-------
Page Intentionally Blank
                                                            \

-------
                             ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                                   1982 Budget Estimate

                                    Table of Contents
                                                                           •Page
Summary	      I
Air	     A-l
  Abatement and Control;
    Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards..........     A-11
    Mobile Source Standards and Guidelines,	     A-16
    State Program Resource Assistance.	     4-23
    Air Quality Strategies Implementation...............	     A-27
    Mobile Source Preproduction Compliance  Verification	     A-31
    Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment	     A-36
  Enforcement:
    Stationary Source Enforcement.	     A-41
    Mobile Source Enforcement......	,.	...     A-46
  Research and Development:
    Oxidants	     A-49
    Mobile Source.		,	     A-81
    Gases and Particles.....	     A-89
    Hazardous Air Pollutants	     A-65

Mater Quality..................	     WH
  Abatement and Control:
    Water Quality Planning and Standards.	     WQ-16
    Effluent Standards aid Guidelines	     WO-?S
    Grants Assistance srograms	..**.	     WQ-36
    Water Quality Strategies Implementation	     WQ-43
    Mater Quality Monitoring and Analysis...	     WQ-W
    Municipal Source Control....	     WQ-63
  Enforcement:
    Permi t Is s ua nee	     4Q- 75
    Water Quality Enforcement.....	,	     WQ-80
  Research and Development:
    Water Qua! i ty	,			     WQ-85
    Industrial Wastewater	     UQ-118
    Municipal Wastewater/Spill Prevention	,	     WQ-103

Drinking Water	     OW-1
  Abatement and Control:
    Criteria, Standards, and Guidelines	,	     DW-11
    State Program Resource Assistance	     DW-16
    Drinking Water Management	^	     OW-19
  Enforcement: .
    Drinking Water Enforcement	     OW-24
  Research and Development:
    Drinking Water	     OW-27

-------
                                                                            Page

Solid Waste..„	,	      SW-1 •
  Abatement and Control:
    Waste Management Regulations, Guidelines, and  Policies......	      SW-12
    Fi nanci al Assi stance	      SW-22
    Waste Management Strategies  Implementation....	      SW-27
    Technical Assistance	      SW-34
    Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites	      SW-40
  Enforcement:
    Hazardous Waste Enforcement	      SW-43
    Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites	,      SW-43
    Hazardous Waste Permit Issuance..............	      SW-43
  Research and Development-
    Solid and Hazardous Waste..	      SW-52

Pesticides.	,		      P-l
  Abatement and Control:
    Registrations and Tolerances	.	      "-11
    Standards Setting and RPAR	.'		,	      P-18
    Federal and State Program Support..	      "-24
  Enforcement:
    Desticides Enforcement	••	      D-27
  Research and Development:
    Pestic ides	      P-31

Radiation		-,	      R-l
  Abatement and Control :
     Radiation Policy Council	      R-8
     Criteria, Standards, and Guidelines	,      R-10
     Environmental  Impact Assessment	      R-l4
     Program Implementation.	      R-l2
  Research and Devel opment	
     Nonionizi ng Radiation	      R-l8

Noise	,	      N-l
  Abatement and Control:
    Environmental  'toise Strategies and Standards.	      N-7
    Noise Program Strategies Implementation.....	      N-13
  Enforcement:
    Noi se Enforcement	....	,      N-21

Interdisciplinary.	      1-1
  Abatement and Control:
    Environmental  Impact Statements	      1-6
    Energy Review and Permitting.........	,      1-10
  Research and  Development:
    Intermedia Program	,      1-13

Toxi c Substances	      TS-1
  Abatement and Control:
    Toxic Substances Strategies.........	      TS-10
  Enforcement:                         ;
    Toxic Substances Enforcement	      TS-23
  Research and Development:
    Chemical  Testing and Assessment....	      TS-25

-------
Energy.	     E-l
  Research and Development:
    Multi-Media	     E-10
    Oxi dants	,....	     E-29
    Hazardous Pol 1 utants	     E-36
    Gases and Particles...	     E-45
    Water Quality	,	,.     E-57
    Drinki ng Vater	     E-65
    Industrial Waste Water	     E-67
    Solid Waste  (RCRA)....	     E-70
    Toxic Chemical Testing and  Assessment	     E-73
    Municipal Spills.......	.	     E-77

Management and Support....	,	     1S-1
"Management.........	     MS-4
    Support	     MS-13

Buildings and Facilities	     BF-1

Sc i ent i f1c Act i yj 11 es Overseas	     SAO-1

U.S. Regulatory Council	     RC-1

Construction Grants	     CG-1

Comprehensive Envirpnniental Response
  Compensation Liability Fund  tSuperfund)	     SF-1

Special Analyses
  Table of Contents	     SA-1

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
Summary
   SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                         EPA

                                    BUDGET SUMMARY


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1982 budget proposal totals
$5,326,271,000 and 11,674 permanent workyears.  The proposal includes $1,376,271,000 for
the Agency's operating programs, $3.7 billion for the municipal waste treatment
facilities construction programs, and $250 million and 635 permanent workyears to implement
the newly enacted Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund (Superfund).  Excluding Superfund
these totals constitute an increase of $36 million and 209 permanent workyears for the
1982 operating program and approximately $400 million for construction grants.  The
budget also requests supplemental authority of $26 million in 1981  and $7 million transfer
authority from the Construction Grants appropriation for the full costs of the 1981 pay
raise.

    The most significant change in the 1982 budget is the request for implementation of
Superfund.  The Superfund legislation was passed in December 1980 to provide a means
to control and clean up hazardous substance spills, to mitigate and contain the release
of hazardous waste from abandoned and Inactive disposal sites, and  to pursue claims and
enforcement activities against liable parties.  A 1981 budget supplemental of $78 million
and 142 permanent workyears Is being requested for development of the program and initial
implementation activities.  The 1982 budget requests additional resources of $133 million
and 260 permanent workyears to support the program in its first full year of operation.

I.  Appropriation Summary

             A summary of budget authority for EPA's eight appropriation accounts is as
         follows:

                          EPA's Request by Appropriation Account
Appropriation
                                      1981                 1982
                                 Current Estimate     Budget Estimate
                                                           '      "~~
Salaries S Expenses                573,492,400          645,618,000
Abatement, Control & Compliance    545,183,000          492,072,000
Research S Development             253,520,400          229,355,000
Scientific Activities Overseas
Building 5 Facilities                4,114,600            6,546,000
U.S. Regulatory Council              2,560,000            2.580.000
   Operating Programs Subtotal   1,378,870,400        1,376,271,000

Construction Grants              3,304,837,000        3,700,000,000
Hazardous Substance Response
   Trust Fund                       78.000.000          250,000,000

   Total                         4,761,707,400        5,326,271,000

    The following briefly describes the content of each appropriation and the changes
    requested within each from the Agency's current 1981 estimates.

    Salaries and Expenses

    EPA requests an increase of $72,125,600 for its Salaries and Expenses appropriation
which finances salaries and related costs associated with administering the programs
within the Environmental Protection Agency.  It incorporates all costs exclusive of
grant programs and program-specific contractual agreements.  The largest single increase
is to cover the full cost of the 1981 pay raise ($32.9 million)i   In addition, the
increase provides funds for inflationary increases in rent, maintenance and other
administratively - related activities.  In 1982, major emphases include continuation of
the development of a toxics integration strategy, increased resources for enforcement
activities across several media, and an increase in resources to replace all of EPA's
data processing resources with a single, technically compatible processing utility over
several years.

                                            I

-------
    Abatement. Control and Compliance

    The Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation finances contracts, grants, and
cooperative agreement for pollution abatement, control and compliance activites.  EPA
requests a decrease of $53,111,000 in 1982 for this appropriation, of which $32,367,100
is from the elimination of Section 208 Areavdde Waste Treatment Planning Grants.  Other
decreases are due to reduction in contracting for effluent guidelines, water quality
management and radiation.

    Program priorities include increases for drinking water state program assistance, as
well as increases for pesticides RPAR reviews and energy review and permitting.

    Research and Development

    The 1982 budget decreases the Research and Development appropriation by $24,165,400
to $229,355,000.  This decrease primarily occurs because of a shift in emphasis away
from conventional water quality and energy-related research and development activities.
Major program emphasis include Increases in indoor air pollution research, acid rain,
and groundwater protection.

    Scientific Activities Overseas

    The Scientific Activities Overseas appropriation finances payments in foreign
currencies, which the Treasury Department determines to be excess to the normal
requirements of the United States, for necessary expenses of the Environmental  Protection
Agency.  Excess foreign currencies, derived through sales of surplus agricultural
commodities and other sources, support cooperative environmental pollution research and
demonstration programs overseas.  No new budget authority is being requested for this
activity in 1982, but the program will continue using carryover funds.

    Bui1dings and Fae i1 i ti es

    EPA requests an increase of $2,531,400 for the Building and Facilities appropriation
which finances the construction, repair, Improvement, extension, alteration, and purchase
of fixed equipment of facilities owed, as well as existing facilities occupied by the
Environmental Protection Agency.  The increase in 1982 will correct health and  safety
deficiencies in EPA laboratories and modify several labs to permit high hazardous sample
•testing.

    U.S. Regulatory Council

    The U.S. Regulatory Council appropriation finances the salaries and expenses of the
U.S. Regulatory Council and its staff.  The Council, established in October of  1973 at
the direction of the President, is composed of the heads of those agencies within the
Executive Branch that have regulatory responsibilities.  Its purpose is to maintain an
overview of regulatory activities within the Executive Branch and to assist The President
in managing then in a coordinated way so as to limft potential adverse impacts  on the
economy.  The budget requests an increase of $20,000 for the U.S. Regulatory Council  in
1982.

    Construction Grants

    The Construction Grants appropriation is for grants to local public agencies for
construction of municipal wastewater treatment facilities to assist States and  localities
in attaining and maintaining water quality standards.

    The 1982 budget requests $3,700,000,000 for the municipal wastewater facilities
construction grants program.  This request, in addition to more then $2.4 billion available
from prior year appropriations, will provide more than $6.1 billion for obligation in 1982.

    Hazardous Substances Response Trust Fund

    The 1982 budget requests $250,000,000 to support the first full year of operation
for the newly enacted Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund (Superfund).  In  1982,
these funds will be dedicated to responding to priority hazardous substance sites and
spills, assessing natural resource damage and restoration techniques,'and operations
support activities.


                                           II

-------
                                 Summary of Budget Authority,
                         Obligations, Outlays and Permanent Workyears
                                       By Appropriation
                                    (dollars in thousands)

Research and Development




Full-time Equivalency...... ......
Abatement, Control and Compliance
Budget Authority. ...n... .........
Obi igati ons 	 	 	
Outl ays 	 	 	


Salaries and Expenses





Buildings and Facilities

Obi igati ons. 	 	 	 	 .<

Construction Grants



Scientific Activities Overseas
Budget Authority. ................


Operations, Research and Facilities

Outl ays 	 	 	

Ful 1 -time Eaui val encv 	
Actual
1980

/S233.481
236,888
'77,218



506 430
573,518
503,017

39

s > 524,773
522,137
471 ,062
10,572
12,940

. ,/ 2.177
, 1 ,667
1 ,592

3,400,000
4,673,011
4,343,010


28
2,053

917
2,890


Budget
Estimate
1981

$264,984
263,000
255,000



555,338
542,931
406,740

72

562,542
562,542
529,000
11,162
13,659

4,115
3,000
2.500

3,700,000
4,500,000
3 950,000

1 ,000
1 ,200
3,000

800
3,200


Current
Estimate
1981

$253,520
251 ,020
232,585



545,183
541 ,533
507,692

72

573,492
573,492
558,573
10,989
13,486

4,115
4,300
2,500

3,394,837
3,900,000
4,200,000


2,500
2,700

1 669
3,200


Estimate
1982

$229,355
227,229
230,886



492,072
497,084
504,133

162

645,618
645,618
661 ,561
10,965
13,460

6,646
6,367
3,965

3,700,000
4,950,000
4 ?30,QOO


805
1,300


?,ooo


Revolving Fund
  Obligations.	
  Outlays	
  Permanent Workyears...
  Full-time Equivalency.
580
-92
580
 50
650
 50
700
100
                                          I.I I

-------
                                 Summary of Budget Authority,
                         Obligations, Outlays and Permanent Workyears
                                       By Appropriation
                                    (dollars in thousands)
                                        Actual
                                         1980
 Budget
Estimate
  1981
Current
Estimate
  1981
Estimate
  1982
Regulatory Council
  ludget Authority	       2,538      3,338       2,550        2,580
  Obligations....	       2,449      3,338       2,560        2,580
  Outlays.	       M69      2,800       2,110        3,000
  Permanent Workyears.	           9         11          11           11
  Full-time Equivalency...........          33         26          26           26

Trust Funds
  Budget Authority...,.	.          16        ...         ...          ...
  Obligations........	           4         25          20           25
  Outlays.........	           7         20          20           20

Reimbursements                                                                  '
  Obligations.	      24,781        ...      30,000       30,000
  Permanent Workyears........	          58         64          63           63
  Full-time Equivalency...........          66         73          73           71

ConsplIdated Worki ng Fund
  Obligations.	         ...        ...         ...          ...
  Outlays...	         ...         10          17

Hazardous Substances Response
 Trust Fund
  Budget Authority	         .  '    250,000      78,000      250,000
  Obligations	         .      250,000      78,000      250,000
  Outlays...	         .       45,000      39,000      154,000
  Permanent Workyears.....	         .          ...         142          635
  Full-time Equivalency.....	         .          ...         160          730

Total, Environmental Protection
 Agency
  Budget Authority	   4,669,415  5,341,317   4,751,707    5,326,271
  Obligations	   6,035,980  6,127,416   5,385,744    6,610,408
  Outlays...	   5,602,626  5,197,320   5,548,447    5,800,965
  Permanent Workyears		      10,639     11,237      11,205       11,674
  Full-time Equivalency	      13,078     13,830      13,817       14,449
                                     '  IV

-------
                                   Summary of Budget Authority
                           Obligations, Outlays and Permanent Workyears
                                             By Media
                                      (dollars in thousands)
Air
  B~udget Authority	
  Obligations..	...
  Outlays.......	
  Permanent Workyears...
  Full-time equivalency.

Water Quality
  Budget Authority	
  Obiigations....	
  Outlays..	
  Permanent Uorkyears...
  Full-time equivalency.
Prinking Water
  Budget Authority	
  Obligations...	
  Outlays	
  Permanent Workyears...
  Full-time equivalency.

Solid Waste
  Budget Authori ty	
  Obligations...	
  Outlays	
  Permanent Workyears...
  Full-time equivalency.
Pesticides
  Budget Authority......
  Obligations	
  Outlays.	
  Permanent Workyears...
  Full-time equivalency.

Radiation
  Budget Authori ty	
  Obi igations...	
  Outlays	
  Permanent Workyears...
  Full-time equivalency.
Noijse
  Budget Authority	
  Obi igations	
  Outlays..,	
  Permanent Workyears...
  Full-time equivalency.
                                       Actual
                                        1980
247,766
290,059
266,524
  1,908
  2,312
333,592
344,918
362,476
  3,034
  3.625
 75,053
 82,392
 69,333
    489
    581
 95,517
109,775
 77,533
    484
    617
 69,990
 70,513
 67,709
  1,017
  1,150
 16,603
 15,329
 11,638
    192
    221
 12,719
 12,411
 11,829
     97
    152
Budget*
Estimate
1981
(dollars
252,125
248,470
211,500
1,932
2,315
338,798
328,084
285,300
3,055
3,719
88,152
85,830
74,000
551
653
147,798
145,000
125,500
778
994
74,617
73,156
63,000
925
1,050
17,860
17,562
15,100
268
310
12,927
12,767
11,000
99
153
Current
Estimate
1981
in thousands)
248,247
246,459
272,390
1,827
2,197
344,828
343,410
384,971
2,957
3,598
84,009
83,434
68,484
535
641
154,715
152,970
79,612
855
1,080
69,504
69,142
64,823
912
1,026
19,186
19,186
14,776
218
253
12,724
12,724
12,930
94
147

Estimate
1982

255,221
252,772
287,832
1,912
2,286
297,534
298,428
409,337
2,857
3,495
91 ,672
93,198
71 ,666
550
672
143,336
146,762
83,802
713
1,036
72,134
73,125
68,919
874
994
16,970
16,970
17,082
206
242
12,759
12,759
13,356
94
143

-------
                                                   Budget*     Current
                                       Actual     Estimate     Estimate
                                        1980        1981         1981
                                                   (dolTars in Thousands)
                                        Estimate
                                          1982
_Interd1 sci o11 nary
""Sii3get Authority.
  Obligations	
  Outlays......	
  Permanent Workyears...
  Full-time equivalency.

Toxic Substances
  Budget Authority	
  Obiigations....	
  Outlays	
  Permanent Workyears...
  Full-time equivalency.
Energy
  Budget Authority	
  Obii gatiohs...........
  Outlays	
  Permanent Workyears...
  Full-time equivalency.

Hanagement and Support
  Buaget Suthority......
  Obligations..........*
  Outlays	
  Permanent Workyears..,
  Full-time equivalency.
Facilities
  Budget Authority.
  Obligations	
  Outlays...	
Derations, Research and
	Facilities	™~~
  ooTi gat ions
  Outlays..*.,
Construction Grants
  Budget Authority..
  Obligations.......
  Outlays...........
Scientific Activities Overseas
  Budget Authority.
  Obligations	
  Outlays..	
ReyolyingFund
  Olsl'i gat Tons'..
  Outlays......
   26,322
   12,196
   27,509
      116
      137
   88,146
   90,237
   59,163
      592
      741
  100,618
  103,410"
  137,420
      152
      238
  198,358
  200,367
  160,163
    2,491
    3,205
    2,177
    1,667
    1,592
    1.853
    2,890
3,400,000
4,673,011
4,343,010
       28
    2,053
      580
      -92
   10,697
   27,241
   23,200
      120
      146
  109,492
  104,691
   90,200
      775
      894
  110,994
  106,268
  105,000
      152
      256
  219,403
  219,404
  186,940
    2,559
    3,303
    4,115
    3,000
    2,500
      800
    3,200
3,700,000
4,500,000
3,950,000
    1,000
    1,200
    3,000
      580
       50
   10,884
   10,531
   30,289
      124
      151
  106,718
  106,759
   63,195
      750
      902
  106,578
  106,578
  117,466
      141
      245
  214,802
  214,802
  189,914
    2', 575
    3,318
    4,115
    4,300
    2,500
    1,669
    3,200
    2,500
    2,700
      650
       50
 16,011
 15,085
 32,822
    144
    178
107,641
107,065
 68,394
    797
    913
 96,845
 96,845
118,439
    142
    242
256,922
256,922
224,931
  2,675
  3,421
  6,646
  6,367
  3,965
  2,000
3,304,837   3,700,000
3,900,000   4,950,000
4,200,000   4,230,000
    805
  1,300
    700
    100
                                            VI

-------
                                       Actual
                                        1980
 Budget*
Estimate
  1981
Current
Estimate
  1981
                                                   (dollars 1n thousands)
Estimate
  1982
"rust Funds
  Budget Authority.......	         16          ....
  Obligations..	          4           25           20           25
  Outlays	,.	          7           20           20           20

Reimbursements-
  Obligations.	     24,781          ...       30,000       30,000
  Permanent Workyeafs.............         58           12           64           63
  Full-time equivalency	         66           11           73           71

Regulatory Council
  Budget Authority	      2,538        3,338        2,560        2,580
  Obligations....	      2,449        3,338        2,560        2,580
  Outlays	      1,869        2,800        2,110        3,000
  Permanent Workyears.	          9           11           11           11
  Full-time equivalency	         33           26           26           26

Consolidated Working Fund
  Outl ays.........'.-...............        ...           10          17

Hazardous SubstanceResponse
  Trust Fund
  Budget Authority	        .        250,000       78,000      250,000
  Obligations	        .        250,000       78,000      250,000
  Outlays	        .         45,000       39,000      164,000
  Permanent Workyears	        .            ...          142          635
  Full-time Equivalency	        .            ...          160          730

Total, Environmental Protection
  Agency
  Bulge? Authority,.....,	  4,669,415    5,341,317    4,761,707    5,326,271
  Obligations	  6,035,980    6,127,416    5,385,744    6,610,408
  Outlays	  "5,602,626    5,197,320    5,548,447    5,800,965
  Permanent Workyears	     10,639       11,237       11,205       11,674
  Full-time equivalency..	     13^078       13,830       13,817       14,449
*January 1980 President's Budget as adjusted by the Office of Research and
 Development restructuring.
                                              VII

-------
                                 Summary of Increase or Decrease
                             Budget Authority and Permanent Workyears
                                      (dollars in thousands)
Research and Development
  Budget Authority......	

Abatement, Control and Compliance
  Budget Authority....................
  Permanent Uorkyears.................
  Ful 1 -time Equivalency	

Sa 1 aries and Expenses
  Budget Authority...	
  Permanent Workyears	
  Ful 1-time Equi val ency	....	

Buildings and Facilities
 Budget Authority.	..	

Scientific Activities Overseas
  Budget Authority	

Reimbursements
  Permanent Uorkyears	
  Ful 1 -tire Equi valency	

U.S. Regulatory Council
  Budget Authority......	
  Permanent Workyears	
  Ful1-time Equi valsncy.	

Subtotal
  Budget Authority..	
  Permanent Workyears	
  Ful 1-time Equi valency.	

Construction Grants
  Budget Authority.	

Oil andl_ Hazardous Liability Fund
  Budget Authority	
  Permanent Workyears	
  Ful 1-time Equivalency	

Total, Environmental Protection Agency
  Budget Authority..	"-,....
  Permanent Workyea rs	
  Ful 1-time Equivalency	
                                                 Current
                                                 Estimate
                                                   1981
  253,520



  545,183
      o • •
       72
  573,492
   10,988
   13,486
    4,115
       64
       73
    2,560
       11
       26
1,378,870
   11,063
   13,657
3,304,837
   78,000
      142
      160
4,761,707
   11,205
   13,817
                 Estimate
                   1982
  229,355



  492,072
      .» • •
      162
  645,618
   10,965
   13,459
    6,646
       63
       72
    2,580
       11
       26
1,376,271
   11,039
   13,719
3,700,000
  250,000
      635
      730
5,326,271
   11,674
   14,449
                 Increase +
                 Decrease -
 -24,165


 -53,111

     +90
 +72,126
     -23
     -27
  +2,531
      -1
      -1
     +20
  -2,599
     -24
     +62
+395,163
+172,000
    +493
    +570
+564,554
    +469
    +632
                                              VIII

-------
                                Liquidation of Contract  Authority
                                    (In thousands  of dollars)
                                                       1980           198]          1982

Construction Grants	    $1,500,000     $1,700,000   $1,000,000
                                             IX

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
 Air
SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                                AIR
Appropriation
Research and
Abatement, Control and





Actual
1980
...... $79,036
, 	 40,495
...... 170.528
, 	 290,059
	 1 ,909
, 	 2,312
, 	 266,542
, 	 337.263
Budget
Estimate
1981*
$78,023
45,558
128,545
252,126
1,932
2,315
211,500
270.167
Current
Estimate
1981
(dollars
$79,896
41 ,254
127,097
248,247
1 .827
2,197
272,390
270.167
Estimate
1982
Increase +
Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981
in thousands)
$89,031 +$9,135
39,369 -1,885
126,821 -276
255,221
1,912
2,286
287,832
*
+6,974
+85
+89
+15.442
                                   * Authorization pending.
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

Qxidants Non-Energy:
Salaries and Expenses.. 	
Research and Development.....
Hazardous Pollutants Non-Energy-
Research and Development.....
Mobile Sources Non-Energy:
Research and Development.....
Gases and Particles Non- Energy:

Total , Research and Oevel opment
Program
Salaries and Expenses........

Total. 	 	 	
6,160
1 1 ,326
4,286
6,604
4,138
4,109
13,301
18 456
27 885
40,495
68.380
6,605
12,687
4,018
7,776
4,464
4,154
13,179
20,941
28,266
45,558
73.824
5,912
10,984
5,297
6,457
4,875
4,441
12,157
19,372
28,241
41 ,254
69.495
5,771
12,705
5,309
5,742
3,826
2,483
14,231
18 438
29 137
39,369
68.506
-141
+1 ,721
+12
-714
-1 ,049
-1 ,958
+2,074
-934
+8°6
-1 ,885
-989
A1r Quality and Sta-
  tionary Source Plan-
  ning and Standards:
    Salaries and
      Expenses	
    Abatement, Control
      and Compliance..i
 9,263     8,698      9,366    10,297

28,009    20,218     19,333    19,269
Mobile Source Standards
  and Gui del ines:
    Salaries and
      Expenses	
    Abatement, Control
      and Compliance....
 7,228     6,821

 4,180     4,578
7,005     8,472

4,747     3,448
  +931

   -64




+1,467

-1,299
                                                                                               Page
                                                          A-49
                                                                                              A-66
                                                                                              A-81
                                                                                              A-89
                                                          A-ll
                                                          A-16
                                               A-l

-------
State Programs Resource
  Assistance:
    Salaries and
      Expenses	
    Abatement, Control
      and Compl i ance..

Air Quality Strategies
  Implementation:
    Salaries and
      Expenses.......
    Abatement, Control
      and Compliance.-.

Mobile Source Certifica-
  ti""i and Testing:
    Salaries and
      Expenses.	
    Abatement, Control
      and Compliance..

Trends Monitoring and
  Progress Assessment:
    Salaries and
      Expenses	
  Abatement, Control
    and Compliance....

Total, Abatement
  Control and Com-
    pliance Program:
    Salaries and
      Expenses.	
    Abatement, Control
      and Compliance.
    Total,
Stationary Source
  Enforcement:
    Salaries and
      Expenses	
    Abatement, Control
      and Compliance..,
Mobile Source
  Enforcement:
    Salaries and Expenses.
    Abatement, Control
      and Compliance......
Total, Enforcement
  Program:
    Salaries and Expenses.
    Abatement, Control
      and Compliance	
                                                   Budget     Current                Increase  +
                                         Actual    Estimate    Estimate    Estimate  Decrease  -
                                          1980     1981*       1981         1982     1992 vs 1981
Total

409
123,370
9,644
198
3,147
287
4,159
311
33,850
156,355
190,205
$13,253
11,356
4,038
2,817
17,301
14,173
31 ,474
(dollars
419
88,334
8,655
221
3,662
922
3,383
610
32,138
114,883
147,021
$13,736
10,696
3,883
2,966
17,619
13,662
31 ,281
in thousands)
301
88,742
9,070
311
3,510
222
4,113
578
33,365
113,933
147,298
$14,300
10,285
3,990
2,879
18,290
13,164
' 31 ,454

382
88,396
10,462
2,243
4,373
631
4,550
510
38,536
114,497
153,033
$17,145
9,841
4,212
2,483
21 ,358
12^324
33,682

+31
-346
+1 ,392
+1,932
+863
+409
+437
-68
+5,171
+564
+5,735
+52,846
-444
+222
-396
+3,068
-840
+2,228
A-23
A-27
A-31
A-36
A-41
 A-46
                                                     A-2

-------
                                                                                    Increase +
 Permanent Positions
Oxidants  Non-Energy	
Hazardous Pollutants Non-
  Energy	
Mobile Sources Non-Energy.
Gases and Particles
  Non-Energy..............
Total, Research and Development
 Program	

Air Quality  and Stationary
  Source  Planning
    and Standards..............
Mobile Source Standards
  and Guidelines	
State Programs Resource
  As si stance	
Air Quality  Management
  implementation......	
Mobile Source Certification
  and Testing:	
Trends Monitoring  and
  Progress Assessment.	
Total,  Abatement,  Control and
  Compliance  Program..........
 Stationary Source
  Enforcement.....
Mobile Source
  Enforcement.,,..
Total,  Enforcement
  Program.	
Ful l-time Equi val ency
Oxidants Non-Energy-..	
Hazardous Pollutants Non-
  Energy	
Mobile Sources Non-Energy.
Gases and Particles Non-
  Energy	
Total, Research and Development
  Program	

Air Quality and Stationary
  Source Planning and Standards.
Mobile Source Standards
  and Guidelines.	
State Programs Resource
  Assistance.....	
Air Quality Management
  Impl ementati on.	
Mobile Source Certification
  and Testing........	
Trends Monitoring and
  Progress Assessment...........
Total, Abatement, Control
  and Compliance Program..
Stationary Source
  Enforcement	
Mobile Source
  Enforcement	
Total, Enforcement Program.
Actual
1980

88
78
61
213
440
242
160
7
318
69
114
910
444
115
559
121
99
84
252
556
276
215
33
356
99
128
1,112
487
157
644
Estimate
1981*

96
83
59
2,115
453
244
152
6
.288
84
116
890
471
118
589
134
106
83
256
579
266
190
73
' 313
107
128
1,077
507
152
659
Estimate
1981
(dollars in
80
97
37
171
385
242
146
6
285
80
116
875
453
114
567
113
118
61
203
500
264
175
73
309
112
127
1,060
489
148
637
Estimate
1982
thousands)
74
78
35
195
382
251
152
6
311
87
116
923
497
in
608
106
101
53
234
494
273
190
73
338
110
128
1,112
537
143
680
Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981

-6
-19
-2
+24
-3
+9
+.6
« » .•
+26
+7
* » •
+43
+44
-3
+41
-7
-17
-3
+25
-6 '
+9
+15
» » »
+29
-2
+1
+52
+48
-5
+43
 A-49

 A-6
 A-81

 A-90
 A-n

 A-16

 A-23

 A-27

 A-31

 A-36
 A-41

 A-46
 A-67
 A-81

 A-9Q
A-41
*January 1980 President's Budget as adjusted by the Office of Research  and Development
 restructuring."
                                                   A-3

-------
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Clean Air Act authorizes a national  program of air pollution research,
regulation, and enforcement activities.  Under the Act, primary responsibility
for the prevention and control of air pollution at its source rests with State
and local government, with a strong mandate that the Environmental  Protection
Agency (EPA) take action where States do not fulfill their responsibilities.
EPA's role is to conduct research and development programs, ensure that
adequate standards and regulations are established to meet environmental
goals set by the Act, support State and local control activities, and ensure
that the standards and regulations are effectively enforced.

     The environmental goals are generally those prescribed by National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).  Two types of standards are set:
primary standards to protect human health and secondary standards to protect
the public welfare (prevention of damage to property, animals, vegetation,
crop, visibility, etc.).  The health and other effects of pollutants are
delineated in criteria documents which are the basis for the standards.
There presently are National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)  for total
suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide,
ozone, and lead.

     Specific limitations on pollutant emissions necessary to meet NAAQS
are prescribed in State Implementation Plans (SIP). These controls are supple-
mented by federally prescribed national emission standards for new motor
vehicles and selected new stationary sources.

     In addition to the NAAQS, nationally applicable emission levels are pre-
scribed for other pollutants deemed especially hazardous, and apply to both
new and existing pollutant sources.  National Emission Standards for Hazardous,
Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) have been established for asbestos, beryllium, mercury
and vinyl chloride from a variety of sources.  Benzene, arsenic and radionudides
have been listed as hazardous air pollutants and emission control regulations
are under development.  Activities and resources for radionudides are covered
under the radiation portion of the Agency's budget.

     Air program activities have been directed primarily at the attainment
and maintenance of NAAQS.  Although the combined Federal-State-local effort
at controlling air pollution has achieved a notable degree of success 1n
improving ambient air quality across the Nation, many areas have not attained
all the standards.  The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, recognizes this
problem and sets forth a comprehensive program for achieving the standards
for such areas.  In general, the Act requires that the standards be attained
by the end of calendar year 1982,  However, In recognition of the unusual
problems some areas have in attaining the standards for ozone and carbon
monoxide, attainment of these standards is to be as expeditious as possible,
but in no case later than 1987.

     The Agency's highest air program priority in 1982 will continue to be
the consolidation through State Implementation °lans of a firm regulatory
base for air pollution control.  Extenlons of the ambient air quality
standard attainment dates for ozone or carbon monoxide beyond 1982 were
granted tp 29 States.  For all 29 the law requires submittal of a SIP in
1982 which will demonstrate attainment of standards.  Fiscal years 1981 and
1982 will see intensified efforts by State/local control agencies with
assistance from EPA to adopt additional measures for control of hydrocarbon
emissions from both stationary and mobile sources and to accelerate their
implementation.

     The 1977 amendments to the Clean Air Act required EPA to review and re-
vise, if necessary, amb.ient air quality standards.  A revised ozone standard
was promulgated In 1979 and revisions to the CO standard were proposed in 1980.
A revised standard for NOj, may be published in 1981.  If promulgated in
1932,  this would potentially create new SIP submission requirements for
several States, if the standard is significantly changed.  Revised standards
for sulfur dioxide and particulate matter are expected to be proposed in 1982.


                                - '   A-4

-------
     Although activities to complete new source performance standards (NSPS)
have accelerated, several proposals have been delayed by the need in 1981
to reprogram resources to produce control techniques guidance documents for
additional sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to be controlled by
the States' VOC regulations in their 1982 ozone SIP submittals.  Consequently,
the program to produce NSPS for all major stationary source categories will
extend through fiscal year 1982.

     Considerable effort has been expended in fiscal year 1980 in revising
the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) regulations for Set I {TSP,
SOo) pollutants to bring them into conformity with court interpretations of
the complex PSD provisions of the Clean Air Act.  Work on Set II pollutants
(CO, hydrocarbons/ozone, NO? and lead) has been delayed and final rules
are not expected before fiscal year 1982.

     In 1981 EPA proposed regulations to protect visibility values in the
nations National Park and Wilderness Systems.  Work to refine modeling and
monitoring techniques which can be routinely applied for regulatory purposes
will also continue into fiscal year 19B2.

     Increased national and international concern is being expressed about
the problems associated with acid deposition (acid rain).  Sensitive lakes
and ecological systems in the northeast U.S.A. and Canada have been adversely
affected.  The problem in other areas of the country is just now being assessed.
It is unclear what remedial  action needs to be taken.  The 1982 proposed program,
based on current authorities, contemplates a significant increase in monitoring
efforts and the evaluation of various regulatory and enforcement alternatives
directed at the limitation of SOX and NOX emissions.

     Since air is being increasingly implicated as a pathway in the exposure of
large population groups to toxic or hazardous pollutants, EPA is intensifying
its programs directed at this problem.  Increased use of CAA authority under
Sections lll(d) and Section 112 is anticipated.  Additionally, States are being
encouraged to address toxic related problems through field assessments and
appropriate State/local regulation development.  The characterization of
presently unregulated pollutants from mobile sources is likewise being empha-
sized to assess the toxic potential of new fuel sources and auto industry
technology devslopment.

     All of the Nation's programs directed at reducing national dependency
on imported oil envision increased use of coal resources either 1n direct
energy production or as a raw material in producing domestically available
gas or oil.  Given a continuing commitment to the environmentally sound
utilization of coal  as an oil  substitute it is essential  that EPA's review of
various coal conversion proposals be conducted in a manner that 1s expeditious
and thorough.  The 1982 planned program provides resources toward this end
as well as to assure that State/local  implementation of regulatory reform
measures such as the "bubble" and banking are consistent with the basic
environmental protection goals of the Agency,

     Further federal regulation of emissions from motor vehicles will concen-
trate on heavy duty vehicles, where the degree of control has not yet
attained that reached with light duty vehicles, and all types of diesel
powered vehicles.  The program will continue to implement improvements in
the motor vehicle certification process which are directed at reducing paper-
work and reporting and testing burdens on the affected manufacturers.   Also
in furtherance of energy conservation goals and to provide an improved public
service, increased attention will be given to improving the ability of fuel
economy test information to more accurately predict actual in use mileage.

     Many of the major activities highlighted 1n the preceding discussion of
the thrust of the 1982 program requires field work on the part of both the
States and EPA Regional Offices.  The SIP revision and implementation process,
the beginning of analyses necessary in anticipation of new ambient air quality
standards, the carrying out of mandates related to acid rain, toxics control,
energy, regulatory reform and the continuing delegation of new source review
functions all  impose significant workload requirements upon both States and
regions.


                                      A-5

-------
     EPA through Federal enforcement will continue to augment State efforts
to attain or maintain NAAQS.  Federal action will be taken where States fail
or cannot act or request assistance.  Where States have not accepted the
delegation of new source review, Regional Offices will continue to verify
compliance and take required enforcement actions.

     The stationary sourca enforcement program will focus on vigorously
tracking consent decrees of major sources which have never achieved initial
compliance, initiating civil/criminal actions against recalcitrant sources,
and further implementation of the noncompliance penalty program established
by Section 120 of the Clean Air Act, which will remove the economic incentive
of continued noncompliance.  Emphasis will be given to assisting States in
maintaining strong  programs to ensure compliance by major sources, and
encouraging delegation of responsibility for the noncompliance penalty program
to as many States as possible.  The program will also focus on maintaining
continuous compliance of sources that have met SIP requirements; expanding
enforcement responsibilities in the new source and national emissions standards
for hazardous air pollutants programs; and negotiating compliance methods and
schedules for coal conversion and other energy related sources.

     In 1982, the EPA Mobile Source Enforcement Program will continue to
assure compliance with motor vehicle emission standards and fuels regulations.
The Selective Enforcement Audit (SEA) program is continued to deter the pro-
duction of non-conforming light duty vehicles and the recall program will
continue to assure compliance of in-use vehicles with emission standards.
An aggresive enforcement program will be continued to reduce fuel switching
and tampering in order to reduce in-use emissions from mobile sources In
areas which are targeted for inspection/maintenance.  Furthermore, a special
effort to provide support to State/local anti-tampering and anti-fuel switching
enforcement programs will be initiated via air program grants.

     Research will continue to stress the development of information useful in
successfully implementing new SIP's or in establishing revised SIP's.  Due
attention will be paid to developing effects information for further updates of
criteria documents.

     Assessments of sources of and controls for volatile organic compound (VOC)
emissions continue as major priorities of the oxidant research program as are
the development and refinement of air quality models (on both urban and
regional scales) for oxidants and their precursors.  These new or improved
tools should aid the attainment of standards in the 1983 - 1987 timeframe.
Hith the objective of providing data for future criteria document updates,
research in the health area will focus on the effects of exposures to ozone
and nitrogen dioxide.  In the gases and particles area research emphasis
continues to be placed on development and refinement of a health effects
data base relying most heavily on epidemiological and human clinical studies,
modeling the transport and transformation patterns of fine particulate matter,
and determination of concentrations and sizes of particles in ambient air.

     The hazardous air pollutant research program, in large measure will
continue support to implementation of Section 112 of the Clean Air Act and
EPA'5 airborne carcinogen policy.  In doing so, it attempts to provide the
best data for determining human health risks Of exposure to certain chemicals
found in ambient air, sources of those chemicals, and feasibility and costs
of reducing human exposure to those "chemicals.  The program will also attempt
to develop new and improved techniques for generating this data, especially
in the areas of bioassay methods, monitoring and measurement.  This program
will also complement an Agency-wide toxics strategy.

     The mobile source research program will change in emphasis away from
animal  inhalation of diesel exhaust and towards assessment of actual human
exposures to mobile source pollutants.  While animal inhalation studies are
being reduced, other live animal and cellular tests of the carcinogenicity
and mutagenicity of diesel  exhaust will  continue.  Tests of emissions of
heavy and light duty diesel engines will continue as a further effort to
Identify potentially toxic unregulated pollutants.
                                     A-6

-------
Purpose of Research and Development Program

     The air research and development program is designed to furnish EPA with
the knowledge to establish prudent environmental controls, standards and
regulations based upon known or potentially adverse health and ecological
effects; to define, develop, and demonstrate systems for controlling stationary
source pollution; and to evaluate strategies for minimizing the emission of
pollutants.  To achieve these ends, the program is structured to identify
and, to the extent possible, quantify the adverse human health effects of
exposure to air pollutants; to quantify the effects and fate of air pollutants
on biological systems and processes within the environment; to develop
predictive models for pollutant emission, transport, transformation, and
removal, and verify these models by actual measurements; and to develop new
and improved technology for preventing and controlling air pollution and
demostrate the cost effectiveness of such technologies.  The air research and
development program also provides analytical measurement methods for monitoring
air pollutants; procedures and materials to assure the quality of monitoring
data; technical expertise, and specialized facilities and equipment to the
regulatory and enforcement programs.

Purposejaf Abatement.Control and Compli ance Program

     Abatement, Control and Compliance encompasses the development and imple-
mentation of air pollution control strategies and programs.  Specific activi-
ties include regulations development, technical and policy guidance, financial
support to State and local programs and direct Federal action when States
fail to fulfill their Clean Air Act responsibilities.   The intent of the Act
is that States assume responsiblity for most aspects of air pollution control,
and that EPA provide guidance and assistance.  This total environmental effort
is conceived as a working partnership with State and local governments to
achieve national  environmental goals.

     The primary goal  of the air program is the implementation of National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) attainment and maintenance strategies.
The first priority for States and EPA in 1981 and 1982 is the completion of
strategy development actions leading to the adoption by the States and
revisions to the State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for areas not presently
attaining ambient air quality standards.  Included are expeditious follow-up
on conditionally approved SIPs and timely action on schedules for inspection
and maintenance (I/M), and transportation control measures (TCM); adoption of
new regulations covering volatile organic chemicals (VOC); additional review
of non-traditional sources of suspended particuTate matter; and development
of improved data bases to facilitate the submission and review actions of new
SIPs in 1982.  In addition, EPA in carrying out the mandates .of the Clean Air
Act, must complete the promulgation of New Source Performance Standards for
all major stationary sources of air pollution; effectively review all existing
ambient air quality standards; regulate mobile sources of air pollution;
develop a workable program of prevention of significant deterioration and
implement the visibility protection goals of the 1977 amendments to the
Clean Air Act.

     The enforcement program Is designed to ensure that stationary air
pollution sources are in compliance with emission limitations under SIPs;
that new stationary air sources are constructed in accordance with  NSR,
NSPS, and PSD provisions; that stationary air sources subject to NESHAPs meet
hazardous air pollutant standards; and that all applicable provisions of the
Power Plant and Industrial Fuel  Use Act of 1978 are implemented.  The program
is also designed to ensure that mobile sources subject to federal emission
regulations meet such regulations as produced and while in use for their
warranty period.  Included also is prevention of illegal tampering with
engines or control devices and improper use of leaded fuels.


                                        A-7

-------
      SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES                  (in thousands of dollars)

         1981 Air Program.	                $248,247

           Salaries and Expenses	                  +9,135

             The net increase primarily affects
             85 additional permanent workyears to
             mainly support the gases and particles;
             air quality management implementation,
             and stationary source enforcement
             program; offset by decreases in other
             air activities.

           Research and Development..	                  -1,885

             This decrease primarily reflects shifts to
             cover increased payroll expenses, equipment
             and supplies purchases, and ADP contracts.
             Also, this decrease reflects the phasing down
             of inhalation studies of the effects of diesel
             particles; the technical program's reduced
             ability to prepare and disseminate technical
             information and the transfer of funds
             to emissions testing, analysis and data
             support.

           Abatement, Control and Compliance...,.                  -276

             This decrease in extramural support primarily
             reflects shifts to cover increased payroll
             expenses, equipment and supply purchases and
             ADP contracts.
         1982 Air Program	...	        255,221

SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATE

     1.  Summary of Budget Request

           An appropriation of $255,220,900 is requested for 1982.  This  request
by appropriation account, is as follows:

                Salaries and Expenses	 $89,030,600
                Research and Development.....	  39,368,900
                Abatement, Control and Compliance......  126,821,400

     2«  Changes from Original 1981  BudgetEstimate
                                                          (in thousands of dollars)

         Original  1981 estimate	          252,126
         Congressional decreases:
           General  reduction to Abatement, Control and
            Compl i ance.	             -998
           Consultant services	             -403
           SES bonuses	           -102
           ADP services	           -220
           Travel.....	,	           -134
           General  reduction to Research and Development....         -3,653
         Presidential reduction of $7 million	           -348
         Love Canal  and Three Mile Island....i	           -84
         Reprogramming for salary  and related costs.	   .        -118
         Miscellaneous reprogrammings	         -1,793
         Proposed  pay raise supplemental..	         +3,974

     Current 1981  estimate.	        248,247


                                              A-8

-------
     The Congress reduced Agency travel  costs by $850,000, of which $134,000 is applicable
to the air media.  ADP services were reduced" by $2 million, resulting in a $220,000 decrease.
General  reductions to the Abatement, Control and Compliance ($7.5 million) and the Research
and Development ($12,214,000) appropriations resulted in decreases of $998,000 and
$3,653,000 respectively.  A reduction in consultant services ($3,8 million) was made, of
which $403,000 affected this media.  Senior Executive Service (SES) bonuses were reduced
by $750,000 resulting in a $102,000 decrease.

      Shortly after the budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted budget
revisions (House Oocument 96-294); this revision decreased $7 million from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation, of which $348,000 was applied to this media.

     A transfer of $84,000 was made to the solid waste and radiation media in order to
support efforts on Love Canal and Three Mile Island.

     Reprogrammings of $118,000 were applied to provide for salary and related costs.
A supplemental appropriation is proposed to fund the costs of the October 1980 pay raise,
of which $3,974,000 is applied to the air media.  Miscellaneous reprogrammings to this
media resulted in a net decrease of $1,793,000.
ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
                                                   Current
                                                  Estimate          Estimate
                                                    1981              1982
                                                    (in thousands ofaollarsi

      Prior year obligations	,	     $290,059            $246,459
       Effect of congressional  changes......       -5,510                 ...
       Effect of pay raise supplemental	       +3,974
       Change in amount of carryover funds
          available....	      -37,392              +1,788
       Program changes..	      -11,605              +6,974
       Effect of reprogrammings	       -2,259
       Change in rate of obligations.	.,       +9,192              -2.449    •

      Total  estimated obligations	      246,459             252,772
       (From new obiiation authority)..	     (241,458)            (245,983)
       (From prior year funds)	       (5,001)              (6,789)

      EXPLANATION OFINCREASES  AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

           The congressional changes discussed in the previous section are expected to
      result in a decrease of $5,510,000 to obligations.  The proposed pay raise
      supplemental to partially fund the October 1980 pay raise will increase  obligations
      by $3,974,000.  The effect of reprogrammings Included the Presidential $7 million
      reduction result in a decrease of $2,259,000.

           Program changes in 1981  and 1982 result in a decrease of $11,605,000 and an increase
      of $6,974,000 respectively to obligations.  The amount of carryover funds to be
      obligated in 1931 is ^5,001,000, a decrease of $37,392,000 over the 1950 level; in
      1982 it is estimated that $6,789,000 of carryover funds will be obligated, an increase
      of $1,788,000 from the 1981 level.

           A change in the rate of obligations is expected  in 1981, which will  create an
      increase of $9,192,000; in 1982 a decrease of $2,449,000 is expected.  .
                                         A-9

-------
                                               AIR
Program Levels
Number of pollutants
 covered by hazardous
 pollutants standards......
Number of automobile
 engine families awarded
 certificates for con-
 formity with emission
 standards	
Number of source
 categories covered by
 New Source Performance
 Standards	
Number of emission tests
 carried out for motor
 vehicles certification
 purposes.	
Number of fuel economy
 tests carried out..	.
Identified Class A source
 in -J.S...,	
As sembl y 1 i ne test i ng
 test orders	
Combined fuels/vapor
 recovery inspections.....
Recall investigations.....
Number of civil/criminal
 actions initiated by EPA.
Number of administrative
  orders initiated by EPA,
Number of continuous
 emissions related
 enforcement actions..
Number of sources that have
 regular continuous emissions
 monitoring data validations.
Actual
 1980
 250
  34
 Budget     Current        ,      Increase +
Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
  1981    .   1981       1982     1982 vs. 1981
         (dollars in thousands)
   250
    53
250
 40
  250
   61
 +21
660
1,785
23,000
38
22,337
51
131
155
950
1,800
29,000
33
25,000
19
210
220
700
1,850
28,000
35
25,000
40
163
204
700
1,850
29,000
35
25,000
40
180
207
                                          +1,000
 500
   500
500
   10


1,000
 +17

  +3


 +10


+500
                                            A-10

-------
Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                             AIR
                   Air Quality and Stationary .Source Planning and Standards
                             Actual
                              1980
 Budget
Estimate
  1981
 Current
Estimate
  1981
Estimate
  1982
Appropriation
Emission Standards and
 Technology Assessment:
  Salaries and Expenses..   $4,120     $3,504
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance........   24,856     16,948

Energy and Pol 1utant
 St r ateg i es Developine nt:
  Salaries and Expenses..    1,886      1,956
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance........    1,484      1,559

State Program Guidelines
 and Regulations
 Development:
  Salaries and Expenses..    3*257      3,238
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	    I,6j69  _    1,711

Total:
  Salaries and Expenses..    9,263      8,698
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	   ?8,009     20.218

Grand Total	   37,272,   28,916

Permanent^Positignj
Emts₯ion Standards and
 Technology Assessment:        110        107
Energy and Pol 1 utant
 Strategies Development:        44         44
State Program Guidelines
 and Regulations
 Development	,       88         93

Total....	      242        244

Ful 1 -time Equivalency
Emission Standards and
 Technology Assessment:        120        115
Energy and Pollutant
 Strategies Development:        55         50
State Program Guidelines
 and Regulations
 Development	      102        101

Total	      277        266
      Tdol1ars Inthousands]



               $3,905          $4,429

               16,075          16,437



                1,900           2,045

                1,709           1,527




                3,561           3,823

                1,549  	1.305
                9,366

               19.333
               28,699



                  106

                   44


                   92
                  242



                  114

                   50


                  100
  Increase +
  Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981
                                 +$524

                                  +362



                                  +145

                                  -182




                                  +262

                                  -244
                  10,297

                  19.269
                  29,566



                     114

                      44


                      93
                     251



                     122

                      50


                     101
                  +931

                   -64
                  +867
                    +8
                    +9
                    +8
                                                 +
                  264
                     273
                    +9
                                              A-ll

-------
Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of $29,566,400 and 251 permanent workyears for 1982, an
increase of $867,900 and 9 permanent workyears from 1981.  Included in this total is
$10,297,400 for Salaries and Expenses and $19,269,000 for Abatement, Control and Compliance,
with an increase of $931,600 and a decrease of $63,700 respectively.  This increase'primarily
reflects work to develop regulations to control toxic pollutants and/or acid rain precursors.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes the setting of emission standards for stationary sources,
which involves pollution control technology and cost assessments and other industry analyses
which support the standard setting function.  Also included are the review and revision, if
necessary, of ambient air quality standards; pollutant assessments; the development of pol-
lutant control strategies, analytical tools and guidelines; the translation of control
strategies into regulatory actions; and the assessment of the energy implications of
regulatory actions.

     Emissions Standards a/id Technology Assessments — National emission standards for
stationary sources are set under Section J11 and 112 of the Clean Air Act.  Section 111
mandates the Environmental Protection Agency to establish New Source Performance Standards,
Section 112 authorizes National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.

     New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) reflect the performance of the best demonstrated
systems of emission reduction, considering cost and energy impact for specific processes or
facilities in a source category.  The analysis supporting the NSPS considers technical feasi-
bility; cost; and economic, energy and environmental impacts.  The NSPS setting process results
in providing useful data to State agencies in defining best available control  technology,
lowest achievable emission rates, and reasonably available control technology.

     National  Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) have been set for
asbestos, beryllium, mercury, and vinyl  chloride.  Benzene and arsenic have been listed as
hazardous air pollutants and several  NESHAP proposals are under review.

     Energy and Pollutant Strategies Development -- The major activities of this program
element are: (!) Review and revision as appropriate of all existing National Ambient Air
Quality Standards as mandated by the Clean Air Act, (2) Identification and assessments of the
potential  air pollutants, including the listing of additional  chemicals as hazardous air
pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act, and (3) Analytic support to Agency re-
gulatory efforts to set emission standards for pollutants regulated under Sections 111(d) and
112.

     State Programs Guidelines and Regulations Development — The objectives of this program
element are the development of guidelines and regulations that set forth requirements for air
pollution control  programs implemented by the States under the Clean Air Act (principally
State Implementation Plans); development of technical  guidance for modelling,  emission in-
ventory development and air quality standard attainment demonstrations, and maintaining an
overview of the development and implementation of air pollution control programs to assure
national  consistency at the regional, State, and local  levels.  The State Implementation Plans
(SIPs) provide for the attainment and maintenance of National  Ambient Air Quality Standards,
establish programs for prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) of air quality in clean
areas, and will  provide protection of visibility in national  parks and wilderness areas.

EMISSION STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

1980 Accompli shment s

     The 1980 resources included $24,855,400 in contract support. These contract resources
were used to'tontinue work related to setting standards for the synthetic organic chemical
manufacturing  industry and other studies required for setting NSPS and NESHAPs.  A total of
$1,900,000 was transferred to EPA'S Office of Research and Development for support in standards
setting.  Work continued on setting performance-standards for all listed source categories.
An NSPS was promulgated for the hydrocarbon storage tank revision.  NSPS proposals were
published for organic solvent degreaslng, auto surface coating, ammonium sulfate, and lead
battery manufacturing.  Three reviews of existing standards were completed.  A nine-volume
technical  report on the synthetic organic chemical  manufacturing "industry (SOCMI) was drafted
in 1980, including 39 product reports covering 80 percent of SOCMI process emissions.  Control
techniques documents for sulfur oxides,  particulate matter, and best available retrofit
technology (BART)  were drafted in in T980,

     A NESHAP  was proposed for one of four benzene categories:  maleic anhydride.  Work was
in progress on 10 NESHAP categories.


                                         A-12

-------
1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency allocated a total of $19,979,100 and 106 permanent workyears to this
program, of which $3,904,800 is for Salaries and Expenses and $16,074,300 is for extramural
purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance Appropriation.  These contract resources
are being used for engineering studies and other analyses needed to set NSPS, NESHAP, and to
Issue information on reasonably available control technology for review of State implementa-
tion plans (SIP).  Effort has been reduced on completion of the NSPS schedule mandated by the
Clean Air Act in order to complete approximately 10 control technique guidelines for use in
developing the revised 1982 oxidant SIPs.  Twenty-one NSPS projects will be proposed and six
will be promulgated in 1981.  The NESHAP projects continued from 1980 will result in five
proposals and one promulgation.  Five existing standards will be reviewed.  Technical support
for SIP, best available control technology, lowest achievable emissions rate determinations,
and for the review of construction permit applications for synthetic fuels will be provided.
An analysis of the benefits and impacts of air pollution and associated emission control
standards will be continued.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $472,900 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of
$7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity
is $20,800.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $10,000 was
applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $600,000 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $208,900 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Offsetting transfers of $224,700 were made between this activity and air-Energy and
Pollutant Strategies Development ($150,500); and air-Training ($74,200); in the Salaries
and Expenses, and Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

   ,  - A transfer of $50,100 was made to the radiation media in order to support the Radiation
Policy Council.

     - A transfer of $900 ./as made to the Administrative Law Judges to provide additional
resources to support a new program for instituting civil noneompllance penalties under Section
102 of the Clean Air Act.                                          .

1982Plan

     The Agency requests a total  of $20,866,900 and 114 permanent workyears for this program,
of which $4,429,500 is for the Salaries and1 Expenses appropriation and  516,437,400 is for
the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This is an increase of $524,700 and
5363,100 respectively, which will  be used to begin to develop regulations as an adjunct to the
Agency's program to control toxic pollutants.  Efforts will continue on the Clean Air Act
mandated NSPS projects.  Twenty-three proposals and 21 promulgations are planned.  Three
reviews of existing standards will be completed.  One NESHAP is expected to be proposed and
five promulgated.  The Initial analysis of the benefits and impacts of selected NSPS will be
completed.

ENERGY AND POLLUTANT STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

1980 Accompli shments

The 1980 resources included $1,484,300 for contract support for evaluation of national. ambient
air quality standards, analysis of the environmental, economic and regulatory impacts of the
possible standards revisions, and the development of an improved risk assessment methodology.
                                           A-13

-------
     The national  ambient air quality standard for carbon monoxide has been reviewed and a
revised standard was proposed.  Work is underway to review and revise as necessary the nitro-
gen oxide, participate and sulfur dioxide standards.  Work continued on development of a
health risk'assessment analysis methodolgy applicable to the standard setting process.  Visi-
bility and odor reports were completed for Congress.  Pollutant assessment was completed for
arsenic and listing as a hazardous air pollutant was made.  Assessments were underway for coke
oven emissions, perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, acrylonitrile, methyl chloroform, methy-
lene chloride, toluene, cadmium, ethylene diehloride, nickel, vinylidene chloride, and form-
aldehyde.  Work on energy impact analysis for industrial  boilers was continued and the energy
and environmental  related data base for fossil fuel fired power plants was maintained.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $3,609,400 and 44 permanent workyears to
this program, of which $1,900,300 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $1,709,100
is for extramural  purposes under the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     The program continues to emphasize review and revision of National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NA^S) and the assessment of hazardous pollutants in 1981.  Review and revision,
if necessary, of the NAAQS for nitrogen dioxide will occur.  The revised carbon monoxice stan-
dard will be promulgated and the hydrocarbon standard rescinded.  Technical, health, energy
and economic issues raised through litigation and public inquiry will be addressed regarding
all revised NAAQS.  Listing decisions will be made for eight pollutants.  Population exposure
estimates for a group of 43 chemicals begun in 1979, assignment of public health priority, and
ranking in order of risks to public health will be completed.  Preliminary screening for public
health risk will be made of a number of chemicals to determine which require further detailed
exposure and cancer assessment.

1981 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $94,600 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of $7
million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is
$11,700,

     - Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by 5850,000; a decrease of $2,500 was applied
to this activity.

     - An increase of $108,800 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
include- in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Offsetting transfers of $150,500 were made between this activity and air-Emission Stan-
dards and Technology Assessment in the Salaries and Expenses, and Abatement, Control and Com-
pliance appropriation.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $3,571,700 and 44 permanent workyears for this program, of
which $2,044,700 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $1,527,000 is for the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This is an increase of $144,400 and a de-
crease of $182,100 respectively, and reflects reprogramming to meet increased payroll costs.

     Review of national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter and sulfur dioxide
will be completed and revised standards, if indicated, will be proposed.  Promulgation of a
reaffirmed or revised nitrogen dioxide standard will be published.  Listing decisions will be
made for three potentially hazardous air pollutants.  Evaluations will be made of several
alternative approaches to NAAQS risk assessment to determine their feasibility for integrating
risk assessment into the decision making framework for NAAOS.  Air quality problems resulting
from municipal  and hazardous waste incineration will be defined and information will be pro-
vided to regional  offices and States to enhance their ability to deal with toxic chemicals and
airborne carcinogen problems.

STATE PROGRAMS GUIDELINES AND REGULATIONSDEVELOPMENT

1980 Accomplishments

     The 1980 resources included $1,700,000 in contract support for the main areas of program
emphasis:  nonattairment SIPs; and New Source Review/Prevention of Significant Deterioration.
Follow-up action on the conditional approvals, schedules and commitments in the 1979 nonat-
tainment SIPs remained a major activity in 1980.  Management of the new source review/ pre-
vention of significant deterioration program continued with major effort devoted to revising
the regulations in response to court decisions.  A BACT/ LAER Clearinghouse was maintained.

-------
 Efforts were made to encourage additional States to assume the PSD permitting program.  Policy
 papers or regulations were developed on a variety of Issues including new source review, in-
 terstate equity, stack heights, definition of ambient air, sulfur variability in coal, etc.
 Policy and technical guidance was issued in preparation for submittal by the States of 1982
 03/CO SIPs, and for control of unconventional  sources of particulate matter.  Major technical
 and management support was provided to the N.E. Corridor 0* Study.  Visibility assessment
 techniques were developed to support the proposed regulation.  Reviews of 15 non-reference
 models were completed and proposed revisions to the modeling guideline were prepared.  Direct
 technical modeling guidance was provided to regional offices and States.

 1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $5,110,000 and 92 permanent workyears, of
 which $3,560,700 is for Salaries and Expenses and $1,549,300 is for Abatement, Control and
 Compliance.  Contracts continue to support the work required for technical guidance in the
 submittal of SIPs for nonattainment areas, with particular emphasis on assisting States deve-
 loping adequate data bases for their 1982 Oa/CO submittals and for New Source Review/Prevention
 of Significant Deterioration analysis.  Follow-up on conditional approvals of 1979 non-attain-
 ment SIPs and implementation of SIP schedules and commitments will continue in 1981.  Submit-
 tals of schedules for the implementation of transportation control measures are expected.
 Areas granted 18-month extensions for submittal of plans to meet secondary total suspended
 particulates (TSP) standards will be submitting plans in early 1981 and these will require
 review and approval action.  Review and approval action on lead SIP submittals will be under-
 taken.  Regulations implementing the revised NAAQS for nitrogen dioxide will be proposed.
 Continued regulatory efforts will result in promulgation of regulations for stack heights,
 visibility and regional consistency, and proposal  of continuous emission monitoring regulations.
 The program of policy and technical guidance for States and Regional Offices in preparation
 of the 1982 ozone/CO SIPs will continue.  The Northeast Corridor modeling effort will be given
 technical direction and data analysis initiated under contract.  A program to manage and ensure
 national  consistency in New Source Review will be conducted.

     Policy and technical guidance for regulatory reform efforts such as banking and the
 "bubble" will be provided.

 1981 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $160,700 results from several  actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
 revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of
 $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.   The reduction applied to this activity
 is $19,500.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel  costs by $850,000; a. decrease of $10,000 was
 applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $190,200 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
 included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Offsetting transfers of $161,700 were made between this activity and A1r Quality and
 Enission Data Analysis Progress Assessment In the Salaries and Expenses and Abatement, Control
 and Compliance appropriations,


 1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total  of $5,127,800 and 93 permanent workyears for this program, of
 which $3,823,200 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $1,304,600 is for the
 Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.  This  is an increase of $262,500 and a de-
 crease of $244,700 respectively, and reflects reprogramming to meet increased payroll costs.

      The emphasis in 1982 will be to continue national  management and evaluation of all
major SIP programs which were initiated in previous years.  Policy and technical guidance will
be provided for Os/CO SIP development and for implementation of new/fevised ambient standards.
Development of new models and emission factors for particulates, maintenance of the BACT/LAER
clearinghouse, review of State implementation of New Source Review programs, the provision
of modeling guidance on power plant emissions, and assistance to States in implementing regul-
 ations dealing with visibility and continuous compliance will  continue.  Efforts will also
continue  to assist the States in implementing EPA regulatory reform Initiatives.


                                          A-15

-------
                                           Air

                          Mobile Source Standards  and  Guidelines
                              Actual
                               1930
 Budget
Estimate
  1981
Current
Estimate
  1981
                                              Toollars  In thousands)
Estimate
  1982
 Increase +
 Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981
Appropriation
Mobile Source Standards
 and Guidelines:
  Salaries and Expenses...     4,454      4,325       4,178        4,406           228
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance..	     2,298      2,059       3,457        2,004        -1,453

Mobile Source !n-'Jse
 Emissij.i Assessment:
  Salaries and Expenses...       1<»4         176          227          272           +45
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance*	     1,769      2,369   '    1,260        1,444          +184

Emission Testing,
 Analysis and Data
 Support for Standards
 and Guidelines:
  Salaries and Expenses...     2,580      2,319       2,600        3,794        +1,194
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance.........       113	150___._    JO	,..       __   -30

Total;
Salaries and Expenses	     7,228      6,820       7,005        8,472        +1,467
Abatement and Control
   and Compliance...,	     4,180      4,578	4,747        3,448	-1,292

Grand Total	    11,408     11,398      11,752       11,920          +163

Permanent Positions

Mobile Source Standards
 and Guidelines	       108         108          112          113            +1
Mobile Source In-Use
 Emission Assessment	         6          6           7         -7           ...

Emission Testing,
 Analysis and Data
 Support for Standards
  and Guide! i,-,^5	    	46	38     .     27	32	     +5

Total 	        160         152          146          152            +6

Full-time Equivalency

Mobile Source Standards
 and Suildelines	       149         135          131          132            +1
Mobile Source In-Use
 Emission Assessment	         6          8           8           8
Emission Testing,
 Analysis and Oata
 Support for Standards                                                            +14
  and Guideline...	     . u	50	47      	   36	50	_

Total	       214         190          175          190           +15
                                               A-16

-------
Budget Request

     The Agency request a total of $11,919,900 and 152 permanent workyears for 1982, an
increase of 5167,700 and 6 permanent workyears from 1981. Included in this total is
$3,472,000 for Salaries and Expenses and $3,447,900 for Abatement, Control and Compliance,
with an increase of $1,467,100 and a decrease of $1,299,400 respectively.  This primarily
reflects shifts to pay increased payroll expenses, equipment and supplies purchases, and
ADP contracts.

Program Description

     This subactivity involves the development of emission standards for mobile sources
of air pollution — passenger motor vehicles, heavy duty and light duty trucks, mo tor-
cycles, and aircraft — and associated technical activities, such as testing, technology
assessments, and emissions characterization.  It also involves the development of technical
procedures and guidelines applicable to the control of emissions for new and in-use
vehicles.

     The development of standards for mobile sources involves characterization of'emissions
and control technology analyses.  An essential part of this process is the continuous
assessment of new or improved technologies and their associated potential for change
in the nature of air pollutant emissions and other related performance factors, such
as fuel economy.  It also requires tests, monitoring mechanisms, or other strategies
to ensure compliance with the standards.  This subactivity includes the technical work
underlying EPA efforts to assure the compliance of both new vehicles (e.g., certifi-
cation) and in-use vehicles (e.g., inspection and maintenance).

     Included in this effort are activities aimed at determining mobile source in-use
emissions performance which provides information on the average emissions that are
to be expected from the in-use vehicle population.  The, data obtained are used to
calculate the emission reductions required for attainment and maintenance of National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).  Since testing began in 1973, the results have
consistently indicated that between one-half and three-quarters of tested in-use
vehicles fail to meet standards. Much of this failure appears to be attributable to
in-use maladjustments or disablements of vehicle engines or emission control systems.

     As emission standards are imposed on additional classes of motor vehicles and the
stringency of these standards increases, reassessments of the control technology used
by the manufacturers are made to determine energy implications and potential emissions
of nonregulated pollutants.  For example, emissions of currently unregulated pollutants
for diesel-powered and catalyst-controlled vehicles are being assessed to determine if
additional  regulatory action is necessary to prevent the emission of potentially car-
cinogenic or toxic substances.

     In addition, technical assessments of the motor vehicle fuel economy program ara
made including possible revisions of fuel economy test procedures and the need for
information about additional  classes of vehicles.

MOBILE SOURCE STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

1980 Accompli shments                   ,                                           :

     The 1980 resources included $2,298,500 for contracts.  These contracts supported
standard setting activities, emissions characterization, technology assessments,5nd
inspection and maintenance (I/M) program establishment.

     Operations in the regulatory area focused on the establishments of 'emissions stand-
ards for heavy duty vehicles that are equivalent in stringency to those for passenger
cars, as well as the development of appropriate standards for diesel vehicles and vehicles
operated at high altitude.  The standards to «eet the 90 percent reduction requirement
for hydrocarbons HC and carbon monoxide (CO) were promulgated, and the evaporative HC
emission standard/test procedure was proposed.  Work was completed on standards for
                                         A-17

-------
participate emission of light duty vehicles, while a heavy duty participate standard
will be proposed in early 1981.  Other regulations promulgated during 1980 include exhaust
standards for light duty trucks; a set of short I/M tests designed as part of the imple-
mentation of the Clean Air Act's warranty provisions; and rules aimed at reducing emis-
sions from vehicles at high altitude.

     Substantial technical assistance was provided to States and localities which are in
the process of establishing I/M programs.  Legal authority was attained in several key
States {27 of 29 required States now have authorizing legislation) and final SIP approval
action was taken for 19 States.  The 10 remaining plans are expected to receive final
approval in 1981.   Individual  studies and analyses which further describe \he benefits
to be obtained from I/M were completed in conjunction with the Portland, Oregon vehicle
testing program.

     Technological development in the automotive emissions field were analyzed and major
improvements in EPA's national fuel economy program were designed and are being implemented.

     In the area of hazardous pollutant control, Implementation of Section 202(a)(4)
continued.

1981 Program

     In 1981 j the Agency allocated a total of $7,635,700 and 112 permanent workyears to*"~
this program, of which S4,178,400 is for Salaries and Expenses and $3,457,300 is for the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     Regulatory actions include final standards for heavy duty vehicles. Emission standards
will be proposed for heavy duty diesel particulates, nitrogen oxide (NQx) gaseous emissions,
and HC evaporative emissions.   In addition, final  action will occur on light duty vehicle
and truck high altitude emissions.  New regulatory action will be initiated in the areas
of allowable maintenance, fuel and fuels additives, and diesel organics control.  Reports
on railroad emissions and light duty vehicle technology will be prepared for Congress.

     In the I/M area, public awareness activities will become increasingly important,
especially with increased voluntary testing_prior to mandatory inspection in many States.
Public awareness guidelines for implementing agencies and broad range support activities,
such as quality assurance for decentralized programs, will  be provided as well as specific
public information materials.

     New initiatives designed  to improve the national fuel  economy program will  include
voluntary labeling and information disclosure on tires, a pilot fuel  economy check-up
program which could be implemented in States'  I/M program,  and voluntary labeling of
fuel  efficient oils.  A 19fll fuel  economy report to Congress is also planned.

     In the area of hazardous  pollutant control, studies of nitrosamines and bioactive
paniculate emissions control  will  be initiated.  Ongoing activities include Section
202(a)(4)  implementation.  Additional  reports will  be prepared on critical  materials
for catalysts, synthetic fuel  characterization, evaporative emissions at high temperature,
and an analysis of emissions under non-FTP conditions,


1981 Explanati on of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $1,252,200 results from several actions, as  follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981  budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions  to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease
of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.; the reduction applied  to this
activity is $24,800.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel  costs by $850,000; a decrease of 58,000
was applied to this activity.
                                       A-18

-------
     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease
of $119,600 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $554,200 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $218,000 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and
is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - A transfer of $2,000 was made to the Administrative Law Judges to provide addi-
tional resources to support a new program for instituting civil noncompliance penalties
under Section 10? of the Clean Air Act.

     - A transfer of $26,800 was made to the radiation media in order to support the
Radiation Policy Council.

     - Reprogrammings to support increased need for contract funds in the area of in-
spection/maintenance* characterization, and technology assessment result in transfers
of $1,953,000 from Mobile Sources In-Use Emission Assessment ($1,109,000); from Emission
Testing, Analysis and Data Support for Standards and Guidelines ($120,000); from Mobile
Source ^reproduction Compliance Verification ($652,000); from Emission Testing, Analysis
and Data Support for Preproduction Compliance Verification (548,000); and from Stationary
Source Enforcement ($24,000).

     - Reprogrammings to reflect a reassessment of the needs for ADP and other in-house
contracts, as well as laboratory equipment and supplies, resulted in a transfer of
$183,400 to Mobile Sources In-Use Emission Assessment (-$45,000); Emission Testing
Analysis and Data Support for Preproduction Compliance Verification (-$30,900); and
Emission Testing, Analysis and Data Support for Standards and Guidelines (-$107,500).

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total  of $6,409,600 and 113 permanent workyears for this
program, of which $4,405,600 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and
$2,004,000 is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This is an in-
crease of $227,400 and  a decrease of .$1,453,300 respectively, and reflects reprogramming
of resources to emissions testing, analysis and data support, as well as to meet increased
payroll  costs.

     Work will proceed to complete and implement the standards for heavy duty HC, CO,
NOx, and particulate emissions.  Issues related to evaporative emissions standards
for heavy duty vehicles will be addressed, and pollutant specific studies for changing
the HC and CO standards will be prepared.  Additional work will be done on the control
of diesel particulates and organic emissions.  Setting of emission standards for high
altitude vehicles will proceed, together with an assessment of the need for high altitude
emission standards for heavy duty engines.  Fuels and fuel additives control regulations
will be  proposed.

     Recommendations for waivers of the NOx'standards for model years 1983 and 1984 for
light duty diesel vehicles will be made.  The NOx emission standard for aircraft for
19S3 will be reevaluated in light of the increased fuel  consumption requirements.

     Support will be provided to all States implementing I/M programs.  Improvements in
I/M effectiveness will be investigated (e.g., identification of misfueled vehicles,
mechanics" training effectiveness), and assessments will be made of the effectiveness
of decentralized I/M programs.

     Diesel  emissions carcinogenicity will be assessed, as well as technology aimed
at controlling diesel exhaust.  Emissions from the use of synfuels and evaporative
emissions of HC at higher, non-FTP temperatures will be determined.  The assessment
                                       A-19

-------
of technology available to meet the light duty vehicles emission standards will provide
extensive information on the impact of new technology on unregulated emissions, and will
provide an overall air quality impact assessment for regulated pollutants.  Technology
assessment projects will be conducted for such topics as:  electronics sensors for emis-
sion control malfunctions, the effect of tampering on electronic emission control  systems,
and technical solutions to vehicle misfueling problems.     .

     Assessments will be performed on fuel economy trends and the impact of emission
controls on fuel economy, and improvement to the representativeness of for EPA fuel
economy data will be aimed at enhancing the national  fuel economy program.  Factors
that affect in-use fuel economy will  be assessed in depth (e.g., Impacts of various
acceleration regimes, variations in octane of gasolines).


MOBILE SOURCE IN-USE EMISSION ASSESSMENT  •

1930 Accomplishments

     1980 resources included $1,768,900 for contracts for testing of in-use vehicle
populations in order to provide updated emission factors.  This work is a continu-
ation of work initiated in 1973 to determine in-use vehicles emissions under various
conditions, and to provide appropriate analyses to assess program effectiveness and
the need for both State and national  control programs.  Data were also collected
to prepare the AP-42 emissions factors update.  Testing of in-use light duty diesels
and new technology vehicles will continue in 1981.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $1,486,600 and 7 permanent workyears
to this program, of which $225,600 is for Salaries and Expenses and $1,260,000 is  for
extramural purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     Testing of in-use vehicles in order to determine their extent of compliance with
standards, as well as to assess reasons for any exceedances will continue.  A study
to assess emission factors methodology will  continue through 1982 and new restora-
tive maintenance testing will take place in 1981.  The development of in-use emission
factors for use by States for their Implementation plans is an ongoing activity of
this program,

1981 Explanajtijn^gf Changes from Budget Est 1 mate

     The net decrease of $1,058,300 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted 1n a decrease
of S7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this
activity is $1,200.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease
of $7,100 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $14,000 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise  and 1s
included in a proposal  supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammi ng to support increased need for contract funds 1n the areas of  inspec-
tion/maintenance, characterization and technology assessment, resulted in a transfer of
$1,109,000 to Mobile Sources Standards and Guidelines.

     - Reprogramming to reflect a reassessment of the needs for ADP and other in-house
contracts, as well as laboratory equipment and supplies resulted in a transer of $45,000
from Mobile Sources Standards and Guidelines ($45,000).
                                       A-20

-------
1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $1,716,400 and 7 permanent workyears for this pro-
gram of which 5272,500 is for the Salaries and-Expenses Appropriation and 51,443,900
is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase
of $45,900 and $183,900 respectively, which reflects increased emission factors testing.

     Emission factors for use by States in SIP development will be provided.  In-use
light duty vehicles will be tested to determine their actual anissions performance
to determine causes for failure to meet emission standards.  During 1982, the results
of a study aimed at improving the sampling methodology of this testing program will
be implemented in order to enhance the statistical  credibility of the test results.

EMISSIONS TESTING.ANALYSIS AND DATA SUPPORT FOR STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

1980 Accompli shments

     1980 resources included $112,600 in contracts for data processing and testing
support.  Activities included baseline testing for a NOX standard for heavy duty
engines, support for test procedure improvements aimed at assuring the validity of
the FTP, and efforts to characterize emissions of new technology vehicles.  Statistical
and analytic support to I/M evaluation and for the AP-42 update was provided.

1981  Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated to total of $2,629,900 and 27 permanent workyears
to this program, of which $2,59^,900 is for Salaries and Expenses and $30,000 is for
extramural  purposes under the Abatement, Control  and Compliance Appropriation.  Data
processing and testing support will  continue to be provided to the other program
activities which require this assistance and efforts tO-enhance the capability of the
laboratory to cope with new technology vehicles will be carried out.

1981  ExplanationofChanges from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of 5160,200 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1
-------
     - Reprogrammings to reflect a reassessment of the needs for ADP and other in-
house contracts, as well as laboratory equipment and supplies resulted in a transfer
of $359,700 from Mobile Sources Standards and Guidelines ($107,500); and from Mobile
Sources "reproduct ion Compliance Verification ($252,200).

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $3,793,900 and 32 permanent workyears for this
program, of which $3,793,900 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.  This
represents an increase of $1,194,000 and 5 permanent workyears and a decrease of
$30,000 in the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.  This increase
reflects funding of projects deferred from 1981  as well as new purchases for in-
house contracts, equipment and supplies for heavy-duty testing, and AOP contracts.

     This program element consists of essential  support activities for other program
activities in the form of data analysis and laboratory testing.  This includes pro-
vision of testing and data analysis activity in support of State I/M program imple-
mentation, and supervision of the  study to improve the statistical  methodology of the
emission factors program.
                                          A-22

-------
                                              AIR

                               State Programs Resource Assistance

                                           Budget     Current                 Increase +
                                 Actual   Estimate   Estimate    -Estimate     Decrease -
                                 _T9jKL     1981       1981        J982      1982 vs. 1981
                                         "    (doll a rs inthous and?)     ~
Appropriations
Control Agency Resource
 Supplementation:
  Abatement, Control
    and Compliance		     $82,758    $87,673     $87,673   $87,735      + $62

Training:
  Salaries and Expenses....         409        419         301       382      +  81
  Abatement, Control
    and Compliance..	,.       1,022        fifil       1,068       661       -407

Grants for Planning Control
 of Carbon Monoxide and
 Photochemical Oxidants in
 Nonattainment Areas:
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	      38,089        ...         ...       ...         ...

