-up to demonstration size;

    -  Complete design manual for physical coal cleaning technology.  The  manual
       will make available  to plant operators and regulatory agencies the  best
       of existing technology in physical  coal cleaning operations;

    -  Complete a .simple field method to analyze overburden pollution potential
       prior to mining; and

  •  -  Complete the evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of reclamation
       practices.

    Conservation, "Utilization, and Technology Assessment

    -  Initiate FGO evaluation phase of Louisville Gas and Electric  test program.
       The objective is to  understand and apply the unique chemistry of this
       successful installation to other installations;

    -  Complete pilot/prototype double alkali FGD test program and publish final
       report.  This process has shown potential cost, reliability and sludge
       disposal  advantages  over lime and limestone scrubbing systems;

    -  Initiate Wellman-Lord regenerable FGD test program at the NIPSCO coal-
       fired utility sites.  This process has demonstrated reliability and
       effectiveness on oil-fired units in Japan ..and will now be demonstrated
       on this full-scale unit;

       Issue final report on sludge conversion (regeneration) pilot studies,
       Successful technology development, would help solve the FGD sludge
       disposal  problem by  allowing conversion and reu.se as an alternative to
       disposal;

    -  Issue annual report  on assessment of Japanese flue gas treatment technology
       for NOx control.  Such technology, which is capable of high-efficiency
       NOx removal, is advancing rapidly in Japan and is being applied to  several
       large installations; .and

    -  Complete fine particulate charged droplet scrubber demonstration.  Such
       technology has potential for enhanced fine particulate removal from a
       variety of combustion and industrial sources.
                                                                             E-9

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             1977  Plan

                Extraction  and  Processing  Technology

    1            -  Complete the environmental  testing  of  operating  eastern  and  midwestern  coal
                    cleaning plants  to  support  setting  of  standards  for new  plants;

 5^'             -  Identify (lab scale)  novel  technologies  for  removal  of sulfur,  nitrogen
.1  :                 and hazardous trace materials  from  coal  and  .coal  cleaning  wastes;

                ^  Test the demonstration  of deep physical  coal  cleaning of utility  coal and
:*¥!                 subsequent combustion to  meet  State and  new  source  standards;
' <
                -  Operate  the  EPA/USBM  physical  coal  cleaning  test facility;

 '*             <•  Operate  Exxon miniplant in  support  of  ERDA pressurized Fluidized  Bed
                    Combustion (FBC)  program  and  EPA environmental assessment  program;

                -  Complete development  of pollutant  sorbent regeneration and alternate
                    sorbents for FBC  systems;

                -  Complete development  of high  temperature/high pressure granular bed  filter
                    fine particulate  control  technology for  support  of  NSPS  for  pressurized
                    FBC and  gasification  processes;

   i             -  Demonstrate  energy  and  environmental  benefits of the Chemically Active
                    Fluid Bed process for residual  oil  gasification/cleanup  at a utility
                    boiler;

                -  Complete bench scale  development of oil  desulfurization/denitrification/
                    demetall ization  technologies;

                -  Complete environmental  testing and  manuals of control technology
                    practice preliminary  in support of  standards for coal gasification,
                    coal liquefaction,  residual oil cleanup,  and oil  shale processing;

                -  Complete a manual of  control  technology  practice to support  effluent
                    guidelines for acid mine  drainage,  sediment  runoff  and other discharges
                    from eastern coal mining  and  handling;

                -  Complete assessment of  pollution potential of coal  and oil  shale  mining
                    in  western United States;

                -  Complete a demonstration  and  manuals of  practicie for cleanup  of  oil
                    spilIs on water;  and

                -  Complete a manual of  practice  for protection and restoration of ocean,
                    estaurine river  and cold  climate shorelines  due  to  oil contamination.

                Conservation, Util ization,	_anj
                    Complete Shawnee/RTP advanced  lime/limestone  test  program  and  publish  final
                    report.   This program aims at  identifying  improved process variations  capable
                    of yielding improved S02  removal,  economics,  reliability,  and  sludge
                    characteristics',

                    Complete the Shawn.ee sludge demonstration  evaluation  program.   This  involves
                    pilot testing of  three commercially offered  sludge fixation processes  with
                    subsequent environmental  evaluations;

                    Complete Bahco test program for lime scrubbing  on  coal-fired industrial
                    boiler and publish final  report.   This  program  will evaluate a  sulfur
                    control  option for the smaller combustion  sources;
                                                                                          E-ll

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    -  Perform studies to evaluate the cost/risk/benefit trade-offs of energy
       production, conservation, and pollution control  alternatives;

    -  Document the application of staged combustion NOx control  technology for
       tangentially-fired coal  field boilers; and

    -  Conduct technology assessments which evaluate both alternative energy
       technologies and approaches for implementing energy development and
       conservation in order to prevent environmental  damage and secure related
       benefits.

    Heal th and Ecol ogica 1 Effects

    In order to meet EPA legislative mandates, near term objectives of the energy
health and ecological effects program have been designed to permit an assessment
of the effects of exposure to various substances distributed in the air, land,
and water as a result of energy technologies—especially coal,  oil shale and
synthetic fuels.  In 1977:

    -  Data obtained on the health effects of waterborne pollutants associated
       with present and emerging processes and production will  specifically
       address heavy metals and organic chemicals, with emphasis on the
       toxicological, biological, genetic, and other biomedical aspects of
       subchronic and chronic exposures;

    -  Health effects information will be developed on  multiroute_«xp»sure from
       metallic pollutants, both singly and in combination resulting from
       fossil fuel, extraction, combustion, and fuel development alternatives;

    -  Air pollutant transport and transformation research will be emphasized
       to determine the chemical/physical processes associated  with the conversion
       of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to sulfates and nitrates and to continue
       study of photochemical oxidant transport;

    -  Studies of the effects of energy technologies in the marine area include
       development of standardized baseline data in cooperation with other
       agencies to study the impact of deep water ports, floating power plants,
       and offshore oil drilling.  Current plans are designed specifically
       to utilize other agencies; ships already engaged in support sampling for
       thorough baseline community assessment and to establish  background levels
       for relevant contaminants in organisms and'habitats;

    -  The watershed ecosystem program will address the impact  of oil shale and
       coal extraction technologies, as well as coal gasification and liquefaction,
       on fresh water biota;

    -  A report will be completed comparing the pharmacokinetics and toxicity
       in mammals of metals consumed in diet through contaminated shellfish
       vs. drinking water;  and

    -  A report will be completed summarizing observed  transport data and regional
       atmospheric transport model analysis for power plant emission in the
       Tennessee Valley region.

    Technica1 Support

    -  Produce extensive analysis, based upon actual monitorinq data and close
       contact with the Regions and other EPA expertise, of probably short-
       medium- and long-term impacts of energy development activities in the
       western U.S.; and

    -  Provide, in cooperation with the EPA Regions IV  and V, preliminary analysis
       of environmental, social, economic, and other impacts of energy activities
       in the Ohio River Basin area.
                                                                             E-13

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    Program
Management and
    Support
     SECTION TAB

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                                 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND  SUPPORT

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget    Current                Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate  Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                1975_    _ 1976	  __1976        1977      1977  vs. 1976
                                                (dollars in  thousands)

Abatement and Control:
  Appropriation	     $31,350    $35,976   $33,695    $34,692         +$997
  Permanent Positions	         188        195        170         167            -3
  Transition Quarter	         N/A      9,285      9,124         N/A           N/A

Enforcement:
  Appropriation	      12,334     15,644     15,431      16,032         +601
  Permanent Positions	         149        169        177         177
  Transition Quarter	         N/A      4,116      4,047         N/A           N/A

Research and Development:
  Appropriation	      22,405     18,536     15,587      15,915         +328
  Permanent Positions	         240        177        142         142
  Transition Quarter	         N/A      5,304      5,227         N/A           N/A

Energy Research and
  Development:
  Appropriation	         ...        ...        550         546            -4
  Permanent Positions	
  Transition Quarter	         N/A        ...        115         N/A           N/A

Total, Program Management
  end Support Program:
  Appropriation	      66,089     70,156     6.5,263      67,185        +1,922
  Permanent Positions....         577        541        489         486            -3
  Transition Quarter	         N/A     18,705     18,513         N/A           N/A
  Outlays	,.      68,200     67,800     69,295      65,150        -4,145
  .Authorization Levels...      Authorization is by virtue  of the Appropriation Act.

OVERVIEW. AM STRATEGY

    This media encompasses the overall  management of  the action  oriented  programs
described in the foregoing media sections.   Resources for  the Assistant Administrators,
their principal  deputies, office directors  and their  immediate staffs are provided
directly through the program management and support media, rather than through
charges to each of the program media.  Management functions  covered include  the
development of program policies and strategies, planning of  media activities,
monitoring and review of program performance,  including  that performed in the  regions,
and the direction of program activities carried out in headquarters.  In  the
enforcement area, program management also includes the staffing  and funds for  EPA's
Office of General  Counsel at headquarters and  Offices of Regional Counsel in the
10 regions.  This media also includes support  costs for  program  activities not
otherwise covered by centralized agency support.
SUMMARY OF I INCREASES ^ANJ) DECREASES

  1976 Program Management and Support Program.
      Abatement and Control	,.	
          This increase is primarily to fund
          this appropriation's share of
          increasedGSA .space rental  charges,
          penalty mail, and new ADP  system
          for the Safe Drinking Hater Act.
          Also included in the increase are
          funds for the annualization of the
          October 1975 pay raise.
(inthousands  of dollars)

          $65,263

            +997
                                                                     PMS-1

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                       Construction  grants  auditing.   An Agency  study  found  that  $2,382,000
                       formerly  used for  support  costs could  be  made available  for  other
                       priority  purposes.   The  funds were  shifted  to the Office of  Audit  to
                       help  meet the rapidly  growing workload in construction grants auditing.
                       Of  the  total , $1 ,905,000 was transferred  .from program management an.d
                       support (PMS).   The  remaining $476,000 was  transferred from  Agency
r^l                    support.

'                       Change  in contract funding..  Contracts totaling $939,000 have been
                       shifted from  support accounts to management accounts.  The PMS
PI -j                    .share of  the  reduction in  support costs is  $751,000.