Northeast Corridor
 Regional  Project:
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	        1,500	._._.	...  ^	...	...

Total:
  Salaries and Expenses...          409        419     '    301       382        +81
  Abatement, Control and
    Compliance	     • 123.370     88.334      88.741     88,396	-341

Grand Total..	      123,779     88,753      89,042     88,778       -264

Permanent Positions
Control AgencyResource
  Supplementation	          ...        ...         ...       ...         ...
Training...		,      	7	6	6         6	._._._

Total	,	            76           6         6         ...

Ful1-time Equivalency
Control Agency Resource
  Supplementation,	           22    i    ; 65          65        65
Trai ni ng	•.            7	   8	8	8	...

Total	           39         73          73        73


Budget Request

    The Agency requests a total of $88,777,700 and 6 permanent workyears for 1982, a
decrease of 5264,800 from 1981.  Included in this total is $381,800  for the  Salaries
and  Expenses appropriation and $88,395,9^0 for the Abatement, Control and  Compliance
appropriation, with an increase of $80,700 and a decrease of $345,500 respectively.
The  decrease requested for Abatement, Control and Compliance reflects increased Regional
assumption of Draining activities, and the increase is for payroll costs.
                                           A-23

-------
Program Description .                     .                 "' .

     This subactivity provides financial  support to State and  local  air pollu-
tion control  agencies, including Indian tribes, for the prevention,  abatement,
and control of air pollution, including the provision of contractual  assistance
to States in lieu of direct grants.  Its prime objective is to develop and
maintain effective State and local  programs for the attainment and maintenance
of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, the prevention  of significant
deterioration, and the protection of visibility.                  ;

     Grants to control agencies having a major role In developing and carrying
out these SIP and other requirements, constitute the major form of EPA resource
assistance.  Grants assistance is supplemented by the assignment of  personnel,
training of State/local air pollution personnel, and the provision of services
of contractors for specific tasks identified by the States and localities,  as
required for carrying out or revising the State Implementation Plan.   Grant
assistance supports numerous State and local control efforts,  including enforce-
ment of emission regulations, development of emission inventories, application
of dispersion modeling techniques, air quality monitoring, control strategy/
regulation development and development of programs for implementation of required
transporation control measures and autombile inspection/maintenance  (I/M).
Emphasis is being given to Improving State/local air quality monitoring, adoption
by States of additional regulations for control of emissions of volatile organic
compounds (VOC), implementation of new source review programs, particularly
for the prevention of significant deterioration, increased inspections of major
sources, and expedited enforcement actions.  These activities  are covered 1n
the following program elements.

     Control  Agency ResourceSupplementation   Under the Clean Air Act, the
control of5 air poVVutiohTlftits; Sourceis primarily the responsibility of the
States.  States, 1n cooperation with local  agencies, are responsible  for developing
and implementing plans to attain and maintain ambient air quality standards.
EPA partially funds the operating costs of these State and local  agency programs.

     Training  Resource assistance is further supplemented by the provision of
training in specialized areas of air pollution control.  Since July  1, 1976, the
EPA Air Pollution Training Institute at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina,
has been operated under contract.  New courses are developed as needed, instruction
manuals and jnaterials are revised and updated, laboratory courses at  Research
Triangle Park are conducted, and manuals and instructional materials  are provided
to university field centers.  A small EPA staff monitors the contract, maintains
liaison with Regional Offices and State and local  agencies, assesses  changing
training requirements, and ensures that those requirements are met.   The EPA
staff also works with regional university centers to develop State and local
self-sufficiency in training by offering courses at field locations.


CONTROL AGENCY RESQURCESUPPLEMENTATION

1980 Accomplishments

     The 193.0 resources included 582,758,700 in extramural funds.  In 1980, major
air management efforts included:  completion of submittals of 1979 State Implemen-
tation Plans (SIPs) for the attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS) and follow up actions to meet conditions specified in  EPA approvals;
development of programs for automotive Inspection/maintenance (I/M),  transportation
control, and the regulation of sources emitting volatile organic compounds (VOC).
State/local monitoring programs continued efforts t9 establish the National Air
Monitoring Stations (NAMS) Network, including necessary quality assurance programs,
and to prepare a comprehensive data base for the 1982 ozone .(03) SIP  within the
larger urban nonattainment areas.  Enforcement activities focused on  major stationary
source compl iance.                        '               ;
                                         A-24

-------
1981 Program

     In 1981, The Agency allocated $87,673,000 in the Abatement, Control  and
Compliance Appropriation.  SIP implementation with emphasis on programs for
inspection/maintenance, transportation controls, and the control of"additional
sources of volatile organics will continue.  Enforcement activities will  focus
on major source compliance, including assessments of noncompliance penalties.
States will develop and implement programs for the review and permitting of
new sources for the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) and the
regulation of automotive tampering and fuel switching.  State/local efforts
will focus on the completion of NAMS by the January 1981 deadline and the
completion of a data base in preparation for the 1982 03 SIP submittal for
all areas granted attainment date extensions beyond 1982.

1981 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     There is no change from the budget estimate.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total  of $87,734,900 for this program, an increase
of $61,900 from 1981.  Essential  management and administrative functions will
be maintained, including submittal of 1982 ozone/CQ SIPs, enactment of required
additional VOC controls, enforcement where delegated of national emission standards
for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) and new source performance standards (NSPS),
and maintenance of current ambient monitoring efforts.  Development and implement a ion
of in-use vehicle control programs, including inspection/maintenance (I/M), trans-
portation controls, and anti-tampering/fuel switching will proceed.  State implemen-
tation of the program for prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) for total
suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO?) will continue.  Incorporation
of regulatory reforms  (e.g., "bubble" and "banking ) while insuring compatibility
with progress toward ambient air quality standard attainment will receive increased
attention, including efforts to institutionalize these reforms into current State
regulation development efforts.  In addition, some States will begin to develop
programs to deal with air toxics, including problems involving incineration and
emissions from Industrial complexes in densely populated urban areas.  Special
efforts will  be made to optimize current programs for the regulation and control
of VOC for limiting toxic and potentially toxic air emissions.  A limited number
of States will also begin to develop and implement pilot/demonstration programs
to assess non-compliance penalties.

TRAINING   .

1980 Acpmpl 1 shment s

     The 1980 resources included $1,022,500 in extramural funds.  Eighty-one direct
training courses were conducted and eight courses were developed or revised.  Graduate
level  traineeships were provided for 36 control agency employees and employees  doing
graduate work at the Environmental Mangement Institute at the University of Southern
California.  Under EPA grants to Colorado State University, mechanic training related
to motor vehicle inspection/maintenance programs  was was conducted.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total  of $1,369,500 and 6 permanent work
years, of which $301,100 is for Salaries and Expenses and $1,068,400 is for extra-
mural  purposes 1n the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  Seventy
four training courses will be conducted in 20 subject areas for about 1,900 trainees.
Three hundred and forty trainees will complete self instructional courses, three new
courses will  be developed and five courses will be revised.  Approximately 25 control
agency employees will be supported by graduate traineeships.
                                          A-25

-------
1981 Exp.l ana.t 1 on of Changes from Budget E st i mate

     The net increase of $289,700 results from several actions, as
f ol 1 ows:                                     .

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
The reduction applied to this activity is $2,000.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of
$1,000 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress increased the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation
by $278,900 to support academic training.

     - An increase of $13,800 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-bbard needs
result in a transfer of $128,500 to Emission Standards and Technology Assessment
($74,200); and to State Program Guidelines and Regulations Development ($54,300).

     - Reprogramming of $74,200 from Emission Standards and Technology
Assessments; and $54,300 from State Program Guidelines and Regul at1 ons
Development, to realign contract funds.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of SI ,042,800 and 6 permanent workyears for this
program, of which $381,800 is for the Salaries and Expenses Appropriation and
$661,000 is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance Appropriation.  This 1s
an increase of 580,700 and a decrease of $407,400 respectively from 1981.
Increased payroll costs and regional assumption of some control agency employee
training are reflected in these shifts.

     The development and conduct of training on basic aspects of air pollution
control will continue in 1982.  Twenty-eight training courses will be conducted
for 980 trainees and graduate traineeships to 20 control agency employees will
continue.
                                          A-26

-------
                                                 AIR
                               Air Quality Strategies Implementation
                              Actual
                               1980
 Budget
Estimate
  1981
 Current
Estimate
  1981
Estimate
  1982
                                              (do!1ars in thousands;
  Increase +
  Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981
Apprgpriation
Ai r QuaVity Management
 Implementation:
  Salaries and Expenses..
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance...	
Total.
Permanent Positions.
Full-time Equivalency....
$9,644
197
9,841
318
356
58,655
221
8,876
288
313
$9,070
311
9,381
285
309
$10,462
2,243
12,705
311
338
+$1 ,392
+1,932
+3,324
+26
+29
BudgetRequest

     The Agency requests a total  of $12,705,200 and 311 permanent workyears, an increase of
$3,324,100 and 26 permanent workyears from 1981.  Included in this total is $10,462,300 for
Salaries and Expenses and $2,242,900 for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation,
an increase of 31,392,400 and 51,931,700 respectively.  These increases reflect increased
involvement by the Regional Offices in EPA/State efforts to accelerate efforts to establish
control  over toxic air pollutants and assume effective implementation of regulatory reform
initiatives such as the "bubble"  and banking.

Program Description

     This subactivity includes the provision by the regional  offices of policy direction and
guidance to States in the development and implementation of strategies for the attainment
and maintenance of National Antr'ent Air Quality Standards and the conduct of other control
activities required to meet the goals of the Clean Air Act.  This involves the review of State
developed strategies for consistency with the requirements of the. Clean Air Act and EPA
regulations, and tracking the schedules set forth in these strategies, including assessments
of State progress toward attaining standards by the statutory deadlines.

     It also includes the development by EPA of strategies for specific geographical  areas
where States do not prepare adequate plans for attaining and  maintaining standards; the in-
corporation of these control strategies into appropriate Federal regulatory action; and the
interaction with State and local  governments ire implementing  these strategies.  Other major
activities include the audit of State and local  control agencies for adherence to Federal
requirements and guidelines; consultation with State and local  control agencies on specific
air pollution control problems; review of the impact of new sources of air pollution; and the
management of State and local  agency grant resources and their allocation.

Air Quality Management Implementation - The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 specify stringent
criteria for preparing State Implementation Plans (SIP) and substantially increase the number
of plans required.  Therefore, major efforts are required for the review and approval of the
SIPs and for the promulgation of plans where State plans are  inadequate.
                                           A-27

-------
     Major efforts are also necessary to provide guidance to States in meeting the commitments
made in SIP submissions which are essential to the attainment of standards, including esta-
blishment of mandatory automotive inspection/ maintenance programs, adoption of.transportation
control measures, evaluation of urban fugitive dust and additional stationary source controls.

     Major EPA regional office activity is also required to guide States in developing the
necessary data base and strategy demonstrations which are required for the 1982 SIP submission
for ozone and carbon monoxide, where an extension of time for attainment under the Act has
been granted.  This includes extensive interaction with local elected officials, metropolitan
planning organizations, State transportation departments, and the State air pollution control
agencies, and requires major EPA regional  office coordination efforts.  EPA regions must par-
ticipate actively with the States in the local planning processes to assure that air quality
considerations are taken into account in a meaningful way and that the local plans, parti-
cularly the transportation elements, are Integrated into the SIP as enforceable measures in a
timeframe consistent with the requirements of the Act.  These activities are expected to extend
through 1982.  Similar activities will have to be carried out to develop and review SIPs for
lead and for other revisions to standards as required by the Act.

     The 1977 Amendments also impose major new requirements on the process for reviewing new
sources of pollution to assure that they will not cause deterioration of air quality in areas
attaining the National Ambient Qua! ity Standards (NAAQS), or that will not delay attainment or
aggravate current problems in areas not yet attaining the NAAQS.  The determination of best
available emission control technology, analysis of air quality impact, selective source siting,
and emission trade-off analyses are all integral to this review process and will require EPA
regional office resources.

AIR ....QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION

1980Accomplishments

     The 1980 resources included $197,500 in contract funds for the salaries of NOAA meteo-
rologists who provide modeling support to EPA through assistance with computer programs,
meteorological  assessments and reviews of SIP models.  The major efforts undertaken included
the tracking, overview, and guidance of State efforts to complete development and begin im-
plementation of the various schedules contained in the 1979 SIP.  This included securing en-
abling legislation for mandatory I/M programs; enacting regulations for control of additional
major source categories of volatile organic emissions; developing procedures and making com-
mitments to establish I/M programs; analyzing transportation control  measures potential; af?d
analyzing and developing measures for control of urban fugitive dust.  Also included was the
annual  review of State progress in meeting the reasonable further progress (RFP) requirement
of the 19_77 Amendments to the Clean Air Act.  The meeting of these requirements is essential
to" assure attainment" of air quality"standards.

     In 1980, the EPA regional  offices also provided guidance and review of state lead SIP
submissions, and the development of the required 1982 SIPs in nonattainment areas for ozone
and carbon monoxide, where EPA has approved a time extension for attainment of standards.
This effort focuses upon the development of new emission inventories and other data bases and
requires a more sophisticated demonstration of air quality standard attainment.

     Other activities included the overview of State new source review programs, including
the audit of selected State reviews  to insure consistency with the requirements of the Clean
Air Act and EPA regulations.  EPA regions are actively assisting States in developing programs
for the prevention of significant deterioration where such programs were not established in
1979.

T981  Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a toal of $9,381,100 and 285 permanent workyears to
this program, of which $9,069,900 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $311,200
is for extramural  purposes under the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.  E^A
regional offices will  maintain the 1980 emphasis on follow-up and implementation of the 1979
nonattainment SIPs, development of the 1982 ozone/CO SIPs, and State assumption of responsi-
bility  for New Source Review/Prevention of Significant Deterioration.  Regional  offices will
follow up on SIP commitments and schedules for I/M, TCM, and fugitive dust programs.  States

                                         A-28

-------
requiring additional controls on emissions of volatile organics (VOC) will be assisted in
developing consistent regulations.  States will be assisted in reviewing applications for
use of. the "bubble", a method of assessing emission limitations that covers the emissions from
the entire facility.

     Regions will continue to assist States in completing the 1982 ozone'and CO SJPs.  In
1981, many I/M programs will be completing the pilot or demonstration phases, and decisions
will be made on full-scale implementation.  Transportation control ineasures will be selected
and programs for implementation will be presented to the public and appropriate agencies for
support and implementation.  EPA involvement and leadership is critical  in these areas.

     The management of NSR is especially important in 1981, as many States will just have
assumed responsibility for the program.  State/local actions which may adversely impact on
ambient air quality standards under Sections 109(j) of the Federal Highway Act and 176(c) of
the Clean Air Act will be reviewed for consistency with SIPs.

1981 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $505,400 results from several  actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of $7
million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses; The reduction applied to this activity is
$55,700.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $6,600 was
applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by J3.8 million; a decrease of
$6,700 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by $750,000; a decrease
of $22,400 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $577,700 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted in a
transfer of 354,500 to Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (-$9,400); from regional management
($24,200); to Stationary Source Enforcement (-594,300); from Water Quality Permit Issuance
($5,800); from Water Quality Enforcement ($12,300); and from Radiation Program Implementation
(56,900).

     - Reprogrammings to support an interagency agreement resulted in a transfer of $13,100
from Ambient Air Quality Monitoring.

     - Reprogrammings of 53,900 from planning, evaluation an4 analysis reflect the need to
increase technical  resources available to work on the CAA amendments and the evaluation of
sewage sludge incinerators.


     - Reprogrammings of $12,800 from Ambient Air Quality Monitoring provide for the services
of a meteorologist through an interagency agreement with NOAA*

     - Reprogrammings of $15,000 from noise regional program implementation to support SIP
efforts.


     - Reprogrammings to support SIP activities in the areas of technical  review of SIPs, SIP
certification review and docket control resulted in a transfer of $135,000 from Ambient Air
Quality Monitoring  ($54,000); from Stationary Source Enforcement ($43,100) and from noise
regional program implementation ($37,900).


                                           A-29

-------
     - Reprogrammings of $20,300 to Ambient Air Quality Monitoring to provide for the funding
of an interagency agreement.

     - Reprogr awnings of $27,100 to pesticides use management to support the implementation of
a Federal pesticide program.

     - Reprogrammings to realign contract funds resulted in a transfer of $50,200 to hazardous
waste enforcement (-$10,000); to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites (-$39,500); and to toxic
substances enforcement (-$700).

     - Reprogrammings of $4,000 to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites were made to reallocate
travel funds.

     - A transfer of $4,600 was made to the Office of Inspector General  in order to
provide additional resources to that Office.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $12,705,200 and 311 permanent woricyears for this program,
of which $10,462,300 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $2,242,900 is for
the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appropriation.

     Essential regional offices management functions will be:  rulemaking on all State-
submitted regulatory actions as well as EPA-initiated SIP revisions; Section 105 grants
program management; completion of all  major new source review/ prevent ion of significant
deterioration activities including PSD Set I SIPs; management of all 1982 ozone and CO
SIPs, VOC regulations and TCM programs; and activities related to continuing required I/M
programs.

     In addition, Regional  Offices will continue to facilitate public participation in EPA
regulatory activities, develop State/EPA agreements, perform program planning and budgeting,
and conduct performance evaluations of large grantee agencies and consistency audits.

     EPA will initiate regulatory reform implementation, and toxic pollutant controls.
One significant area of airborne toxics which will receive particular attention is the
emissions generated in large incinerators, both industrial and municipal.  These incinerators
are expected to be Increasingly used for hazardous as well as conventional wastes.  Extra-
mural support for these three initiatives will  consist of additional modeling or model runs
to support "bubble" proposals and SQj  emission limitation changes, as well as modeling and
special  analysis of toxic air pollutant emissions from industrial  concentration and from
incinerators to determine their cpntribut'ion to the exposure of specific at risk population
groups.
                                         A-30

-------
                                           AIR
                   Mobile Source Preproduction Compliance Verification
                              Actual
                               1980
 Budget
Estimate
  1981
 Current
Estimate
  1981
Estimate
  1982
Apt>rggrfat_1pn
Preproduction Compliance
 Verification:
  Salaries and Expenses..     1,752     2,128
  Abatementi Control
   and Compliance..	        26       754

Emissions Testing, Analysis
 and Data Support for
 Preproduction Compliance
Verification:
  Salaries and Expenses..     1,395     1,534
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	       261	168r.

Total:
  Salaries and Expenses..     3,147     3,662
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	     ..J-87	922-:;


Grand Total..............     3,434     4,584

Permanent Positions
Preprbduct1 on Compl i a nee
 Verification..	        50        55
Emission Testing, Analysis
 and Data Support for
 Preproduction Compliance
 Verifications.....	    n,_,,J;P	29

Total	,.        70        84

Full-time iquivalency
^reproduction Compliance
 Verification .........          62       65

Emission Testing, Analysis
 and Data Support for
 Preproduction Compliance
 Verification 		        38	42

Total	       100      107
                                            (do!1arsinthousands;
              1,912

                102
              1,598

                120
              3,510

                222
              3,732
                 46
                 34
                 80
                 58
                 54
                 2,467

                   387
                 1,906

                   244
                 4,373

                   631
                 5,004
                    53
                    34
                    87
                    65
                    45
  Increase +
  Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981
                +555

                +285
                +308

                +124
                +863

                +409
              +1,272
                  +7
                  +7
                 -9
                112
                   110
                 -2
                                            A-.31

-------
BudgetRequest

     The Agency requests a total of $5,004,500 and 87 permanent workyears
for 1982, an Increase of $1,272,600 and 7 permanent workyears from 1981.
Included in this total is $4,373,100 for Salaries and Expenses and $631,400
for Abatement, Control and Compliance, an increase of $863,200 and $409,400
respectively.  Increases in this subactivity provide for implementing new
improvements In the certification and fuel economy programs.

Program Descri pti on

     This subactivity includes: (1) engineering review and confirmatory test-
ing of prototype motor vehicles and engines in order to certify their
compliance with emission standards and verify their fuel economy values;
(2) semi-annual publication of fuel economy guides and calculation of corpo-
rate average fuel economy values; and (3) related technical, program development,
and data processing support.

     EPA is currently implementing improvements in its certification program.
In previous years, motor vehicle manufacturers' complete lines of vehicles
and engines had undergone an extensive review and-verification process carried
out by EPA,  The full certification process involves the submission of applica-
tions to EPA by the manufacturers; the development of emissions performance
information by manufacturers or EPA on the basis of prototype vehicle testing;
and the review of these data by EPA for the purpose of determining compliance
with standards.  However, the potential air quality impact of improperly
certifying a vehicle is not equal for all manufacturers or engine families.
Rather, the air quality risk is related to the degree of failure and the
number of vehicles sold.  Consequently, EPA has undertaken reforms to this
program which reduce the paperwork, reporting, and testing burdens on the
automobile, truck, and motorcycle industries by giving them more control
over the management of the certification process and by limiting EPA involvement
primarily to non-routine questions which arise and final review of the completed
application.

     The certification process also results in the generation of vehicle fuel
economy data.  These data are the foundation of EPA's fuel economy public In-
formation activities (carried out jointly with the Department of Energy),
and are used to support the Department of Transportation's program of compli-
ance with the fuel economy standards as required by the Energy Policy and
Conservation Act.

MOBILE SOURCE PREPRODUCTION COMPLIANCE VERIFICATION

1980 Accomplishments

   The 1980 resources included $26,000 in contract funds for data processing
and analytical support of certification and fuel economy testing.  Essentially
all manufacturers participated voluntarily in the revised certification pro-
cess.  Only a very few engine families suspected of compliance problems
received the full EPA-directed review, which saved resources for both manufac-
turers and EPA.

     Criteria for the review of vehicles using ^electronic control systems,
which had undergone further refinement in 1979, were implemented, as were
parameter adjustment regulations.  The model year 1981 light duty vehicles
(which underwent certification during this year) met more stringent emissions
standards for CO, NOX and evaporative hydrocarbons.  Implementation of these
tighter standards completed the required changes in the basic light duty
vehicle standards program, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of
1977.
                                          A-32

-------
     Support to the Department of Transportation's fuel economy program re-
ceived a greater level of effort than 1n 1979.  A high priority was placed
on procedural improvements aimed at assuring more reliable fuel economy values
and on an increased level of testing to assure improved compliance with fuel
economy standards and better fuel economy public information.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $2,014,000 and 46 permanent
workyears to this program, of which $1,912,000 is for Salaries and Expenses
and $102,000 is for extramural purposes under the Abatement, Control and Com-
pliance appropriation.  The same level of effort for certification and
assembly line audits as 1980 is planned for 1981.  The model year 1982 certi-
fication process will include for the first time implementation of a
particulate standard for light duty vehicles.  Final high altitude performance
adjustment rules will be implemented.

     In the area of fuel economy information, revised regulations to improve
the representativeness of fuel economy data and revise the fuel economy labels
and data base will be promulgated.  As part of the national fuel economy pro-
gram, EPA will continue to provide data for bi-annual publication of the Gas
Mileage Guides by DOE and verification of corporate average fuel economy
(CAFE) standards compliance by DOT.

1981 Expl anati on of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $868,300 results from Several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
The reduction applied to this ativity 1s $12,200.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of
$1,500 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a
decrease of $51,300 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $100,900 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay
raise and is Included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.
                                                                           I
     - Reprogramming $652,000 to Mobil Sources Standards and Guidelines to ;
support increased need for contract funds in the areas of inspection/maintenance,
characterization, and technology assessment.

     - Reprogramming $252,200 to Emission Testing, Analysis and Data Support
for Standards, and Guidelines to reflect a reassessment of the needs for ADP
and other in-house contracts, as well as laboratory equipment and supplies.
     The Agency requests a total of $2,854,100 and 53 permanent workyears for
this program, of which $2,466,900 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $387,200 for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This is
an increase of $554,900 and 7 permanent workyears, and $285,200 respectively.
Increased resouces are earmarked to accelerate development for regulations related
to both the fuel economy program and changes in the certification program.
                                          A-33

-------
     The model year 1983 certification program will include implementation of
new standards for light duty vehicles sold at high altitude.  Certification
of compliance with the emission standards will continue, including a full
assembly line audit program for manufacturers of light duty vehicles.  In
addition, a new set of procedures which reduce reporting and testing requirements
in order to expedite the certification process for small manufacturers of  light
duty vehicles will be implemented.  Regulations formalizing further improvements
to the certification process will be developed.

     In the fuel economy area, data will be reviewed and analyzed for potential
problems more efficiently as a result of improvements in data handling and
review systems.  Corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) will be determined  and
transmitted to DOT.  Fuel economy labels will be approved and the fuel economy
guide data will be provided to DOE.


EMISSION TESTING. ANALYSIS AND DATA SUPPORT FOR PREPRODUCTION
COMPLIANCE' WRTF'ICATIW     '     '     '     !     !     !     !

1980 Accpinpl i shments

     1980 resources included $261,500 in contract funds for support of emission
testing and data processing activities.  These resources supported laboratory
and data processing activities associated with emission certification and  fuel
economy compliance.

1981Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $1,717,900 and 34 permanent
workyears to this program, of which $1,597,900 is for Salaries and Expenses
and $120,000 is for extramural purposes under the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  These resources provide for development of special
facilities for testing diesel vehicles, laboratory support for certification
and fuel economy, computer programming, and related administrative support
to the certification and fuel economy programs.

19.81 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $15,600 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and
Espenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $6,800.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease
of $800 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million;
a decrease of $41,800 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $82,100 results from the cost of the October 1980
pay raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to support increased need for contract funds in
the areas of inspection/maintenance, characterization, and technology
assessment resulted in a transfer to Mobile Sources Standards and
Guidelines (-$48,000).

     - Reprogrammings to reflect a reassessment of the needs for ADP
and other in-house contracts, as well as laboratory equipment and supplies
resulted in a transfer from Mobile Sources Standard and Guidelines ($30,100).
                                           A-34

-------
1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $2,150,400 and 34 permanent workyears for
this program, of which $1,906,200 1s for the Salaries and Expenses appropria-
tion and $244,200 for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
This  represents an increase of $308,300 and $124,200 respectively from 1981,
which will be used primarily for improvements in the processing and analysis
of data used in the fuel economy and certification programs.  More sophisticated
data generation will be needed as a result of revised fuel economy labels and
new types of testing.

     These resources provide both emissions and fuel economy testing.  Cap-
ability for testing for compliance with the emission standards for 1984 model
year heavy duty engines will be established.  Correlation of the EPA test
facility with  manufacturer's test facilities will be established and addi-
tional correlation tests will be performed specifically for cases of suspected
or established quality control problems.
                                          A-35

-------
                                             AIR
                         Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment
Appropriation
Ant lent Air Quality
 Monitoring:
  Salaries and Expenses...
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance..	

Air Quality and Emissions
 Data Analysis and Progress
 Assessment:
  Salaries and Expenses....
  Abatement, Control and
   Compl i ance	

Total:
  Salaries and Expenses....
  Abatement, Control and
   Compl i ance	
Grand Total................

Permanent Positions
Ambient AirQuality
 Mon 1 tori ng	
Air Quality and Emissions
 Data Analysis and Progress
 Assessment.....	
Total,
Ful1-ti me Equi valency
Ambient Air Quality
 Monitoring....	.
Air Quality and Emissions
 Data Analysis and Progress
 Assessment	
Total	

Budget Request
                                Actual
                                 1980
$2,533

    58
   114



    85


    43
   128
           Budget    Current
          Estimate   Estimate    Estimate
            1981       1981         1982
               ftfol1arsinthousands)
$2,387

   320
 4,469    4,493
   116



    89


    39
   128
$2,683

   181
            4,691
   116



    88


    39
   127
$2,945

   310
               5,060
   116
    89
    39
   128
                                     Increase +
                                     Decrease -
                                   1982 vs.  1981
+$262

 +129
1,625
253
4,158
311
1,496
290
3,883
610
1,430
397
4,113
578
1 ,605
200
4,550
510
+175
197
+437
-68
             +369
78
3.6
82
34
82
34
82
34
     The Agency requests a total of $5,060,600 and 116 permanent workyears for 1982, an
increase of $369,200 from 1981.  Included in this total is $4,550,100 for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $510,500 for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation,
an increase of $437,100 and a decrease of $67,900 respectively.  Resource shifts primarily
reflect increased payroll costs,

Program Description

     This subactivity covers work related to' monitoring ambient air quality, determining
source emissions, analyzing their relationships and assessing the progress made toward the
attainment of environment goals.
                                               A-36

-------
     Ambient Air Quality Monitoring - Activity in this program includes:
     1) EPA's management and overview of state ambient air quality monitoring networks,
associated laboratory and field quality assurance activities and the implementation of air
monitoring strategies as delineated in 40 CFR 58; 2) the coordination of regional  and
State field investigation activities for collecting ambient air quality samples,  for
subsequent sample analysis and related quality control; 3) the management of source emissions
determinations, and 4) the necessary management and coordination for ensuring timely
Storage and validation of data obtained from the first three activities.

     Air Duality Emissions Data Analysis and Progress Assessments - Major activities include
national management o^regional office. State ana local ambient monitoring programs and
issuance of new/revised regulatory requirements and related technical guidance; active
oversight of the National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) to ensure continuing conformance
with all regulatory criteria and adequacy of NAMS data for progress assessments and
management decisions; operations of systems for storing, retrieving and analyzing ambient
air quality and emission data; development and implementation of systems to meet  user
requirements, and preparation of trends analyses and related air quality and emission
progress assessments for policy evaluation and development and to meet public information
needs.

AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

1980 Accpmpl1shments

    The 1980 resources included $57,600 in contract funds for quality assurance audits and
equipment maintenance.  The implementation of the air monitoring strategy through achievement
of the requirements of 40 CFR 58 was the major activity during 1980.  The regulatory
requirements are to be phased in over a five year period beginning in 1979 and ending in
1983.  Negotiations with States were completed for defining the State/local air monitoring
stations (SLAMS) network needed for SIP purposes and which SLAMS would comprise the
national network needed primarily for national trends and progress assessments.

     The regions continued their program of on-slte visits to review monitoring stations
for conformance to EPA siting standards and to review laboratories for proper operating
procedures and quality control.

     A new program for auditing State quality assurance procedures for defining the quality
of ambient data submitted to EPA was begun in 1980.  Information from this program will
provide data users with a check on the States' capabilities of generating precision and
accuracy statements.  Data base development for 1982 03 SIP revisions was initiated.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $2,863,700 and 82 permanent workyears to
this program, of which $2,682,600 is for Salaries and Expenses and $181,100 is for extramural
purposes under the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.  The regions  will
continue the overview and management of State monitoring programs.  This effort includes the
evaluation and review of State monitoring networks for conformance to EPA regulations, and
for adequacy in meeting data needs for trends assessment, compliance evaluation,  SIP
development and evaluation.  This evaluation and review is done on a network basis and
on-site at individual monitoring stations.

     The quality assurance program includes three basic functions:  quality assurance
audits of State monitoring systems, coordination of State data quality assessments, and
validation of all NAMS data for adequacy and timeliness.  Programs to validate SLAMS data
from critical sites will be initiated.  Assistance in special data collection efforts will be
provided for the complex photochemical dispersion modeling used in 1932 ozone SIP development.
Regions will also actively participate in data collection efforts in all cities where
trajectory model s are required for the 1982 submittals and in data base development in large
urban areas for particulate control strategies.
                                              A-37

-------
     EPA will provide management and coordination with States to ensure that necessary
State emission inventories are submitted and stored in the national  data bank (NEDS).   This
is necessary to ensure that special analyses for individual nonattainment strategy problems
can be undertaken.  Regions will participate in performance audits of their laboratories,
provide response to emergency spills or air episodes, and overview source operated monitoring
networks in controversial PSD or energy source sitings.

1981ExplanationofChanges fromBudgetEstimate

     The net increase of $156,300 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and
Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity 1s $15,100.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3,8 million;
a decrease of $25,700 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $160,300 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay
raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

    - Reprogramnring to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in a net transfer of +$102,700 from air quality management
implementation ($23,600); from water quality enforcement ($71,100);  to
stationary source enforcement (-$1,300); to State programs regulations and
guidelines (-$7,600); and from municipal waste treatment facility construction
($16,900).

    - Reprogramming of $13,100 to air quality management implementation to support
an interagency agreement.

    - Reprogramming of $4,300 to ambient water quality monitoring to realign contract
funds.

    - Regional  reprogrammings resulted in a net decrease of -$14,200.

    - Reprogramming of $12,800 to air quality management implementations to provide
for the services of a meteorologist through an interagency agreement with NOAA.

    - Reprogramming of $22,900 to hazardous waste management regulatory strategy
implementation to provide for sample analysis of"hazardous materials.

    - Reprogrammings to support the air quality monitoring program resulted in a
transfer  of $87,200 from energy review and permitting ($12,100); from noise regional
program implementation ($31,300); and from stationary source enforcement ($43,800),

    - Reprogramming of $54,100 to air quality management implementation to
support SIP activities in the areas of technical review, certification
review, and docket control.

    - Reprogramming of $20,300 from air quality management implementation to provide
for the funding of an interagency agreement,

    - Reprogramming of $11,900 to noise regional program implementation to support
the Senior Environmental Employment Program,

    - Reprogramming of $8,200 to energy review and permitting to support an interagency
agreement meteorologist from NOAA.

    - Reprogramming of $32,000 to public systems supervision program assistance to
realign contract funds.
                                          A-38

-------
1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $3,255,800 and 82 permanent workyears for this program,
of which $2,945,300 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $310,500 for the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This reflects an increase of $262,700
and $129,400 respectively, and reflects reprogramniing 1n both 1981 and and 1982 for increased
payroll costs.  The program of overview and management of States monitoring programs will
continue.  Regional Offices will evaluate and review State monitoring networks for
conformance to EPA regulations, perform quality assurance audits of State monitoring systems
and performance audits of selected NAMS monitors, validate and coordinate the timely reporting
and storage of air quality data to EPA data banks, prepare air quality profiles, and respond
to air emergency episodes or spills.  Necessary coordination for inhalable particulate data
collection will be provided.  SLAMS monitoring sites located in primary non-attainment
areas will be evaluated for conformance to EPA regulations, as will monitoring networks
for PSD or energy conversion sources.  Quality assurance audits of large local agency
monitoring sytems will be conducted.


AIR QUALITY AND EMISSIONS DATA ANALYSISAND PROGRESS ASSESSMENT

1980 Accomplishments

     1980 resources included $253,200 in contract funds to support assessment of environmental
trends and modification of NAMS Information System to permit direct user access to data.
Major program emphasis included national management of State/local air monitoring programs,
Including periodic assessment of compliance with regulatory criteria and issuance of
new/revised regulations and technical guidance; oversight of NAMS through comprehensive
on-site audits, maintenance of detailed information base, interaction with Regional Office
Coordinators, and issuance of periodic reports; operation and updating of EPA's national
air data systems, training and consultation for system users, screening of current NAMS
data and identifying and resolving anomalies in historical NAMS data; numerous special air
quality and emission analyses to support policy and regulation evaluation and development;
publication of annual air quality trends and emission statistics and reports; support for
EPA developed data systems Installed in 35 State/local agencies; and development of a new
air system designed to be responsive to State, local and EPA user requirements.

     A continuing program to perform comprehensive audits at a selected sample of NAMS was
Initiated with on-site visits at 329 monitors.  Findings from these audits serve as a
primary source of data for assessment of NAMS and provide clear documentation for the
corrective actions needed to comply with EPA criteria.  New software and related procedures
which can display data graphically are being developed and made available to States.  The
preparation of a user requirements report, technical feasibility study and cost approximation
study for the new system were completed.

     Final designation of all NAMS was completed for most of the almost 1,300 monitors
estimated to be required and should be concluded In 1981.  Population exposure methods for
carbon monoxide are being developed and tested and preparation of a strategy was begun for
the optimum use of ambient and source monitoring and models.  Regulations to revise monitoring
regulations (Part 58) to include lead were proposed.

1981  Program

    In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $1,827,700 and 34 permanent workyears to
this program, of which $1,430,400 is for Salaries and Expenses and $397,300 is for extramural
purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  Emphasis will continue
on operation and updating of existing air data systems, on providing training and guidance
to system users, and responding to requests from the public.  For the EPA-developed systems
Installed in 35 State/local agencies, assistance and training services will be continued
and systems will be upgraded and modified through software packages to be distributed to
users.
                                             A-39

-------
    Major efforts will be continued to oversee the implementation of EPA's revised air
quality surveillance regulations*  Comprehensive on-site audits for an additional 250 NAMS
will be conducted to assess compliance with the regulations.  Procedures will be developed
to link precision and accuracy values to NAMS data, and incorporating these into national
trends analyses and other reports which will rely on NAMS as the primary source of data.
By the end of 1981, all NAMS are expected to meet site criteria, use EPA reference methods,
and have quality assurance programs fully operational.  The program to identify and resolve
anomalies in historical NAMS data will be continued..

1981 Explanation of Chano.es from Budget Request

    The net increase of $42,300 results from several actions, as
follows:

    - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and
Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $7,100.

    - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease
of $1,000 was applied to this activity.

    - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease
of $17,600 was applied to this activity.

    - An increase of $68,000 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay
raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

    - Offsetting transfers of $107,400 were made between this activity and .
State program guidelines and regulations in the Salaries and Expenses, and
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriations.

1982 Plan

    The Agency requests a total of $1,804,800 and 34 permanent workyears for this program,
of which $1,604,800 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $200,000 is for the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This reflects an increase of $174,400
and a decrease of $197,300 respectively, primarily due to increased payroll expenses.

     Major 1982 program activities will be to operate existing air data systems and provide
guidance to users, process data requests, and identify anomalies in historical NAMS data;
modify software and data files to accommodate changes in the ambient standards and highest
priority requests by users; produce the Annual  Administrator's Report and several special
air quality and emission analyses; provide national oversight of RO/State/local air monitoring
programs; provide active management of NAMS (workshops, manuals and data validation),
maintain site information base on NAMS, and prepare periodic written assessments of the
status of NAMS sites and data relative to regulatory criteria.

     Results of current efforts to develop improved air quality indicators will be published
and incorporated into national air publications; comprehensive, on-site audits at selected
HAMS will be performed, and specifications for software and data base management systems
for a new air data system will be developed.

      Additional activities include:  develop and evaluate statistical air quality models;
prepare and publish trends analyses of selected non-criteria pollutants; prepare guidance
to implement new air monitoring strategy and redesign non-criteria pollutant monitoring
network; prepare operating instructions and training materials for data base management
systems, and actively support users of the Comprehensive Data Handling System through
improved software, troubleshooting and training services, etc.


                                           A-40

-------
Enforcement
    SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                                 AIR

                                      Stationary Source Enforcement

                                               Budget    Current               Increase +
                                      Actual  Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                                       1980   	1981       1981       1982     1982 vs. 1981
                                              ~       (dollars" in thousands)

Appropriation
Stationary Source
 Enforcement:
  Salaries and Expenses	         $13,263 . $13,736    $14,300    $17,146     +$2,846
  Abatementt Control and
   Compliance 	          11.356    10.697     10.285      9.841        -444

Total 	,.          24,619    24,433     24,585     26,987      +2,402

PermanentPositions .......             444       471        453        498         +45

Full-timeJqu.lyalency ......             487       507        489        537         +48


Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of 26,987,000 and 498 permanent workyears in 1982,
an increase of $2,401,500 and 45 permanent workyears from 1981.   Included in this
total is $17,145,800 for Salaries 8 Expenses and $9,841,200 for Abatement, Control
and Compliance, with an increase of $2,845,500, and a decrease of 5444,000,
respectively.

Program Description

     The Stationary Source Air Enforcement program is designed to effectively utilize
the enforcement authorities provided by the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, to
ensure that all sources comply with requirements of State Implementation Plans
(SIPs); that new stationary air sources are constructed in accordance with applicable
New Source Review (NSR), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of
Significant Deterioration (PSD) provisions; that new and existing sources subject to
the National  Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) meet
hazardous air pollutant standards; and that relevant provisions of the Power Plant
and Industrial  Fuel  Use Act of 1978 are implemented.

     The major concentration of the stationary source air enforcement program efforts
has been the major source enforcement effort (MSEE) initiated in 1978.   EPA
initiated this accelerated enforcement against major stationary source violators
which had never come into initial  compliance with applicable requirements
of the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act.   The stationary source enforcement
program is continuing its part of the "SEE by developing and concluding, through
settlement and litigation, cases against large stationary source violators and by
ensuring compliance by closely tracking source compliance schedules, generally
incorporated in judicial  consent decrees.

     A major element of this program's responsibility is the implementation of
certain new regulations under the Clean Air Act. '  The noncompliance penalty regu-
lations under Section 120, for which implementation began on January 1, 1981, create
a positive incentive for compliance for many major sources in violation.   Regula-
tions are also being implemented under Section 119 of the Act,  relating to issuance
of administrative orders to primary nonoferrous smelters for the control of sulfur
oxide emmissions.   The smelter order program should accelerate the movement toward
compliance for the smelter industry.
                                       A-41

-------
     Further, there will he an expanded commitment to develop a comprehensive
strategy in cooperation with the States to ensure continuous compliance by station-
ary  sources.   Until this program can be full implemented, EPA will ensure compliance
through support of a strong continuous emissions monitoring program.

     EPA assists State air enforcement efforts by supporting State control agencies
through control agency grants, and by providing specialized skill and expertise and
special contractual assistance.   EPA will take the primary enforcement role with
respect to selected sources when the States cannot or will not enforce.

1980 Accompli shments

     As of December 1980, EPA had initiated 356 civil /criminal actions against air
stationary source facilities and concluded 86 of these cases.   Several major air
pollution control agreements were concluded during 198n, including settlements with
steel firms and power plants, which will significantly reduce sulfur dioxide and
particulate emissions.

     During 1980, EPA promulgated regulations which establish procedures by which EPA
and States will assess and collect noncompliance penalties under Section 120 of the
Clean Air Act.   The regulations also set forth the means by which the States may
assume delegation of the noncompliance penalty program.   Further, regulations were
promulgated which establish the substantive requirements of initial primary nonfer-
rous smelter orders (NSOs) issued under Section 119 of the Clean Air Act and the pro-
cedures to be used in issuing those NSOs.   EPA and States have already received, and
are currently reviewing, many letters of intent and applications for NSOs.

     For 1980, planned contract expenditures were $11,356,000 included $4,984,000 for
enforcement case support; $4,640,000 for compliance monitoring and field surveil-
lance; 5457,000 for regional  data system support; $1,275,000 for regional  industrial
studies support.


1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $24,585,500 and 439 workyears for
this program, of which $14,300,300 is for Salaries and Expenses and $10,285,200 is
for extramural  purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     During 1981, concluding the remaining cases on the MSEE list as rapidly as possi-
ble will  be a very important objective.   Once a case is concluded, the compliance
schedule or consent decree must be tracked closely until the source is confirmed as
being in compliance.

     Also, EPA will  implement Section 120 by assuring that evidence of violation for
major source violators Is current and complete, and proceed with the issuance of
notices and the conduct of adjudicatory hearings where necessary.   Another substan-
tial effort will  be EPA support of continuous emisssions monitoring programs which
will ensure continuous compliance by stationary sources of air pollution.    Other
important activities during 1981 will be the issuance of new source permits under the
prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) program, with particular attention to
expeditious issuance of energy-related permits, issuance of Section 119 primary non-
ferrous smelter orders, responses to any Section 110(f) energy emergencies, issuance
of Section 113(d)(5) delayed  compliance orders due to coal conversion, and continued
enforcement of NSPS and NESHAPS.
                                       A-42

-------
     Planned contract funds for 1981 total  $10,285,000.   Activities planned for
these funds include $4,861,200 for enforcement case development, $4,170,000 for com-
pliance monitoring and field surveillance,  $853,000 for regional industrial, techical,
and economic studies, and $400,800 for regional data system support.   An increase in
the rate charged by contractors has resulted in a more limited contractor support
program, which is reflected in part in the reduction in the projected number of over-
view Inspections which are accomplished largely by contactors.


1981Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $152,900 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
The reduction applied to this activity is $83,700.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of
$51,700 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced ageneywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a
decrease of $90,500 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general  reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $310,600 was applied to this
activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by
$750,000; a decrease of $22,600 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of
$46,700 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $895,800 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in transfers from air quality management implementation ($82,300); from
water quality enforcement ($271,800); from standards and regulations ($16,600);
from public systems supervision program assistance ($28,400); to regional counsel
($6,800); from ambient air quality monitoring ($1,300); to water quality permit
issuance ($30,300); from air quality management implementation  ($12,000); from
state programs regulations and guidelines ($20,000); from environmental emergency
response and prevention ($9,400); and from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites
($20,000).

     - A transfer of $88,900 was made to the Administrative Law Judges to provide
additional  resources to support a new program for instituting civil noncompliance
penalties under Section 102 of the Clean Air Act.

     - Transfer $204,900 to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites within the Office
of Enforcement to provide a level  of funding consistent with prior year's
experience.

     - Transfer $123,500 to pesticides enforcement within the Office of Enforcement
to support grant activities.

     - Transfer $43,800 to ambient air quality monitoring within Region 5.
                                       A-43

-------
     - A transfer of $50,700 was made to the radiation media in order to support
the Radiation Policy Council.

     - Transfer $43,100 to air quality management implementation within Region 5
to support SIP activities in the areas of technical  review, certification review
and docket control.

     - Transfer $1,900 to toxic substances enforcement within Region 5 for PCB
compliance inspections and PCB and asbestos lab analysis.

     - Transfer $5,000 to toxic substances enforcement within Region 9, to realign
contract funds.


1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $26,987,000 for this program, of which
$17,145,800 Is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $9,841,200 is for the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation, an increase of $2,845,500, and a
decrease of $444,000, respectively.   The majority of these resources will be used to
bring major violators of SIPs, NSPS, and NESHAPS regulations into compliance through
the use of Section 113 and Section 120 provisions as well as to respond to the
increase in compliance monitoring inspections, emissions monitoring, and civil/crimi-
nal actions initiated.

     The major source enforcement effort will conclude most of the cases initiated by
settlement or litigation in 1981.   Therefore, the workload associated with the MSEE
in 1982 will primarily be in tracking and monitoring the hundreds of compliance
schedules for these sources.

     In order to prevent regression from the significant levels of compliance
achieved by stationary sources, EPA is greatly increasing its efforts at ensuring
continued compliance by sources which have achieved initial compliance with air
quality regulations.   EPA will be working with the States to develop a long-term
comprehensive national strategy that will ensure that sources operate and maintain
their control equipment and follow other compliance measures properly.   This
strategy will identify industries that will be focused upon initially, and will
identify appropriate enforcement tools to handle continuous compliance actions.   ,
Since this effort is oriented towards a broad, long-term solution, E?A will also con*
tinue to adress the problem through greatly increasing continuous emissions
monitoring (CEM) data validation and initiating enforcement actions based on CEM data.
CEM is expected to be a significant element in the long-term strategy and expanded
experience with CEM enforcement techniques is critical in the interim.

     During 1982, the Section 120 noncompliance penalty program will continue to be
implemented.   Noncompliance penalties must be assessed against all major sources not
meeting SIP requirements an sources in violation of NSPS or NESHAPS regulations.
The noncompliance penalty program will be an effective method for creating incentives
for compliance; however, this program will likely result in a large number of
adjudicatory hearings and this will cause a major resource demand in 1982.

     EPA will continue implementation of the primary nonferrous smelter order (NSO)
program under Section 119 of the Clean Air Act.   Any smelter receiving an NSO is
permitted to defer compliance with the sulfur dioxide emission limitation to which
it is subject under an applicable SIP.   Initial  NSOs may extend through January 1,
1983.   A smelter that receives a Section 119 order will be placed on a compliance
program which includes interim controls, and a research and development program to
investigate and demonstrate control methods tht are economically and technologically
feasible.  A major effort during 1982 will be monitoring the compliance programs and
the research and development programs of these smelters.


                                        A-44

-------
     The Agency will continue to encourage delegation of responsibility for PSD
permitting and enforcement of NSPS regualtions to the States.   EPA will focus its
attention on review of and assistance to State programs and, where necessary, initi-
ating enforcement actions against sources not possessing new source permits or
constructing in violation of permit requirements.

     Enforcement of NESHAPS regulations for vinyl chloride, asbestos, beryllium and
mercury will continue to be a high priority of this program.   In addition, new stan-
dards for benzene storage, ethyl benzene styrene and malaeic anhydride will he
promulgated in 1982, and EPA will have to initiate a program to review waiver requests.

     An area of important attention is the relationship and balance between environ-
mental  and energy concerns.   The Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978
(FUA) prohibits, with exemptions, new power plants and new major fuel burning instal-
lations from using natural gas or petroleum as a primary energy source.   Exemptions
can be granted by the Department of Energy (DOE) where environmental requirements
could not be met if coal  is burned as the-primary energy source.   EPA must work with
DOE to ensure that these new sources are constructed in accordance with applicable

environmental  requirements and will continue to expedite issuance of energy-related
PSD permits.   In addition, certain existing power plants having the technical
capability to use coal  may be required to convert under FUA.   Upon conversion, these
sources will still have to meet environmental standards.   Also, as part of EPA's
energy-related programs,  EPA will provide quick and thorough responses in these situ-
ations, including issuance of Section 113(d)(5) delayed compliance orders.

     Contracts funds requested in 1982, totalling $9,841,200, include $5,000,000 for
enforcement case development, $4,144,600 for compliance monitoring and field surveil-
lance,  $246,600 for regional  industrial technical and economic studies, 5450,000 for
data support.
                                          A-45

-------
                                            AIR

                                 Mobile Source Enforcement
Appropriation
Mobile Source Enforcement:
  Salaries and  Expenses..
  Abatement, Control and
    Compli ance	
Total,
Permanent Positions...

Full-time Equivalency.
                                          Budget    Current              Increase +
                                  Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate   Decrease -
                                   1980     1981      1981       1982    1982 vs.  1981
6,855

  115

  157
                                               (dollars in thousands;)
$4,038
2,817
$3,883
, 2,967
$3,990
2,879
$4,212
2,483
+222
-396
6,850

  118

  152
6,869

  114

  148
6,695

  111

  143
-174

  -3

  -5
Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total  of *n,694,300 and 111  permanent workyears for 1982,  a
decrease of $174,200 from 1981.  Included in this total  is 54,211,700 for Salaries and
Expenses and $2,482,600 for Abatement, Control and Compliance, with an increase of $222,200
and a decrease of $396,400, respectively.


Program Descript i on

     The mobile source enforcement program is directed'primarily towards achieving compliance
with motor vehicle emission standards and fuels regulations.  The major goals and objectives
are to (1) assure that new vehicles meet emission standards; (2) assure that vehicles meet
emission standards in-use; (3) assure that emission control systems are not removed or
rendered inoperative; (4) assure compliance with emissions inspection/maintenance (I/M)
requirements and vehicle miles traveled (VHT) measures;  (5) assure control of hydrocarbon
emissions during gasoline transfer operations; (6) assure that harmful  additives are  removed
from gasoline; (7) administer California fuel and emission waivers, and (8) administer the
emission warranties.

1980 Accompl ishments

     In 1980, the mobile source enforcement program continued to carry out its responsi-
bilities under Title I and Title II of the Clean Air Act by emphasizing programs aimed at
reducing the failure of vehicles to meet; emission standards.  In 1980,  mobile source
enforcement program issued 38 selective "enforcement test orders to manufacturers to test
vehicles on the assembly line.

     Recall investigations numbered 51 resulting in the  recall of 1,146,700 vehicles.
Manufacturers' production compliance procedures were enforced by conducting 17 audits.
The tampering and fuel  switching provisions were enforced by performing 731 new car dealer-
ship inspections, 898 fleet tampering/ fuel switching inspections, and 408 commerical
repair facility inspections.  A total  of 22,337 fuels inspections were conducted to assure
compliance with the Stage I vapor recovery, unleaded, and octane disclosure provisions.   A
survey of 3,290 vehicle refuel ings was also conducted to determine the rate at which  vehicles
requiring unleaded gasoline are being fueled with leaded gasoline.  Results indicate  that
a rate of 3-10 percent fuel Switching is occurring.
                                          A-46

-------
      Approximately $2,817,200 in contract funds were obligated in 1980 in support of
the  above  program activities.

1981  Program

      In  1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $6,868,500 to this program, of which
$3,989,500 is for Salaries and Expenses and $2,879,000 is for extramural purposes under
the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropriation.  The extramural funds will be used
for  recall  emission testing, fuels inspections, antitampering and antifuel switching
publicity,  data management, fuel switching observations, and assistance to States and
localities  for  unleaded gasoline inspections.

      In  1981, the mobile source enforcement program will continue comprehensive enforcement
of the antitampering and antifuel switching provisions aimed at reducing emissions from the
in-use fleet thereby supporting the adoption of inspection/maintenance programs.  Inspection
and  investigatory efforts are coordinated nationally to focus on major private and municipal
fleets,  new car dealerships, and commercial auto repair facilities to maximize deterrent
effect when violations  are detected.

      Other  major activities in 1981 will be to continue the assembly line testing program
for  light  duty  vehicles and the recall program; administer the California fuel and emission
waivers; conduct fuels  inspections; and provide assistance to States and localities to
conduct  unleaded fuel inspections.

      These  enforcement  activities will result in 35 selective enforcement audit vehicle
test  orders; recall investigations; 950 confirmatory/surveillance tests; 775 new car
dealership  Inspections; 1,150 fleet tampering/fuel switching inspections; 600 commercial
repair facility inspections; 25,000 combined fuels inspections; 7,000 fuel switching
observations; 10 inspection/maintenance audits; 30 warranty investigations; and 25 production
compliance  audits.

1981  Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The net increase of $19,000 results from several actions, as follow:

      - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
The reduction applied to this activity is $22,100.

      - The  Congress reduced agencywide travel  costs by $850,000; a decrease of
$13,200 was applied to this activity.

      - The  Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a
decrease of $43,100 was applied to this activity.

      - The  Congress applied a general  reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $87,500 was applied to this
activity.                             ;

      - The  Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by $750,000;
a decrease  of $1,600 was applied to this activity.

      - The  Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of
$13,200 was applied to this activity.

      - An increase of $250,800 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.

     - Reprogramming of $51,100 to hazardous waste enforcement, to provide a level
of funding  consistent with prior year's experience.
                                          A-47

-------
     - An Increase of $250,800 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and 1s included 1n a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     *• Reprogramming of $51,100 to hazardous waste enforcement, to provide a level
of funding consistent with prior year's experience.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $6,694,300 and 111 permanent workyears for this program,
of which $4,211,700 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $2,482,600 is for
the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This total represents a decrease of
$174,200 over 1981.  Extramural funds will be used for recall  emission testing, fuels
inspections, fuel  switching observations, data management, and assistance to States and
localities for unleaded gasoline inspections.

     In 1982, the selective enforcement audtt (SEA) program will be continued in order to
deter the production of nonconforming light duty vehicles.  The SEA program assures that
new vehicles on the production line are in compliance with emission requirements before
being introduced in commerce.

     The recall program will continue to assure compliance of in-use vehicles with emission
standards.  SEA activity, recall testing, and increased public contact due to federally
enforceable warranty provisions will serve to identify a greater number of vehicle classes
suspected of exceeding emissions standards in use.

     The centralized enforcement program aimed at controlling tampering and fuel switching
in order to reduce in-use emissions will be continued.  This effort is intended to complement
and facilitate the implementation of inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs by preventing
further deterioration of the vehicle fleet before I./M programs are implemented.

     In 1982, activities of the fuels program will include conducting 25,000 combined
unleaded, vapor recovery, and octane inspections at service stations and fleet dispensing
facilities.  These inspections will be performed with State and/or private testing firms.
The program will  continue to monitor lead usage reports and the status of refiner efforts
to achieve compliance with the lead phasedown program, administer the provision which
prohibits the use  of fuel and fuel additives, and administer the emission waivers as
requi red.
                                             A-48

-------
Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                               AIR

                                       Oxidants Non-Energy
Appropriation
Environmental Processes
 and Effects-.
  Salaries and Expenses.
  Research and
   Development..........

Scientific Assessments:
  Salaries and Expenses.
  Research and
   Development..........

Technical Information
 and Liaison:
  Salaries and Expenses.
  Research and
   Development..........

Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance:
  Salaries and Expenses.
  Research and
   Development..	

Health Effects:
  Salaries and Expenses.
  Research and
   Development..........

Environmental Engineering
 and Technology:
  Salaries and Expenses.
  Research and
   Development	
Totals
  Salaries and Expenses.
  Research and
   Development..........

Grand Total	

Permanent Positions
Environmental Processes
 and Effects	.-.	
Scientific Assessment....
Actual
1980
$ 1,857
5,6S4
252
104
22$
2
1,119
523
2,089
3,298
619
1,715
6,160
11,326
17,486
30
4
Budget
Estimate
1981
J3oTlars
$2,058
5,758
236
157
219
1*
1,099
485
2,366
4,499
627
1,774
6,605
12,687
19,292
33
5
Current
Estimate
1981
in thousands)
$ 1,851
5,088
241
110
227
14
999
707
1,940
3,291
654
1,774
5,912
10,984
16,896
30
4
Estimate
1982
$1,785
5,444
183
115
199
7
1,206
436
1,736
4,955
662
1,7*8
5,771
12j705
18,476
23
*
Increase +
Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981

-S6.G
+ 356
- 58
+ 5
- 28
- 7
+ 207
- 271
- 204
+1 ,664
+ 8
- 26
- 141
1-1,721
+1,580
- 7
• * *
                                                A-49

-------
                               Actual
                                1980
      Budget
      Estimate
       1981*
        Current
        Estimate
          19S1
        Estimate
          1982
            Increase +
            Decrease -
            1982 vs. 1981
Technical Information
 and Liaison.............
Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance.......
Health Effects.......—
Environmental Engineering
 and Technology..........
 17
 22

 11
 15
 28

 11
 16
 16

 11
 15
 18

 11
-   1
+   2
Total.
Full-Tune Equivalency
Environmental Processes
 and Effects.............
Scientific Assessment....
Technical Information
 and Liaison	
Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance.......
Health Effects...........
Environmental Engineering
 and Technology.....	
 88
 35
  6
 22
 33

 20
 96
 46
  8
 22
 3*

 IS
 SO
 37
  8
 23
 22

 18
 3ft
  6
 22
 21

 18
-   3
-   2
Total.
121
134
113
106
                                                                                       -   7
*3anuary   1980  President's  Budget  as  adjusted  by  the  Office  of  Research  and
Development restructuring.


Budget Request

     The   Agency  requests  a  total of $18,476,200  and 74  permanent  workyears  for
1982, an  increase of  $1,579,800  from  1981.   Included in this total is  $5,770,800
for Salaries  and  Expenses  and $12,705,400  for  Research  and  Development,  with a
decrease of $141,300 and an increase of $1,721,100 respectively,

Program Description

     This  program has been developed  under the auspices of the  Oxidants Research
Committee.    The disciplinary  components  (or  sub-programs)  of  the  program  are
integrated into  an  overall research  effort  designed to  produce  outputs  clearly
focused on Agency research needs in this subject area.

     The   overall  program  provides  scientific  data  on  the  health and  environ-
mental  effects,  including  ecological  effects and   material  damage, and on  moni-
toring  techniques  for  ozone,   nitrogen  dioxide, and  other photochemical products
to comply
                                                A-50

-------
with  Sections  108 and  109  of  the Clean  Air  Act.   The Clean Air Act  requires that
the  criteria  and  standards be  reviewed  and, if  necessary,  revised  every  five
years;  therefore,  continually   updated  information  is   needed  to  support  main-
tenance  or revision  of  the criteria  and  standards.   As  part of  the  projects  which
obtain such  information,  this  program  provides the regulatory  program with  tech-
niques for  the  assessment  of  the  transport  and   transformation  processes  invol-
ving  ozone and  nitrogen dioxide  and  their  precursors,   volatile  organic  compounds
and  nitric oxide.   Various  types  of  models  including, but  not  necessarily limited
to  air   quality  simulation  models,  are  developed  to  apply  on  local  urban  and
regional  scales.    Appropriate  field  studies  to  obtain  technical  results  needed  to
implement such  models  accompanying the model development work.  Further, as part
of  this  program,  assessments   are made  through   laboratory  and  field  studies  of
transport and   transformation  processes  by   which   photochemically generated  pro-
ducts other  than  ozone and  nitrogen  dioxide  are  formed and  eventually  removed
from  the atmosphere into  other media.   This  progam also supports  development  and
demonstration  of  the   pollution control  technologies  capable  of  reducing  or  eli-
minating  volatile  emissions compounds  emissions   from   industrial  sources.    Tech-
nical  and cost   data   bases  that  support regulatory  standards are   provided  for
direct application by industry in solving pollution problems.

      Activities  and  program   proposals  for  each  sub-program  are  presented indi-
vidually in the following material.

SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1980 Accomplishments

      In  1980,  the Agency  used  a total of $356,400 for  this sub-program,  of  which
$252,000  was  for  Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $104,400 was for extramural  research
activities.

1980 Accomplishments

      The nitrogen oxides criteria document  was completed as  required by Section
      108 of  the Clean  Air  Act.  The  document was published and  used to  evaluate
      standards  for nitrogen oxides.    Assessments  for  nitrogen  oxides, ozone,  and
      other photochemical oxidants are contained in the oxidants program.

1981 Program

      In  1981,   the  Agency  has  allocated  a  total  of  $351,500 and   4  permanent
workyears to  this  sub-program, of which  $241,500  is for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
Appropriation  and  $110,000 is  for  extramural purposes  under  the  Research  and
Development Appropriation.

      The ozone  criteria  document  published  in 1978  will  be   revised.    This  re-
      vision  will  address  new  information  on  health  effects   from   exposure   to
      oxidants,   i.e.,  recent  scientific  knowledge   and  criteria  dealing  with  nit-
      rogen  oxides and  airborne hydrocarbons.   This  revision is being  done  under
      Sections  108,  109,  and  110 of  the  Clean  Air Act  which  require  that  the
      document be re-evaluated every 5 years,


1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The resources  reflected  under  the  1981  budget  estimate column are derived
from  "crosswalking"  the   program  structure  presented   in   the  1981  President's
Budget submission to the new  structure as presented  in  the 1981  current  estimate
reflected in  this  submission.    The  details  of the restructuring  of   the  research
and  development program,  as   well  as the  crosswalk of resources itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.
                                                A-51

-------
      The net decrease of $41,500 results from several actions, as follows:

      -   Shortly  after  the  1981  budget estimate  was  submitted, President  Carter
         transmitted  revisions   to  the  budget  (House   Document  96-294};   these
         revisions  resulted  in   a  decrease  of  $7  million  to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied to this activity is $1,200.

      -   The  Congress reduced   agencywide  consulting  services  by  $3.8  million;  a
         decrease of $1,300 was applied to this activity.

      ~   An increase of $8,000  results from the cost of  the October  1980 pay raise
         and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

      *•   Reprogramming   to  realign  contract  funds  resulted  in  a  transfer   of
         $47,000 irorn this activity,

1982 Plan

      The Agency  requests a total  of  $297,200 and  4  permanent workyears for this
sub-program,  of  which $182,600  is for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation and
$114,600  is  for extramural  purposes under the Research and  Development  Appro-
priation.

      This  reflects  a  decrease  of  $58,000 in  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appro-
priation  and an  increase of $5,000  in  the  Research  and  Development appropriation.
The   net  decrease  of $53,000   reduces support  for preparing  the   ozone criteria
document.

f     The ozone  criteria  document  which was  begun in  1981 will  be revised.  The
      revision   addresses   recent   scientific   knowledge  and  criteria  dealing with
      nitrogen oxides and airbone hydrocarbons.


TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND LIAISON

1980 Accomplishments

      In  1980, the  Agency used  a total of  $226,500 for  this sub-program, of  which
$224,300  was  for  Salaries and   Expenses and  $2,200  was  for  extramural  research
activities.

      The Technical Information  Program supported  the  preparation  and  publication
of  the  Research  Outlook,  the  Research  Highlights,  technical   information  plans
and  quidance, and other  general documents of interest  to the  environmental deci-
sion  making community.   Further, it managed systems which tracked  ORD's research
projects   and  resources.     Specific   accomplishments  in   the   area   of  Oxidanis
included the publication and dissemination of three reports:

      «•   A final report on Environmental Assessment of
         Source NOx Control Technology.   ;

         A Users' Guide on  Intermediate Screening Methods for
         Environmental Assessment of Fossil Energy Process
         Effluents.

      - .  The 1980 Northeast Oxidant Study Report.

      The Regional Services   Staff   was  responsible  for  effective  communications
between ORD  and the regions.  In  providing this they:

      -   Advised ORD on all aspects of regional operations.
                                               A-52

-------
     -   Developed and implemented the Regional Support
         Management Information System.

     -   Carried out regional liaison activities to provide
         technical assistance.

     The Technical  Information and Liaison activities helped  enable ORD  to com.
municate its  research  information  to  EPA's  regional  offices  and to  the  envi-
ronmental  decision making community.    Further,  they  assisted  in making better
coordination  between ORD and the  regions  possible, allowing  each  to meet  the
needs of the Agency and the public more efficiently,

1981 Program

     In  1981, the Agency  has  allocated  a  total  of  $2*0,700  and 3  permanent
workyears  to this  sub-program, of which  $226,900 is  for the  Salaries and  Expenses
Appropriation  and  $13,£00 is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the Research  and
Development Appropriation.

     This  part of the program is  providing  various  research program  and project
summaries,   decision  series  documents,   and  technology  transfer  publications  to
meet Research Committee requirements.   Technical  Information  Plans,  listing  the
explicit  information   products   for   this   research   effort   have   been  prepared.
Throughout   the   year,  support  will  be  provided  to  develop  these  information
products and to  distribute  them  to the  appropriate  users.    Support  is  also  being
provided to  manage  information  systems which  track ORD's  research  projects  and
resources.

     Regional  liaison  activities are  continuing  as  in  1980.   To  this  end,  such
activities wills

     -   Continue  the Regional Support Management Information
         System.

     -   Develop and implement a process to address the research
         needs of state and local government in the ORD planning process.


1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The resources reflected under  the  1981  budget  estimate column are  derived
from  "cross walking"  the  program   structure   presented  in  the   1981   President's
Budget  submission to the new structure  as presented in  the  19S1 current  estimate
reflected in  this  submission.    The  details  of  the  restructuring  of the  research
and  development  program,  as  well  as the  crosswalk of  resources  itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     The net increase of $8,100 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly after  the  1981  budget   estimate  was  submitted,  President  Carter
         transmitted  revisions   to   the  budget  (House   Document   96-294);  these
         revisions   resulted  in  a  decrease  of  $7  million  to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $800,

     -   An  increase of $8,700  results from the cost  of  the October 1980 pay raise
         and is included in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.

     -   Reprogrammings  to  realign  salary  and related  costs  to   meet  on-board
         needs resulted in a transfer of $200 to this activity.
                                             A-53

-------
1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $206,*00 arid 3 permanent work/ears for this sub-
program, of which $199,600 is for the Salaries and Expenses Appropriation and $6,800 is
for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     This reflects a  decrease of  $34,300.  This will reduce the Technical  Information
program's ability to prepare and disseminate technical information products, the Research
Outlook & Research Highlights. It will also reduce the Regional Services Staff's capacity
for liaison activities.

     This sub-program will continue, in 1982, to provide the same types of services as in
1981. This includes the development and production of technical information products to
ensure that  research information is properly and  adequately communicated  to  the
environmental decision making community. Specific products planned by the appropriate
Research Committee  will be developed. Support to managing systems which track ORD's
research projects and resources  will be  provided  as  will  strong  liaison  with  regional
offices, of a similar nature to that conducted in 1981.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUA     ASSURANCE

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980, the  Agency  used  a total  of  $1,6*1,300  for  this sub-program, of which
$1,118,600 was for Salaries and Expenses  and $523,200 was for extramural research
activities.

     -   Overhead monitoring support was provided to the Office of Air Quality Planning
         and  Standards'  Northeast Oxidant  Study.   Air  samples were  obtained and
         analyzed.  The results will be used to review and evaluate regional air pollution
         patterns and  regional models of oxidant transport.

     -   Verification, calibration and audits of air pollution measurements continued to
         ensure the accuracy of oxidant standards.

         Assistance was provided to regional and program offices to update oxidant data
         needed for revision of oxidant standards.

     -   The nationwide Air  Pollution Background Network was operated to obtain ozone
         measurements in National Forests.

     -   A 2-frequency LIDAR System was  demonstrated as useful for defining plume
         characteristics and  plume transport.  This data is also of use to  the  oxidant
         program in oxidant  transport modeling.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $1,703,600 and 16 permanent workyears
to this sub-program, of which $998,800 is for the Salaries and Expenses Appropriation and
$706,800 is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     Emphasis  is on assisting other  EPA  offices in obtaining accurate and reproducible
data, and upon  advancing the  state-of-the-art for monitoring in those  areas  of most
importance to the Agency.
                                            A-54

-------
Specifically:

     -   Overhead  monitoring  support, quality assurance,  and audits  of  photochemical
         pollutant measurements will be provided to the Office of  Air Quality Planning
         and Standards to improve models and determine the effects of regional pollution
         transport and standards revision.

         A  major task  under this  program  is the continuing operation of  the  national
         standards laboratory to provide audits of measurements for the oxidants research
         programs. It also maintains a repository and distributes standard gas samples for
         use in the calibration of instruments with emphasis on ozone, nitrogen  oxides,
         hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. Development and production of a standard
         reference ultraviolet photometer is also being supported. When completed, these
         photometers will be provided to Regions  and States as standards against which
         they can calibrate their instruments.

     -   A nationwide Air Pollution Background Network is operating in national forests.
         This background  pollution  level   data   is  obtained  in areas   remote  to
         industrial/municipal emission sources and thus provides a base for comparsion
         and also for trends analysis.


1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The resources reflected under the 1981 budget estimate  column  are derived  from
"crosswalking" the program structure presented in the 1981  President's  Budget submission
to the  new structure  as  presented in the 1981  current estimate  reflected  in  this
submission.  The  details of the  restructuring  of the research and development program, as
well as the crosswalk of resources itself, can be found in the Special Analyses section of
this submission.

     The net increase of $122,600 results from several actions, as follows:

         Shortly  after  the  1981  budget estimate was  submitted,  President  Carter
         transmitted  revisions  to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
         resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
         The reduction applied  to this activity is $3,900.

     -   The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $1,400
         was applied to this activity.

     -   The Congress  reduced agencywide  ADP services  by  $2 million; a decrease of
         $7,200 was applied to this activity.

     -   An increase  of $38,700 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
         included in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.

     -   Reprogramming  to  realign salary  and  related costs  to  meet  on-board needs
         resulted in a transfer of  $1,900 from this activity.

     -   Transfer of  $102,300  from air-gases  and  particles non-energy to support GAP
         related research.              l

1982Plan

     The Agency requests a  total of $1,642,300 and 15 permanent workyears for this sub-
program, of which $1,206,100 is for the Salaries and Expenses Appropriation and $436,200
is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development  Appropriation.

     This reflects  a decrease of  $63,300.   This  will  reduce  the frequency of audits
performed on instruments measuring ozone and nitrogen oxides.
                                            A-55

-------
     -   Overhead   monitoring    support,   quality   assurance,   and   audits    of
         measurement  of  photochemical  pollutants will be  provided  to  the  Office
         of  Air  Quality  Planning and  Standards  to improve  air  transport  models and
         to determine the effects of ambient air quality standards.

     -   the  national   standards  laboratory   will   continue   to   provide   audit
         measurements and  to  maintain  a  repository and  distribute  standard gas
         samples for  use in  calibration of instruments.   In the  oxidant program,
         emphasis  is   upon   ozone,  nitrogen  oxides,  hydrocarbons  and   carbon
         monoxide.  Continued  development on  production  of a standard  ultraviolet
         photometer through  contract  with  the  National  Bureau of  Standards  will
         allow  regions and  States  to eventually  calibrate  their  instruments  using
         these standard instruments.

     •»   The nationwide  Air  Pollution  Background Network  will continue  operation
         in  the   national  forests.    This  background  pollution network obtains data
         in  remote areas, far  from   industrial/municipal  sources  of  emission and
         thus provides a base for comparison and for trends analysis.

     -   Work will  commence  on the development  of a low cost, portable  monitor for
         volatile organic  carbon compounds.   These  chemicals will be regulated  in
         the   near  future.     Emissions  from   control   devices  in   dry  cleaning
         establishments may exceed those allowable  and  present monitoring  devices
         are  too expensive to  be widely  used by  local authorities.   The successful
         development  of  a low cost, portable  device or method will  be of  value  in
         enforcing these regulations.

         Support  to  the  mandatory   quality    assurance   program   will   provide
         technical  guidance,  and  overview  to  assure that  the Agency  will have
         environmental data of  known quality that are appropriate for EPA needs.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,   the  Agency  used a  total of  $3,386,100  for  this  sub-program,  of
which  $2,088,400 was  for Salaries and  Expenses  and  $3,297,700  was for extramural
research activities.

     Major accomplishments are Summarized as follows:

     -   Capabilities   to  incorporate  more  accurate  and  sensitive  techniques  for
         studies   of  changes  in  airway  resistance  that may  result  from  bronchial
         challenge  were  expanded.   Such  capabilities required  the development  of
         experimental  tools  (aerosol  generators  and  measurement  devices)  for use
         in  conjunction   with  the pharmacological  definition of  airway  resistance
         (PDAR).

     -   A number  of human  subjects  were  screened to prepared for a  series  of
         clinical  studies  which  will  utilize the   PDAR technique.    The  screening
         process  is  a  necessary  component  of study  protocols  which utilize  human
         subjects.

         A  clinical   study  to   determine  the   effects  of   nitrogen   dioxide   on
         asthmatics  was  completed.   The  preliminary  results  suggest   a   1 hour
         exposure to  . Ippm  nitrogen  dioxide  has  no demonstrable  effect  on  airway
         responsiveness in either normals or mildly symptomatic asthmatics.

     -   The  pathophysiological   effects  of  ozone  and  the  impact  of  vasoactive
         substances  on  lung  metabolism  was studied.   A  report   on   the  study
         indicates  that  lungs  of  control animals (rats)  remove essentially  all  of
         the   administered  material   (serotonin   -   a   muscle  constrictor  and
         neurotransmitter)  during  a  single  passage   of  blood  through  the  lung.
         Ozone  exposures markedly  and  significantly  reduced  the  ability  of  the
         lungs to remove the  agent  suggesting  an alteration of  lung vascular and
         bronchial smooth muscle.
                                         A-56

-------
     -   The  effects  of  ozone  exposure  (1  ppm)  on  lung  function  in dogs  were
         examined.   The  results  indicated a  time  differential  in  responses.    Gas
         and  water exchange in  the  lung was not  altered  at a  one  hour  interval
         following exposure but did change after a 2* hour period.

     -   Studies  were   completed  which   show  that phenobarbitol-induced  sleeping
         time in rats  was  altered by exposure to nitrogen dioxide but  that  such a
         response   is  unrelated  to  nitrogen  dioxide-  alteration  of   brain  sensiti-
         vity to phenobarbitol.

1981 Program

     In  1981, the  Agency  has  allocated  a  total  of  $5,231,700 and  16  permanent
workyears   to this  sub-program,  of  which   $1,940,300  is  for  the   Salaries  and
Expenses   Appropriation  and  $3,291,400  is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the
Research and Development Appropriation.

     The major  emphasis in 1981 (and continuing through  1983) continues to  be on
the  effects  of exposures  to ozone and   nitrogen  dioxide  with lesser effort  being
devoted  to   other  oxidants  and  atmospheric  reaction  products.    The  research
includes  a  combination  of  human  'studies  (controlled  clinical  and  epidemiolo-
gical)  and  animal studies.   Clinical studies  of  ozone effects  are generally  based
upon  short-term  exposures  at   levels  approaching  the  present  standards.    They
evaluate the simultaneous  effects  of exposure  during stress from heat  and exer-
cise and  the  impacts   on sensitive  populations,  ascertaining  mechanisms  of  ozone
induced  cardiopulmonary  dysfunction, immune dysfunction and biochemical changes.
Animal  toxicology studies  are  addressing  the  question  of effects  of   both  long  and
short-term  exposures  to  low levels of  ozone and  nitrogen  dioxide   (singly  and in
combination).  A variety  of animal  models  are  being  used  in  these  studies  in an
attempt  to  improve estimates  of risk  to humans  based  upon extrapolation  of the
data.  The  animal  experiments  are  also  useful  for ascertaining  the   most sensitive
and  accurate  biological indicators  to  be  used in  human health studies of oxidant
initiated  defects.    The  epidemiological   studies  continue  to   analyze  existing
health  data  in order to  assess  the  factors  that promote respiratory  disease.   The
data bases to  be  analyzed include  mortality figures  from  a major  metropolitan
area, chronic  disease   prev stance  in adults,  and lower  respiratory  disease   preva-
lance  in  children.     Follow-on  epidemiological  studies   of  asthmatics  in  the
Houston  and  Los Angeles area  (sponsored  by the  exploratory research and  energy
research program respectively) will be initiated.          	            	