 > >                    Congressional reduction  for space costs.  The PMS share  of this
                       reduction is  $1., 304,000.             ~~

                       Transfers to  cover administrative costs.  $228,000 was provided to
                       the Office of Administration to cover  the costs of administrative
                       functions transferred  from the  Office  of  Public Affairs.  An additional
                       $663,000  was  transferred to the Office of the Administrator  to cover
                       base  costs, establish  a  small Land  Use staff, and meet increased needs.

                       Reg i o n  X  j _n_c rea s ed cosjs .  Because  of  nearly 100 percent staffing, .the
                       base  budget for  Region X was inadequate to  cover everyday  costs.
  "i                    A total of $297,700  was  transferred from  headquarters' program support
  i                    to  cover  the  regions '.s needs.

                       Intergovernmental  relations transfer.   The  small staff and $183,000
                       formerly  included  under  Abatement and  Control,  program management, has
                       -been  transferred to  Agency management  consistent with the nature of its
                       function.

                       Cons.tructjon... grants congressi ona 1 i ncrease .   $588,000  of  the  congressional
                       increase  for  construction  grants administration has been added to  PMS.
   ,                    The funds are used to  directly  support the  construction  grants program.

                       Transfer  program management positions  to  media  programs.  The Office of
                       Air and Waste Management andTKi^Office of  Water and  Hazardous Materials
                       reclassified  18  positions  and $214,000 from program management to  other
 ' '                    media.  The positions  moved were used  for direct program efforts rather
                       than  overall  management.

                       Hi seel laneous increases  and decreases .  The net effect of numerous minor
                       cHanges is  an increase of  $65~",000.

               ANALYSIS OF  INCREASES AND DEC_REASES TO OBLIGATIONS  (dollars in thousands)
                                                                      Current
                                                                    Estimate       Estimate
                                                                      1976         .
                   Prior year  obligations ....... ,. ........ .. . .        $66,089       $67,572

                   Change  in the  amount of carryover
                      funds  available .........................         +4,187        -2,309

                   Net  change  of  program  increases and
                      decreases, transfers to other media, and
                      annual ization ................... , .......         -2,762          +237

                   Miscellaneous  increases and decreases......  ,          +58          -115
                   Total  estimated obligations..,. .... .......         67,572        65,385
                        (From new obligation  authority) ......        (61 ,T63)      (61,285)
                        (From prior year funds) .......... .....         (6,409)       (4,100)
                                                                                     PMS-3

-------
Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

-------
                                 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT

                                      Abatement and Control
                                     Budget    Current             increase +
                            Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                             1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                              (dollars in thousands!
Budget Authority
Program Management 	
Program Support 	
Total 	 	
Permanent Positions
Program Management 	 ,
Program Support 	 ,
Total 	
$5,876
25,474
31 ,350

188

188
$6,398
29,578
35,976

195

195
$5,838
27,857
33,695

170

170
$6,022
28,670
34,692

167

167
+$184
+813
+997

-3

-3
Page
                                                                                  PMS-6
                                                                                  P.MS-7
                                                                                  PMS-6
                                                                                  PMS-7
     This subactivity provides the resources for management of each of the media
programs funded through the Abatement and Control appropriation and for unique
support services not otherwise covered by centralized Agency support.
                                                                     PMS-5

-------
                                 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT

                                      Abatement and Control

                                         Program Support
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                         Budget
                               Actual   Estimate
                                1975      1976
                      Current
                     Estimate
                       1976
                     Estimate
                       1977
Appropriation.......
Permanent Positions.
$26,474
       {dollars in thousands)

$29,578    $27,857    $28,670
 Increase +
 Decrease -
1977 vs. 1976
    +$813
Budget Request

     An appropriation of $28,670,300 is requested for 1977.  This represents an
increase of $813,700 over 1976.

Program.. Description

     This subactlvity Includes the prorated share of EPA's total funding requirements
of common support services.  These funding requirements cover certain Agencywide and
regional leases, communications, and other common service costs which are managed
through a single headquarters and 10 regional accounts.  These requirements are fully
described in the section covering Agency and Regional Management.  The prorated share
charged under this element represents that portion required to support the programs
funded and conducted under the Abatement and Control appropriation account.
                                                                     PMS-7

-------
                                 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT


                                           Enforcement
                                     Budget    Current
Increase
Budget Authority
Program Management.
Program Support 	
Total 	
Permanent Positions
Program Management 	
Program Support 	 ,
Total 	
Actual
1975
$4,337
7,997
12,334
149

149
Estimate
1976
$4,305
11,339
15,644
169
169
Estimate
1976
(dollars
$4,699
10,732
15,431
177
177
Estimate Decrease -
1977 1977 vs. 1976
in thousands)
$4,687
11.345
16,032
177
177
-$12
+613
+601

                                                                                  Page
                                                                                  PMS-9
                                                                                  PMS-II
                                                                                  PMS-9
                                                                                  PMS-n
     This activity encompasses the overall management of media programs funded
under the Enforcement appropriation.  It also provides for the staffing and funding
of EPA's Office of General Counsel in headquarters and the Office of Regional Counsel
in the 10 regions.
                                                                      PMS-8

-------
Enforcement
    SECTION TAB

-------
                                 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT

                                           Enforcement

                                       Program Management

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

                                         Budget     Current               Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977     1977 vs.1976
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Appropriation	       $4,337      $4,305     $4,;699     $4,687        -$12
Permanent Positions	          149         169        177        177


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $4,687,300 is requested for 1977.   This represents a
decrease of $11,500 from the 1976 level.

Program Description

     This subactivity provides for the overall management of the Office of
Enforcement, including the development of program policies  and strategies, the
overall planning of enforcement activities,  the monitoring  and review of the
program including those activities performed in the regions, and the direction
of the program activities performed in headquarters.  It also covers the staffing
of the Office of General Counsel and Regional  Counsel which serve the legal needs
of all components of the Agency.  This activity is responsible for the achievement
of management-by-Objective (MBO) items which involve enforcement activities and
through legal review contributes to the improved management of the construction
grants program.

     To carry out these functions, positions are allocated  as follows:

                                               1976         1J77

          Office of Enforcement	       38           35
          Office of General Counsel	       85           88
          Offices of Regional Counsel	      _54_          54

                        Total	      177          177

1975 Accompl1shments

     Activities in 1975 by the Offices of General Counsel and Regional Counsel
included more stringent legal review of the  expanded number of construction grants;
expanded legal support for the reregistration of pesticides under FIFRA; increased
workload in review of new legislation, particularly drinking water; and increased
workload due to administrative penalties and public hearings requirements of the
pesticides and water legislation1.

1976 Program

     The growing role and importance of the  Offices of Regional Counsel  are reflected
in the 1976 plan.  As EPA has moved to decentralize its many activities, the Regional
Administrator has looked to his Regional Counsel for legal  support.  This is particu-
larly true in the construction grants  program where legal review of grant documents is
critical.  As the grant program has grown in size and complexity, so has the resultant
Agency responsibility for adequate overview.  Another area  of related concern in 1976
is the legal review of environmental impact  statements related to grant issuance.
Litigation activity is also expected to increase in 1976 related to the construction
grant program, the permit issuance process,  the adequacy of effluent guidelines and
decisions as to the need to prepare environmental impact statements.
                                                                     PMS-9

-------
>'  I
                PROGRJW HIGHLIGHTS
                Appropriation	
                Permanent Positions.
                                                 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT  AND  SUPPORT

                                                           Enforcement

                                                         Program Support
                                                         Budget
                                               Actual    Estimate
                                                1975      1976
                     Current
                    Estimate
                      1976
Estimate
  1977
                 (dollars in thousands)

$7,997    $11,339    $10,732    $11,345
                Budget Request

                     An appropriation of $11,344,600 is requested for 1977.
                increase of $612,100 over 1976.

                Program Description
 Increase +
 Decrease -
1977 vs.  1976
               +$613
                              This represents an
                     This activity constitutes the prorated share of EPA's total funding requirements
                for coranon support services.  These funding requirements cover certain Agencywide
                and regional leases and coranunication and other common service costs which are
                managed through the Agency and Regional Management account.  The prorated share
                charged under this element represents that portion required to support the programs
                funded and conducted under the Enforcement appropriation account.
                                                                                    PMS-1

-------
Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

-------
                                                PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AMD SUPPORT

    N                                              Research and Development
 
-------
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Appropriation
                                 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT

                                    Research and Development

                                       Program Management
Actual
1975
	 	 $7,729
itions 	 240
Budget Current
Estimate Estimate Estimate
1976 1976 1977
(dollars in thousands)
$4,876 $4 456 $4 456
177 142 14?
Increase +
Decrease -
1977 vs. 1976


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $4,455,800 is requested for 1977.  There Is no change from
the  1976  level.

Program Description

     Resources for the overall management of the Office of Research and Development,
including  regional research assignments, are provided through the program management
category.  These  functions include the development of program policies and strategies,
long-range planning of research and development, and review of program activities.
These functions are performed at the headquarters and the laboratories.  This activity
also provides for the regional research representatives.

     To carry out these functions, positions are allocated as follows:

                                                  1976        1977
     Program Management	
     Regional Representatives.

          Total	
 99
142
 99
_43_

142
                                                                    PMS-13

-------
Energy Research
and Development
      SECTION TAB

-------
                                              PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT

                                              Energy Research and Development

                                                      Program Support
             PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                                      Budget     Current               Increase +
                                            Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                             1975     ..197.6       1976       1977     1977 vs.  1976
                                                             (dollars in thousands)

             Appropriation	,...         ...        ...       $550       $546         -$4
             Permanent Positions	


             Budget Request

                  Aji appropration  of $546,000 is  requested  for  1977.   This  represents  a decrease
             of $4,300 from  1976.

             Program Description

                  This subactivity includes  the prorated  share  of EPA's total  funding  requirements
             of common support services.   These funding requirements  cover  certain  Agencywide and
             regional  leases,  communications, and other common  service costs which  are managed
             through a single  headquarters and ten regional  accounts.   These requirements  are
             fully described in the section  covering Agency and Regional  Management,   The  prorated
             share charged under this element represents  that portion required to support  the
             program funded  and conducted under the Energy  Research and Development appropriation
             account.
i
                                                                                 PMS-15

-------
Agency and
  Regional
Management
    SECTION TAB

-------
                                AGENCY AND REGIONAL MANAGEMENT

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS


                                        .Budget     Current              Increase +
                              Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                              _1975_._._    1976       1976       1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                                (dollars in thousands)

Agency and Regional
  Management:
  Appropriation		  $55,051    $67,359    $62,083    $67,572        +$5,489
  Permanent Positions	    1,773      1,837      1,822      1,798            -24
  Transition Quarter	,.      N/A     17,000     16,923        N/A            N/A
  Outlays.	   50,140     54,300     59,300     66,000         +6,700
  Authorization Levels	  Authorization is by virtue of the Appropriation Act.