1981 Explanation of Change from  Budget Estimate

     The resources reflected under  the  1981 budget  estimate  column  are derived
from   "crosswalking"  the  program  structure  presented   in  the  1981   President's
Budget  submission to  the new  structure as  presented  in  the  1981  current estimate
reflected  in  this  submission.    The  details  of  the restructuring  of  the research
and  development  program,  as   well  as the  crosswalk  of  resources  itself,  can be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.
                                      A-57

-------
     The net decrease of $1,633,500 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly  after  the  1981  budget  estimate  was submitted,  President Carter
         transmitted  revisions to  the budget  (House  Document  96-294);  these  revi-
         sions  resulted  in  a  decrease of  $7 million to  EPA's  request  for Salaries
         and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $7,200.

     -   The Congress reduced  agencywide travel  costs  by $850,000;  a decrease of
         $3,000 was applied to this activity.

     -   The  Congress  reduced  agencywide  consulting  services by  $3.8  million; a
         decrease of $39,400 was applied to this activity.

     -   The Congress  applied  a  general  reduction  of  $12,214,000 to  the Research
         and Development   appropriation;  a  decrease  of  $500,000  was  applied to
         this activity to  allow  for phasing  of  research to coincide with the  cycle
         of criteria documents revisions.

     -   The Congress  reduced agencywide ADP services  by $2 million; a  decrease of
         $11,600 was applied to this activity.

     -An increase of  $58,600  results from the cost  of  the October  1980  pay  raise
     and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprogramming to  realign salary  and  related  costs to meet  on-board  needs
         resulted in a transfer of  $900 from this activity.

     -   Transfer   of   $1,110,000   to   air  mobile   sources/non-energy   in  order to
         consolidate  all  carbon  monoxide  research  activities  under  the  Mobile
         Sources Research Committee.

     -   Transfer  $20,000 to  program  management  to support  public  awareness  and
         industrial hygienist positions at Research Triangle Park.


1982 Plan

     The Agency  requests  a total of  $6,691,200  and  18 permanent  workyears  for
this  sub-program, of  which $1,735,800 is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropria-
tion  and  $4,955,400 is for extramural  purposes under the Research and Development
Appropriation.

     This  reflects  an  increase of  $1,459,500.    This  will  be  used  for epidemio-
logical,  clinical  and  animal studies   to  determine  chronic effects  of  exposure to
carbon monoxide and ozone.

     The 1982  plan  will  continue  to   emphasize   human  health  studies  (controlled
Clinical  and epidemiological)  of  the  effects  of   oxidants  on  the  cardiopulmonary
system,  the  immune  system and  lung biochemistry  for  both   normal  individuals  and
susceptible  populations.   Exposures   at  ambient  levels  and   in  the  range  of  the
present standards will be emphasized.

     Studies  utilizing  a  variety  of   species  of  animals  will  also be  Continued to
assess   the  biological  impacts  of  exposures  to  ozone  and  nitrogen   dioxide,   both
singly   and   as  mixtures,  at  levels  simulating   ambient  exposures  (intermittent
brief   high  levels  superimposed  upon  chronic low  level  exposures).    Additional
animal   studies  will   be   utilized  to  develop   kinetic  information   required  to
improve models  for  lung  dose  and injury and to  develop more rapid  and  sensitive
indicators of damage that might be used for clinical and epidemiological studies.
                                      A-58

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980, the  Agency  used a  total  of  $2,334,600  for  this  sub-program, of
which  $619,200 was for Salaries and  Expenses and $1,715,400 was  for  extramural
research activities.

     -   An   evaluation  of   control   techniques   such   as  activated  carbon   for
         reducing   hydrocarbon   emissions    from   textile   finishing  plants   was
         completed.    This  study  will  assist  in  determination  of  Best  Available
         Control Technology for certain textile industries.

     -   An  evaluation  of  the  use  of  supercritical  fluid  CO- to regenerate  acti-
         vated carbon  used  to  control  volatile  organic  compound  emissions  was
         performed.    This  project will provide  more economical  solutions for the
         control of organic chemical emissions.

         A study  was  completed on  catalytic incineration  of  organic vapors  from
         industrial  sources.    The results  will  be  used  to  review  and  possibly
         revise  New  Source  Performance  Standards  for  sources  such  as  solvent
         degreasers and drycleaning.

     -   The  frequency  of   hydrocarbon fugitive  emissions  in the  synthetic  organic
         chemical  manufacturing  industry was  determined.   These  data will  be used
         in development and review of New Source Performance Standards.

     -   Calibration factors  of   volatile  organic  compound  analyzer equipment  for
         selected organic chemicals  were determined.  These data  will  be used in
         development and review of New Source  Performance Standards that specify
         measurement techniques.

     -   An  evaluation  of  solvent degreaser  operations  as  completed.   The  objec-
         tive  was  the  identification  of  techniques  to  minimize  volatile  organic
         chemical emissions.

         A  wet  scrubber  that  utilizes  surfactant  chemicals  was  designed,  fabri-
         cated, and operated to evaluate the control   of   solvents  from  painting
         operations.    The   results  were  positive  and  an  industrial  demonstration
         is planned.


1981 Program

     In  1981, the  Agency  has  allocated a  total  of $2,427,400 and 11   permanent
workyears'to this sub-program,  of which $653,700  is  for the Salaries  and Expenses
Appropriation and  $1,773,700 is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the Research  and
Development Appropriation.


     -   An  evaluation of  activated  carbon adsorption systems is  being  undertaken
         to   provide  a  fundamental   understanding  of  system  performance,  cost,
         size, and  maintenance  parameters.   This  knowledge  will enable  designers
         to specify  optimum  systems  for a  wide range  of  industrial applications in
         controlling oxidant emissions.

     -   Catalytic  oxidation   techniques  are  being  studied  to  determine  perfor-
         mance parameters in .the control of'volatile organic compounds.

     -   The  effectiveness  of  flares  for  controlling  volatile  organic  compounds
         is being  studied, and  means  of improving this  technique  will   be  deter-
         mined.
                                     A-59

-------
      -   The  capture  efficiency  of  hoods  is  being  studied  in  industrial  appli-
         cations  such as  painting  and solvent degreasing.   Design  parameters  such
         as  air  flow  rates,  energy  requirements,  and  capture  effectiveness  will
         be optimized in a variety of specific applications.

         A  method  to  measure  the  transfer  efficiency  of spray  painting  is  being
         developed.  This will lead to a  more  effective  operation with a  reduction
         of organic carrier emissions.

      -   Sampling  methods  are  being refined  to  enable  a  better  evaluation  of
         fugitive emissions from petrochemical plants.

         Emission  studies  are  determining  the   fugitive  emissions  of   volatile
         organic  compounds from  petrochemical plants  and from  synthetic  organic
         chemical manufacturing plants.

      -   A  demonstration of  emissions  control  from paint  curing  ovens with micro-
         processor  control  systems and sensors  is  being supported.   Objectives  of
         this  project  are  to  reduce  energy  requirements  while  maximizing the
         concentration of emissions to enable better emission control.

         Secondary  air  emissions  from textile  and  organic chemical  manufacturing
         wastewater  treatment   systems  are  being  characterized.   The   need for
         control  of these emissions  will  be  determined  and methods of control will
         be suggested.

         A  study of water  based  finishes for wood office furniture appropriate for
         purchase by the General  Services  Administration is  being completed.   The
         purchase  of  such  furniture  by  the  federal  government  could  significantly
         reduce    volatile    organic    chemical    emissions    in   the    furniture
         manufacturing  industry  and  may lead  to  acceptance  of  such furniture  by
         the private sector.

      -   A  demonstration of  volatile  organic chemical  control at  a  textile  manu-
         facturing plant is in progress.

      -   Methods  of  improved  regeneration  of  activated  carbon systems  using
         supercritical  fluid  carbon  dioxide   are  being   studied.    This   technique,
         when  perfected, is  expected  to  result  in lower  cost  control  systems  that
         provide  recovery  of  solvents  and  other  valuable  volatile organic  chemi-
         cals  that  would  otherwise  be  lost  to  the  atmosphere  or   destroyed  by
         conventional  thermal carbon  regeneration  techniques.   Energy savings are
         also expected.

      -   Thermal incineration processes  are  being  studied  to  determine  the  effec-
         tiveness   of  vapor   phase  organic  chemical  distraction.    Methods   of
         reducing  costs  and  energy  requirements  will  be  sought  in  the  project.
         Undesirable   effects  of  incineration  such   as   harmful   daughter-product
         generation will  be  identified, and   methods  to reduce  these effects  will
         be devised.


1981 Explanation of Change from  Budget Estimate

      The resources  reflected under the  1981 budget  estimate column  are  derived
from   "crosswalking"  the  program  structure  presented  in  the.  1981  President's
Budget  submission  to the new structure  as  presented  in the 1981 current estimate
reflected  in  this  submission.   The  details  of the restructuring  of  the   research
and  development  program,  as well  as the   crosswalk  of  resources itself, can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.
                                     A-60

-------
     The net increase of $26,600 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly  after  the  1981  budget estimate  was  submitted,  President  Carter
         transmitted  revisions  to  the   budget  (House  Document  96-294);  these
         revisions  resulted  in   a  decrease   of  $7  million  to  EPA's  request   for
         Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $3,200.

     -   An  increase  of $32,000  results from the  cost of  the October  1980  pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprogramming to  realign salary and  related costs to meet on-board needs
         resulted in a transfer of $2,200 from this activity.

IJgZJglan

     The Agency  requests  a total  of   $2,410,000 for  and   11  permanent workyears
this  sub-program,  of   which  $661,800  is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appro-
priation  and  $1,748,200   is   for  extramural  purposes  under  the  Research  and
Development Appropriation.

     This increase of $17,400, has no significant program impact.

     i*   The  evaluation  of  VOC  emissions  from  industrial  sludge treatment  and
         disposal systems will be continued.

         An  overall  performance  evaluation   of  carbon  adsorption units in  full-
         scale industrial applications will be completed.

     -   A prototype measurement system will  be developed  to evaluate  the capture
         efficiencies  of hooding  systems used  in  the  graphic arts,  rubber  pro-
         cessing, plastic processing  and metal coatings industries.

         A final report on  the efficiency of flares  to burn  organic chemicals  will
         be prepared.

     -   A series of  performance manuals on the control  of VOC  will be prepared.
         This   information   will  be  used  to   develop  New  Source   Performance
         Standards and to document emission factors.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980, the  Agency  used a  total  of  $7,540,700  for  this  sub-program, of
which  $1,557,300 was for Salaries and Expenses  and $5,683,400 was for extramural
research activities.

     -   A  detailed  chemical mechanism was developed  that describes the  atmo-
         spheric reactions  of  aromatic  and  other  hydrocarbons.    This  information
         will  be  used  to  calculate  the impact  of  these compounds  on  producing
         ozone in the atmosphere.

     -   A  review  paper was prepared  on  the impact  of  natural  hydrocarbon  (e.g.,
         isoprenes,  terpenes)  on ozone  air  quality.     This  review   paper  will
         provide  guidance  to the  Agency's  assessment of  the  actual  contribution
         of   natural  hydrocarbon emissions   producing  elevated   ozone  levels  in
         rural areas.
                                    A-61

-------
     -   The  evaluation  of  three  major  types  of urban  photochemical  air  quality
         simulation models  based on  ten  days of data from the Regional  Air  Pollu-
         tion  Study -St. Louis  air  quality  data base was completed.   When  com-
         pletely  validated,  these  models  will   be  used  to  assess  the  air  quality
         impact of various control strategies for ozone.

         Ozone  is  used as   a  surrogate  for  establishing  secondary   ambient  air
         quality standards for  photochemical  oxidants.    More  toxic  photochemical
         oxidants  such  as  peroxyacetyl  nitrite  (PAN)  exist  in the  photochemical
         complex.  Research  was initiated  to determine if plant damage  can occur
         from PAN when  the  National Secondary Ambient Air  Quality  Standard  for
         ozone is  attained.    Results from  this research  will  determine  the fea-
         sibility or need for establishing a PAN standard.

     -   Biogenic  emissions  of isoprene  and total nonmethane hydrocarbons  from
         several  important  deciduous  and  coniferous  trees   have  been  identified.
         These emission  factors  will  be used  in conjunction  with  regional biornass
         data to predict regional biogenically emitted hydrocarbons.

         An  S-year field  study in  the San  Bernadino  National  Forest of southern
         California  revealed  a significant impact of  ambient photochemical oxi-
         dants  on  a  mixed  conifer  forest  ecosystem.     For  example,  in  heavily
         polluted   sections   of  the   forest,   foliar   injury   sufficient   to   limit
         foliage retention occurred on Ponderosa and  Jeffrey pines and  white  fir.
         Stem growth of Ponderosa  pine was limited by as  much  as  50% and accumu-
         lated  mortality rates  reached  as  high  as   10% during  a 6-year  period.
         Tree  community structure is gradually  shifting from  predominantly  Ponde-
         rosa  and  Jeffrey  pine to   less  desirable black oak,  incense  cedar  and
         white  fir.  Insect damage  is  more severe on oxidant  damaged  trees.   These
         studies show  that  ambient  photochemical  oxidants can reduce the produc-
         tivity  of  forest ecosystems  and  reverse normal  successional  patterns  and
         generate concern for the Nation's forest resources.

         Research  was  initiated  by  request from  EPA's  Office  of   Air Quality
         Planning  and  Standards to  identify  a  maximum NO2  concentration that
         could  exist  without  causing plant  damage.   The  research  identified  O.t
         ppm NO2  as the concentration which must be exceeded to  cause  significant
         growth  effects  to  crops.    This  data  will  be  used  in establishing  a
         National Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standard for NO2.

1981 Program

     In  1981,  the  Agency  has allocated  a  total  of  $6,939,500 and  30  permanent
workyears  to  this sub-program,   of  which  $1,850,900   is  for  the   Salaries  and
Expenses   Appropriation  and   $3,088,600   is  for  extramural   purposes   under   the
Research and Development Appropriation.

     -   Smog  chamber  studies  will  be   conducted  to   determine critical  kinetic
         mechanisms  of  ozone formation  from  its   precursors  NOx  and volatile
         organic  compounds.     This  data  will  be  used  in   developins  air  quality
         models.    The  role  of  aromatic hydrocarbons will be emphasized in these
         studies.

         The photochemical  reactivity of  selected organics  to produce  ozone  will
         be determined.   The work will emphasize the degree  to which low reactive
         compounds, such  as  low  molecular weight  organics, contribute  to  ozone
         pollution.
                                  A-62

-------
     -   The existing EKMA (Empirical Kinetics  Modeling Approach)  model  is being
         validated with  ozone  air quality data  previously  collected at  a number of
         different  urban  locations.    This   model  will   be  used  as  the  principal
         modeling  tool  for  assessing  ozone  control  strategies  for  the  1982  SIP
         (State Implementation Plan) planning process.

     -   Urban  air  quality simulation  models,  previously developed  and  evaluated
         will  be  validated  with  ozone ambient  air  quality  data  collected  during
         the 1972-1977  field  study  conducted  at  St.  Louis.   It  is expected  that
         these  advanced models  will  eventually  replace  the  currently  used  empi*
         rical approaches.

     -   The results from  the  Houston air  quality studies will  be  summarized for
         the aerosol  and   ozone  components  of  the   air  characterizaion  studies
         conducted  over  the  past  three  years.   While this  will  complete  the
         atmospheric  chemistry  portion  of   the  Houston work,   results  from  the
         Houston  health effects  studies  will be  reported  over  the  next  two to
         three years.

     -   Regional air quality models will be developed  and  evaluated.   Air quality
         data collected  during  the Northeast Regional  Oxidant  Study (NEROS)  con-
         ducted during the  Summer  of 1979 and  1980  will be  used for  this  purpose.
         The  regional  ozone   model   will  allow  decision  makers  to  evaluate  the
         impact  of  oxidant  control  plans   of   individual  cities  from  a  regional
         perspective.

         A  number  of  individual sources will  be  characterized by their   emissions
         of  ozone precursors, namely VOC  and NOx pollutants.   This work will be
         used to  develop  the  necessary emission input  data  to develop  ozone air
         quality models.

     -   Field  plots are  being  established  throughout   the  U.S.  to  determine  the
         impacts  of  ozone  on  crop  production.   This  program, the  National  Crop
         Loss Assessment  Network (NCLAN)  is integrated with  other  1981  tasks to
         evaluate ozone and  the  interactive  effects  of  other  pollutants  on  crop
         yield.    Crops  grown   in  field  plots will  be  exposed  to  realistic simula-
         tions  of  air   pollution  doses  which  will continue   throughout   the  life
         cycle  of  the ;crpps.    Crops will  be harvested  and foliar  injury,  growth
         and yield will be measured.


1981 Explanation of Change  from Budget Estimate

     The resources  reflected  under  the  1981 budget  estimate  column  are derived
from   "crosswalking"  the   program  structure  presented  in   the   1981  President's
Budget  submission to the  new structure as  presented  in the 1981  current estimate
reflected in  this  submission.    The  details  of  the  restructuring  of  the  research
and  development program, as  well  as the  crosswalk  of resources  itself,  can be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     The net decrease of $877,400 results from several actions, as follows:

         Shortly  after   the  1981  budget  estimate  was   submitted,  President  Carter
         transmitted  revisions   to  the  budget   (House   Document   96-294);  these
         revisions  resulted  in  a  decrease   of   $7  million  to  EPA's   request  for
         Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied  to this activity is $8,100.

     -   The Congress  reduced agencywide  travel costs  by $850,000; a  decrease of
         $2,200 was applied  to this activity.

     -   The  Congress  reduced  agencywide'   consulting   services  by  $3.8  million;  a
         decrease of $4,200  was applied to this activity.
                                   V-63

-------
     -   The  Congress  reduced  agency wide  Senior  Executive  Services  bonuses  by
         $750,000; a decrease of $10,700 was applied to this activity.

     -   The  Congress applied  a general reduction  of $12,214,000  to  the  Reserch
         and  Development  appropriation;  a  decrease  of   $700,000   was applied  to
         this  activity  to allow  for  phasing of  research to coincide with  the cycle
         of criteria document revisions.

     -   The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by  $2 million;  a decrease of
         $77,400 was applied to this activity.

     -   An  increase  of $71,300 results  from  the cost  of  the  October  1980  pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprograrnrning to  realign salary and  related  costs to  meet on-board needs
         resulted in a transfer of $146,100 from this activity.

1982 Plan

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $7,229,100  and  23 permanent workyears  for
this  sub-program,  of  which  $1,784,900  is  for the Salaries  and  Expenses  Appro-
priation  and  $3,444,200 is for  extramural purposes  under  the  Research  and Deve-
lopment Appropriation.

     This   reflects an  increase  of   $289,600  for  developing  and  field   testing
regional scale models for ozone.

     -   Smog chamber studies  will  continue  to  investigate the  specific  role  of
         volatile organic compounds and NO   pollutants.    Emphasis will be placed
         on   determining  the  contribution  of  aromatic   hydrocarbons  for  photo-
         chemical  ozone production.   This  work  is   motivated  by the  fact  that
         automotive fuels   are  being  formulated with  increased levels  of  aromatic
         hydrocarbons.

     -   The  EKMA (Empirical  Kinetics  Modeling  Approach) model  will  increase  its
         predictive  capability   to  treat  other   photochemical   oxidants   besides
         ozone.   For  example, the  EKMA model will  be  adapted to provide  predic-
         tions of peroxyacetyl nitrate, an environmentally important oxidant.

     -   The  validation  of  studies  of  the urban photochemical  models  using the St.
         Louis air  quality  data  base  will be  completed.   The  results  will  indicate
         the degree  of accuracy and  precision that  can  be  expected with these
         models.

     -   The  research  program  to develop regional scale models for ozone will  be
         continued.   The  major  activity in the 1982  plan  will  consist  of  regional
         scale  modeling field  studies  in the  Southeast  portion  of  the U.S.    The
         major purpose  of this  study is to   test  the  general  applicability  of  the
         NEROS  model which was developed earlier for the northeast regional ozone
         problem to other areas of1 the country.

     -   Individual  sources  of  major  ozone  precursors,  volatile  organic  compounds
         and nitrogen  oxides  (NO )  will be  studied.    The results   from  this work
         will  be  needed  to  satisfy  emission  inventory  requirements  for  air  qua-
         lity  models.    Among   the  organic  pollutants,  measurement  of   reactive
         organics such  as  formaldehyde  is  important.    For  NO  emission rates,  the
         determination  of  the NO,  to NO  ratios is critical for the ozone  modeling
         work.
                                          4-64

-------
Field  studies  initiated  in  198Ito  determine  the effects  of ozone  on crop
production  will  be  continued  to  provide  the  dose-response data  base  for
determining  the economic  impacts  of  ozone.   The  research will  continue  to
focus  on  major  agronomic   crops  and  to   provide  scientific   support   for
secondary air quality standards.

Biogenic emission  rates  for hydrocarbons  will  be determined for a  variety  of
vegetative sources.   Using this  data,  smog  chamber and trajectory modeling
studies will  be conducted  to  assess  the  specific role  of  biogenic  emissions
in producing elevated ozone levels in rural areas of the country.

Research  concerning  the  usefulness  of  the  present  ozone  standard  in  limi-
ting plant damage from  peroxyacetyl  nitrate (PAN)  will  be  completed.   The
results of   initial   studies   relating   ambient   concentrations  of   PAN  with
plant injury and yield will  be  presented in manuscript form.
                                     A-65

-------
                                              AIR

                                    Hazardous Air Pollutants
Appropriation
Scientific   '
 Assessments:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
    Development.	

Technical Information
 and Liaison:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
    Development.......

Monitoring Systems
 and Quality Assurance
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
    Development	

Health Effects:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
    Development......

Environmental Engineering
 and Technology:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
    Development	

Environmental Processes
 and Effects:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
    Development	
TOTAL:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
    Development......

GRAND TOTAL:
Actual
1980

$ 1,154
400
104
1
2,152
2,263
387
2,159
211
586
278
1,194
4,286
6,603
10,889
Budget
Estimate
1981*
(dollars in
$1,083
600
102
6
1,974
2,245
345
3,053
214
605
300
1,266
4,018
7,775
11,793
Current
Estimate
1981
thousands)
$ 1,186
600
106
6
1,838
2,289
1,637
1,901
221
533
309
1,127
5,297
6,456
11,753
Estimate
1982

$1,164
417
103
6
2,391
1,278
1,018
2,297
233
585
399
1,159
5,308
5^742
11,050
Increase •+
Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981

-$22
- 183
- 3
...
+ 553
-1,011
- 619
•<- 396
+ 12
+ 52
+ 90
+ 32
+ 11
- 714
703
                                                  A-66

-------
                                          Budget      Current                      Increase +
                               Actual     Estimate    Estimate      Estimate       Decrease -
                                1980      1981*        1981         1982          1982 vs. 1981
 Permanent Positions
 Scientific
 Assessments:.........,.
 Technical Information
 and Liaison:	
 Monitoring Systems
 and Quality Assurance
 Health Effects:	
 Environmental Engineering
 and Technology:,	
 Environmental Processes
 and Effects:	
TOTAL:.,
Full-Tirne Equivalency
Scientific
 Assessments:...	
Technical Information
 and Liaison:	.....
Monitoring Systems
 and Quality Assurance
Health Effects:..,	
Environmental
 Engineering and
-Technology	
Environmental Processes
 and Effects:	
TOTAL...
20
2
41
6
4
5
78
29
3
45
10
7
.5
99
25
2
40
' 6
4
6
83
37
3
45
9
6
6
106
25
2
40
21
4
5
97
36
3
44
24
6
5
118
25
2
35
6
4
6
78
37
3
40
9
6
6
101
...
» • •
5
- 15
• • •
+ 1
- 19
1

_ ^
- 15
...
+ 1
17
•January  1980  President's Budget as  adjusted  by  the  Office  of  Research and
Development restructuring.

Budget Request

      The Agency requests a  total of $11,050,700 for 1982, a  decrease  of  $702,900
from  1981.    Included  in  this  total  is  55,308,400  for  Salaries  and  Expenses and
$5,743,300  for  Research  and  Development^  with  an  increase  of  511,000  and  a
decrease of $713,900, respectively.
                                           A-67

-------
 Program Description

      This  program has  been  developed  under  the  auspices  of the  Hazardous  Air
 Pollutants  Research  Committee.   The disciplinary components  (or  sub-programs) of
 the  program  are  integrated into  an overall research  effort  designed to  produce
 outputs clearly focused on Agency research needs in this subject area.

      The  overall  program   provides  data  which   can   be   used  by   regulatory
 decisionmakers  to determine:   (a)  the  human health  risk  associated with exposure
 to  certain  ambient air  chemicals;  (b)  the source of  those chemicals; and (c)  the
 technical feasibility  and  costs  of  reducing  human  exposure  to  those   chemicals.
 The program  develops and improves techniques  for generating  the data listed  above
 so  that  more  accurate,  faster and less  expensive  estimates  of  risk  may  be
 generated;  more   realistic  priorities for  regulation  of  chemical  species may  be
 developed; major   sources  of the chemicals  may  be more accurately  defined;  and
 more efficient, less costly control devices can be made available.

      Currently,  the  highest  priority  of  the  ^research   program  is   to  provide
 assistance  in  the implementation  of the  Airborne  Carcinogen  Policy.   However,
 there  is  a  modest   program  to   evaluate  the  non-carcinogenic  properties   of
 chemicals that  might be  regulated  under  Section  112 of the Clean Air  Act as well.
 Some of the  major features of  the program  are:  (1) generation  of  quantitive  risk
 estimates   based   on   literature   data   for   chemicals   being  considered   for
 regulation;   (2)   identification    of  the   chemical   species,   concentration   and
 biological  activity of  ambient   air  pollutants  and  pollutant  source   emissions  to
 aid   in   the  selection   of    chemicals   for    regulation;    (3)   generation   of
 epidemiological  and  animal  test  data  which  is  of   sufficient  quality   for   risk
 estimate  determination;  (4)  development  of  standard  chemical  analytical  chemical
 methods,   which   will   be  part   of  the  promulgated  hazardous  air   pollutant
 regulation;  (5)  evaluation  and  development  of  control technologies  primarily
 designed  to  reduce  organic  chemical  emissions;  (6)  evaluation  of   a   significant
 number  of  chemicals  for  human   health  effects   other  than  cancer;   and   (7)
 development of methods which  will  enable  more  accurate,  faster and less  expensive
 estimates of human health effects from animal and other test systems.

      Activities   and  program   proposals   for   each  sub-program,  are   presented
 individually in the following material.


 SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT
1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the  Agency  used  a  total  of $1,554,000  for  this  sub-program,  of
which  $1,153,700  was  for Salaries  and  Expenses and  $400,300  was  for  extramural
research activities.

     Reports on  the  carcinogenicity  of 14  air pollutants  were completed  which
     were used by  the Office  of  Air Quality Planning  and Standards  to prioritize
     chemicals for future  regulatory evaluation.

-    A quantitative   risk   assessment   on   the  carcinogenicity  of   arsenic  was
     completed.    This report  was  one of   the   documents  required  to  classify
     arsenic  as  a   hazardous  air pollutant.    An   assessment  of  benzene  was
     completed  which  was  subsequently  used by the  Agency  to  support'  the
     development of  emission standards for benzene emitting sources.
                                               A-68

-------
      Carcinogenic! ty  reports on 6  chemicals  that  are  candidates  for  listing  as
      hazardous  air  pollutants under  the  Agency's  proposed  Air  Cancer 'Policy were
      completed and have been submitted to the Science Advisory Board for review.

      Draft   comprehensive  health assessment  documents  were  completed  on the
      following    9     air    polutants:    methylene    chloride.    methylehloroform,
      fluoroearbon       113,       trichloroethylene,        ethylene .       dichloride,
      perchloroethylene, arsenic, vinylidene chloride, and acrylonitrile.

1981 Program

      In  1981,  the Agency  has  allocated a total  of $1,786,000 to  this sub-program,
of  which $1,186,100  is for the  Salaries and  Expenses  Appropriation and $599,900
is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

      Carcinogenieity  evaluations  with  unit risk  estimations will be  completed  on
      approximately   20 chemicals.  Chemicals  currently   being  studied  are  benzo
      (a)  pyrene,   cadmium,   ethylene   dichloride,   nickel,   vinylidene  chloride,
      formaldehyde,      chloroform,     aerolein,     chloroprene,    diehlorobenzene,
      hexachlorocyclopentadiene,     phenol,    vinyl     chloride,     polychlorinated
      biphenyls, carbon tetrachloride, dioxane, acethylene tetrachloride.

      Mutagenieity   evaluations  and/er  separate  risk  analyses  will  be  completed
      for 6 of 21 cancer chemicals.

      Exposure   assessment  reviews  and/or  technical assistance  will  be provided
      using   the   new   Agency   guidelines   for  up  to   9  Type  n   assessments.
      Comprehensive  health  assessments  will be  completed on  methylene chloride,
      fluorocarbon       113,       trichloroethylene,        methyl        chloroform,
      tetraehloroethylene,     ethylene      dichloride,      acrylonitrile,     vinylidene
      chloride, and arsenic.

      Work  will  be  initiated on a health assessment  document on toluene for the
      Office  of  Air  Quality  Planning  and  Standards  and  the  Toxic   Substances
      Priority Committee.   Health  assessments will also  be initiated  oh 3-5  other
      chemicals   which  will  be  determined later  by  the  Office of   Air  Quality
      Planning and Standards.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The resources  reflected under  the  1981 budget estimate  column  are  derived
from   "erosswalking"   the   program  structure  presented  in  the  1981   President's
Budget submission  to the new  structure  as  presented  in  the 1981  current estimate
reflected in  this  submission.    The  details  of the  restructuring  of  the research
and  development program,  as  well  as  the crosswalk  of  resources  itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

      The net increase of $103,400 results from several actions, as follows:

      -  Shortly  after  the  1981  budget  estimate  was submitted.  President  Carter
         transmitted   revisions   to  the   budget  (House  Document   96-294);   these
         revisions  resulted   in   a  decease  of  $7  million  to  EPA's   request for
         Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied to this activity is $5,700.

      -  The Congress reduced  ageneywide  travel  costs  by  $850,000; a  decrease  of
         $2,000 was applied to this activity,

      -  The Congress  reduced  agencywide consulting  services by  $3.8  million;  a
         decrease of $12,500 was applied to this activity.
                                             A-69

-------
     -   The  Congress  reduced  agencywide  Senior  Executive  Service  bonuses by
         $750,000; a decrease of $2,500 was applied to this activity.

     -   An  increase  of  $56,700  results  from  the  cost  of  the  October  1980 pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

         Reprogrammings  to  realign  contracts and  salary  and related  costs to meet
         on-board needs resulted in a transfer of $69,400 to this activity.

1982 Plan

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $1,580,500 and 25  permanent  workyears  for
this   sub-program,   of   which   $1,163,800   is   for  the   Salaries   and  Expenses
Appropriation  and   $416,700 is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the  Research and
Development Appropriation.

     This  reflects  a decrease  of  $205,500.    This  will  affeet  efforts to  provide
hazard assessments  of non-carcinogenic compounds.


     The  scientific  assessment  program   will  provide  continuing   health   hazard
     assessment  support  to the  Office  of  Air Quality  Planning  and  Standards.
     Type  I  carcinogenicity   evaluations   with  unit   risk  estimations   will  be
     completed  for 21  of 30 chemicals or, if  needed, 12  to  15 expanded  Type  I
     assessments will be conducted for the Agency.

     Mutagenieity  evaluations  will  be  completed for  5  of 30  cancer chemicals to
     support the  Agency's Airborne Carcinogen Policy.

     Technical   assistance  will  be   provided   on  mutagenicity or  reproductive
     toxicity  policy matters  and work  will  be initiated  on  four non-carcinogenic
     health hazard assessments to  be  selected  from  the  carcinogen  dropout  list or
     other OAQPS  priorities.

     Exposure assessment  reviews   and/or   technical  assistance  will  be  provided
     using  the  new  Agency   exposure  guidelines  for  up   to   9   Type  II  risk
     assessments.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND LIAISON


1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980,  the Agency used  a  total  of  $104,800 for this  sub-program, of which
$103,800  was  for Salaries  and  Expenses and  $1,000  was for  extramural  research
activities.

     In  1980,  the  Technical  Information  Program  supported  the  preparation  and
publication    of   the    Research Outlook,    the    Research Highlights,    technical
information plans  and  guidance and  other  general docu-nents  01  interest  to the
environmental  decision making community.  It also  provided  ORD with  information
systems  necessary  to  effectively plan  . and  manage  its  research  projects  and
resources.    Specific  accomplishments  in  the  area  of  Hazardous  Air  Pollutants
included the Airborne Toxic Organic Chemicals.

     The   Regional  Services  Staff  (RSS)  provided for  effective   communications
     between QRD and the Regions.
                                            A-70

-------
1981 Program

     In  1981,  the  Agency  has allocated a  total  of $112,400  to  this  sub-program,
of  which  $106,200 is for  the Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation  and  $6,200 is
for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     The  Regional  Services  Staff  (RSS)   will  continue  to  serve  as  a  liaison
     between ORD and the  Regions.   Specifically, RSS will continue  to support the
     Regional   Support  Management  Information  System  and  will  develop   and
     implement  a  process  to  address   the   research  needs  of  state  and   local
     governments in the ORD planning process.

     Various  research program  and  project  summaries,  decision series documents,
     and   technology  transfer   publications   to    meet   Research   Committee
     requirements   will  be  provided.    Technical  Information Plans,  listing  the
     explicit  information  products   for  this  research  effort  will  be  prepared.
     Support  will  be  provided to  manage  information systems which  track ORD's
     research projects and resources.

     Regional  liaison  activities  are  continuing  as  in  1980.   To   this end,  such
activities will:

     continue the Regional Support Management Information System.

     conduct  ORD/Regional  Senior  Staff  Meetings  and  other  liaison  activities  to
     provide   technical   assistance.     These   will   include   preparing   reports,
     conducting  special  staff and  policy  studies,  developing  regional  technical
     assistance requirements.

     develop  and implement a process to address the research needs  of  state and
     local government in the ORD planning process.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The  resources reflected  under  the  1981 budget  estimate column  are  derived
from   "crosswalking"  the  program  structure   presented   in  the  1981  President's
Budget submission  to  the  new  structure  as presented  in  the  1981 current  estimate
reflected  in  this  submission.    The  details  of the  restructuring of  the  research
and  development program,  as   well  as  the  crosswalk  of resources   itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     The net increase of $4,400  results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly  after  the  1981  budget  estimate  was submitted,  President Carter
         transmitted  revisions   to  the  budget  (House  Document   96-29-lV,  these
         revisions  resulted  in   a  decrease  of  $7  million   to  EPA's   request  for
         Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $400.

     -   An increase of $4,400  results from the cost of the October  1980  pay  raise
         and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprogrammings  to  realign  salary  and  related  costs to   meet  on-board
         needs resulted in a transfer of $400 to this activity.

19J2crglan

     The  Agency requests a total of  $109,500  and  2  permanent workyears  for this
sub-program, of  which $103,400 is for the  Salaries and Expenses Appropriation  and
$6,100    is   for   extramural   purposes  under   the   Research   and   Development
Appropriation.

     This   reflects  a  decrease   of  $2,900   reflecting  a  diminished  need   for
technical information services.
                                              A-71

-------
      This  sub-program  will  continue  to provide the  same  types of  services  as  in
1981.    This  includes  the  development  and  production of   technical  information
products   to   insure   that   research  information   is   properly   and   adequately
communicated  to the environmental  decision  making  community.   Specific  products
planned  by the  Hazardous Air  Pollutants  Research  Committee will be  developed.
Support  to  manage  systems which track ORD's research projects and resources will
be provided. Regional liaison activities will be continued.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE


1980Accomplishments

      In  1980, the   Agency  used  a  total  of  $4,415,600 for  this  sub-program,  of
which $2,152,300  was for  Salaries and  Expenses  and  $2,263,300 was for  extramural
research activities.

      Analytical  methods  were developed  for  chlorinated  hydrocarbons,  non-methane
      hydrocarbons,  coke oven  emissions, cadmium, and NOx.    These hazardous  air
      pollutants  represented  the  highest  priorities  of  the  Office  of  Air  Quality
      Planning and Standards for promulgating regulations.

      The  repository  of  standard reference  samples  for  hazardous  air  pollutants
      was  increased  and  maintained  in order  to  maintain   high  quality pollutant
      measurements.

      As part  of  the  quality assurance program,  audits were  completed  as scheduled
      at Regional, State,  and local monitoring laboratories.

      Support  was  provided  for  the  mandatory  quality  assurance  operation in the
      EPA monitoring and support laboratories.

      A  mandatory  quality  assurance  program  was  established  to  provide technical
      guidance,  support  and   overview  to  assure  that  the  Agency   will  have
      environmental data of know quality that is appropriate for EPA needs.

      In  the  carbon  fiber  program,  field  samples  collected from  five  industrial
      types   were   characterized,  a   sampling   and   analysis   technique   (light
      microscopy)  was developed  as a reference procedure and a study was  initiated
      on  continuous  monitoring of carbon  fiber  emissions,   A survey  of available
      measurements   techniques  was  completed  and  four promising  techniques are
      being evaluated.

1981 Program

      In  1981, the  Agency has allocated a  total of  $4,126,700  to  this sub-program,
of which $1,837,800 is  for the Salaries and Expenses Appropriation  and  $2,288,900
is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

      Analytical   methods  for  asbestos  and  arsenic  being evaluated and modified
     for  field   use  in   regulation   surveillance  and  a  system  evaluated  for
      hazardous organic vapors using solid sorbents.

      The research  on  instrumentation  for continuous  monitoring  of  carbon  fiber
      emissions is being completed and  the results reported to the Federal  Carbon
      Fiber Research Program coordinated by the Office of Science and Technology.

     In  the  source  monitoring   area,  two  methods  are  being  standardized;  one
      method is  being evaluated  and validated.   Two  continuous  emission monitors
     are also being evaluated.
                                             A-72

-------
      Performance  audits  of laboratories  are  being  conducted  and  the  standards
      repository  for  ambient and stationary source  methods  is  being  maintained.
      Research  standard materials  are  being  developed  for  gaseous  toxic  organic
      compounds.   A standard reference material is being developed for  asbestos  in
      air  in  conjunction  with   the   National   Bureau   of   Standards.     Biological
      standards  containing  Hazardous  Air  Pollutants  are  also being  validated  and
      maintained.

      The mandatory  quality  assurance  program  is  continuing to  provide  technical
      guidance,  support  and  overview  to   assure   that  the  Agency  will  have
      environmental data  of  known  quality  that are  appropriate for  EPA  needs.
      Emphasis is on application of the  Agency-wide  program  to  contract and grant
      activities.
1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate
     The resources  reflected  under the  1981 budget estimate  column  are  derived
from   "crosswalking"  the   program  structure  presented  in  the  1981  President's
Budget submission  to the new structure as  presented in the  1981  current estimate
reflected in  this  submission.    The  details  of  the restructuring  of  the research
and  development program,  as  well as  the  crosswalk  of  resources  itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     The net decrease of $92,900 results from several actions, as follows:

     -  Shortly  after  the  1981  budget  estimate was  submitted,  President  Carter
         transmitted   revisions   to  the  buuget   (House  Document   96-294);   these
         revisions  resulted  in  a  decrease  of  $7   million  to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries and  Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $8,300.

     -  The Congress reduced agencywide  travel  costs  by  $850,000;  a  decrease of
         $1,000 was applied to this activity.

     -  The Congress  reduced  agencywide  consulting  services  by  $3.8  million; a
         decrease of $8,700 was applied to this activity.

     •-  An  increase of  $89,100  results  from  the  cost of  the October  1980 pay
         raise and is included in  a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -  Reprogrammings  to  realign  salary   and  related   costs  to  meet  on-board
         needs resulted in a transfer of $3,000 to this activity.

     -  Transfer $167,000   to  nonionizing  radiation/non-energy  ($82,700)  and  to
         solid waste  non-energy  ($84,300), to support  efforts  on  Love  Canal and
         Three Mile Island activities.

     -  Offsetting transfers of  $210,800 were made  between  this  activity and  air
         gases and particles/non-energy  in the  Salaries  and Expenses  and  Research
         and Development appropriations.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests  a  total  of  $3,699,500  and  35 permanent  work-years  for
this   sub-program,   of   which  $2,391,000    is   for   the   Salaries   and   Expenses
Appropriation and  $1,278,500  is  for  extramural  purposes  under the  Research and
Development Appropriation.

     This  reflects   a   decrease   of  $427,200  in  methods  development  work  for
measuring hazardous air pollutants.

     Two  methods   to  verify  exposure  estimates  for hazardous air pollutants will
     be evaluated and improved.

     A  report   will  be issued  on   the  evaluation  of  the provisional, method  for
     asbestos monitoring.
                                             A-73

-------
     In  the  stationary  sources  area   for  the  National  Emission  Standards  for
     Hazardous Air pollutants, two methods will be evaluated and one validated.

     A report will  be prepared on  the evaluation of a  continuous  emission  monitor
     for one  hazardous  air  pollutant designated by  the OAQPS and  the  Office  of
     Enforcement.

     In  the  area   of  Quality   Assurance,   a  report   will  be  prepared  on  the
     verification  of   standards   received  from  laboratories   who  are   collecting
     monitoring   data  in  support   of   Regional  and  local   monitoring   programs.
     Performance  audits  will  be   conducted  and   the standards  repository  for
     ambient  and stationary source methods will be maintained.

     Support  to  the  mandatory  quality  assurance  program  will  provide technical
     guidance,  support   and  overview  to  assure   that   the   Agency   will   have
     environmental data of known quality that are appropriate for the EPA needs,


HEALTH EFFECTS


1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the  Agency  used e  total of  $2,546,000 for  this  sub-program,  of
which  $386,900 was  for  Salaries  and Expenses  and  $2,159,100  was for  extramural
research activities.

     The  development  of  a  research  protocol  and computer  programs to  study
     variations  and   trends  in  U.S.  cancer  mortality   by  county,  race, and sex.
     Preliminary  data on cancer  mortality trends  among white males  also has been
     prepared.

     The    utility    of    using   intratrachael   injection   of   compounds    (was
     investigated)  as  a   means  of  predicting  inhalation  toxicity.    The   results
     which  are  very similiar to  those  seen  following  inhalation permit a  more
     rapid screening  of  chemicals to determine the  impact on  the defense system
     against infectious disease.

     Biochemical data on manganese toxicity in neonatal rats was  analyzed and  an
     increase  in manganese levels in brain tissue was shown.

     A  report   on   psychological-neuropsychological   function   in   children   with
     asymptomatic lead burden was  completed.     The lead burden  had a significant
     effect on brain waves and electrical-evoked brain potential.

     The   relationship  between   vapor   pressure  and  mutagenic  potential  in  the
     development of  techniques   needed  for  the  collection,  delivery  and bioassay
     of  volatile  organics  was  established.     The  relationship  between  analytical
     chemical  activity  and  biological  systems   will  help  direct future   testing
     and research approaches.

     An  analytical  method  for  detecting  nickel-63 in  the  urine  and feces  in
     studies  on absorption  and  distribution   of  nickel  in the  developing  rodent
     was  developed.   This method  was  tested  and  evaluated  and is  now ready for
     application to obtain pharmacokinetic data.

     An  organ   specific  bioassay    system   needed  to  screen  for   lung-specific
     carcinogens and mutagens was developed.  This  methodology is being expanded
     to  allow  the  detection of  other  organ-specific carcinogens  and modified  to
     utilize  human  cells  in  culture.   This  research will  enable selection  of  the
     most  appropriate  mammalian  and  human  cells   for  testing and   predictive
     purposes.
                                            A-74

-------
      A  pilot study in  which large samples of urban  air  participate were collected
      and  subsequently  chemically  fractionated  and   bioassayed   was  completed.
      Significant  mutagenic  and  potentially  carcinogenic  activity  was  observed  in
      several fractions.

1981  Program

      In  1981,  the Agency  has  allocated  a total of $3,537,700  to  this sub-program,
of  which $1,637,000  is for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation and  $1,900,700
is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

      A  system   employing  human lung  cells  to  determine  the  carcinogenic  and
      mutagenic effects of hazardous air pollutants is being developed.

      A  rodent  lung  cell  bioassay  to aid  in  identifying  and  separating  different
      lung  cell  types  and  for  determining  which  cells  metabolize   agents  into
      carcinogenic/mutagenic intermediates is being developed.

      Human exposure  assays  for carcinogenicity  and   mutagenicity using in  vitro
      and  cytogenic   bioassay  techniques  to' ascertain  whether  readily  available
      human   tissues   (urines,   blood,   saliva)  have   been  exposed  to  hazardous
      substances are being developed.

      Techniques  for  assaying  airborne  mutagens  to  enable   direct  comparisons  to
      (1) type of  air  borne  mutagen present in the  atmosphere,  (2) extent of human
      exposure,   and   (3)   associated  epidemiological   data    on   morbidity   and
      mortality are being developed.

      Fractions   of   urban  air   previously  shown   to   present   mutagenic   and
      carciogenic  activity   are  being  further  characterized   and   pure  compounds
      that  have  been  identified  in   active  fractions  are  being  tested  as   pure
      agents.

      The  immunological   effects  of  mice   acutely  exposed   via  inhalation   to
      selected hazardous chemicals  and metals are being assessed.

      An updated  cancer  mortality atlas  is being  further  refined.   Mortality  rates
      are being correlated with data from systematic sampling of air and water.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The resources reflected under  the  1981 budget  estimate  column  are derived
from   "crosswalking"  the   program  structure  presented  in   the  1981  President's
Budget submission to  the new  structure as presented  in the  1981  current estimate
reflected in  this submission.    The  details  of  the  restructuring  of  the research
and  development  program,  as  well  as the crosswalk  of  resources  itself,  can be
found in  the Special Analyses section of this submission.

      The net increase  of $139,800 results from several actions, as  follows:

      -  Shortly  after  the  1981  budget  estimate  was  submitted,  President  Carter
         transmitted   revisions   to  the  budget   (House  Document  96-294);  these
         revisions  resulted  in   a  decrease' of   $7  million  to   EPA's   request  for
         Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied  to this activity is $1,300.

      -  The Congress reduced  agencywide  travel costs by $850,000; a  decrease  of
         $1,400 was applied to this activity.

      -  The Congress  reduced agencywide  consulting  services   by $3.8  million;  a
         decrease of $30,600 was applied to  this activity.
                                               A-75

-------
     -   The  Congress  applied  a general  reduction  of $12,214,000 to  the Research
         and  Development  appropriation;  a  decrease  of  $232,000  was  applied  to
         this activity.

     -   The  Congress reduced ageneywide ADP services  by $2 million; a decrease  of
         $1,200 was applied to this activity.

     -   An  increase of  $49,600 results from  the  cost of  the October 1980 pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Transfer   $356,700  from  air-gases  and   particles/non-energy  to  realign
         funds between the  Hazardous Air  Pollutants  Research  Committee  and the
         Gases  and  Particles  Research   Committee  so  that  both  committees can
         accomplish their required research.

1982 Plan

     The Agency  requests  a total of  $  3,315,100  and  6  permanent  workyears for
this   sub-program,   of   which   $1,018,200  is   for  the   Salaries  and   Expenses
Appropriation and $  2,296,900  is  for extramural purposes under  the Research and
Development Appropriation.

     This reflects a decrease  of  $222,600 in  development of  bioassay  methods for
screening hazardous air pollutants.

     Methods tc  adapt in  vitro microbial and  mammalian cell  bioassays  needed  to
     detect  and characterize carcinogens  in the  ambient  air  and at  their  emission
     source will be developed.

     Efforts  to  develop  and validate  bioassays  and  screening  techniques that are
     needed  to  provide  suggestive  evidence  of   the  carcinogenicity  of  hazardous
     air pollutants  to  evaluate the  ability of  a  chemical to  induce chromosomal
     aberrations  which may  be  related to neoplastic  changes  will  be  continued.
     Five chemicals will be tested.

     Techniques   to   assess  pulmonary   carcinogenesis in  whole animals    will   be
     developed and validated.

     Methods   to    assess   the   carcinogenic    potential   of   volatile    airborne
     carcinogens will be developed.

     A  comprehensive  battery   of  tests to evaluate  the  non-carcinogenic  toxicity
     of  hazardous air  pollutants will continue to be developed.    The toxicity  of
     approximately 30 compounds  will be compiled  for  testing in whole animals via
     several possible routes of exposure of chemical administration.

     Epidemiological  research  will  on  selected  hazardous  air  pollutants  which
     are  currently  regulated   will  be   continued.    The  research  will  focus   on
     asbestos and beryllium.

     The  relationship  between  airborne cadmium  exposure   and   blood  pressure
     levels   in   populations  living   in   the  vicinity  of  industrial   sources   will
     continue  to  be  evaluated.    This  is  a  five  year  longitudinal  study which.
     through  use  of  an  increased  sample  size,  will  evaluate  the  possibility   of
     selective  survival   suggested   in   earlier   research.     The  results   will   be
     applied to risk assessments for airborne cadmium.
                                            A-76

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the Agency used  a total  of $797,200 for this  sub-program, of which
$210,900  was for Salaries and Expenses  and  $586,300  was  for  extramural  research
activities.

     An  assessment   of  atmospheric   emissions   from  petrochemical   production
     processes with  emphasis on fugitive  emissions  was completed.   These results
     provided   input   data   for   the   development  of   hazardous   air  pollutant
     standards.

     An  evaluation of  innovative storage  tank  seals  for  benzene was   completed.
     These  data  were used in the development of New Source  Performance Standards
     for storage tanks.

     The frequency  of   hydrocarbon fugitive emissions  such  as benzene  in  the
     organic  chemical  manufacturing industry was  determined.    This  data will be
     used in development and  review of hazardous air pollutant standards.

     Calibration   factors   of volatile  organic  compound  analyzer  equipment  for
     selected  organic  chemicals  were  determined.    These  data  will  be  used in
     development  and  review  of  hazardous   air  pollutant  standards  that  specify
     measurement techniques.

     A  preliminary  environmental  assessment  of   the submerged  are  ferroalloy
     furnace  was completed.    The  results  identified  this  source  as  a  major
     emitter of carcinogenic matter.

     An  environmental  assessment  for   coal preheaters  for  steel  manufacturing
     which  identified this • process  as  a  major source  of  carcinogenic  matter  was
     completed.

1981 Program

     In  1981,  the Agency has  allocated  a total of  $754,400 to  this sub-program.
Of  which $220,900 is for  the Salaries and Expenses  Appropriation and $533,500 is
for  the Research and Development Appropriation.

     The industrial  hazardous  air  pollution   control   program   is  closely   related
to  the  industrial oxidant  control  programs.   Several joint  projects  are supported
because  many hazardous  chemicals such  as  benzene  are  also  volatile  organical
chemicals.    Sources  of  industrial  emissions  and  control   technologies  for  both
oxidants and hazardous air pollutants are therefore often coincident.

     A  multi-year  assessment   of  the   ferrous   metallurgy   industry  is  being
     continued.   Sources planned  for  assessment  include   iron  foundry  melting,
     blast  furnace  top,  and electric   furnace  emissions.    Hazardous  discharges
     such as  heavy  metals  and  polycyclic1 organic  material  are  characterized  and
     methods of control suggested for further study and testing.

     An  assessment  of   the  ferroalloy  industry  is being  completed.    Plans  are
     being  developed  for  a   later  demonstration  project  to  control  hazardous air
     emissions.

     An evaluation of activated  carbon  adsorption  systems  is  being  undertaken to
     provide  a  fundamental  understanding  of  system performance, cost, size,  and
     maintenance  parameters.     This   knowledge   enables   designers   to   specify
     optimum  systems for  a  wide  range   of industrial applications  in   controlling
     hazardous air emissions.

     The capture efficiency of  hoods  is  being studied  in  industrial  applications
     that emit  hazardous air  pollutants.     Design parameters   such  as  air  flow
     rates,  energy  requirements,  and  capture  effectiveness are being  optimized
     in a variety  of specific applications.
                                           A-77

-------
      Emission  studies   utilizing   more   refined   sampling   methods   are  being
      conducted to  determine  the  fugitive  emissions of hazardous  compounds  from
      petrochemical  plants,  and   from  synthetic  organic   chemical  manufacturing
      plants.

      Secondary air  emissions  from  wood  processing  and  organic,  chemical  manu-
      facturing  wastewater  treatment  systems are  being characterized.   The  need
      for control of these emissions is being determined.

      Thermal   incineration    processes   will   be   studied   to   determine   the
      effectiveness  of  hazardous  air   emissions  control.    Methods  of   reducing
      costs  and energy requirements  will be sought  in the  project.    Undesirable
      effects  of incineration  such as  harmful  daughter-product  generation  will  be
      identified, and methods to  reduce these effects will be devised.

1981 ..Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The resources  reflected  under  the  1981 budget  estimate  column  are derived
from   "crosswalking"   the  program  structure  presented  in  the  1981  President's
Budget  submission  to the new  structure as presented  in  the 1981  current  estimate
reflected in  this  submission.    The  details  of  the restructuring  of  the   research
and  development  program,  as  well  as the  crosswalk  of  resources  itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

      The net decrease of $65,300 results from several actions, as follows:

      -   Shortly  after  the  1981  budget  estimate was submitted,  President Carter
         transmitted   revisions   to   the  budget   (House  Document   96-294);  these
         revisions   resulted  in   a  decrease  of  S7  million   to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $1,100.

      -   The  Congress  applied  a  general  reduction  of  $12,214,000  to  the  Research
         and Development  appropriation; a decrease  of $72,000  was  applied to  this
         activity.

         An increase  of $8,600 results from  the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
         and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

      -   Reprogrammings  to  realign  salary   and  related  costs  to  meet  on-board
         needs resulted in a transfer  of $800 from this activity.

1982 Plan

      The Agency  requests a  total of  $817,200 and  4  permanent workyears  for  this
sub-program,  of which  $232,600  is for  the  Salaries  and Expenses Appropriation  and
$584,600  is   for   extramural  purposes   under   the   Research  and  Development
Appropriation.

      This   reflects  an  increase   of   $62,800  for   developing  control  technologies
for emissions of volatile organic  compounds from industrial sources.

      Work  will  focus  on the  control  of polynuclear  organic  materials and  other
      hazardous air  pollutants  from   the  ferroalloy industry.    Control  of  these
      emissions  can   require  high   energy  Scrubbers.    For economical  operation,
      exit  gas  volumes  must   be  minimized  by  controlling  combustion   and  air
      induction.    A  field  demonstration  of  optimum  control   techniques  will  be
      undertaken to culminate assessment work that was begun in prior years.

-     Field  tests  of  catalytic  oxidation  techniques  will  be  conducted  at several
      industrial  sites.   Data that  is obtained will be  used  in the  development  of
      hazardous air  pollutant regulations.
                                             A-78

-------
      Afterburners   and  on-site  industrial  boilers  and  heaters  will  be  evaluated
      to determine the potential for hazardous air pollution control.

      A long-range  program will be initiated  to  predict  the  mechanism of formation
      of    potentially   hazardous   air   pollutants   in   chemical    manufacturing
      processes.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS


1980 Accomplishments

      In  1980,  the  Agency  used  a  total  of $1,472,100  for this sub-program,  of
which $278,700  was for  Salaries  and  Expenses and  $1,193,400  was  for  extramural
research activities.

      Research  results have  been  obtained  on  the  nature  of  the potential  carbon
      fiber  emissions  resulting  from  machining  and  incineration  of  graphite/epoxy
      composites.      These   results   will   be   used   to   assess   the   potential
      environmental  impacts   associated  with  the  increased  use  and  disposal  of
      materials containing carbon fibers.

      Urban and non-urban air quality  measurements have  been obtained for a large
      number  of halocarbons,  hydrocarbons  and nitrous   oxide.   These data  will  be
      useful  for estimating daily  doses for  use  in risk  assessment  determinations
      and  for estimating global distributions to help assess  the  impact of  some  of
      these compounds on  the stratospheric ozone layer.

1981 Program

      In 1981,  the  Agency has  allocated a total  of $1,436,400 to this sub-program,
of  which  $309,400  is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation and  $1,127,000
is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

      Carbon  fiber  emissions  are  being characterized  from a  variety  of services
      including  manufacturing  processing  and  disposal  facilities.   The  results  of
      this  program  will  be  used by   the  Office  of  Science  Technology  Policy  to
      assess  the potential  environmental  impacts  associated  with increased  usage
      and disposal of carbon  fibers.

      A report  will be prepared that  summarizes the precision and accuracy  of  the
      ambient air quality data  that has  been obtained  from  recent  field  investiga-
      tions  of  hazardous  air   pollutants.     Reports  will  be  used  to  assess  the
      quality  of data  currently available   on ambient  levels  of  these  important
      hazardous  air  pollutants  and  in  developing  effective  hazardous ambient  air
      measurement program plans.

      Studies  are  being  conducted  to  determine  the  lifetimes and  atmospheric
      degradation  products  of  selected  hazardous  air  pollutants,  such  as  halocar-
      bons.    The  results  of  this   work  will  be  used   to  assess  risk exposure  of
      hazardous   air  pollutants   and   to   identify   likely   atmospheric  degradation
      products that may be more toxic then the original form of the pollutant.

      Source   apportionment   models   are   being   developed  for  hazardous  air
      pollutants  such as  organic vapors  and aerosols.    These models  will  be  used
      to  determine  the  individual   source   contributions  of  selected   hazardous  air
      pollutant emissions to ambient air quality.


1981 Explanation of Change  from  Budget Estimate

      The  resources reflected under  the 1981 budget estimate column are  derived
from   "crosswalking"  the  program   structure presented  in  the  1981  .President's
Budget submission  to the new structure as presented in the 1981  current  estimate
                                        A-79

-------
reflected  in  this submission.   The  details  of  the  restructuring  of  the  research
and  development program, as  well as  the  crosswalk of  resources itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     The net increase of $129,600 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly  after  the 1981  budget  estimate  was  submitted, President  Carter
         transmitted  revisions  to  the budget  (House  Document  96-294);  these revi-
         sions  resulted  in a  decrease  of  $7  million  to  EPA's  request for  Salaries
         and Expenses. The reduction applied to this activity is $1,300.

     -   The Congress  reduced agencywide travel costs by  $850,000; a decrease  of
         $500 was applied to this activity.

     -   The  Congress  reduced  agencywide  consulting services  by  $3.8  million;  a
         decrease of $2,500 was applied to this activity.

     ••   The Congress  applied  a  general  reduction  of $12,214,000  to  the Research
         and Development appropriation;  a  decrease   of  $139,000  was  applied  to
         this activity.

     •-   An increase  of  $12,400   results from  the  cost of  the  October  1980 pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprogrammings   to  realign  salary  and  related costs   to  meet  on-board
         needs resulted in a transfer of $1,300 from other activities.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of  $1,558,900 and 6  permanent workyears  for this
sub-program, of  which  $399,400  is  for  the Salaries  and  Expenses Appropriation and
$1,159,500  is   for   extramural   purposes   under   the  Research  and  Development
Appropriation.

     This  reflects   an   increase   of   $122,500  in  work   on  characterization   of
hazardous pollutants in ambient air.

     Ambient  air characterization studies will be  conducted  from  a  selected list
     which currently   contains  thirty-six  (36)  hazardous   air  pollutants.    These
     Studies will be  used to  determine  the  real-time  atmospheric levels of  these
     hazardous  pollutants.   The  specific  design  and  locations of  the  measurement
     networks will be based on studies conducted in the 1981 program.

     Laboratory   studies   that  simulate   atmospheric  processes  will  be   used   to
     assess  the  potential    lifetimes   and   degradation   products '  of   selected
     hazardous   air   pollutants  including  a  number  of halocarbons.   The  specific
     list  of potential  hazardous  air  pollutants to  be  investigated  will  be  deter-
     mined by the  Office of  Air  Quality  Planning and Standards.   These  pollutants
     are  selected as  they become  candidates for  future  control  under  the  National
     Emissions  Standards  for  Hazardous  Air Pollutants  section  of  the  Clean Air
     Act.

     Studies to  develop source apportionment models  will continue.  The  work will
     focus on  the development of  models Applied to  organic  pollutants which exist
     in both aerosol and vapor form.
                                               A-80

-------
                                              AIR
                            Actual
                            J980

Appropriation
Technical Information
 and Liaison:
   Salaries and Expenses.      $65
   Research and
     Oevelopment.........

Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance:
   Salaries and Expenses.      722
   Research and
     Development.........      258

Health Effects:
   Salaries and Expenses.    2,839
   Research and
     Development.........    3,414

Environmental Processes
 and Effects:
   Salaries and Expenses.      513
   Research and
     Development.	      437

Total:
   Salaries and Expenses.    4,139
   Research and
     Development.........    4.109

Grand Total.	    8,248

Permanent Positions
Technical Information
 and Liaison.	        ?
Monitoring Syst°-ns and
 Quality Assurance	       12
Health Effects	       37
Environmental  Processes
 and Effects,	    	_JQ___

Total........	       61

Ful1-t ime Equ i valency
TechnicalInformation
 and Liaision.	       ?,
Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance.	      15
Health Effects	      51
Environmental  Processes
 and Effects	      15
   Mobile Sources Non-Energy

       Budget     Current
      Estimate   Estimate    Estimate
        1981*      1981        1982 .
          (dollars in thousands^
           $65

             3



           676

           825


          3,179

          2:,670



            544

            656
           $68

             3



           673

           176


         3,570

         3,856



           564

           406
           $66

             3



           907

           672


         2,173

           779



           630

         1,029
          4,464

          4,154
         4,875

         1,441
         3,826

         2,483
          8,618
             12
             34

             11
         9,316
            12
            12

            11
         5,309
            13
             9

            11
             59
Total,
84
16
52

13

83
            37
16
30

13

61
            35
 18
 20

JLL

 53
                                Increase •+
                                Decrease -
                              1982 vs. 1981
                -$2
               +234

               +496


             -1,397

             -3,077



               +116

               +623
             •1,049

             •1.958
             -3,007
                 +1
                 -3
                 -2
                                                +2
                                               -10
-8
                                               A-81

-------
Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $6,309,200 for 19872, a decrease of $3,007,000 from
1981.  Included in this total is $3,825,800 for Salaries and Expenses and $2,483,400 for
Research and Hevlopment, vrith a decrease of $1,049,400 and 31,95.7,600 respectively.

Program Description

     The program has been developed under the auspices of the Mobile Sources Air Pollution
Research Committee.  The disciplinary components (or sub-programs) of the program are
integrated into an overall research effort designed to produce outputs clearly focused on
Agency research needs in this subject area.

     The overall program assures and improves the accuracy of the data base necessary for
estimation of adverse effects on human health associated with airborne pollutants which
are associated with mobile sources (fuels, fuel additives, combustion products and
atmospheric transformation products derived therefrom).

     Improvements in accuracy are considered necessary for decisions on certification of
various vehicular models.  The program also provides EPA with a scientifically
defensible data base on vehicular emissions to support and evaluate mobile source standard
setting processes and abatement strategies.  Studies determine impacts of motor vehicle
advanced control systems and advanced power systems on both regul ated and important non-
regulated pollutant emissions.  The activities in this program also: determine human
exposure to ttoMle source pollutants by developing and applying monitoring equipment and
methodologies; determine mobile source contribution to ambient air quality by long-term
monitoring; develop methods to collect exhaust for chemical  analysis and mutagenic
testing; register fuel  and fuel additives in accordance with Section 211  of the Clean
Air Act; provide all necessary quality assurance for mobile source needs; and provide
fuels analysis for regional and enforcement needs.

     Activities and program proposals for each sub-program are presented individually
in the following material.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND LIAISON

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1930, the Agency used a total  of $65,000 for this sub-program, of which $.64,500
was for Salaries and Expenses and $500 was for extramural research activities.

     In 1980, the technical information program supported the preparation and publication
of the Research Outlook, the Research Highlights, technical  information plans and
guidance and other general documents of interest to the environmental  decision-making
community.  It also provided the Office of Research and Development (ORD) with
information systems necessary to effectively plan and manage its research projects and
resources.  Specific accomplishments in the area of mobile sources included the
publication and dissemination of a report on the diesel emissions  research program.

     The regional services staff provided for effective communications between ORD and
the regions.  Specifically, they:

     - Developed and implemented the Regional  Support Management Information System.

     - Carried out regional liaison activities to provide technical asistance.

     - Conducted GRD/regional  senior staff meetings.

     - Advised ORD on all aspects of regional  operations.
                                             A-82

-------
1981 Program
     In 1?81, the Agency has allocated a total of $71,800 to this sub-program, of which
$68,400 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and S3, 400 is for extramural
ourposes under the Research and Development appropriation.

     This part of the program is providing various research program and project
summaries, decision series documents, and technology transfer publications to meet
Research Co-nmittee requirements.  Technical information plans, listing the explicit
information products for this research effort have been prepared.  Throughout the year,
support will be provided to develop these information products and to distribute them
to the appropriate users.  Support is also being provided to manage information systems
which track ORD's research projects and resources,

     Regional liaison activities are continuing as in 1980.  To this end, such activities
will:
     - Continue the Regional Support Management Information System.

     - Conduct ORD/regional senior staff meeting a'nd other liaison activities to provide
technical assistance.  These will include preparing reports, conducting special staff and
policy studies, developing regional problem statements, and identifying research and
technical assistance requirements.

     - Develop and implement a process to address the research needs of State and local
government in the OPJD planning process.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The resources reflected under the 1931 budget estimate column are derived from
"crosswalking" the program structure presented in the 1981 'resident's Budget submission
to the new structure as presented in the 1981  current estimate reflected in this
submission.  The details of the restructuring of the research and development program,
as well as the crosswalk of resources itself, can be found in the Special Analyses
section of this submission.

     The net increase of $3,400 results from several  actions, ;s follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981  budget estimate was submitted. President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 95-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of
S7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses; the reduction applied to this
activity is $300.
                                                                           !      i
     - An increase of $3,400 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - ?eprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted
in a transfer of S300 from other activities.


1932 Plan

     The Agency requests a total  of $69,100 and 2 permanent workyears for this sub-program
of which 365,900 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and 53,400 is for extramural
purposes, under the Research and Development appropriation.

     This reflects a decrease of 52,500 which will slightly reduce the development and
dissemination of technical  information products.

     This sub- program will  continue, in 1°32, to provide the same types of services as in
1981.  This includes the development and production of technical  information products to
insure that research information is properly and adequately communicated to the environmental
decision-naking community.   Specific products planned by the appropriate Research Committee
will be developed.  Support to managing systems which track ORD's research projects and
resources will be provided  as will  strong liaison with regional  offices, of a similar nature
to that conducted in 1981.
                                          A-83

-------
MONITORINGSYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1980 Accomp11shments

     In 1980, the Agency used a total of $979,600 for this sub-program, of which $722,400
was for Salaries and Expenses and $257,200 was for extramural research activities.

     - A study on carbon monoxide intrusion into sustained-use vehicles (schoolbuses,
taxicabs, and police vehicles) mandated by the Clear Air Act amendments was completed.
The study identified major points of intrusion and developed recmmendations for abating
the problem.

     - Dilot studies measuring direct human exposure to carbon monoxide by using personal
air quality monitors were begun in preparation for a full-scale study in 1981.

     - The third annual report on the Los Angeles Freeway monitoring program, the only
continuous cross-exoressway monitoring program in the country, was completed.

     - Over 200 fuels and fuel additives were registered.

     - Analytical support was provided to enforcement and health effects programs.

1981  Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $849,300 to this sub-program, of which
$673,400 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $175,900 is for extramural
purposes under the Research and Development appropriation.

     - In the mobile sources area, emphasis is being placed on the determination of human
exposure to mobile source related pollutants, particularly carbon monoxide.  This exposure
program, made possible recently by advances in the technology of monitoring personal
exposure, will  provide much more detailed information on public exposure and therefore
will  allow more targeted and cost-effective abatement procedures.

     - The fuel  and fuel  additive registration program, mandated by Congress, will continue.

     - Analytical support to the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, the Mobile
Source Enforcement Division, and the Health Effects Research Laboratory in Research Triangle
Park  (RTF) will  also continue to be provided.  This support of chemical  analysis and  monitoring
can be supplied on a cost-effective basis by the in-house expertise of the Environmental
Monitoring and  Support Laboratory at RTP.

1981  Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The resources reflected under the 1981  budget estimate column are derived from "cross-
walking" the program structure presented in the 1981  President's Budgst  submission to the new
structure as presented in the 1981  current estimate reflected in this submission.  The details
of the restructuring of the research and development  program, as '.veil as the crosswalk of
resources itself, can be found in the Special  Analyses section of this submission.

     The net decrease of 5650,700 results from several  actions, as follow:

     -  Shortly  after the 1981  budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294);  these revisions resulted in a decrease of
57 million to E?A's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this
activity is $1,900.

     -  The Congress reduced agencywide travel  costs by $350,000; a decrease of S3,400 was
applied to this  activity.

     -  The Congress applied a general  reduction of $12,?14,000 to the P>esearch and Development
appropriation;  a decrease of $117,000 was applied to  this activity.

     -  An increase of $32,100 results from the cost of the October 1930  pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.
                                          A-84

-------
     - ^programmings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted in
a transfer of $300 from other activities.

     - Transfer $7,200 from air gases and particles(GAP)/non-energy, to support GAP-related
research.

     - Transfer $568,000 to air mobile sources/non-energy, to realign contract funds.

1932 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $1,579,400 and 13 permanent workyears for this sub-program,
of which $907,000 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $672,400 is for extra-
mural purposes under the Research and Development appropriation, an increase of $234,000 and
$496,000 respectively.


     This increase reflects a shift in responsibility for planning and conducting full-
scale carbon monoxide exposure assessment studies.  These studies are based on the
successful completion of pilot studies in 1980-1981.

     - The carbon monoxide exposure assessment program will  continue and will emphasize
the identification of human activity patterns in selected urban areas.

     - Fuel  and fuel  additive registration will continue.

     - Chemical  analytical  support will  continue to be provided to Agency laboratories and
regional  and program offices

HEALTH EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

     In 19SO, the Agency used a total  of $6,253,500 for this sub-program, of which $2,338,500
was for Salaries and Expenses and 53,415,000 was for extramural research activities.

     - A report was published on the tumorogenesis of diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust and
related emission extracts based on dermal  exposure of the SENCAR (SENsltive to CARclnoma)
mouse.  The study concludes that the SENCAR mouse skin bioassay has utility for comparative
potency analysis using both pure substances and complex mixtures.

     - The results of a study on the release of mutagens from diesel particles when' in the
presence of physiological fluids (serum and lung cytosol) was published.  The studies suggest
that substantial  mutagenic  activity (as measured with the Ames Salmonelaa typhiinurium plate
incorporation assay)  is released from diesel particles upon  incubation with physiological
fluids.

     - An evaluation of a comparison between the microbial  mutagencity effects present after
exposure to emissions of light-duty diesel passenger cars and gasoline catalyst cars was
completed.  The organics in the emissions from both sources  stimulated responses in the assay.
The biological  activity stimulated by the emissions from the diesel system was estimated to be
40-100 times that for the gasoline cat^yst system, presumably due to the higher particle
emission rate of the diesel.

     - Preliminary analysis of the comparative responses of  the matrix of short-term bioassays
to the test materials (diesel  exhaust extracts and surrogates) suggests that :he .response to
diesel  samples  generally fall  within the range of responses  to the surrogates (cigarette smoke
condensate,  roofing tar soot and extract,  coke oven soot and extract).  The results also
suggest that a  large portion of the mutagenic activity from  diesel  samples was due to
nitrogenated compounds.

     - A series of experiments focusing  on inhalation of diesel exhaust to determine its effects
son Tiutagenicity, reproductive performance of females, and teratology ./ere completed.  Mutagenic
and terotogenic effects were negative in the test animals which included mice, rats and rabbits
but small  effects on reproductive performance of female mice were observed.
                                           A-85

-------
     - An international symposium on the health effects of diesels was held.  Researchers from-
England, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Japan and the United States presented their most recent data
on the characterization of diesel engine emissions and the biological  responses of exposure
to whole diesel exhaust and its components.  Controversy over the appropriate method to
interpret the available data still exists.

1931 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $7,425,900 to this sub-program, of which
53,569,900 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and S3.,856,000 is for extramural
purposes under the Research and Development apppropriation.

     The program continues to emphasize the evaluation -of comparative  responses of the matrix
of bioassay test systems (both in vitro and in vivo) to diesel  exhausts from a variety of
vehicles and a series of surrogates.  Present emphasis is on the completion of the in vivo
bioassay studies for cancer which have required lapse times of several  years.  Impacts upon
cardiovascular, neurobehavioral, reproductive and pulmonary function that may be induced by
exposures to carbon monoxide are also being evaluated using both human health studies
(epidemiological and clinical) and whole animal studies.  The studies  conducted in this sub-
program are considered necessary to improve the quantitative estimate  of the potential  health
risks associated with agents emitted from diesel  systems.  Additionally, the program is
continuing the development and application of in vitro and in vivo bioassay systems for use
in evaluation of fuel, fuel additives, unregulated mobile source emissions and evaluation of
the biological activity of gas phase hydrocarbons and of ambient air impacted by mobile source
emissions.  More specific tasks include:

     - Continuation of the study on induction of respiratory cancer in Syrian golden hamsters
using intratracheal  instillation of test materials (surrogates and diesel  emissions).

     - Continuation of the evaluation of the relative potentcy of test materials to produce
skin cancer using dermal exposure of the SENCAR mouse.

     - Completion of the study on rate of tumor induction in strain A  mice associated with
inhalation of diesel  exhaust.

1981  Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The resources reflected under the 1981  budget estimate column are derived from "cross-
walking" the program structure presented in the 1981  President's Budget submission to the
new structure as presented in the 1981 current estimate reflected in this  submission.  The
details of the restructuring of the research and  development program,  as well as the cross-
walk of resources itself, can be found in the Special Analyses section of  this submission.

     The net increase of $1,576,600 results from several  actions, as fallows:

     - Shortly after the 1981  budget estimate was submitted, "resident  Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294);  these revisions resulted  in a decrease of
$7 million of EPA's request for Salaries  and Expenses.  The reduction  applied to this
activity is $10,300.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel  costs by $850,000; a decrease of $4,100 was
applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease  of
$77,000 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a  general  reduction of $12,214,000 to the  Research and Development
appropriation; a decrease of $290,000 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywirte AOP services by $2 million; a decrease of $3,700 was
applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $35,000  results from the cost of the October 1930 pay raise and is
inclu-lei in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.
                                          A-86

-------
     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-bqard needs resulted
in a transfer of $1,000 to other activities.

     - Transfer of 5767,700 from air mobile sources/non-energy, to realign contract funds.

     - Transfer of $1,110,000 from air-oxidants/non-energy, in order to consolidate all
carbon monoxide research activities under the Mobile Sources Research Committee.

1982_P1jn

     The Agency requests a total of $2,951,800 and 9 permanent workyears for this sub-program,
of which 52,172,700 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and 5779,100 is for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development appropriation.  This reflects a
decrease of 51,397,000 and $3,077,000 respectively.  The decrease reflects the phasing-down
of inhalation studies of the effects of diesel particles.

     The 1Q32 program will consist of (1) human health studies (clinical and epidemiological)
of the effects of long-term low level exposures .to carbon monoxide which were initiated in
1931 in response to program office information needs; (2) continuation of the 1980 biological
studies of the comparative carcinogenic potency of diesel exhaust and several surrogates
utilizing ^invivo test systems (intratracheal instillation in hamsters and skin painting
of mice); and |3) continued development and application of_in vivo and In vitro bioassay
test systems which have higher sensitivity and lower cost for"u"se~in evaluation of fuel and
fuel additives, nonregulated emissions from mobile sources and the biological activity
induced by automotive exhaust products in ambient air.

ENVIRONMENTAL,PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980, the Agency used a total of $949,700 for this sub-program, of which 5513,100
was for Salaries and Expenses and 5436,600 was for extramural research activities.

     - Emission factors were determined for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds emitted
from passenger vehicles.  This information will  be useful in providing risk assessments of
the potentially harmful pollutants*

     - An interm report was completed on the characterization of heavy-duty diesel emissions
under the transient (varying speed) driving condition*  This report will summarize
information on the mutagenic components of diesel  emissions.

     - Over 200 grams of diesel  particulate matter were generated, for use in developing a
tier bioassay protocol.  Once developed, the tier bioassay protocol  will be used to assess the
potential  health impact of automotive emissions.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $969,200 to this sub-program, of which
$563,500 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $405,700 is for extramural
purposes under the Research and  Development appropriation.

     - Research is being conducted to define the character of heavy-duty diesel  engine
emissions.  Particular emphasis  has been placed  on those emissions which exhibit biological
activity.   Emissions from in-use gasolines powered vehicles are also being analyzed for
their chemical  composition and biologic activity.

     - A methodology is being developed to collect the gas phase emissions from both
gasoline and diesel  engines that have not been previously characterized in order to
identify possible biologic activity.

     - Subject to fuel  availability,  emission data will  be collected from a small  number
of diesel  and gasoline vehicles  operating on synthetic fuels.   The relationship between
fuel  and emission compositions will  be defined to  the extent possible..

     - Using 3-way catalyst equipped passenger cars, tests will  be conducted to measure the
sensitivity of emissions to variations in speed, load, and acceleration/deceleration rates.
                                          A-87

-------
1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The resources reflected under the 1981 budget estimate column are derived from
"crosswal king" the program structure presented in the 1981 President's Budget submission
to the new structure as presented in the 1931 current estimate reflected in this submission.
The details of the restructuring of the research and development program, as well as the
crosswalk of resources itself, can be found in the Special Analyses section of this
submission.

     The net decrease of $230,800 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of
$7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this
activity is $2,300.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by 5850,000; a decrease of $500 was
applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease of
$500 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general  reduction of $12,214,000 to the Research and
Development appropriation; a decrease of $50,000 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $25,700 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogramminns to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted
in a transfer of 52,300 from other activities.

     - Transfer 5200,000 to air mobile sources/non-energy ($199,700) and to nonionizing
radiation/non-energy ($300), in order to realign contract funds.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total  of $1,708,700 and 11 permanent workyears for this sub-
program, of which $1,028,500 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and 3680,200
is for extramural  purposes under the Research and Development appropriation.  This reflects
an increase of $116,000 and $623,000 respectively.

     Thfs increase allows for additional  characterization work which will focus on emissions
from heavy-duty diesel  vehicles and vehicles powered by synthetic fuels.

     - Diesel  emission characterization studies will continue to emphasize the identification
of the mutagenic component.  While both light and heavy-duty diesel  vehicles will be studied,
the major focus will  be placed on heavy-duty vehicles.

     - Emission data will continue to be collected from diesel  and gasoline vehicles operating
on synthetic fuels.  The emission data will  be characterized chemically, physically, 3nd
biologically.  The collection of specific fuels to be tested will be identified and prioritized
by the regulatory and enforcement offices of EPA. .

     - As new technologies are used to control  motor vehicle emission, tests will be conducted
to determine their impact on environmentally important unregulated pollutant emissions.  These
tests will  be conducted under potentially important non-FTP conditions with variations in
speed, load and acceleration/deceleration rates.  The pollutants rneasured in this program
include compounds such as hydrogen sulfide,  sulfuric acid, hydrogen cyanide, organic acids,
and nitrates.

     - Validation studies will  evaluate existing models that predict population exposures
to 'notor vehicle emissions.  The field data  used for the validation effort will  be obtained
from existing data bases.
                                            A-88

-------
                                             AIR
                                Gases and Particles Non-Energy



Appropriation
Scientific Assessment:
Salaries and Expenses
Research and
Development.......
Technical Information
and Liaison:
Salaries and Expenses
Research and
Development 	
Monitoring Systems and
Quality Assurance
Salaries and Expenses
Research and
Development 	
Health Effects:
Salaries and Expenses
Research and
Development.....
Environmental Engineering
and Technology
Salaries and Expenses
Research and
Development 	
Environmental Processes
and Effects:
Salaries and Expenses
Research and
Development.....
Total:
Salaries and Expenses
Research and
Development 	

Actual
1980


235

114


436

4


3,634

5,264

6,410

4,898


225

630


2,361

7,546

13,301

18,456
Budget
Estimate
1981*


221

172


426

27


3,592

5,416

6,155

6,907


228

651
;

2,557

7,768

13,179

20,941 ,
Current
Estimate
1981


248

172


396

27


3,980

4,552

4.855

7,044


232

586


2,446

6,991

12,157

19,372

' Estimate
1982


216

179


432

27


4,518

4,285

5,900

6,340


243

623


2,922

6.984

14,231

13,438
Increase +
Decrease -
• 1982 vs. 1981


-32

+7


+36

...


+538

-267

+1,045

-704


+11

+37


+476

-7

+2,074

-934
Grand Total
31,757    34,120
31,529
32,669
+1,140
                                             A-89

-------
                                         Budget       Current                     Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate     Estimate      Estimate      Decrease -
                                1980       1981*        1981           1982         1982  vs. 1981
Permanent Positions
Scientific Assessments-
Technical Information
 and Liaison	
Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance.	
Health Effects...	
Environmental Engineering
 and Technology	
Environmental Processes
 and Effects	
Total

Full-time Equivalency
Scientific Assessments...
Technical Information
 and Liaison	
Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance	
Health Effects
Environmental Engineering
 and Technology	
Environmental Processes
 and Effects.	
Total
4
6
72
90
4
37
213
6
9
80
107
7
43
252
4
6
71
89
4
41
215
8
10
78
101
7
52
256
4
6
68
54
4
35
171
8
10
76
66
7
41
208
5
6
70
71
4
39
195 '
7
10
77
83
7
50
234
+1
, —
+2
+17
..,
+4
+24
-1
• * «
+1
+17
» * *
+9
+26
'January  1980  President's  Budget  as  adjusted  by  the  Office  of  Research  and
Development restructuring.

Budget Request

     The  Agency  requests  a  total  of  $32,669,200   for  1982,  an  increase  of
$1,139,900  from  1981.    Included  in  this  total is  $14,231,400  for  Salaries  and
Expenses  and  $18,437,800  for  Research  and  Development,  with  an  increase  of
$2,074,200 and a decrease of $934,300 respectively.


Program Description

     This  program   has  been  developed  under  the  auspices  of  the  Gases  and
Particles Research Committee.   The disciplinary components  (or  sub-programs)  of
the  program  are integrated  into an  overall  research effort  designed  to produce
outputs clearly focused on Agency research needs in this subject area.
                                           A-90

-------
     The  overall  program  provides  scientific  data   on   health   effects   from
exposure  to  airborne sulfur dioxide,  particulate  matter,  and  lead to  comply  with
Section  108  and  109 of the  Clean Air  Act.   The  Clean Air  Act requires that the
criteria  and  standards  be  reviewed  and, if  necessary,  revised  every  five years;
therefore,  continually  updated  information  regarding  health  effects  is  needed  to
support  maintenance or  revision  of  the  criteria  and  standards.   In  obtaining  such
information,  the  program  provides  regulatory  decision  makers  with the  assessment
and  prognostication  of  the  environmental  effects  of  S02,   lead,  and  particles.
This  includes  modeling  and  prediction  of  ambient  concentrations   of  pollutants,
assessment   of   ecological   and   material    damage   of   such   pollutants,   and
determination  of  visibility impairment  of fine  particles.   The  program  develops
and   demonstrates  pollution   control   technologies   capable   of   reducing   or
eliminating   gaseous  and   particulate  pollutant   emissions  from  industrial   point
sources  and  provides  technical   and  cost   data  bases  that  support   regulatory
standards  for   direct   application  by   industry  in   solving  pollution   problems.
Chemical/physical  measurement  methods  are  developed  and  evaluated,  while  the
program   also  provides  quality  assurance  support.     In   addition,   this  program
supports  the  design  and  operation of  research  monitoring  systems  and  networks,
and development and testing of exposure assessment methodologies.

SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT


1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the Agency  used  a total of $349,600 for this sub-program, of which
$235,400  was for  Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $114,200  was  for extramural research
activities.

     A  draft particulate  matter/sulfur  oxides  criteria document  was  completed as
     required by Section 108 of the Clean Air Act.

1,981 Program

     In  1981,  the Agency  has  allocated a  total  of  $420,200  to  this  sub-orogram,
of which $248,100 is for  the  Salaries  and Expenses  Appropriation and  $172,100 is
for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     A  SOx/particulate  criteria  document  drafted  in  1980  as required by  Section
     108 of  the Clean Air Act is being completed.  The criteria  document  on  lead
     will be updated  as  required by  the Clean Air  Act  with  peer and  Sceince
     Advisory Board reviews to be completed in 1982.


     A  draft  issue  paper  is   being  completed  on  fibrous   particles  which   will
     identify scientific  issues  needing  resolution prior to  the development   of  a
     more in-depth  health assessment  as required under  Sections 112 and  122  of
     the Clean Air Act.

1981 Explanation of Change  from  Budget Estimate

     The resources  reflected under  the  1981  budget  estimate column are  derived
from   "crosswalking"  the  program  structure   presented   in   the   1981  President's
Budget submission to the new structure as presented  in  the 1981  current estimate
reflected in  this  submission.    The  details  of  the  restructuring  of   the  research
and  development  program,  as  well  as  the  crosswalk  of  resources itself,  can  be
found in  the Special Analyses section of this submission.
                                          A.-91

-------
     The net increase of $26,800 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly  after  the  1981  budget estimate  was  submitted,  President Carter
         transmitted  revisions   to  the   budget  (House  Document  96-294);   these
         revisions  resulted  in   a  decrease   of  $7   million  to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $1,200.

     -   An  increase  of $10,000  results from  the  cost of  the October  1980 pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprogrammings  to  realign  contract   funds  resulted  in  transfers  from
         pesticides  scientific   assessments   ($17,900)    and   from  air   scientific
         assessment ($400).

1982 Plan

     The  Agency  requests  a  total of $395,300  for   this  sub-program,  of  which
$216,300  is   for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses   Appropriation  and  $179,000  is  for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     This  reflects a decrease  of $24,900 stemming from  the  completion  of  the
SOx/Particulate Matter Criteria Document.

     An update  of the Lead Criteria  Document  as  required by  Section 108 of  the
     Clean Air Act will be completed.

     An issue paper begun in FY 1981 on fibrous particles will be completed.


TEgHNICAMNF^RJUTION AN_D LIAISON

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the Agency  used  a total of $439,800  for this sub-program, of which
$435,600 was  for  Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $4,200 was  for  extramural  research
activities.

     In  1980,  the Technical Information Program supported  the preparation of  the
Research Outlook, Research Highlights, technical information  plans  and  guidance,
and  other  general documents  of interest  to  the  environmental  decision  making
community.  It provided information  systems  which ORD needed  to effectively plan
and  manage  its  research  projects and  resources.  Specific accomplishments in  the
area  of  gases  and  particulates  included   the  publication  and  dissemination  of
reports on:

     -   Diffusion,   Modeling  and   Statistical   Techniques   used   in  Regulatory
         Decision  Making.

     -   High Efficiency Control System.

     -   Inhalable  Particulates  Studies  and   Sampler  Evaluation  and  Sampling
         Techniques.

     -   Sodium Condition for hit side electrostatic precipitators.

     -Dual Alkali Demonstration at Louisville Gas and Electric Company.

     -Fugitive Emission Research Study.
                                              A-92

-------
     The  Regional  Services  Staff  was  responsible  for  effective  communications
between ORD and  the regions.    The Technical  Information  and  Liaison  activities
helped  enable  ORD  to  communicate  its  research information  to  EPA's regional
offices   and   to  the  environmental  decision  making  community.  •  Further,  they
assisted  in  making  better  coordination  between  ORD  and  the  regions  possible,
allovring each to meet the needs of "the Agency and the public more efficiently.

1981 Program

     In  1981, the Agency  has  allocated  a  total  of  $423,200  to  this  sub-program,
of  which $396,200  is  for the Salaries and  Expenses  Appropriation  and  $27,000  is
for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     This  part  of the  program  is providing various  research program and  project
summaries,   decision  series  documents,  and  technology  transfer   pulications  to
meet  Research  Committee  requirements.    Technical  Information  Plans, listing  the
explicit  information  for  this  research effort  have been prepared  throughout  the
year.    Support  will  be  provided to  develop  these   information  products  and  to
distribute  them  to  the  appropriate  users.    Support  is  also being  provided  to
manage information systems which track ORD's research projects and resources.

     Regional liaison  activities   are   continuing  as in  1980.    To  this  end,  such
activities will:

     Continue the Regional Support Management Information System.

     Develop and  implement  a process to  address the research needs  of  state and
     local government in the ORD planning process.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The resources reflected  under  the 1981  budget  estimate column are  derived
from  "crosswalking"  the  program  structure   presented  in  the   1981  President's
Budget  submission  to  the new structure  as   presented  in  the  1981  current estimate
reflected in  this  submission.   The  details  of the  restructuring  of   the  research
and development  program,  as well  as the  crosswalk of  resources  itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     -   The net increase of $30,300 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly  after  the  1981   budget estimate  was  submitted,  President  Carter
         transmitted  revisions to  the  budget  (House   Document  96-294);   these
         revisions  resulted  in a   decrease   of   $7  million  to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $1,300.

     -   The  Congress  reduced agencywide  SES  bonuses  by $750,000; a decrease  of
         $3,800 was applied to this activity.

     -   The  Congress  reduced  agencywide   consulting services  by  $3.8  million! a
         decrease of $36,800 was applied to this activity.

     -   An  increase  of  $15,400  results  from  the cost  of  the  October  1980 pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   A transfer  of $3,300  was made to  the radiation media in order  to  support
         the Radiation Policy Council.
                                               A-93

-------
1982 Plan

     The  Agency  requests  a total  of  $459,400  for  this  sub-program,  of  which
$432,400  is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation  and '$27,000  is   for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     This   reflects   an  increase   of  $36,200  which   will  slightly  increase   the
Technical  Informations^  program's  ability   to  prepare  and disseminate  technical
information  products  to the  Research  Committee, Congress,  and  the   public.    It
will,  also  slightly   increase  the  Regional  Services   Staff's  Capacity   for  liaison
activities.

     This  sub-program   will  continue,  in  1982,   to   provide  the  same  types  of
services  as  in  1981.   This  includes  the  development and  production of  technical
information   products   to   insure  that  research  -information   -is   properly   and
adequately   communicated   to  the  environmental   decision  making   community.
Specific   products   planned   by   the  appropriate'  Research  Committee  will  be
developed.   Support  to  managing  systems which track ORB'S research projects and
resources  will  be  provided  as   will  strong  liaison  with  Regional  offices,   of a
similar nature to that conducted in 1981.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the  Agency  used a total of  $897,700  for this sub-program,  of  which
$3,634,200  was  for  Salaries  and  Expenses  and  $5,263,500  was  for  extramural
research activities.

     New  stations  were added to the inhalable participate  network for a total of
     138 stations.    Additional  instruments  were sited  at all  stations  to   allow
     for  increased  analysis  of   mass,   size,,  and  chemical  composition.    This
     information  is  needed  for   establishment  and   revision   of   standards   for
     participate matter.

     Quality  assurance  guidelines and  audits  were provided for the  National  Air
     Monitoring Sites  (NAMS)  and  the   State  and   Local  Air  Monitoring   Sites
     (SLAMS).

     A  new  massive  air   sampler  capable  of  collecting  very   large  amounts  of
     atmospheric  particles  for  later  chemical  analysis  and bioassay  (e.g.   Ames
     test) was developed.

     Systems   for   determining    the  chemical   composition   of   fine  particles
     collected  by   dichotomous   samplers   were   tested   and   applied   to   field
     monitoring studies.

1981 Program

     In  1981,  the  Agency  has allocated a  total  of $8,532,100 to this sub-program.
of which $3,980,300  is  for the Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation and $4,551,800
is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     The  inhalable  particulate  (IP)  network,  mandated  by  the  Clean  Air  Act
     Amendments of  1977,  is being expanded  to a total  of 180 stations  by the end
     of 1981.

     Measurement  methods for fine  particle  emissions from stationary sources  are
     being  improved.   Better  methods  will  provide   more  detailed  knowledge  of
     emissions and more effective abatement techniques.
                                              A-94

-------
      Quality  Assurance  procedures,  including  performance  audits  of IP  network
      stations  and  State  and  Local  Air  Monitoring  Stations,  maintenance   of  a
      repository  of  reference  samples  and  materials,  publication  of  new  methods
      and   quality   assurance   guidelines,   verification   of    certified   reference
      materials,  and   the   implementation   of   the  Agency's   Mandatory   Quality
      Assurance Program, are being performed on a continuing basis.

      Chemical  analysis  of  trace  metals  and statistical analysis  of  trends at  the
      national  air  monitoring  sites  is   continuing.    These  analyses  are  essential
      to  determine  the  actual  effect  of  the  Agency's  policies  on  the national  air
      quality.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The resources reflected  under the  1981 budget estimate  column are  derived
from   "crosswalking"   the   program  structure  presented  in  the  1981   President's
Budget submission  to  the  new  structure as  presented in the  1981 current  estimate
reflected in  this  submission.    The  details  of  the restructuring of  the  research
and  development program, as  well as  the   crosswalk  of  resources  itself, can  be
found in  the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     -   The net decrease of $476,100 results from  several actions, as follows:

      -   Shortly  after  the 1981  budget  estimate  was  submitted,  President Carter
         transmitted   revisions  to  the  budget   (House  Document  96-294);   these
         revisions resulted in  a  decrease   of   $7   million  to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries  and   Expenses.    The  reduction  applied  to   this  activity   is
         $15,000.

     *   The Congress reduced  agencywide travel costs  by  $850,000;  a decrease of
         $7,100 was applied to this activity.

     -   The  Congress  reduced  agencywide  consulting  services  by  $3.8  million;  a
         decrease of $17,400 was applied to this activity.

     -   The  Congress   reduced agencywide  Senior  Executive  Service bonuses  by
         $750,000; a decrease of $9,600 was applied to this activity.

     -   The Congress  reduced agencywide  ADP services  by $2 million;  a decrease of
         $7,800 was applied to this activity.

     -   An  increase  of  $158,600  results  from  the  cost  of the  October  1980  pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprogrammings  to  realign  salary  and  related   costs  to  meet  on-board
         needs resulted in a transfer of $43,700 from other activities.

     •*•   Transfer   $395,000  to   monitoring   and   quality   assurance/uncontrolled
         hazardous waste sites to support Love Canal efforts.

     -   A  transfer  of  $8,800 was  made to  the  radiation  media  in order  to support
         the Radiation Policy Council.

     -   Transfer within the  Office of  Research  and Development to  support GAP
         related  research   resulted   in   a  transfer  to  air  oxidants   non-enersry
         ($102,300);  to  air  hazsardous   pollutants  non-energy   $800;   and  to  air
         mobile sources non-energy ($7,200).

     -   Transfer 520,000   to  program  management in  order  to  support  public
         awareness and industrial hygienist positions at Research Triangle Park.
                                                 A-95

-------
1982 Plan

     The Agency requests  a total  of $8,802,100 and  70  permanent  workyears for
this   sub-program,   of   which   $4,517,800   is   for   the  Salaries   and   Expenses
Appropriation and $4,284,300 is  for  extramural purposes  under the  Research  and
Development Appropriation.

     This  reflects   an  increase  of   $270,000  to  allow  for  expansion  of  the
inhalable particulate sampling- network.

     Air  measurements will continue  to  be developed,  evaluated and  optimized and
     measurement  systems  for   criteria   and   non-criteria   pollutants   tested,
     evaluated,  and  demonstrated.   EPA monitoring methods  will be  standardized;
     alternative   methods   will   be   evaluated  and   certified  as   equivalent  to
     Federal  Register  methods  upon  passing  prescribed  performance  standards.
     Standards  and   reference   materials   will  continue  to  be  maintained   and
     supplied  to  laboratories  on  request.    Performance   audits   of   requesting
     laboratories  will continue   to  be  supplied  for  criteria  pollutants  and  for
     sulfates  and nitrates.    Special audits  (unanticipated)  will  also be  carried
     out.     Performance   specifications   will  be    developed   and   tested   for
     continuous emission monitors (CEM) used  by the  Enforcement Office.  Support
     will continue to  be  provided for  the Mew  Source Performance  Standards (NSPS)
     Program mandated by the Clean Air Act,

     Quality  Assurance   (QA)  guidelines,   audits,  reference  samples,  and  other
     support  will  continue  to  be   provided  to  organizations   monitoring  air
     pollution  sources and  ambient  air  quality, including  the  new  National  Air
     Monitoring  System/State  and  Local   Air  Monitoring  System   (NAMS/SLAMS)
     network mandated by the 1977 Clean  Air  Act Amendments.  Volumes II and III
     of  the  QA  Handbook will  be augmented,  updated,  and  distributed   to  users.
     Performance audits  and other QA will  be  supplied for OEMs.  QA will also be
     supplied for' the  Office  of  Air   Quality  Planning  and  Standards  (OAQPS)
     studies   and  EPA  research laboratories  involving   air  measurements.    The
     Agency's   mandatory   Quality    Assurance   Program   established   by   the
     Administrator will continue to be implemented.

     The inhalable  particulate  (IP) network will  operate 180 stations  throughout
     1982.   Twenty  additional stations will be  added  during  the year.  The  mass,
     size,  and  chemical  compostion   of participates  will  be  measured  at  each
     station, as requested by OAQPS.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the  Agency used  a total of  $11,307,800   for  this sub-program,  of
which  $6,409,700  was for Salaries and Expenses and  $4,898,100 was  for  extramural
research activities.
                                             A-96

-------
      The  first   phase  of   study   to  define  the  decrements  in  lung  function
      associated    with    exercise,   increased   temperature,    and   dosage    with
      bronchoconstrictor  drugs   was   completed.     This   study  provided  baseline
      health  data  and  defined  the worst  case  situation  for   unexposed  subjects.
      The  data  will  be used in  a Phase  n  project  which  has been  initiated  to
      study  the  acute  health effects  in  humans with  repeated   exposure  to various
      pollutants  and  experiencing   physical   activity  and  thermal  stress.    The
      pollutants  of interest  include sulfuric  acid,  ammonium   bisulfate,  ammonium
      sulfate,  and  ammonium  nitrate,  alone  and  in  combination  with ozone,  sulfur
      dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.

      Acute and  intermittent  exposures of normal and impaired animals to ammonium
      sulfate,   a  fine-mode  pollutant,  were  completed.    Results  from  this  study
      will  provide  toxicological  data  relevant  to  determining  the  need  for  a size
      resolved standard for inhalable participate matter.'

      Acute and  intermittent  exposures of mice and  hamsters to  ammonium sulfate,
      ammonium  bisulfate,  and  ammonium nitrate  to provide  data  on dose-response
      relationships  for   effects   on  host  defense   mechanisms  against   infectious
      respiratory  disease were completed.

      The  first  phase  of  a  problem  definition study  which,  in conjunction with  a
      panel  of experts,  will  serve   as  the  foundation  for  planning  epidemiological
      studies  on   inhalable  particulates   was   completed.    This project  identified
      problem  areas in  current  knowledge and  needed  research,   and determined  the
      types  of   studies   which  offer  a   high   probability  of  success if  conducted.
      Such planning studies  with input from  experts in  the field help  ensure that
      research efforts provide valuable data for the Agency.


1981 Program

      In  1981,   the  Agency  has  allocated  a  total  of  $11,898,800  to  this  sub-
program,  of which $4,854,500  is for  the Salaries and Expenses Appropriation and
$7,044,300 is  for  extramural purposes under the  Research  and  Development Appro-
priation.

      Studies  are  being initiated to  determine  the  subchronie  and chronic  inha-
      lation toxicity   and  immunological  effects of  carbon  particles.    Assessment
      of  immunological  responses  are  also  being   considered   for   sulfur dioxide.
      The results will  provide needed  information  on  low  concentrations of  pollu-
      tants, varied exposure  modes,  and  additional  biological  and immunological
      endpoints.

      Protocols for an  in  vivo  inhalation system will be validated and  compared  to
      in  vivo   assays  as part  of  efforts  to  develop  rapid  models  for  short-term
      screening of particles  for lung toxicity.

      Clinical   studies are  primarily concentrating on  continued  implementation  of
      multi-phased  studies.    Phase  H  of  research   on the  effects  in   humans  of
      acute exposure  to  sulfate  and  nitrate   aerosols,  alone  and  in   combination
      with  gaseous  pollutants,   is  underway,   focusing on  respiratory   mechanical
      parameters   in   young,   healthy  male  subjects.    Endpoints  to  be  measured
      include respiratory functioning, spirometry, and exercise stress effects.

      Epidemiological   research   on   inhalable   particles •  foEows   upon   the   first
      stage  of  the  problem  definition  study  completed last  year.   Potential  study
      communities   will   be   identified   by   particulate   pollution  levels   and
      characterized  with   respect  to  demographic,   industrial,  socioeconomic, and
      other  important  parameters  to  support  final  selection   of   communities  to
      fulfill research  needs   for epidemiological  studies   identified  by   the   Phase
      I inhalable particulate problem definition study.
                                              A-97

-------
      Asthmatic  patients in Colorado are being  evaluated for symptom  aggravation,
      pulmonary  function changes,  and usage  of  drugs and  medical care in relation
      to   particulate  air   pollution.     Asthmatics  have  been  selected  for  study
      because  they   represent   a  subset  of   the  population   sensitive  to   air
      pollution.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The resources  reflected under  the  1981 budget estimate  column  are derived
from   "crosswalking"  the  program  structure  presented  in  the  1981   President's
Budget submission  to the new structure as presented in  the  1981 current estimate
reflected in  this  submission.    The  details  of   the  restructuring of  the research
and  development program,  as  well  as  the   crosswalk  of resources  itself, can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

      The net decrease of $888,400 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly  after  the  1981  budget  estimate  was  submitted,  President  Carter
         transmitted   revisions  to  the  budget   (House  Document   96-294);  these
         revisions  resulted  in  a  decrease  of  $7   million   to   EPA's  request   for
         Salaries  and   Expenses.     The  reduction  applied  to  this  activity   is
         $10,700.

     •-   The Congress reduced  agencywide  travel  costs  by  $850,000;  a  decrease of
         $4,600 was applied to this activity.

     -   The Congress  reduced agencywide  consulting  services  by  S3.8  million; a
         decrease of $12,700 was applied to this  activity.

     -   The Congress applied a  general reduction of  $12,214,000 to the  Research
         and Development  appropriation;  a  decrease  of $777,000 was  applied  to
         this activity to  allow  for phasing of  research to  coincide  with  the cycle
         for criteria document revisions.

     -   The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by  $2 million; a decrease of
         $23,300  was applied to this activity.

     -   An  increase  of 589,900  results  from  the cost  of  the  October  1980  pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.

     -   Reprogrammings  to   realign  salary   and  related  costs  to   meet  on-board
         needs resulted in a transfer of $35,500 from other activities.

     -   A transfer of $7,100 was  made  to  the Office of Inspector General in order
         to provide additional resources to that Office.

     -   A transfer of $356,700 was made to  air  hazardous  pollutants non-energy in
         order  to  realign  funds  between  the  Hazardous Air  Pollutants   Research
         Committee and the  Gases and  Particles  Research  Committee so  that both
         Committees can accomplish their required  research.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a  total of $12,240,400 and  71 permanent  workyears  for
this   sub-program,   of   which   $5,900,100    is   for   the  Salaries   and   Expenses
Appropriation and   $6,340,300  is  for  extramural  purposes under  the  Research  and
Development Appropriation.

     This   reflects   an  increase  of   $341,600  for  epidemiologlcal  studies   of
population exposed to ambient levels of SOy/particles near existing standards.
                                               A-98

-------
      Epidemiological  studies  begun  in  1981  will  continue  and  represent a  long-
      term  commitment  to improving  our  understanding  of  the  health  effects  of
      exposure to sulfur oxides and airborne particles.

      Inhalation   studies  will  continue  on  human  volunteers  exposed  to  fine-mode
      (0-2,5 micrometers) aerosols which include sulfuric  acid,  ammonium  sulfate,
      ammonium  nitrate;  alone  and in  combination  with  ozone,  nitrogen dioxide,
      and sulfur dioxide.

      Development  and  utilization of animal models  from  which information  about
      deposition   of particles  in  the  lungs  can be  extrapolated  to  humans will
      continue.

      Development  and  application of  techniques far  studying  pulmonary function
      in  both  normal  animals  and  in animals with respiratory disease will continue
      to  focus on improving the  extrapolation of animal data to humans who  are  at
      risk from exposure to air pollutants.

      Studies  will  be conducted  on  the  inhalation  toxicity  of  carbon,  organic
      particles, and gas  mixtures.   Data  collection  will  be  underway  in  research
      to  develop  and  compare  in vivo  inhalation systems to  cell and  tissue culture
      assays  established  for  airway  and  alveolar  epithelium.    The  results  should
      establish   the   validity   of  culture   models   for  short-term   screening   of
      particles for lung toxicity.


ENVIRONMENTAL  ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1980 Accomplishments

      In  1980, the  Agency used  a total  of $855,000 for this  sub-program, of  which
$224,600 was for  Salaries and Expenses and $630,400 was  for  extramural  research
activities.

      A  report   on  the  feasibility  of  smelter weak  SO-  stream   control  was
      completed.    This  information  is  a key  element  in  tne  Agency's  Nonferrous
      Smelter  Order  program.     The   report   analyzes  all  technologies  currently
      available for S0» control.                 •      '•                    I

      A  study  of  foreign  technologies  for  controlling emissions  at  a  secondary
      lead  smelter  was   completed.    This  technology  should  assist   industry  in
      meeting the air quality standards for lead emissions.

      Emission   factors   for  steel  plants  have  been   developed  for  inhalable
      participates to   support development  of regulations  for basic  oxygen furnace
      stack,  fugitive,  and   hot   metal  desulfurization  processes   and  also  for
      fugitive emissions from roads and material piles.

      A  preliminary   environmental  assessment  for   the   Formcoke  process  was
      completed  to support the Department  of  Energy.  This  new process, which  is
      an    alternative   to  conventional   cokemaking,   offers    the   promise   of
      eliminating  coke oven emissions.

      A preliminary environmental  assessment was completed  for the  submerged arc
      ferroalloy   furnace   which   identified   this industrial   process   as  a   major
      emitter of carcinogenic matter.
                                               A-99

-------
1981 Program .

     In  1981,  the  Agency  has allocated a  total  of $817,900  to this  sub-program,
of which $232,300  is for the  Salaries  and Expenses Appropriation and  $585,600  is
for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     A  major   technical  support   program   is   being  undertaken   to  evaluate
     Nonferrous  Smelter  Order  proposals  that are  received from industry by  the
     Office  of  Enforcement.   This program is required by section 119 of  the  Clean
     Air  Act.   Technical  assistance is being  provided  to Regional  Offices  and
     other   governmental   organizations  involved   in   implementing  this  delayed
     compliance order for primary copper, lead, and zinc smelters.

     The demonstration of  particulate  controls  for  open  sources  in  steel  plants
     is being supported.  A charged  fogger  is being evaluated  at two steel  plants
     to  assist  in the development of New  Source Performance  Standards  and State
     Implementation Plans.   A test  report and  users  manual will be published  for
     each demonstration.

     Assessments of  gaseous  and inhalable  particulate  emissions from  the ferrous
     metallurgy  and   ferroalloy  industries  is  being  continued.    Advanced  air
     pollution   control  technology  that  shows  promise  is  being  identified  for
     possible large scale demonstration in later years.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The resources reflected  under  the 1981  budget  estimate  column are derived
from   "crosswalking"  the  program  structure  presented  in the  1981   President's
Budget submission  to  the  new  structure as presented  in  the 1981  current estimate
reflected  in  this  submission.    The  details  of  the  restructuring  of the  research
and  development  program,  as  well  as  the  crosswalk  of  resources  itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     The net increase of $60,500 results from several actions, as follows:

     -  Shortly  after  the  1981  budget estimate  was submitted,  President  Carter
        transmitted  revisions   to  the  budget  (House   Document  96-294);  these
        revisions   resulted  in   a  decrease  of  $7  million   to   EPA's  request  for
        Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $1,200.

     -  The Congress  applied   a  general reduction of  $12,214,000  to the  Research
        and Development appropriation;  a decrease  of $65,000  was applied to  this
        activity.

     -   An  increase of $6,700 results from  the  cost of the  October  1980 pay raise
        and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprogfammings  to  realign  salary  and related  costs  to meet  on-board
        needs resulted in a transfer of $1,000 from  other activities.

1982 Plan                                        ;

     The Agency requests a  total of 5865,500 and  4  permanent workyears  for  this
sub-program, of  which  $242,500  is for the  Salaries and  Expenses  Appropriation  and
$623,000  is  for   extramural  purposes   under   the  Research  and   Development
Appropriation.

     This reflects  an  increase of $47,600  for support  of the  Non-ferrous  Smelter
Order program.
                                              A-TOO

-------
      Activities  in   1982  will  be  a  continuation  of  the  three  major  programs
undertaken in 1981. Specifically,

      Support to the  Office of  Enforcement  will  continue in evaluating Nonferrous
      Smelter Order  (NSO) proposals  and  making technical  recommendations on  a
      case-by-ease  basis.   It is expected that  by 1982  the  NSO program will  be
      well underway with active projects-at several smelter facilities.

      The demonstration  of  controls  for  open sources  of particulate emissions in
      steel  plants   will   continue.    Improved  technologies   win  be  tested  and
      evaluated.

      Plans  will  be  developed  for  a  large  scale  demonstration  of  controls at  a
      ferroalloy plant.

      Assessments  of  unit process  emissions  in  the ferrous  metallurgy  industry
      will be continued.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the   Agency  used  a  total  of $9,906,900  for this sub-program,  of
which  $2,361,300  was for Salaries and  Expenses and  $7,545,600  was  for  extramural
research activities.

     The effects  of airborne  sulfur  pollutants on  materials in  the  Regional Air
     Pollution Study  in  the  St. Louis Area were  determined and the  data will  be
     used in the Agency's SOx/Partieulates Criteria Document.

     Effective  sampling  techniques  for  particulate  emissions  from  four  atypical
     stationary source  categories were  developed  and  evaluated;  these  techniques
     may be used by regulatory and enforcement offices.

     A  national  Crop  Loss  Assessment Network  was  designed,  peer-reviewed, and
     field-implemented   to   provide  pollutant    dose-crop    yield   responses   for
     important agricultural  crops grown  under  normal  cultural  regimes  in  various
     geographical regions of  the  U.S.  The impacts  pf  SO2  and pollutant  mixtures
     are being evaluated.   These data are  needed for caleMating economic  effects
     of   air    pollution   on   agriculture    and   for   establishing   scientifically
     defensible Secondary Air Quality Standards.

     Research  has   been  initiated   to   quantify   interactive   effects  of   mixed
     pollutants on crop yield.    Results of this  research to  date have  established
     that  the  threshold  for  long-term  SO,  effects  on  growth, nitrogen  fixation
     and quality  of  alfalfa  is  a  median  concentration of 0.06  ppm.   The  addition
     of 0.05 ppm d- did not change this relationship.

1981 Program

     In  1981,  the Agency has  allocated a  total  of $9,437,100 to this sub-program,
of which $2,445,800  is  for the Salaries and Expenses Appropriation  and  56,991,300
is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     Urban plume mapping  of a city dominated by heavy  and light industries  is
     being  conducted to  assist in  validating  the  AROSOL-III, an aerosol  submodel
     designed  to  provide  1-hr.   average  values for primary aerosol mass,  sulfate
     and   visibility    due   to   primary    and    secondary   sources,   nucleation,
     condensation, coagulation, sulfate photo  formation, and dry deposition.
                                          A-101

-------
     Studies  are  being  conducted  to  provide  data  on  multi-day  dispersion  and
     transformation  processes  that  affect  the  distributions  and  composition  of
     secondary  pollutants,   as  well  as  provide new  data  on  processes  affecting
     identifiable urban and industrial pollutant plumes.

<•    Field  studies  will  be  initiated  to  determine  the  effects  of  sulfur  dioxide
     on   commercially  important   trees.     Information   will   be  used  for  the
     development of air quality criteria for sulfur dioxide.

     The  acute  and  chronic  effects  of  sulfur   dioxide  on   the   genetics  and
     sensitivity  of  native  populations  of  plants  will  be  assessed.    The  project
     will  provide  information  relevant  to  the  occurrence  of  changes  in  the
     sensitivity  or   resistance  of   plant   populations  induced   by  exposure   to
     sulfur dioxide.

     Receptor  models  are   being;  developed  to  estimate  the impact  of sources at
     receptor  sites.   This  could  lead  to  elimination  of  the  need  for  expensive
     emission   inventories   in   developing   cost   effective   State  Implementation
     Plans.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     •»   The net increase of  $1,163,200 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly  after  the   1981  budget  estimate  was  submitted, President  Carter
         transmitted   revisions  to  the   budget   (House   Document  96-294);   these
         revisions resulted   in  a  decrease   of  $7   million  to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries  and   Expenses.    The  reduction  applied   to   this   activity  is
         $22,000.

     -   The Congress reduced  ageneywide  travel  costs by  $850,000;  a decrease of
         $4,500 was applied to this activity.

     -   The  Congress  reduced  agencywide   consulting  services  by  $3.8  million; a
         decrease of $69,900 was applied to this activity.

     -   The Congress  applied  a general reduction  of  $12,214,000  to  the Research
         and Development  appropriation; a   decrease  of  $783,000  was  applied  to
         this activity   to  allow for  phasing  of research to  coincide with  the  cycle
         for criteria document revisions.

     -   The Congress  reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a  decrease of
         $4,100 was applied to this activity.

     -   An  increase  of  $159,800  results  from  the  cost  of the  October  1980  pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprogrammings  to  realign   salary  and  related   costs   to  meet on-board
         needs  resulted in a transfer of $47,500 from other activities.

     -   Transfer  $62,600   to  program   management   to   support  a   technical
         information coordinator and an international travel coordinator.

     -   Transfer $20,000 to program  management to  support  public  awareness  and
         industrial hygienist position at Research Triangle Park.

         A transfer  of $9,000 was  made  to  the Administrative Law Judges to  provide
         additional  resources  to  support  a new   program   for  instituting   civil
         noncomplianee penalties under Section  102 of the  Clean Air Act.

         A transfer  of $22,900  was made to  the radiation media  in order  to  support
         the Radiation Policv Council.
                                              A-102

-------
Water Quality
     SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                               WATER QUALITY
ApproDnation
JG.aries and"Expenses ....
Research and Development..
Abatement, Control and
 Compliance	
Total
Permanent Workyears ..
Full-time Equivalency.
Outlays		
Authorization Levels..
PROGRAMHIGHLIGHTS

Water Quality-Non Energy
  Salaries and Expenses ....
  Research and Development .

Municipal Wastewater/Spill Prevention
  Salaries and Expenses .....
  Research and Development ..

Industrial Wastewater
  Salaries and Expenses	
  Research and Development ..

Total:
  Salaries and Expenses	
  Research and Development ..

Total, Research and
  Development Program	
Water Quality Planning
  and Standards:
  Salaries and Expenses ..
   Abatement, Control and
    Compliance ...........
           Standards air1
    Guidelines:
    Salaries and Expenses .
    Abatement, Control and
     Compliance	
  Grants Assistance Program:
    Abatement, Control and
     Compliance ....... .....
   ate'* Quality Strategies
    Implementation:
    Salaries and Expenses .
    Abatement, Control and
     Compliance .. .........
Actual
1980
$111,612
42,085
191,221
344,918
3,034
3,625
362,476
551,509
514,316
15,822
on
7,074
13.947
3,829
12,317
25,219
42,086
67,305
12,858
11,577
5,084
21,380

109,808

8,918
7,397
Budget
Estimate
1981*

$113,504
38,362
186,932
338,798
3,055
3,719
285,300
414,719
$14,100
11,944
7,186
14,241
4,084
12,177
25,370
38,362
63,732
12.151
11,636
6,367
23,678

96,230

9,422
6,387
Current
Estimate
1981 '
'{"do'ltafs
$119,114
39,578
186,136
344,828
2,958
3,598
384,971
444,719
$14,440
14,070
7,29?
14,330
4,434
11,177
26,167
39,577
65,744
11,646
10,582
6,411
22,931

96,667

11,332
7,080
Increase +
Estimate Decrease -
1982 1982 vs. 1981 Page
.in thousands}
$125,470
30,277
141,787
297,534
2,857
.3,495
409,337
293,770
$14,592
8,622
V644
12,986
4,609
8,669
26,845
30,277
57,122
10,069
8,676
6,334
12,914

64,300

12,166
7,629
+56,356
-9,301
-44,349
-47,294
-101
-103
+24,366
+$152
-5,448
+351
-1,344
+175
-2,508
+678
__-9,300
-8,622
-1,577
-1,90.6
-77
-in, 017

-31,867

+834
+549



WQ-85
WQ-103
WQ-118
WQ-16

WQ-28

WQ-36

WQ-43


                                              wq-i

-------
                                               Budget    Current               Increase +
                                      Actual  Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -  '
                                      _ 1980     1981       1981       1982     1982vs. 1981 Page
  Water Quality Monitoring
    and Analysis:
    Salaries and Expenses ..
    Abatement, Control and
     Compliance	

  Municipal Source Control:
    Salaries and Expenses ..
    Abatement, Control and
     Compliance	
  Total:
    Salaries and Expenses ..
    Abatement, Control and
     Compliance	.......

  Total, Abatement, and
    Control Program .........
Water Quality
Permits Issuance:
  Salaries and Expenses .,
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance ............
Water Quality Enforcement:
  Salaries and Expenses ..
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	
Total:
  Salaries and Expenses ..
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance -..	
Total, Enforcement Program
Permanent Positions
Water Quality-Non Energy.
Municipal Wastewater/
  Spills Prevention	
Industrial Wastewater....
Total, Research and
  Development Program .

Water Quality Planning
  .and Standards .......
Effluent Standards and
  Guidelines	


7,961
2,731

28,950
_22*1S2_
63,772
186,053
249,825

7,089
2,702

15,532
2,467
22,621
5,169
27,790
287
149
73
509
343
108


8,?n«
2,436

27,759
36.725
63,908
177,096
241,004

7,949
5,927

16,277
3,909
24,226
9,836
34,062
269
146
80
, 495
328
112
(dollars

9,2I
-------
                                               Budget    Current                Increase +
                                      Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                        1980      1981        1981        1982      1982vs.1981  Page
                                                           (dollars  in  thousands"!
 Water Quality Strategies
   Implementation	
 Water Quality Monitoring
   and Analysis	
 Municipal Source  Control

 Total, Abatement  and
   Control Program ...	
 Permits  Issuance  ..	
 Water Quality Enforcement
Total, Enforcement
 Full-time Egui yalency
 Water Qua 1 i ty-NonEnergy...
 Municipal Wastewater/Spill
  Prevention	
 Industrial Uastewatei*	
Total, Research  and
  Development  Program
233
690
264
716
294
280
688
643
-14  WQ-43
195
921
1,800
229
497
726
411
185
94
191
914
1,809
242
511
753
- 427
183
106
189
886
1,759
238
481
719
406
185
97
191
874
1,638
260
• 514
774
368
183
92
+2
-12
-121
+22
+33
+55
-38
-2
-5
WQ-58
WQ-64
WQ-75
WQ-80
WQ-86
WQ-104
WQ-119
-45
Water Quality Planning and
  Standards	
Effulent Standards and
  Guidelines 	
Grants Assistance Programs
Water Quality Strategies
  Implementation 	
Water Quality Monitoring
  and Analysis	
Municipal Source Control  ...

Total, Abatement and
  Control Program .........
Permits Issuance	
Water Quality Enforcement...

Total Enforcement, Program..
447
132
260
247
1,046
2,132
257
573
427
147
?««
241
1,057
2,160
295
575
370
• 144
326
240
1 ,028
2,108
287
543
277
131
309
241
1,020
1,978
318
576
-93
' +1"3
-17
+1
-8
-130
+31
+33
                                                     WQ-16

                                                     WQ-28
                                                     WQ-43

                                                     WQ-43

                                                     WQ-58
                                                     WQ-64
                                                     WQ-75
                                                     WQ-80
830
870
830
894
+64
OVERVIEW & STRATEGY                            ,

      In 1982, the water quality program's major emphasis will be the  implementation
.stage of programs authorized and established by the Clean Water Act  (CWA).  Regulations
and planning which established the  foundation  for control programs are largely  in  place.
For example, initial water quality  management  plans have been all certified and  approved,
industrial effluent guidelines for  controlling toxic discharges and water quality  criteria
for toxic pollutants will be completed in 1982, and much of the delegation of program
management functions to the States  will have been achieved.  With these development
activities essentially complete, the water quality program will encourage implementation
of control measures at the State and Federal levels through an integrated water  quality
planning and management process.  A key element of this process will  be to focus management
attention on identifying and prioritizing remaining water quality problems and focusing
resources on completing analyses and implementation  steps that are necessary to correct
these problems.  Specific program activities which will require increased resources  and
attention are as follows:
                                           WQ-3

-------
     -  Implement the BAT (Best Availabile Technology) industrial toxics
        control program through the permit issuance process at the State
        and Federal  levels.

     -  Emphasize approval of local pretreatment programs to control
        industrial sources of pollution that discharge to Publicly
        Owned Treatment Works (POTWs).

     -  Develop realistic, site-specific water quality standards, including
        the application of toxics criteria, for stream segments that
        exhibit particular water quality problems; encourage the States
        to build greater toxic pollutant analytical capabilities, including
        simplified water quality economic and waste load analysis techniques
        to make better informed water quality standards and construction
        grant decisions; continue research and development activities that
        will provide field validation of water quality data and models to
        determine maximum allowable levels of toxic pollutants.
                                                                   •
        Implement tha recommendations of the Construction Grants 1990
        Strategy (to be completed in 1981), which will Include major
        administrative, regulatory  and legislative changes in
        five general areas:  funding, operations, planning, compliance
        and management.

     -  Work toward further integration of the construction grants,
        water quality standards, and the permit and enforcement programs
        to increase the rate of municipal compliance with permits and the
        rate of construction of Publicly Owned Treatment Works.

     -  Use Section 201 grants to facilitate the planning of regional
        multimedia, integrated waste management strategies.

     -  Re-orient Agency management of the Construction Grants Program
        to support State delegation of responsibility by stressing
        general program oversight rather than individual project
        oversight.

     -  Continue to work with States in developing national, State, and
        local strategies and projects to remedy problems from both
        point and nonpoint sources of surface and ground water pollution.

     -  Maximize the use of research and development funds to aid in
        sound policy, management and enforcement decisions.


     These priority program activities represent a consistent, logical and necessary
extension of the 1981 water quality program initiatives.  A broader perspective regarding
these critical program efforts is presented below:

Industrial Toxics Control


     During 1982, EPA will complete BAT/BCT (Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology)
rulemaking with the promulgation of guidelines for fifteen additional industrial categories
required under the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Water Act.  In addition, the Agency will
provide guidelines for several synfuels production processes to facilitate the permitting
process for those industries.  Concomitant with BAT/BCT promulgations the Agency must be
prepared for litigation.

     The primary emphasis regarding toxics control, will be the implementation of the
BAT effluent guidelines through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
(NPDES).  NPDES permitting will be carried out by those States which have delegation,
and by EPA in nondelegated States.  In the delegated States, Agency permit personnel
will provide significant overview and consultation to State permit authorities.  Another
area to receive increased emphasis in 1982 will be criminal investigation.  EPA has
focused most of its enforcement efforts to date against violations requiring administrative
                                        WQ-4

-------
 \          or civil  actions.   EPA will  now direct more  attention to potential criminal violations
 .]          of the  Clean  Water  Act.   These  investigations will require different procedures and
           techniques  than  a civil  investigation and specialized techniques and personnel trained
           1n criminal investigations.

                Another  important element  in  the Agency's  toxic strategy will-be the continuation
           of the  "hot spot" program to identify geographic areas requiring post-BAT toxic control
           actions.  This program will  examine and  recommend toxic pollutant  control action plans
           for several such "hot spots" in 1982, having begun this mission on a pilot basis in 1980.

                Research and Development will play  an important role  in the Agency's industrial
           toxics  control strategy.  The 1982 industrial waste water  research program will address
           the development  of  innovative control methods,  such as process changes and materials
           substitution  and continued development of recycle/reuse technology; development of new
           and improved  sampling and analytical procedures for organic and inorganic pollutants;
           development,  improvement  and adaptation  of bioassay/biomonitorlng  methods for use in
           determining and  measuring the "toxicity" of  industrial waste waters; development of
           additional  treatability  data with  an emphasis on the development of surrogate/indicator
           procedures  for measuring  and monitoring  treatability; and  performance evaluations of
           National  Pollutant  Discharge Elimination System discharger laboratories.

           Pretreatment


                A  significant  par*,  of the  toxics control strategy will involve the vigorous .imple-
           mentation of  the pretreatment program.   This program sets  standards for the control of
           effluent  from indirect dischargers, those industrial sources of pollution which discharge
           their effluents  to  municipal  waste water treatment facilities rather than directly into
           streams.  In  these  cases  industrial wastes, especially toxic substances, may sometimes
           interfere with the  operation of the sewage treatment plant, become deposited in the
           residual  sludges, or simply  pass through the system and pollute the receiving stream's
           waters.

•}               The  environmental importance  of indirect dischargers  is substantiated by the fact
           that  the  number  of  direct dischargers to be regulated is 12,000, while the potential
           number  of indirect  rfischargers  to  be regulated  under the pretreatment program could be
           as  high as 60,000.  Thus, the pretreatment program addresses a toxic pollution problem
           which,  in terms  of  scope, exceeds  that encountered with direct dischargers.  The pretreat-
           ment  program  represents a significant advance in t*"» Agency's efforts to control toxic
           pollutants.   July 1, 1983 is the deadline for pretreatment program approval for publicly
           owned treatment  works (POTWs).

                Over the past  two years, the  Agency has begun the process of  issuing categorical
           pretreatment  standards for industrial users and assisting  in the development of local
           and  State pretreatment programs.   In 1982, the  implementation shift initiated in 1981
           will  be accelerated.  The Agency will complete  the issuance of pretreatnent planning
           grants, funded under Secion  201, review  the local pretreatment programs that have been
           developed in  previous years  and oversee  the operation of newly-approved State and local
           programs.   The implementation of the pretreatment program at the local level will improve
           the  performance  of  POTWs  funded under Section 201 and help ensure that full benefits are
           realized  from construction grants  funding.      ,

                In 1982  the pretreatment program will require compliance Sampling and evaluation
           Inspections to establish  whether or not  pretreatment requirements are being met.  In
           cases of  non-compliance,  EPA will  issue  administrative orders.  Where there is no
           response or noncompliance persists, EPA  will initiate enforcement cases.

                Research support to  develop and demonstrate pretreatment technologies and treatment
           methodologies for combined industrial municipal waste waters will continue in 1982.

           Water Quajity Standards

                In the past, the standards program  has concentrated its resources on the development
           of  toxics criteria  for 65 classes  of toxic pollutants.  That development stage will
                                                  WQ-5

-------
near completion by 1932, although some criteria development will continue.  The twin
goals of the water quality standards program will be:  {1} the assessment of beneficial
use attainability; and (2) the application of toxic criteria to site-specific areas.

     This initiative is recognized by both the States and EPA as an important step in
setting realistic, implement able environmental policies.  The States and regions will
jointly conduct evaluations of the designated use of specific stream segments to consider
attainability from an environmental, economic and technological standpoint.  Waste
load allocations and detailed economic studies will be performed to develop cost impacts
and control strategies for streams not achieving designated uses*  Alternative control
strategies and/or stream use re-designations could result in significant cost savings
of governmental and industrial expenditures while assuring that expenditures are made
where controls are most needed.

     The States and EPA will use these site-specific analyses to determine the stream
segments to which the toxics criteria should be applied.  The Agency will use its
industrial facility file to pinpoint areas where the relevant pollutants are discharged.
Physical factors monitored in the analyses, e.g. p'H and hardness, will be used to
adjust criteria to stream-specific conditions.

     While 1981 research concentrates on "filling the data gaps" in the laboratory-derived
criteria, the major emphasis in 1982 will be on development of relationships between
laboratory and real world site-specific conditions, and the actual toxicity of the
pollutant in question to aquatic life.  This information will allow the States to
translate the newly completed, laboratory derived criteria to real world, site-specific,
natural conditions.

     Since research on the development of methods for the present Consent Decree priority
pollutants will be nearly completed in 1981, the 1982 research will concentrate on a
balanced program of biological, microbiological and chemical methodology rather than
pursue a chemical-bychemical approach.  The research program will also focus on toxico-
logies! studies of priority pollutants and the development of short term tests
for cardnogenicity and other health effects.

Construction Grant Prj^ram Management

     EPA is conducting a 1990 Strategy study for the construction grants program.  The
strategy was initiated to analyze the program's current problems, to evaluate alternative
directions for the program in the future, and to recommend revisions to the program
over the next ten years.  The study was initiated in light of the:  1) expanded role
of the States and the Corps of Engineers in the management program; 2) extremely large
needs for funds in a period of national fiscal austerity; and 3) problems related to
the achievability of legislative goals, which are primarily due to lengthy grants
processing and completion times, inadequate performance in municipal operations and
compliance, and problems in achieving municipal self sufficiency.  The 1990 Strategy
will make recommendations for program improvement in such areas as funding, eligibility
for grant awards, management structure, project streamlining, decreased processing
times, improved compliance, and water quality planning.  These recommendations are
expected to lead to administrative and regulatory changes as well as proposals for
legislative amendments which will be forwarded to Congress during 1981.

     EPA plans to re-orient its role away from day-to-day project management as the
States and Corps of Engineers assume increased project level responsibilities in the
construction grants program.  EPA will focus much more on national program management,
oversight of State and Corps activities, increasing the compliance of municipal facilities,
and enhancing the operations and management of existing facilities.  A major effort in
1982 will  be implementing the recommendations of the 1990 Strategy.

Municipal  Management Strategy

     An analysis of municipal .compliance with the requirements of the Clean Water Act
showed that approximately 60 percent of the Publicly Owned Treatment Works did not
meet the requirement for secondary treatment by the statutory deadline of July 1977.
In response to this problem area, EPA developed and issued a National Municipal Pol icy
andStrategy (NMPS) in October 1979.  The purpose of the NMPS is to integrate the
pe'rmif,Enforcement, and construction grant activities so as to expedite municipal
                                           WQ-6

-------
 construction  and  increase municipal compliance with permits.  To ensure that POTWs are
 operating their facilities in compliance with their permit conditions, compliance
 sampling and  evaluation  inspections will be used, as well as appropriate enforcement
 actions.

      The Municipal  Management System  (MMS) is an outgrowth of the NMPS.  It serves as
 the  key mechanism through which EPA regional and State enforcement and grant staffs
 develop formal operating procedures for more effectively managing municipal compliance
 with the Clean Water Act.  The EPA headquarters' role is one pf coordinating and providing
 direction and policy.  Activities associated with MMS will focus on those projects
 within the  top 106  Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) which have treatment
 needs in excess of  $50 million and which are on the fundable portion of the State
 project priority  list, and those active grants with pretreatment requirements.  Once
 these projects are  under control, MMS will then focus on other high priority treatment
 needs.

      The Agency will develop a continuous compliance program for major municipal permittees
 in 1982.  This program will track major municipal permitee performance with their permit
 conditions.   It will focus on municipal plants that have completed required construction
 of treatment  facilities  and will be designed to assure that required levels of treatment
 are  maintained.

 Integrated  WasteManagement

      An approach to pollution control that focuses on removing pollutants from water
 has  a substantial chance merely to substitute one pollution problem for another.  For
 example, the  sludges and spent carbon from waste water treatment contain toxic materials
 and  are difficult to dispose of or incinerate.  EPA will continue several efforts to
 try  to deal with the multimedia aspects of complex pollution problems.  Specifically
 for  industrial problems, research, effluent guidelines and solid waste programs are
 developing  detailed process descriptions of organic chemical manufacturing.  These
 process descriptions will predict the formation of toxic wastes or byproducts and will
 attempt to  predict where these materials will occur in waste and product streams.

      The strategy used to reduce the environmental impact of a PQTW must reflect concerns
 for  water quality, toxic materials in sludge, system costs, and sludge utilization.
 The  Agency  can produce a consistent multimedia approach to planning integrated regional
 waste management strategies.  The program will assist and encourage development and
 implementation of comprehensive waste management strategies through 75 percent funding
 (Section 201  grants) for management strategies development and implementation; encourage
 integration of reporting and permitting requirements into municipal use waste management
 reports and consolidated permits; extend the innovative/alternative concept to waste
 management through 85 percent funding for innovative management strategies development
 and  implementation; and  encourage on-site waste management to minimize cost.

 Water Quality Management

      The long-range goal  of the Water Quality Management (WQM) program is to implement
 a comprehensive integrated and largely self-sustaining planning and analysis process
 in the States that applies available resources to priority problems and projects which
 will   maximize environmental  benefits.  This process must cover both point and nonpoint
 sources of  surface and ground water pollution in the context of ongoing problem assess-
ments, long-term strategies, and updated plans*  To accomplish this goal, the Agency
 has  formulated WQM and construction grants program strategies and has implemented a
 State/EPA Agreement process with each State to define program priorities and establish
 State-specific strategies to achieve environmental objectives.   In 1982, EPA will
 award State program grants under Section 106 for support of identified national and
 State priorities, phase-out the Section 208 grant, and.expand the use of 205(g) funds
 in delegated  States to conduct municipal waste treatment management program activities
 currently supported under Section 106 grants.  Section 106 grants nay be used for
 State and areawide nonpoint source control program development previously funded under
 Section 208 grants, particularly with respect to ground water management4 other nonpoint
 source control programs  needs will be assisted to the extent that States Identify
 these priorities and that funds are available.

      In support of the Water Quality Management {WQM) program Section 208 grants provided
 more  than $200 million for initial comprehensive Statewide and areawide plans, and
                                         WQ-7

-------
more than $180 million  since 1977 for continued planning.  Continued planning has
focused on  specific  nonpoint source problem solutions, particulaly projects from which
results can be transferred to other places with similar problems.  By the close of
1.931, 220 initial plans will have baen approved, and all 220 agencies will be working
on follow up projects funded in 1979 through 1931.  EPA will he assisting these agencies
with more than 900 previously funded projects in 1982; and will operate an information
network to  share technical, financial managenient, arvl institutional solutions with
States.and  localities which have not solved critical problems.

     The Agency's multiyear national program and funding strategies establish priorities
and funding needs, promote consolidation and integration of funds and programs, and
emphasize strongly State planning and management, process implementation.  The Agency
and States  are using the problem analyses developed in the initial 208 .plans, the
comprehensive water quality management five-year needs assessment, and implementation
programs evaluation to ensure that xater quality management programs focus on solving
the most significant problems inhibiting attainment of water quality goals and objec-
tives.

     The WQM strategy for 1982 and the following four years will emphasize less restricted
use of EPA's grant programs in order to better focus limited resources on high priority
problems.   EPA will expand the use of 205(g) funds to conduct municipal waste treatment
management  programs and will award State program grants under Section 106 for support
of identified national and State priorities including the development of ground water
management  programs previously funded under the Section 208 grant program.  Also in
1982, the WQM program will prepare a report to the Congress on urban runoff water
quality cause-effect relationships, assess the status of agriculture nonpoint source
control, assist the development of Statewide and local ground water management programs
and staff,  and transfer costeffective technological, financial and institutional
approaches  to water quality management problems among States, areawide agencies, local
governments, and other Federal  agencies for their use in refining and Implementing
needed programs.

Effect1ve Enforcement of the Law

     Effective enforcement of the law requires that the Agency determine and articulate
the requireirents that permittees must meet, as well as follow up to determine that
those requirements are being met.  EPA expects to emphasize second round permitting
for major industrial  dischargers In 1982.  Efforts to coo.r,djnate..jnd.consolidate permitting
procedures  for five separate EPA permit programs will  continue.  To the extent feasible,
the consolidated permit regulations will  make regulatory standards and application
forms consistent for permits issued under the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act (RCRA).  The Agency expects permit consolidation to produce better
permits, reduce delays, simplify permitting procedures,  and make more efficient use of
Agency and  State resources.

     During 1982, State and EPA enforcement efforts will be directed to insuring
compliance  with NPDES permit conditions by major Publicly Owned Treatment Works (PQTWs).
These now represent the largest categorical source of surface water pollution.  This
effort will  be similar in scope to the enforcement effort against industrial violators
of the July 1, 1977 Clean Water Act deadline requiring application of best practical
control technology.  Compliance inspections and appropriate administrative or civil
action will  be used to insure compliance.

     In addition, during 1982,  enforcement will conduct a vigorous pretreatment compliance
monitoring  and enforcement program.  This State-EPA program will control the discharge
of toxic pollutants to POTWs in order that they may effectively treat the incoming
effluent without releasing toxic substances.  Compliance sampling and evaluation inspec-
tions will  be used and, where violations  are found, appropriate administrative or
civil actions will  be taken.

     Along with the pretreatment program, State and EPA enforcement will conduct a
greater number of biomonitoring inspections and compliance sampling inspections to
monitor compliance with toxic limitations incorporated into "second round" NPDES permits.
Where violations are found an appropriate enforcement will  be initiated.


                                        WQ-8

-------
Scientific Bases.for Decisions

     As the technology-based point source control  requirements of the Clean Water Act
are achieved over the next four years, emphasis increasingly will  be placed on water
quality-based controls where necessary to achieve  the water quality goals of the Act.
An integrated approach to watershed management is  expected to receive more attention
as point sources are brought under appropriate levels of control.-

     in pursuing the above activities, there will  be a full  awareness of and sensitivity
to the nation's protracted energy and economic problems.  EPA will  concentrate on
providing the technical  base for translating the goals of the Act into water quality
objectives and associated standards.  These will reflect local conditions and identify
the most cost-effective and energy efficient water quality management strategy for
each pollutant and within each watershed.  Significant effort also will be devoted to
providing the techniques needed in identifying and documenting water quality problems
and standards violations.

     Research to support toxic pollutant management is a priority in 1982.  EPA's
predominant effort is to establish procedures for  translating the laboratory-derived
criteria for site-specific, local conditions.  Another important task is to complete
the acute and chronic toxicity data bases for the  Consent Decree chemicals, as
incorporated in the 1977 Clean Water Act.  To support the integrated watershed management
approach, EPA will work to refine and develop watershed analysis techniques, which
include methods for making point source-nonpoint source tradeoffs.  In addition, EPA
will be studying the applications, limitations, duration of effectiveness and costs
of various 1n-lake pollution control/restoration techniques.  Finally, the dredge
and fill program will continue to assess the potentially harmful impacts associated
with the extraction, transport and disposal of dredged materials containing toxic
pollutants.

     An energy component of water quality research is coordinated with the Energy
Research Committee.  The priority work in this complementary program includes determining
the ecological impacts of oil  and gas fields in major offshore and estuarine areas,
analyzing exposure effects of hazardous or toxic substances on aquatic ecosystems and
developing protocols for hazardous and toxic spills.

PURPOSE - Research and Development Program

     Research and Development in EPA's water quality program provides the scientific
information needed to support its standard setting and enforcement activities.  The
multifaceted research program includes the development of efficient and cost effective
waste water treatment technology for both municipalities and industries; the determination
of the health implications of existing technology for treatment and disposal of waste
water and sludge; the determination of useful and  defensible monitoring methods; docu-
mentation of the validity of monitoring data; definition of criteria for water pollution
from spills of hazardous materials; and the prevention or control of pollution from
agricultural and forestry sources.  The overall goal is to provide the scientific
basis for economically and socially viable environmental management.

Purpose - Abatement and Control Program        i

     The objectives of the water quality abatement and control programs are to abate
surface and ground water pollution from industrial, municipal, and rural sources and to
assist State, areawide, and local agencies in controlling water pollution from point and
nonpoint sources by providing management, technical, and resource assistance.

     Industrial  point source control is accomplishert by the development of technology-
based effluent limitations.  The current anphasis  is on development of effluent limitations
for toxic pollutants which reflect the best available technology economically achievable
for existing sources and which represent new source performance standards for new
sources.  In particular, the emphasis on toxic pollutants has required the concurrent
development and use of new analytical methods, substantial- increases in-resources
devoted to sampling and analysis activities, development of new and cost-effective
analytical methods for routine monitoring of individual toxic pollutants, examination
of waste water treatment technologies for effectiveness in removing toxic polluants,
and more intensive and thorough engineering investigations of specific Industrial
                                            wn-9

-------
                                                                                                       a
categories.  These effluent limitations are aimed at controlling the discharges of 65                 -   '
classes of compounds for 34 industry categories.  Industrial effluent limitations are
implemented through National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPOES) permits.
Pretreatment standards for existing and new industrial  users of municipal  treatment
works are developed for 34 primary industry categories along with effluent limitations
for direct dischargers.  Pretreatment standards regulate toxic pollutants  which are
incompatible with municipal works.

     Municipal point source control proceeds via Federal grants to municipal, intermuni-
cipal, State and interstate agencies which assist in financing the planning, design
and construction of municipal waste water treatment facilities,  the construction
grants program helps municipalities to achieve the effluent limitations required by
the Act.  As is the case with industries, effluent limitations are implemented through
NPDES permits; and construction grants are made to assist municipalities in meeting
their permit conditions.  Construction grant funds are allocated to each State on the
basis of formulas set forth in the Clean Water Act,  Within these allotments, grants
are awarded on a priority hasis for individual projects,  Generally each project is
eligible for 75 percent Federal assistance, although grants may provide up to 85 percent
federal assistance for projects using innovative or alternative technology in treatment
facilities design.

     As part of the municipal construction grants program, the Section 205(g) State
management assistance grant program authorizes the use of two percent or $400,000,
whichever is greater, of each State's authorization to cover the cost of delegation of
the construction grants program to the States.  Beginning in 1982, States  which have
signed section 205(g) delegation agreements can support all municipal facilities manage-
ment activities as well as delegations under Sections 4QH and 404 of the Clean Water
Act from Section 205(g) funds which are currently supported in these State with Section
106 funds.

     Because a primary responsibility for the control of pollution lies with the States,
EPA's abatement and control efforts are oriented toward support of State and local efforts               ]
to develop and maintain their technical, institutional  and financial mechanisms in water
quality management.  The primary mechanism for accomplishing water quality and other
environmental  objectives is the comprehensive, integrated State/EPA Agreements covering
EPA resource assistance programs.

     The water quality cornerstone of the State/EPA Agreement is the management, technical
and resource assistance and guidance provided to States, and local water quality planning
and management agencies under the Clean Water Act.  These agencies develop water quality
problem assessments, water quality standards and detailed water quality management solu-
tions to surface and ground water problems.

     Section 106 State program grants, Section 314 Clean Lakes grants, and the municipal
waste treatment program fund implementation programs which support national, State and
local point and nonpoint source controls and surface and ground water priority needs.
In addition, delegated State management of municipal waste treatment, National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and dredge and fill programs can be encouraged and
supported with Construction Management Assistance grants under Section 205(g).

     Combined  and integrated with other abatement and control, enforcement, and research
programs in EPA and other Federal agencies under the State/EPA Agreements, the water
quality management program functions to assure sound management of surface and ground
water resources, including drinking water, promote the development and implementation of
techniques, management practices and regulatory programs to control nonpoint sources of
pollution; promote the consideration of cost-effective alternatives to advanced waste
treatment construction; promote water conservation; and assure that effective pretreatment
and industrial source control programs are Implemented.

     The abatement, control and compliance program also includes the development and
publication of water quality criteria to reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the
kind and extent of identifiable effects of pollutants on health and welfare.  These
criteria are published under Section 304{a) and under support of Section 307(a) decisions
to add substances to the list of toxic pollutants.  The program assists States in develop-             '^
                                                                                                         t

                                           WQ.-10

-------
 ing water quality standards and reviews of State water quality standards to ensure that
 acceptable standards are established in each State.  The progr?m also includes the
 development of guidelines, standards and regulations to correct water pollution problems
 resulting from such sources as in-place toxicants and discharges from vessels and
 aquaculture projects; the regulation, implementation and the national management
 of a grants assistance program for the classification and restoration of the Nation's
 eutrophic lakes; and the national management, coordination and program development
 regulating the discharge of dredged or fill material, including the review and
 recommendation of requests from States for Section 404 permit authority.

     EPA monitoring and analysis activities are coordinated with State and other Federal
 efforts and include ambient water quality monitoring, data collection, and dissemination
 of water quality data.  Current programs include implementation of a water monitoring
 strategy to provide data and analyses needed by top management to establish policy and
 measure results of clean-up programs; establishment of a clearinghouse for water monitoring
 data to help improve coordination and integration of data collection efforts; and
 analysis of monitoring data to assist in development and implementation of standards
 and regulations.  Increasing emphasis 1s being placed on improving State capability to
 monitor toxic pollutants, nonpoint sources, and biological impacts.

     The emergency response program will direct its priority efforts toward implementation
 of the new Superfund program, which includes response and prevention of hazardous
 substance spills and emergency assistance at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.  The
 response and prevention activities associated with oil spill emergencies will continue
 under the authority of Section 311 of the Clean Water Act.

     The Marine Protection, Research and Sanactuaries Act of 1972, as amended, authorizes
 EPA to regulate the deposition of materials into the oceans, excepting dredge material.
 Under this authority, a permit program for ocean disposal of waste has been underway
 since 1973,  In addition, EPA has re-oriented its oceans program to include a coordinated
 approach to the problems in the ocean environment.  This re-orientation includes close
 interaction with other Federal agencies having ocean-related activities.

Purpose - _'|nf orcement Prograni

     The water quality enforcement program is responsible for implementing a number of
components of the Clean V.'ater Act.

     The permits issuance program has responsibility for both determining procedures
and issuing permits under the National  Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
 permit program.  The permit is the mechanism for imposing limitations, standards and
conditions on point source discharges into navigable waters of the United States.  At
the national  level, the program includes regulation writing and revision, national
program and policy guidance, and State permit program approval.  Regional activities
 include issuing permits, conducting adjudicatory hearings, and overseeing State permit
programs.  In 19P? the program will focus on the issuance of second round permits for
major industrial  dischargers, in accordance with BAT limitations.  Permits written
without BAT guidelines will  use best professional  judgment and will be more resource
 intensive.

     The goal  of the water quality enforcement program is to assure compliance with
Clean Water Act requirements.  At the national level this involves establishing policy
direction and guidance, program overview and support for specific regional compliance
monitoring and legal actions.  Regional  activities include emergency enforcement responses,
review and evaluation of self-monitoring reports,  inspections, use of administrative
sanctions to require compliance, referral and prosecution of lawsuits, and enforcement
of non-NPDES requirements.
                                           WO-11

-------
      SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES               (in thousands Of dollars)               '  N
        1981 Water Quality Program	                     $344,828
          Salaries and Expenses	                       +6,356

            The net Increase relates to the
            standards and regulations
            activities,  water quality moni-
            toring and analysis, monitoring
            systems and quality assurance,
            and water quality enforcement.
          Research and Development	                       -9,301

            The net decrease is a result of
            the progress made in assessing
            water quality concerns in the
            Chesapeake Say, and from the
            environmental engineering and
            technology activities.
          Abatement, Control and Compliance..                     -44,349

            The net decrease relates primarily
            to the areawide waste treatment
            management resources program,
            environmental  emergency response
            and prevention and the effluent
            standards and guidelines program.
         1982 Water Quality Program	                     "297,534"


SUIWARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATES

     1.  Summary of Budget Request

           A total  of $297,534,000 is requested in 1982.  This request, by appropriation
account, is as follows:

              Salaries and Expenses....	       $125,469,600
              Research and .Development	        141,787,400
              Abatement, Control and Compliance..         30,277,000

           This represents a decrease of $47,294,200 over the 1981  level.  The decrease
is due  primarily to the elimination of the areawide waste treatment management resource
program and the effluent standards and guidelines program policy decisions to promulgate
standards and guidelines over a longer-time frame.
                                         WO-12

-------
     2.  Changes from Original  1J)81  Budget Estimate

           Changes from the budget are as follows:

                                                               (In thousands of dollars)

           Original  1981 estimate........	                       $338,798

           Congressional decreases:
           ADP	                           -282
           Travel	                           -214
           Consulting Services	.	                           -765
           SES Bonuses...,	                           -186
           Abatement, Control  and Compliance
             general  directive  reduction...	                         -2,689
           Research  and Development
             general  directive  reduction.	,                           -411
           Aquatic weeds program	                     .      -545
           Urban systems activities	                           -250
           Clean Lakes	                         -2,500

           Congressional increases:
           Add-on for Academic  Training	                           +614
           Great Lakes increase	                         +2,000
           Control Agency resource
             supplementation	                         +2,500
           Cold climate research	                           +950
           Advanced  waste treatment  support	                           +300
           Waukegan  Harbor PCB	                         +1,500
           Transfer to support  Administrative
             Law Judges.....	                            -22
           Transfer to support  the Radiation Policy
             Council	                            -14
           Transfer  to support  the Office of
             Inspector General	                           -144
           Reprogramming to support  Three Mile
             Island  activity........	                             -5
           Reprogramming for authorized workyears.                           +-623
           Proposed  pay raise supplemental........                         +5,713
           Miscellaneous reprogrammings...	                         -1.143

           Current 1981 estimate	                        344,828


     Congresseional  changes to  the water quality media include a reduction of $282,000
from ADP, $214,000 from travel, $765,000 from consulting services, $186,000 from SES
Bonuses, general reductions of  $2,689,000 from Abatement, Control and Compliance and
$411,000 from Research and Development, $545,000 from aquatic weeds, 3250,000 from
urban systems, and $2,500,000 from clean lakes program.  Also, included are congress-
ional increases of $614,000 for academic training,  $2,000,000 for Great Lakes,
$2,500,000 for coantrol agency resource supplementation, $950,POO for the cold cliaiate
research, $300,000 for advanced waste treatment program, $1,500,000 for PCSs in
Waukegan Harbor.
                                        WO-13

-------
     A transfer of $22,000 was mads to the management  and  support  media to  support the
Office of Administrative Law Judges.

     A transfer of $14,000 was made to the radiation media to  support the Radiation
Policy Council.

     A transfer of $144,000 was made to the management and support media to  support
the Office of Inspector General.

     A reprogramming of $5,000 was made to the radiation media to  support Three Mile
Island activities.

     An overall Agency reprogramming to redistribute salary funds  resulted  in  an
increase of $623,000 to this media.  The proposed supplemental for partial  funding of
the October 1980 pay raise will increase the water quality media by  $6,713,000.
ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS
                                                             Current
                                                            Estimate     Estimate
                                                              1981         1982
                                                          (in thousands  of dollars)

     Prior year obligations	          $344,918      $343,410

      Congressional  Changes	               +22
      Proposed pay raise supplemental	            +6,713           ...
      Reprogrammi ngs,.	            -1,143           ...
      Change in amount of carryover funds
       available	            -5,417       +1,418
      Program decreases	           -12,833       -45,876
      Change in rate of obligation	           +11.15Q	-524	

     Total estimated obligations	           343,410       298,428
      (From new obligation authority)...	;-.*          (336,547)     (290,147)
      (From prior year funds)..	            (6,863)       (8,281)

EXPLANATION OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

     The items discussed in the previous section — congressional  changes, pay raise
supplemental, ADP, consulting services, general  reduction,  specific  reductions and
reprogramminns — result in a net increase of $5,592,000.

     The decrease in budget authority  in 1981  is estimated  to decrease obligations by
$12,833; in 1982 the reduced program is expected to decrease obligations by  $45,876.
                                        WQ-14

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY
PROGRAM LEVELS

State and Areawlde water
 quality management-
 (Section 208) plans
approved ...............

State and areawide water
 quality management
 (Section 208) Contiu-
 ation Grants Awarded...

Clean Lakes Projects
 Awards 	

Glean Lakes Projects
 Completed .............

Ocean Dumping Permits...

Construction Grants
Awards	
  Step I Awards 	
  Step II Awards 	
  Step III ft IV Awards..

Active Construction
 Grants Projects .......
         Budget    Current               Increase +
Actual  Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
 1980     1981       1981       1982     1982 vs. 1981
State Program Approvals
 (National Pollutants)
 Discharge Elimination
 System)	
Adjudieatory Hearings
 Settled (Major Sources)

Permits issued by EDA:

  Municipal--
   Major	,...
   Minor	

  Nonmunicipal --
   Major	
   Minor	

Enforcement Actions
 (Administrative Orders),
 Notices of Violation, and
 Referrals to U.S.Attorney

Compliance Inspections....





2
1.
11



1

2
70
165
126
15
40
,392
752)
608)
,032)
,054
33
84
445
687
588 ,
,792
771
,043
150
175
60
20
47
2,550
(400)
(1,200)
(950)
11,000
39
40
...
500
• * •
1,004
2,771
100
180
75
15
40
2,862
( 655)
(1,003)
(1,204)
11,682
33
126
460
• • •
249
• * «
930
2,860
130
0
75
20
55
3,146
( 525)
(1,113)
(1,503)
10,863
33
38
* • *
986
* * *
940 •
2,611
+30
-180
...
+5
+15
+234
(-130)
(+115)
(+399)
-819
t * *
-88
-460
• • •
+737
+10
-249

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
           MATER QUALITY

Water Quality Planning and Standards
           Budget     Current               Increase +
 Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
  1980      1981       1981       1982    1982 vs. 1981
Appropri at-1 on
State Programs
Regulations and
Guidelines:
Salaries and
Abatement, Control
Great Lakes Program:
Salaries and
Abatement, Control
Chesapeake Bay Program:
Salaries and
Expenses .............
Abatement, Control
and Compliance. ......
NEPA Compliance/EIS
Preparation:
Salaries and
Total:
Salaries and
Abatement, Control
Grand Total .............
Permanent Positions
State Programs
Regulations and
Gui del i nss ..........
Great Lakes Program.,.
Chesapeake Bay
NEPA Compllance/EIS
Total. 	
(dollars in thousands)
$11,616 $11,099 $10,542 $8,196
3,231 3,957 ,3,253 2,543
776 664 683 1,466
6,553 5,865 5,515 5,532
259 196 207 407
1,793 1,814 1,814 601
208 192 214
12,859
11,577
24,435
313
17
6
7
343
12,151
11,636
23,787
301
15
5
7
328
11,646
10,582
22,228
254
15
5
7
281
10,069
8,676
18,745
173
15
5
* * •
193
-$2,346
-710
+783
+17
+200
-1,213
-214
-1,577
-1,906
-3,483
-81
» * •
* * •
-7
-88
                 WO-16

-------
                                   Budget    Current                Increase +
                         Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                          1980      1981       1981       1982    1982 vs. 1981
                                        (o"ol1ars i n thousands)

Ful1-TimeEguivalency
State Programs
 Regulations and
  Guidelines	     412        393        336        250           -86
Great Lakes Program...      21         21         21         21           ...
Chesapeake Bay
 P rogram.	       7          6          6          6           ...
NEPA Compliance/EIS
 Preparation....	       7          7          7        ...            -7

Total.....	     447        427        370        277           -93

BudgetRequest

     The Agency requests a total of $18,744,500 of which $10,069,000 is salaries and
expenses and $8,675,500 is abatement control and compliance.  The decrease is due
primarily to the reduction in personnel under State Programs Regulations and Guidelines
related to the termination of the Section 208 grant program and the transfer of
responsibility for overall State-EPA agreement negotiations to another budget activity.

Program Description

     The water quality planning and standards subactivity includes four program
elements.