OVERVIEWAND STRATEGY

     This program covers Agencywide policy direction and administration as it is
carried out at both EPA headquarters and the 10 regional offices.   It also covers
certain corimon services and functions which serve Aqencywide requirements.  A useful
way to classify the activities covered by this appropriation  is in terms  of those
which inv.olve management as contrasted  to those which are supportive in nature.

     Agency management activities are personnel related in that they  include the
salaries and related expenses of the Administrator and his immediate staff offices,
the  10  Regional  Administrators and their staffs, and the various  organizational
components which  provide centralized management and administrative services.  These
include program planning and evaluation, budgeting and financial  management,
personnel, contracts and grants management, audit, legislative liaison, and
similar functions which are required for the effective management  of all Agency
programs.

     Agency  support activities do not involve personnel costs but consist of a wide
assortment of common service  requirements such as office and laboratory services*
guard and janitorial services, facilities lease costs, building alterations and
maintenance, communications, and ADP.  These support services are  managed centrally
and, in most instances, they cannot be readily associated with a  specific organization
or program.  However, it is important that these costs in some way be associated
with the programs which benefit from them.  To accomplish this, the total costs
are allocated on  a pro rata basis to the various appropriations where they are
incl.uded under the budget activity Program Management and Support.  The Agency
and Regional Management appropriation includes only the pro rata  share of these
support costs which can be allocated to Agencywide management activities.

     The scope of these Aqencywide management and support activities is, of course,
set by the programs which they serve; consistent with this, the amounts requested
under thisappropriation are confined to the amounts required for  specific services
considered to be  essential to Agency operations or  to mandatory  increases.   The
Agency's administrative and support activities have been subjected to a close
review and despite the need for increases for certain functions discussed below,
it is planned to  shift a net total .of 24 positions from administrative operations
to meet the critical staffing needs of the operating programs.

SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES        »                      (dollars in thousands)

     1975 Agency  and Regional Management Program..'.	      $S2,0.t!3

        To provide for increased costs i.n areas such
        as audit, civil rights, program .evaluations;
        the full-year cost of tiie October 1975 pay
        raise; and for support requirements such as
        rent, ADP services , and penalty mai 1	       _+_j ,439
     1977 Agency  and Regional Management Program	,	       67,572


                                                                            ARM-1

-------
new needs.  The final $60,000 of this increase was used to establish a small
land use staff in the Office of the Administrator.  The third increase for
administrative functions was a $70,400 transfer to support the executive
development program initiated in 1975.  As the construction grants program grows
and the number of grant awards increases, the audit program must be correspond-
ingly increased to assure that the Government's interests are protected.  In
early 1976 Agency reviews identified $2,382,000 which could be transferred from
support accounts to the Office of Audit.  This is offset by a $476,000 decrease
in Agency support.   The remainder of the $1,9.06,000 decrease in support is
reflected in the Program Management and Support media.  The accounting change
on contracts is required to support the shift of some Public Affairs and Planning
and Evaluation contracts from support funds to Agency management funds.  The
total change amounts to $939,000, which is partially offset by a $188,000
decrease in Agency support.  The remaining $751,000 decrease in support is
shown in Program Management and Support.  This change does not affect the
original planned use of the funds.  The $326,000 decrease for GSA rental charges
is the Agency and Regional Management share of the total $1,630,000 reduction
directed by the Congress.  Finally, the $147,000 decrease for miscellaneous
charges reflects the operating adjustments needed to fit the budget to actual
operating requirements at the beginning of the fiscal year as well as several
other minor changes.

ANALYSIS OF_INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS      (dollars in thousands)

                                                     Current
                                                    Estimate             Estimate
                                                      1976               _L?ZZ

Prior year obligations	   $55,051              $62,083

  Additional cost of management program increases:
    Office of Audit	,		    +2,606               +2,600
    Regional Management	      +150

  Annualization of man-years and/or pay raise	      +675                 +500
  Office of Administration and training programs..       ...                 +850
  Planning and evaluation studies	       ...                 +500

  Miscellaneous increases and decreases	      -182                 -109

  Agency and regional support costs	    +1,703               +1,148

  Transfers from other media discussed in pre-
   vious paragraph.	    +] ,329

  Change on contract funding	      +751	
Total estimated obligations	    62,083               67,572
  (From new obi igation authority)..	,.		   (62,083)             (67,572)
  (From pri or year funds)	

EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND ,DECREASES_ J0_ OBLIGATIONS

     197.6 Agency and Regional Management obligations will increase by $7 million over
actual  1975 obligations.  The principal factors  in the .change are increases
in the 1976 budget, transfers from other media, an.d operating plan adjustments.
Obligation increases related to 1976 budget additions total  $1,525,000, of which
$700,000 is for an increased audit program, $395,000 for annualization of the
1974 pay raises,  $150,000  for  regional  management,  diid  $280,000  for  the
annualization of 14 additional  positions.  Budgeted increments for support costs
(space, utilities, telephones,  ADP, etc.) total $1,70.3,000,  after a $326,000
adjustment for the reduction in GSA rental  charges required by the Congress.
Resources transferred from other media will result in an additional $1,329,000
in obligations for Agency and Regional  Management.  These cover transfers of
specific functions as well  as resource reallocations to meet essential needs.
                                                                            ARM-3

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Budget Authority

  Agency Management.,
  Agency Support	
             Total
     AGENCY AND REGIONAL MANAGEMENT

      Agency Management and Support

         Budget    Current             Increase +
Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
 1975     1976      1976      1977    1977 vs. 1976
$36,148
  7,789
             Total..

Permanent Positions
  Agency Management	
  Agency Support	
 1,287
 1 ,287
                                             (dollars in thousands)
         $44,264
          11,771
        $40,074
         10,177
                             $44 ,408
                              11,325
43,937    56,035
                    50,251
                   55,733
1,346
1,346
+$4,334
 +1,148
+5,482
1,314
1,314
1,292
1,292
-22
-22
                                                                                 Page
         ARM-6
         ARM-9
                                                      ARM-6
                                                      ARM-9
     The agency management and support activity covers the top level  policy
direction of Agencywide programs provided by the Administrator and his immediate
staff and staff offices, the Agencywide management functions provided by the Office
of Planning and Management, and the centralized administrative services and support
activities wtiich are provided to all operations located in Washington, D.C.,
Research Triangle Park-, North Carolina, and Cincinnati, Ohio.   It also provides for
certain support costs budgeted and managed on an Agencywide basis.
                                                                             ARM-5

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           Office of International
             Activities	      24     769.2      23    795.3         -1     +26.1
 i
           Office of
             Civil Rights	      14     408.9      19    436.4         +5     +27.5

y          Office of
?j            Federal
•:>•            Activities	      40   1,233.7      38  1,175.5         -2     -58.2

pj          Office of
I1            Regional and
$            Intergovernmental
             Operations  	      10     461.1      10    480.2         •••     +19.1

 i          Administrative
 \            Law Judges	       3	273.3	L^J®
-------
                                 AGENCY  AND  REGIONAL  MANAGEMENT

                                         Agency Support
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                        Budget     Current              Increase +
                              Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                               1975    _J976_     1976       1977    JlZZj
                              ~                (dollars "in thoUsTnclsT

Appropriation ............... $7,789    $11,771    $10,177    $11,325        +$1,148
Permanent Positions .......


Budget Reguest_

    An appropriation of $11,324,900 is requested for 1977.  This represents an increase
of $1,148,100 over 1976.

Program Description

    The Agency support  subactivity covers the costs necessary to support all program
operations at EPA headquarters, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (RTP), and
Cincinnati, Ohio.  It also includes certain Agencywide support costs which are
managed and budgeted for at the headquarters level.  These support activities, and
their associated costs  can be summarized as follows:

   .-  Office Services.  Common services requirements for laboratory and office
       su pp 1 Tes" , ma i n tenan ce of office equipment, printing and duplicating, audio
       visual .equipment and contracts, motor pool, etc.

    -  Bu i 1 d ing Se rv i ces .  Utilities, local telephone service, purchase and rental
       of equipment, building alterations and space relocations, building  maintenance
       contracts, guard and janitorial service, employee health service contracts,
       etc.

    -  Library Services.  Books, journals, equipment, and services contracts for
       the branch libraries at headquarters, RTP, and Cincinnati as well as
       specialized ADP  services literature searches, technical reports processing,
       etc. for the EPA-wide library system.

    "  ADP Services.  Agencywide ADP services which are provided through time
       sharing contracts or by in-house computer facilities and associated systems
       development/evaluation contracts.

    -  Nationwide Costs.  Agencywide costs for facilities rental, U.S. Postal
       Service charges, Federal telecommunications service, payments to the
       Civil Service Commission for security investigations, reimbursements to the
       Federal Employees Compensation Fund, and payments to the U.S.  Public Health
       Service for personnel administration services for Commissioned Officers
       detailed to EPA, and payments to the U.S. Geological Survey for payroll
       services.

    Since Agency support costs are prorated to the various EPA appropriations according
to their personnel levels, the amount requested above is reflective only of that
portion of the total Agency support which is allocated to the Agency and Regional
Management appropriation.  However, in order to provide a more complete explanation
of the total scope of the Agency's supporting activities the following discussion
deals with the overall  costs of providing support services.
                                                                            ARM-9

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                               AGENCY AND REGIONAL MANAGEMENT

                              Regional Management and  Support
                                    Budget    Current              Increase +
                           Actual  Estimate  Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                            1975     1976       1976_   _1977     1977  vs.  197J>   Pa^e
                                             {Ho 11 ars  in  thousands!
Budget Authori ty

  Regional Management..,
  Regional Support	
               Total	

Pe_rinarijerit_..Pg.5it,1ons

  Regional Management.,,
  Regional Support	
               Total
$10,371    $10,612   $11,007   $11,028
    743        712       825       811
 11,114    11,324    11,83.2    11,839
    486
    486
491
508
506
491
508
506
                                  +$21   ARM-12
                                   -14   ARM -13
                                    + 7
-2   ARM-12
     ARM-13
     The regional management and support activity provides  for  both  the  top  level
direction of program operations and the general administrative/management  functions
which are carried out in each of the Agency's  10 regional offices.   It also  includes
those support activities required by the regional offices which  are  not  covered  by
Agencywide common services costs described  in  the previous  .section covering  the  Agency
support subactivity.
                                                                             ARM-1

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                                AGENCY  AND REGIONAL MANAGEMENT

                                       Regional Support
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Appropriation	
Permanent Positions,
                              Actual
                               1975
                           $743
                                   Budget
                                  Estimate
                                    1976
        Current
       Estimate
         1976
                  Estimate
                    1977
                                               (dollars in thousands)
$712
           $825
                                                            $811
 Increase +
 Decrease -
1977 vs.  1976
                                     -$14
Budget Request

     An appropriation of $811,300 is requested for 1977.
of $13,500 from the 1976 level.

Program Description
                                                     This represents a decrease
     This  subactivity  covers  the  common  services which  are  provided  in all of  the
regional offices.  These incl-tide  local telephone service, office supplies and
equipment, guard and housekeeping services and similar  services required to operate
regional offices.  As  in the  case of Agency support, the total cost of the support
services required by the regional offices is prorated to the  various EPA appropriations
on the basis of personnel strength and the amount requested above is only that
whi.ch is allocated to  the Agency  and Regional Management appropriation.  The
distribution of the total amount  budgeted for regional  support costs to the various
EPA appropriations is  as follows:
                                       Current
                                      Estimate
Abatement and Control	
Enforcement	
Research and Development	
Agency and Regional Management..

                     Total	
$2,969.4
 1,649.6
    21.0
 .__824.;8

 5,464.8
                                                             Estimate
                                                               1977          Change
                                                        (dollars in thousands)

                                                             $2,920.8        -$48,6
                                                              1,523.7        -125.9
                                                                 54.1         +33.1
                                                                811.3         -13.5
                   5,309.9
                                                                             -154.9
                                                                              ARM-13

-------
Buildings and
   Facilities
     SECTION TAB

-------
                                   BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

PROGRAM HI GH I L 1 GHT_S.
                                         Budget     Current             Increase +
                               Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate  Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1_9_7_6_        1977  1977 vs. 197G
                                               "(dollars in thousands )

Buildings and Facilities:
   Appropriation ...... .. .....    $341    $2,100     $2,100     $2,100
   Permanent Positions ......     ...       •••         •••        •••        -••
   Transition Quarter .......     N/A       500         500        N/A        N/A
   Outlays ..................       3     1.500         612      2,000    +$1,388
   Authorization Levels .....   Authorization  is by virtue of the Appropriation Act.

         AND STRAJIGY
     This appropriation covers design and construction of all new EPA owned
facilities as well as necessary repairs and improvements to all federally owned
installations which are occupied by EPA.

     Estimates for 1977 do not contemplate the construction of new facilities nor
major expansion to existing facilities.

     Existing federally owned facilities occupied by EPA include 23 separate instal-
lations, most of which are laboratories or other special purpose facilities.  During
the period covered by these estimates, primary attention will be given to repair and
improvement projects which are required to protect the health and safety of EPA
employees and to enable the Agency to meet applicable standards including those
established by the Department of Labor under the Occupational Health and Safety Act
of 1970.  However, in 1977 as the more critical health and safety needs are met,
it will be possible to give greater attention to a growing backlog of projects of
other types.   These include maintenance projects which are intended to protect the
Federal Government's investment in these facilities as well as those which improve
the facilities' usefulness for program purposes.

SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATES

     Summary of Budget .Request

          An appropriation of $2,100,000 is requested for 1977.  There is no
change from the 1976 appropriation.

ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AJD^ DECREASES, TO OBLIGATIONS

                                                   Current
                                                   Estimate   Estimate
                                                    ]9_76_       J_977
                                                  (dollar:, in .'.hojsands)

     Prior year obi i gat ions .............. , ......   S341      S?,959
       Additional cost of
       program increase ..................... , ... .   +600

       Change in ?mount of
       carryover funds
       available.. ..... . ____ = ......... ........... + 1,1 Ott        -859

       Increase due to accelerated
       rate of obi igations .................. .... "  jj330_       ..._tPJ. ..


     Total estimated obi igations ................  2,959       2,1.%
       (From new obligation authority) .......... (1,771)     (1,057)
       (From prior year funds) .................. (1,188)       (329)
                                                                             BF-1

-------
                                   BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES
                                         Budget     Current              Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                                1975      1976       1976       1977    1977 vs.  1976
                                                [doliars in thousands)

Budget Authority

New Facilities	
Repairs and Improvements	      $341    .  $2,100     $2,100     $2,100	._..

                  Total	       341       2,100      2,100      2,100


Permanent Positions


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $2,100,000 is requested for 1977.  There is no change from  the
1976 level.

Program Description

     The repairs and improvements activity covers necessary repairs and improvements
to federally-owned installations which are occupied by  EPA.  Modifications and repairs
to leased facilities, to the extent that they are paid  for directly by EPA, are
covered under the Agency support activity under the Agency and Regional Management
appropriation.

1975 Program

     In 1975, $1.4 million was appropriated for repairs and improvement projects.
Of this amount, $625,000 can be associated with 17 relatively small projects
required to correct health and safety conditions; $516,000 has been allocated for
21 repair and preventive maintenance projects, and the  remaining $259,000 has been
assigned to eight projects which will improve the usefulness of various
facilities for program  purposes.  These projects are in various stages of planning,
design or construction  and all are expected to be completed in 1977.

1976 Program

     Projects financed  with 1976 funds will be almost exclusively for health and
safety purposes.  Twenty projects of this type have been  identified including
three major projects which involve improvement to the ventilation systems in areas
of hiqh risk  by laboratory operations.  Other work will be limited  to four  small
projects which  are critically  needed  to prevent further deterioration of existing
structures.
      1977  repair and  improvement  requirements are based upon a recently completed
 survey of  the  physical condition  of  EPA facilities.  These requirements also
 reflect the  fact that the most  urgently needed health and safety requirements
 are  being  met  and  it  will be possible  in  1977 to give greater attention to the
 backlog of projects of other types.  The  work to be carried out involves 61
 specific projects  at  11  separate  locations.   Included are 27 health and safety
 projects at  an estimated cost of  $765,000;  23 projects  estimated at $885,000  for
 preventive maintenance,  replacement  and similar purposes, and 11 projects at
 $450,000 which will permit  the  more  effective use of existing facilities.  These
 projects will  include work  such as:  installation of fire suppression systems;
                                                                          BF-3

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Scientific Activities
     Overseas
        SECTION TAB

-------
                                SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES OVERSEAS

PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
                                        Budget     Current               Increase +
                              Actual   Estimate   Estimate    Estimate   Decrease -
                               1975      1976       1976        1977    1971 ys^ 1976^
                                               (dollars in thousands)
Scientific Activities
  Overseas:
  Appropriation	    $1,243     $6,000     $4,000      $6,000        +$2,000
  Permanent Positions	       ...        ...        ...         ...            	
  Transition Quarter	       N/A      1,000        670         N/A            N/A
  Outlays	     3,512      4,000      5,000       5,000
  Authorization Levels	     Authorization is by virtue of the Appropriation Act.

OVERVIEW ANDSTRATE6Y

     Scientific Activities Overseas (SAO), developed and implemented under the Special
Foreign Currency Program (SFCP), are funded from excess foreign currencies accruing to
the United States under various U.S. programs.   The use of these currencies enables
EPA to capitalize on unique research opportunities and does not create a balance of
payments deficit or contribute to domestic inflation.  Currently, there are 55 cooper-
ative programs, two~thirds of which are concerned with air and water pollution, and
one-third of which relate to energy, radiation, noise, pesticides, solid waste manage-
ment, the use and disposal of sludge, and interdisciplinary efforts.   These studies
are carried out in Poland, Yugoslavia, Egypt, Tunisia, India and Pakistan by outstand-
ing foreign scientists and engineers in conjunction with their U.S.  counterparts.

     SAO activities in the participating countries are funded after scientific
evaluations are made of each activity to determine its merit and relevance to EPA's
domestic goals.  Such evaluations by EPA's scientists and experts are done to insure
maximum benefit to EPA from its foreign investment in manpower and funds.   EPA also
uses consultants from industry and the academic community to insure high quality
technical evaluation and management of the programs.  EPA consults with and is
advised by the U.S. Department of State regarding foreign policy considerations in
program development and implementation.

SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES

1976 Scientific Activities Overseas	,. $4,000

  Special Foreign Currency Program.	 +2,000
       To restore support for energy related
       studies and research in Poland.

1977 Scientific Activities Overseas	  6,000

SUMMARYOF BUDGET ESTIMATES

     1.  Summary of Budget Request
              It is requested that $6 rnillMon be appropriated for the Scientific
Activities Overseas under the Special Foreign Currency Program.

     2.  Changes from Original1976 Budget Estimate
              The original budget estimate was $6Tii11ion; the current budget
estimate is $4 million.  The $2 million reduction was made by the Congress.  This
same reduction also resulted in a decrease of $330,000 to the transition quarter
original estimate.
                                                                           SAO-1

-------
                                                    SCIENTIFIC  ACTIVITIES OVERSEAS

                                                   Special  Foreign  Currency Program
                                                  Actual
                                                   1975
,<                  Program  Level
Budget
Estimate
1976

28
2
$3,500
1,000
500
250
750
Current
Estimate
1976
(dollars in
22
2
$1,500
1.000
500
250
750

Estimate
1977
•thousands!
24
4
$2,464
1,500
800
100
1,136
Increase +
Decrease -
1977 vs. 1976

+2
+2
<$96<1
+ 500
+ 300
-150
+ 386
                   SAO  Projects.	            4
                   Technology  Transfer
                     Seminars	            1

                   Budget  Authority

                   Poland	       $1,190
                   Egypt	            4
                   Pakistan	            3
                   Tunisia	            3
                   India	            4
                   Yugoslavi a		• •       	39.