     State Programs Regulations and Guide!Ines - This program covers management
oversight arid' technical assistance activities involved in the implementation of
Federal, State, and local  water quality management programs, authorized under Sections
106, 201, 208, and 303 of the Clean Water Act.  Although Section 208 grants are
being terminated in 1982,  some support to priority nonpoint source (and related
point source) control program activities previously funded under Section 208 is
expected to continue under other EPA and other-agency funding sources.  Section 106
water pollution control agency grants will continue to support State implementation
of ongoing and emerging priority program activities not otherwise eligible for funding
under Section 205(g).  These programs are managed collectively through the integrated,
cooperative State/EPA Agreement process.

     GreatLakesProgram - The program covered by this subactivity is the Great
Lakesprogram, which includes funding for the Great Lakes Initiative program and
demonstration grants authorized by Section 108(a) of the Clean Water Act of 1977.
The Great Lakes National Program Office was established in 1978 to integrate and
consolidate EPA Great Lakes activities and to provide coordinated support to the
international Joint Commission's (IJC) Great Lakes Water Quality Board, in complying
with the 1978 U.S. - Canada Water Quality Agreement.

     Chesapeake Bay Prociram - The Chesapeake Bay'-Program was developed in response to a
Congressional mandate requiring EPA to conduct a study of the Chesapeake Bay, define the
factors adversely impacting the environment, develop research to address adverse factors,
and define management strategies to ameliorate degradation in the Bay due to pollution.  The
program has been developed through a cooperative effort between citizen groups, State
environmental agencies (Virginia and Maryland), and the EPA.

     This program was originally a five-year congressionally mandated program.  The sixth
year will be used to disseminate information developed during the previous five-years.

     The results of integrated studies 1n three priority areas i.e., toxic substances,
eutrpphication (nutrient enrichment and submerged aquactlc vegetation) will  provide a
predictive capacity to assess the consequences of pollutant loadings on the Chesapeake Bay
in terms of effects on the ecosystem, water quality impacts and uses of the system.  Capacity
to predict these impacts will aid management decisions at all  levels.

-------
     NEPA Complianee/EIS Preparation - The fourth element covered by this subaetivlty involves
environmental Impact statement (£15) preparation on Section 208 plans in voluntary compliance
with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).  This activity will be terminated together
with the Section 208 grant program in 1982.


STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONSAND GUIDELINES

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980, the Agency obligated $14,845,900 for this program activity of which $11,615,600
was for intramural purposes and $3,230,300 was for extramural purposes.  Grants totalling
$37.5 million were awarded under Section 208 to State.and designated areawide agencies for
nonpoint source control program development.  A total of $49.15 million was awarded under
Section 106 to support State water pollution control programs.  In addition, a total of
$3,168,000 in extramural funds was obligated for contracts in 1980, including: $1,456,000
for expert technical support to the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program, groundwater management,
point/nonpoint source analysis for Advanced Waste Treatment (AWT) decisions, silviculture
training program development, and development of financial and institutional aspects of
Water Quality Management (WQM) plans; $460,000 for EPA/USDA lAGs and details supporting the
agricultural  nonpoint source program; $898,000 for public education, outreach activities,
and technology transfer; and $354,000 for the Flathead River Study Major program accomplish-
ments were achieved in several areas including:

     State/EPA Agreements(SEA's)

     - Signed 59 1981 SEA's with States and other jurisdictions, most of which covered all
       major EPA and State programs.

     - Issued integrated annual program guidance providing comprehensive priorities to States
       and regional offices.

     - Conducted evaluations of all State SEA processes and issued a national report.

     Nonpoint Source Control

     - Awarded Section 208 grants covering more than 200 projects to State and areawide
       agencies which were successfully implementing approved initial plans and had identified
       continuing planning needs in priority problem areas.

     - Provided oversight and technical assistance to over 100 prototype projects including
       30 National Urban Runoff Projects (NURP); 29 agriculture (ACP/MIP); 13 Rural Clean
       Water (RCWP); 10 Financial Management Assistance; 1.0 point/nonpoint source tradeoff;
       and 10 groundwater management.

     - Managed approximately 200 other Section 208 funded projects in designated agencies
       dealing with mining, construction, hazardous and toxic wastes, residuals management,
       on-site waste treatment, and other priority State needs.

     - Approved 30 certified initial water quality management plans, submitted by States,
       bringing the total to 210 of the 225 which were funded in previous years under Section
       208.

     - Participated in national and State Rural Clean Water Coordinating Committees to direct
       USDA funds to assure focus of implementation cost-share assistance on water quality
       priority areas; selected jointly with USDA 13 major project areas emphasizing pesticides
       and hazardous substances control.  Funds went directly to farmers to assist them In
       implementing conservation plans for their lands which will reduce water pollution as
       well as control erosion.

     Sections 208/106 Grants Management

     - Awarded over $86 million to 165 designated 208 agencies and 63 State, interstate and
       territorial jurisdictions.

     - Completed a 5-year assessment of State needs covering programs funded with State
       resources supplemented under Sections 106, 208, and 314.
                                              WQ-18

-------
    . Public Information and Technology Transfer

     - Began implementation of a national information transfer program* which involved
       information and tracking systems, seminars, conferences, and written materials
       designed to share costeffective technical, financial, and institutional  approaches
       developed among State and local agencies.

     - Conducted a National WQM Conference attended by approximately 400 State, areawide
       agency, local, and Federal officials.

     - Conducted 41 training courses for Regional, State, and local agency staff.

     - Distributed 2 WQM Reports covering a general overview of the WQM Program and the
       status of agricultural NPS control.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $13,795,000 to this program,  of which
$10,542,000 is for Salaries and Expenses and $3,253,000 for Abatement, Control  and Compliance.

     In 1981, a total of $82.7 million in grants will be awarded including $34  million in
Section 208 grants and $51.2 million in Section 106 grants.  The total of $3,253,000 for
Abatement Control and Compliance will support contracts and grants including $519,000 for
the National Urban Runoff Project, $375,000 for the Financial Management Assistance Program,
$325,000 for groundwater management, $250,000 for municipal waste treatment management;
$250,000 for agricultural technical assistance; approximately $825,000 for information/ tech-
nology transfer, training, communications, and public participation and $709,000 for the
Flathead River Study.

     In 1981, major emphasis will be placed on transferring the initial results from prototype
and other successful projects to similar problem areas, assisting in State and  areawide
Implementation of initial WQM plans, implementing approved WQM plans in directing construction
grants and permitting; and directing available funds to meet highest priority water quality
needs.  Improved State and local capabilities to obtain and manage implementation resources
continues to be a high priority.  Specific outputs in 1981 will include:

     State/EPAAgreements(SEA's)

     - Assess the adequacy of WQM coverage in all 1981 SEA's and improve coordination among
       all programs.

     - Integrate all WQM programs under 1982 SEA's.

     Nonpoi nt Source Controls

     - Provide expert technical assistance to State and areawide agencies on nonpoint source
       control problems including urban runoff, agriculture, groundwater, and silviculture.
       Also provide assistance on institutional approaches and techniques for financing
       implementation of control programs.

     - Implement 10 new State/local groundwater management prototype projects.

     - Analyze and document cause-effect runoff/water quality relationships identified in
       prototype projects.  Prepare preliminary NURP Report to Congress and a State of the
       Art Report on agriculture.

     - Complete long term nonpoint source control strategies in all EPA Regions covering all
       States.

     - Assist State and local governments in implementing WQM programs including control
       legislation and ordinances.  Approximately 30 States and 560 local governments are
       expected to have strengthened NPS control and cost-share program authorities by the
       end of 1981.
                                             WQ-19

-------
     - Assist EPA and other Federal programs in implementing education and assistance programs
       for agriculture, silviculture! and Federal land management.

     - Work with States and USDA to select additional RCWP implementation cost-share projects
       which will assist farmers to apply water quality BMPs on their lands.

     Sectigns 208/106 Grants Etenagement

     • Assure use of approved WQM plans in directing State and EPA construction grants and
       permit programs.

     - Develop comprehensive policies and priority guidance for Section 106 grants management;
       work with States to assure that funds address highest priority water quality needs.

     - Complete approval of all initial 225 WQM plans; review and approve subsequent additions
       to WQM plan to ensure that they remain as current and comprehensive as possible.

     - As part of grants management improvement assure all funds are awarded by February 1981.

     Public. Information and Techno!ogy Transfer

     - Complete Implementation Information System for use by States and EPA.

     - Issue four WQM Reports covering Groundwater, Financial  Management, Small Alternative
       Waste Treatment Systems, and the 1990 Construction Srants Strategy.

     - Conduct more than 30 seminars on urban runoff, groundwater management, and financial
       management; a coordinated EPA/Forest Service training program on silviculture water
       quality management; a National WQM Conference to disseminate technical and other
       results of the Section 208 program and to develop future program policy directions
       with State and local participants.

1981Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $1,260,900 results from several actions, as follows:

      - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted,  President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of
$7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity
is $66,800.

      - The Congress reduced agencywide travel  costs by $850,000; a decrease of $4,400 was
applied to this activity.

      - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease of
$60,100 was applied to this activity.

      .- The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $34,300 was applied to this activity.

      - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by $750,000; a
decrease of $12,700 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $635,900 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted in
transfers from water quality permit issuance ($21,300); to standards and regulations (-$7,500);
from dredge and fill ($40,800); from public systems supervision program assistance ($51,800);
from environmental  emergency response and prevention ($34,500); from NEPA compliance-municipal
waste facility construction ($2,800); from ambient air quality monitoring ($7,600); from
manpower planning and training-water quality ($2,500); from water quality enforcement ($17,500);
to stationary source enforcement (-$20,000); and to ambient water quality monitoring (-$600).
                                             WQ-20

-------
     - Transfer $177,200 from NEPA compl1anee/EIS prep-new source discharge, ami $177,200
from areawide waste treatment management research, to provide for Flathead River Study.

     - Transfer $373,700 from standards and regulations, to support program actfvlties due
to reorganization,.

     - Transfer $20,200 to ambient water quality monitoring within Region 1, to realign
contract funds.

     - Transfer $1,000 from dredge and fill; and $700 from standards and regulations within
Region 2 to properly reflect the clean lakes function.

     - Transfer $3,300 from manpower planning and training-water quality; $5,200 from public
systems supervision program assistance; and $16,SOO from energy review and permitting within
Region 4, to fund an interagency agreement for a soil conservation expert.

     - Transfer $104,100 to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites for an analytical contract to
expand the regions capability to analyze high priority quick turnaround samples.

     - Transfer $6,000 from water quality enforcement within Region 9, to realign contract
funds.

     - Transfer $30,000 from Corps of Engineers within Region 10 to support an interagency
agreement.

     - Transfer $1..70Q to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites within Region 4, to reallocate
travel funds.

     - Transfer $2,504,600 to standards and regulations to reflect a program restructuring:
the movement of the clean lakes program.

     - Transfer of $29,400 was made to the Administrative Law Judges to provide additional
resources to support a new program for instituting civil noncompliance under Section 102 of
the Clean Air Act.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $10,739,000 and 173 permanent work years for this program,
of which $8,196,000 is for salaries and expenses and $2,543,100.is for Abatement Control
and Compliance.  The decrease of 81 permanent workyears and $2,346,000 reflects a reduction
in those resources related to the terminated funding of the 208 grant program and the transfer
of responsibility for overall State-EPA agreement negotiations to another budget activity.
From the Abatement Control and Compliance funds, $350,000 is to be used for Interagency
Agreements with other Federal agencies for technical support, $410,000 for the Flathead River
Study, $275,000 for grants for technology and other information transfer and $1,449,000 for
expert technical support to the Nationwide Urban Runoff program, groundwater management,
point/nonpoint source analysis for Advanced Waste Treatment (AWT) decisions, silviculture
training program administration, and financial/institutional considerations in implementing
State and local water quality management programs.

     In 1982 the WQM Program will continue to emphasize assistance in developing and
implementing cost-effective State and local point and non-point source control programs.
Assistance activities will include developing and issuing integrated funding and management
policies and guidance based on long-term national strategies; developing water quality
priorities based on demonstrated national, State, and local needs; developing needs based on
funding allocation procedures; negotiating problem-oriented State/EPA Agreements; providing
national and regional technical assistance; facilitating information transfer, providing
training programs tq share costeffective technological and institutional approaches; and
conducting evaluation programs to review and target regional and State activities.
                                          wn-21

-------
     The WQM Program will assure that all available funding sources are directed to identified
priority water quality needs.  The Agency will target additional Section 205(g) funds in
delegated States to support municipal waste management-related activities previously supported
under Section 106; Section 106 assistance priorities will be revised to support State and
local NPS priorities previously funded under Section 208, particularly groundwater problems,
in addition to new emerging State priority activities.  Support from other Federal funds and
staff (e.g., USDA) will be encouraged and used to the extent possible.

     State/EPA Agreements (SEA's)

     - WQM portions of comprehensive Agencywide guidance and coordination will be implemented
       to assure optimum program Integration and resources management between WQM and other
       programs.

     Nonpoint SourceControls

     - Groundwater management priority needs will be supported at the State level through
       use of Section 106 funds; 5-6 new demonstration projects will be Initiated; ongoing
       1980-81 projects will be completed and documented for transfer.

     - Interim NURP Report will be submitted to Congress on cause-effect water quality
       relationships; results of the 28 NURP projects will be documented and transferred to
       other urban locations nationally for implementation.

     - Ongoing agriculture (MIP/ACP) prototype projects will receive final EPA financial
       assistance; USDA resources will be expected to complete, evaluate and transfer results.
       Ongoing RCW? projects  will receive limited EPA technical assistance and oversight.

     - Section 208 projects funded in prior years will be reviewed and approved; NPS control
       technology data and implementation accomplishments will be documented for use by other
       State and local agencies and other Federal agencies.  Remaining nonpoint source control
       needs, point/nonpolnt source tradeoff analyses, and plan update requirements with
       respect to construction grants and permits will be supported by other available Federal
       and State resources.

     106 Grants Management

     - Section 106 grants will be negotiated as part of the SEA process with 63 States,
       Territories, and Interstate agencies.  Priorities will include strengthening toxics
       monitoring and analytical capabilities, review of water quality standards for
       attainability and appropriate revisions, operation of dredge and fill programs, nonpoint
       source (NPS) control programs administration, and NPS control program development
       previously funded under Section 208, particularly comprehensive groundwater management.
       Outputs will also be negotiated for ongoing programs including: permitting, enforcement,
       monitoring, emergency response program development and administration, and construction
       grants management and related activities in States not having 205(g) delegations.

     Pub1ic Information and Technology Transfer

     - Cost effective technological, financial and institutional approaches in implementing
       WQM plans will be documented and transferred to other State and local agencies.  This
       information transfer effort will emphasize results of completed national prototype
       projects and documentation of generally applicable self-sustaining planning and
       implementation principles and procedures.

GREAT LAKES PROGRAM

1980 Accofiipl i shments

     In 1980, the Agency obligated $7,329,000 for this program of this program of which
$776,000 was for Salaries and Expenses and Expenses appropriation and $6,553,000 for Abatement,
Control  and Compliance appropriation.  In 1980 the Great Lakes National Program continued
in the directions resulting from the intensive Agency review in 1979.  The basic directions
                                         WQ-22

-------
are:  to serve as a catalyst to actively involve the Agency's operating divisions and the                  |
States in an accelerated Great Lakes effort; to monitor Lake conditions, trends and responses;
and to demonstrate new techniques of controlling pollution within the Great Lakes.  Some
program accomplishments include:
     - Funded demonstrations of management practices which provide control of agricultural
       nonpoint sources pollution, particularly alternative tillage.techiques which limit
       erosion and save fuel.
     - Completed an intensive surveillance survey on Lake Huron.
     - Investigated inplace sediment pollutants was initiated in Indiana harbor in
       Lake Michigan.
     - Provided sediment expertise in the Waukegan harbor enforcement case on PCB's.
     - Initiated fish tissue sampling for toxics in cooperation with the States and the U.S.
       Fish and Wildlife Service to detect the presence of toxics 1n fish from the open waters.
     - Developed a strategy for locating toxic hot spots in harbors and estuary areas using
       fish flesh and sediment.
1981 Program
     In 1981, the Agency has allocated $6,198,000 and 15 permanent workyears to this program,
of which $683,000 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $5,515,000 is for
extramural purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
     Discovery of toxic hot spots will be initiated through sampling of non-migratory fish
and sediment in estuary and harbor areas.  Highest priority areas throughout the Lakes will
be addressed during 1981.
     - Trend analysis will continue to establish baseline toxics data by sampling throughout               1
       the Lakes.                                                                                          ^
     - An intensive survey fo the Niagara River, emphasizing toxics, will be conducted in
       cooperation with the State of New York.
     - An agricultural nonpoint source control initiative will be undertaken 1n the Lake
       Erie basin in cooperation with the States, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the
       U.S. Army Corps of Engineers with particular emphasis on control of phosphorus.
     - Atmospheric loading data will be gathered from the network of stations establish in
       1980 and others to be installed during the current year.
     - Section 108(a) grants will focus on demonstrating agricultural nonpoint source control
       techniques, particularly fuel efficient tillage practices supportive of improved
       water quality.
     - Lake Huron survey data will be analyzed by program staff and an extramural technical
       assistance team.                          ;
     - The Lake Michigan intensive survey report will be published.
     - Technical expertise in toxic sediments will be provided to support the Waukegan Harbor
       remedial program.
     - The catalyst role will continue and state efforts will be formalized in State/EPA
       Agreements.
                                          WO-23

-------
Tj81 Explanation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $331,400 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of
$7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity
is $3,400.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $15,000 was
applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $350,100 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $37,100 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total $6,998,000 and 15 permanent workyears for this program, of
which SI.466,000 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $5.532,000 is for the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     Toxics in the Great Lakes Ecosystem will continue to receive priority consideration in
terms of both identification and remediation.  Coordination and evaluation of toxic and
hazardous material control programs will continue, including analysis of the interrelationship
between the programs and control of airborne pollutants reaching the Lakes.

     Eoipahsis will continue to be on translating pollutant source data into remedial  action.

     Regulatory assessments and Section 108(a) grants will continue to be initiated and
directed toward the control of toxic pollutants in key Great Lakes areas.  The surveillance
programs will concentrate on identifying toxic hot spots and their sources while also continuing
to provide information on conditions and trends which support predictive "modeling and provide
the basis for measuring the need for controls and progress being made by them.

CHESAPEAKE BAY PROGRAM

1980Accomplishments

     In 1980 the Agency obligated $2,052,000 for this program activity including $259,000
for Salaries and Expenses and $1,793,000 for Abatement, Control and Compliance.

     - The toxics program developed Chesapeake Bay sediment characterization (physical and
       chemical parameters) maps of value in assessing dredging projects and critical in
       defining the State of the Bay.

     - The eutrophlcation program conducted a Bay-wide survey providing a synoptic set of
       data for chemical and physical parameters essential to water quality model verification
       and establishing a baseline against which future water quality can be measured.

     - The submerged aquatic vegetation program assessed ambient herbicide concentrations
       in the the shallow water portions of the Bay to aid in determining the role of
       herbicides in the decline of bay grasses.

     - A data management system composed of both hardware and software was established and
       is storing, analyzing and displaying Chesapeake Bay research data.

     - Coordination continued with State agencies in Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania
       responsible for water quality to plan and manage the Chesapeake Bay Program.
                                          wn-24

-------
1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated $2,021,000 and 5 permanent workyears of which $206,000
is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $1,814,000 is of extramural purposes under
the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     The program will complete many of the studies initiated in 1978 and Initiate the
comprehensive effort to integrate the results of research so that management decisions at
all the government levels can be based on a capability to assess the consequences of pollutant
loadings on the Chesapeake Bay.  This will be done in terms of effects on the ecosystem,
water quality, aquatic grassess, and on the impact of uses of the system.  The three highest
priority problem area studies are being integrated through ecosystem simulation, data analysis
and synthesis, and identification and evaluation of control alternative in conjunction with
the abatement and control decision units of this program.

     The toxics substances study effort will extend the baeline inventory of the abundance
and distribution of toxics in the Chesapeake Bay sediments, pore water, water column, and
biota into major tributaries.  These efforts are designed to allow identification of the
identification of the flux of materials between the Chesapeake Bay and the subestuarles.
Comprehensive research tasks are assessing both natural and authropogenic sources of toxic
chemicals in sediments, water, and biota and determining their rates of transport and
transformation within the system.  Study results will serve to delineate options to reduce
environmental hazard.

     The bay grasses study effort is addressing the impact of water quality factors upon
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) and living resources known or suspected to be dependent
upon SAV.  The role of bay grasses will be determined relative to their relationship to fish
and wildlife, their nutrient dynamics and the impact of man-induced factors (herbicides,
turbidity) suspected to be involved in the decline in grass populations.  Results will provide
a knowledge base rom which water quality control alternatives can be developed for the
enhancement of SAV and associated living resources.

     Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment) studies are assessing the nutrient loadings to the
Bay system and the impact of those loadings on the ecosystem.  Current research is directed
towards:  1) assessing point source information on municipal and industrial sources; 2)
compiling statistics on land use and population trends in the Bay basin; 3) measuring nutrient
loadings from the major tributaries to the Bay; 4) estimating nutrient fallout from the
atomosphere; 5) calculating nutrient fluxes from the sediments; 6) verifying nonpoint source
runoff from data collected on five test drainage basins; and 7) calibrating and verifying
mathematical models, including nonpoint source loading models, stream transport models and
water quality models.

     To research the overall goals of the program synthesis and integration will occur using
a geo-based approach, called segmentation.  The segmentation approach is designed to define
the Chesapeake Bay in mangeable units.  Natural and cultural parameters will be displayed
geographically to identify regions of commonality and assess the health of various segments.
As work is completed in the program areas, intermediary reports will be prepared supporting
the segmentation analysis by providing both qualitative and quantitative Information on the
relationship to the ecosystem of the parameters intended for use in the segmentation
analysis.

     Development of a data management system is "continuing.  This system will handle the
data produced by this program and provide the basis for a centralized data bank for use by
all local, State and Federal groups on the Bay.  State participation programs, with the
States of Maryland and Virginia, and citizen participation programs are also continuing to
provide key coordination links between the States, the public and the Chesapeake Bay Program.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $11,800 results from several actions, as follows:
                                           WO-25

-------
     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of
$7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity
is $1,000.

     - An increase of $12,800 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $1,008,00 and 5 permanent workyears, of which $407,000
is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $601,000 is for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.

     In 1982 the Chesapeake Bay Program will complete its integration approach to research
in the areas of toxic pollutant effects, submerged aquatic vegetation, and eutrophication.
This will include the completion of all technical studies, the integration of their results,
and the use of an ecological segmentation concept to assess existing information about the
biological, chemical, physical, and cultural aspects of the Chesapeake Bay.  Major
accomplishments and outputs will include:

     Chesapeake Bay Primer:  Explains important ecological relationships and will serve as a
reference for the following reports.

     Nutrients:  Explains changes in Bay over time, future codltions, sources, key processes,
-and effects' of toxics.

     Bay Gasses;  Explains changes in bay grasses overtime, current Distribution and Abundance,
what is knowabout he causes of decline and the role and value of SAV of the ecosystem.

     'Segmentation;  Describes the basic concept, its use elsewhere, how it will be done,
water IjuaTTty dfrjectives, monitoring, and the various institutional alternatives alternatives
available to administer it.

     Management Alternatives;  Identifies control alternatives for agriculture, sewage treatment
pi ants .industry, lirban runoff, and construction; estimates costs and effectiveness of
different approaches to remedy "hot spots."

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (HEPA) COMPLIA_NCE/ENVIRONMENITAL IMPACT

STATEMENT PREPARATION - WATER OjJAllTY                                          ;

     In 1930, the Agency obligated $208,500 for this activity.  All final IIS'-s on initial
Section 208 plans were completed.  Section 208 plans prepared under grants for continuing
planning were renewed to arrive that environmental assets required in the WQM planning process
were conducted in a manner consistent with the spirit and intent of the NEPA.  70 such plans
were approved in 1980.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated $213,600"under the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
for this activity.  More than 100 Section 208 plans prepared under grants for continuing
planning will be reviewed to assure that required environmental assessments have been conducted.

1981Explanation of ChangefromBudget Estimate

     The net increase of $21,200 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of
$7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity
is $1,200.


                                            WQ-26

-------
     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease of
$5,900 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $14,100 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted in
transfers from standards and regulation ($12,300); from water quality enforcement ($3,200)j
to ambient water quality monitoring (-$2,700), and from municipal waste treatment facility
construction ($1,600).

1982 Plan

     No resources are requested for this activity 1n 1982 due to the termination 1n funding
of the Section 208 grant program.  Activities to assure that required environmental assessments
are conducted in previously funded Section 208 planning will be carried out with resources
under the State Programs Regulations and Guidelines section.
                                           WQ-27

-------
                                 WATER QUALITY

                       Effluent Standards and Guidelines

                                Budget     Current                  Increase +
                      Actual    Estimate   Estimate    Estimate     Decrease -
                       1980      1981        1981        1982      1982 vs 1981
                                  (dollars in thousands)


Appropriation
Salaries and Expenses  $5,084     $6,367      $6,411      $6.334        -$77
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	21.380     23.678     r 22t931      12.914     .-JIP.P17.

Grand Total	 26,464     30,045      29,342      19,248     -10,094

Permanent Positi ons...    108        112         109         100          -9

Full-time Equivalency.    132        147         144         131         -13


Budget Requjest

     An appropriation of $19,247,800 and 100 permanent workyears 1s requested for 1982.
This is a decrease  of $10,094,000 and 9 permanent workyears from the 1981 level of
$29,342,000 and 109 permanent workyears.  The decreased funding and permanent workyears
reflect policy decisions to: 1) promulgate effluent standards and guidelines over a
longer time-frame;  2) stretch-out contract support for litigation due to slippages in
the effluent standards and guidelines schedule; 3) transfer contract dollars associated
with hazardous waste regulatory development to the Office of Solid Waste to ensure
better accountability and consistent implementation of the OSW strategy; -and 4) accelerate
completion of the revised publicly owned treatment works study with FY 1982 resources.

Program Pescription

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 established a comprehensive
program to "restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of
the Nation's waters." Existing Industrial  dischargers were required by July 1, 1977,
to apply the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT) to effluent
limitations (Section 3.01 (b)(1 )(A)) and by July 1, 1983, the best available technology
economically achievable ("BAT") (Section 302 (b)(2)(A)).  These will result in reasonable
further progress toward the national goal  of eliminating the discharge of all pollutants
("BAT").  New industrial direct dischargers are required to comply with Section 306 new
source performance standards (NSPS), based on best available (BAT) demonstrated technology;
and new and existing dischargers to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) are subject
to pretreatment standards under Sections 307(b) and (c) of the Act.  While the requirements
for direct dischargers are to be incorporated into National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) permits issued under Section 402 of the Act, pretreatment standards are
made enforceable directly against dischargers to POTWs (indirect dischargers).  Accordingly,

     Section 304(b) of the Act requires the Administrator to promulgate regulations
providing guidelines for effluent limitations, setting forth the degree of effluent
reduction attainable through the application of BPT and BAT.  Moreover, Sections
304(c) and 306 of the Act require promulgation of regulations for NSPS, and Sections
304(f), 307(b), and 307(c) require promulgation of regulations for pretreatment
standards.  In addition to these regulations for designated industry categories.
Section 307(a) of the Act requires the Administrator to promulgate effluent standards
applicable to all dischargers of toxic pollutants.  Finally, Section 501 (a) of
the Act authorizes the Administrator to prescribe any additional regulations
"necessary to carry out his functions" under the Act.
                                            WH-28

-------
      The EPA was unable to promulgate many of these regulations by the dates
contained in the Act.  In 1976, EPA was sued by several environmental groups, and
in settlement of this lawsuit EPA and the plaintiffs executed a "Settlement" Agreement"
which was approved by the Court.  This Agreement required EPA to develop a program
and adhere to a schedule for 21 major industries (37 industry categories) and to
promulgate for BAT effluent limitations guidelines, pretreatment standards, and
new source performance standards for 65 "priority" pollutants and classes of pollutants
(129 specific pollutants).  (See Natural Resources Defense Council. Inc. v. Train,
8 ERC 2130 (D.O.C. 1976), modified March 9, 1979).             '~

     On December 27, 1977, the President signed into law the Clean Water Act of
1977.  Altnough this law makes several important changes in the Federal water
pollution control programs, its most significant feature is its incorporation into
the Act of several of the basic elements of the Settlement Agreement program for
toxic pollution control.  Sections 301(b)(2)(A) and 301(b)(2)(C) of the Act now
require the achievement by July 1, 1984 of effluent limitations requiring application
of BAT for "toxic" pollutants, including the 65 "priority" pollutants and classes
of pollutants which Congress declared "toxic" under Section 307(a) of the Act.
Likewise, EPA's programs for new source performance standards and pretreatment
standards are now aimed principally at toxic pollutant controls.  Moreover, to
strengthen the toxics control program, Section 304(e) of the Act authorizes the
Administrator to prescribe "best management practices" ("BMPs") to prevent the
release of toxic and hazardous pollutants from plant site runoff, spillage or
leaks, sludge or waste disposal, and drainage from raw material storage associated
with, or ancillary to, the manufacturing or treatment process.

     In keeping with its emphasis on toxic pollutants, the Clean Water Act of 1977
also revises the control programs for non-toxic pollutants.  Instead of BAT for
"conventional" pollutants identified under Section 304(a)(4) (including biochemical
oxygen demand, suspended solids, fecal call form and pH), the new Section 3Ql(b)(2)(E)
requires achievement by July 1, 1984, of "effluent limitations requiring the applica-
tion of the best conventional pollutant control technology" ("BCT").  The factors
considered in assessing BCT for an industry include the costs of reducing effluent
and the benefits derived compared to the costs and effluent reduction benefits
from the discharge of publicly owned treatment works (Section 304(b)(4)(B)).  For
non-toxic, nonconventlonal pollutants, Sections 301 (b) (2) (A) and (b)(2)(f) require
achievement of BAT effluent limitations not later than July 1, 1987.

     The Agency continues to address toxic pollutants through regulations for BAT,
new source performance standards and pretreatment standards as required by the Clean
Water Act of 1977,  These regulations are aimed at controlling the water discharge
of 129 specific toxic chemicals from 34 primary industry categories.  All of these
34 industry categories are under study.  Many of the studies are nearly completed,
and proposed regulations have been issued in 12 industrial categories.  Each category
requires examination of processes in the industry, water usage, wastewater character-
istics, and treatment technologies either in use or potentially applicable.  In
addition, the requirement for economic achievability has led the Agency to conduct
exhaustive studies of the financial  and economic achievability of various regulatory
options.

     In those industry categories which require hazardous waste controls under the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Agency is formulating best manage-
ment practices (BMP) under Section 304(e) of the Clean Water Act.  These will be
used to control toxic pollutants originating from plant site runoff, spillage or leaks,
sludge or other waste disposal, and  drainage from raw material storage facilities.

     The new technology-based limitations for conventional pollutants cannot be less
stringent than BPT or more stringent than BAT standards.  On August 29, 1979, the
Agency promulgated its review of existing BAT limitations for conventional pollutants
of industries not included in the 34 specifically covered by the 1977 Clean Water
Act.  This regulation also detailed  the methodology which will be used to evaluate
BCT when it is established in the future.  The BCT regulations will save these industries
up to $200 million in water pollution control costs, or about 50 percent of previously
estimated future clean-up and control expenditures.


                                      WO-29

-------
     Consistent with Section 307(b) and (c) of the Clean Water Act, pretreatment
standards for both existing and new industrial sources are forthcoming,  with approxi-
mately 12 industrial categories now proposed,,  These standards will include pretreat-
ment limitations on the discharge of toxic pollutants that pass through  or interfere
with the operation of POTWs, consistent with the demonstrated operating  performance
of POTWs.

     In developing new regulations and in reviewing existing ones, there is a major
effort to Incorporate legislative requirements of the Clean Water Act with those of
other statutes in a systems approach to water quality control.  As an example, in
the development and review of BAT regulations, new technology for recycle and reuse
of industrial wastewater is being developed and incorporated with the related RCRA
requirements for disposal of hazardous wastes.  Studies of how best to integrate the
regulatory requirements of the BAT toxics control effort with RCRA are ongoing.  The
Office of Water Regulations and Standards Is providing data support and  formulating
specific best management practice regulations for the control of residues and sludges
in coordination with both the Office of Water Enforcement and the Office of Solid
Waste.

     In 1982, the Agency will continue collect and analyze technological, economic,
health, and general environmental factors for the development of specific regulations
required by the Clean Water Act and RCRA.  To complete the revision of the existing
BAT limitation guidelines, the Agency will continue to characterize effluents with
respect to the 129 specific toxic chemicals and metals and to evaluate the effectiveness
of appropriate treatment technology and control measures.  Technical, statistical,
and economic support will be provided to respond to litigation against promulgated BAT
regulations.  The Agency will also provide technical assistance to Regional and State
permit writers in translating BAT, BCT and BW technical studies with particular emphasis
on the toxic pollutants.

     To complete the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT) regulations,
new technical, economic, and statistical data bases will be compiled to  determine the
necessity of revising BAT regulations to meet the added test of economic reasonableness
imposed by the Clean Water Act for conventional pollutants.  This will ensure the most
appropriate control mechanism define the required level of technology and select the
most technically viable regulatory approach.  Thorough economic Impact analyses of
affected industries will be conducted to assess alternative limitations  and, in parti-
cular, to assure that the ultimate regulations are economically achievable and equitable.

1980 Accompl 1 shments

     In 1980, the Agency obligated $26,464,400 for this activity, including $5,084,300
for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $21,380,100 for the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation.  The latter includes $20,880,700 for contracts, $301,900
for ADP costs and $197,500 for interagency agreements.  Contract obligations included
$13,364,400 for technical analytical studies, $3,733,000 for economic and statistical
analysis, $1,744,200 for determination of health effects; and $2,274,100 for analysis
of environmental distributions of pollutants and exposure risk.  The technical and
analytical studies included work on proposal and promulgation of best available techno-
logy economically achievable effluent guidelines, new source performance standards
(NSPS), and pretreatment standards for new sourc'es and existing sources  for the 34
industries specified in the NRDC Settlement Agreement and the 1977 Clean Water Act.
These studies also provided for the continution of the development of regulations for
BMPs, for RCRA related hazardous sludges, BCT regulations, development of a preliminary
POTW toxic pollutant regulatory strategy, and conducting the first phase of the synfuel
investigations with priority on gasohol manufacture,

During 1980, program accomplishments included:

     -  Completed technical studies for the development of proposed
        regulations in eight primary industries.  This work included
        detailed laboratory analysis of effluent samples collected
        from plants In each subcategory of each industry, evaluation
                                             WO-30

-------
of the treatment performance of pollution abatement equipment
currently used 1n each industry, accounting for variations
in plant size, expansion space availability, location, age,
and production processes.  The technical studies also explored
the feasibility of process changes to recycle or reuse water
and the range of treatment technologies used in other industries
that might apply to the industry under study*  For each treatment
option, process change, and alternative technology, the costs
incurred by plants in the industry were determined.

Published proposed regulations establishing national effluent
limitations and standards for eight industries as mandated by
the NRDC Settlement Agreement and the 1977 Clean Mater Act.

Completed economic studies for development of proposed regulations
1n eight of the 34 industries.  Because full economic impact
information is required before a preferred treatment option is
selected, each treatment alternative must be subjected to an
economic analysis.  These analyses become successively more
detailed as the range of options narrows; the final small group
of options considerd are examined separately for impacts on
prices, production, employment, industry size and concentration,
foreign trade, regional economics, and the economics of related
industries.  A precursor to this step is the analysis of economic
data on the industry to determine the economic and financial
structure of model plants most appropriate for regulatory economic
assessment of the industry.  When necessary, economic impacts
are determined according to several alternative economic
organizational assumptions.

Continued to incorporate requirements of other statutes,
particulary RCRA, into technical and economic studies to
develop industrial effluent guidelines.  Information on sludge
generation, storage, and disposal and associated costs, and
the handling of hazardous materials and other solid wastes
played a major role in the development and proposal of effluent
guidelines regulations.  Support for this work included
collection of initial data on sludge generated by two industrial
point source categories and by POTW.  These data provided a
technical input to the Office of Solid Waste on sludges
generated by industrial BAT requirements as well as POTW
sludges controlled under Section 405(d) guidelines as part
of an expanded complementary activity for RCRA.  This effort
will reduce corporate and governmental administrative burdens
in data collection, permit issuance and compliance.

Proposed and promulgated Agency analytical  methods of analyses
of toxics in industrial wastewater and continued investigations
of methods applicable to toxic analysis of sludges and other
complex Industrial waste streams.

Incorporated into new regulations consideration of innovation
and alternative treatment technologies (Including cost and
energy), and enhanced recycling and reuse of wastewater to
reduce industrial costs, alleviate economic impacts, and
enhance environmental benefits.

Began development of data to define model plants for synfuels
in gasohol, high BTU coal gasification, low BTU gasification,
direct coal liquefaction, and oil shale synfuel•technologies*
The model plants will be used to establish baseline discharges,
baseline capital costs and operation and maintenance costs for
synfuel facilities using the best availble data from existing
pilot scale facilities.
                                  WO-31

-------
     -  Continued to investigate levels of toxic pollutants discharged
        to and by POTW through wastewater and sludge.  The results
        will guide the Agency's approaches to implementation of
        pretreatment policies and programs, to sludge disposal or
        beneficial uses, and to re-exainination of standards for
        wastewater discharges from POTW.

     -  Conducted environmental studies, including geographical and
        quantitative industrial profiles fo an overall environmental
        risk assessment of eight additional BAT industries.  This
        study involved extensive data gathering in each region of the
        Nation to determine the concentration of pollutants in the
        environment in those regions.  This information will identify
        the regions and industries that require special attention
        because of the severity of their point source pollution problems,

     -  Performed best conventional pollutant control technology studies
        for eight of the 34 industries mandated by- the NRPC Settlement
        Agreement and the 1977 Clean Water Act.  This required examination
        of data on incremental cost of conventional pollutant removal to
        determine a reasonable level for treatment of conventional pollu-
        tants in each subcategory.

     -  Initiated technical support for implementation of the standards
        in the NPDES integrated permits.  The individual plants in each
        industry will face different limitations, depending on their own
        process mixes and water use.  For NPDES permit writing, methods
        will be developed to interpret each regulation or set of regula-
        tions applicable to each plant In the light of process wastewater
        and sludge generation, wastewater treatment, and waste stream
        contnnation within the plant.  Recycle and reuse of waste-
        waters as well as other Innovative technologies will be
        major factors incorporated into permit writing procedures.
        Because of this, and because of many possibilities for chemical
        reaction and waste dilution within the plant, these methods
        will be based on a process and chemical engineering knowledge
        of the plant's production and discharge practices, and
        their relationship to the standards.

     -  Initiated further measures to add substances to the Administrator's
        list of toxic polluants, as required in Section 307(a) of
        the Clean Water Act, by developing a selection rationale for
        choosing pollutants; and by documenting the human health and
        environmental effects of those pollutants.

     -  Continued ongoing studies of industrial BMPs for raw material
        storage and handling, and control of 1n-plant spills.
        Incorporated BMP study results into industrial effluent guidelines
        regulations where appropriate.

     •-  Effluent and sludge from an additional 20 PGTWs were sampled
        for the "priority 129 toxic pollutants."  In addition, two
        special surveys were conducted to assess the impact of industrial
        pretreatment standards on POTW influents.

1981 Program

     For 1981, the Agency requested $29,342,000 and 109 permanent workyears for this
activity,  including $6,411,000 for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and
$22,931,000 for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  Extramural
funds were requested for technical investigations, economic and statistical support,
exposure and risk assessments, analytical and sampling support, and support for
court litigation and remands.  In 1981, the program will:
                                             WO-32

-------
Propose and promulgate regulations for BAT effluent guidelines,
new source performance standards, pretreatment standards for
existing sources, and pretreatment standards for new sources
for 18 of the 34 industries specified in the 1977 Clean Water
Act.

Complete economic analyses for 18 industries.  Because full
economic impact information is required before a preferred
treatment option is selected, each treatment alternative must
be subjected to an economic analysis.  These analyses become
successively more detailed as the range of options narrows; the
final small group of options considered are examined separately
for impacts on prices, production, employment, industry size
and concentration, foreign trade, regional economics, and the
economics and capacities of related industries.  A precursor
to this step is the analysis of economic data on the Industry
to determine the economic and financial structure of model
plants most appropriate for regulatory economic assessment of
the Industry.  When necessary, economic impacts are determined
according to several alternative economic organizational
assumptions.

Promulgate BCT regulations for the above 18 industries to serve
as back-up to BAT (toxics) regulations.  Supporting industry
technical studies will be prepared and will include discussions
for relevant alternatives and decision criteria as assistance to
the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit
authorities.  Efforts will include final promulgation of amendments
or issuance of guidance, for BCT limitations for several food
commodity industries in compliance with the review requirements
of Sections 301 and 306 of the Clean Water Act.

Conduct detailed analyses and sampling for expedited regulatory
schemes for snyfuels, including coal gasification, direct
and indirect coal liquefaction, and oil shale industries.
Included will be a technical effort encompassing an investigation
of several major aspects of each of the synfuel technologies,
and an economic analysis which includes a review of all existing
information on the potential financial and economic structure
of the industry for the development of appropriate economic models.

Develop and prescribe best management practices (BMP) in support
of RCRA controls of hazardous wastes (e.g., treatment and disposal
of sludges containing toxic chemicals) for several major primary
industries.  The data from the sampling and analysis of "spills"
and sludge waste streams will be Incorporated into this effort
to help define the potential for toxic discharges into surface
waters as well as potential mechanisms for treatment or control
by traditional or innovative management schemes.

If possible, complete documentation of;"innovative" technology
to minimize the overall discharge of all toxics for ten industry
categories, representing over 300 subcategories.  Concepts which
reduce costs of pollution control or result in Improved production
system efficiency by recycle and reuse of by-products and wastes
will be emphasized in "Innovative" technology review.

Provide technical support to regional and State permit authorities
for non-conventional waivers and how best to Interpret and apply
regulations In situations where pollutants have been excluded
from the regulations.  This technical assistance will provide
advice on those industry subcategories or facilities excluded
from national  standards or problems involving BAT regulation of.
non-conventional  pollutants.
                                      WQ-33

-------
     -  Continue treatability studies focusing on larger pilot studies
        for actual industrial waste streams.  Specific emphasis will
        be placed on those pollutants that cannot be readily removed or
        treated by traditional methods.

     -  Provide contract management support to the Office of Solid
        Waste in managing industrial waste evaluation programs (see
        detailed program descriptions for solid waste, waste management
        strategies, regulations, and guidelines).

     -  Formulate recommendations and publish reports on specific POTW
        regulatory strategies, including support for mechanisms for
        pretreatment credits at the local level.  Provide support to
        Office of Water Program Operations and Office of Water Enforcement
        Program efforts and guidance to regions and States on POTW toxics
        problems.  Recommendations will incorporate definitions of best
        practicable waste treatment technologies for POTWs and implications
        for sludge disposal and associated program aspects for municipal
        grants.

     -  Provide technical and economic analyses to respond to anticipated
        litigation covering 26 industry categories cited in the 1977
        Amendments.  Assistance in the preparation of court records for
        five promulgated BAT (toxics) regulations will also be required.

1981 ExplanationofChanges from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $703,500 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for.Salaries and Expenses.
The reduction applied to this activity is $29,200.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a
decrease of $81,500 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abate-
ment, Control and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $696,900 was applied
to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by
$750,000; a decrease of $71,100 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease
of $11,500 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $264,400 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay
raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - A transfer of -550,000 was made to the radiation media in order to
support the Radiation Policy Council.         -

     A transfer of -$13,500 was made to the Administrative Law Judges to
provide additional  resources to support a new program for instituting civil
noncompllance penalties under Section 102 of the Clean Air Act.

1982 Program

     For 1982, the Agency requests $19,247,800 and 100 permanent workyears for this
activity, including $6,333,900 for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and
$12,913,900 for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  Extramural funds
are requested for technical  investigations, economic and statistical support, exposure
and risk assessments, analytical  and sampling support, and support for court litigation
and remands.  In 1982, the program will:
                                           wn-34

-------
Complete rulemaklng activities for best available technology
economically achievable effluent guidelines, new source
performance standards, pretreatment standards for existing
sources and pretreatment standards for new sources for seven
industries specified in the 1977 Amendments.

Complete economic analysis for the above seven industries.. Because
full economic impact Information is required before a preferred
treatment option 1s selected, each treatment alternative must be
subjected to an economic analysis.  These analyses become successively
more detailed as the range of options narrows; the final small
group of options considered are examined separately for impacts
on prices, production, employment, industry size and concentration,
foreign trade, regional economics, and the economics and capacities
of related industries.  A precursor to this step is the analysis
of economic data on the industry to determine the economic and
financial structure of model plants most appropriate for regulatory
economic assessment of the Industry.  When necessary, economic
impacts are determined according to several alternative economic
organizational assumptions.

Complete rulemaklng activities for BCT regulations for the above
seven industries to serve as back-up to BAT (toxics) regulations.
Supporting industry technical aspects studies will be prepared
and will include discussions of relevant alternatives and decision
criteria as assistance to the NPDES permit authorities.

Propose regulations for BAT effluent guidelines, new source
performance standards, pretreatment standards for existing
sources, pretreatment standards for new sources for synfuels,
including coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction,
and oil shale industries.  These standards are being developed 1n
support of the national synfuel program, and thus are accorded a
high priority in keeping with national energy priorities.

Complete economic impact analyses for the synfuels industries,
Including coal gasification, direct and indirect coal liquefaction,
and oil shale industries.  Because full potential economic Impact
Information is required before preferred treatment options are
selected, each treatment option must be subjected to an economic
analysis.  These analyses become successively more detailed as
the range of options narrows; the final small group of options
considered are examined separately for impacts on potential prices,
production, employment, industry size and concentration, regional
economics, and the economics and capacities of related industries.
A precursor to this step is the analysis of economic data on
these new industries to determine the economic and financial
structure of model plants most appropriate for regulatory economic
assessment of the potential industry.  When necessary, economic
impacts are determined according to several alternative economic
organizational assumptions.


Provide technical, economic, and statistical support to respond
to anticipated litigation covering 18 industry categories.
Assistance in the preparation of court briefs and records will be
required.
                                wq-35

-------
                                    WATER QUALITY

                               Grants Assistance Program
                                               Budget    Current                Increase +
                                     Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                      1980      1981       1981   '    1982    1982 vs. 1981
Appropriation
Control Agency Resource
 Supplementation {Section 106):
  Abatement, Control and
   Compl i ance.	
Areawide Waste Treatment
 Management Resources
 (Section 208):
  Abatement,, Control and
   Compl i ance	
Training Grants (Section 104):
  Abatement, Control and
   Compl1ance	
Clean Lakes Program:*
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	
                                                (dollars in thousands)
$49,158   $48,730-    $51,230     $53,300     +$2,070
 37,902    34,000     33,823
  2,513       ...        614
 20.235    13,500     11.000
11.500
           -33,823
              -614
+500
Total	,.	   109,808    96,230     96,667
                                  64,800
           -31,867
•Clean Lakes positions are Included in Water Quality Strategies Implementation
 category,

Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of 564,800,000 for 1982 under the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation.  Included in this total is a decrease of $33,822,800
from the 1981 level in Section 208 areawide waste treatment management resources
reflecting termination of this planning grant program.  An increase of $2,070,000 in
grants for State water pollution control programs, an increase of $500»0°0 in the
Clean Lakes program, and a decrease of $614,300 in Section 104 Training Grants due to
a nonrecurring 1981 Congressional add-on for academic training.

Program Descrlption

      The water quality grants assistance program under the Clean Water Act includes
four elements:  water pollution control State program grants under Section 106,
Section 208 planning grants, Clean Lakes grants under Section 314 and Section 104
training grants.

Control Agency Resource Supolementation

      Section 106 grants supplement State resources for water pollution control
programs.  They are negotiated annually as part of the State/EPA Agreements
(SEAs) with 50 States, 7 Territorities, and 6 Interstate agencies.  Funds have
been directed to cover a wide range of water quality programs including permits,
enforcement, monitoring, municipal facilities construction and management, oil
and hazardous materials spill response, and other priority programs.  As States
receive Section 205(g) delegations of construction grants management responsibilities,
funding is provided under that Section for construction grants management.
                                           Wn-36

-------
     Beginning in 1982, development of State and areawide groundwater management
programs previously funded under Section 208 will  be a priority under Section 106.
Other priority nonpoint source control needs identified by States may also be
supported under Section 106 funds.

Areawide Waste Treatment Management Resources

     The Clean Water Act provides for financial support of State and designated areawide
water quality planning agencies under Section 208.  This authority, combined with Sections
106 and 303 of the Act, provides the basis for control of nonpoint and point sources
under the Act.  Section 208 grants are awarded to State and designated areawide planning
agencies for continuing planning programs which address National, State and local nonpoint
source pollution priorities.  The Clean Water Act provides for financial  support of State
and designated areawide water quality planning agencies under Section 208.  This authority,
combined with Sections 106 and 303 of the Act, provides the basis for control of nonpoint
and point sources under the Act.  Section 208 grants have been awarded to State and
designated areawide planning agencies for development of continuing planning programs
which address highest National, State, and local pollution control priorities.  Initial
plans have been completed by all 225 funded agencies establishing a basic water quality
management framework.

Clean Lakes Program

     Under the Clean Lakes Grant program, financial  assistance is provided to States to
classify their publicly owned fresh water lakes according to trophic conditions and to
carry out methods and procedures to restore and protect the quality of those lakes.  To
date the Agency has received 267 applications for lake restoration and has funded 206
projects.

Training Grants

     Academic training grants are awarded to institutions of higher education to meet
professional manpower needs.  Efforts in this area are divided into three primary
categories; the professional graduate training program, the State agency fellowship
program, and undergraduate training grants.  Curriculum development and other special
training projects in critical areas of water pollution control are also supported.

CONTROL AQENCY .RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION (Section 106)

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980, $49,158,200 was obligated for Section 106 grants, matched by approximately
$100 million in State resources.  Traditional State activities funded under Section 106
included NPDES permits issuance and enforcement, monitoring, municipal waste treatment
operations and maintenance (O&H), operator training, the State continuing planning process,
Water Quality Standards (WQS) adoption, and construction grants program management 1n
States which had not yet signed Section 205(g) delegation agreements.  Emerging national
program priorities were also funded to a limited extent under Section 106.  Toxics
considerations were introduced into NPDES permitting, monitoring, and WQS development.
Other priority areas included emergency response program administration and contingency
planning; pretreatment programs; Section 404 dredge and fill programs; and administration
of nonpoint source (NPS) control programs.  With the support provided by Section 106
grants:

     -  33 States issued, reissued, and modified permits, and conducted
        compliance inspections and enforcement activities under NPDES
        delegations; the other States assisted EPA in most aspects of
        permits development.

     -  All States progressed in developing full Basic Water Monitoring
        Programs (BWMP) with special emphasis on improved utilization of
        intensive surveys in problem assessment and solution design.
                                            WO-37

-------
     -  The States reviewed and certified Corps of Engineers dredge and
        fill permits as required under Section 401, and worked toward
        assuming Section 404 responsibilities.

     -  The State emergency response program enabled more than 2000
        responses to oil and hazardous materials emergencies.

     -  All States progressed 1n developing pretreatment programs.

     -  Some States gave priority to overseeing and coordinating Statewide
        NPS control implementation programs developed under Section 208  •
        planning grants.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency allocated $51,230,000 for Section 106 grants under the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  Consistent with overall national
priorities and State needs, States and EPA will negotiate complementary activities
and funding levels in the State/EPA Agreements. 'In addition to continued support
of traditional State water pollution control activities, new 1981 national priorities
Include:

     -  toxics criteria in WQS reviews and revisions; strengthening of
        municipal waste treatment 0AM and operator training to improve

        POTW continuing compliance and operation up to design capabilities;

     -  pretreatment program development; establishment of BWMP limited
        fixed station network with toxic monitoring capabilities; compli-
        ance monitoring of toxics, pretreatment, and BAT permits; toxics
        considerations in permitting and enforcement;

     -  POTW continuous compliance"enforcement.

No NPDES delegations are expected.  However, 16 States will have new or expanded
205{g) delegations in 1981, with 5 States accepting full delegation of construction
grants management responsibilities.  Non-delegated States will continue to receive
available Section 106 support for their construction grants management and permitting
activities as determined in the SEA process.

1981Explanation of Change fromBudget Estimate

     The Congress increased the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation
by $2,500,000 to support the Section 106 State Water Grants.

1982Plan

     In 1982, the Agency requests $53,300,000 for Section 106 grants under the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation, an increase of $2,070,000 over the 1981 level.
The Agency will work through the State/EPA agreeements with the States to ensure that
available funds for 106 grants are directed to national priorities and water quality
needs identified in the national needs assessment and in State Section 305(b) reports.
The Section 106 funds requested will  be directed particularly to comprehensive ground-
water management program development previously funded under Section 208 grants.
The request will also cover additional emerging priority activities including:
toxics monitoring and analytical capabilities, review of water quality standards for
attainability and appropriate revisions, operation of dredge and fill programs, and
nonpoint source control programs administration.  Ongoing programs such as permitting
monitoring, and compliance will also continue to receive assistance based on national
priorities, SEA priorities, and availability of funds-.  Two new NPDES delegations
are expected in 1982.  In 1982, 46 States are expected to have signed a Section 205(g)
delegation agreement; 14 will have assumed all or most delegable construction grants
management activities.  Section 205(g) funds can be targeted in these delegated States
to support all municipal waste management-related activities previously supported in


                                           WQ-38

-------
these States by Section 106 grants funds.  Construction grants management-related
activities will include: pretreatment, operations and management, operator training,
municipal compliance monitoring, and point and nonpoint source planning related to
construction grants decisions.  Other activities eligible for funding under 205(g)
include development of Section 402/404 delegations.


AREAWIDE UASTE TREATMENT MANAGEMENT (Section 208)

1980 Accompli shments

     In 1980, the Agency obligated $37,901,500 among 165 designated agencies for
Section 208 grants under the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appropriation.
National priorities for grant awards emphasizes the major national problem areas of
urban runoff, agricultural  nonpoint source (NPS), and ground water management, as
described in the 1980 Water Quality Management (WQM) 5-year strategy and the funding
guidance.  Funding was targeted through State/ EPA Agreements to develop solutions
to one or more priority NPS problems identified In those agencies" initial WQM plans.
All funded agencies had successfully completed Initial plans and were determined by
the regions to be making acceptable progress in implementing significant portions
of their initial plans.  Another 60 agencies were not funded In 1980, but continued
previously funded projects.  Additional information on the WQH program will be found
under the State Program Regulations and Guidelines Section.  In 1980 Section 208 grants;

     -  Supported 30 National Urban Runoff Projects (NURP) designed to
        establish cause-effect water quality relationships and provide
        basis for recommendations in 1983 Report to Congress,

     -  Initiated ground water management demonstration projects designed
        to establish State and local management programs using effective
        Best Management Practices (BMP).

     -  Funded designated agencies to develop Statewide and local nonpoint
        source control programs for urban runoff, agriculture, silviculture,
        ground water, hydromodification, construction runoff and other State
        priority needs.

     -  Under agreement with USDA, supported cause-effect monitoring and
        evaluation of BMP implementation in 13 cost-share projects funded
        under the USDA Rural Clean Water Program.  Conducted 29 joint
        USDA/EPA model agriculture NPS programs under the Model Imple-
        mentation Program (MIP) and Agricultural Conservation Program
        (ACP).

     -  Developed State/areawide implementation action programs identified
        in WQM plans including essential institutional and financial
        arrangements to support self-sustaining management capability.
        Cost-effective approaches Identified through prototype projects
        were documented and disseminated widely.

     -  Assisted the development and adoption ,of agriculture NPS cost-
        share control programs in 13 States and strengthened control
        program authorities in 20 States and 370 local governments.

1981  Program

     In 1981, the Agency allocated $33,822,800 for Section 208 grants under the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  In completing Section 208 grant
funding, grants will be awarded for projects which will solve specific nonpoint
source water pollution problems.  The WQM Strategy and annual funding guidance for
1981  emphasizes continued concentration of limited funds on national priority NPS
                                            WQ-39

-------
problems, particularly ground water protection, agricultural NFS, and urban runoff.
Potential transferability of project results to other areas with similar problems
Is also stressed as a selection criterion.  Specific grant awards are negotiated In
the SEA process with each State.  There are 180 out of 220 eligible agencies which
are expected to receive awards for one or more projects in 1981.  The others will
continue work on previously funded projects.  Additional Information on the 1981
program will be found under the State Programs Regulations and Guidelines section.
Highlights of the 1981 program include:

     -  Completion of funding for 30 NURP projects Initiated in 1979
        and 1980 which will continue in operation through 1982.

     -  Continued funding of BMP Implementation monitoring and evalua-
        tion in 29 joint USDA/EPA MIP and ACP projects.

     -  Continued funding of 10 prototype groundwater management projects
        to develop comprehensive State ground water management programs and
        site-specific BMPs; initiation of 5 new projects.

     -  Results of 10 financial management assistance projects will be
        documented and disseminated to assist other agencies with similar
        financial management problems.  Fifteen additional projects will be
        initiated in 1981, concentrating on implementation of NPS Control
        programs and development of self-sustaining planning and management
        capabilities.

     -  Funding for 29 State/local urban runoff projects to apply Interim
        findings of NURP projects; 90 State/local priority ground water
        projects; 61 agricultural  NPS projects to apply prototype technical;
        and financial management approaches to specific State/local priority
        problem areas.

1981  Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The Congress directed a reprograrmring to support the Flathead River project; a
transfer of $177,200 was made to state programs regulatons ad guidelines to implement
this directive.

1982Plan

     Financial  assistance to State and areawide agencies for high priority nonpoint
nonpoint source control  program development will  be provided to the extent possible
through Section 106 grants; ground water management program development particularly
will  be identified as a Section 106 grant priority in 1982.  Some national prototype
and State priority projects funded under Section 208 grants in 1980 and 1981 (for
groundwater management,  urban, agricultural, and other nonpoint sources) will
continue to operate through 1982 and will be provided EPA technical assistance.
To the extent resources will allow, cost-effective technological and institutional
approaches developed through these WQM projects will  be transferred nationwide for
State and locally funded application in other priority NPS problem areas.  Experience
and knowledge gained through previously funded Section 208 plans and NPS control
projects will  be fully taken advantage of on 5a national scale through technology
transfer efforts.  Completing and  updating WQM plans  to assure statutory consistency
of construction grants and permitting decisions will  be funded through Section 106
grants or State resources, depending on priorities and funds available.

ACADEMIC TRAINING GRANTS

1980 Accompl 1shments

     In 1980,  the Agency obligated $2,513,200 for academic training grants, including a
Congressional  add-on to  the professional  training grant program of $405,000 for training
graduate level  students in water-related  engineering  and environmental sciences.  The
                                           WQ-40

-------
amount of $105,000 was used to support 32 graduate trainees at 28 Institutions.   The
State agency fellowship program provided $125,000 for 57 State employees from 29 State
and territorial water pollution control agencies.  Upon completion of this training, the
employees returned to their respective agencies to work at least two years for each full
year of financial support.  An undergraduate training grant of $75,000 was provided to
two institutions in water-related environmental disciplines to support approximately
15 students.  A total of $100,000 was allocated to a pilot curriculum development
project and for support of a minority dual  degree program.

1981 .Program

     Beginning in 1981, a large percentage of the $614,000 academic training funds
will be used to support curriculum development projects in areas of critical water
pollution control needs.  This will be an expansion of the one pilot curriculum
development project begun 1n 1980.  Also in 1981, the program of State agency
fellowships will be evaluated and continued, if justified.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimates

     The Congress increased the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation  by
$1 million to support academic training; an increase of $614,300 was applied to  water
quality training.

1982 Plan

     There are no Agency plans for an academic training program in 1982.

CLEAN LAKES J3RANTS

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980, $20,235,400 was obligated under Clean Lakes Program cooperative agreements
to initiate 126 projects, including 10 urban lake projects.  In addition, 15 projects were
completed.

1951 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated $11  million for Clean Lakes Program cooperative
agreements.  With promulgation of the Section 314 regulations, the Clean Lakes Program
has shifted from a demonstration to an implementation program.  Therefore, 1n 1981
more funding emphasis will be given to implementation and less to diagnostic/feasibility
planning than in 1980.  Continued emphasis  will be given to implementing lake restoration
efforts in urban areas.  Because many lake  problems involve toxic pollution, the program
will also begin to focus on toxic lake problems nationwide.  Currently planned program
activities include:

           -  Funding 35 diagnostic/feasibility studies

           -  Funding 20 implementation efforts.

           -  Funding 5 State lake classification efforts.

           -  Funding 1 toxic lake restoration pilot project.

1981 Explanation of...Change from Budget Estimate

     The Congress reduced this program by $2.5 million.
                                          WO-41

-------
1982 Plan
     In 1982, the Agency requests $11,500,000 for the Clean Lakes program.  Total
program emphasis will be on funding implementation agreements.   Greater emphasis will
be given to urban lakes with toxic contamination.  Greater emphasis will also be given
to funding projects whose purpose is to combine lake restoration activities with other
Federal programs to control nonpoint sources of pollution and improve public access
and recreational opportunities for lake users.  Planned activities include:
        -  Funding 6 diagnostic/feasibility studies.
        -  Funding 47 implementation efforts.
        -  Funding 2 toxic lake restoration projects.
        -  Funding 4 post-restoration evaluation efforts.

-------
             WATER QUALITY
Water Quality Strategies Implementation
Appropriation
Environmental Emergency
Response and Prevention:
Salaries and Expenses...
Abatement, Control and
Standards and Regulations:
Salaries and Expenses...
Abatement, Control and
Regulatory EIS Prep-Water
Quality:
Salaries and Expenses...
Abatement, Control and
Compl i ance .............
Ocean Disposal "emits:
Salaries and Expenses...
Abatement, Control and
Compliance ............
Total :
Salaries and Expenses...
Abatement, Control and
Compl i ance . 	
Grand Total ..............
Permanent Positions
Environmental Emergency
Standards and Regulations.
Regulatory EIS Prep-WQ....
Ocean Disposal Permits....
Total 	 	 	
Full-time Equivalency
Environmental Emergency
Standards and Regulations.
Regulatory EIS Prep-WQ...
Ocean Disposal Permits...
Total. 	
Actual
1980
$4,887
5,544
2,916
573
682
1,115
598
8,918
7,397
16,315
119
85
* * •
29
233
131
96
• • *
33
26.0
Budget Current - Increase +
Estimate Estimate Estimate Decrease -
1981 1981 1982 1982 vs 1981
(dollars
$4,970
4,295
3,573
1,433
500
879
159
9,422
6,387
15,809
130
110
* * *
24
264
138
121
• • •
29
288
in thousandsy
$5,328
4,125
4,892
2,314
500
1,112
141
11,332
7,080
18,412 ,
131
139
* * *
24
294
139
158
• • •
29
326
$4,285
2,058
6,795
2,277
• • *
1,086
3,294
12,166
7,629
19,795
92
164
* » »
24
286
100
180
• • .*
29
305
+$1 ,043
-2,067
+1 ,903
37
- 500
26
+ 3,153
+ 834
+ 549
+ 1 ,383
39
+ 25
» * *
• * *
14
39
+ 22
• • •
* * •
17
                      1JQ-43

-------
Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of $19,794,900 and 278 permanent workyears for
1982, an increase of $1,382,800 from 1981.  Included in this total is $12,165,900
for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $7,629,000 for the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation, with an increase of $833,500 and $549,300
respectively.  The increase in the standards and regulations program element will
provide additional assistance to State and local agencies in assessing water quality
problems and in revising standards for toxics control.  The increase in the ocean
disposal permits program element will cover the study and survey of 23 new dump
sites being considered for designation.  Also included in this element is the environ-
mental impact statement element, shown separately in 1981.

Program. je_scri p_tjpn

     The water quality strategies implementation subactivity covers the Environmental
Emergency Response and Prevention Program, the Ocean Disposal Permits Program, and
the Standards and Regulation Program.

Envirpnmental Emergency Response and.Prevention

     The primary objectives of EPA's Environmental  Emergency Response and Prevention
Program have been to protect water quality by preventing and responding to oil and
hazardous substances spills, and providing emergency assistance to hazardous waste
site incidents.  Section 311 of the Clean Water Act of 1977 contains the Congressional
mandate to provide a nationwide capability to respond to and prevent spills of oil
and designated hazardous substances into the navigable waters of the United States.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980
expanded the mandate to include response to and prevention of hazardous releases to
all environmental media (e.g. air, land, ground and surface waters) which cause or
threaten danger of public health and welfare or sensitive ecological systems.  Activi-
ties in 1982 related to hazardous substances spills and hazardous waste site incidents
are budgeted under the Superfund Appropriation.  The Environmental Emergency Response
and Prevention Program element covers only oil  spills and prevention activities
beginning in 1982.

     EPA continues to share responsibility for the Environmental Emergency Response
and Prevention Program with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG).  Jurisdictional lines between
the agencies for spill response actions in navigable waters are drawn geographically
with EPA having responsibility for inland water excluding the Great Lakes.  EPA's
on-scene coordinator and/or his designated representatives will assume a monitoring
role or a Federal removal  role, as dictated by the situation.  To assure that responses
are efficient and coordinated, national and regional contingency "plans are required
which delineate procedures, techniques, and responsibilities of the various Federal,
State, and local  authorities.

     In order to augment the resources of the program, the Environmental Response
Team (ERT) was established early in 1979.  It is a team of experienced personnel
which provides on-site consultation services to the OSC including spill response and
mitigation alternatives ecological damage assessment during an incident, determination
of information needs, as well as onsite deployment of prototype spill control devices.
In addition to the ERT providing immediate field assistance, the regions also receive
technical support from the Technical Assistance Team (TAT) contract.  The contract
was awarded in 1979 and will remain in effect through 1981 to assist the regions and
the ERT in responding to Section 311 spills and environmental emergencies.  A .new
contract will be negotiated for 1982.

Ocean Disposal

     The ocean disposal programs authorized by the Marine Protection, Research and
Sanctuaries Act of 1972 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, have
been in operation since 1973.  These authorities require EPA to regulate ocean disposal
by outfalls and by dumping, designate disposal  sites, develop ocean related policies,
and participate in interagency programs that deal  with development of ocean resources.
                                           WO-44

-------
     To carry out the ocean disposal permitting functions, the Administrator of EPA is
 authorized to regulate the disposition of all materials except dredged material (which
 is  regulated by the Corps of Engineers).  The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries
 Act further prohibits the transportation and dumping in ocean water of chemical, biological,
 and radiological warfare agents and high level radioactive materials.  EPA has statutory
 responsibility for designating all ocean dumping sites, including those for dredged
 material.  There are currently 141 sites approved on an interim basis which must be
 surveyed by an ocean-going vessel and tested by laboratory prior to formal designation.
 Of  these, 127 sites are for disposal of Corps of Engineers' dredged material, which
 comprises more than 90 percent of all material dumped in the ocean.  EPA is currently
 surveying and preparing EIS's for some of these sites using a major, multi-year contract
 that began in 1977.  The contract is jointly funded by the Corps of Engineers, which is
 the primary source of funding for field surveys and data analysis.  EPA contributes to
 data base development and funds EIS preparation for the site designation effort.

     In 1982, the contract is being increased and accelerated to meet statutory and
 litigation requirements.  With the requested funding, EPA expects to designate a total
 of  42 sites by the end of 1982, and to develop and implement the necessary ocean monitoring
 program to assess the impact of ocean disposal-practices and resource development on the
 outer continental  shelf.  At that time, an additional 23 sites will be under contract
 for survey and impact review prior to designation.  EPA expects to have completed all
 required activities for designating all interim approved sites by 1985, if budget levels
 equivalent to this request can be maintained.

      The ocean program activities ensure that EPA authorities will be applied to the
 significant new and changing activities in the exploration and development of multiple
 uses of open ocean resources.  The program utilizes water quality criteria, effluent
 guidelines and ocean discharge criteria to establish the framework for EPA assistance
 and influence over uses of the ocean resources.  Major coordination with the ocean related
 programs of other agencies is necessary.


 Standards and Regulations  - The standards and regulations program includes several  dis-
 crete functions.

      Under Sections 304(a) and 307{a), water quality criteria are developed and published
 to reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the kind and extent of all  identifiable
 effects on human health and welfare.  Assistance in the development and review of State
 water quality standards is provided to ensure that acceptable standards are established in
 each State.  Basic hazardous substances regulations are developed based on aquatic organisms,
 and designations are being expanded under Section 311 to include protection of human health.
 Guidelines, standards and regulations are developed to correct water pollution problems
 resulting from such sources as in-pi ace toxicants and discharges from vessels and aqua-
 culture projects.

      Management of the Clean Lakes grant program under Section 314 of the Clean Water Act
 addresses the assessment and implementation of watershed and in-lake restorative procedures
 to insure that Federal  grant dollars are used in a manner that will provide cost-effective
 methods for the improvement or maintenance of the quality of publicly owned fresh water
 lakes.

      Finally, national  management, coordination and program development regulating the
 discharge of dredge or fill material (Section 404) are carried out under this program,
 including the review and approval of requests frorr. States for Section 404 permit authority
 for specific waterways.

 Environmental  Emergency Response and Prevention

 1930 Accomplishments

      In 1980,  the Agency obligated a total  of $10,425,100 for the Environmental  Emergency
 Response and Prevention  program, of which 54,881,600 was for Salaries and Expenses and
$5,543,500 was for extramural  purposes.
                                         W1-45

-------
     Over 8,900 notifications of environmental emergencies were received by the regional
offices during 1980.  The program responded to 152 spills which required a Federal On-Scene
Coordinator  (OSC) to direct Federal removal actions and monitored 8771 clean-up actions
taken by the spiller.  The spill prevention program was continued by the regions during
1980, with a combined regional effort totalling over 2800 spill prevention actions at
non-transportation-related facilities.

     The 8-person Environmental Response Team (ERT), as defined in the program description,
responded to 53 incidents through September 1980.  It provided assistance during the fical
year at the  request of the region OSCs both within EPA and outside the Agency.

     Contract funding of approximately $3 million was used for additional technical field
support for  emergency response.  The Technical Assistance Team (TAT) contract provided 33
contractor personnel to help the regions and the ERT respond to oil and hazardous materials
spills and environmental emergencies, perform inspections for compliance with oil and
hazardous substance prevention regulations, prepare enforcement cases, and assess spill
damages.  An additional $1 million was used to fund aerial surveillance and emergency
mapping for major spills, operation and maintenance of the spill prevention management
information  system, and response actions at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites which were
not covered  under Section 311 of the Clean Water Act.

     During  1980, the emergency response and prevention program initiated Section 311 or
104 emergency response actions at 61 uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.  Technical assist-
ance, investigation, or other types of support were provided at 446 sites where Section
311 or 104 was not applicable.  Response activities at these sites are highly resource-
intensive due to the complexities involved in handling hazardous wastes of unknown com-
postion and origin.

1981 Plan

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $9,453,000 and 131 permanent workyears
to this program, of which $5,328,000 is for Salaries and Expenses and $4,125,000 is for
extramural purposes under the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appropriation.  These
resources will be used to continue the current oil program under Section 311 to begin to
implement the expanded hazardous spills response program under Superfund.

     EPA is projected to receive 10,000 notifications of environmental emergencies during
this fiscal year.  The environmental emergency response and prevention program expects
to respond during 1981 to 118 oil spills and 85 hazardous spills which will require a
Federal  OSC to direct Federal removal actions.  EPA will monitor 2,771 oil spills and
2,007 hazardous spills where clean-up actions are taken by the responsible party or State
and local  agencies.  Emergency response action will be provided at 69 uncontrolled hazardous
waste sites.  The increase from 1980 is due to the expected increase of emergencies reported
to EPA as a result of increased public awareness of the new reporting requirements under
Superfund.

     The spill prevention program will continue in 1981.  It is expected that ivgr 2,000
prevention inspections will be performed following major spills.  Inspections at hazardous
substances facilities will be a significant factor in the increase in prevention activity.

     Contract funding of $4,125,000 will  be used to provide major technical assistance
and support to current EPA efforts.  Of these funds, S3,100,000 will be used for the TAT
which will provide the regions and the ERT with 53 contract workyears, an increase of 20
workyears  over 1980 to support response to uncontrolled hazardous waste site emergencies
and hazardous spills.  Thirty-three contract workyears will  continue to be used to assist
the regions in response to oil spill emergencies.

     The remaining $1,025,000 in contracts will provide for expansion of the Oil and
Hazardous  Materials Technical Assistance Data Systeni (OHM-TADS) to include newly designa-
ted hazardous substances, priority pollutants and uncontrolled hazardous waste site data
fields;  aerial  surveillance and photo mapping for spill  prevention inspections, contingency
planning and emergency response; and maintenance of the Spill  Prevention Control and
Counter-measure (SPCC) management information system during 1981.
                                         WO-46

-------
     Highest priority will continue to be on protecting public health and the environment
by emergency response to pollutant spills or discharges.  A major EPA emphasis will be
on controlling hazardous substance discharges from hazardous waste sites using emergency
assistance actions.

1981 Expl anation of Changes from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $188,400 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter trans-
mitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a
decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses,  The reduction
applied to this activity is $28,800.

     - A 1981 budget amendment for hazardous waste programs and related activities was
submitted to the Congress.  This amendment resulted in an increased of $200,000 to this
activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $17,400
was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease
of $2,500 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $128,600 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by $750,000; a
decrease of $33,800 was applied to this activity.

     -The Congress reduced agencywide AOP services by $2 million; a decrease of $13,000
was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $289,100 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted
in transfers to ambient water quality monitoring (-$57,700); from public systems super-
vision program assistance ($22,200); from drinking water enforcement ($29,900); from
uncontrolled hazardous waste sites ($24,900); from hazardous waste management regulatory
strategy implementation ($8,100); to State programs regulations and guidelines (-534,500);
to water quality enforcement (-$48»;900); to stationary source enforcement (-$9,400); and
from water quality permit issuance ($11,000).

     - Transfer $15,000 from NEPA compliance-municipal waste facility construction within
Region 1, to realign contract funds.

     - Transfer S18,800 from underground injection control  program within Region 5, to
support the hazardous materials emergency response program.

     - Transfer of $56,000 was made to the radiation media in order to support the
Radiation Policy Council.                     ;

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total  of $6,343,400 and 92 permanent workyears for this program,
of which $4,285,100 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $2,058,300 is for
the Abatement,  Control, and Compliance appropriation.  In addition, a total  of $3,740,000
and 42 permanent workyears which  was associated with this program in 1981 has been trans-
ferred to the Superfund program and is included in its appropriation request for
implementation  of the expanded hazardous response program under Superfund.  Therefore,
emergency response to spills of hazardous substances and uncontrolled hazardous Waste sites
will  no longer  be funded under the Water Quality Strategies Implementation subactivlty.
                                       WO-47

-------
     The major program plans during 1982 include continuation of the oil response and
prevention program.  The program is projected to respond to approximately 118 oil spills
which require a  Federal OSC to direct Federal removal actions.  EPA will monitor 3,534
oil spills where clean-up actions are taken by the responsible  party or State and local
agencies.

     The spill prevention program will also continue in 1982.  It is expected that over
2,500 prevention inspections will be performed following major spills, with a major
emphasis on hazardous substance facilities.

Standards and Regulations

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980 $3,488,700 was obligated under this program activity.  Major emphasis was
placed on development of a national water quality standards strategy, completion of the
criteria documents for 65 classes of toxic pollutants, Section 404 State program develop-
ment for implementation of the dredge and fill program, management of the Clean Lakes
grant program and development of program guidance to assist in revising State water quality
standards (WQS)  programs.  Included in this total was 5573,200 for the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation of which $482,700 was for dredge and fill activities and
$90,500 for criteria development.

AccomplLIshments  in 198.0 Included:

Criteria and Standards

     -  Published human health and aquatic toxicity water quality
        criteria far 64 classes of toxic pollutants mandated by the
        Clean Water Act and the Natural  Resources Defense Council
        Settlement Agreement.

     -  Initiated development of regulations to revise water quality
        standards program.

     -  Promulgated Federal  water quality standards for two States and
        proposed Federal standards for an additional  two States to meet
        minimum  requirements of the Clean Water Act.

     -  Evaluated standards revisions for 26 States for approval  or
        disapproval consistent with applicable rules  and policies.

     -  Reviewed 57 AWT/AST projects for applicability of water quality
        standards to ensure that selected projects were the most
        cost-effective means of achieving the desired environmental  result.

     -  Proposed regulations for the removal  of oil  and hazardous
        substances spills from the U.S.  waters and shorelines*

     -  Proposed a rulemaking to delete  freon emd bis-(chloromethyl)
        ether (BCME) from section 3Q7(a) list of toxic pollutants;
        finalized response to two petitions for removing eight
        toxic pollutants from the section 307(a) list and completed
        initial  action on two additional  petitions.

   .  -  Proposed  denial  of two petitions to designate phosphate,
        ammonia, and sulfides as conventional pollutants under
        Section  304(a)(4).

     -  Published 28 digests which summarize  State-adopted water quality
        standards for public information purposes.
                                       WO-48

-------
     -  Developed criteria for designating 12 new hazardous substances
        under Section 311  on the basis of chronic effects,  such  as
        cardnogenidty, routagenicity and bioaccumulation.

     ~  Completed review of Virginia's petition to establish no-discharge
        zones under the provisions of Section 312 of the Clean Water Act,
        regarding the prohibition of discharge of sewage from vessels into
        State waters.

     -  Initiated Congressionally mandated National  Estuarine Study,
        conducted every six years, to provide a report to Congress
        regarding the status of pollution and its impact on the
        nation's estuaries.