                           Total		        1,243       6,000       4,000       6,000        +2,000


                   Budget  Request

                       An appropriation  of  $6 million is  requested.  The increase of  $2 million will
                   provide support for  energy  related  environmental  studies  and  research in  Poland
                   pursuant to the U.S./Polish Agreement under which  the  Polish  government has agreed
                   to match all  SAO  expenditures  on a  one-to-one  basis.   As  a result of the  U.S.
                   Treasury decision to terminate the  excess  currency designation for  Poland  two years
                   earlier than anticipated  (from December 31, 1978  to December  31,  1976),  provision
                   of $2 million in  1977  is  needed if  EPA  is  to fulfill the  terms of the U.S./Polish
                   agreement.

                   1975 Accomplishments

                       -  Completed report  on EPA/Polish  senior  level project review  conducted  in
                          cooperation  with  representatives from  the  Polish  Ministry of Administration,
                          Land Economy and  Environmental  Protection.  This  project  review has resulted
                          in  more effective and  coordinated  management of SAO research in waste water
                          treatment and  sludge disposal/utilization;

                       -  Published report  on the SFCP strip mining  seminar held at the Denver  Research
                           Institute, Denver,  Colorado, for Polish and American  project principals  and
                          representatives from the U.S. mining industry.  The seminar demonstrated  that
                          Polish methods for  reclaimirig strip-mined  lands may assist  the U.S. in
                          developing coal reserves in the western States.;

                       -  Arranged  visitation of 45 Polish scientists to the United States  to consult
                          with their EPA counterparts and to observe pollution  control progress.   EPA
                          project officers  and 15 consultants from U.S.  universities  and industries made
                          site visits  to environmental research  centers  in  the  participating countries;
                          and

                       -  Held research  training seminar  in  Egypt on water  quality  and treatment
                          technology in  connection with SFCP water quality  project  on the Nile  River
                          and Lake  Nasser.

                   1976 Program

                       Based  on the early termination of  the excess  currency designation for Poland,
                   attention will  focus on program development in that country.   It  is anticipated  that
                   four to six research projects  will  be funded in Poland,   These projects will  range
                   from health effects  research to water and  air  pollution studies to  an analysis of
                   land use  practices.   For  example, in the heavily  industralized Silesian region,  an
                                                                                                SAO-3

-------
     For several years, Polish research in flue gas cleaning has focused on the use of
sulfur oxide neutralization processes in place of desulfurizing technology.  The Poles
have experimented with ammonia as the active neutralizer.  This research will assist
EPA in studying not only a control technology, but it will  provide dose response data
on health relationships which are unavailable in the U.S.

     Community health and environmental surveillance studies in the U.S. have been
difficult due to the mobility of the population, the lack of central health records
and the variety of pollutants from a number of indistinguishable sources.   Polish
studies of Benzopyrene in coking plants offers a unique opportunity to analyze a
less mobile population in a high exposure community.  The prolonged and specific
exposure levels will allow EPA to study health effects such as ambient loading and
commensurate human body burden from specific pollutants and sources.

     Preparation and dissemination of reports on projects completed in 1976 will be
emphasized to inform the U.S. scientific, academic, and industrial communities, of
the results of the SAO program.

Egypt ($1,500,000)

     U.S. and Egyptian environmental priorities are closely related in the control and
abatement of water pollution; health hazards from pesticides; utilization  and disposal
of sludge; air pollution and land use management resulting  from population growth in
urban areas.  EPA's association with environmental leaders  in Egypt ministries,
universities and the Egyptian Academy of Sciences has been  beneficial  in the development
of eight cooperative projects.   Studies initiated cover a broad  range  of environmental
problems including air and water pollution, safe use of pesticides, and the use and
disposal of sludge on land.  These projects are producing data which will  improve our
understanding of ecological problems and potential pollution problems  in arid lands
of the western U.S.,and will assist in determining control  strategies  and  river basin
management practices.

In 1977, cooperative projects are planned in several new areas of mutual interest
including:

     -  Studies of water recycling/reuse in the poultry processing industry designed
        to evaluate the public health, technological and economic aspects  of the
        problem of multiple water reuse in food processing.  In-depth  studies will
        be made on the physical, chemical, bacteriological, and virological
        characteristics of processing plant effluents; the  effects of  water recycling
        and reuse on the shelf-life, hygiene and nutritional qualities of  processed
        poultry; and the cost-benefit factors of water reuse in this industry.
        These projects will complement EPA's domestic research efforts in  evaluating
        the safety of recycled water in the food processing industry and in developing
        technology toward the goal of zero discharge of pollutants.

     -  Investigations of the health effects of sewage disposal  into marine ecosystems
        to examine the ecological impact and health effects resulting  from the disposal
        of sewage via an ocean outfall, and to assess waterborne diseases  transmitted
        to persons using recreational ;ocean beaches.  Data  from these  studies will be
        useful to EPA in testing predictive models for pollution transport and could
        produce data needed to develop health criteria for  marine recreational waters.

     -  Studies of transmission of viral disease through drinking water, designed to
        extend existing knowledge of virus removal fror; water supply systems and to
        determine bacteriological or chemical indicators of virus pollution in
        drinking water.

     -  Studies of the health effects of sewage irrigation  systems to  determine the
        health effects among workers caused by the application of waste water and
        sludge to the land, and the transport of pollutants to crops and ground
        waters.  Increasing attention is being given by EPA to these environmental
        problems, particularly to the health effects of such disposal  practices.

Pakistan ($800.000)                       '

     EPA representatives met with governmental officials and directors of  environmental
research centers and were encouraged by their interest in conducting cooperative projects.
                                                                              SAO-5

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Special Analyses
      SECTION TAB

-------
                                      U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                                       ADMINISTRATOR
                                                     DEPUTY ADMINISTRATOR
ASST. ADMINISTRATOR
   FOR PLANNING
 AND MANAGEMENT
ASST. ADMINISTRATOR
       FOR
   ENFORCEMENT
                                           REGIONAL
ASST, ADM IN1STRATO R
   FOR WATER AND
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
ASST. ADMINISTRATOR
    FOR AIR AND
WASTE MANAGEMENT
ASST. ADMINISTRATOR
   FOR RESEARCH
 AND DEVELOPMENT
                                                    OFFICES
                                                                                                                     SA-1

-------
                                                         Summary of Resources
Abatement and Control
  Budget authority.
    Contract authority...
  Obligations	
    Contract authority...
  Outlays	
    Contract authority...
  End-of-year employment.

Enforcement
  Budget authority	
  Obligations	—
  Outlays....	
  End-of-year employment.
Research and Development
  Budget authority.......
  Obligations	
  Outlays		
  End-of-year employment.
Energy Research and Development
  Budget authority	
  Obligations	-...-.	
  Outlays.		..
  End*Qf-year employment..--......
ftgency and Regional Management
  Budget authority.	
  Obligations	
  Outlays	
  End-of-year empl oyment.	
                                                            Actual
                                                             1975
$291,831,400
 150,000,000
 271,362,992
 149,975,860
 262,955,832
   6,121,708
       3,703
  51,095,700
  50,747,320
  51,637,269
       1,662
 166,531,547
 166,674,207
 166,608,248
       1,810
 134,000,000
  88,338,714
  23,204,206
  55,348,500
  55,051,236
  50,139,019
       1,773
                             Current
                             Estimate
                               1976
$383,577,200

 405,925,000

 308,700,000
  92,000,000
       4,232
  52,743,700
  52,856,000
  53,000,000
       1,568
 166,465,400
 170,463,000
 177,000,000
       1 ,688
 100,550,300
 136,156,000
 1-20,000,000
         123
  62,083,400
  62,083,400
  59,300,000
       1,822
                        Estimate
                          1977
$329,574,000

 330,549,000

 260,000,000
  45,000,000
       4,230
  56,551,500
  56,551,500
  56,000,000
       1,604
 159,422,000
 152,101,000
 160,000,000
       1,678
  96,973,000
  88,333,000
 120,000,000
        123
  67,571,500
  67,571,500
  66,000,000
       1,798
                         Increase  +
                         Decrease  -
                        1977  vs. 1976
-$54,003,200

 -75,376,000

 -48,700,000
 -47,000,000
          -2
  +3,807,800
  +3,695,500
  +3,000,000
         +36
  -7,043,400
 -18,362,000
 -17,000,000
         -10
  -3,577,300
 -47,823,000
  +5,488,100
  +5,488,100
  +6,700,000
         -24
                                                                                                                             SA-3

-------
                                                            Actual
Current
Estimate
  1976
Estimate
  1977
 Increase +
 Decrease -
1977 vs.  1976
Consolidated Working Fund
  Obligations	                    530,454
  Outlays		                    487,304                  337,000                 ...                  -337,000

Total, Environmental Protection Agency
  Budget Authority.	,...		                700,363,915              771,529,000         718,192,000              -53,337,000
    Contract authority..-.		-	              7,816,230,000
  Obligations...	.,	              1,226,421.465            1,024,728,400         713,392,000             -311,336,400
    Contract authority	              3,795,875,636            4,331,930,000       6,076,420,000           +1.,744,490,000
  Outlays	,	              1,650,^15,359            1,331,000,000       1,084,950,000             -246,050,000
    Contract authority.....	                880,2/9,842            1,862,000,000       3,415,000,000  '         +1,553,000,000
 ^Errd-bf-year/employment	                      9,160                    9,550               9,550


Note:  Includes comparative tran-sfer of Environmental Impact Statement activities from Agency and Regional Management to Abatement and
       Control:                                                                                                              ^  ' -

                Budget  authority	                  5,015,800                8,7B8,90Q
               -Obligations	                  3,728,500                8,788,900
                Outlays	                  3,728,500                8,700,000                                     "
                End-of-year employment                          50                      130

                End-of year employment = permanent positions.
                                                                                                                            SA-5

-------
                                                  End-Qf-Year Employment and Budget Authority
                                                          By Media and Appropriation
                                                                     1977
                                                             (dollars in thousands)
                            Research and
                             Development
            Abatement
           and Control
                     Enforcement
                           EOY
Amount
EOY
Amount
EOY
                              Agency and Regional
                                  Management
Amount
EOY
Amount
Energy Research
and Development
EOY       Amount
                                                                 Total
EOY
-Amount
Air............	..     473   $45,942,2    «15   $83,139.0     482  $13,743.0
Water Quality	     548    4.1,768.5  1,816   115,172.-9     764   21,241.9
Water Supply	,.      85    13,253.9    210    30,449.2       4       81,0
Solid»Wastes		      22     4,066.0    161    11,670.4     ...        	
Pesticides.	     157    10,887.0    639    24,175.0     156    4,745.1  ,
Radiation.......	      30       878.9    174     4,022.4     ...        	
Noise.	-..	         ...     74     9,576.4      21      708.6
Interdisciplinary...,.     214    25,355.4    129    10,664,4     ...        	
Toxic Substances......       7     1,355.0     45     6,012.0     ...        	
Program Management and
 Support...	     142    15,915.1    167    34,692.3     177   16,031.9
Agency and Regional
 Management.,...,	     ...         	         ...     ...        ...   1,798
Energy	.,	..     ...	^_-__^_:	...        	...