     -  Provided section 115 grant to the State of Michigan to study
        feasibility of removing polychlortnated biphenyls and
        polybrominated biphenyls from the Pine and Saginaw Rivers.

  Dredge and Fill

     -  Reviewed over 1,500 controversial  Section 404 permit
        applications; developed national  policy for review and
        comment on general and individual  permit applications
        and provided recommendations to higher management on
        controversial permits.

     -  Dromulgated Section 404 State program regulations for State
        assumption of program responsibility.

     -  Developed strategies and policies for transfer of Section 404
        programs to States and provided assistance to six States in
        developing their programs.

     -  Coordinated Section 404 activities with other Federal  agencies
        (Corps of Engineers and the Fish and  Wildlife Service),  involved
        in the section 404 program or related programs.

     -  Executed a Memorandum of Agreement with the Corps of Engineers
        regarding determination of the extent of U.S. waters for the
        purpose of coverage under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act,
        and procedures for resolving disputes between the Corps  of
        Engineers and the Agency.  Developed  ancillary guidance  for
        Corps district engineers and regional  offices.

     -  Reviewed and provided comment on Environmental Impact Statements
        (EIS) associated with Congressionally authorized construction
        projects for their conformity with the Section 404(b)(1) guidelines
        for evaluating permit applications for the discharge of  dredged
        or fill  materials Into waters of the  United States.

Clean Lakes Management

     -  Provided management assistance to 120 ongoing Clean Lakes projects.

     -  Assisted 35 States with the implementation of State/EPA  agreements
        on Clean Lakes program requirements.

     .-  Completed evaluation of lake restoration techniques and  the
        economics of Clean Lakes projects, which indicated  that  benefits
        exceeded costs by 8:1.

     -  Assisted 15 States to classify publicly owned fresh water lakes
        according to trophic condition.
                                      WO-49

-------
     -  Published final regulation and program guidance to administer
        the Clean Lakes program under Section 314.

     -  Initiated development of a national  management information system
        by incorporating Clean Lakes grant water quality data into STORET,
        and the Grant Information Control System (6ICS).

     -  Conducted four EPA regional/State workshops to explain operational
        procedures of the Clean Lakes program, completed and distributed
        public awareness information about lake restoration methods and
        benefits, and published a users' manual on grant assistance
        offered under the Clean Lakes program,

     -  Sponsored an international  [North American/European) symposium,
        on Clean Lakes restoration.  The objective of the symposium was
        to transfer information available on methods and procedures for
        lake restoration for inclusion in the Administrator's Section
        3Q4(j) report to Congress in 1981.

1981 Plan

     The current 1981  allocation for this effort is $7,206,400 and 139 permanent
workyears, of which 54,892,700 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.
In 1981, $2,313,700 is planned for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation,
of which $1,308,700 is for dredge and fill activities and $1,005,000 for aquatic toxicity
studies, criteria work on priority pollutants and technology transfer.

     Continuing emphasis is being placed on the dredge and fill program, with additional
assistance to State programs, full  review of State Section 404 program submissions,
and assistance to regions in specifying disposal sites.  Increasing attention is being
given to the technical  implications of this program, such as energy development, waterways
and agricultural  ramifications.  Continuing water quality standards assistance is being
rendered to States and regional offices in developing standards for toxic and non-toxic
pollutants.  The hazardous substances program is stressing designation of substances
whose spills contain immediately active agents.  A Clean Lakes Technical Assistance
Program will  be implemented to assist States and substate grantees.  In 1981, the program
plans include:

Cr1teri a and Standards

     -  Issue regulations for water quality standards which provide for
        a flexible approach on attainability of uses and focus on
        coverage of toxics in State water quality standards.  Develop
        criteria modification methodologies for use by States in revising
        State water quality standards.

     -  Assist States in developing water quality standards for tradi-
        ditional  non-toxic pollutants with coverage of selected toxics
        pollutants in areas where techno! ogy-ba,sed controls will not
        adequately protect stream uses.

     -  Develop policy guidance documents on the economic, environmental,
        and technological  attainability of standards for both toxic and
        non-toxic pol1utants.

     -  Promulgate State water quality standards for four States and pre-
        pare Federal  standards ofr an additional three States.

     -  Develop proposals for additions or deletions to the Section 307{a)
        list of toxic pollutants and for the development of water quality
        criteria for toxic pollutants beyond the list of 65; develop
        criteria for 14 additional  compounds.

     -  Develop water quality criteria for 14 toxic pollutants, in addition
        to the list of 65 toxics covered by the 1977 Amendments to the Clean
        Water Act.


                                           WO-50

-------
     -  Complete twenty-eight additional  aquatic life criteria for the list
        of 129 priority toxic pollutants.

     -  Evaluate 50 advanced waste treatment proposed projects to
        ensure that the projects will  be cost-effective for the
        attainment of stream uses.

     -  Provide assistance on 18 water quality standards reviews for
        approval or disapproval  based on applicable rules and policies.

     -  Designate new hazardous substances as required under Section
        311 of the Clean Water Act, on the basis of protection of
        human health from spills of acute or immediately acting agents
        (as opposed to chronic or long-term toxic effects).

Dredge and Fill

     -  Review between 1,500 and 2,000 major/controversial  permits
        and exercise Section 404(c) authority in cases where unacceptable
        discharges are proposed.  Refer major issues to headquarters for
        resolution.

     -  Review and comment on major/controversial proposals and authorized
        projects that have not reached the permit stage (accounting for
        up to half the total permit review workload).  Review major
        permits referred to headquarters (under Memorandum of Agreement
        with the Corps of Engineers) for top-level management resolution.

     -  Provide technical assistance for cases in litigation and assistance
        to enforcement attorneys in actions against unpermitted discharges
        and in cases involving litigation against EPA on Section 404 issues.

     -  Provide assistance to States in the development of a Section
        404 program and provide full review of State Section 404
        program submissions for compliance with delegation requirements.

     -  Review EIS" submitted for major Federal projects for Section 404(b)
        (1) guidelines compliance.

     -  Assess need for improvements in existing systems of Section 404
        related environmental monitoring and work with State, Federal  and
        local  offices/agencies to improve effectiveness.

      - Provide special technical  analyses for dredged or fill discharge
        environmental  problems which are region-specific and increase
        assistance on analyses of technical  and policy Issues involved
        in major permit review.   Areas of particular concern include
        energy development, agriculture, and waterway development.

     -  Complete final  regulations for Section 404(b) for evaluating
        permit applications in regard to potential environmental  impacts.

Clean Lakes Management

     -  Provide technical review for over 150 clean lake grant applications
        and recommend appropriate award actions for up to 75 projects.

     -  Provide management assistance to approximately 120 operating
        Clean Lakes projects.
                                     WO-51

-------
     -  Assist 50 States and Territories in developing comprehensive
        plans that address lake watershed pollution controls and
        multi-year priority lists for over 150 Clean Lakes applications.

     -  Implement a Clean Lakes Technical Assistance Program to assist
        States and substate grantees to resolve complex technical,
        institutional, and financial problems and transfer the technology
        and/or approach to other State grantees with similar problems.

     -  Conduct four policy and technical assistance workshops/meetings
        with State officials.

     -  Develop a program to evaluate the duration of lake restoration
        techniques, as well as the economic benefits of completed Clean
        Lakes projects.

     -  Evaluate Agency Management of the Clean Lakes Program.

     -  Publish proceedings from the international symposium on lakes
        restoration which serves as the Administrator's Section 304(j)
        report, and transfer proven technology on the Clean Lakes program.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $2,200,500 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1931 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter trans-
mitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a
decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied
to this activity is $22,700.
was
 - The Congress reduced agencywide travel  costs by $850,000;  a decrease of $11,600
applied to this activity.
     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease
of $23,700 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general  reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $77,200 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by $750,000; a
decrease of $7,200 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $301,400 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted
in transfers from water quality permit issuance ($7,800); to State programs regulations
and guidelines (-$33,300); from hazardous waste management regulatory strategy implementa-
tion ($19,900); from NEPA compliance-municipal waste facility construction ($3,600); to
personnel management (regions) (-$1,200); to regional council (-$12,700); to ambient
water quality monitoring (-$21,600); to NEPA compliance/EIS preparation-water quality
(-$12,300); to stationary source enforcement (-$16,600); to municipal waste treatment
facility construction (-$3,000); and from regional management ($1,000).

     - A transfer of $400 was made to the Administrative Law Judges to provide additional
resources to support a new program for instituting civil noncompliance penalties under
Section 102 of the Clean Air Act.

     - Transfer of $373,700 to State programs regulations and guidelines Salaries and
Expenses ($68,300) and Abatement, Control and Compliance ($305,400) to support program
activities and program reorganization.


                                         WQ-52

-------
     - Transfer of $700 to State programs regulations and guidelines to properly reflect
the clean lakes function.

     - Transfer of $2,504,600 from State programs regulations and guidelines Salaries
and Expenses ($1,238,000) and Abatement, Control  and Compliance ($1,266,600) to reflect
a program restructuring the movement of the clean lakes program.

     - Transfer $20,500 to municipal waste treatment facility construction to support
travel costs.

     - Transfer $3,400 to ambient water quality monitoring within Region 1, to realign
contract funds.

     - Transfer $1,000 to State programs regulations and guidelines within Region 2,
to properly reflect the clean lakes function.

1982 Plan

     In 1982, $9,071,90.0 and 164 permanent work'years are requested for this activity,
which is an increase of $1,865,500 and 25 workyears.  Included in this request is
$6,795,200 for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $2,276,700 for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1982, increased resources will be provided to the regions for additional assist-
ance to State and local agencies for assessing their highest priority water quality
problems and for revising State water quality standards for toxics control.  The program
will provide an assessment of toxics problems on a State by State basis.  In 1972 the
program will include:

Criteria and Standards

      -  Assist States to develop capability for development and
         implementation of water quality standards.

      -  Assist States in applying economic, technological  and
         environmental considerations in the designation of
         attainable stream uses.

      -  Assist States in utilizing criteria modification guidance in
         developing site-specific standards.

      -  Assist States in identifying local  areas that will require
         more stringent control measures due to inadequate point
         source controls for toxic chemicals.

      -  Evaluate seven regional and State water quality standards
         programs to determine their use in decisions regarding the
         construction of sewage treatment plants.

      -  Review 38 State water quality standards revisions to determine
         if the standards incorporate attainable uses and if criteria
         are adequate to protect those uses,lwith special consideration
         of specific toxic pollutant problems in each State.

      -  Conduct water quality standards reviews of Advanced Waste
         Treatment/Advanced Secondary Treatment projects to ensure
         that the funded projects will provide for the attainment of
         designated uses and that the selected projects are the most
         cost-effective means of achieving the desired environmental
         results.
                                     Wn-53

-------
      -  Complete development of 20 national  water quality criteria
         documents for toxic pollutants as required by the 1977
         Amendments to the Clean Water Act.

      -  Develop information on 10 petitions  identifying and designating
         pollutants as conventional, toxic or non-conventional.

      -  Continue development of selection criteria for designation
         of hazardous substances that enter the environment other than
         through effluent discharges and which present an imminent and
         substantial  danger to the public health or welfare.

      -  Promulgate regulations adding to list of section 311 hazardous
         substances,  with emphasis on compounds having multimedia
         exposure.

      -  Develop responses to State requests  to prohibit the discharge
         of vessel wastes within State waters, as provided under the
         Marine Sanitation provisions of the  Clean Water Act, Section 312.

      -  Assist regions to develop, propose and promulgate standards for
         up to 15 States where State revisions are inadequate to meet
         minimum requirements of the Clean Water Act.

Dredge and Fill

      -  Review major/controversial permits and exercise Section 404(c)
         authority in cases where unacceptable discharges are proposed.
         Refer major issues to headquarters.

      -  Review and comment on major/controversial proposals and
         authorized projects that have not reached the permit stage
         (accounting for up to half of the total permit review workload).

      -  Review major permits referred to headquarters (under Memorandum
         of Agreement with the Corps of Engineers) for top-level manage-
         ment resolution,

      -  Provide technical  assistance for cases in litigation and
         assistance to enforcement attorneys  in actions against
         unpermitted  discharges and cases involving litigation
         against EPA on Section 404 issues.

      -  Develop a management information system to track dredge and
         fill program activities, better account for personnel and
         resource uses and provide information regarding the disposition
         of permits,

      -  Provide assistance to States in the  development of a Section
         404 program and provide full review of State Section 404
         program submissions for compliance with delegation requirements.

      -  Review environmental impact statements submitted for major
         Federal projects for Section 404 guidelines compliance.

      -  Assess need  for improvements in existing systems of Section 404
         related environmental  monitoring and work with State, Federal
         and local offices/agencies to improve effectiveness.

CleanLakes Management

      -  Provide technical  review for over 100 Clean Lake grant applications
         and recommend award actions for up to 75 projects, which maximize
         project benefits.   Provide oversight to approximately 150 operating
         Clean Lakes  Projects.

-------
      -  Assist 50 States to develop State Clean Lake programs and plans
         that integrate other funding sources for lake watershed management
         controls with In-late restoration funded techniques.

      -  Assist 30 projects to resolve complex technical institutional and
         financial problems and transfer the technology and/or approaches
         to other States or substate grantees.

      -  Conduct four policy and technical assistance workshops/meetings
         with State officials.

      -  Continue to improve the management of the Clean Lakes Program
         through the evaluation of headquarters and regional office
         management of the Clean Lakes Program.

      -  Initiate special projects that evaluate the duration and
         effectiveness of in-lake restoration techniques, integrate
         project approaches and utilize innovattve watershed
         management techniques.

      -  Sponsor a symposium in lake restoration to serve as the basis
         of the Administrator's Section 304(j) report to Congress in
         1983 and to transfer recent methods and procedures for
         lake restoration.

OCEAN DISPOSAL PERMITS PROGRAM


1980 Accomplishments

     The ocean disposal  permits program obligated $1,712,800 in 1980.  This funding
included contract support for the development of impact statements for ocean disposal
site designation.  Baseline surveys were conducted on sites included in the continuing
contract.  By the end of 1980, 33 dumpsites had field surveys, five Environmental Impact
statements (EIS) had been completed, and four sites had been designated as official  EPA
dumpsites.  Dredged material dumpsite surveys for the Corps of Engineers (COE) were
completed on 15 sites of the 33 sites.

     The program reviewed environmental impact statements (EIS) for offshore oil and gas
lease sales and participated in an on-going interagency project which uses the Flower
Garden Banks in the Gulf of Mexico as a model for measuring the environmental effects of
oil and gas drilling and production on sensitive environmental underwater areas on the
outer continental  shelf.  The program was also involved in a multiyear effort with the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Department of Interior
(DOI) to determine the quality of open ocean waters and the state of marine technology
against which conditions were established for permitting specific ocean-related industrial
operations, such as ocean thermal  energy conversion and deep seabed mining.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total' of $1,252,700 and 24 permanent workyears
to this program of which $1,111,700 is for Salaries and Expenses and $141,000 is for
Abatement, Control and Compliance.  The extramural resources are to develop impact state-
ments for ocean disposal site designations.  Also, $1,500,000 is to be provided by the
Corps of Engineers to support studies on dredged material  disposal  sites.  The Agency
expects to continue its  1980 ocean program, dealing with the following highest priority
activities:

     - Issue revised ocean dumping criteria and bioassay procedures.
                                          wn-55

-------
     - Designate 16 dump sites, conduct baseline surveys for site designations
       on six new dumpsitest monitor existing sites and prepare environmental
       analyses and dumpsite EIS's using contract support. (Impact-monitoring
       will be required under revised criteria.)

     - Review and issue  approximately 40 special permits for compliance with
       ocean dumping criteria and regulations.

     - Provide cursory review and coordination for Corps of Engineers' permits
       and Federal project proposals.

     Because of the statutorily required termination of ocean dumping of harmful sewage
sludge as well as the termination of all interim permits by the end of 1981, alternative
disposal  practices will increase.  The volume of ocean dumping under special permits will
continue at present or slightly higher levels as a result of implementation of the Resources
Conservation and Recovery Act, the elimination of marginal and unsatisfactory disposal
landfills, and an increase in incineration-at-sea applications which will require site
designations and monitoring.  Probable changes in the International Ocean Dumping Conven-
tion will require revisions in jj. S. ocean dumping criteria, particularly in radioactive
waste disposal and incineration at sea.  The program is responsible for both international
negotiation of the Convention and revision of criteria.  The rate of ocean disposal site
designations is being increased; approximately 20 site will have been designated by the
end of 1981.

     The ocean program will concentrate on environmental effects of offshore oil and gas
activities with emphasis on special NPDES permit conditions, definition of sensitive
marine areas, environmental guidance, and technical assistance.  The Agency will continue
to participate In an on-going, multiyear interagency project with the Department of
Commerce (DOC), NOAA, DOI, and Department of State of measure the environmental effects
of oil and gas drilling and production on sensitive environmental underwater areas on
the outer continental shelf (the Flower Garden reef off Texas and the Georges Bank off
Massachusetts).  EPA will also continue to participate in multiyear Interageney effort
with the Department of Energy (DOE), and NOAA to establish conditions for permitting
specific ocean-related industrial operations such as ocean thermal energy conversion and
deep seabed mining.

1981 Expl an at1 on of Change from Budget .Estimate

     The net increase of $214,200 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter trans-
mitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in
a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expense's.  The reduction
applied to this activity is $5,500.

     - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $18,200 was applied to this
activity.

     - An increase of $56,800 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprografnmings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in transfers from water quality permit issuance ($7,400); from water quality
enforcement ($119,500); from NEPA compliance-municipal waste facility construction
(3700); fron uncontrolled hazardous waste sites ($9,000); and from public systems
supervision program assistance ($34,500).


                                           WO-56

-------
1982 Plan

    The Agency requests a total of $4,379,600 and 24 permanent workyears for this program,
of which $1,085,600 is for Salaries and Expenses and $3,294,000 is for Abatement, Control
and Compliance, an increase of $3,153,000 in extramural  funds.  The increase in Abatement,
Control and Compliance will provide support for designation of 22 additional dumpsites
and initiation of field surveys on 23 new sites.  It includes 5500,000 previously
budgeted under Regulatory EIS Preparation which will continue to be used for the pre-
paration of impact statements as part of the dumpsite designation process.

     Under the contract in 1982, 22 additional dumpsites will be designated bringing the
total  to 42.  A three-year designation effort will  be initiated on 23 new sites, requiring
collection of field survey data during at least two different seasons.

In 1982 the Agency will:

     - Manage the EIS contract to complete 32 EIS/EIAs on ocean dumping sites
       and designate 22 dumpsites.

     - Review and issue 55 special permit applications for ocean dumping , and
       screen and coordinate Corps of Engineers' permits and Federal project
       proposals.

     - Respond to major crises by issuing emergency and research permits and
       waiver requests and provide technical support against litigation.


     - Compile data and prepare annual reports as required by statute for
       Congress and the International Ocean Dumping Convention.

     - Coordinate open ocean-related programs within EPA and with outside
       Agencies including Outer Continental Shelf (DCS)  oil and gas operations
       (DOI, OOC), ocean thermal energy conversion (DOC, DOE), and deep-sea
       mining (OOC, 001).

     - Analyze major open ocean related documents of other agencies (DOI, DOC
       DOE) under responsibilities of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
       and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act.

     - EPA will achieve coordinated approaches to permit issuance for DCS
       activities in some key open ocean areas.  Through its analyses of OCS
       EISs for oil/gas operations, some major environmental problems are
       anticipated which will effect changes in DOI's lease stipulations and
       DOC's marine sanctuary regulations.
                                         wn-57

-------
                                         WATER QUALITY

                             Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis
                                            1981         1981                    1982 vs. 1981
                                 1980      Budget      Current        1982         Increase +•
                                Actual    Estimate     Estimate     Estimate       Decrease -
                                          "      (Hollars''In thousands)
Appropriation
Water Quality Monitoring
 and Analysis
  Salaries and Expenses	  $7,961      $8,209      $9,219        $9,444         +$225

Abatement, Control
 and Compliance....	   2,731

Grand Total	  10,692

Permanent Positions.	-.
2,731
0,692
195
247
2,436
10,645
191
241
2,476
11,695
189
240
1,923
11,367
191
241
-553
-328
+2
+1
Full-time Equivalency	


Budget Request

     An appropriation of $11,366,600 and 191 permanent workyears is requested for 1982
including $9,443,700 for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $1,922,900 for
extramural purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This
represents an decrease of $327,500.  Included in the extramural funds 1s $1,472,900 for
contracts and $450,000 for interagency agreements.

Program Descri pt i on

     This program's responsibilities include:  Development of systematic monitoring
systems to provide consistent measures of environmental quality; toxic pollutant data
collection and analysis to determine discharge rates, transport characteristics, and
environmental risks; review and management of Regional and State monitoring programs;
waste!oad allocation oui^ance and review; analysis to measure changes in water quality;
analysis of point and non-point sources of pollutants; and maintenance, enhancement, and
user assistance for ADP systems used to manage EPA's water data.  Specific activities
pursued by this program are described below.

     This program coordinates State and EPA monitoring efforts to provide specific informa-
tion on water quality and to implement a monitoring strategy to provide statistical sampling
to support regulatory controls.  In response to the requirements stipulated under the Clean
Water Act of 1977, this program provides:  pollutant control strategies based on assessments
of environmental pollutant distribution, exposure/risk analysis and fate studies for evaluat-
ing pathways through which human and aquatic life are exposed to pollutants, calculating the
consequent risks of that exposure and recommending necessary levels of pollutant control
for the 65 classes of toxic pollutants stipulated in the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Water
Act, area-by-area regulatory strategies and guidance to the States for geographic areas
where best available technology (BAT) may not be adequate to control pollution, including
identification of toxic pollutant "hot spots"; industrial /environmental assessments for
the 21 primary industrial  categories to assist in the development and defense of BAT regu-
lations; assessments of the sources of toxic pollutants entering publicly owned treatment
works (POTW and recommendations for appropriate regulatory strategies); Implementation of
the State Basic Water Monitoring Program to provide increased intensive surveys, biological
monitoring, and toxic pollutant monitoring; and resources devoted to field sampling and
analysis to detect and measure the 129 priority pollutants.


                                           WO-58

-------
      In support of the Agency's toxic pollutant strategy, this program coordinates its ana-
lytic activities with the Effluent Standards and Guidelines program.  Additional activities
included in this program are: operation of EPA's water quality data systems for management
of toxic pollutant and other data, including standardization of storage protocols and quality
assurance; ongoing evaluations of ambient water quality trends to measure the success of EPA
control strategies and development of wasteload allocation regulations and guidance.  It also
includes managment overhead for the regional Surveillance and Analysis Divisions which are
responsible for monitoring in all media (water, air, toxics, enforcement, and pesticides) and
for coordinating surveillance and analysis among States and other Federal agencies.

1980 Accomplishments

    In 1980 the Agency obligated a total of $10,691,900 to water quality monitoring and ana-
lysis, including $7,961,300 for Salaries and Expenses and $2,730,600 for Abatement, Control
and Compliance.  This program used approximately $2,730,600 for contracts and interagency
agreements to determine geographic distributions, to assess exposure/risk of toxic pollutant
contributions to publicly owned treatment works (POTW), and to perform biological and
chemical monitoring.  Accomplishments included:

     -  Assessment of environmental  exposure/risk and geographic distribution of toxic pol
lutants to set revised Best Available Technology (BAT) regulations, pretreatment and New
Source Performance Standards, and water quality criteria, and to make additions/ deletions
from the 307(a)(l) list of. toxic substances.

     -  Investigation of 1.5 potential  toxic "hot spots" to determine actual levels or toxic
pollutant contamination in geographic areas where BAT regulations will not satisfy toxics
criteria.

     -  Providing technical review of 25 proposals for advanced waste treatment (AWT)
projects.

     -  Development of detailed assessment of the sources of toxic pollutants to publicly
owned treatment works (POTW), with resultant analysis of regulatory strategies, including
controls under TSCA and RCRA.

     -  Continued evaluation of quality assurance procedures in selected State and
contractor water laboratories for accurate detection and measurement of toxic and other
pollutants in ambient waters and effluents.

     -  Operation of water quality and toxic pollutants data management systems to provide
access to and analysis of available information on toxics and other pollutants.

     -  Analysis and publication of reports of water pollution improvement in six
geographic areas to describe and document programs which are successful and may be adapt-
able to other areas.  Developed Environmental Profiles for water quality.

     -  Development and beginning implementation of a water nonitoring strategy to collect
and analyze water quality information for use in policy decisions and in measuring effective-
ness of programs.

        Initiation of a review and redesign, of water monitoring networks to improve
statistical coverage and utility of data for national  analyses.

     -  Management of the State Basic Water Monitoring Program, which included toxic
pollutant  and biological  monitoring,  and intensive surveys.

     -  Implementation of a data system for storage and analysis of toxic pollutant data;
continued  and improved data systems  to provide pollution control  agencies, at all levels of
government, with widespread access to toxic and other pollutant data.

     -  Performance of limited biological  sampling and data interpretation to screen for
presence of toxics, to pinpoint needs for chemical  monitoring, and to evaluate effects of
chemical pollutants.

                                             WQ-59

-------
     -  Continuation of an interagency agreement with the National  Fish and  Wildlife Service
and the U.S. Geological Survey to collect and analyze water samples and fish tissue,  (this
will help determine geographic distributions and exposure/risk of toxic pollutants,  and
measure trends in overall water quality).

     -  Publication of State water quality assessment reports as required  by Section 305(b)
of the Act.

1981 Program

     In 1981 the Agency has allocated a total of $11,694,100 for this program, including
$9,218,50^ cor the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $2,475,600 for  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  Abatement, Control and Compliance funds support con-
tracts and interagency agreements to determine geographic distributions and  to assess
exposure/risk of toxic pollutants and contracts to assess toxic pollutant  contributions to
publicly owned treatment works (POTW).  Major accomplishments planned for  1981 include con-
tinued efforts to manage toxic pollutants and continued implementation of  a  toxic  water
monitoring strategy.  Program objectives include the following:

     -  Expand the assessment of sources of toxic pollutants to publicly owned treatment
works (POTWs), and assess the effectiveness of pretreatment.

     -  Collect and analyze effluent samples and develop environmental  exposure/risk and
fate data to identify and recommend which toxic pollutants require further regulatory
controls or which should be added or deleted from the Section 307(a) list  of toxic substances.

     -  Identify and rank 20 toxic "hot spots," and develop control strategies for selected
geographic areas.

     -  Provide detailed technical evaluations for use in water quality based decisions, in-
cluding review of 25 Advanced Waste Treatment (AWT) proposals and proposed revisions to water
quality standards.

     -  Collect/analyze toxic pollutant samples to determine geographic coverage and
ambient concentrations of toxic pollutants in the Nation's waterways.  Ten pollutants will
be screened for possible inclusion on the 307(a) list of toxic pollutants.

     -  Continue development and implementation of a national water monitoring strategy to
collect and analyze data (including biological monitoring data) needed for policy decisions
and program evaluation.

     -  Provide policy and technical guidance on the use of wasteload allocations in water
quality standards review and AWT review studies.

     -  Operate a clearinghouse of water and other related monitoring programs to maintain
an inventory of what data is being collected and help screen new monitoring programs to
ensure that they are integrated with efforts of other offices in EPA.  Provide computer
systems support to approximately 742 water quality data users,

     -  Gu4He the - implementation of quality assurance programs for collection and analysis
for Headquarters, Regions and States.

     -  Complete Environmental Profiles for all EPA regions, detailing environmental progress
and remaining environmental concerns.

1981 Explanationjtf Jjhange frorn^ Budget Estimate

     The net increase of SI.049,500 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted  in a decrease
of $7 million to EPA's-request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this
activity is 343,700,

                                             wn-60

-------
     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $11,300 was
applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease of
$22,400 was applied to this activity,

     - The Congress applied a general reduction of 37.5 million to'the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $77,300 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Services bonuses by $750,000; a
decrease of $10,000 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of $17,200
was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $458,100 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and
is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation,

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted
in a net transfer of $593,000 from water Quality permit issuance ($57,500); from environ-
mental emergency response and prevention ($57,800); from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites
($9,000); from hazardous waste management regulatory strategy implementation ($178,300);
from NEPA compliance-municipal waste facility construction ($89,800); from water quality
manpower planning and training ($42,000); from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites ($30,500);
from water quality enforcement ($91,900); from State programs regulations and guidelines
($600); from water quality NEPA compliance/EIS preparation (52,700); from dredge and fill
<$21,10Q); and municipal waste treatment facility construction ($1,800).

     - A transfer of $1,000 was made to the Administrative Law Judges to provide additional
resources to support a new program for instituting civil non-compliance penalties under
Section 102 of the Clean Air Act.

     - Reprogrammings of $65,100 from the underground injection control program to cover
basic operating costs of ADP support to the Central Regional Lab.

     - Reprogrammings to realign contract funds resulted in a transfer of $34,800 from
State programs regulations and guidelines ($20,200); from dredge and fill ($3,400); from
ambient air quality monitoring ($4,300); and from NEPA compliance municipal waste facility
construction ($6,900).

     - Reprogrammings to realign contract funds resulted in a transfer from municipal waste
treatment facility construction ($52,800); from water quality permit issuance ($27,600);
and from water quality enforcement ($1,800).

1982 Plan

     In 1982, the Agency requests a total of $11,366,600 and 191 permanent workyears for this
program, including $9,443,700 for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $1,922,900 for
the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  Major accomplishments planned for 1982
include development of a national assessment of water quality conditions and the design for a
groundwater strategy.  Program objectives will ^include the following:

     -  Complete a basic assessment of national water quality conditions and problems based
on biological and ambient water analyses conducted as part of the water monitoring strateg;';
provide preliminary analyses of causes of selected key problems.

     -  Design the initial  multimedia monitoring programs needed for the A^ncy's integrated
toxics control strategy, including a systematic approach to identifying remaining toxics
problems through exposure analyses; operation of a toxics data system; and review of the
suitability of data for inclusion in the system.

      -  Analyze the national extent and severity of nonpoint source problems, based on li-
terature search, State reports, extrapolations from site studies, and review of ambient and
biological  data.

                                             HO-61

-------
     -  Develop ,a conceptual approach and initial design for a groundwater monitoring
strategy.

     f  Provide environmental  fate and transport information to help develop integrated
waste management controls*

     -  Implement the basic toxic pollutant management program for the areas that require
WQ based controls, providing pollutant-by-pollutant and area-by-area studies.

     -  Complete the analysis of sources of toxic pollutants in publicly owned treatment
 works (PCTW's) to develop recommendations for deleting or adding pollutants to the Section
 307(a)(l) toxic pollutant list,

     - Collect and analyze toxic pollutant samples to help determine environmental  exposure
and fate; analyze toxics samples from industrial waste streams; conduct sampling to help
determine causes of local toxics problems.

     -  Review the water quality justifications 1n proposals for advanced waste treatment
(AWT) projects.

     -  Coordinate the Regions' participation in the Agency's mandatory quality assurance
program; conduct on-site evaluations of State quality assurance programs.

     -  Work with each State to redirect and improve State monitoring programs, including
operation of field monitoring networks, conduct of intensive surveys, performance of limited
biological monitoring, analysis of toxic pollutants, and implementation of quality assurance
procedures.  Assist States in developing their toxic pollutant monitoring programs.

     -  -Perform analyses of ambient water data and review waste!oad allocations and intensive
surveys to help make Regional  decisions on attainability of water quality standards in
selected States and areas, and to assist in making decisions on permits and other regulatory
actions.
                                              WO-62

-------
                                      WATER QUALITY

                                 Muncipal Source Control
                                              Budget    Current                 Increase +
                                     Actual  Estimate   Estimate   Estimate     Decrease -
                                      1980     1981       1981       1982      1982_vs  1981
                                                    [idolTars in thousands)    ~"!   "*~*    "~

Appropriation
Munici pal Waste
 Treatment Facility
 Construction:
  Salaries and Expenses	      $24,007  $22,692    $24,981    $26,417     +$1,436
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	        3,839    4,940     4,653       4,179         -474

NEPA Compliance-
 Municipal Waste Facility
 Construction:
  Salaries and Expenses	        2,467    2,683     2,728       2,680         -48
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	        6,102    6,600     6,337       6,600         +-263

Corps of Engineers:
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance .	       20,70?   21,955    21,257      22,518      +1,261

Waste Treatment Operation
 and Maintenance:
  Salaries and Expenses	        1,064    1,040     1,102       1,528         +426
  Abatement, Control
 •  and Compliance 	           98   	542   	527	80         -447

Subtotal, Construction Grants
 Program Management:
  Salaries and Expenses	       27,538   26,415    28,811      30,625      +1,814
 1 Abatement, Control
   and Compliance....	       30,748   34,^37    32,774      33,377         +603

Manpower Planning and Training-
 Water Quality:
  Salaries and Expenses..	        1,412    1,345     1,289       1,47.3         +189
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	        2.412    2.6922.627	2,625	I2__

Grand Total:
  Salaries and Expenses........       28.95Q   27,760    30,100      3:,103      +2,003
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	       33.160   36.729    35.401      36.00?	+601

      Total	       62,110   64,489    65,501      68,105      +2,604
                                           wn-63

-------
Permanent Positions
Muncipal Waste Treatment
 Facil i ty Construct ion	
NEPA Compliance-Municipal
 Waste Facility Construction..
Operation and "aintenance.....
Manpower Planning and
 Training-Water Quality  	,
     Total,

Full-time
                   .
               "'Treatment
 Faci1ity Construct ion.	
NEPA Compliance-Municipal
 Waste Facility Construction.,
Operation and Maintenance.....
Manpower Planning and Training
     Total,
                                              Budget
                                     Actual  Estimate
                                      1980     1981
  777 .
  888

   89
   26
   43
                   Current
                   Estimate
                     1981
                   Estimate
                     1982
                                                   Tdollars in thousands)
766
894

 95
 29
 39
744
1,046    1,057
870

 92
 28
 38
        1,028
719
848

 95
 37
 40
          1,020
                     Increase +
                     Decrease -
                    1982 vs 1981
-25
85
25
34
921
95
28
25
914
92
27
23
886
94
35
26
874
+2
+8
+3
-12
-22

 +3
 +9
 +2
             -8
Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total $68,104,800 and 874 permanent workyears for 1982, an
increase of $2,603,300 from 1981.  Included in this total is 532,102,500 for Salaries
and Expenses and $36,002,300 for Abatement, Control and Compliance, with an increase
of $2,002,300 and $601,000 respectively.  The increase will fund 301(h) ocean waiver
activities, the full year cost of the 1980 pay raise, and increased costs in the Corps
of Engineers agreement.

Program Description

     The municipal source control subactivity is composed of two program areas:
construction grants program managment, and waste treatment training and technical
assistance.  A general description of each of these areas is as follows:

Construction Grants Program Management

     This area involves the management of the program which awards grants for planning,
design, anrl constitution of municipal wastewater treatment facilities.  The grants are
made by EPA to municipalities who, in most cases, contract with architects/engineers and
construction firms to do the actual planning, design and construction.  The objective of
the program is to eli-iinate the discharge of untreated or inadequately treated pollutants
into the Nation's waters and, thereby, restore, and maintain the quality of these waters.

     For budgetary purposes, construction grants program management is dividied into the
following four principal program elements:

         Municipal Haste Treatment Facility Construction  This program includes
         most of the day-to-day i n- hous eliianagement a ct i vi t i es associated with
         the consturction grants program both in Headquarters and the EPA Regional
         Offices.
                                           wn-64

-------
         NEPA Compliance.  This involves environmental evaluation activities,
         including the assessment of environmental information documents and
         negative declarations, and the preparation and oversight of environ-
         mental impact statements.  The purpose of these activities is to
         assure that municipal wastewater treatment facilities are planned
         and constructed in conformance with the National Environmental
         Policy Act (NEPA).

         Corps of Engineers.  This program covers a series of construction
         management activities assigned to the Corps of Engineers to assure
         the technical and fiscal  integrity of projects under construction.

         Opera/tion and Maintenance.  This part of the program involves the
         cohtThuous assessmeninsf publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) in
         accordance with Section 210 of the Clean Water Act.  It also provides
         for the support of State, local, and private sector efforts to achieve
         compliance with established effluent standards through improved opera-
         tions and management.  EPA provides sup'port for both new and existing
         POTWs by developing guidance materials, conducting demonstration pro-
         jects and public awarenees activities, identifying research needs, and
         developing and supporting training projects.

     In the past, direct grants management activities were performed primarily in the
EPA regional offices.  EPA is in the process of delegating many of these grant-related
activities to the State under Section 205(g) of the Clean Water Act.  Delegation agree-
ments between EPA and the States provide for delegation in phases.  Although 46 States
and territories will have signed delegation agreements through 1982, full delegation
responsibilities will not be assumed in -iany of these States until 1983 or later.  With
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers also assisting in Construction management activities,
EPA is changing its management orientation from project-by-project management to overall
program management.  However, the Agency must still provide considerable training and
assistance to the States, before the goals of the delegation program can be accomplished.

     The funding provided under construction grants program management covers only direct
operating costs of the program.  It does not include the funds for the 205{g) State manage-
ment assistance grants or the actual grant funds for municipal treatment facilities, which
are included in a separate appropriation account (Construction Grants).

     The Agency is undergoing a major evaluation and planning effort, the "1990 Strategy",
to determine the long-term (1990)  goals for the construction grants program and the steps
needed in the 1980's to reach these goals.  The "1990 Strategy" will result in recommenda-
tions for both legislative and administrative changes in five major areas:  compliance,
funding, operations, management, and planning.

Haste TreatmentTrainingandTechnicalAssistance

     The activities in this program area include:  (a) program support (courses, materials,
etc.) for training and certification of municipal wastewater treatment facility operators
anrf related personnel  to improve plant  efficiency in existing plants and to assure efficient
and reliable operation of new federally-funded plants; and (b) training of D'A, State
and private sector agency personnel  in  the technology of abatement and control of water
pollution through short-term training courses, development of audiovisual training aids,
and delivery of course packages and other training resources for the purpose of developing
effective State and local water pollution control training programs.

CONSTRUCTION GRANTS PROGRAM MANAGEMENT

1980 Accomplishments

     The construction grants program management obligations for 1980 totalled $58,286,100
of which 527,538,000 was for salaries and expenses and $30,748,100 for extramural act-
ivities.  EPA awarded 2,392 grants totalling $4,673 million.  Approximately 11,054 pro-
jects were in the preconstruction  or construction stages by year end, including 4,982
facility planning projects, 1,538  design projects, 600 combined design and construction


                                           WQ-65

-------
 projects, and 3,934 projects under construction.  The following table summarizes the
 program for 1980.


             Item                             1980

                                   Number                             Amount
                                                              (dpi 1arsin mil 1 ions)

 Total Obligations - Gross a/                                          $4,673
 Total Outlays                                                          4.343

 Awards Processed:
   Step 1 Awards 	    752
   Step 2 Awards 	    608
   Step 3 Awards	    279
   Step 2+3 Awards	    303

 Step 3 Completions
  (including Step 2+3)	    845

 Active Projects	 11,054

 New EISs and Related Studies
  Inititated	     56

     aj  This represents gross obligations during the year.  Net obligations,  reflecting
 recoveries from past awards, totalled 34,376 million.

     The $4,673 million in gross 1980 obligations represents a decrease of $127 million
 from the level projected in EPA's budget request to Congress last year.   This  decreased
 level of obligation activity occurred largely because of the deferral of 1980  funds during
 the year.  This deferral caused many States to slow down their grant activities because
 of lack of available funds.

     Additional progress was made in delegating major management responsibilities for
the program to the State under Section 205(g) of the Act.  Eight States signed delega-
tion agreements in 1980, bringing the total number of States with 205(g) agreements
to 38.  EPA continued to train and assist the States to fully assume the delegated
 functions.

     The U.S.  Army Corps of Engineers and EPA extended their interagency agreement for
 an indefinite period, subject to annual  funding.  The terms of the revised agreement are
basically the same as those in the original agreement, with most of the Corps' efforts
devoted to conducting interim inspections on projects under construction, providing full-
time on-site presence on large complex projects, serving as project officers on grants
for actual construction, and reviewing plans and specifications to assure that plans are
 bidable and constructable before contract awards are let.

     In 1980 EPA began the "1990 strategy" reassessment.  Issue papers were prepared in
the areas of compliance, funding, operations, management, and planning;  and meetings were
 held on a regular basis with approximately 15 interest groups, including State and local
governments,  consulting engineers, sewerage agency administrators, and rural residents.

     The National  Municipal Policy and Strategy was published at the beginning of 1980.
The purpose of this policy and strategy is to improve the degree of compliance of publicly
 owned treatment works by integrating the activities of the grants, enforcement and NPDES
 permit compliance programs.  This is a joint strategy for EPA and the States which will
 focus initially on non-compliance in major urban areas and be carried out through the
municipal  management system.

     The operation and management program continued to develop a coordinated,  broad-based
 approach to impact the design of new POTWs to assure their meeting effluent objectives.
Three on-site demonstration projects were initiated in three States to assess  procedures


                                           Wn-66

-------
 for encouraging the private sector to market techical service's to PQTWs not currently
 in compliance.  Also, two region-wide pilot projects began, which are designed to identify
 POTWs  not  in compliance, assure a remedial program is established for them, and track all
 action necessary to achieve compliance.  The first year that the innovative and alterna-
 tive  (I/A) technologies program was fully operational was in 1980.  The purpose of I/A
 technologies program is to promote reduced costs, energy savings,- improved treatment of
 toxic  substances, better operations and management, recycling of wastewater, and better
 joint treatment by municipalities and industries.  EPA initiated an "active" I/A technology
 program, which is a joint effort of the construction grants and research and development
 staffs, to encourage greater use of I/A technologies and to generate more I/A projects.
 Under the  "active" program, the Agency identifies potential I/A projects and provides
 technical assistance in the design of these projects.  In 1980, EPA established a
 special advisory board to help the administrator review and make recommendations for
 the I/A program.  The Agency has funded 549 I/A projects as of September 30, 1980.

     In 1980, EPA initiated 56 EIS's and related studies, began processing grants for the
 development of pretreatment programs, and issued policy prohibiting retroactive require-
 ments.  The Agency also evaluated 535 advanced treatment projects.  Thirty-five of these
 projects involved incremental  costs above secondary treatment levels of more than S3
 million and EPA's evaluation of these 35 produced a total capital cost savings of $80
 million.  In addition, the Agency reviewed 12 applications for waiver of secondary treat-
 ment requirements for communities with ocean outfalls, and completed all of the field
 work and analysis on the joint State-EPA Needs Survey in compliance with Section 205(a)
 and 516{b){2) of the Clean Water Act of 1977.

 1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $61,585,000 and 863 permanent work-
years to this program of which $28,810,600 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
 and S32,774,4no is for extramural purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance
 appropriation.  EPA expects to award approximately 2,862 grants totalling $4.2 billion.
 Approximately 11,682 projects will be in the preconstruction or construction status by
year end, including over 4,764 facility planning projects, 1,950 design projects, 980
 combined design/construction projects and 3,988 projects under construction.  The following
 table summarizes the program planned for 1981:


             Item                             1981
                                   Number                             Amount
                                                              (dollars in millions)

Obligations - Gross _a/                                               $4,200

Total Outlays                                                        54,200

Awards Processed:
   Step 1 Awards                     655
   Step 2 Awards                   1,001
   Step 3 Awards                     7b9
   Step 2+3 Awards                   415   "

Step 3 Completions                 1,487
  (including Step 2 and 3)

Active Projects  (all steps)       11,682

New EISs and Related Studies          51
  Inititated

     a/  This represents gross obligations during the year.  Net obligations, re-
flectTng recoveries from past awards, are projected to total $3,95 billion.

                                            WQ-67

-------
     EPA will complete the construction grants 1990 Strategy in 1981.  The Strategy
is being developed to analyze the program's current problems, to evaluate alternative
directions for the program in the future, and to recommend revisions to the program
over the next ten years.  The study was initiated in light of: 1.) the expanded role
of the States and the Corps of Engineers in the management program, 2) extremely large
needs for funds in a period of national fiscal austerity, and 3) problems related to
the achievability of legislative goals, lengthy grants processing and completion times,
inadequate performance in municipal operations and compliance, and problems in achieving
municipal self-sufficiency.  The 1990 Strategy will recommend significant changes in the
construction grants program.  Recommendation for legislative changes will be forwarded
to Congress in the near future.

     This 1990 Strategy will be making recommendations in five general areas.  In the
compliance section recommendations will be made to improve the current performance of
municipalities in achieving compliance with permit requirements.  Increased emphasis
will be placed on the development of compliance tracking systems and the use of the
private sector to assist localities in improving operations and management capabilities.
*n *ne funding, section, the strategy will evaluate current eligibilities, the current
allotment formula, the effectiveness of the categorical grant approach, the impact of
inflation, and alternative funding mechanisms.  In the operations section the strategy
will address current problems with red tape and excessive project processing/pro-
ject completion times.  Recommendations will be made to streamline the entire
grant process and to bring projects on line in the most expeditious manner possible.
In the management section recommendations will be made concerning EPA's future
role in a fully delegated program.  Responsibilities of EPA, the States, the Corps
of Engineers and municipal grants recipients will be fully articulated.  In the
planning section, current legislative goals and technology based treatment require-
ments will be fully evaluated in light of total fiscal needs and funds likely to
be available in the years ahead.  Six additional States are expected to sign 205(g)
delegation agreements in 1981.  EPA will continue to train and assist the delegated
States and will evaluate the effectiveness and quality of the State delegation
program and oversee construction management functions assigned to the Corps of
Engineers.

     Among the activities being delegated to the States ara data entry and use of the
construction grants management system (GMS).  With delegation of the day-to-day
management activities to the States, it is essential that GMS be responsive to the
new management orientation of EPA, as well as to the needs of the States.  Therefore,
at the beginning of 1981, the Agency organized a Grants Management System Work
Group, comprised of EPA and State representatives, to improve both the management
system and the training of State staffs,

     During 1981, EPA will develop action plans for implementing the Municipal Manage-
ment System and will  identify and track several projects on a nationwide scale, with
particular emphasis on facilities in the largest metropolitan areas which have not
yet achieved minimal  secondary treatment requirements.  Also in the area of compliance,
the operations and management program will continue initiatives begun in 1980.  The
results of the three State demonstration projects, designed to stimulate the marketing
of operational services to POTWs by the private sector, will be published and dissemi-
nated.  The two region-wide projects designed to assure non-complying POTWs are
brought inot compliance will continue and four additional projects in other regions
will begin.  EPA will develop a Community Guidebook to assist communities in dealing
with the consulting community when procuring O&M services and will develop training
courses for design consultant on factoring OSM considerations into the construction
grants process.

     In 1981, EPA will continue to promote the development and use of intervative/
alternatives technologies.  Guidelines will be developed for a national I/A excellence
award for consulting engineers.  The Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufactures Associa-
tion, Inc. and EPA will continue the I/A seminars that began in 1980.  EPA will also
continue its "active" program to promote the development and use of I/A technologies.
The current 3-year I/A program will expire on September 30, 1981.
                                       WO-68

-------
     EPA has established a detailed review process related to funding of advanced waste
treatment projects.  This evaluation ensures that such funding 1s strictly limited to
those situations where the higher level of treatment is both necessary to meet water
quality standards and be effective in meeting higher standards.  In accordance with the
Conference Report of the 1981 appropriation for construction grants, the EPA Administrator
will continue to evaluate all waste treatment projects involving treatment levels more
stringent than secondary where the incremental cost of the advanced component 1s greater
than S3 million.  The evaluation of these projects will not be delegated to the regions
but will  be performed by staff in headquarters; the regional offices will be responsible
for review of similar projects with an Incremental cost of $3 million or less.

Other activities planned for 1981 are the issuance of guidance for streamlining program
compliance with 57 Federal laws and Executive orders, the evaluation of 469 advanced
treatment projects, the issuance of revised policy to improve the review procedures
for advanced treatment projects, and the preparation of three generic model facility
plans to simplify and speed-up facility planning for small communities.  In addition,
the Agency will summarize and report the results of the joint State-EPA Needs Survey
to Congress, and as part of the 201 Construction Grant program, award over 1,000
grants for the development of pretreatment programs and over 500 grants for the pur-
chase of monitoring equipment and construction of facilities needed for pretreatment.
As part of the 301h program, EPA will also evaluate at least 24 applications for
waiver of secondary treatment requirement for communities with ocean outfalls and
begin making decisions on these applications.

1981 Explanation of Budget Estimate

     Municipal Haste Treatment Faci1 ity Construction - The net Increase of $2,002,100
results from several actions, as follows:"""

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted
in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The
reduction applied to this activity is $141,800.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $44,800
was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 mill ion; a decrease
of $193,700 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement, Con-
trol and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $188,800 was applied to this
activity.

     - The Congress increased the Salaries and Expenses appropriation by $300,000 to
support 10 advanced waste treatment positions.

     - An increase of $1,606,000 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in a transfer from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites($13,70Q); from solid
waste management program implementation($36,700); from toxics management($11,900);
from planning, evaluation and analysisflSl.ZOO); from manpower planning and train-?
ing - water quality($80,900); from water quality permit 1ssuance($7,200); from
hazardous waste management regulatory strategy implementation($453,600); from solid
waste technical assistance delivery - reg1ons($4,20Q); from hazardous waste enforce-
ment($l,600); from pesticides enforcement($4,400); from public systems supervision


                                       WO-69

-------
program assistance($102,400); from regional management (567, 100); from standards and
regulations($3,700); from hazardous permit enforcement($8Q,000); from ambient air
quality monitoring ($16, 900); from ambient water quality mon1toring($l,800); and to
NEPA compliance/EIS prep-water quality($l,600).

     - A transfer of $5,300 was made to the Administrative Lay; Judges to provide
additional resources to support a new program for instituting civil noncompliance
penalties under Section 102 of the Clean Air Act.

     - Transfer $27,800 to program management OWWM, to support the needs of the DAA,
Office of Water Program Operations.

     - Transfer $92,800 from standards and re
-------
     - Transfer $15,000 to environmental emergency response and prevention;
$13,900 to water quality enforcement, and $13,000 to noise regional program
implementation to realign contract funds.

     - Transfer $49,700 from underground injection control program to cover required
printing of EIS.

     Corps of Engineers - The net decrease of $698,500 results from several actions:

     .- The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $668,600 was applied to this
activity.

     - Transfer of $30,000 to State program regulations and guidelines, to support
an interagency agreement.

     Waste Treatment Operations and Maintenance - The net increase of $47,400 results
from several actions-, as f611 ows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter trans-
mitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in
a decrease of $.7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction
applied to this activity is $5,400.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $6,100
was applied to this activity.

     - The Corgress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease
of $30,000 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general reducion of $7.5 million to the Abatement, Control  •
and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $14,700 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $63,600 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - P.eprograrnmings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted
in transfers from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites($25,200); from pesticides enforce-
ment ($6,600) ; from radiation program Implementation($500); from noise regional program
implementation($6,300); from NEPA compliance-municipal waste facility construction($4,000);
from public systems supervision program assistance ($3,000); and from manpower planning
and training - water quality($l,800).

     - A transfer of $7,400 was made to the Office pf Inspector General in order to provide
additional  resources to that Office.

1982 Plan

     In 19"? E°a will be primarily concerned with implementing the recommendations of
the 1990 Construction Grants Strategy.  These recommendations will include delegating as
many of the day-to-day project management related activities to the States and to the
Corps of Engineers as possible and reorganizing the EPA role away from project manage-
ment to overall program management.  In addition to exercising overall program management
responsiblities and training the States, EPA will continue to be responsible for day-to-day
project level  activities for non-delegated States.  EPA will also place increased emphasis
on several  program activities which are causing major problems and which have been identi-
fied in the 1990 strategy as needing special attention.

     In 1982, EPA will develop a State delegation quality assurance program, emphasizing
program oversight rather than project monitoring.  EPA specialists in planing, finance,
engineering, and environmental protection will do oh-site financial and program management
evaluations of each delegated program on a routine basis.  The objective" will be to
minimize risk, assure environmental and technical Integrity, minimize costs, reduce the

                                           WO-71

-------
impact of political factors, and provide for uniformity and consistency in the national
program.  Followup reviews will be conducted as needed to assure that problems
identified in the financial and program management reviews have been resolved.
Additional assistance and training will be provided when necessary.  By the end of
1982, 46 States will have signed State delegation agreements.

     With significant problems having been identified in the compliance of municipal
waste water treatment facilities with permit or design requirements, EPA will signifi-
cantly e."i.ance operations and management functions in several ways. • First, the muncipal
management system, which links grant, permit, and enforcement activities will be fully
implemented to assure that non-complying facilities are identified and subjected to
enforcement action, where appropriate.  Non-complying facilities with poor operations  -•
and management practices will be encouraged to obtai'n expert assistance from the private
sector to solve their problems.  Second, EPA will place increased emphasis on operations
and management throughout the entire grant process, including intensified efforts at
the front end facility planning and design stages.  Third, States will be encouraged
to assure that non-complying facilities in need of grant assistance are placed on the
priority list.  Finally, no newly constructed treatment facility will be accepted for
grant close out unless compliance with operational requirements is achieved.

     EPA will also concentrate on enhancing the fiscal management and user charge
systems at the local level  to assure that sufficient revenues are collected to operate,
maintain, and replace existing facilities.  The objective will be to promote municipal
self-sufficiency in the long-run and EPA will provide support to grantees in developing
rate structures, user charge systems and financial management systems as a component of
the grant process.  E^A plans to complete the issuance of all pretreatnent grants in
1982.  EPA also plans to explore Innovative ways for using construction grants funds to
assist in communities total waste management problems.  Other activities planned for
1982 include the evaluation of 394 advance treatment projects, completion of 80 quality
reviews of facilities plans, completion of the joint 1982 State/EPA Needs Survey, and
full implementation of the Municipal Management System.  The Agency will also complete
the remaining review and decision on the applications for waiver of secondary treatment
requirement, and continue to award grants for the purchase of equipment related to pre-
treatment.

WASTE TPFATMENT TRAINING &TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980, the manpower and training program expended 34 permanent workyears and
$3,823,600 of which $1,411,800 was for Salaries and Expenses and $2,411,800 for ex-
tramural  purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  Train-
ing activities continued to encourage and support the development of water pollution
control manpower planning and training capabilities at the State and local levels.
Manpower planning and training activities in 1980 concentrated on:

     -  Development and delivery of training programs, curricula, and courses
        to support construction grants and municipal operations program ob-
        jectives (i.e., Section 205(g) State delegation).

     -  Grant funding to the National Joint Training Coordinating Committee
        and State Operator Training Coordination Committees for the develop-
        ment and coordination of operator training at the State and local
        levels.

     -  Grant funding to the Association of Boards of Certification.

     -  Development, demonstration, and distribution of course packages and
        naterials in support of State and local training programs.

     -  Continued development of the Instructional Resource Center in Cincinnati,
        Ohio, to provide training course packages, instructional material and
        information to the private and public sectors.

                                         WQ-72

-------
     -  Initiation of a pilot area training center (ATC) at the University of
        Massachusetts to develop curriculum and determine the feasibility of
        establishing additional  ATCs«

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $3,916,500 and 23 permanent workyears
to this program of which $1,289,600 is for Salaries and Expenses and $2,626,900 is for
extramural purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     With the exception of seven permanent workyears in the regional offices to perform
liaison and coordination between State and local training programs, the total training
program has been consolidated at the National  Training and Operational  Technology Center
(NTOTC) in Cincinnati, Ohio.

     With these resources the training center will be engaged in:

          -  Developing, demonstrating and delivering training courses  supporting
             State agency delegations under Section 205{g).

          -  Providing POTW operator training program support (courses, materials,
             and consultation)  and developing operational technology for waste
             water treatment facilities.

          -  Conducting a new program to provide specialized instructor training
             throudh establishuent of National Trainers Institutes at selected
             sites.

          -  Developing and expanding the operations of the Instructional
             Resources Center at NTOTC, Cincinnati, Ohio.

          -  Continuing area training center demonstration project and  ex-
             panding support to program by placing five additional area
             training centers.

          -  Assisting States 1n initiating State training facilities and
             programs for Operator training under Section 109(b).

          -  Providing training  assistance to new environmental  programs for
             hazardous waste site control and ground water protection programs.

1981, Expl anati on of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $120,300 results from several  actions,  as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President  Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and  Expenses.
The reduction applied to this activity is $7,800.

     - The Congress applied a general  reduction of $7.5 million to the  Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation;  a decrease of $54,800 was  applied to this
activity.

     - An increase of $68,900 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -  Reprogrammings to realign salary and related,costs to meet on-board needs re-
sulted in transfers to municipal waste treatment facility construction  (-$80,900);
from hazardous  waste  management regulatory strategy implementation ($4,100); to
ambient water quality monitoring (-$42,000); to water quality EIS  reviews  (-$10,500);
to State programs regulations and guidelines (-$2,500); from public systems supervision
program assistance ($4,100); from underground injection control  program ($13,100); and
to waste treatment operations and maintenance (-$1,800).

                                          WQ-73

-------
     - Reprogrammings of $3,300 to State program regulations and guidelines, to
fund the interagency agreement for a soil conservation expert.

     - Reprogrammi ngs of 54,000 to toxic substances enforcement for PCE compliance
inspections and PCS and asbestos lab analysis.

     - Reprogrammi ngs of $2,900 to energy review and permitting to support an
interagency agreement for a NOAA meteorologist.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $4,103,000 and 26 permanent workyears for this pro-
gram, of which $1,477,800 is for the salaries and Expenses appropriation and $2,625,200
is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1982, a greater emphasis will be placed on training to assist States to assume
State construction grants delegated responsibilities under the Clean Water Act and to
develop self-sufficiency in treatment works operation and management (08M) training.
There will be a continuing support of publicly owned treatment works (POTU) operator
training and continued operation of the Instructional Resources Center.  The new pro-
gram to provide specialized training to instructors in the State, local and private
sectors will be evaluated and expanded.
                                           WO-74

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
Enforcement
    SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                   WATER QUALITY

                                  Permits Issuance
                                          Budget     Current             Increase*
                                Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate  Decrease-
                                 1980      1981       1981       1932   1982 vs. 1981
                                                (dollars in thousands}

Appropriation
Salaries and Expenses ..... ..    $7,089    $7,949    $8,230     $9,768    +$1,538
Abatement, Control and
  Compliance ....... •. _________     2.702     5.927     5,695      7,330     *1,635

Total..... ..................     9,791    13,876'    13,925     17,098     +3, 173

Permanent Positions. ........       229       242       238        260        +22

Full-time Equivalency... _____       257       295       287        318        +31


Budget Request

    The Agency requests a total of $17,097,500 for National 'ollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permits issuance in 1982, an increase of $3,172,900 from 1981.
Included in this is $9,676,900 for Salaries and Expenses and $7,329,600 for Abatement,
Control, and Compliance, representing an increase over 1931 of $1,537,800 and $1,635,100
respectively.  The 260 permanent workyears requested reflect an increase of 22 positions
from 1981 levels.

Program ..
    The NPDES permit program 1s part of a comprehensive effort provided by the Clean
Water Act (CWA), to reduce or eliminate point source pollution from industrial,
municipal, commercial, and agricultural discharges.  The Act prohibits the discharge
of pollutants into all waters of the United States unless a permit is issued by
EPA or an EPA approved State program.

    The permit is a mechanism for imposing on point source dischargers the uniform national
effluent limitations and national performance standards for new source facilities which
EPA is required to promulgate.  These effluent limitations and standards, set by the Office
of Water and Waste Management, establish maximum amounts of various pollutants which can
be legally discharged by a facility.  Where effluent limitations or standard regulations
have not been promulgated for- a particular Industrial  discharger, the effluent limits are
set by available and economically feasible abatement technology.  Such Best Professional
Judgement (BPJ) permits are issued on a case-by-case basis.  Additionally, if at a given
facility, established national effluent limits will iot reduce pollutants enough to meet
the ambient water quality standards set by the State or EPA, the permit can impose more
stringent limitations as necessary in order to meet the water quality standards.  Permits
also include time schedules which specify deadlines for pollutant reductions.

    Controlling discharges of toxic pollutants is the major emphasis of the NPDES permit
program.  Direct discharges of toxic pollutants into navigable waters are controlled by
the addition of Best Available Technology (BAT) limits into the permits of industries which
discharge toxics.  A recent focus of the permit program is the implementation of the pretreat-
ment program, which gives municipalities and States the responsibility of enforcing national
pretreatment standards against industries discharging toxic pollutants into municipal waste
treatment facilities.
                                            Vin-75

-------
    As part of its effort to improve the regulatory process, Ef>A has consolidated procedures
for permits issued under five separate programs, including NPDES.  The Consolidated Permit
Regulations were promulgated May 19, 1980, and the Agency is currently refining its permitting
mechanism to complement these regulations.  Coordinating and consolidating permit regulations
is of benefit, both to the public and the Agency, by reducing delay and simplifying the
permit process.

    Another important function of the NPDES program is the resolution of evidentiary hearings
held on the te-^)s, conditions, and effluent limitations in permits and requests for variances
from permit effluent limitations.  These activities clear the way for a finally effective
and enforceable permit,  EPA also conducts non-adversary panel hearings for municipalities
which have requested marine discharge modifications under Section 301(h) of the Clean Water
Act.  Non-adversary panel hearings are used to process any first issuance of an NPDES permit
to a discharger that has not previously held an NPDES permit, as well as a first decision
on any variance requested by a direct discharger.

    A primary function of the permit program is the encouragement of State assumption of
responsibility for the NPDES program.  At present, 33 States have approved NPOES programs.
The permit program devotes a sipificant number of workyears to overviewing these State
NPDES programs to ensure that State issued permits conform with national permit program
policies and procedures.

    EPA is committed to involving the public in all of its permit issuance activities by
publishing and disseminating informational materials, answering questions, and holding
public hearings and meetings.

1980 Accompli s.hments

    In 1980, EPA issued a total of 1,033 major and 2,479 minor permits, 2,330 to industrial
dischargers and 1,132 to municipal sources.   During the year, $2,701,500 was obligated
for contract support of permit issuance activities, including pretreatment program assist-
ance, evidentiary hearing support, and information system development.

    EPA also began collecting toxics data from applications and preparing technical
documents in order to issue "second round" permits designed to ensure control of toxic
pollutants.  The Matural Resources Defense Council (NP.DC) Consent Decree of June 1976
{modified in March 1979, to resolve litigation against the Agency regarding its control
of toxic pollutants under the Clean Water Act) requires that EPA regulate up to 129 priority
pollutants for 34 industrial categories.  The Decree requires that permits issued to dis-
chargers in these 34 industries incorporate the Best Available Technology (SAT) guidelines
when they are promulgated.  Because most BAT toxic effluent limitation guidelines in the 34
industrial  categories identified by the NRDC Consent Decree were not available in 1980, the
issuance of second round permits was difficult.

    In June 1979, the Agency proposed consolidated permit regulations and application forms
outlining procedures for coordinating five permit programs, including NPDES.  Final regu-
lations were promulgated in May 1980.  The regulations are increasing the quality of
environmental protection while reducing the regulatory burden on industry and the government.

    The development of the pretreatment program in 1980 continued to focus attention on the
indirect discharge of industrial toxics through Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs).
Resources were used to assist municipalities and States in developing pretreatment programs
and to implement recently developed construction grants/permit guidance on the pretreatment
program.

    For a variety of technical, financial and administrative reasons, a large number of PQTWs
are not in compliance with the Clean Water Act's treatment requirements.  The development of
the National Municipal Strategy to deal with these cases has paved the way for effective
control of noncoraplying PQTHs by coordinating EPA's construction grants, permit issuance, and
water enforcement programs.
                                            wn-76

-------
    EPA review of State NPOES programs in 1980 ensured issuance of effective and enforceable
permits; uniform application of policy, regulations, and effluent limits;  and technical
and/or policy support where needed.  The permit program continued to strive for the goal  of
maximum State participation in the NPDES program by working with States in their development,
of NPDES programs.  In 1980, EPA also reviewed and approved state programs to penult dis
charges from Federal facilities and to implement the pretreatment program.

  1981 program

       In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of «$;13,924,600 for the permits
  issuance program, of which $8,230,100 is for the Salaries and Expenses appro-
  priation and $5,694,500 is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
  Contracts provide support for pretreatment program assistance, for technical
  assistance for permit writers, and for general program operations.

       In 1980, permit program activities focused on reducing discharges from secondary
  industries and on preparing for second round tox-ics permitting for the most signifi-
  sources of pollution.  In 1981 a detailed strategy for second round permits issuance
  is being developed which focuses primarily on BAT permits issuance for toxic dis-
  charges.  This strategy addresses setting priorities for permits issuance, using
  industry teams, and developing training programs for EPA regions and States. . The.
  issuance of permits to major municipal facilities will be emphasized in 1981 while
  BAT guidelines for industrial discharges are issued by the Office of Water and Waste
  Management.  Permits for major industrial dischargers for which guidelines are
  available will be written during the final  quarter of 1981.  It is estimated that
  EPA will issue approximately seven hundred major municipal and industrial permits
  in 1981.  The permit program will also resolve approximately one hundred and twenty-
  six evidentiary hearings to clear the way for effective and enforceable permits.

       A considerable amount of permit program effort in 1981 is being devoted to
  implementing the general pretreatment regulations (-40 CFR 403) promulgated in June
  of 1978.  These regulations are designed to control toxic pollutants introduced by
  sources discharging into municipal systems.  The number of industrial facilities
  affected is comparable to that covered by the NPDES regulations for direct dis-
  chargers.   Efforts in 1981 are focused on approving_State pretreatment programs,
  establishing compliance schedules for municipal permittees which require them to
  develop pretreatment programs, and reviewing and approving such programs.

  1981 Explanation of Change From judget Estimate

       The net increase of 549,200 results from several actions, as follows:

       - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
  transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
  resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
  The reduction applied to this activity is $49,600.

       - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of
  $6,300 was applied to this activity.

       - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a
  decrease of $91,300 was applied to this activity.

       - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement,
  Control  and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $164,500 was applied to this
  activity.

       - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executiye Service bonuses  by $750,000;
  a decrease of $2,200 was applied to this activity.

       - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of
  $4,100 was applied to this activity.

                                             wn-77

-------
     - An increase of $526,700 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included 1n a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in a net transfer of -$71,900:  to dredge and fill (-$7,800); to
State programs regulations and guidelines (-$21,300); to ambient "water quality
monitoring (-567,500); to ocean disposal permits (-$7,400); to municipal waste
treatment facility construction (-$7,200); to air quality management implementation
(-S5,£CC); from noise regional program implementation ($400); from EIS review-air
($3,200); from NEPA compliance/EIS preparation-new source discharge ($2,500); from
regional management ($1,100); from stationary source enforcement ($30,30'1); from
uncontrolled hazardous waste sites ($12,400); to environmental emergency response
and prevention (-$11,000); from water quality enforcement ($5,900); and from public
systems supervision program assistance ($300).

     - Transfer $20,000 to NEPA compliance-municipal waste facility construction
to provide for the printing of EIS statements.  -

     - Transfer $26,800 to toxic substances enforcement for PCB compliance
inspections and PCB and asbestos lab analysis.

     - Transfer $13,200 to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites for an analytical
contract to expand regional capability to analyze high priority, quick turn-
around samples.

     - Transfer $27,600 to ancient water quality monitoring in order to realign
contract funds.


1982 Plan              ...

     The Agency requests a total of $17,097,500 for NPDES permits issuance program in
1982, of which $9,767,900 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $7,329,600
in the Abatement, Control, and Compliance appropriation.  The two hundred and sixty
workyears requested represent an increase of 22 positions from 1981.  About $5,900,000
will go towards toxic control in the pretreatment program including review and approval
of pretreatment programs; the remainder will  be used for technical  assistance for
permit writers and general program support.

     Virtually all of these resources will be used for the control  of direct or indirect
toxic discharges.  Control of direct toxic discharges will be achieved Sy imposing new
and more stringent controls on industrial dischargers through the issuance of "second
round" permits using BAT guidelines or, in the absence of guidelines, using BPJ.  The
issuance of permits without guidelines is necessary in order to meet the July 1984
statutory deadline and will result in a significant additional resource burden in
1982.  Of the one thousand major nonmunicipal permits EPA will issue in 1932, about
seven hundred will be to industries covered by the NRDC consent decree.  The pretreatment
program will  provide control over indirect discharges of toxic pollutants into municipal
treatment systems.  EPA has significant pretreatment responsibilities in non-NPDES
States.  They include providing technical assistance directly to municipalities, develop-
ing pretreatment compliance schedules and including them in permits, and approving local
permits, and approving local pretreatment programs.  Nationally, EPA will be developing
legal and technical pretreatment guidance.  Additional resources will also be devoted to
approving State pretreatment programs in those States responsible for the NPDES program.
As part of its efforts to Improve the regulatory process during 1982, EPA will continue
to implement the consolidated permit regulations that were promulgated during 1980.  By
coordinating permit issuance procedures for five separate permit programs, EPA expects
to reduce delay to permit applicants and simplify permitting procedures.
                                           wn-78

-------
     Using technical  and legal  resources,  the resolution of evidentiary and  panel
hearings for major industrial  discharge permits will  continue  to be important  activities
in 1982.  Particular attention will  focus  on resolving evidentiary hearings  relating  to
permits with toxic concerns.   Approximately forty evidentiary  hearings  will  be settled.

     Resources will also be used in 1982 to issue permits with Section  301 (h)  modifications
to municipalities discharging  into marine  waters.  This provision is intended  to reduce
the economic impact of complying with Clean Water Act standards when municipalities
discharge into marine waters.
                                            WO-79

-------
                             WATER QUALITY ENFORCEMENT
                                          Budget     Current             Increase*
                                Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate  Decrease-
                                 1980      1981       1981       1982   1982 vs. 1981
                                         ~    ~  ("dollars in thousands]

Appropriation
Salaries and Expenses	     $15,532   $16,277    $16,009    $18,741    +$2,732

Abatement, Control and
  Compliance	,       2.467     3,909      5,305      2.514     -2,791

Total	      17,999    20,186     21,314     21,255        -59

Permanent Positions	,         497       511        481        514        +33

Full-time Equivalency	       -  573       575  '     544        575        +33
Budget Request

    The Agency requests a total of $21,255,300 for 1982, a decrease of $59,200 from 1981.
Included in the total is $18,741,100 for Salaries and Expenses and $2,514,200 for Abatement,
Control, and Compliance.  This represents an increase of $2,731,500 and a decrease of $2,790,700
respectively.  The 514 permanent workyears requested for 1982 is a 33 permanent workyear increase
from the 1981 level.  The increase in Salaries and Expenses will go to implement our criminal
enforcement program in the Regions and to implement the continuous compliance and municipal
enforcement program as well.  The decrease in Abatement and Control is primarily due to the
completion of the Waukegan Harbor project, as well as the reprogrammings to other high priority
Agency activities.


Program Description

    The highest priority of the water quality enforcement program is response to emergency
situations that threaten public health and safety.  The second major goal is the initiation of
enforcement actions against municipal violators who have failed to achieve secondary treatment
by July I, 1977, as required by the Clean Water Act (CWA).  The third major goal is the
enforcement of  pretreatment regulations and compliance monitoring and enforcement activities
for priority pollutants and toxics.

    The water quality enforcement program also emphasizes compliance monitoring and enforcement
of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater discharge permits.
Other activities include enforcement actions necessary to achieve compliance with regulations
on spills and hazardous substances, ocean dumping, dredge and fill, and other related
requirements of the CWA, the Rivers and Harbors Act (Refuse Act), and the  Marine Protection,
Research, and Sanctuaries Act.  Most water quality enforcement activities are conducted
cooperatively with the States; maximum State assumption of these activities is a primary goal.

    EPA's WPDES compliance monitoring program includes compliance review, compliance inspections,
and enforcement actions initiated because of noncompliance.  Compliance review is the evaluation
of all compliance schedule reports (on construction) and discharge monitoring reports (effluent
quality) submitted by permittees to EPA.  These reports provide information on facility planning,
construction progress, plant operation, and the characteristics of the effluent.  Compliance
inspections include all field activities conducted to determine the status of compliance with
statutory audit (nonsampling) Inspections, sampling inspections, and surveillance and analysis
in response to emergencies and toxics enforcement.
                                             WQ-80

-------
    The CWA provides for various enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with the
requirements of the Act.  Primarily, these are issuance of Section 309(a)(l) Notices of
Violations to States with approved NPDES permit programs; issuance of Section 309 (a)(3)
Administrative Orders to dischargers with EPA-issued permits and to dischargers with State-issued
permits if State responses do not have a positive effect; and referrals to U.S. Attorneys for
civil or criminal relief for violations or NPDES permits and Aministrative Orders.   The law
provides for $10,000 civil penalties and $35,000 criminal fines per-day of violation.

    The non-NPDES enforcement program is responsible for providing legal support to achieve
compliance with Section 311 and 404 of the CWA.  Section 311 controls oil «£gd hazardous substance
spills or releases to surface water and Section 4D4 controls the disposal of dredged and fill
material.  The latter is a shared responsibility with the Corps of Engineers.   In addition,
the non-NPDES enforcement program is responsible for enforcement actions initiated under the
ocean dumping provision of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act.


1980 Accompl1shments

    With expenditures of $17,998,500 during 1980, the Water Quality Enforcement Program continued
its efforts against major industrial permittees not in compliance with the July 1, 1977 deadline
for meeting specified, technology-based, effluent criteria, and against Publicly Owned Treatment
Works (POTWs) for compliance schedule violations.  By the end of 1980, 73 percent of cases
planned under the Major Source Enforcement Effort (MSEE) have been concluded.

    In States without approved NPDES programs, Regional offices reviewed all industrial and
municipal self-monitoring reports.  In additon, 1,027 compliance evaluation Inspections, 560
compliance sampling inspections, 147 performance audit inspections, 227 biomonitoring inspections
and 82 toxics inspections were completed during FY 1980.

    From these reports and inspections, violations were identified and reviewed for possible
enforcement action.  Follow-up enforcement activity for 1980 consisted of 569 Administrative
Orders, 89 Notices of Violation, 63 civil and criminal cases initiated, and 50 cases concluded.

    The Agency continued to monitor and bring enforcement actions in accordance with the oil
spill requirements of Section 311 of the Clean Water Act and the Ocean Dumping Provision of
the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act.  Regional offices referred 985 oil spill
civil cases to the Coast Guard, and conducted 490 proceedings for violations of oil spill
prevention and counter-measure and control plans (SPCC program).  During 1980, five Section 404
cases were referred to DOJ.

    By the end of 1980, several new programs were well under way.  The Municipal Management
System was developed and 1s now being tested in the regions.  Contract compliance inspections
were completed 1n Regions IV, VI and VII.  These are a major test of the private sector's
ability to conduct compliance inspections.  Finally, the Discharge Monitoring Report Quality
Assurance Program is operational with performance samples sent to permittees.  These samples
will be used as a means of assessing precision and accuracy of their analytical laboratories.

    For 1980, approximately $2,467,000 was obligated for contract support to water enforcement
activities and was used to meet ADP information needs, evaluate on-going programs, conduct
feasibility studies, provide technical and legal  case support, implement pretreatment program
enforcement, and conduct monitoring and inspection training.


1981Program

    The Agency has allocated a total of $21,314,500 and 481 permanent workyears to this program
for 1981, of which $16,009,600 is for Salaries and Expenses and $5,304,900 is for extramural
purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  During 1981, the activities
supporting enforcement actions in emergency situations involving substantial threats to public
health and safety will continue to receive the highest program priority.
                                         un-81

-------
    Next in priority is enforcement against those municipal facilities which did not meet the
requirement for secondary treatment by the statutory deadline of July 1, 1977.  Under the
guidance of the municipal management system, permit, enforcement and construction grant
activities will be coordinated so as to expedite municipal construction and increase municipal
compliance.

    A third major priority for the year is the conclusion of major source enforcement (HSEE)
actions against industrial facilities.  Any MSEE case not yet completed will be brought to
conclusion.

    Enforcement of pretreatment regulations will be emphasized-along with the implementation
of a compliance monitoring program, the issuance of Administrative Orders (AOs) and Notices of
Violations (NOVs) to major permittees in violation of pretreatment requirements, and the referral
of civil actions to the Department of Justice (DQJ).

    In states without approved NPDES programs, EPA will review all major industrial and POTW
discharger self-monitoring reports for compliance with permit conditions.  To support compliance
activities, the regional offices will conduct approximately 2,800 compliance inspections to
verify permittee selfmonitoring Information.  Where'necessary, appropriate enforcement actions
will be initiated, including Issuance of NOVs, AOs, and referral of cases to the DQJ.

    An automated system to detect discharge monitoring report violations 1s being implemented
in 1981 to provide for automated processing and initial review of all discharge self-monitoring
reports.

    Non-NPDES enforcement of Section 311 oil spill requirements and the Ocean Dumping Act will
be held to 1980 levels.

    Enforcement of Section 404 provisions will receive higher priority during 1981 than in
previous years.  Increased attention will be given to identifying Illegal discharging activities,
those Incidents performed by individuals not possessing a permit, and appropriate legal action
will be taken against the violators.

    In 1981, contract funds totalling $5,304,900 have been allocated to provide for the following
activities:  specific case support, litigation training for Regional personnel, performance
samples (self-monitoring quality assurance) for major NPDES permittees or labs used by permittees,
technical manuals development, b1omon1toring activities, and NPDES compliance sampling
inspections.


1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

    The net increase of $1,128,100 results from several actions, as follows:

    - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of $7
million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is
$94,500.

    - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by $750,000; a decrease
of $17,500 was applied to this activity.

    - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $26,300 was
applied to this activity.

    - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease of $145,400
was applied to this activity.

    - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $75,200 was applied to this activity.

    - The Congress directed an increase of $1,500,000 for the Waukegan Harbor PCB's was applied
to this activity.
                                               W1-82

-------
i      - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of $195,600 was
  applied to this activity.

      - An increase of $997,000 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is included
  in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

      - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet qn-board needs resulted in
  transfers of $561,000 to ocean disposal permits ($117,700); air quality management implementation
  ($12,300); ambient air quality monitoring ($71,100); stationary source enforcement ($271,800);
  uncontrolled hazardous waste sites ($18,300); state programs regulations and guidelines
  ($17,500); NEPA compliance/EIS preparation-water quality ($3,200); ocean disposal permits
  •($1,800); ambient water quality monitoring ($91,TOO); permit issuance ($5,900) and from
  environmental emergency response and prevention ($48,900).

      - Transfer of $13,900 from NEPA compliance-municipal waste facility construction to realign
  contract funds and support interagency agreements,

      - Transfer of $335,300 to hazardous waste enforcement ($165,800) and hazardous waste permit
  enforcement ($169,500) to provide additional support for hazardous waste funding and, a level
  of funding consistent with prior year's experience.

      - Transfer of $35,900 from underground Injection control program to cover fixed operating
  costs of regional lab support.

      - Transfer of $23,200 to hazardous waste enforcement to cover costs of providing expert
  witnesses and case support for hearings and/or trials.

      - Transfer of $7,800 to toxic substances enforcement for PCB compliance inspections and
  PCB and asbestos lab analysis.

      - Transfer of $12,100 to ambient water quality monitoring ($1,800); state programs
  regulations and guidelines ($6,000) and toxic substances enforcement ($4,300) to realign contract
  funds in needed areas.

      - A transfer of $23,500 was made to the Office of Inspector General in order to provide
  additional resources to that Office.

      - A transfer of $500 was made to the Administrative Law Judges to provide additional
  resources to support a new program for instituting civil noncompliance penalties under Section
  102 of the Clean Air Act.


  1982 Plan

      The Agency requests a total of $21,255,300 for this program of which $18,741,100 is for
  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $2,514,200 for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
  appropriation.

      Enforcement action in emergency situations that threaten public health and safety will
  continue to have the highest program priority in 1982.  'Enforcement will continue to provide
  any legal and technical assistance needed in preparation for emergency actions taken under the
  authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and any assistance in preparation and expeditious
  conclusion of major enforcement referrals.

      The enforcement program's second major priority will be the initiation of enforcement
  actions against those POTWs that have failed to achieve secondary treatment as required by the
  CWA.  These POTWs now represent the largest categorical source of surface water pollution.
  The scope of this effort will be similar to the successful enforcement effort against industial
  violators of the July 1, 1977 CWA deadline and it will include compliance inspection activity
  and appropriate enforcement actions.
                                              W1-83

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                       WATER QUALITY

                                   Water Quality - Non-Energy
Appropriation
Scientific Assessment:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
   Development	

Technical Information:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
   De velopm ent	,

Monitoring Systems
 and Quality Assurance:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
  ' Development......

Health Effects?
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
   Development	

Environmental Processes
 and Effects:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
   Development	

Chesapeake Bay:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
   Development	

Great Lakes:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
   Development......

Total:
  Salaries and Expenses
   Research and
   Development.......
Grand Total
Actual
1920

$1
766
212
2
2,568
1,311
543
2,8*7
8,155
5,753
798
2,547
Budget
Estimate
1981 *
(dollars
,074
1,147
243
14
2,779
1,198
892
2,664
7,820
3,764
410
2,503
$936
2,596
14,316
15,822
654
14,100
11,944
Current
Estimate Estimate
1981
in thousands)
$1,011
944
252
14
2,685
1,428
984
2,358
8,164
4,169
420
2,503
$945
2,654
14,440
14,070
1982


689
247
14
2,817
944
1,084
2,156
7,506
3,339
1,115
868
$918
612
14,592
8,622
Increase +•
Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981

$1,017
- 255
- 5
—
•f 132
*• 484
+ 100
- 202
- 658
- 830
+ 695
- 1 ,635
$994 +76
. 2,042
+ 152
- 5,448
30,138     26,044
28,510      23,214
- 5,296
                                                   WO-85

-------
                                         Budget       Current                     Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate     Estimate      Estimate      Decrease -
                                t980      1981*        1981          1982         1982 vs. 1981

Permanent Positions
Scientific Assessment                15         19           19          12           -7
Technical Information and
 Liaison                              44            *           4              —*•
Monitoring Systems
 and Quality Assurance               60         56           56          49           -    7
Health Effects                      11         14           14          14              —
Environmental Processes
 and Effects                        182        163          157         142           -    15
Chesapeake Bay                      8-6            66              —
Great Lakes                      	7      	7        	7       	_7           	—

Total                              287        269          263         234           -    29

Full-Tlme Equivalency
Scientific Assessment                25         33           32          21           -    11
Technical Information
 and Liaison                          56            66              —
Monitoring Systems
 and Quality Assurance               77         73           73          65                8
Health Effects                      15         22           22          23           +    1
Environmental Processes
  and Effects                      265        269

Chesapeake Bay                     10         11
Great Lakes                      	14     	13

Total                          ,   411        427          406         368           -    38


•January 1980 President's Budget as adjusted by the Office of Research and Development restructuring.

Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of $23,214,400 for 1982, a decrease of .$5,296,100 from  1981.  Included
in this total is $14,592,000 for Salaries and Expenses and $8,622,400 for Research and Development, with
an Increase of $152,100 and a decrease of $5,448,200 respectively.

Program Description

     This program has been developed under the auspices of the Water Quality Research Committee.
The  disciplinary components  (or sub-programs) of the program are integrated into an overall  research
effort designed to produce outputs clearly focused on Agency research needs in this subject area.

     The overall  program  provides  the necessary  scientific information, techniques  and  technical
assistance to  select the most appropriate water quality goals; assess current and future water quality
problems; and identify cost-effective water quality management strategies.
                                       WQ-86

-------
      Specifically, the Program:

      provides reports  and information used  to  establish  the relationship between assumed exposure to
      pollutants and potential adverse tpxicity to human health and aquatic life;

-     develops monitoring technology  capable  of quantifying those environmental  measurements of
      importance to the Agency;

      provides health effects data for use in developing water quality criteria  and  in defining sound
      watershed management approaches;

      develops: 1) water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life; 2) exposure analysis predictive
      techniques for  conducting toxic materials  balances  necessary to identify major sources, pathways
      and fates of toxic pollutants and to devise cost-effective nationwide, regional, or local control
      strategies; 3) watershed analysis  techniques for identifying water quality problems  and selecting
      cost-effective  point and nonpoint source control  strategies;  *f) techniques for assessing  water
      quality problems in lakes and  selecting cost-effective  restoration  measures; 5) techniques for
      assessing the impacts of dredge and fill operations on wetlands and other aquatic environments; and
      6) techniques for assessing the impacts of ocean discharges and dumping activities on the marine
      environment.

      provides, through a field assessment program, the scientific information  needed to effectively
      manage water quality in the Great Lakes and Chesapeake  Bay.

SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1980 Accomplishments

      In 1980, the Agency used a total of  $1,839,500 for  this sub-program, of which $1,073,900 was for
Salaries and Expenses and $765,600 was for extramural research activities.

      A preliminary mutagenicity test battery for non-conventional pollutants was developed for possible
      use under Section 301(g) of the Clean Water Act.

      Carcinogenicity  summaries  and  final  calculations of  water  quality criteria  for thirty-three
      carcinogenic chemicals of  the  sixty-five chemicals  on  the  water  quality  criteria  list  were
      completed.   Responses were  also made  to rebuttal comments  on each  chemical and  on the
      methodology for calculating the criterion calculation for carcinogenicity.

      Final criteria documents were  completed for the  65 water  pollutants which were in  the  public
      comment phase in 1979.

      Health  summaries  were  completed  for eleven 301(g) water  pollutants to  address  the Agency's
      enforcement needs in developing scientific criteria for waste water permit waivers.

      Water quality criteria documents with  a total exposure analysis component, were initiated  for 12
      new pollutants  (Mirex/Kepone, Malathion,  Parathion, Acetone, chlorophenoxy herbicides, methoxy-
      clor, dibenzofuran, iron, manganese, ammonia, barium, and chlorine).

1981 Program

      In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $1,961,200 to this sub-program, of which $1,017,400 is
for the Salaries and Expenses  Appropriation and  $943,800 is for extramural purposes under the Research
and Development Appropriation.
                                          WQ-87

-------
     Criteria documents for twelve new water pollutants which were begun in 1980 are being completed
     and work on two others have been initiated.  These documents will be used by the Office of Water
     Regulations and Standards as a scientific basis for proposing water quality criteria under  Section
     30* of the Clean Water Act.

     Work has been started on up  to ten new criteria documents which are being selected by the Office
     of Water Regulations and Standards based on their current priorities which will include a section on
     carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and reproductive risk  assessment.  If  needed,  because  of new data,
     revisions will be made to the  criteria documents for the 65 water pollutants which were completed
     in 1980 to satisfy the mandates of the Consent Decree.

     Work will be accomplished on four to eight 30l(g) waiver documents for the Office of Enforcement.
     These documents will provide a scientific basis for evaluating the merit of granting a waiver for
     waste-water discharge permits under Section 301(g) provisions.

     Consultation,  on an as-needed basis, is being provided to the Regional Offices and Program  Offices
     on the use and adjustment of  water criteria to local conditions for the revision or establishment of
     local water quality standards.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $196,800 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the  1981  budget estimate was submitted,  President Carter submitted revisions to
     the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's
     request for Salaries and Expenses, The reduction applied to this activity is $5,300.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $3,200  was applied to
     this activity.

     - The  Congress reduced  agencywide consulting services  by $3.8 million; a decrease of $8,400 was
     applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general  reduction of  $12,214,000  to  the Research and Development
     appropriation; a decrease of $45,000 was applied to this activity.

     - An  increase of $27,900 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is  included in a
     proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings  to realign  contract  funds resulted in a  transfer  of  $52,800  to  scientific
     assessment-air ($17,900); scientific assessment-air ($21,900) and scientific assessment - pesticides
     ($13,000).

     - A transfer of $105,000 to monitoring and quality assurance-uncontrolled sites to support efforts
     on Love Canal and Three Mile Island activities.

     -  A transfer  of $5,000 was  made to the radiation media in order to support the Radiation Policy
     Council.

1982 Plan

     The  Agency  requests a total of $1,518,100  for  this sub-program, of  which $828,900 is  for the
Salaries and Expenses  Appropriation  and $689,200 is for extramural purposes under  the Research and
Development Appropriation.
                                             WQ-88

-------
      This reflects a decrease of $443,100 which will provide a decreased level of effort for preparation
of water quality criteria documents.

-     Drafts and/or final documents for up to & water quality criteria documents begun in 1981 will be
      completed. These will include a section on carcinogenicity,  mutagenicity, and reproductive risk
      assessment.

      Four new criteria documents will be started using pollutant priorities established by the Office of
      Water  Regulations and Standards.

      Four 301(g) waiver documents will be produced for the Office of Enforcement. These will provide
      the scientific basis for granting a waiver for wastewater discharge permits under Section 30 Kg)
      provisions.

      Continuing technical  assistance will be given to the Regional Offices and Program Offices on the
      interpretation and use of the 65 Water Quality Criteria released by the Agency in November 1980.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND LIAISON

1980 Accomplishments

      In 19SO, the Agency  used a total  of $244,800 for this  sub-program,  of which $242,500 was for
Salaries and Expenses and $2,300 was for  extramural research activities.

      In  1980,  the  Technical Information Program  supported the  preparation and publication of the
Research Outlook, the Research Highlights, technical information plans and guidance, and other general
documents of interest to the environmental decision  making community.  It also provided  ORD with
information  systems  necessary to effectively plan  and  manage its  research projects and  resources.
Specific accomplishments in the area of Water Quality included:

      -   The preparation, publication and dissemination of a manual on the  Clean Lakes Program. -The
         Manual was prepared to guide the States in developing their own lake restoration and  protection
         programs,  in obtaining  Federal Clean  Lakes Program Assistance, and  in methods  for ,the
        assessment and clean-up of polluted lakes.

      -   The conduct of seminars on inland waters and lake restoration and on biological monitoring and
         its use in the NPDES Permit Program.

      The Regional Services Staff provided effective  communications between ORD  and the  regions.
Specifically, they:

      -  developed and implemented the Regional Support Management Information System;

      -  carried out regional liaison activities to provide technical assistance;

      -   conducted ORD/Regional Senior Staff Meetings;

      -  advised ORD on all aspects of regional operations;

      The Technical Information and Liaison activities  helped enable ORD to communicate its research
information  to EPA's regional offices and to  the environmental decision  making community. Further,
they assisted in enhancing coordination between ORD and  the regions allowing each to better fulfill its
role and meet the needs of the Agency and the public  more efficiently.
                                           WQ-89

-------
1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $265,800 to this sub-program, of which $251,400 is for
the Salaries and Expenses Appropriation and $14,400 is for extramural purposes under the Research and
Development Appropriation.

     This part of the program k providing various research program and project summaries, decision
series documents, and technology  transfer publications  to  meet  Research Committee  requirements.
Technical Information Plans, listing the explicit information  products for this research effort have been
prepared.  Throughout the year,  support will be  provided to develop these information products and to
distribute them  to the appropriate  users.  Support is also  being provided to manage information systems
which track ORD"s research projects and resources.

     Regional liaison activities are continuing as in 1980.  To this end, such activities will:

     Continue the regional Support Management Information  System.

     Conduct ORD/Regional Senior  Staff Meetings and other liaison  activities to provide technical
     assistance.  These will include  preparing  reports,  conducting special  staff  and  policy  studies,
     developing regional problem statements, and identifying research and technical assistance require-
     ments.

     Develop and implement a process to address the research needs of state and local government in
     the ORD planning process.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $8,000 results from several actions,  as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted revisions to
     the budget (House Document 96-29*); these revisions resulted in a decrease of  $7 million to EPA's
     request for Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied to this activity is $1,500.

     - An increase  of $9,500  results from the  cost of  the  October 1980 pay raise is included in a
     proposed supplemental appropriation.


1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a  total of $261,200 for this sub-program, of which $2*6,800 is for the Salaries
and Expenses Appropriation and $1^,400 is for extramural  purposes under the Research and Development
Appropriation.

     This reflects a decrease of $4,600 which will slightly affect the development and dissemination of
technical information products.

     In  1982, this sub-program  will  continue  to provide the same types of services as in 1981.  This
includes  the development  and production of technical  information products  to ensure  that research
information is properly and adequately communicated to the  environmental decision making community.
Specific  products  planned by  the  appropriate Research Committee will  be  developed.   Support  to
managing systems which  track ORD's  research  projects  and resources will be provided as will strong
liaison with regional  offices, of a  similar nature to that conducted in 1981.
                                           WQ-90

-------
MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980, the Agency  used a total of $389,600 for this sub-program, of which $2,568,500 was for
Salaries and Expenses and $1,311,100 was for extramural research activities.

     A master analytical scheme was developed for the systematic identification and quantification of
     volatile organic pollutants. This scheme significantly improves analytical productivity by reducing
     the costly pre-analysis trial-and -error approach to evaluation.

     Quality control calibration standards were distributed to laboratories measuring pollutants regulat-
     ed under Section 104, 106, 208, 3Q4(h) and 307(a)of PL 95-217.  Standards were also supplied to the
     Chesapeake Bay Program and other marine monitoring projects.

     A project was initiated to design a national water quality monitoring program. The project consists
     of several components: (1) providing consultation services to the Office of Water Regulations and
     Standards in the development of a national water quality strategy; (2) characterization of present
     water quality monitoring networks (NASQAN and AWQSS) in terms of  the statistical validity of
     their data,  and the adequacy of this data to support EPA control  policy decisions; (3) design of
     water quality  networks to  monitor priority  toxic  pollutants;  and (4)  the  development of new
     statistical techniques specifically for the analysis of  water quality monitoring data.

     A field survey of 25  toxic hot spots was completed.  The apparently  paradoxical finding in the
     Agency's water quality data base, STORET,  that areas with  highly toxic heavy metal  pollution
     concentrations did not show  corresponding  loss in biological activity in  the water  body  was
     confirmed.

     A guidance  document was developed  for use  in  determining the feasibility  of implementing
     advanced waste treatment based on the biological effects of the waste on receiving waters.  This
     document should prove very useful in the Advanced Waste Treatment decision-making process.

1981 Program


     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $4,113,700 to this sub-program, of which $2,685,400 is
for the Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation  and $1,428,300 is for extramural  purposes under the
Research and Development Appropriation.

     Reference methods for priority pollutants, toxic and hazardous substances and chlorinated organics
     are being developed which are applicable to the ambient water matrix.

     Development of bioassay techniques applicable to monitoring industrial effluent plumes and marine
     discharges has been  initiated.  Deficiencies  in  currently  existing reference methods  are  being
     corrected.  A  surrogate biological screening  method is to  be standardized as a toxic monitoring
     alternative to chemical testing.

     Work on the development and refinement of  sampling, preservation and transport  regimes  which
     assure the validity of  the environmental water quality sample prior to analysis is being conducted.
                                                 WQ-91

-------
     Distribution of  6-10 thousand quality  control samples to assure the accuracy of water  quality
     measurements is continuing.

     Current  water  quality monitoring  networks are  being studied statistically to  ascertain  their
     adequacy in trend monitoring as well as their ability to detect episodic events.

     Specialized support  is being  provided  to regional and program offices as well as  to enforcement
     projects.  For example, the adequacy  of EPA Regional Biological Quality  Assurance Programs  is
     being  evaluated and  overhead photography using the  Enviro-pod  and photo  interpretation  is
     continuing  to be made available to support specialized monitoring projects.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $137,300  results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted revisions to
     the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's
     request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $15,800.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs  by $850,000; a decrease of $5,900 was applied to
     this activity.

     - The Congress  reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease of $16,600 was
     applied to this activity.

     - The  Congress  reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by $750,000; a decrease of
     $6,800 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $127,200 results  from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is included in a
     proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - A transfer of $200 was made to  the Administrative Law Judges to provide additional resources to
     support a new program for instituting civil noncompliance penalties under Section 102 of the Clean
     Air Act.

     - A transfer of  $8,800 was made  to the radiation  media in  order to support the Radiation Policy
     Council.

     - A  transfer  of $400 from  Water Quality-monitoring systems and  quality assurance to  realign
     contract funds.

     - A transfer of  $100,000  from Water Quality-monitoring systems and quality assurance to  support
     efforts on Love Canal and Three Mile Island Activities.

     - A transfer of  $160,000  from Water Quality-monitoring systems and quality assurance to  provide
     support for the development of monitoring methods for monitoring of  ambient water quality.

     - A transfer of  $196,200 to  Water Quality-monitoring systems and quality assurance to maintain
     and prepare one standardized quality control sample for distribution to analytical labs to check
     the ability  of analysts to perform analytical measurements.
                                        WQ-92

-------
1982 Plan

     The Agency requests  a total of $3,761,000 for this sub-program, of which $2,817,500 is  for the
Salaries and Expenses Appropriation and $943,500 is for extramural purposes under the Research and
Development Appropriation.

     This reflects a decrease of $352,700. A reduced level of effort in the development, standardization
and validation of measurement methods for priority pollutants and overhead imagery for special studies
will be provided, and the number of sampling sites will be reduced for the toxics hot spot field studies.

     Methodologies  will be developed to monitor the quality of ambient fresh and marine  waters.  The
     methodologies will include:

     o   Standardized biological screening tests  that will promote  rapid, inexpensive demonstration of
         toxicity to aquatic lifeforms.

     o   Chemical methods for newly identified toxic polluants.

     o   Improved measurement  techniques for monitoring  levels of trace organic  chemicals which
         cannot be  positively identified by  conventional Gas Chromatographic/Mass  Spectrometrie
         techniques but which are known to exhibit toxic properties.

     o   Expansion of the Master Analytical Scheme to inorganic chemicals.

     o   Techniques   for  extraction,  concentration,  separation,  identification  and  measurement of
         organic and inorganic materials bound  to sediment or particulates.

     Water quality network design studies will continue to evaluate monitoring networks and  develop
     statistical data reduction and  analysis techniques.

     Quality Assurance support will continue  to  assure the development of a sound data  base  through
     interlaboratory validation testing of proposed priority pollutant methods, protocol development to
     assure the validity of  virus enumeration, and provision of calibration samples for toxic substances
     monitoring in drilling fluids.

     Analytical studies will be performed to supply needed data to evaluate instrument systems, to test
     analytical techniques for toxic hot spot  analysis studies which  will ascertain  the recovery zone
     definition, to evaluate biomonitoring techniques, and to process overhead imagery.  >


HEALTH EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980, the Agency used a  total of $3,389,800 for this sub-program, of which  $5*3,000  was for
Salaries and Expenses and $2,846,800 was for extramural research activities.

     Marine recreational water quality criteria were completed and published.  They were reviewed by
     peers  and have been well received by experts in the field.

     Toxicological studies were begun on ten of  the sixty-five priority pollutants in order to resolve
     deficiencies in the health data  bases  which were identified  when  the water quality criteria for
     these pollutants were initially produced.  The results will be available late 1981.
                                           WQ-93

-------
1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $3,3*1,700 to this sub-program, of which $984,000 is
for the Salaries  and Expenses  Appropriation and  $2,357,700  is  for  extramural purposes  under the
Research and Development Appropriation.

     Freshwater  recreational water quality  criteria are being completed.   The data base  for these
     criteria will include data from epidemiological studies which link infectious disease in swimmers  to
     water quality characteristics.

     Efforts  to fill  deficiencies in the health data base for the consent decree pollutants are continuing.
     Research on the first set of pollutants which began in 19SO is being completed.  Several  more will
     be selected  and studied each year until the total number of 65 is complete.

1981 Explanation  of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $214,000 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted  revisions  to
     the budget  (House Document (96-294); these revisions resulted  in a decrease    of  $7 million  to
     EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied to this  activity is $1,700.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $1,300 was applied  to
     this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease of $14,100 was
     applied to this  activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 miljion; a decrease of $23,900 was applied
     to this activity.

     - An  increase of $29,900 results from the cost of  the October 1980 pay raise and is included in a
     proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - A transfer of $300 from Radiation-health effects  to realign contract funds.

     - A transfer of $203,200 to Water Quality-health effects  ($306,400); and from health  effects
     ($103,200)  to  realign  funds  between  the  Water  Quality  Research  Committee; the  Municipal
     Wastewater Resarch Committee, and the Industrial Wastewater Research Committee.

1982 Plan

     The  Agency requests  a total of $3,240,400 for this sub-program, of which $1,084,500  is for the
Salaries and Expenses Appropriation and $2,155,900 is for extramural purposes under the  Research and
Development Appropriation.

     This  reflects a decrease of $101,300.   This will affect the  development  of short-term tests for
identifying health-effect and points other than cancer.

     Toxicological studies for the consent decree pollutants started in 1981 will be completed and the
     next  phase  of studies  begun.  Much of  this research emphasizes fetotoxic effects, although some
     addresses carcinogenicity.

     A technology transfer publication will  be prepared to assist local  officials in applying the dose
     response  curves generated in  1980 and 1981  during the  development  of  marine and freshwater
     recreational water quality criteria.  The publication  will make it  possible for local officials  to
     determine the most reasonable action necessary to  protect the public health.
                                              WQ-94

-------
     Research will be initiated to develop curves which relate water quality to illness in swimmers for
     swimming areas receiving almost solely AST/AWT effluent  and for  those impacted primarily  by
     pollutants from non-point sources.

     Research will continue to seek improved lexicological methods for predicting the impact of water
     contaminants on human health.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

19SO Accomplishments

     In 1980, the  Agency used a total of $13,907,700 for this sub-program, of which $8,154,600 was for
Salaries and Expenses and $5,753,100 was for extramural research activities.

     Procedures for generation and interpretation of aquatic life effects data were completed for use in
     preparation of water quality criteria for the sixty-five Consent Decree pollutants.  The procedures
     were applied in the preparation of proposed freshwater criteria for twenty-two and marine criteria
     for thirty-one of the sixty-five pollutants. Results will be used by  the Office of Water Regulations
     and Standards in the  publication of water quality criteria for these pollutants, consistent with the
     Consent Decree requirements.

     A first-generation multi-species test for determining ecological impacts of contaminated sediment
     was developed.   This improved solid phase  testing methodology  will  be used by the Agency to
     regulate disposal of dredged material under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972  (P.L.
     92-500) and the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries  Act of 1972 (P.L.  92-532).

     Methods for  predicting impacts of reduced nutrient loadings to lakes were completed for use in
     screening the effectiveness of proposed lake restoration measures.   The Clean Lakes Program of
     the Office of Water Regulations and Standards will incorporate these methods into guidelines for
     use by local and state agencies in deciding which restoration technique to use when they apply for
     clean  lakes  grants, and to determine which  restoration  techniques are  most  cost  effective in
     achieving in-lake nutrient control over extended periods of time.

     Guidelines for defining wetland boundaries and characterizing their structure and function  were
     completed.   This information  will be used by the Office of Environmental Review to assist  state
     agencies in reviewing and processing wetland dredge and fill permit applications.

     The first generation Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS), designed for use Agency-wide in
     calculating expected  environmental concentrations of toxic organic chemicals, was completed. It
     will  be  used  in  assessing  environmental  risks associated  with   alternative  pollution control
     strategies.   (This  work  was  funded  jointly  with  the Toxic  Substances  and  Energy  Research
     activities.)

     The Center for  Water Quality Modeling was established, providing a central  file and distribution
     point for four carefully selected water quality models, and  offering workshops and  seminars on
     their use and specific instruction in the application  of  individual simulation  techniques.   The
     primary  use of the models is to translate water quality goals into point and nonpoint source control
     requirements.

     Two mathematical models, describing loading  and transport  and transformation  processes of  toxic
     organic      chemicals     were     completed.            They     are      designed     for
                                            WQ-95

-------
     developing site-specific estimates of contaminant concentrations in runoff and stream channels in
     both coastal rivers and estuaries and in upland watersheds and river systems.

     National estimates of pollutant discharges from agricultural  nonpoint sources were revised.  They
     permit comparisons to be made of water quality impacts from point versus rural nonpoint sources
     and identification of  those areas where implementation of rural nonpoint source controls will and
     will not produce significant water quality benefits.

1981 Program

     In 19S1, the Agency has allocated a total of $12,332,600 to this sub-program, of which $8,164,000 is
for the  Salaries  and Expenses Appropriation  and  $4,168,600  is  for  extramural  purposes  under the
Research and Development Appropriation.

     The preparation of  proposed water  quality effects criteria for the  Consent Decree and other
     priority toxic pollutants is continuing at the rate of approximately of five pollutants per year.

     Improved ecological  effects  assay  procedures are being developed  for  use in  generating  more
     reliable chronic and acute toxicity data sets used in developing water quality criteria for priority
     pollutants.

     Interim procedures are being developed and tested for adapting current water quality criteria  to
     site- specific field situations.

     Work has been undertaken on  the development of field  techniques for documenting nonpoint source
     (NFS) pollution ecological effects in surface waters.

     Work is continuing on procedures for defining wetland boundaries.

     Work is continuing on the development and testing of watershed management models for assessing
     impacts and benefits of alternative NFS and point source control of conventional and selected toxic
     pollutants.

     Operation of the Water Quality Modeling Center is continuing at a minimal level.

     Characterization of the effectiveness of selected in-lake restoration techniques is continuing.

     Development of a systematic  procedure for selection/evaluation of proposed/completed clean lakes
     projects is being undertaken.

     Improvement  of a marine benthic  bioassay  method  to assess acute  and chronic effects and
     bioaccumulation potential  of contaminants  in settleable  components of  dredged  material  is
     continuing.

     Development and validation of bioassay procedures (acute, chronic, bioaccumulation) for assessing
     the impacts of waste discharges to marine waters is continuing.

     Work is continuing on a methods manual for evaluating sediment toxicity in  marine waters.

     Technical assistance is being provided in the preparation and  revision of regulations and associated
     guidance materials concerning the discharge and dumping of wastes in marine  waters.
                                            HQ-96

-------
      A research program  is being planned and will be implemented in early 1981 to fulfill the highest
      priority needs associated with cold climate-related environmental problems.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The net increase of $415,400 results from several actions, as follows:

      - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted revisions to
      the budget (Houuse Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's
      request for Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied to this activity is $47,700.

      - The  Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by $750,000; a decrease of
      $14,200 was applied to this activity.

      - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of  $26,100 was  applied to
      this activity,

      - The  Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.£ million; a decrease of $43,800 was
      applied to this activity.

      - The  Congress directed  that a  reduction of $545,000 be transferred to Pesticides-environmental
      processes and effects for  aquatic weeds.

      - The Congress applied an increase of $950,000 for Cold Climate research.

      - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease  of $13,100 was applied
      to this activity.

      - An increase of $441,300 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is included in a
      proposed supplemental appropriation.

      - Reprogrammings to realign salary and  related costs to meet on-board needs resulted in  a transfer
      of $47,600 from within Office of  Research and Development.

1982 Plan

      The Agency requests  a total of  $10,845,000 for  this sub-program, of which $7,505,900  is for the
Salaries and Expenses Appropriation and  $3,339,100 is  for extramural purposes under the Research  and
Development Appropriation.

      This decrease of $1,487,600 reflects a transfer of  resources to the higher priority area of  hazardous
waste.  This reduction will affect the development of water  quality criteria for  priority pollutants,
watershed analysis techniques (modeling), and  wetlands impact and value assessments.

      In 1982, the environmental processes and effects program will pursue the following activities:

      Work will continue on the generation of  minimum data sets needed for preparation of  water quality
      (ecological) criteria for the priority  toxic pollutants.

      Guidelines will be developed for translating laboratory-derived  water quality criteria (derived
      under      one     set     of      conditions)      to      the      range      of      conditions
                                               WQ-97

-------
     encountered in the field, as necessary to ensure the promulgation of reasonable and valid State and
     Federal water quality standards.

     Techniques will be developed for effectively documenting the ecological effects of urban and rural
     nonpoint source pollution, as required in assessing and documenting the ecological significance  of
     nonpoint source pollution.

     Operation of the  Center for Water Quality Modeling will be continued at a minimal level, providing
     technical assistance  to EPA operating programs  in  the conduct of  wasteload allocations and
     assessment of nonpoint source problems and alternative solutions.

     Work will be continued on improvement of watershed  analysis models as needed  in identifying the
     most cost-effective mix of point and nonpoint source  controls necessary to achieve water quality
     goals and making wasteload allocations.

     Work will  be  accelerated  on the  development of a systematic procedure  (emphasizing  cost-
     effectiveness  considerations) for selection/evaluation of proposed/completed Sec, 31* clean lakes
     projects.

     Work will be undertaken to characterize the extent and seriousness of the problem of toxicants in
     lake sediment deposits and potential adverse environmental impacts of their attempted removal.

     Work will be continued on the development and validation of testing methods for estimating the
     ecological impacts of dredged material disposal in marine waters.

     Work will be continued on the  development of techniques  for use in assessing  the impacts  of
     reduced treatment levels (as  permitted under Sec. 301(h) of the Clean Water Act)  and of  other
     discharge and dumping activities on the  marine environment.

     Technical assistance  will be  provided  in  the preparation and revision  of marine discharge and
     dumping related regulations and associated guidance materials.

CHESAPEAKE BAY

19SO Accomplishments

     In 1980, the  Agency  used a total of $3,3*5,000 for this sub-program,  of which  $797,700 was for
Salaries and Expenses and $2,5*7,300 was for extramural research activities.

     The toxics program developed Chesapeake Bay sediment characterization (physical and chemical
     parameters) maps of  value in assessing dredging projects and critical in defining the state  of the
     Bay.

     The eutrophication program conducted a Bay  wide survey  providing a  synoptic set of data for
     chemical and physical parameters essential to water quality model verification and establishing a
     baseline against which future water quality can be measured.

     The Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) program assessed ambient herbicide concentrations in the
     shallow water portions of the Bay to aid in determining the role of herbicides in the decline of bay
     grasses.
                                              WQ-98

-------
     A data management system  composed of both  hardware and software  was established  and is
     storing, analyzing and displaying Chesapeake Bay research data.

     Coordination continued with state agencies in Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania responsible for
     water quality, development of Chesapeake Bay Program plans and management.

1981Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $2,923,500 to this sub-program, of which $420,200 is
for the Salaries and Expenses  Appropriation  and $2,503,300  is  for extramural  purposes  under  the
Research and Development Appropriation.

     Intergrated studies, initiated in 1978, are continuing so  that management  decisions at all  the
     government levels can be based oh a predictive  capability  to assess the consequences of pollutant
     loadings  on the Chesapeake  Bay.  This will be done in terms of effects on the ecosystem, on
     organisms, and on the economic impact of the uses made of the systems. The three highest priority
     problem  area  studies are  being continued through ecosystem simulation,  data  acquistion and
     synthesis, and through identification and evaluation of control alternatives in conjunction with the
     abatement and control decision units of this program.

     The  toxics  substance study  effort is developing  a baseline  inventory  of the abundance and
     distribution of toxics  in the  Chesapeake Bay  sediments,  pore water, water column,  and biota.
     Comprehensive  research  tasks are assessing  both natural  and anthropogenic  sources  of toxic
     chemicals  in   sediments,  water, and biota  and  determining their  rates of  transport  and
     transformation within the Chesapeake  Bay system. Study results will serve to delineate options to
     reduce environmental hazard.

     The Bay grasses study effort is addressing the impact of water quality factors upon SAV and living
     resources known or suspected to be  dependent upon SAV.  Results will provide a knowledge  base
     from which water quality control alternatives can be developed for the enhancement of SAV and
     associated living resources.

     Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment) studies are assessing the nutrient loadings to the Bay system
     and the impact of these loadings on the ecosystem. Current research is directed towards:

     o  assessing point source information on municipal and industrial sources;

     o  compiling statistics on land use and population trends in the Bay  basin;

     o  measuring  nutrient loadings from the major tributaries to the Bay;

     o  estimating nutrient fallout from the atmosphere;

     o  calculating nutrient fluxes from the sediments;

     o  verifying nonpoint source runoff from data collected on five test drainage basins;

     o  calibrating and verifying mathematical models, including nonpoint source loading models  and
        stream transport models.
                                            WQ-99

-------
     Development  of a data  management  system is continuing.   This  system will handle the data
     produced by the Chesapeake Bay program and provide the basis for a centralized data bank for use
     by all local, state and Federal groups on the Bay. State participation programs, with the states of
     Maryland and  Virginia, and citizen participation programs are also continuing  to provide key
     coordination links between the states, the public and the Chesapeake Bay Program.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $10,500 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimated was submitted, President Carter transmitted revisions to
     the budget (House Document 96-294)} these revision  resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's
     request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $1,400.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs .by $850,000; a decrease of $1,500 was applied to
     this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of $7,400 was applied
     to this activity.

     - An increase of $19,400 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is included in a
     proposed supplemental  appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted in a transfer
     $1,400 from within Office of Research and Development.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests  a total of $1,983,100 for this sub-program, of which $1,114,700 is for the
Salaries and Expenses Appropriation  and $868,400 is for extramural purposes under  the  Research and
Development Appropriation.

     This decrease of $940,400  reflects the  progress made in assessing water quality  concerns in the
Chesapeake Bay.

     In 1982  the Chesapeake  Bay program  will complete its integration approach to research in the
areas of toxic pollutant effects, submerged aquatic vegetation, and eutrophication. This will include the
completion  of all technical studies, the integration  of  their results, and the use of  an ecological
segmentation  concept to assess existing information about  the biological, chemical,  physical, and
cultural aspects of the Chesapeake Bay.  Major accomplishments and outputs will include;

     Chesapeake Bay Primer:  Explains important ecological relationships and will serve as a reference
     for the following reports.

     Nutrients:  Explains changes  in the Bay over time, future conditions, sources, key processes, and
     effects of nutrients.

     Toxics:  Explains changes  in the  Bay  over time, future conditions, sources,  key processes, and
     effects of toxics.

     Bay Grasses:  Explains changes in  bay grasses over time, and   what is known about the causes of
     decline and the role and value of submerged aquatic vegetation to the ecosystem.

     Segmentation:  Describes the basic concept, its use  elsewhere, how  it will be done, water quality
     objectives, monitoring, and  the various institutional alternatives available to administer it.
                                            WQ-IOO

-------
     Management Alternatives:   Identifies control alternatives for agriculture, municipal treatment
     plants,  industry,  urban runoff, and construction;  estimates costs and  effectiveness of different
     approaches to remedy "hot spots,"

     Summary Report:  Summarizes previous reports and includes  the legislative charge, Chesapeake
     Bay Program organization and resources.

GREAT LAKES

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980, the Agency used a  total of  $3,532,000 for this sub-program,  of which  $936,300 was for
Salaries and Expenses and $2,395,700 was for extramural research activities.

     A study was completed of the sources and losses of PCB in Lake Superior; this study provides a
     basis for separating local and long-range atmospheric inputs of PCB to Lake Superior.

     Various  mathematical models describing the fate of hazardous  materials in Saginaw Bay were
     evaluated.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total of $3,572,000 to this sub-program, of which $917,500 is
for the Salaries  and Expenses  Appropriation and $2,654,500  is  for extramural  purposes under  the
Research and Development Appropriation.

     The quantity of PCBs entering Lake Huron from atmospheric deposition is being determined as well
     as the identity of other atmosphere transported, prevalent organic substances in Lake Huron.

     Manuals are being developed on sampling and  analysis of dredged spoil and on assessing water
     quality  impacts of confined  site and open lake  disposal; evaluation of physical, chemical,  and
     biological changes that have occurred at existing disposal sites will also be completed.

     The effects on fish  populations of  power  plants using open-cycle cooling technology is  being
     evaluated.

     Mathematical models  describing the  movement, fate, and losses  of  PCBs in Lakes Michigan  and
     Huron are being developed.

1981 Explanation  of Change  from Budget  Estimate

     The net increase of $1,972,500 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimated was submitted, President Carter transmitted revisions to
     the budget (House Document 96-29f); these revisions resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's
     request for Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied to this activity is $2,700.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $3,600 was applied to
     this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease of $1,800  was
     applied to this activity.
                                            WQ-101

-------
     - The Congress applied an increase of $2,000,000 to support this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a'decrease of $»6,W30 was applied
     to this activity.

     - An increase of $24,300 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is included in a
     proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted in a transfer
     of $2,700 from within the Office of Research and Development.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests  a total  of $1.605,600  for' this  sub-program, of which $993,700  is for  the
Salaries and Expenses Appropriation  and  $611,900  is for extramural purposes  under  the Research  and
Development Appropriation.

     This reflects a  decrease of $1,966,400 which results  from a Congressional add-on which was not
carried into 1982.  The program will continue activities underway in 1981, including the transport  and
fate of persistent toxic organic chemicals in the Great  Lakes, but with a lower level of funding.

     The research program will be directed at:

     Comparison of predictions of waste load reductions made by mathematical models versus actual,
     field-observed  responses will be completed  and resultant  water quality improvements will  be
     reported on.

     Studies  of the major  physical and nutrient  requirements  of  the  important  Great   Lakes
     phytoplankton species will continue.

     Relationships  between  the prevalent organic  compounds found in the  atmosphere, fish,  and  water
     samples from the same water body will be described.

     Guidelines to  assess the suitability of proposed confined and open-lake dredged spoil disposal sites
     and schemes will be issued.
                                          wq-ioz

-------
                                       WATER QUALITY

                              Municipal Wastewater/Spfll Prevention
Appropriation
Technical Information
 and Liaison:
  Salaries and Expenses..
   Research and
    Development—.......

Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance:
  Salaries and Expenses..
   Research and
    Development...,	

Health Effects:
  Salaries and Expenses.,
   Reseach and
    Development..........

Environmental
 Engineering and
 Technology:
  Salaries and Expenses..
   Research and
    Development	....

TOTAL:
  Salaries and Expenses..
   Research and
    Development	
GRAND TOTAL.,
Permanent Positions
Technical Information
 and Liaison.............
Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance:,.....
Health Effects	
Environmental
 Engineering and
 Technology	

TOTAL..	
Actual
1980

$ 365
39
664
227
710
2,388
5,335
1L,293
7,074
13,947
21,021
5
10
13
121
149
Budget
Estimate
1981*
(dollars in
$ 360 •
248
552
313
1,166
2,233
5,108
11^447
7,186
14,241
21,427
5
7'
18
116
146
Current
Estimate
1981
thousands)
$ 374
248
560
301
1,137
2,475
5,222
11,306
7,293
14,330
21,623
5
8
18
116
147
Estimate
1982

$ 377
248
525
392
872
2,241
5,870
10,105
7,644
12,986
20,630
5
7
18
116
146
Increase +
Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981

+$3
* B •
-35
+91
-265
-234
+648
-1,201
+351
-1,344
-993
• • •
-1
* • *
....
-1
                                                WQ-103

-------
                                         Budget      Current                      Increase +
                              Actual     Estimate    Estimate      Estimate       Decrease -
                               1980       1981*        1981         1982          1982 vs. 1981


Full-Time Equivalency
Technical Information
 and Liaison	                   8         9             8           8
Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance....                15        12            13          12                -1
Health Effects	                  18        26            28          27               -1
Environmental
 Engineering and
 Technology	                 144       136           136         136

Total	                  T85183           185         183               -2


•January   1980  President's  Budget  as  adjusted  by  the  Office  of  Research  and
Development restructuring.

Budget Request

     The  Agency  requests a total of  $20,630,100 for 1982, a decrease of  $993,300
from  1981.   Included in this  total  is  $7,644,200  for  Salaries  and  Expenses  and
$12,985,900  for Research  and Development,  with an  increase  of $351,200  and  a
decrease of $1,344,500, respectively.


Program Description

     This  program   has  been  developed  under  the  auspices  of  the   Municipal
Wastewater Research  Committee.   The  disciplinary components  (or sub-programs) of
the  program are  integrated into an  overall  research  effort  designed to  produced
outputs clearly focused on Agency research needs in this subject area.

     The   overall   program  has  two   distinct   facets:     Municipal  Wastewater
Engineering and Technology and Hazardous Materials Spills.

     This  program   furnishes  the  engineering  and  technology  support  for  the
Agency Construction  Grants  Program,  the  Sec.  208  Areawide  Waste  Treatment
Management  Program, the National Urban  Runoff  Program, the Clean Lakes  Program,
the Effluent Guidelines  Program, the  NPDES program and  the  Solid Waste  Program
(sludge  management  regulations).   These  programs  are  major  activities  within  the
Office of  Water  Program  Operations, Office of  Water Regulations and  Standards,
the Office of Water Enforcement and the Office of Solid Waste.

     Another part   of   the program   furnishes   the  engineering and  technology
support required  by  the Oil  and  Special   Materials  Control   Division within  the
newly  created  Office of  Environmental Emergency Response and  Prevention  within
the  Office  of  Water Program   Operations  (OWPO).   The  engineering design  and
equipment   development,   field   control   techniques   and    on-scene    technical
assistance  are  provided  for  the  control and mitigation  of   spills  of  hazardous
materials.
                                     WQ-104

-------
TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND LIAISON

1980Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the  Agency  used  a  total  of  $4,041,000 for  this  sub-program,  of
which  $364,700 was for  Salaries  and Expenses  and  $39,400  was  for  extramural
research activities.

     In  1980,  the  Technical  Information  Program  supported  the  preparation  and
publication   of    the    Research Outlook,   the    Research Highligtits,    technical
information plans  and  guidance and other documents of general   interest  to  the
environmental decision  making community.  It also  provided  ORD with information
systems  necessary  to  effectively  plan  and  manage  its  research  projects  and
resources.    Specific  accomplishments  in  the  area  of   Municipal  Wastewater
included:
     -  The preparation,  publication  and  dissemination  of  a  technology  transfer
        manual on  Onsite  Wastewater Treatment and  Disposal Systems  and  of  a
        revision  of  the technology  transfer  design  manual on  Sludge  Treatment
        and Disposal.

     -  Conduct  of  seminars  for  target  technical  audiences  on  the  following
        subjects:

        a.  Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Small Communities.

        b.  Water and Waste Management in the Arctic Environment.

        c.  Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment.

        d.  Overland Flow Technology for Municipal Wastewater.

     -  Support for the Small Wastewater Flows Information Clearinghouse.

     The  Regional Services  Staff provided  effective  communications  between  ORD
and EPA's regional offices. Specifically, they:

     -  Developed and  implemented  the  Regional  Support  Management  Information
        System.

     -  Carried out regional liaison activities to provide technical assistance.

     -  Conducted ORD/Regional Senior Staff Meetings.

     -  Advised ORD on all aspects of regional operations.

     The  Technical  Information  and  Liaison  activities  helped  enable  ORD  to
communicate  its  research  information  to  EPA's  regional  offices  and  to  the
environmental decision  making  community.    Further,  they  assisted  in  enhancing
coordination between ORD and the regions  allowing  each to  meet the needs of the
Agency and the public more efficiently.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the  Agency  has  allocated  a  total  of  $621,500 to  this sub-program,
of which  $373,500 is  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses  Appropriation  and $248,000  is
for extramural purposes under the Research  and Development Appropriation.
                                     UQ-105

-------
     This   sub-program   is  providing  various   research   program  and  project
summaries  decision  series  documents,  and   technology  transfer   publications  to
meet Research Committee requirements.   Technical  Information Plans  listing the
explicit  information   products   for   this   Research   effort  are  being  prepared.
Throughout   the   year,  support  will  be  provided  to  develop  these  information
products and to  distribute  them  to  the  appropriate  users.   Support  is  also  being
provided to  manage information systems which track ORD's research projects  and
resources.

     Regional  liaison  Activities  are  continuing  as  in  1980.   To  this  end,  such
activities will:

     Continue the regional support Management Information System.

     Conduct  ORD/Regional  Senior  Staff  Meetings- and  other  liaison  activities to
     provide   technical   assistance.     These   will   include   preparing   reports,
     conducting   special. staff   and  policy  studies,  developing  regional  problem
     statements, and identifying research and technical assistance requirements.

     Develop and  implement  a process  to  address the research needs of state  and
     local governments in the  ORD planning process.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The resources reflected under  the 1981 budget  estimate  column  are  derived
from  "crosswalking"  the  program   structure  presented in  the  1981   President's
Budget  submission to the  new structure as presented  in  the  1981 current estimate
reflected in  this  submission.   The  details  of the  restructuring of  the research
and  development  program,  as well  as  the  crosswalk of  resources  itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     The net decrease of $12,900 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly after  the  1981 budget estimate  was submitted, President  Carter
         transmitted  revisions to   the  budget  (House   Document  96-294);  these
         revisions   resulted  in  a  decrease  of  $7  million  to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied to this activity is $1,600.

     -   An  increase  of $15,000  results  from  the cost  of the  October  1980  pay
         raise and  is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprogrammings  to  realign  salary  and  related  costs  to  meet  on-board
         needs  resulted  in  a  transfer  of  $500  to  areas within  Office of Research
         and Development.

1982 Plan

     The Agency  requests a total  of $625,100,  for  this  sub-program,  of  which
$377,100  is  for  the  Salaries  and   Expenses  Appropriation  and  $248,000   is  for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     This  reflects  an  increase  of  $3,600  which  will provide  support  for  the
development and  dissemination   of  an  additional  number  of  technical  information
products.

     This  sub-program  will  continue,  in  1982,  to  provide  the  same  types  of
services  as in 1981.   This  includes  the development  and  production  of technical
information  products   to  ensure   that  research   information   is   properly   and
adequately   communicated  to   the  environmental   decision   making  community.
Specific   products  planned   by  the   appropriate  'Research  Committee  .will  be
developed.  Support to management  systems which  track ORD's research projects and
resources  will  be  provided  as  will  strong  liaison   with  Regional  Offices,  of  a
similar nature to that conducted in 1981.
                                     WQ-106

-------
MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1980 Accomplishments

      In  1980,  the Agency used  a total  of  $891,200 for this  sub-program, of which
$664.500  was for Salaries and  Expenses  and  $226,700  was  for  extramural  research
activities.

      Ten  spill   prevention   control  and  counter-measure  studies  and  10  oil  and
      hazardous   spill  emergency  spill  response  projects  were   completed.    Study
      results were utilized by EPA Regions for compliance monitoring.

      Overhead  monitoring and  data analysis  support was provided  to  the  Regions
      and  Program   Offices  for   land   use,  thermal   pollution  discharges  and
      industrial spill analyses.

      Overhead   monitoring   and   data  analysis   support  was   provided  to  the
      Chesapeake  Bay,  Beaumont/Lake  Charles,  Poplar  River and Atchafalaya River
      special projects.

      Fifty field studies were completed  for  the regions and Program Offices.  The
      studies  included  thermal  pollutant  surveys,  wetland  and   land  use  surveys,
      point and non-point surveys and leachate and septic tank problem analyses.

      Expert  witness  and overhead  monitoring data   acquisition  support  for  the
      enforcement case  preparation was provided to the Office  of Enforcement and
      the regional enforcement divisions.

      The 301(h) Ocean  Discharge Program  received overhead monitoring support and
      data analysis,

1981 Program

      In  1981,  the Agency has  allocated  a total of $860,900  to  this sub-program,
of which $559,800 is for the Salaries and  Expenses Appropriation  and $301,100  is
for extramural purposes under  the Research and Development Appropriation.

      Resources   have  been   provided  to   respond  to  ten  spill  prevention  and
      countermeasures and fifteen  emergency spill  requests.    The  data  obtained
      from these  requests will  be used  by the  Regions  for  compliance  monitoring
      and support of on-scene coordinators.

•*     Staff   are  participating    in   approximately   150   hazardous   waste   site
      investigations  by  providing  aerial  photography   and  multi-spectral  scanner
      imagery and analysis support.

      Fifteen Environmental  Impact  Statements  are  being  prepared for the  Regions.
      These studies support the Construction Grants Program.

      Ten  septic  field  analyses  are  being  completed  for  the  Regions  .    These
      studies will provide data supporting the Construction Grants Program.

      Technical  assistance is being  provided  to  more  that  70  regional  projects
      covering   land   use,   thermal   pollution  discharges   and   industrial   spill
      analyses.

      Expert support to the Regions and the Hazardous Waste Enforcement Task Force
      is being provided.
                                       WQ-107

-------
1981 EKplanatSonjrf Change from Budget Estimate

     The resources  reflected  under the  1981 budget  estimate  column  are derived
from   "crosswalking"  the  program  structure  presented  in   the  1981  President's
Budget submission to the  new structure as  presented  in the 1981  current  estimate
reflected in  this submission.    The  details  of  the  restructuring  of  the  research
and  development program, as  well as  the  crosswalk  of resources  itself,  can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     The net decrease of $4,100 results from several actions, as follows:

     -  Shortly  after  the 1981  budget  estimate was submitted,  President  Carter
         transmitted   revisions   to  the  budget   (House  Document   96-294);  these
         revisions  resulted in  a  decrease  of  $7' million   to   EPA's  request  for
         Salaries and  Expenses.  The reduction applied to this activity is $3,300.

     -  The  Congress  reduced  ageneywide  consulting  services  by  $3.8 million;  a
         decrease of $2,000 was applied to this  activity.

     -  An  increase of  $22,900 results  from  the cost  of  the  October  1980  pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -  Reprogrammings   to  realign  salary   and  related  costs  to  meet  on-board
         needs resulted  in  a transfer  of $9,800 to areas within  Office of  Research
         and Development.

     -  Transfer  $400  to  monitoring  systems  and  quality  assurance  to  realign
         contract funds.

     -  Transfer  $11,500  to   monitoring   systems   to  provide  support  for  the
         development of   monitoring  methods  for  ambient   monitoring of  water
         quality.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests  a  total  of  $917,500 for  this  sub-program,  of  which
$525,400  is  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation   and  $392,100  is  for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation,

     This  reflects an  increase  of  $56,600  which will  provide  an  additional level
of support for the Agency's Mandatory Quality Assurance Program.

     Analysis  of  10-14  septic  tank  fields   wlfl  be  made   for  the  Regional
     Construction Grants Program.

     A  portable,  airplane-mounted   camera   system   which  can   provide   aerial
photography  of  spill sites  to  determine the  extent  of  contamination  is   called
"Enviro-Pod".     Enviro-Pod support  will  be  provided  to  the regions  and  program
offices.

-    In  support  of   compliance  monitoring,  this  program   will  produce  10  Spill
     Prevention   Control   and  Countermeasure  Studies  for   the  Office of   Water
     Program Operations and the Regions.

     Response  to Regional  requests  for   support  on  15-20  emergency  oil  and
     hazardous spills  will provide data to the on-scene coordinators.

     Aerial  photography,  multi-spectral  scanner  imagery and   enviro-pod  support
     will  be  provided   for   industrial  spills  and   approximately   150  hazardous
     waste site investigations.
                                      WQ-108

-------
     Data to complete 10-12 Environmental  Impact Statements will be  provided  for
     the  Regions,  Office  of  Environmental  Review  and  the  Construction  Grants
     Program.                       - --

     Support  to  the mandatory  quality  assurance  program  will provide  technical
     guidance,  support  and   overview  to  assure   that  the   Agency  will  have
     environmental data of known quality that are appropriate for EPA needs.


HE ALTH EFFECTS

1980Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the   Agency  used a  total of  $3,097,500 for  this  sub-program,  of
which  $709,900 was for Salaries and  Expenses and  $2,387,600 was for extramural
research activities.

     A symposium on  the  evaluation of  health risks associated with animal  feeding
     and  land  application  of   municipal  sludge brought  together  most   of   the
     investigators studying this  problem.   The data  presented at the symposium is
     being used in  developing policy on  the  disposal of  municipal  sludges  on land
     and for the use of these sludges as possible animal feed products.

     Epidemiological studies  of  sludge  composting  workers  completed at  several
     sites  within the  U.S.,  indicate that exposure  may  cause inflammation.  The
     exact  cause of the inflammation is  unknown,  but  one possible  cause  may be
     the  presence of endotoxins  in  the  compost dust.    It  was recommended that
     compost workers  be protected from  sludge compost dust by wearing protective
     masks.

1981 Program

     In 1981,  the Agency  has  allocated  a total of  $3,611,500  to this  sub-program,
of which  $1,136,800  is  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses  Appropriation and  $2,474,700
is for extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     Highlights of the 1931 research program include:

     Studies   of  the health  implications  of  land   application  for  treatment  and
     disposal of wastewater and sludge are being continued.

     Criteria  for  the  safe   reuse   of  municipal wastewater for   aquaculture  and
     potable purposes is being developed.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The  resources   reflected under  the  1981  budget estimate  column  are  derived
from   "crosswalking"  the  program   structure   presented  in  the  1981  President's
Budget  submission to the new structure  as presented in the  1981  current estimate
reflected  in  this submission.    The  details  of the restructuring  of  the research
and  development  program, as  well  as  the  crosswalk  of  resources  itself,   can  be
found in the Special Analyses section of this submission.

     The net decrease of $212,600 results from several actions, as follows:

     -  Shortly  after  the 1981  budget  estimate was'  submitted,  President  Carter
        transmitted  revisions  to the   budget  (House  Document   96-294);  these
        revisions  resulted  in  a decrease  of  $7   million  to  EPA's  request   for
        Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied to this activity is $5,100.
                                    WQ-109

-------
        The  Congress reduced agencywide  consulting services by $3.8  million,  a
        decrease of $20,000 was applied to this activity.

        The Congress reduced ageneywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of
        $4,200 was applied to this activity.

        An  increase  of  $39,000  results from the  cost of  the October  1980  pay
        raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

        Reprcgrammings   to  realign  salary  and  related  costs  to  meet on-board
        needs resulted in a  transfer of $2,000  to areas within Office of Research
        and Development,

        Transfer  $204,900  from  health  effects  to realign  funds between  the  Water
        Quality Research Committee; the Municipal Wastewater Research Committee;
        and the Industrial Wastewater Research Committee.
1982 Plan

     The Agency  requests  a  total  of $3,112,600  for  this  sub-program,  of  which
$871,400  is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation  and  $2,241,200  is  for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     This reflects a  decrease  of $498,900, which will  provide a  reduced level of
effort  in  determining the  health effects  of  municipal wastewater specifically in
the areas of urban runoff and water reuse.

     Major  emphasis  will continue on the  health effects resulting from the use of
     wastewater  and  sludge  from  land treatment.   The  most  critical research
     relates to  the  impact of  bacteria,  viruses  and  parasites in  sludge  as well
     as  heavy  metals and  toxic  organies  in  sludge on  human health'  through  this
     bioeoncentration  in  the  food  chain  or  their  contamination  of   groundwater.
     Pretreatment requirements,  particularly  disinfection, are to  be  deferred  in
     large measure, pending the outputs of this program.

     Investigation  of  the  health effects   resulting  from  the  reuse of  wastewater
     for aquaoultural and potable purposes will continue.

     o   The  emphasis  on  aquaculture  arises  from    recognition  that, although
         nutrients can be  utilised in  aquaculture  systems, more data'are  needed to
         determine  if  the  products  themselves   will  create  a  public   health
         problem.

     o   Research in the area  of potable reuse  will  be  concerned with  determining:
         whether  the  treatment system affects  the  nature and toxicity of organic
         substances, the  health  risk  resulting  from  viruses  in water  intended  for
         reuse;  and whether groundwater aquifers  recharged  with  treated effluents
         have a health impact on humans.   Data  from this research will support  the
         development  of  criteria or  guideline  documents  for  the  safe   reuse  of
         wastewater.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the  Agency used  a  total  of $16,627,700  for  this  sub-program, of
which  $5,334,600 was for Salaries and  Expenses and  $11,293,100  was for extramural
research activities.
                                    wq-no

-------
WASTEWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

     Reports  on  control  technologies such   as  biodegradation,   activated  carbon
     adsorption,  and  air stripping for  the  removal  of  priority  pollutants  from
     municipal wastewaters were published.

     A   sampling   apparatus  and   analytical   protocol   for    the   quantitative
     nfeasurement   of   the  transfer  of   volatile  priority   pollutants   to   the
     atmosphere  as  they  pass  through municipal  wastewater  treatment  facilities
     were developed.

     The utility  of the Composite Correction  Program (CCP) concept  was developed
     and demonstrated.  It is now being used  by the Agency as a  major  tool in the
     New Publicly Owned Treatment Works Compliance Strategy.

     The  Innovative   and  Alternative  (I/A)   Technology  Assessment  Manual  was
     published for use  by the regional and state offices and design engineers.

     A report on  Urban Storm water Management  and Technology  based on 12 case-
     histories  was  published.   These  case  histories represent  the most promising
     approaches to stormwater control.

     Thru the  first  National Seminar on  Overland Flow Technology  for Municipal
     Wastewater.     Presented   the   current  state-of-the-art    for   design   and
     operation of overland flow systems.

     The Design Manual for  Onsite  Wastewater Treatment and  Disposal Systems was
     completed.     The   manual   presents  site  evaluation,  design,   construction,
     operational   and   managerial  information  in   a  form  useful   to  planners,
     engineers,   sanitarians,  and  regulatory  agencies   concerned   with   onsite
     wastewater systems for small  community applications.

HAZARDOUS SPILLS PROGRAM

     A  portable   battery-operated  automatic  enzyme-based  system  for detecting
     spills of  organophosphate  and carbamate pesticides  in  water  was developed
     and demonstrated.

     An in-stream  warning  system  consisting  of a  number  of  individual  probes and
     sensors   (total  organic   carbon,   conductivity,  UV  absorption,, etc.)  for  the
     continuous  detection  of a  broad  variety  of  spilled   hazardous  chemicals  in
     water was demonstrated.

     A  new  and  more effective  system  for  collecting  and treating  rinsates  from
     agricultural  pesticide   spraying   operations  for   the  purpose  of   protecting
     groundwaters was demonstrated.

     Fire-fighting  foams  to  reduce  the rate  of  vaporization  of  spilled hazardous
     liquids were developed.

     Alternative   techniques  (e.g.,   classfication,   bromination,  alkali   fluxing)
     for the ultimate disposal of spilled  refractory chemicals were evaluated.

1981 Program

     In  1981,  the  Agency   has  allocated  a  total  of   $16,529,500  to  this  sub-
program,  of  which  $5,222,900 is  for  the Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation  and
$11,306,600   is   for   extramural   purposes  under  the  Research  and  Development
Appropriation.
                                   WQ-111

-------
WASTEWATER RESEARCH PROGRAM

     Sludge Management

     The  sludge management program continues to hold a  high  priority  due to the
Agency's new  regulations  and policies resulting from  implementation  of  RCRA and
the 1977 Clean Water Act (CWA)  amendments.

     Design  and  operation   of  anaerobic digesters that  maximize  solids  reduction
     and energy production are being improved.

     Best management practices for land application are being developed.


     Toxic Pollutants. .Control

     The  toxic pollutants  control program  is  designed  to produce  information on
the  characterization and   sources of  toxic   pollutants,  on  the  treatability  by
conventional   and/or  innovative   technology  to provide  cost  analyses  to  enable
selection of the most cost-effective solution.

     Data  bases from a  25 city survey on priority pollutants  in  terms cf sources
     contributing  to POTW's,  occurrence   and  concentration  in  POTW  influents,
     effluents  and   sludges,  and  removals  obtainable  by  unit  processes are   being
     developed.

     Treatability   and   removability   of   priority  pollutants   and   other   toxic
     organics  by   a  variety  of  conventional  and  advanced  waste   treatment
     processes are being assessed.

     I/A Program

     The  ORD innovative  and  alternative  (I/A)  technology  program  is  continuing
to provide  technical support  to  the Construction   Grants Program  for implementing
I/A  projects.    The  program  is  also  assessing  emerging  technologies  and  providing
technology transfer to state and local governments.

     Operation and Design

     The   plant  operation  and  design  program   is  continuing to   focus  on  the
development   of  methods   and  practices   that  improve  plant  performance   and
reliability, reduce operating costs and support enforcement activities.

     Urban Runoff

     The  urban  runoff  program  develops  methods  for  controlling  pollution  from
stormwater  runoff  and  combined sewer overflows  through  development  of  such
things  as a  storage/sedimentation design manual  to assist the  user  in  choosing  a
system to meet specific needs.

     Process Development

     The   Process   Development  Program   is  developing  and   evaluating   new
technologies   that    enhance   the  ability   of   municipalities   to  meet   discharge
limitations  in  a  cost-effective manner.  This  program focuses on  four areas:   new
biological    process   development;    biodegradation    of   specific   pollutants;
wastewater disinfection; potable water reuse and water conservation.
                                    wq-112

-------
     Wastewater Disinfection

     The  wastewater  disinfection  program  is being  directed  toward  completing  a
number  of projects  which  will serve  as input  to  specific  manuals  of  practice.
Areas    of   research   include  ozonation,   ultraviolet   light   and   chlorination.
Ultimate product  of  this  program  will be a  disinfection   manual  of  practice
expected to be completed in December 1983.

     Potable Water Reuse

     Activities  in  the  potable  water  reuse  area  are being phased  out.   The  only
activity  in 1981 will  involve  monitoring  a  few  existing  projects.    The  major
project  here  is  the  Congressionally  mandated   demonstration  project  in Denver,
Colorado which  is fully  funded and  is  expected  to  be completed in about five  to
seven years.

     Small Wastewater flows

     The Small  Wastewater Flows  program  develops alternative treatment systems
for individual homes and  small communities.   In  order  to meet the  changing needs
of  the   operating   programs,  the  program  is  broadening   its  activities   from
technical  research    and  development   to   activities    which   emphasize    the
applicability,  economics,  management,  health implications  and  other  areas  which
will  promote  the adoption  and use  of  alternative small  flows  technologies  by  the
user community.

     LandApplication

     The  Land  Application  of Wastewater   program  is  directed  to  design  and
operating  criteria  for  the  three  major  land treatment   processes  (overland  flow,
rapid   infiltration  and slow   rate   infiltration).    The  principal  effort  in   1981
will  be  devoted to  providing  additional design  and  operational  data  on  rapid-
infiltration   and  overland   flow    systems   for  updating   the   design   manual
Land ..Treatment of    Municipal Wastewater.    This  is  a   priority   need  for   the
construction  grants  program.    The  first  design  manual revision is  being completed
in 1981.   The  evaluation  of  the  first  full  scale overland flow project is  being
completed and  transport  and  transformation  of  toxic  substances   through  soil
treatment system are being studied.

     Aquaculture

     In  the  area   of municipal  wastewater  treatment  by   aquaculture,  several
studies   are    continuing   to    provide   design   and   operational   data   for   the
Construction  Grants  Program.   Among  them are  the  studies of  the  effectiveness  of
a  variety of  plants  and  of   natural  and  artifice!  wetlands  receiving  municipal
wastewater,   and   the   effectiveness   of   filter-feeding   fish  for   removal   of
pollutants from municipal wastewater effluents.

     Land Treatment

     The Land  Treatment Task Force  is continuing  to provide  technical assistance
to Regions VI and  VH and the nine state governments  in  those regions with  the
objective of   increasing land  treatment  systems   funded by  the Construction  Grant
Program.
                                     WQ-H3

-------
     Spills Prevention

     The hazardous  incident  program  continues the  development of technology  for
the  prevention,  identification,   and  control  of  hazardous  and •  toxic   material
spills.     Major  emphasis  will  be   on  the   finalization   of   the  new   portable
incineration system and contingency planning for spill response.

     A   portable   incineration   system,   complete   with   air   pollution   control
     equipment,  for  on-site   destruction  of  spilled  organic  hazardous  chemicals
     collected during cleanup operations is being demonstrated.
            '»
     A  system  to  detect  the  location  of  insoluble  spilled  hazardous  materials
     which have settled on stream bottoms.

     Guidelines  for   use  by  state  and  local government   officials  in  preparing
     contingency  plans  for  effective  local  level  response  to  hazardous  chemical
     spills is being developed.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of  $25,200 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly  after the  1981  budget  estimate  was  submitted,  President Carter
         transmitted   revisions  to  the  budget (House   Document  96-294);   these
         revisions   resulted  in  a  decrease  of  $7  million  to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries  and  Expenses.     The  reduction  applied  to   this  activity   is
         $26,000.

     -   The  Congress  reduced   agencywide  Senior  Executive  Service bonuses  by
         $750,000; a decrease of $3,000 was applied to this activity.

     -   The Congress reduced  agencywide  travel  costs  by $850,000; a decrease of
         $2,000 was applied to this activity.

     -   The  Congress reduced agencywide  consulting  services  by  $3.8  million; a
         decrease of $1,500 was applied to this activity.

     -   The Congress applied a  reduction  of $250,000  was  applied  to  this activity
         for urban systems.

     -   The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of
         $10,000 was applied to this activity.

     -   An  increase  of $262,900 results  from  the cost  of  the October  1980  pay
         raise and is included in a proposed suplemental appropriation.

     -   Reprogrammings  to  realign  salary  and  related  costs  to  meet  on-board
         needs  resulted in  a transfer  of $12,100 from  other  areas  in within Office
         of Research and Development.

     -   A transfer of $7,700 was made to the Office of Inspector General in  order
         to provide additional resources to that Office.

     -   Transfer  of  $109,900  within  Office  of  Research and  Development  from
         water  quality health  effects  and  water  quality environmental  engineering
         and technology to realign contact funds with operating costs.
                                    WQ-114

-------
1982 Plan

     The Agency  requests  a total  of  $15,974,900 for this sub-program,  of which
$5,870,300 is for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses Appropriation  and $10,104,600  is  for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     This reflects a  decrease of  $554,600 which  will  provide  a  reduced  level  of
effort for process development in the area of  water reuse.
                                                                             "
MUNICIPAL WASTEWATSR

     Sludge management program will continue research work on:

     o   evaluation of thermal processes and energy recovery;

     o   composting and other conversion processes; and

     o   characterization of emissions of sludge disposal facilities.

     In  the  land  application  management and disposal  of  municipal  sludge,  the
     following will be completed:

     o   fate  and effects   of  toxic  organies   in sludge  applied  to  agricultural
         land;

     o   assessment of high rate application; and

     o   evaluation of sludge landf illing.

     The toxic  pollutant  control  program will continue  to develop  a  data base
     assessing  the magnitude,   composition  and  source  of  toxics  in  municipal
     wastes

     Full  scale   plants  using  conventional  and  non  conventional  technology  for
     the removal of metals will be evaluated.

     New  treatment  processes  which  enhance  removal of  priority  pollutants  from
     wastewater will be developed.

     The plant  operation   and  design  program  will  continue  its  effort  on  the
     development  of  procedures   to   develop  the   design,   cost,   and  energy
     effectiveness of  new  and  upgraded  wastewater  treatment  plants,  improved
     methods  to   assure    proper  performance   of   existing  facilities   through
     improved  operation  and  maintenance,  and  increased  systems  reliability   and
     the  application  of  instrumentation  and  automation to  process  control   and
     system   management.     Design  operation, and   maintenance  guidelines   for
     conventional  systems   and  land  application/alternative  technology   will   be
     developed  and  an  energy  effectiveness  report  on  wastewater  and  residuals
     will be produced.   Technical  support  to  selected  POTW's  on  operation  and
     maintenance problems will continue.

     The specific  goal of  the I/A  technology  program  is  greater  use of  systems
     that  reclaim  and   reuse   wastewater,   productively   recycle   wastewater
     constituents  and  otherwise  eliminate  the discharge of pollutants or  recover
     energy. The program will consist ofs
                                    WQ-115

-------
     o  review   of  Step  I  facility  plans involving  T/A  technology  applications}
        and;

     o  completion  of effectiveness studies of T/A program  and development and
        presentation   of   regional   T/A   technology   assessment   seminars   for
        consulting engineers, and federal/state personnel.

     The  urban  runoff research program  will study sediment impacts and  benthic
     effects (multi-city);  compile  BMFs  for  urban  runoff  pollution control! and
     assess dual wet weather treatment facilities^ —   •»-••

     Treatment   Process   Development   will   include   new   biological   process
     development,  biodegradation   and  specific   pollutants   removal,  wastewater
     disinfection and conservation and wastewater reuse.

     Novel  technologies  for  more  efficiently  disolving  oxygen  in  wastewater
     while  reducing  overall  aeration  costs  will  continue   to  be   developed and
     demonstrated.   Included in this work will be  an evaluation of the deep shaft
     activated   sludge   process,    and   an   evaluation    of    the   two   zone
     reactor/clarifier.

     A  final report  on  the  degradation  protocol  for  priority  pollutants  will  be
     prepared.

     The   conservation  and  reuse  program  will  be  phased  out, but the  Denver
     project will be monitored.

     The  small  wastewater  flows  program  will continue  to  support  the  operating
     program   without  significant   changes.     The  small   flews   information
     clearinghouse will be  continued,  as  will  the operating  and monitoring of  the
     specific  technologies   being   studied  at   the   Center   for  Small  Flow
     Technology.  The comprehensive Septage Treatment and  Disposal  Handbook will
     be completed.

     The   natural  treatment   systems  program  includes  the land   treatment and
     aquaeulture  programs.  The   baseline  data  on  the  Lubbock  project  and   a
     research  program  will   be   initiated.    Optimum  loading  cycles  for  rapid
     infiltration   nitrogen   management   using   large-scale   lysimeters  will   be
     completed.     The  evaluation  of  fate' of  naturally   occurring  organies  in
     overland flow systems will be completed.
SPILLS
     The  hazardous   substances   spill  program  will   continue  to  develop   and
     demonstrate technology  in the  five  areas outlined under  the  19S1 program,
     namely:     information  transfer  and  prevention;  pre-spill   response planning,
     safety    and   assessment;    containment,   confinement,    separation    and
     concentration;   ultimate  disposal;  and  restoration.   Major emphasis   will  be
     on  the  development of information and procedures for  use by  hazardous  spill
     coordinators and "first-on-scene" personnel.

     Specialized  techniques  will  be  developed   for   ensuring  personnel   safety
     during  spill cleanup  operations,  and  procedures  will  be demonstrated  for
     the decontamination of personnel and equipment following these operations.
                                    WQ-T16

-------
A  manual  will   be  prepared  to  assist   spill  coordinators  in  evaluating
alternative spill  cleanup   and  disposal  techniques   to   determine  the   most
cost-effective  approaches  and  the extent of required cleanup  ("How  Clean  is
Clean?").

A computerized  system  will  be  developed  for  storage  and  retrieval  of spill
control information, including cleanup options and diposal alternatives.
                              WQ-117

-------
       WATER QUALITY



Industrial Wastewater - Non-Energy




Appropriation
Technical Information
and Liaison:
Salaries and Expenses.
Research and
Development 	 	
Monitoring Systems and
Quality Assurance:
Salaries and Expenses.
Research and
Development 	
Health Effects:
Salaries and Expenses.
Research and
Development.,... 	
Environmental Engineering
and Technology:
Salaries and Expenses.
Research and
Development..........
Environmental Processes
and Effects:
Salaries and Expenses.
Research and
Development..........
Total:
Salaries and Expenses.
Research and
Development..........
Grand Total... 	

Actual
1980




$195

2


2,231

4,100

40

200


1,363

8.015
W J w * 
-------
                               Actual
                                1980
                             Budget
                             Estimate
                              1981*
        Current
        Estimate
          1981
        Estimate
          1982
           Increase +
           Decrease -
           1982 vs. 1981
Permanent Positions

Technical Information
 and Liaison	
Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance.......
Health Effects....	
Environmental Engineering
 and Technology...	,
Total.......

Full-Time
45
1
24
73
48
1
28
80
48
20
71
43
1
20
67
- 5
+ 1
• *«
«•


4
ij valency
Technical Information
 and Liaison.......	
Monitoring Systems and
 Quality Assurance.......
Health Effects	
Environmental Engineering
 and Technology..........
                       60
                         1

                       29
  1

 36
  5

 64
* * *

 28
59
 1

27
-   5
+   1

-   1
Total.
                       94
106
 97
92
*3anuary   1980  President's  Budget  as  adjusted  by  the  Office  of  Research  and  Development
restructuring.
Budget Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $13,278,100 for  1982, a  decrease of $2,332,700 from 1981.
Included in this  total  is  $4,609,400 for Salaries and  Expenses  and $8,668,700  for  Research  and
Development, with an increase of $175,000 and a decrease'of $2,508,500 respectively..


Program Description

     This  program  has been  developed under  the auspices of  the Industrial Wastewater  Research
Committee.   The  disciplinary  components  (or sub-programs)  of the  program  are integrated  into
an  overall  research  effort  designed  to  produce  outputs clearly  focused on  Agency  research
needs in this subject  area.

     The overall program provides the  necessary technical  information and tools to  support  the
Agency's  regulatory, permitting  and enforcement  programs relating to the control  of   industrial
wastewatef effluents.
                                             WQ-119

-------
TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND LIAISON

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the  Agency used a  total of $196,700  for  this sub-program, of  which $194,800 was
for Salaries and Expenses and $1,900 was for extramural research activities.

     In  1980,  the  Technical  Information  Program supported  the preparation and publication  of
the Research  Outlook, Research Highlights), technical information plans  and guidance, and  other
general  documents   of  interest to  the  environmental  decision making  community.    It  also
provided ORD with  information systems necessary to effectively plan  and  manage  its  research
projects   and   resources.     Specific  accomplishments  in   the  area  of  Industrial   Wastewater
included the preparation,  publication and  dissemination  of,  a five volume manual  on wastewater
treatment performance data.

     The Regional   Services  Staff provided  effective   communications  between   ORD  and  the
regions.  Specifically, theys

     - developed and implemented the Regional Support  Management Information
        system
     - carried out regional liaison activities to provide technical assistance
     - conducted ORD/Regional Senior Staff Meetings
     - advised ORD on all  aspects of regional operations

     The Technical  Information and Liaison  activities  helped  enable  ORD  to  communicate its
research  Information to   EPA's  regional  offices and  to  the  environmental   decision  making
community.    Further, they  assisted in  enhancing coordination  between  ORD  and  the  regions,
allowing each to meet the needs of the Agency and the public more efficiently.

1981 Program

     In  1981,  the   Agency  has allocated  a  total   of  $213,000  to  this sub-program,  of  which
$201,500 is  for the  Salaries  and Expenses  Appropriation and  $11,500 is for  extramural  purposes
under the Research and Development Appropriation,


     This part of  the  program is providing  various research  program  and project summaries,
decision  series  documents,  and  technology  transfer   publications  to  meet  Research Committee
requirements.    Technical  Information  Plans,  listing  the  explicit  information  products  for this
research effort have been prepared. Throughout the  year, support  will be  provided to  develop
these  information  products and to distribute  them  to  the  appropriate users.    Support  is also
being  provided  to   manage   information  systems which  track  ORD's  research  projects  and
resources.

     Regional  liaison activities  are   continuing  as  in  1980.   To  this  end,  such  activities
will:

     continue the Regional Support Management Information System

     conduct    ORD/Regional    Senior    Staff    meetings    and    other    liaison    activities
     to   provide     technical    assistance.      ; These    will    include    preparing    reports,
     conducting    special    staff    and    policy    studies,    developing    regional    problem
     statements, and identifying research and technical requirements.
                                               WQ-120

-------
      develop  and  implement  a  process  to  address  the  research  needs  of  state  and  local
      government in the ORD planning process.

 1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The net increase of $8,000 results from several actions, as follows:

      -   Shortly    after    the     1981     budget    estimate    was    submitted,    President
         Carter    transmitted    revisions   to    the    budget    (House    Document    96-29ft);
         these   revisions    resulted   in    a    decrease    of   $7    million   to   EPA's   request
         for   Salaries   and  Expenses.       The   reduction    applied   to    this   activity   is
     -   An   increase   of   $8,400   results   from   the   cost   of   the   October    1980   pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

1982 Plan

     The   Agency  requests   a   total    of    $206,400   for   this   sub-program,    of   which
$196,100   is   for   the   Salaries    and   Expenses    Appropriation   and    $10,300   is    for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     This    reflects    a    decrease    of    $6,600    which    will    slightly    affect    the
dissemination of technical information products.