      Subtotal	,',   1,678   159,422.0  4,230   329,574.0   1,604   56,551.5   1,738

Buildings and
 Facilities	,	     ...         ...    ...        	
Scientific Activities
 Overseas	,.
Reimbursements...,	     ...         	
Advances and
 Allocations	                 		        ...	...

         Total	   1,678   159,422,0  4,230   329,574.0   1,604   56,551.5   1,798
                                                                                          1,770   $142,824.2
                                                                                          3,128    178,183.3
                                                                                            299     43,784,1
                                                                                            183
                                                                                            952
                                                                                            204
                                                                                             95
                                                                                            343
                                                                                             52
                                                                                         15,7:5,4
                                                                                         39,;W.1
                                                                                          4,901.3
                                                                                         10,285.0
                                                                                         36,013.8
                                                                                          7.367.J
                                                                                $546.0
                                                                                  436    67,185.3
                                                           $57,571.5
                                                                       123
                                                                          ...    1,798    67,571,5
                                                                     96.427.0      123    96,427.0
                                                            67,571.5   123     9E..973,')   9,433    710,092,0


                                                                 ,	          ...     ...      2,100,0

                                                                 	          ...     ...      6,000.0
                                                                                            105

                                                                 	          ...      12
                                                            67,571.5   123
                                                                     96,973.0    9,550   718,192,0
                                                                                                                                  SA-7

-------
                                                     Environmental  Protection  Agency

                                                       Total Funds  Available,  1976

                                                        (in thousands of dollars)
Abatement and Control	
  Air.,.	
  Water Quality.......	,	
  Water Supply	
  Sol id Wastes		
  Pesticides		
  Radiation.	
  Noise..,		.
  Interdisciplinary.......v	
  Toxic Substances.......	
  Program Management and Support.

Enforcement  	        	
  Air	...........
  Water Quality..		
  Water Supply	
  Pestici des	
  Noise	
  Program Management and Support.

Research and Development	
  Air..	
  Water Qua!ity.,	
  Water Supply		
  Solid Wastes...	
  Pesticides		
  Radiation	
  Noise....	
  Interdisciplinary...		
  Toxic Substances.	
  Program Management  and Support.
   Budget
 Authority

$383.577.2
       1976
Unobligated
   Balance
   Brought
   Forward

 $56.133.0
Unobligated
  Balance
  Carried
  Forward

$33.Z88.2
   Total
 Available

$405.925.0
  84,715.2
 174,546.7
  19,839/9
  11,618.6
  29,492.2
   4,486.8
   9,544.2
   8,788.9
   6,850.3
  33,694.4

  52.743.7
  19,341.1
  19,805.6
   4,630.2
   3,938.1
   1,947.5
     289.6
     307.8
     822.
   2,449,
   2,601.0

     in.5
  7,964.2
 11,800.5
  4,400.0
  3,210.0
  1,700.5
    240.0
    250.0
    620.0
  1,900.0
  1,700.0
  96,092.1
 182,551.8
  20,070.1
  12,346.7
  29,739.2
   4S536.4
   9,602.0
   8,991.1
   7,400.2
  34,595.4
  12,499.3
  19,792.7
      80.0
   3,911.1
   1,029.3
  15,431.3

 166.465.4
     111.5
  19.590.3
 15,592.7
                                              12,499.3
                        19,904,
                            80,
                         3,911.
                         1,029,
  15,431.3

 170.463.0
  48,542.2
  43,939.6
  12,253.9
   4,066.0
  10,887.0
   1,678.9

  28,155! 4
   1,355.0
  15,587.4
   5,775.2
   3,677.3
     786.7
     900.3
     428.5
      28.7,

   4,096io
      89.3
   3,808/3
  3,976.7
  3,200.0
    910.0
  1,100.0
    405.0
  3,500.0
    101.0
  2,400.0
  50,340.7
  44,416.9
  12,130.6
   3,866.3
  10,910.5
   1,707.6

  28,7 51'.4
   1,343.3
  16,995.7
                                                                                                                                SA-9

-------
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

Total  Funds Available,  Transition Quarter
         (in thousands  of dollars)

                         Transition Quarter

Abatement and Control
Air 	 	 	 -. .
Water Quality 	 ., 	
Water Supply. 	 	 	
Sol id Waste. -. 	
Pesticides. 	 	
Radiation 	
Noise 	 	 	
Interdisciplinary. 	 	
Toxic Substances 	
Program Management and Support
Enforcement
Air. 	 	 	 	 , , ....
Water Qual ity 	 	
Water Supply 	 	 	
Pesticides 	 	 	
Noi se 	 	 	 	
Program Management and Support
Research and Development
Air 	 	 	 	
Water Qual i ty 	 ....... 	 ...
Water Supply. 	 	 -....,...
Sol id Waste. 	 	 ...
Pesticides 	 . 	

Noise 	 	 	 	 	
Interdisciplinary. 	 	
Toxi c Substances 	 	
Program Management and Support
Budget
Authority
$94,700.0
23,258.0
37,860.0
5,427.0
3,185.0
8,083.0
1 ,227.0
2,595.0
2,061.0*
1 ,880.0
9,124.0
13,931.0
3,447.0
5,245.0
21. 0
1,011.0
160.0
4,047.0
42,923.0
13,720.0
n ,90o.o
3 , 202 . 0
1,275.0
2,726.0
403.0

4,570.0
500.0
5,227.0
Unobligated
Balance
Brought
Forward
$33,785.2
7 964 2
11 ,800 5
4 400 0
3,210 0
1 ,700 5
240 0
250 0
620 0
1 ,900 0
1,700.0





15,592.7
3,976.7
3,200.0
910.0
1,100.0
405.0


3,500.0
101.0
2,400.0
Unobligated
Balance
Carried
Forward
$2,256,2
235 2
442 5
r,g o
263 0
146 5
90 0
60 0
61 0
811 0
88.0





2,590.7
686.7
367.0
462.0
347.0
60.0


343 . 0
10.0
315.0
Total
Available
$126,229.0
30 987 0
49 218 0
9 768 0
6,132.0
9 637 0
1 ,377.0
2,785.0
2,620.0
2,969.0
10,736.0
13,931.0
3,447,0
5,245.0
21.0
1,011.0
160.0
4,047.0
55,925.0
16,410.0
14,733.0
3,650.0
2,028.0
3,071.0
403.0

7,727.0
591.0
7,312.0
                                                                   SA-T1

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                                                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                                          Total  Funds Available,  1977
                                                           (in thousands of dollars)
                                                                        1977
                                                Budget
                                               Authority

Abatement and Control	$329,574.0
  Air	      83,139.0
  Water Quality...,	     115,172.9
  Water Supply	      30,449.2
  Sol id Wastes..-.	      11,670.4
  Pesticides			      24,175.0
  Radiation	       4,022.4
  Noise	,	..		       9,576.4
  Interdisciplinary.	-.-	      10,664.4
  Toxic Substances	       6,012.0
  Program Management and Support..	      34,692.3

Enforcement '	;	56,551.5
  Air..		      13,743.0
  Water Quality.,	.		      21,241.9
  Water Supply	          81.0
  Pesticides	,	.	..       4,745.1
  Noise	         70S.6
  Program Management and Support	      16,031.9

Research and Development	159,422.0
  Air	      35,942.2
  Water Qua!ity	,		      41,768.5
  Water Supply....	      13,253.9
  Sol id Wastes			       4,066,0
  Pestici des	...,..,.,..,..,	      10,887.0
  Radiation.	         878.9
  Noise	,.
  Interdisciplinary	   25,355.4
  Toxic Substances		..       1,355.0
  Program Management and Support	      15,915.1
Unobligated
  Balance
  Brought
  Forward

$2,256.2
Unobligated
  Balance
  Carried
  Forward

 $1.281.2
   Total
 Available

$330,549.0
   235.2
   442.
    59.
   263.0
   146.5
    90.0
    60.0
    61.0
   811.0
    88.0
    631.0
    162.2
    488.0
  82,743.2
 115,453.2
  30,508.2
  11,933.4
  24,321.5
   4,112.4
   9,636.4
  10,725.4
   6,823.0
  34,292.3

  56,551.5
 2,590.7
  9,911.7
  .13,743.0
  21,241.9
      81.0
   4,745.1
     708.6
  16,031.9

 152,101.0
   686.7
   357.0
   462.0
   347.0
    60.0
   343.0
    10.0
   315.0
  4,033.
  2,257,
    711.
    151.5


   •  34.'o

  1,715,0
  42,595.7
  39,868.5
  12,004.9
   4,413.0
  10,795.5
     878.9

  25,664!4
   1,36119
  14,515.1
                                                                                                                      SA-13

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                                                                     EPA
                                                   Positions  By  Grade and Average Employment
Grades

Executi ve Level  II	
Executi ve Level  III....	
Executive Level  IV	

     Subtotal	-	

GS-18.	-.			
GS-17			,-,	
GS-15	
GS-15	
GS-14...	
GS-13	
GS-12	
GS-11	
GS-10	!"	
GS-9v	
GS-8	-,		
GS-7	
GS-6	
GS-5-	
GS-4.	
GS-3.	
GS-2	
GS-1	.	

     Subtotal.		

Positions established by act  of July 1,  1974
 (42 U.S.C.  207):
   Assistant surgeon  general  grade,  $21,654
    to $31,565			
   Director grade, $16,052 to $27,727	
   Senior grade, $12,838 to $22,626	
   Full grade,  $10,825 to $18,918	
   Senior assistant grade, $10,058 to
    $16,358	
   Assistant grade,  $8,766,  to $12,139	

      Subtotal			
 Actual
  1975

    1
    1
    5
    7
    7
   34
  101
  431
  770
1,104
1,093
  914
   35
  796
  147
  777
  536
  904
  636
  275
   79
   18
8,657
    2
   85
  121
   8§

   39
    3
  339
Estimate
 1976

    1
    1
    5
    7
   34
  101
  436
  777
1,120
1,138
  959
   45
  906
  207
  806
  536
  924
  636
  275
   79
   18
9,004
    2
   85
  121
   89

   39
    3
  339
Estimate
  1977

     1
     1
     5
     7
    34
   101
   436
   777
 1,120
 1,138
   959
    45
   906
   207
   806
   536
   924
   636
   275
    79
    18
 9.004
     2
    85
   121
    89

    39
     3
   339
                                                                                                                    SA-15

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                                                          ABATEMENT  AND  CONTROL

                                                        Classification by  Objects
                                                    Includes  Direct  Obligations  Only
                                                        (in thousands of dollars)
                                                                                                Actual
                                                                                                  1975
Estimate
  1976
Personnel Services...,	         $75,060            $80,127

Other Objects:
  21  Travel and transportation of persons	           5,530              6,418
  22  Transportation  of things.			             366                398
  23  Rent, communications, and utilities		.-.	.	...          14,075             16,000
  24  Printing and reproduction	           1,690              1,584
  25  Other services			          56,977             93,896
  26  Supplies and materials	           2,733              3,001
  31  Equipment	           4,120              2,987
  32  Lands and structures	.		.		              48
  41  Grants, subsidies, and contributions	,	         260,731            201,514
  42  Insurance claims  and indemnities	-.-.	               9	   ...

        Total, Other  Objects	         346,279	325.798

          Total Obiigations	         421,339            405,925

Position Data:
  Average salary, GS  positions	,	         $17,259            $18,176
  Average grade, GS positions.					            9.53               9.53

EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBJECT CLASSIFICATIONS

                                                                                           Budget     Current
                                                                                Actual     Estimate    Estimate     Estimate
                                                                                 1975        1976        1976        1977

Personnel services		      $75,060      $79,493    $80,127      $91,143
Estimate
  1977

 $91,143
                     6,277
                       450
                    18,016
                     1,800
                    64,163
                     3,036
                     3,214

                   142,450
                   239,406
                   330,549
                   $18,587
                      9.53
              Increase +
              Decrease -
             1977 vs. 1976
                  +$11,016
     The increase in the 1976 current estimate over the 1976 budget request is  as  a  result of the current estimate  being  based  on  the
1975 actual costs, allowing increases for the October 1975 pay raise and for the congressional  add-on  of construction  grants  program
positions.
                                                                                                                                 SA-17

-------
                                                                                           Budget       Current                  Increase +
                                                                               Actual     Estimate     Estimate    Estimate      Decrease -
                                                                                 1975        1976         1976         1977       1977 vs. 1976

Printing and reproduction	,	       $1,690       $1,859       $1,584       $1,800            +$216

     The decrease in the 1976 current estimate from the 1976 budget  request  is  the  result  of a  new  estimate of  printing service
requirements to support program effort,  -S275.

     The increase for 1977 is the result of anticipated increased  cost  of  printing  reports,  EIS's,  etc.,  +$216.
Actual
1975
. . 	 	 	 - 	 	 S56 ,977
Budget
Estimate
1976
$87,d91
Current
Estimate
1976
$93,896
Estimate
1977
$64,163
Increase +
Decrease -
1977 vs. 1976
-$29,733
Other _se_ry_i_ce_s

     The increase in the 1976 current estimate over the 1976 budget  request  is  due  to  a  change  in  the  amount  of  carryover  funds  estimated
to be available and due to an increase in services required  for the  positions added-on by  the Congress,  offset by  the  funds  required
for absorption of the October 1975 pay raise,  +$6,005.

     The decrease in 1977 is primarily the result of a  change in the amount  of  carryover funds  available in  1977,  the  partial  absorption of
some personnel services costs,  and_ the net, decrease of  the operating program changes discussed  in  the  submission,  -$29,733.

                                                                                           Budget      Current                  Increase +
                                                                                Actual    Estimate    Estimate     Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                                        1976         1977       1977  vs. 1976
                                                                                52,733      $2,984      53,001       $3,036              +$35
     The increase in the 1976 current estimate over the 1976 budget request is  the result  of  the additional  positions  added-on  by
Congress, +517.

     The increase in T977 is for the full-year cost of the supplies for the new 1976 positions.
Actual
1975
	 . 	 	 	 	 -. S4.120
Budget
Estimate
1976
S3. 432
Current
Estimate
1976
S2.987
Estimate
1977
$3.214
Increase +
Decrease -
1977 vs. 1976
+$2?7
Equjpinent

     The decrease in the 1976 cy-rent estimate from the 1976 budget  estimate is  the result  of applying  nonrecurring  items  to  the  1975
actual  base, offset  by the cost of new equipment  for the increased positions,  as  well  as  replacement  of equipment, where  necessary,  -$445.

     The increase in 1977 is the result of estimated additional  equipment  and  replacement  requirements,  +S227.
                                                                                                                             SA-19

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                                                               ENFORCEMENT

                                                        Classification  by Objects
                                                    Includes Direct Obligations  Only
                                                        (in thousands of dollars)
                                                                                                 Actual
                                                                                                  1975
Estimate
  1976
Estimate
  1977

 $33,061
Personnel Services..		        $29,997           $30,227

Other Objects:
  21  Travel and transportation of persons..,,	          2,514             2,310             2,340
  22  Transportation  of things	            163               175               200
  23  Rent, communications, and utilities...,	          5,970             6,500             7,378
  24  Printing and reproduction			            731               800               900
  25  Other services	,	          7,469            11,044             7,544
  26  Supplies and materials..	          1,125             1,300             1,318
  31  Equipment.....			          2,462               500               610
  32  Lands and structures..	             12
  41  Grants, subsidies, and  contributions	            298               ...             3,200
  42  Insurance claims and  indemnities	              6	    ...	._._,,_

        Total, Other- Objects	         20,750	22,629    ..       23.490

          Total Obligations	-	,	         50,747            52,856            56,551

Position Data:
  Average salary, GS  positions	        $17,259           $18,176           $18,587
  Average grade, GS positions......	           9.53              9.53              9.53


EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND  DECREASES TO OBJECT CLASSIFICATIONS
                                                                                           Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                                Actual     Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                 1975       1976        1976       ,1977      1977 vs. 1976

Personnel services	     $29,997      $27,293     $30,227     $33,061          +$2,834

     The increase in  the 1976 current estimate  over the 1976  budget request  is  the result  of:
         Increase in  average  paid employment of permanent positions	   +$1,843
         Increase of  October  1975 pay raise	   +1,080
         Increase in  overtime costs  to support  increased workload	      +11
             Total	,	   +2,934

                                                                                                                              SA-21

-------
                                                                                          Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                 1975       J976         1976.	      1977      1977	vs.	1916

Printing and reproduction.	         $731        $700        $800        $900            +$100

     The increase in the 1976 current estimate over the  1976  budget  request  is  the result of additional  printing costs and reflects the
1975 actual costs base, +$100.

     The increase in the 1977 estimate is  the result of  the program  activity increases which contribute  to increased printing, +$100.

                                                                                          Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                 1975       1976         1976        1977      1977vs. 1976

Other services..	      $7,469     $13,637     $11,044      $7,544          -$3,500

     The decrease in the 1976 current estimate from the  1976  budget  request  is  the result of the absorption of the October 1975 :pay raise
and to a decrease in estimated  contractual  services, -$2,593.

     The 1977 estimate should have been increased  by $1,400  (see  personnel services  above) and  by $2,200  (see grants below) which would
then reflect approximately the  same level  as  in 1976.

                                                                                          Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                 1975       1976         1976	    	1977	    1977 vs. 1976

Supplies and materials		      51,125      $1,255       $1,300      $1,318             +$18

     The slight increase in  the  1976 current estimate over  the  1976 budget  request  is the result of  the estimated cost increase of goods
over the 1975 actual base,  +$45.

     The slight increase in the 1977 estimate is also  due  to  increasing  cost of supplies, +$18.
Actual
1975
	 	 	 	 -.. $2.462
Budget
Estimate
1976
$2.610
Current
Estimate
1976
S5M
Estimate
1977
$6 in
Increase +
Decrease -
1977 vs. 1976
+$Tin
Equipment

     The decrease in the 1976 current estimate  from  the  1976  budaet  request  reflects the nonrecurring equipment requirements using the
1975 actual  base, -$2,ilO.

     The slight increase in the  1977  estimate is  the result of  new and  replacement  items, +ST10.


                                                                                                                             SA-23

-------
                                                           RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

                                                           Classification by Objects
                                                       Includes Direct Obligations Only
                                                           (in thousands of dollars)
                                                                                                    Actual
                                                                                                     1975
Estimate
  1976
Estimate
  1977
Personnel  Services	,		            $43,086           $40,840           $39,901

Other Objects:

  21  Travel and transportation of persons	              3,013             2,748             2,770
  22  Transportation of things	                367               400               450
  23  Rent, communications, and utilities	              7,543             7,750             8,466
  24  Printing and reproduction	              1,206             1,300             1,500
  25  Other services,,	             68,295            77,435            52,080
  26  Supplies and materials	              4,741             4,950             4.876
  31  Equipment	              7,308             6,040             5,733
  32  Lands and structures	                407               400               500
  41  Grants, subsidies, and  contributions		             30,702            28,600            35,825
  42  Insurance claims -and indemnities.	            	7	._._.	___i_^i.

        Total Other Objects	-.	            123.589	129,623	112,200

          Total Obligations	            166,675           170,463           152,101

Position Data:
  Average salary,- GS positions	,		            $17,259           $1-8,176           $18,587
  Average grade, GS positions	,	               9.53              9.53              9.53

EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND  DECREASES TO OBJECT CLASSIFICATIONS

                                                                                              Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                                   Actual     Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                    1975        1976        1976        1977      1977 vs.  1976

Personnel  services	         $43,086      $39,615     $40,840     $39,901            -$939

     The increase of $1,225 in the 1976  current estimate  over the 1976 budget request is  the result of the funds reprogrammed from other
abject classifications to absorb the October 1975 pay raise,  +$1,225.
                                                                                                                                  SA-25

-------
                                                                                           Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                                Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                 1975       1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Printing and reproduction	          $1,206        $999      $1,300      $1,500            +$200

     The increase in the 1976 current estimate  over  the  1976 budget  request is the result of a reestimate of costs using 1975 actual  as
a new base, +$301.

     The increase in 1977 is the result of increased printing costs, +$200.

                                                                                           Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                                Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                 1975       1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Other services	         $68,295     $71,959     $77,435     $52,080         -$25,355

     The increase in the 1976 current estimate  to  the 1976 budget estimate is the result of congressional add-ons for air, water quality,
and interdisciplinary, as well  as a  change in the  amount of carryover funds available for contracts, +$5,476.

     The decrease in 1977 is the result of nonrecurring  congressional add-ons, a change in the amount of carryover funds estimated to
be available in 1977, an absorption  of some personnel  services,  and  an underestimate in the amount of estimated 1977 obligations.  The
1977 estimate should be $67,500 which would reflect  a decrease of only $9,935.

                                                                                           Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                                Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                	1975       1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Supplies and materials.	          $4,741      $3,886      $4,950      $4,876             -$74

     The increase in the 1976 current estimate  from  the  1976 budget  request is the result of a reestimate of costs using 1975 actual  as
a new base, .allowing for a slight increase due  to  the annualization  of man-years.
                                                                                                  /
     The decrease in 1977 is the result of a slight  estimated decrease in man-years and related costs, -$74.

                                                                                           Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                                Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                 1975       1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976
                                                                                57,308      51,186      $6,040      $5,733            -$307
     The increase in  the 1976  current  estimate over  the  1976 budget request is due to a reestimate of costs using 1975 actual as a
new base, allowing for a decrease  for  nonrecurring equipment, +54,854.

     The decrease in  the 1977  estimate is  the result of  nonrecurrinq equipment costs, -S307.

                                                                                                                                 SA-27

-------
                                                        ENERGY  RESEARCH  AND  DEVELOPMENT
                                                           Classification  by  Objects
                                                       Includes  Direct  Obligations  Only
                                                           (in  thousands of dollars)
Personnel  Services					

Other Objects:
  21   Travel  and transportation of persons	
  22   Transportati on of thi ngs			*	
  23   Rent, communications,  and utilities	
  24   Printing  and reproduction.	
  25   Other services..	. —	
  26   Supplies  and materials	-.	
  31   Equ i pment	
  32   Lands and structures	»	
  41   Grants, subsidies, and contributions.....	

        Total,  Other Objects	

          Total Obligations....,	

Position Data:
  Average salary, GS positions				,	,	
  Average grade, GS salary	

EXPLANATION OF  INCREASES AND DECREASES TO  OBJECT CLASSIFICATIONS


                                                                                   Actual
                                                                                    1975

Personnel  services	             $268

     The increase in the 1976 current estimate over the 1976 budget request is the result  of:
         Increase in average paid employment..-	  +$1,883
         Increase due to October 1975 pay  raise	,	     +103
         Increase in estimated overtime resulting from increased effort in this area     +133
             Total	,	-.		;	..-..   +2,119
       Actual
        1975

         $268
          118
           10
            5
            3
       79,723
          174
          671
            1
        7.361
       88,071

       88,339
      $17,259
         9.53
 Budget
Estimate
  1976

    $433
 Current
Estimate
  1976

  $2,552
           Estimate
             1976

             $2,552
                482
                 20
                270
                 25
            120,677
                250
              1,430

             10,450
            133,604
            136,156
            $17,586
               9.53
Estimate
  1977

  $2,852
                 Estimate
                   1977

                   $2,852
                      482
                       25
                      290
                       25
                   73,529
                      250
                    1,500

                    9,380
                   85,431
                   88,333
                  $17,637
                     9.53
 Increase +
 Decrease -
1977 vs.  1976

        +$300
                                                                                                                                  SA-29

-------
                                                                                          Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                             '   1975       1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Printing and reproduction	            $3        $300         $25         $25

     The decrease in the 1976 current estimate  from  the  1976  budget  request  is due  to a reestimate of costs using 1975 actual as a new
base, -$275.

     No change in the 1977 estimate is reflected.

                                                                                          Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                1975       1976        1976      _1977      1977 vs. 1976

Other services			       $79,728     $85,529    $120,677     $73,529         -$47,148

     The increase in the 1976 current estimate  over  the  1976  budget  request  is due  to the change in the original amount of carryover funds
estimated to be made available as well as  a redirection  of funds  from grants to contracts, +$35,148.

     The decrease in the 1977 estimate is  due to a change  in  the  estimated amount of carryover  funds available, to a change in the
contractual  rate of"obligations, and to the decrease in  the funds to be  transferred to ERDA,  -$47,148.

                                                                                          Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                1975       1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Supplies and materials	,.	          $174      $1,380        $250        $250

     The decrease in the 1976 current estimate  from  the  1976  budget  request  is due  to a reestimate of costs using 1975 actual as a new
base, -$1,130.

     No change in the 1977 estimate is reflected.

                                                                                          Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                1975       1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Equipment	,	,	          $671        $400      $1,430      $1,500             +$70

     The increase in the 1976 current estimate  to the 1976 budget estimate is the result of higher equipment costs of new and additional
equipment necessary for the new positions, +$1,030.

     The slight increase in the 1977 estimate is to  reflect estimated replacement of equipment, +$70.


                                                                                                                               SA-31

-------
                                                                                                                   '"7
                                                      AGENCY AND REGIONAL  MANAGEMENT

                                                        Classification  by  Objects
                                                    Includes Direct Obligations  Only
                                                        (in thousands of dollars)
                                                                                                 Actual
                                                                                                  1975
Estimate
  1976
Personnel  Services	,	            S36,959            $36,810

Other Objects:
  21  Travel  and transportation of persons	              1,690              1,770
  22  Transportation of things	                 99                127
  23  Rent, communications, and utilities,	              6,055              7,000
  24  Printing and reproduction	,	                399                666
  25  Other services	              8,050             14,314
  26  Supplies and materials	,...»	                622                699
  31  Equipment	,..              1,091                261
  32  Lands and structures.	                 12
  41  Grants, subsidies, and contributions.	                 71                436
  42  Insurance claims and indemnities	            	3	—

        Total, Other Objects	             13,092	25,273

          Total Obligations			             55,051             62,083

Position Data:
  Average  salary, GS positions			            517,259            S18J76
  Average  grade, GS positions.		,..	              9.53              9.53

EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBJECT  CLASSIFICATIONS

                                                                                           Budget     Current
                                                                                Actual     Estimate    Estimate     Estimate
                                                                                 1975        ,1976 .       1976         1977

PersonneJ  services		,	         536.959      534,554    536,810      538,324

     The increase in the 1976 current  e?timate  over the 1976 budget  request is  the result of the increase in:
         Annual ization of increased man-years.	      +$879
        Absorption from other object  classifications  to support October 1975 pay raise	      +1,377
           Total.,.,-.	-.	      +2,256
Estimate
  1977 .

 $38,324
                     1,893
                       150
                     7,904
                       600
                    17,523
                       704
                       274

                       200
                    ; 29,248
                    67,572
                   $13,587
                      9.53
              Increase +
              Decrease -
             1977 vs. 1976

                   +51,514
                                                                                                                                 SA-33

-------
                                                                                          Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                 1975        1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Printing and reproduction	             $399        $480        $666        $600             -$66

    The increase in the 1976 current estimate over the  1976  budget  request  is the result of  increased costs primarily as a result of
Freedom of Information Act requests,- +$186.

    The decrease in 1977 is the result of EPA's  capacity to  perform more  reproduction work in-house, -$66.

                                                                                          Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                 1975        1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Other services		          $8,050     $10,790     $14,314     $17,523          +$3,209

     The increase in the 1976 cur-rent estimate over the 1976 budget request is  the result of renovation of additional space, alterations
resulting from moves, increased employee training, and  increased  planning and evaluation contracts, +$3,524.

     The increase for 1977 is primarily the  result of contracts related to  the  audit of construction grants, +$3-,209.

    •v                                                                                     Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual.   Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                  ;                                                               1975        1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Supplies and materials	             $622        $620        $699        $704              +$5

     The increase in the 1976 current estimate over the 1976 budget request is  due to the annualization costs as a result of the increase
in man-years, +$79.

     The minor increase in 1977 is to support a  portion of the additional costs required as  a result of the average paid employment
increase, +$5.

                                                                                          Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                               Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                 1975        1976        1976        1977      1977 vs. 1976

Equipment..				          $1,091        $109        $261        $274             +$13

     The increase in the 1976 current estimate over the 1976 budget request is  the result of increased costs of replaced obsolete
equipment, +$152.

     The slight increase in 1977 is to support the estimated requirement  for new  or replacement equipment, +$13.

                                                                                                                                SA-35

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                                                           BUILDINQS AND FACILITIES

                                                           Classification by Objects
                                                       Includes Direct Obligations Only
                                                           (in thousands of dollars)
                                                                                                    Actual
                                                                                                     1975
tstimate
  1976
Other services:
Estimate
  1977
  21  Travel ami transportation of persons ...................... ........ ........ ..........              ...                $56               $56
  24  Printing and reproduction .................................. .. ................. ......
  25  Other services. ........ ... .............. . ........ ....... ............................             $338             2,893             2,125
  26  Supplies and materials ............ . ............................... ..................                3 _ 5 _ _ 5.

          Total obligations... ......... . .......................... -.-...-.. ............. . .....              341              2,959             2,186


.EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBJECT CLASSIFICATIONS

                                                                                              Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                                   Actual     Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                    1975       1976        1976        1977      1977 vs.  1976

Travel and transportation of persons ...... ............. . ............... ..              ...          $51         $56         $56

    The increase in 1976 current estimate over the 1976 budget request is  the result  of increased costs relating to inspections of alterations
and improvements at EPA facilities, +$5.

    No change in the 1977 estimate is reflected.

                                                                                              Budget      Current                 Increase +
                                                                                   Actual     Estimate    Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                                                                                    1975       1976        1976        1977      1977 vs.. 1976

Printing and reproduction.. ............. .... .............. ................              ...          $10
     The decrease in 1976 current estimate from the 1976 budget request is the result of a change in the requirements after using 1975 actual
costs as a base, -$10.

     Ho change in the 1977 estimate is reflected.
                                                                                                                                 SA-37

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