     This   sub-program   will   continue,   in   1982,   to   provide   the    same    types    of
services    as    in    1981.       This    includes    the    development   and    production     of
technical     information     products     to     ensure     that     research     information     is
properly    and    adequately    communicated    to    the    environmental    decision    making
community.      Specific   products   planned   by    the   appropriate   Research    Committee
will   be   developed.      Support   to   managing   systems   which   track   QRD's   research
projects    and   resources   will   be   provided   as   will   strong   liaison   with    Regional
offices, of a similar nature to that conducted in 19.81.


MQMTQRING SYSTEMS  AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1 980 Accomplishments

     In   1980,  the   Agency   used   a   total   of  $6,331,900   for   this   sub-program,    of
which    $2,231,600   was    for    Salaries    and    Expenses    and    $4,100,300    was    for
extramural research activities.

     Major accomplishments of the program:

-    Methodology    for   analysis    of    toxic    pollutants    in    the    National    Pollutant
     Discharge     Elimination    System     (NPDES)    were     validated,    and    standardized
     for    seven    categories    of     pollutants,    and    additional    reference    methods
     were      developed,     proposed,     or     corrected    for     toxic      and    hazardous
     substances and Consent Decree pollutants in  wastewater and sludges.

     Computer    software    was    developed    as    required    for    computerized    spectral
     matching    of     organic     compounds     recorded    on    Gas     Chromatograph/Mass
     Spectral     tapes    for    the    Effluents    Guidelines    Division,   Office    of    Water
     and   Waste   Management,  and   9781   of   20,000,  GC/MS  data  runs  from  analysis
     of     industrial    effluents      were     processed    and     950     different     organic
     compounds, other than consent decree chemicals, were detected.

     The    intitial   protocol    was    developed   for  '  the   Master   Analytical    Scheme    to
     detect,     identify     and    quantitate     unsuspected     volatile    organic    pollutants
     in industrial wastewaters.
                                           WQ-121

-------
     Five  equivalent  methods  for  nationwide  use  and  30  evaluation  for  case-by-case  were
     evaluated and approved for use in NPDES.

     EPA-approved  automatic   sampling  and   monitoring  instrumentation  specifications  were
     developed for enforcement of existing and planned standards and regulations.

     Sample  preservation  and   transportation  techniques  were  developed  for  conventional  and
     toxic  pollutants to  comply with  Department  of  Transportation  regulations  and to  assure
     integrity of sample.

     The  quality  control  reference   materials   were   developed   for  seven   categories   of
     pollutants.

     National  guidelines  were  developed  to  assure  uniformity  in  laboratory  evaluation  of  the
     NPDE5 compliance monitoring laboratories.

     The mandatory  quality  assurance  program ,was  established  to  provide technical  guidance,
     support,  and overview  to assure that the  Agency will have  environmental  data of  known
     quality that is appropriate for the EPA needs.

1981 Program

     In  1981,  the  Agency has  allocated  a  total  of $6,295,200  to this sub-program,  of  which
$2,582,000  is  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation  and  $3,713,200  is  for extramural
purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     Reference  method  validation studies for the priority  toxic  pollutants  are  being completed
     and deficiencies in currently  approved methods identified and corrected.

     An approved bioassay  technique  for monitoring the  toxicity  of industrial  waste  water is
     being developed.

     Continuous  monitoring systems for  measuring toxic substances are being developed  for more
     cost-effective compliance monitoring.

     Alternate   test  procedures  are   being   approved  for  the   National   Pollutant  Discharge
     Elimination System (NPDES).

     More  cost-effective  ab-initio   techniques   are  being   developed  for   identification   of
     previously   undetected organic  chemicals  in  industrial wastewaters,  suspended solids  and
     sediments,  and  a  method  is  being developed to identify  toxic  metals  by chemical  species.
     These   techniques   are    critical   in    developing    correlations   between    toxicity-based
     pollution control and technology-based effluent limitations.

     Verification and identification  of  all the  important compounds on  the Effluent Guidelines
     Division gas chromatographic/rnass spectrometric survey tapes is being completed.

     The  quality  assurance   reference  materials  repository   is   being  expanded  to   include
     materials which are critical to the Agency enforcement programs.

     Assistance   is   being   provided    to    the    Office  of    Water   Enforcement   in   the
     evaluation of analytical performance of discharger laboratories.
                                             WQ-122

-------
      The  mandatory  quality  assurance  program  continues to  provide  technical  guidance, support
      and overview to assure  that the Agency will have  environmental  data of known quality that
      are appropriate  for  EPA needs.  Emphasis  is being placed on the  application of the Agency
      wide program to contract and grant activities.

 1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The net decrease of $345,600 results from several actions, as follows;

      -   Shortly    after     the    19S1     budget    estimate    was    submitted,    President
         Carter    transmitted   revisions    to    the   budget    (House    Document    96-29*);
         these    revisions    resulted   in   a   decrease   of   $7   million   to   EPA's   request
         for    Salaries  and   Expenses.      The   reduction    applied   to   this   activity   is
         $11,700.
         The   Congress   reduced   agencywide
         of $2,200 was applied to this activity.

         The    Congress    reduced    agencywide    ADP
         decrease of $35,700 was applied to this activity.
              travel   costs   by    $850,000;    a   decrease
                         services
         An   increase  of   $102,700   results   from   the  cost
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.
      by    $2    million;    a


of   the  October   1980   pay
         A   transfer   of   $200   was  made   to   the   Administrative   Law   Dudges   is   to
         provide    additional   resources    to    support   a    new    program    for   instituting
         civil noncompliance penalties under Section 102 of the Clean Air Act.
         A    transfer   of    $190,000   from    monitoring   systems    and
         -water    quality    non-energy    to    maintain    and    prepare
         quality    control    sample    for    distribution    to    analytical
         check the ability of analysts to perform analytical measurements.
                                         quality   assurance
                                         one    standardized
                                           laboratories    to
         A   transfer   of   $148,500    to   monitoring   system    and
         water    quality    non-energy    to    provide   support    for
         monitoring methods for ambient monitoring of water quality.
                                     quality   assurance
                                    the    development
                            of
         A   transfer   of   $440,000   to    solid   waste
         assurance    - ,   water     quality    non-energy
         quality     assurance/uncontrolled     sites
         support efforts on Love Canal and Three Mile Island.
                        monitoring   systems   and    quality
                      ($100,000)     and    monitoring    and
                        solid     waste     ($340,000)     to
1982 Plan
     The   Agency  requests   a   total   of   $5,888,500   for  this   sub-program,   of   which
$2,773,400   is   for   the    Salaries    and   Expenses   Appropriation   and   $3,115,100   is
for extramural  purposes under the Research  and Development Appropriation.

     This    signifies    a   decrease    of   $406,700,   reflecting    the   reduced   need    for
industrial     wastewater     research     in     support     of      the     Agency's     regulatory
program.
     Major    activities    planned
permitting     and     enforcement
effluents are:
for    1982    to   support    the    Agency's    regulatory,
   programs     to     control     industrial     wastewater
     New    and    improved    sampling    and    analytical-   procedures    for   pollutants    in
     industrial   wastewater    will    be   developed   including:       improved   Gas   Chro-
     matography/Mass       Spectroscopy       techniques;       Gas       Chromatography/Fourier
     transform        infarared        spectroscopy        applications;        developing       Gas
     Chromatography   Mass    Spectroscopy   methods    for   compounds   -on   Section   311
     list,      e.g.,      carbarn ates,      urea      pesticides,     and      nitrosamines;     and
     correcting      deficiencies       in       newly      developed      analytical       reference
     methods.
                                           WO-123

-------
      Methods  validation  studies  for   high  priority   wastewater  analytical  procedures,  will  be
      conducted  and  alternate  test  procedures  for  National  Pollution  Discharge   Elimination
      System support evaluated.

      Analytical  surrogate/indicator  test  procedures   for  selected  classes  of  organics  will  be
      developed.

      One  biological  parameter  testing  procedure   for  quantitative  expression  of  an  effluent
      limitation for one industrial class will be adapted and standardized.

      Quality   assurance  support  will   be  provided,  including:     Preparing  and   -maintaining
      repository  of performance  evaluation  samples   and  conducting  performance  evaluation • as
      part  of  the  Mandatory  Quality   Assurance  program;  maintaining  quality  control  sample
      repository   and   distributing  quality   control   samples;   developing   new    performance
      evaluation/quality   control    samples;   developing  new   protocols   and   key   performance
      evaluation  samples  and  providing  statistical  and  other  support   for  evaluation  of  8000
      National  Pollution  Discharge  Elimination  System  dischargers'  laboratories  for  analytical
      performance,  and  conducting  interiaboratory'  performance   studies,   method  validation
      studies, and on-site evaluations for radiation analysis.

      Support   to   the Mandatory  Quality  Assurance  Program  will  provide  technical  guidance,
      support  and  overview  to assure   that  the  Agency  will  have  environmental  data  that  are
      appropriate for the EPA needs.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

      In  1980,  the Agency  used  a total of  $239,500  for  this  sub-program, of  which  $40,000  was
for Salaries and Expenses and $199,300 was for extramural research activities.


      Investigation  of  the  potential   health   problems  resulting  from   organic   chemicals  and
      pesticides in  two  food  processing industries   was  initiated.   The  data from  these  two
      studies  will  be used to  write  interim  criteria for  reuse  of  wastewater  in  the  food
      industry.

1981 Program

      In  1981,  the Agency  has allocated a  total  of $250,600  to this  sub-program, all  of which is
for extramural  purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

      Research  to support   development  of  interim   criteria   for  the  safe  reuse of  industrial
      wastewater in specific food processing industries is being completed.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget  Estimate

      The net decrease of $1,900 results from several actions, as follows:

         Shortly    after     the    1981     budget     estimate     was    submitted,     President
         Carter    transmitted    revisions    to    the   budget    (House    Document    96-29*};
         these   revisions    resulted   in   a    decrease  of    $7   million   to   EPA's   request
         for    Salaries   and   Expenses.      The   reduction    applied    to    this   activity   is
         $300.
                                               WQ-T24

-------
      -   A  net  transfer  of  $1,600  to  health effects  -  municipal  spills ($204,800);  and  from
         health  effects  -   water  quality  non-energy  ($203,200)  to  realign  funds  between  the
         Water  Quality  Research Committee;  the  Municipal Wastewater Research  Committee, and
         the Industrial Wastewater Reserach Committee.

 1982 Plan

      The Agency requests a  total of $199,600  for  this sub-program,  of  which $42,600 is for the
 Salaries  and Expenses  Appropriation and  $157,000 is for extramural  purposes  under the  Research
 and Development Appropriation.

      This  reflects  a  decrease  of  $51,000  due  to  a phase  out  of  the  new  and innovative
 technologies program.

      Efforts to develop bioassay  techniques  which  will serve  as  a  rapid means  of determining
      the health effects of toxic compounds in industrial wastewater will be accelerated.

      Research  activities  to   support  the   development   of  bioassay  biomonitoring  techniques,
      specifically  for  industrial  wastewater,  will  begin in  Fiscal  Year  1982.    This  research
      supports  the Agency's  efforts  to  develop guidelines  and permits  for  industrial discharges
      under the NPDES program.

      Appropriate  wastewater  reuse  guidelines  in  the  food  industry  will be  developed.   These
      guidelines  will   be useful  in writing  interim  criteria for  water   reuse  in  certain  food
      industries  and  to  encourage  private  industry  to apply  innovative  technologies  to control
      their pollutant discharges  as well as to recover a valuable resource.

 ENVIRONMENTAL ENqiNEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

 1980 Accom plishroents

      In  1980,  the Agency used  a  total  of  $9,377,900 for  this  sub-program, of  which $1,362,700
 was for Salaries and Expenses and $8,015,200 was for extramural research activities.

      the  following   1980   accomplishments  addressed the  development  and  demonstration  of
economically  achievable  technology  which  assisted  in  the  development of  industry  specific
effluent  guidelines  and  provided treatability  data  for the  issuance of  discharge  permits  on  a
pollutant  by pollutant basis.   In addition,  a comprehensive  program leading  to the development
and  demonstration of  reuse/recycle  systems  for  the  iron  and steel, textile,  organic chemicals,
and petrochemical industries was initiated.

-     Preliminary  tests  showed that  powdered  activated carbon is  effective for  treating leather
     tanning wastes.

-     Pilot    scale     tests    showed    that    ion    exchange    technology    can    remove
      chlorinated organics from  pulp and paper wastewaters.

-     Plant   tests  showed   that    color   can  be  removed   from   Kraft   pulp  mUls   by
     the use of ultraf Utration.

      An     economical    hyperfiltration     process    was    developed    for    the    treatment
     and renovation of textile wastewater.
                                        HQ-125

-------
      A  closed  loop  reuse  system  was  demonstrated  in  a  full  scale fiberglass  textile  plant,
      This demonstration will serve as the basis for the effluent guidelines for this industry.

      Treatabiiity   studies   were  performed  on  various  pesticides,  such  as   atrazine/carbaryl,
      and  glyphosate,   manufacturing  wastewaters   to  provide  a   basis  for   the   issuance  of
      discharge permits on a pollutant by pollutant basis.

      Field  tests  showed that  soluable  sulfide  precipitation  can  be  used for  the treatment of
      copper-lead smelting wastewater.

      A  full   scale  demonstration  showed  that a  microfiltration  system  can   be  used  for the
      treatment of battery manufacturing wastewaters.

      An  on-site   pilot  unit   successfully  demonstrated  the  treatability   of   several  organic
      process  wastewaters,  such as  chlorinated aliphatics,  chlorinated  benzenes,  and  aromatics
      by use of activated carbon adsorption.

      A  "Treatability   Manual"  was  prepared  for  use  by  discharge  permit  writers  in  instances
      where industry effluent guidelines were not available.

      A  mobile  wastewater treatment  system  was  used  to   demonstrate  advanced -treatment
      technology for coke plant and blast furnace wastewaters.

      Solvent  extraction treatment  of  wastewater  from  the   manufacture  of  acetic  acid  was
      demonstrated on a plant scale.

      The extent  to which  heavy  metal and organic  chemicals interfere with  the  operation of
      municipal  treatment  systems  was determined by laboratory and pilot  plant  tests.    This
      information will be used as a basis for the-)
                                            (/
      determination  of   pretreatment  requirements  for  industrial  facilities   which  discharge .to
      publically owned treatment works.

      A  quick  response  inhouse  testing  and  evaluation  capability  for  performing   industrial
      wastewater treatability studies was established.

1981 Program

      In  1981, the  Agency  has allocated  a total  of  $8,852,000  to  this  sub-program,  of  which
$1,650,100 is  for the  Salaries and  Expenses  Appropriation  and  $7,201,900  is for  extramural
purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

      In    1981,    research    activities     are     continuing    to  •   support     the    effluent
guideline    regulations    program,     consisting    mainly    of   the   development    of    back
up    data    to    assist    in    final    promulgation    of    effluent   guidelines    and    court
challenges to Agency regulations.

      The   major   thrust   of   the   research    program   is   shifting    from    support   of
guideline     regulations     development     on    an    industry    by     industry     basis    in
support    of    enforcement    for    regional    and   state    permit     programs.        The
treatability    research   effort    is    defining'    the    extent    to    which    existing    and
new   technology    can   be    applied    to    treating   toxic    pollutants.       This    data
provides   the    basis   for    writing    discharge    permits    in    situations    not    covered
by existing regulations.
                                      WQ-126

-------
      The new program initiated  in  1980,  for  the demonstration of  reuse  and recycle options for
industrial wastewater  discharges  is  being  continued  at  a  high  level.    Background  studies  in
specific  industrial   areas are  being completed;  they will  be  followed where indicated by  pilot
plant  or demonstration   scale  projects.    Industrial  areas  under   specific  study  are  iron and
steel,  textiles,  organic   chemicals,  and  petrochemicals.    Development   efforts  underway will
yield  the   necessary   data   for  the  implementation  of   full   scale   industrial   wastewater
reuse/recycle system.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

      The net decrease of $310,700 results from several actions, as follows:

      -   Shortly  after  the 1981  budget  estimate  was  submitted,  President Carter  transmitted
         revisions  to  the  budget   (House  Document  96-294);  these  revisions  resulted  in   a
         decrease of  $7  million  to  EPA's  request   for  Salaries  and  Expenses.   The  reduction
         applied to this activity is $6,100.

      -   The  Congress reduced agencywide  travel costs  by $830,000;  a decrease  of  $5,500 was
         applied to this activity.
         The  Congress  applied  a  general   reduction   of   $12,214,000   to  the
         Development appropriation; a decrease of $366,000 was applied to this activity
Research   and
     -   The  Congress  reduced  agencywide  Senior  Executive  Service  bonuses  by  $750,000;  a
         decrease of $7,900 was applied to this activity.

         An  increase  of  $75,500 results  from the  cost of  the October  1980  pay  raise  and is
         included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   A  transfer  of  $109,900    between  appropriations  from  environmental  engineering  and
         technology-industrial    wastewater    ($109,900)   to    environmental    engineering    and
         technology  -  municipal   wastewater  ($109,900)   in  the  research   and  development
         appropriation;   and   from   environmental   engineering  and   technology    -   municipal
         wastewater   ($109,900)   to   environmental  engineering   and   technology   -   industrial
         wastewater  ($109,900)  in   the salaries  and  expenses  appropriation  to  realign  contract
         funds with operating costs.

     -   A  transfer of  $700  was made to the  Administrative Law  Judges  to  provide  additional
         resources  to  support  a  new program  for  instituting  civil  noncompli  ance   penalties
         under Section 102 of the Clean Air  Act.


1982Plan

     The   Agency  requests   a   total    of   $6,784,300   for  this   sub-program,   of   which
$1,413,000   is    for   the    Salaries    and   Expenses   Appropriation   and    $5,371,300   is
for extramural purposes under the Research  and Development Appropriation.

     This   reflects  a   decrease   of   $2,067,700   due   to   a  phase   out   of   the   new   and
innovative technologies program.

     The   1982   program   will   focus    on   support   for   the   enforcement   activities   of
the     Agency      with     extensions     of     wastewater     treatability     and     toxicity
reduction    studies,    and    further    development    and    demonstration    of    innovative
pollution     control     technologies,     but     at     a     reduced    level     as     effluent
guidelines support is decreased.
                                         WQ-127

-------
     Major research results to be achieved in 1982 include the following:

     Models   of  the  best  treatment  systems  to  predict  treatability  of  organic  chemicals  in
     industrial waste waters will be developed.

     Methodology and demonstration  of innovative technology  to control  wastes  for  an existing
     organic chemical plant will be developed.

     The Treatability Manual will be revised.

     Synthetic  resin  adsorbent treatment systems for  the treatment  of  -petrochemical wastes
     will be developed.

     The  removal   characteristics  of   organic   priority  pollutants   in   biological  wastewater
     treatment plants will be determined.

     The  applicability   of   the   biological   activated   carbon   process  to   the  treatment   of
     industrial wastewaters will be determined.

     Pilot   scale  evaluation   of   biological   treatment   mixed   coke   plant   and  blast  furnace
     wastewaters will be conducted.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

     No resources were requested for this research in 1980.


1981 Program

     No resources were requested for this research in 1981.


1982 Plan

     The Agency  requests  a  total of  $199,300 for  this sub-program, of  which  $184,300  is  for
the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation  and  $15,000  is  for  extramural  purposes  under  the
Research and Development Appropriation.

     This  reflects   an   increase  of   $199,300,  which   will  provide   methods   for  quantifying
toxicity levels of a select number of industrial wastewater effluents.

     A   generic   screen   or   screens    to   be   used   in   identifying   a   toxic   problem
     will be developed and evaluated.

     Guidelines    similar    to    the    water    quality    guidelines    for    determining    a
     permit based on the toxicity unit concept will be developed.

     The   need    to   test   the   toxicity    discharge   unit   concept   on   a   pilot   basis
     will be determined.

     A toxicity-reduction manual will be developed.
                                        UQ-128

-------
Drinking Water
     SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                          DRINKING WATER

Appropriation
Salaries and Expenses 	
Research and Development
Abatement, Control and
Corapl iance. ............
Research and Development
Total 	 	 	 	
Permanent Positions.....
Full-time Equivalancy...
Authorization Levels....
PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Drinking Water Non- Energy:
Salaries and Expenses...
Research and Development
Total, Research and
Development Program:
Salaries and Expenses...
Research and Development
Total 	 	 	 	 	
Criteria, Standards, and
Guidelines:
Salaries and Expenses...
Abatement, Control and
Actual
1980
$18,822
47,359
16,211
82,392
489
581
69,333
85,569
6,807
16,211
6,807
16,211
23,018
4,521
4.903
Budget
Estimate
1981*
$25,719
44,664
20,769
88,152
551
653
74,000
107,447
7,924
20,769
7,924
20,769
28,693
5,458
3.837
Current
Estimate
1981
(dollars
$22,729
42,615
18,665
84,009
535
, 641
68,484
107,447
8,109
18T665
8,109
18,665
26,774
5,492
3.758
Estimate
1982
in thousands}
$25,770
44,414
21 ,488
91,672
550
672
71,666
90,000
8,939
21,488
8,939
21,488
30,427
6,038
3.828
Increase +
Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981
+$3,041
+1,799
+2,823
+7,663
+15
+31
+3,182

+830
+2,823
+830
+ 2,823
+3,653
*546
+70
State Program Resource
 Assistance:
  Abatement, Control and
   Compl 1 ance	
 41,401
39,575    37,681
39,524
Drinking Water Management:
  Salaries and Expenses...
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	
Total, Abatement, Control
 and Compliance Program:
  Salaries and Expenses...
  Abatement, Control and
   Compl 1 ance	
Total	
  6,839      8,582     8,262      9,822
  1,008      1,243     1,176      1,062

11,360    14,040     13,754     15,860
47.312    44.655     42.615     44,414
58,672    58,695     56,369     60,274
  +1,843

  +1,560
    -114

+2,106
+1,799
+3,905
                                                                                         Page
                                                                                         DW-27
                                                                                         DW-11
                                                           OW-16
                                                           DM-19
                                               Dl'M

-------
                                         Budget     Current                Increase +
                               Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                1980       1981*       1981        1982     1982 vs.  1981   Page
                                                   (dollars in thousands)


Drinking Water Enforcement:                                                             DM-24
  Salaries  and Expenses...        655        755         866        971  .        +105
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance....	         47,  ,     .9   	,„.*,*,?:,-,,,	    ***  	 ...

Total. Enforcement Program:
  Salaries  and Expenses...        655        755         866        971          +105
  Abatement, Control and
   Compl iance.	         47::i ,	; LJ_	9    r	 ,„,.•«•        •«...•  .   .    , 	• *,•

Total	        702        764         866        971          +105

Permanent Positions
Drinking Water Non-Energy.      :  143 rr     153    .,  ' 146	t^r:i:jj53	+7'     DW~2'

Total, Research and
 Development Program......        143        153         146        153           +7

Criteria, Standards, and
 Guidelines	         91        100          98        109           +1]      Dl.M1
State Program Resource
 Assistance.......	        ...        ...         ...        ...           ...     DH-16
Drinking Water Management.        237	270         264        260           -4     DW-19

Total, Abatement and
 Control Progrm	        328        370         362        369           -.7

Drinking Water Enforcement         18	28	28        28	.^     OH-24

Total, Enforcement Program         18         28          28        28

F ul 1 -1 i me Equi v al ency
Dr ink ing Water Non Energy.        189	203         196	203	+7_    W-&

Total, Research and
 Development Program	        189        203         196        203           +7

Criteria, Standards, and
 Guidelines	        Ill        119         120        128           +8      0!-M1
State Program Resource
 Assistance	        ...        ...         ...        ...          ...      DH-16
Drinking Water Management.        258        299	294	309	+15      DM-19

Total, Abatement and
 Control Program...	        369        418         414        437          +23

Drinking Water Enforcement     .,...,,,,,23	32     '     .31	32	    +1      DW-24

Total. Enforcement Program         23         32          31         32           +1

* January 1980 President's  Budget as adjusted  by Office  of  Research  and Development
  restructuring.
                                               DW-2

-------
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

    EPA's drinking water program  is primarily a public heatlh protection effort to
ensure the quality of the nation's drinking water.  The Safe Prinking Water Act (SDWA)
requires that EPA develop national drinking water standards, that utilities undertake
periodic monitoring to ensure compliance with these standards and that- a cooperative
Federal-State effort oversee the  implementation of the associated programs.  Two major
regulatory programs were established under the legislation which provide the foundation
for EPA's activities: the Public  Water Systems Supervision (PWS) program, to assure the
compliance by utilities with appropriate quality standards and the Ground Water
Protection (GWP) program, to protect present and future sources of drinking water from
contamination particularly from injection wells.  In addition, financial assistance to
States to support their implementation efforts is authorized.

    The Agency's strategy is to implement the Drinking Water Program in stages: first,
establishing the institutional framework and defining specific regulations and procedures;
and second, ensuring that high levels of compliance are attained and maintained.  The
Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, which contain numerical standards for the
traditional contaminants of health concern in drinking-water, were promulgated in 1976
and Have been in effect since 1977.  These were amended in 1979 to limit harmful by-
products of disinfection, to add  a maximum contaminant level  (MCL) for trihalomethanes,
the most frequently found carcinogens in drinking water.  Work is also underway to
develop standards for man-made organic chemicals which are being detected with increasing
frequency in drinking waters derived from ground water.  Secondary Regulations, specifying
standards for aesthetic quality such as taste, odor, color and appearance, were promulgated
in 1979.  The SDWA places primary responsibility for implementation and enforcement of
the standards with the States.  EPA worked closely with the States in formulating the
Public Water Systems program (PWS) and by the end of 1980, 49 States and territories
assumed primary enforcement responsibility for the program.  Final program regulations
for the Ground Water Protection Program, designed to protect underground drinking water
sources from contamination related to injection wells, were promulgated in June 1980.
Initial State grants were awarded to conduct a national assessment of the threat to
ground water quality from surface impoundments and to prepare for State delegations of
the UIC program.  Now that the regulations defining minimum requirements for States to
assume delegation responsibility for the program have been promulgated, major emphasis
is being placed on helping States develop effective programs and qualify for primacy.
EPA will promote delegations to States for the underground injection control  program as
well as initiate Federal implementation of both public water system and underground in-
jection control  programs in States which are unable or unwilling to assume primary
enforcement responsibility.

    In 1982 added emphasis will be placed on the safety of drinking water which is
being contaminated with synthetic chemicals not previously regulated.  The major
priorities are as follows:  expanding monitoring for organic contaminants; expanding
the basis for defining safe levels for previously unregulated organic contamtnats
which are now being found in ground water supplies; pursuing full  nationwide compliance
with traditional standards; and providing assistance in dealing with instances of
significant contamination as they are detected.  This latter activity will require
close coordination with activities under the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act and
Superfund to assure a coordinated ground water protection strategy, especially related
to the disposal  of hazardous wastes.

Expanded Public Health Protection

    Drinking Water is a significant route of human exposure to natural  and synthetic
substances which pose a risk to health.  The greatest concern is contamination by
synthetic organic chemicals, especially those associated with toxic and hazardous
wastes.  Setting safe levels for organic chemicals in drinking water presents exceptional
difficulties.  First, the ever growing number of synthetic organics being used in our
society outrun both the methods to detect their occurence and knowledge about their
effects on human health.  This requires a considerable investment  by EPA to generate
health effects-information, expand monitoring assess new cost-effective treatment
technologies, and determine appropriate regulatory responses.  Further, since these
contaminants have not typically been measured in drinking water, expanded monitoring
efforts to determine which chemicals are in fact invading the nation's  drinking water
are required.

                                               DW-3

-------
     A major challenge  in  expanding  public  health  protection related to drinking water
 is  the development  of  Revised  Primary  Drinking Water  Standards which  are required by
 the SDWA.   This  will include standards for a  number of man-made  organic chemicals,
 (many of which are  carcinogenic), and  a reassessment  of a number of the traditional
 standards  based  on  new scientific data which  become available.   EPA plans to  propose
 these standards  during 1982 for  public review and comment.

     Of particular concern are  the contaminants found  in drinking water from underground
 sources which are in proximity to improperly  disposed hazardous  wastes.  In addition
 to  developing expanded standards to trigger periodic  monitoring  by utilities. States
 and localities have an acute need for  prompt  Federal  assistance  in dealing with the
 growing number of incidents of significant contamination.  Consequently, EPA  will be
 expanding  its capability  to provide guidance  and  advisory information on the  health
 effects and control methods for  unregulated contaminants,  In 1981 maximum contaminant
 levels (MCLs) for six  to  ten organic chemicals, primarily solvents currently  being
 found in drinking water derived  from ground water, will be proposed.  In addition,
 during 1982 EPA  plans  to  issue 10 additional  formal health effect guidances for contami-
 nants for  which  MCLs have not  yet been established.

     Other  sources of harmful organic contaminants are direct and indirect additives
 to  drinking water.  These are  substances added to drinking water supplies either deliberately
 (as contaminants in chemicals  used  in  the  treatment process} or  incidentally  (e.g.,
 leaching from pipe  coatings, etc.).  EPA agreed to assume responsibility for  their
 control in  an agreement with the Food  and  Drug Administration in 1979.  Work  in this
 area was started with  an  initial resource  allocation  in 1980, but through procedural
 oversights,  this program  was not included  in  EPA's 1981 budget.  Consequently, the
 1982 budget request included a modest  increase in resources for  this  important activity.

     During  1982, the additives program will develop protocols which will allow EPA to
 begin providing  technical  advice to States on the health implication  of products used
 in  water treatment.  In addition, EPA  has  funded  the National Academy of Sciences to
 develop a CODEX  (quality  control standards) for chemicals used to treat drinking water.
 Not  only is  the program necessary to assure the quality of drinking water from a heretofore
 uncontrolled source of contamination,  but  information developed may reduce the need
 for  formal  and extensive  national standards saving resources and limiting the need for
 added regulations.

 Promoti nt; Com piiance with  Standards and  Regul at ions

     Now that the institutional  framework for the  PWS program is in place, comprehensive
monitoring  for the  traditional  contaminants of concern has begun and  overall data are
becoming available.  Nearly 9,000 public water systems out of a universe of 62,000
 community systems,  or  about 14 percent  of  the national total, are currently estimated to
 be  out of compliance with  one  or more maximum contaminant level  standards.  For many
of  these, the prinicipal obstacle to compliance is the capital  costs  involved, especially
for  the small systems  which service populations of 2,500 or less.  These make up about
90  percent  of the water sytems.  In reponse, EPA  has prepared a small  systems strategy
 which prescribes a  uniform plan  of  action  to promote compliance through a combination
of technical assistance and selective enforcement.  The strategy is intended to prioritize
response to  instances  of  noncompliance based upon relative health risk, size of exposed
 population,  the availability of  remedial actions  and level of cooperation.  The strategy
provides a  framework for  the States to  identify those systems that have feasible
options for  compliance and permits flexibility in dealing with systems that are unable
to  comply.   EPA will continue  to provide technical assistance to States to facilitate
the  application of cost effective technologies for small  systems.

     An important activity  in 1982 will  be  providing expanded technical assistance to
States on the control   of organic contaminants  in drinking water.  Compliance with new
regulations  related to harmful  organic chemicals  involves complex analytical  techniques
and  new applications of control technologies which are often beyond the conventional
expertise of many water plant  operators  and State regulators.  EPA will  work extensively
with the States to meet these new requirements for technical  expertise and sophisticated
monitoring  procedures.
                                               DM-4

-------
 Implementing  a  CoordinatedGround  Water  Protection Program

     Ground  water  is  the  source  of  drinking water for more than half the nation's
 population.   However,  when EPA's role  in protecting drinking water supplies
 and  sources was established  in  1974 with the SDWA, protection of ground water was a
 secondary concern, eclipsed  by  the need  to establish national regulation for public
 water  systems.  Ground water was generally thought to be naturally protected from
 contamination by  man-made organic  chemicals.  Recently the Nation has been confronted
 with a growing  number  of cases  in  which  chemical contamination has been detected at
 relatively  high concentrations  resulting in abandonment of some water supply wells.
 While many  of these  situations  are related to improper disposal of hazardous wastes,
 the  full magnitude of  the problem  will not be known until the conclusion of national
 monitoring  studies now in progress.  The threat to ground water quality is perhaps the
 most acute  contemporary  environmental  problem now facing the nation.

     There is  an urgent need  to  formulate a national EPA ground water policy and strategy
 and  to implement  a coordinated  ground  water protection program.  EPA's drinking water
 program is  responding  in several ways.   First, it is taking the initiative in developing
 responsive  health guidance documents and undertaking full implementation of the program
 to control  underground injections.

     The UIC program  has  been formally  defined with promuglation of the program
 regulations,  clearing  the way for  full nationwide implementation.  The process
 of promoting  state delegations  was initiated with grants to States for the
 purpose of establishing  these programs.   Developing effective delegated programs
 will be a critical priority  in  1982, as  part of comprehensive effort to protect
 ground water  quality in  the  future.  SDWA specifies implementation timetables
 which require regulatory programs  in operation one year after final promulgation,
 either by States  granted primacy or by EPA — with a nine month extension
 available.  EPA is aggressively pursuing the delegation of UIC responsibilities,
 in accord with  statutory intent.  The  importance attributed to implementing a
 nationwide UIC  program is reflected in the increase in resources requested.
 A significant portion of this increase comes from a corresponding reduction of
 PWS  program resources.

     The Safe  prinking Water  Act Amendments of 1980 provide an alternative means for
 States to achieve primary enforcement responsibility for the portion of their underground
 injection control program related  to oil  and gas production.  Rather than meeting
 specific technical and administrative requirements established by regulation, a State
 may  qualify for primacy  if its  existing  program meets general statutory requirements
 and  is effective  in  preventing  contamination which endangers drinking water sources.
 EPA  is working  with  the  States  to develop an approach to implement this provision
 which should  accelerate  delegations in this important program.

     Second, it  is implementing other ground water protection programs, such as the
 sole source aquifer  program mandated by  the SDWA.

    Third, it is  contributing to and leading the development of a ground water protection
 strategy which  should provide the basis  for improving coordination of Federal and
 State programs  to protect ground water quality.  An important goal of the ground water
 strategy is the coordination of the many disparate programs and authorities which
 function separately  to meet  some part of the problem.  SDWA, RCRA, CWA, FIFRA, and
TSCA all  contain  authorities related to  some aspect of the problems: regulating specific
 contamination sources, monitoring, or technology development.

 Enforcement

    For 1982, the highest priority of the drinking water enforcement program will
 continue to be  enforcement response in emergency situations presenting substantial
 endangerment  to public health and safety.  Drinking Water Enforcement will  focus on
 support for enforcement  actions in non-primacy States.  UIC activities will increase
 with a reprogramming of  21  workyears of  effort from PWS enforcement to the issuance of
 UIC permits and enforcement activities.  A total  of 210 UIC permits will  be issued in
 1982.  Enforcement program activities for 1982 will  also include review and approval
 of the enforcement sections of primacy applications for both the PWS and UIC programs,
 and overview  of UIC enforcement programs  in delegated States.


                                               OM-5

-------
SUMMARY OFINCREASEANDDECREASE

                                                              (inthousands ofdollars)

1981 Drinking Water Program.....	                         $84,009

  Salaries and Expenses	                          +3,041

    The primary increase is for additional
    regional  implementation resources for
    the UIC and the drinking water treat-
    ment and ground water protection;
    Standards and regulations development
    and drinking water enforcement

  Research and Development.....	                          +2,823

    The major portion of this increase ($2.1
    million) is focused specifically on the
    needs of developing cost-effective tech-
    nology for small water systems (pop. 10,000
    and under).  The additional funds
    {$.7 million) will  be used to conduct
    research on health effects of contaminants
    in drinking water e.g. carcinogens, and other
    toxicologies! studies which relate to human
    reproduction and early childhood development.

  Abatement, Control and Compliance	                    +1,799

    The net increase of $1.8 million represents
    $2.0 million additional  grants to the States
    to support the establishment of State underground
    injection control programs, a decrease of $.1
    million in criteria, standards and guidelines
    development which funded extramural projects
    relating to the additives program and a decrease
    of $.1 million due to the mon-recurrlng training
    activity.

  1982 Drinking Ma tar Program	                    91,672

SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATES

    1.  Summary of Budget Estimate

          An appropriation of $91,672,100 is requested for 1981.  This request,
by appropriation account, is as follows:

          Salaries and Expenses	               "525,770,500
          Research and Development.	               $21,487,800
          Abatement, Control and Compliance....'-....               544,413,800

    This request represents an increase of $7,563,300 and provides for additional
grants to the States to support the establishement of State UIC programs (52.0 million)*
An increase of $2.1 million will  support the development of costeffective technology
for small water systems (10,000 population and under).  An increase of 5.7 million is
to conduct research on health effects of contaminants in drinking water.
                                         04-6

-------
     2.  Changes  from  Original Budget Estimate

           Changes from the budget are  as follows:
          Original 1981 estimate.
          Congressional change:
          Presidential $7m reduction.....
          Travel	•..
          Consultant Services	
          Abatement Control & Compliance.
          Research and Development	
       (in thousands of dollars)

                $88,1.52
                   -128
                    -43
                   -183
                 -2,080
                 -1,848
          ADP	
          SES..	
          Academic Training.	
    Proposed pay raise supplemental.
    Miscellaneous reprogramming..,..
    Current 1981 estimate...	

ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASE TO OBLIGATIONS
  Prior year obligations.....	
    Effect of congressional changes	
    Effect of reprogrammings...	
    Proposed pay raise supplemental	
    Change in amount of carryover funds
     available.........	
    Program i ncrease	
    Change in rate of obligation........
  Total estimated obligations.......
    (From new obligation authority),
    (From prior year funds)	
                                                        Current
                                                       Estimate
                                                         1981
                   -132
                     -9
                   +107
                 +1,199
                 -1.0.26

                $84,009
                   Estimate
                     1982
                                                        (in thousands of dollars)
 $82,392
  -4,316
  -1,026
  +1.199

  -5,167
•"+1,617
  +4.276
$83.484
   +525
 +7,663
 +1,526
  83,484
 (79,450)
  (4,034)
 93,198
 88,639
 (4,559)
    Congressional changes, reprogrammings, and the proposed pay raise supplemental
discussed in the previous section are expected to result in a decrease of $4,143,000.

    The amount of carryover funds to be obligated in 1981 is 54,034,000, an decrease
of $5,167,000 over the 1981 level.  In 1982, it is estimated that 54,559,000 of carry-
over funds will be obligated, an increase of $525,000 from the 1981 level.

    The 1981 increase in budget authority was previously estimated to increase
obligations by $1,617,000.  In 1982, the program increase is expected to result in
increased obligations of $7,663,000.  A change in the rate of obligation is expected,
thereby increasing obligations by $4,276,000.

Purpose - Research and Development Program

     The research and development effort provides scientific and technical information
relating to contaminants in drinking water.  Research and evaluations are conducted
relating to:  (1) the detection and characterication of harmful  substances occurring in
drinking water supplies; 2) the causes, diagnosis and prevention of diseases and
other adverse human health effects resulting directly or indirectly from those con-
taminants; 4) the procedures & protocols for laboratory analysis and quality assurance
of drinking water monitoring samples; and 5) the characteristics of ground water sources of
drinking water and the movement, fate and ecological effects of ground water con-
tamination.

                                             Dtf-7

-------
Purpose - Abatement and Control Program

    The abatement and control program provides for the protection of the public
health by assuring the safety of the Nation's drinking water supplies and under-
ground sources of drinking water.  The quality of the drinking water is assured
through the development of primary drinking water standards which specify maximum
permissible levels of contaminants in -drinking water and minimum monitoring
frequencies.  In addition, secondary drinking water standards which prescribe
guidelines for the aesthetic quality of water have been developed and minimum
requirements for State public water Systems supervision and underground injection
control programs have been designed to protect the public health and underground
sources of drinking water.

    The priority of the drinking water program 1s protecting the public from harmful
contaminants such as synthetic organic chemicals found in drinking water.  To meet
this goal, EPA is developing and implementing standards and regulations to protect
the public from harmful contaminants in drinking water, such as man-made organic
chemicals which are finding their way into the nation's sources of drinking water
with Increasing frequency.

    Financial assistance is provided to those State that assume primary enforcement
responsibility to help defray the increased administrative cost associated with
establishing and implementing programs which assure the safety of drinking water
sources and supplies.  Technical assistance is available to help States in the
implementation of their programs.  However, direct Federal implementation of
public water systems and/or underground injection control programs is required
when a State is unwilling or unable to assume primary enforcement responsibilities
for the programs.  The abatement and control program is divided Into the following
activities:

    Criteria. Standards and Guidelines - This subactivity related to the development
of standards and regulations designed to control  the quality of the Nation's
drinking water, to establish minimum requirements for State enforcement of public
water systems supervision and underground injection control  program and to develop
guidance documents to assure uniform implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act.
This activity also includes the development, review and assessment of information
on health effects, occurence, monitoring, and control  technology of hazardous
substances such as toxic chemicals from natural  and synthetic sources for the
purpose of establishing or revising primary drinking water regulations and providing
guidance on unregulated contaminants in response to detected instances of contami-
nation.  Economic analyses are performed to determine the cost and financial impact
of all  proposed regulations.  In addition, EPA provides national  oversight and
evaluations of the public water systems, underground Injection and sole source
aquifier programs.

    State Program Resource Assistance -  This subactivity provides for financial
assistance to support state activities in the implementation of the public water
system supervision and underground injection control  programs.  In the UIC grant
program, should a State fail  to qualify for a grant,  EPA may use the grant funds
to directly implement a program in that State.   Financial assistance in the form
of grants 4s also provided to State rural water associations which assist small
rural  drinking water supplies in complying with  the primary  drinking water
regulations.                                      ;


    Drinking Water Management -  This subactivity supports Federal  implementation
and oversight Of the public water systems and underground injection control
programs.  EPA provides oversight and technical  assistance to those States with
primary enforcement  responsibility and provides  for full  implementation activities
on Indian lands and in States unable or unwilling to enforce such programs.

    Other activities include managing the sole source  aquifer program,  assisting
in ground water contamination cases which threaten drinking  water sources and
supplies, and coordinating State implementation  of water protection programs.


                                            DW-8

-------
Purpose - Enforcement Program

     The drinking water enforcement program assures compliance with standards and
regulations established under the SDWA relating to public water system and underground
injection operations.  This entails initiation of enforcement actions in response to
emergency situations if required, as well as provision of legal assistance and oversight
to states which have implemented enforcement programs for OWS and UIC standards X
regulations to ensure their requirements are adequately enforced.  The enforcement
program issues permits in States that have not achieved program delegation and on
Indian lands.
                                            DI-/--3

-------
                                     DRINKING WATER
                                   Actual
                                    1980
 Budget
Estimate
  1981
Current
Estimate
  1981
Estimate
  1982
 Increase -+
 Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981
PROGRAM LEVELS

Number of States with primary
 enforcement responsibility
  Public Water Systems
   Supervision programs.........      49          51         51

Number of States with primary
 enforcement responsibility
 for Underground Injection
 Control programs	      ...          11         11

Underground Injection Control
  grants...	      41          57         57

Variances and exemptions granted
  by EPA in non-primacy States..       1        150         20

Sole source aquifer petitions
  received..........	       S          5         3

Sole source aquifer designations       333

Laboratories certified....	      46        100*        60

Enforcement actions..	       6         40         23
                           51





                           24


                           57


                           15


                            7

                          * • •

                           60

                           10**
                             +13
                              -5



                              +4

                              -3


                             0 * •


                             -13
*Labs in non-prinfiacy States.

**Includes compliance agreements and court cases.
                                             DW-10

-------
Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                    DRINKING WATER

                         Criteria, Standards, and Guidelines
Appropriation
Criteria, Standards and
 Guidelines:
  Salaries and Expenses..
  Abatement. Control ami
   Compliance............
Grand Total..	

Permanent Positions.
Full-time Equivalency.
                                               Budget
                                      Actual  Estimate
                                       1980     1981
 Current
Estimate
  1981
Estimate
  1982
  Increase +
  Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981
                                                (dollars in thousands;
$4,521
4,903
9,424
91
111
$5,458
3,837
9,295
100
119
$5,492
3,758
9,250
98
120
$6,038
3,828
9,866
109
128
+$546
+70
+516
+11
+8
Budfet Request

     The Agency requests a total of $9,866,100, an increase of $617,200 from 1981.  Of the
total, 56,033,300 will be used for Salaries and Expenses and $3,827,800 will be used for
Abatement, Control and Compliance.  These figures represent an increase of $546,700 and
an Increase of $70,500 from the 1981 appropriations respectively.  The increase supports
the program to control direct and indirect additives to drinking water.  Under this
activity, protocols to evaluate the potential hazards of products and substances, and
toxicological opinions on additives will be developed.  In addition, the program will
focus on controlling synthetic organic and other toxic chemicals in drinking water as
a means of controlling a significant route of human exposure.  As such, E^A will
promulgate maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for six to ten contaminants most frequently
found in ground water, oversee compliance with trihalemethane  (THM) standards and expand
its effort to issue formal health effect guidances for unregulated contaminants.
These funds will support the promulgation of comprehensive revised primary drinking
water regulations including MCLs for microbiological, inorganic, pesticide and radio-
nuclide contaminants, and corrosion control procedures; national oversight of both the
public water system supervision and the underground injection control programs; and
guidance on the Ground Water Protection Strategy.

Program Description

     The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requires EPA: 1) to set standards for drinking
water quality which specify maximum permissible levels of contamination and minimum
monitoring frequencies; 2) to protect sole or principal sources of drinking water from
contamination by Federally assisted projects, 3) to protect underground drinking water
sources from contamination through underground injection: 4) to establish regulatory
programs for assuring compliance with these standards and criteria; 5)  to ensure proper
implementation of these programs, either through oversight and technical  assistance to
State programs or, if necessary, through direct implementation; 6) to provide
financial assistance to States in their implementation of programs; and 7) to
better understand the current state of drinking water quality by collecting and
analyzing information about nationwide drinking water supplies and drinking water
sources.
                                           OW-11

-------
     The drinking water program's principal regulatory mechanism is the National
Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR).  These regulations specify the maximum
permissible levels of contamination that may be present in drinking water to protect
public health considering economic feasibility.  These maximum contaminant levels
(MCLs) have been established for bacteriological, microbiological, and radiological
quality; and for specific organic and inorganic chemical contaminants.  The NPDHRs
also specify monitoring frequencies and methods.  Alternatively, treatment criteria
may be specified which provide effective general protection without specifying
MCLs for specific substances.

     Interim Primary Drinking Water Pvegulations which cover a limited number of
bacteriological, turbidity, inorganic chemical, pesticide and radionuclide
contaminants have been in effect since 1977.  Amendments were promulgated in 1980
setting MCLs for trihalomethanes (THMs) to limit the presence of unwanted disinfectant
by-products in drinking water.  Maximum contaminant levels for six to ten additional
man-made organic chemicals (mostly carcinogenic) will be proposed in 1981.  In 1982,
the priority is the proposal  of revised primary drinking water Regulations including
new contaminants of concern, synthetic organic contaminants (mostly carcinogenic)
and the reassessment of traditional  standards.

     In order to support the problems of spills and migration of hazardous wastes
into drinking water sources, EPA will expand its capacity to provide health effects
guidance documents on previously unregulated contaminants.  This is necessary to
facilitate responses to the growing number of ground water contamination instances
being detected.  In addition, programs to control direct and indirect additives to
drinking water will be developed to limit these sources of harmful organic contaminants
in drinking water.

     The SDWA's mandate for the program places primary responsibility for implementation
and enforcement of standards with the States.  EPA regulations, which set minimum
requirements for States seeking delegations, are intended to be reasonable and flexible
in order to accommodate varying State and local conditions.

     In addition to developing drinking water standards, the Criteria, Standards and
Guidelines program is responsible for developing the underground injection control (UIC)
program requirements to ensure that the underground sources of drinking water are
protected from contamination from injection wells.

     The UIC program complements the sole source aquifer program.  Section 1424(e) of
the SDWA provides for protection of aquifers designated as sole or principal  sources
of drinking water by EPA.  Any project receiving Federal financial assistance may have
those funds denied if it is determined that the project poses a significant contamination
threat to the aquifer.  EPA designated 8 sole source aquifers, and expects 5 new
petitions for designation to be reviewed in 1982.

DRINKING WATER STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS


1980 Accomplishments

     During 1930, obligations totalled "19,4.24,300, of which $4,521,300 was for the Sa
and Expenses appropriation, and $4,903,000 was for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.  Significant strides  have been achieved in the drinking water program
since the National  Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations became effective in 1977.
In 1969,  64% of the 19,?00 public water systems met chemical  and bacteriological  standards.
Currently 86% of the 62,000 community systems are in compliance.  The organic contamination
problem resulting in the formulation of trihalomethanes, a human carcinogen,  was addrfisse^
by regulations which were promulgated in November 1979.

     EPA continues to build a strong, cooperative relationship with its counterpart'State
agencies.   Forty-nine States  have assumed primary enforcement responsibility for the
public water system supervision program.
                                        DM-12

-------
     EPA has increased Its effort to reduce the number of violations which involve
immediate health threats: gastrointestinal illnesses, giardiasis, gastroenteritis and
other serious diseases.  The majority of these violations occur among a small number of
syste-ns,  EPA developed a Small Systems Strategy which sets forth an action plan for
States to set priorities in dealing with systems out of compliance and to bring such
systems into compliance wherever feasible.

     EPA and the Food and Drug Administration signed an agreement under which EPA will
be responsible for evaluating the safety of direct additives (those mixed into the
water during treatment) and indirect additives (those which leach into the water from
paints and coatings used in  pipes, storage tanks, etc.)*  EPA initiated a program
that is examining the use and potential health risks of additives and their alternatives.

     To further ground water protection, the Agency initiated the development of an
Agency ground water protection strategy.  The strategy is intended to marshal the
authorities of all environmental statutes including  RCRA and Superfund into a coherent,
integrated attack on the pollution of ground water.  As an integral  part of this effort,
the underground injection control regulations were promulgated in June 1990.  These
regulations set forth minimum requirements for State,programs to prevent injection
through wells that endangers drinking water supplies.  These regulations will become
effective in March 1981.

     Other program accomplishments include the completion of the study of the reaction
of chlorine and humic acids, and the effects of the resulting contaminants on the public
health; national  oversight of the implemention of the public water system supervision
program through regional  and State evaluations; completion of the national study of
the ground water contamination potential of surface impoundments; administration and
development of data management activities relating to the public water system and under-
ground injection control  programs; completion of public hearings on the underground
injection control regulations; and development of program guidance documents on program
implementation.  In addition, EPA devoted considerable attention to defending the THM
regulation under court challenge by the American Water Works Association.

1981 program

     In 1981  the Agency has allocated a total  of $9,248,900 to this program of which
$5,491,600 is for Salaries and Expenses and $3,757,300 is for Abatement, Control
and Compliance.  The program will focus on the development of maximum contaminant
levels for some of the most prevalent ground water contaminants, and the review of
the basis for some of the traditional  contaminants covered by existing regulations.
Concurrently, guidance documents on unregulated contaminants will  be developed
to provide the States with scientific advice to help deal  with detected instances
of contamination.  Work is being initiated to revise the drinking water standards
on radiation.  As part of this effort a uranium criteria document will be developed,
data on radiotoxicity of radium will  be evaluated, existing policies will be
reassessed and revisions to the drinking water standards will  be prepared.
Extramural funds will  provide assistance in performing assessments of the
occurrence of contaminants in drinking water, including a determination of the
applicability of technology, costs and economic impact of proposed regulations;
in maintaining data management activities; and in the development of technical
guidance.

     National  activities relating to the public water system supervision program will
be directed at program oversight to ensure that regions and States are implementing
delegated programs.  Oversight and guidance activities will  emphasize addressing
noncotnpliance problems, particularly in small  systems.  A compliance strategy
which  integrates previously issued policies relating to enforcement, noncommunity
and small  systems will  be developed to integrate State compliance actions.
                                       OW-13

-------
     To further the Agency's ground water protection program, the ground water
 protection strategy will be completed.  A joint EPA-State ground water monitoring
 survey is being undertaken to determine the presence of volatile and aromatic organic
 chemicals in drinking water derived from ground water.

     The requirements of Underground  Injection Control regulations will become
 effective in March 1981.  Guidance documents on EPA implementation of UIC programs
 in nonprimacy States and on Indian lands will be issued; primacy applications
 for an estimated 11 States will be reviewed; data management systems will be
 developed and administered; and a public awareness/participation program will be
 initiated.  The final report on the assessment of surface impoundments will  be
 completed.

 1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $46,000 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
 transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
 resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
 The reduction applied to this activity is $25,800.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of
 $13,000 ws applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by 53.3 million;  a
 decrease of 550,400 was applied to this activity.


     - The Congress applied a general  reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement,
 Control and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $80,100 was applied to this
 activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of
 $91,800 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $243,400 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
 and is included in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.

     - A transfer of $28,300 was made to the radiation media in order to support
 the Radiation Policy Council.

 1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total  of $9,356,100 for this program, of which $6,038,300 is
 for the Salaries and Expenses appropropriation and 53,827,800 is for the Abatement,
 Control and Compliance appropriation.   The Abatement, Control and Compliance funds will
 be used to support development of regulations, to conduct economic analysis  of regulations,
 to support assessment of state programs, and to provide analytical  services  for ground-
 water related projects.

     The drinking water program activities will focus on expanding public health pro-
 tection.   Efforts to control  synthetic organic contaminants and other toxic  contaminants
 primarily found in underground drinking water sources will  be continued.  Maximum con-
 taminant levels for six to ten solvents will  be promulgated.  Revised °rimary Orinking
Water Regulations including the establishment of MCLs for chloroform, turbidity, inorganics
 and pesticides, organic chemicals and  disinfectants, and corrosion control  and radionuclides
will  be proposed.  In addition, in order to  assist State and local  officials in dealing
 with the growing incidences of detected contamination of drinking water sources, the
 program for providing guidance on health effects for unregulated contaminants will  be



                                         DW-14

-------
accelerated.  A technical rationale will be developed for wastewater reuse criteria and
implementation of the critical elements of the groundwater strategy as-well-as coordi-
nation this strategy with other Federal programs.  Studies and analyses to be conducted
during 1982 include the completion of the groundwater monitoring survey directed at the
evaluation of the occurrence of organic contaminants in groundwater, and evaluation and
analysis of organic contaminants and the development of additional MCLs if necessary,
continued analysis of the causes of groundwater contamination, and economic analysis in •
support of regulation development.  In addition, EPA will continue implementation of the
program to evalaute direct and indirect additives to drinking water.  This will include
promulgation of test protocols to evaluate the toxicity of additives in drinking water
and the periodic revision of these protocols, issuance of new toxicological opinions and
the review of past informal toxicological opinions, compilation and analyses of existing
toxicological  data, and maintenance of an information retrieval system on various additives.

     Guidance documents to promote compliance with new standards such as the organics
MCLs will be prepared.  Activities in the PWS program will include the continued over-
sight and management of the public water system supervision program which will include
ten Regional  evaluations and monitoring of State program grants.  Other activities will
include monitoring of the Regional implementation'of the small systems strategy to increase
compliance with the NPDWR, continued monitoring and technical  assistance in support of
program regulation development activities, implementation of THM regulations, and providing
ADP support for data management.

     In the Ground Water Protection program major program emphasis will be on Federal
implementation of the underground injection control program in nonprimacy States.  EPA,
however, will  continue to promote delegation for the underground injection control program.
An estimated 13 primacy applications will be reviewed; guidance on priority activities
to be included in UIC grants will be developed; national  policy direction to assist the
Regions in addressing unique problems in non-cooperating UIC States on a case-by-case
basis will be provided; and an evaluation of regional  implementation activities on Indian
lands and nonprimacy States will be conducted.  In addition, an estimated five sole
source aquifer petitions will  be reviewed.  Data management support will continue to be
provided.

-------
                                      DRINKING WATER

                            State Program Resource Assistance
                                                Budget    Current              Increase +
                                       Actual  Estimate  Estimate  Estimate    Decrease -
                                        1980     1981      1981      1982     1982 vs. 1981
                                                  (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation
PuDlic Water Systems Supervision
 Program Grants:
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	     $30,779    $29,450   $29,450   $29,450

Underground Injection Control
 Grants:
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	.       9,823   '   8,574     6,574     8,574      +2,000

Special Studies, Demonstrations,
 and Training:
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance	         799      1.550     1.657     1.500	-157

Total:
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance		      41,401     39,574    37,681    39,524      +1,343
Permanent Positions.
Full-time Equivalency	         ...        ...       ...       ...         ...


Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of 539,524,500 in 1982 for Abatement, Control and Compliance,
an increase of $1,843,200 from 1981.  The increase to the underground injection control
grants will provide additional support to States to increase their efforts to assume primary
enforcement responsibility for the program.   The request also includes funds for State
public water system supervision programs, as well as State rural  water associations that
provide assistance to small systems.

Program Description

     Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, (SDWA) the States are encouraged to assume primary
responsibility for implementing and enforcing the public water system supervision and
underground injection control regulations.  In recognition of State financial  needs in
implementing these regulatory requirements,  grants are provided to support State programs
that meet minimum program requirements designed to protect the public from potential health
threats caused by unsafe drinking water, and to protect underground sources of drinking
water from contamination resulting from underground injection practices.  In both the
public water system supervision and underground injection control programs, only those
States which have assumed primary enforcement responsibility (primacy) for these programs
are eligible for grants.  In the underground injection control program, should a State not
elect to assume primacy, EPA may use the grant funds for its UIC implementation activities
which includes permit review, on-site visits, data processing, etc.

     Financial assistance is extended to State rural  water associations to provide
additional assistance to small systems in their efforts to achieve compliance with
existing regulations covering the traditional drinking water contaminants -bacteria,
turbidity, ten inorganic contaminants, six pesticides and radiation.


                                          DW-16

-------
PUSL 1C JjATER SYSTEM SUPER VI SI ON PROGRAM GRANTS

1980 AccornpTishrnents

     In 1980, the Agency obligated $30,779,400 for public water system supervision grants.
Grants were awarded to 49 States that had assumed prinacy.  The States used these funds to
establish, implement and maintain public water systems supervision programs; implement the
trihalomethanes regulation; process compliance and monitoring data; enforce the National
Interim Prinary Drinking Water Regulations, implement public participation, public notifi-
cation and public awareness activities and conduct training programs for State personnel.

1981 Program

     Grants total linn $29,450,000 will be awarded to 51 States for the continuous main-
tenance and implementation of State public water systems supervision programs.  In 1981,
State grants will emphasize the expansion of non-conpliance follow-up activities including
enforcement programs, implementation of the small systems strategy, assistance to communities
in locating potential Federal  and State funding sources for improvements to public water
sys*e is and implementation of the regulations on trihalomethanes, and radionuclides.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     There is no change in this activity.
     The Agency is requesting a total of 329,450,000 in 1982 to provide continued support
to States with primary responsibility for the implementation and enforcement of the public
water system supervision program.  Continued emphasis will be placed on non-compliance
followup activities.  State activities directed at ensuring compliance by small systems
serving a population of 2,500 or less are expected to increase.  The States will improve
their ability to respond to contamination incidents, especially those involving organic
compounds in ground water.

STATE PROGRAM RESOURCE ASSISTANCE - UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM - (DIG)
     A total of $9,822,600 was obligated in 1980 to 41 States.  In those 11  States which
did not elect to apply for grants, EPA used the funds to initiate required activities.
During these first years of the grant program, the States have applied their grant dollars
to onetime data collection activities such as the identification of aquifers; inventory
of injection wells; identification and assessment of Class IV and V injection wells;
establishment of areas of review and identification and investigation of polluted aquifers.
These represent basic activities essential to the development and implementation of UIC
programs.

1981 Program

     In 1981, $6,574,500 is available to all 57 States and territories to assist then in
developing and administering their underground, injection control programs.  EPA will use
the funds earmarked for those States failing to participate and for Indian lands to develop
and implement a program.  State activities that will lead to the establishment of institu-
tional  and administrative frameworks for implementing primary enforcement responsibility
for the program will be funded.  While many States will be pursuing the completion of the
one-time data collection activities, the primary emphasis will be on recruiting qualified
personnel to enable State program implementation, developing permit procedures, increasing
their data management capabilities, preparing primacy applications and conducting public
hearings on their proposed UIC program,
                                           DW-17

-------
1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The Congress reduced this activity by S2 minion.

19S2 Program

     The Agency requests a total of $8,574,500 to support State or EPA implementation of
underground injection control programs.  Both EPA and State activities will focus on program
implementation which will include such activities as review of permit applications for new
Class II wells and existing Class I, II, III wells; compliance inspections on regulatory
schemes; and regulation of a limited number of wells by rule, etc.  EPA will use part of
these funds to collect and evaluate data necessary for permit review, to conduct on-site
technical reviews on injection facilities, and to train State personnel.

SPECIAL STUDIES, DEMONSTRATIONS AND TRAINING

1980 Program

     Grants totalling $798,700 were awarded in this program during 1980.  Of this total,
$400,000 was awarded to State rural water assocations, to maintain their current program of
providing technical assistance, training, and public awareness activities for owners/operators
of small rural water systems.  Also, 104 fellowships and university grants totalling $398,700
were awarded to increase State expertise relating to drinking water and ground water technology
and management.

1981 Program

     A total of $1,656,800 supports continued maintenance of the current rural water assistance
programs in 24 States.  In addition to continuing technical assistance and training programs
for local operators, interested citizens and owners/operators of rural water systems, the
associations will focus on compliance problems of small systems.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     - The Congress increased the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation by $1
million to support academic training.  An increase of $106,800 was applied to this activity.

1982 Program

     The Agency requests a total of SI,500,000 for 1982 to fund programs in 23 State rural
water associations, a decrease of $156,800 from 1981.  Technical assistance in the fora of
workshops, printed material, training programs, reporting systems, and coordination with
other rural programs will  emphasize methods by which the small systems may achieve compliance
with standards for the traditional  contaminants found in drinking water e.g., bacteria,
turbidity, and inorganic chemicals.
                                            DW-18

-------
                                          DRINKING WATER

                                    Drinking Water Management
Appropriation
Public Water Systems:
  Salaries and Expenses..
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance.....	..
Underground Injection
 Control:
  Salaries and Expenses.....
  Abatement, Control and
   Compl i ance	
Total
  Salaries and Expenses..
  Abatement, Control and
   Compli ance	
Grand Total,
Permanent Positions
  Public Water Systems..
  Underground Injection
   Control	
Total.
Full-time Equivalency
  Public Water Systems..
  Underground Injection
   Control..............
Actual
1980

$5,702
936
1,137
72
6,839
1,008
7,847
197
40
237
216
42
258
Budget
Estimate
1981

$6,199
1,208
2,383
35
8,582
1,243
9,825
209
61
270
232
67
299
Current
Estimate
1981
(dollars in
$6,334
1,141
1,928
35
8,262
1,176
9,438
201
63
264
225
69
294
Estimate
1982
thousands}
$5,996
1,027
3,826
35
9,822
1,062
10,884
177
83
260
198
111
309
Increase +
Decrease -
1982 vs. 1981

-$338
-114
+1,898
• • ••
+1,560
-114
+1,446
-24
+20
-4
-27
+42
+15
Total...	,	

Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of $10,883,700 for 1982, an increase of $1,445,400 from
1981.  Included in this total are $9,822,200 for Salaries and Expenses and SI,061,500
for Abatement, Control and Compliance.  The figures represent an increase of $1,560,200
and a decrease of $114,800 respectively.  The increase is for regional activities in the
ground water protection program which will focus on encouraging State assumption of
primary enforcement responsibility for the underground injection control program as well
as fulfilling EPA's implementation responsibilities for the program.

     Drinking Water Management-Public Water Systems activities performed in the regions
will emphasize compliance with existing and new standards.  The regions will work with
the States to implement the THM regulations and to apply the small systems strategy to
increase compliance by the small systems with traditional standards, e.g., turbidity,
bacteria, inorganic chemicals.  Oversight of States with primary enforcement responsibility
for the public water system program will be conducted to assure that the Federal mandate
is being implemented.
                                                DW-19

-------
DRINKING WATER MANAGEMENT -PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMSUPERVISION

1980Accomplishments

     During 1980 a total of $6,638,600 was obligated of which $936,400 was used for
extramural purposes.  EPA successfully worked to assist five States to assume primary
enforcement responsibility, thus making a total of 49 primacy States.  EPA also implemented
a program in 8 States and on 25 Indian lands.  The Regions worked with the States to
promote compliance with the existing standards.  Examples of region-specific activities
included assistance in the Bucks and Montgomery Counties (PA) emergencies involving
trichloroethylene, investigating and providing advice to the States on the leaching of
tetrachloroethylene from vinyl lined pipes, and technical assistance in the Manassas/
Fredericksburg (VA) oil spill which threatened local drinking water supplies.

1981 Program

     The Agency has been allocated a total of $7,475,500 of which $6,334,200 is for the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $1,141,300 is for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  Two additional States and territories are expected to achieve
primacy for the public water system supervision program, for a total of 51; the Regions
will continue to implement programs in the remaining 6 States and on Indian lands.
Because most States have achieved primacy, program emphasis will shift from program
implementation in non-primacy States to oversight of program implementation in primacy
States to ensure full compliance with the requirements of the SOWA.  The regions will
continue to provide guidance and technical assistance to the States in implementing the
THM and other standards, will ensure that necessary revisions are made by the States to
their legislation and regulations to meet the new requirements, and will conduct evaluations
of State programs.  In non-primacy States and Indian lands, EPA Regions will  Include the
conduct of sanitary surveys, issuance of public notifications for violations of the
primary drinking water regulations; recordkeeplng; data management and the review of
exemption requests.  Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation funds will support
these activities in the non-primacy States and Indian lands.

1981 Explanatipn of Change fro§ Bjjdget Estimate

     The net increase of $68,500 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease
of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this
activity is $38,200.
                        I
     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $12,300
was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease
of $64,200 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by $750,000;
a decrease of $4,800 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $394,500 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in a net transfer of $265,900 to stationary source enforcement ($28,400); to
State programs regulations and guidelines ($51,800); to ocean disposal  permits ($34,500);
to environmental  emergency response and prevention ($22,200); to municipal waste treatment
facility construction ($102,400); to waste treatment operations and maintenance ($3,000);
to Water Quality manpower planning and training ($4,100);. to regional  counsel ($3,700);
to Water Quality permit issuance ($300); to drinking water enforcement ($23,600);  to
hazardous waste management regulatory strategy implementation ($16,400) and to pesticides
use management ($6,100), and from UIC Program ($23,100); and from regional management
($7,500).
                                            DW-20

-------
     - Transfer $20,000 to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites to realign contract funds.

     - Transfer $32,000 from ambient air quality monitoring to realign contract funds.

     - Transfer $5,200 to State programs and guidelines to fund the intragency agreement
for a Soil Conservation expert.

     .- Transfer $125,800 from underground injection control program to cover necessary
lab support contracts.

     - Transfer $73,200 to toxic substances enforcement for PCB compliance inspections
and PCB and asbestos lab analysis.

1982 Program

     The Agency requests a total of $7,023,300 of which $5,996,300 will be used for
Salaries and Expenses and $1,027,000 will be used for Abatement, Control and Com-
pliance.  The Abatement, Control and Compliance funds will be used to support regional
efforts in training, general program augmentation and activities in non-primacy States
and on Indian lands.  ADP funds totalling $415,800-will be used for operation of MSIS
and to enter annual Reproting Data into the Federal Reporting Data System.  In primacy
States, the regions will provide oversight of the 51 State programs.  This oversight
will highlight State compliance programs such as public notification requirements and
compliance with MCL standards and monitoring and reporting requirements, and activities
associated with the requirements of the THM regulations.  The objectives of this oversight
activity are to ensure that grant funds are being utilized in the most effective manner,
that States are actively ensuring compliance and implementing the small systems strategy,
and that required changes have been made to State regulations and States emergency response
plans.

     Activities in non-primacy States and on Indian lands will include the establishment
of a cooperative effort with the Indian Health Service to develop a coordinated surveil-
lance program to meet monitoring and reporting requirements of the Safe Drinking Water
Act.  The regions will also conduct sanitary surveys; maintain an inventory of systems
and catalogue of compliance standings; issue notices of violations of MCLs and monitoring
requirements; establish an emergency response plan; and follow up activities for MCL
violations.  In non-primacy States, the regions plan to emphasize the surveillance and
compliance portions of the public water system supervision program which will  include
the conduct of sanitary surveys; issuance of public notices for MCL violations and of
monitoring and reporting requirements.  Also, regional staffs will  begin implementing
the THM regulations and provide technical advice and input for emergencies involving
water supplies.

DRINKING UATER MANAGEMENT- UNDERGROUND INJECTIONCONTROL PROGRAM(UIC).

1980 Accom£l i snments

     During 1980, a total of $1,209,800 was obligated, of which $71,600 was used for extramural
purposes.  In 1980, the program vigorously encouraged State assumption of primary responsi-
bility for the implementation and enforcement of underground injection control programs.
Priority was given to regional  efforts directed at assisting States in building and expanding
their existing institutional framework for the regulation of underground injection.
Accomplishments included the completion of the assessment of surface impoundments; awards
of grants to States (or EPA use of funds in those State not electing to receive grants);
and review of five petitions for the designations of sole source aquifers.  For those
States in which EPA used the UIC grant funds (because the State declined to take a grant)
to initiate program activities, contracts and/or grants were awarded to initiate the
inventory of injection facilities and identification of exempted aquifers.

1981 Program

     In 1981, a total of $1,962,800 has been allocated for this program, of which $1,927,800
is for Salaries and Expenses and $35,000 is for Abatement, Control  and Compliance.  EPA will
be working with the States in their assumption of primary enforcement responsibility
                                            DW-21

-------
 (primacy) and expects to delegate primacy to 11 States during 1981.  The regions will con-
 tinue to provide assistance in developing programs to the remaining States that are working
 toward primacy.  General ground water protection assistance such as emergency response,
 advice on ground water contamination problems, consultation on the implementation of the
 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and review of Environmental Impact Statements
 will be provided.   In addition, the regions will administer the UIC grant program and
 continue to develop and implement programs 1n non-primacy States and on Indian lands.
 In the sole source aquifer program, five petitions for sole source designations are
 being evaluated and the Regions will hold public hearings prior to the designation of
 three aquifers.

 1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $455,100 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted , President Carter transmitted
 revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted 1n a decrease
 of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this
 activity is $11,300.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000, a decrease of $5,900
 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease
 of $31,100 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $119,600 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and
 is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprograirmings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted
 in a net transfer of $311,300 to public systems supervision program assistance ($23,100);
 to drinking water  enforcement~T-$47,700); to regional counsel ($30,100); to pesticides
 enforcement ($68,100); to Water Quality  manpower planning and training ($13,100); to
 radiation program implementation ($1,600); to EIS review-air ($22,200); and to EIS review
 Water Quality ($12,400); and from hazardous waste mangement regulatory strategy implemen-
 tation ($11,800); hazardous waste enforcement ($23,200); and from regional  management
 ($39,400).

     - Reprogrammings to provide for the printing of EIS statements resulted in transfers
to NEPA compliance-municipal  waste facility construction ($10,000); and to NEPA compliance/
 EIS preparation-new source discharge ($5,000).

     --!Reprogrammings to provide support to the hazardous material  emergency response
 program resulted in a transfer to environmental emergency response- and prevention ($18,800).

     - Reprogrammings to cover basic operating costs of ADP support to the Central Regional
 Lab resulted in a transfer to quality monitoring ($65,100).

     - Reprogrammings to cover travel  costs resulted in a transfer to municipal  waste
treatment facility construction ($72,300).

     - Reprogrammings to cover fixed operating costs of regional  lab  support resulted in
a transfer to water quality enforcement ($35,900^.

     - Reprogrammings to cover required printing of EIS report resulted on a transfer to
NEPA compliance-municipal  waste facility construction ($49,700).

     - Reprogrammings to cover necessary lab  support contracts resulted in a transfer-to
 public systems supervision program assistance ($125,800).

 19.82 program

     The Agency requests a total  of $3,860,400 for 1982 of which $3,825,900 is for Salaries
 and Expenses and $34,500 is for Abatement, Control and Compliance.   The protection of under-
 ground drinking water sources from contamination resulting from improper injection practices
                                          DW-22

-------
will be a high Agency priority.  In the underground injection control program, program
delegations to the States will be pursued.  EPA will continue to work with cooperating
States by reviewing the adequacy of existing programs, legislation and regulations and by
providing assistance in emergency responses in an effort to promote delegation of the
program in the future.  The regions will implement programs on Indian lands and in all
States that were unwilling or unable to assume primacy.  In non-primacy States and on
Indian lands, EPA will (1) prescribe individual programs taking into consideration any
existing programs, geologic and hydrologic conditions; (2) review permits for Class II
wells; (3) issue violation notifications; and (4) evaluate Class I (waste disposal),
Class II (oil and gas production and storage) and Class III (mining and special process)
injection wells.

     The regions will provide the leadership in the implementation of coordinated
ground water protection programs.  States will be encouraged to develop comprehensive
plans for addressing ground water contamination problems including the use of the State
authorities to deal with sources of pollution not covered by Federal programs.
                                          nw-23•.

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
Enforcement
    SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                          DRINKING WATER

                                    Drinking Water Enforcement
Appropriation
Salaries and
 Expenses..........
Abatement, Control
 and Compliance....
                                           Budget    Current      "        Increase +
                                Actual   Estimate   Estimate   Estimate    Decrease -
                                 1980      1981       1981       1982    1982 vs. 1981
                                                TdolTars iri thousands)
Total...	

Permanent Positions

Ful 11-Time Equi valency
$655
47
702
18
23
$755
9
764
28
32
$866
• * *
866
' 28
31
$971
* * •
971
28
32
+$105
* «.«
+105
• * •
+1
Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of $970,900 for 1982, an increase of $105,100 from 1981.
This total is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.  The 28 permanent positions re-
quested for 1982 reflects no change from the level requested in 1981.

Program Pescrij)tioji

     The Safe Drinking Water Act(SDWA) of 1974, as amended, provides the statutory require-
ments for a Federal/State drinking water program.  The Act ensures the safety of drinking
water through two mechanisms:  the establishment and enforcement of Primary Drinking Water
Regulations, which specify the maximum allowable levels of drinking water contaminants, and
Underground Injection Control (UIC) regulations for protection of underground drinking water
supplies.

     The SDWA provides for State assumption of the drinking water program, and requires EPA
to implement the program in States that have not been delegated enforcement responsibility.
The Public Water System (PWS) program encompasses the following enforcement activities:  in-
vesliigate violations and take legal action against violators of the Primary Drinking Water
Regulations in primacy States which request such assistance and in all non-primacy areas;
review variances and exemptions granted by primacy State to assure compliance with the regu-
lations; issue variances and exemptions in non-primacy areas; and where necessary initiate
emergency enforcement actions.

     The UIC program requires that EPA designate States which can assume the UIC program.
It is projected that all programs will be delegated to the States by 1985.  Enforcement pro-
gram activities will include approval of the enforcement sections of primacy applications for
State UIC programs, issuance of UIC permits in non-primacy states, preparation for implemen-
tation of UIC permits, investigations and initiation of enforcement actions against violators
of the regulations and response to emergencies when necessary.

1980 Accpmplishments

     In 1980, a total of $702,500 was obligated of which $655,400 was used for Salaries-and
Expenses and $47,100 for extramural purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  Included in this amount was $10,000 for purchase of a mobile microbiologic
laboratory to support investigations where long travel time prevents microbiologic samples
from reaching the regular laboratory within the recommended holding time.
                                               DW-24

-------
     During 1980, six civil'actlons for violations of the SDWA were initiated by the Agency,
Three of these actions were subsequently referred to the Department of Justice (DQJ) for
filing and prosecution.  The remaining three actions are presently under review at head-
quarters prior to being forwarded to DOJ.  These actions represent a significant increase
from the 2 cases Initiated in 1979 and Indicate that the Regions will  now use the judicial
enforcement option in cases that cannot be resolved administratively.

     Drinking water enforcement activities also included oversight responsibility in 49 primacy
States and territories, enforcement responsibility in 8 non-primacy States and territories  and
review of the enforcement aspects of 2 State primacy applications.  In addition, an overall
enforcement strategy for PWS was developed.  Implementation of the strategy will begin in
1981.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated $855,800 to this program, all of which is for the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     During 1981, the highest priority of the drinking water enforcement program will be
response to emergency drinking water situations that involve imminent  and substantial
hazards to public health and safety.  Drinking water enforcement wfll  also focus on two
programs:  PWS implementation and l/IC.  For the PWS implementation program, activities
will include overview of drinking water enforcement programs in primacy States, providing
legal support for variance and exemption activities in non-primacy States, support for
the initiation of 23 new enforcement actions, and continued support for enforcement pro-
ceedings initiated in 1980.  Activities will also include issuance of  Notices of Violation
to primacy States that have not adequately enforced provisions of the  Act.  Implementation
of the UIC program will begin in 198]..  The implementation plan includes legal and technical
support for overview of 11 States by the end of 1981, and compliance monitoring and enforce-
ment activities in non-primacy States.  If necessary, a limited number of UIC permits will
be issued by EPA in non-primacy States.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $10,300 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease
of $7 million of EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this
activity is $4,900.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $1,800 was
applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide Senior Executive Service bonuses by $750,000; a
decrease of $4,100 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $58,800 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and
is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogramnings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted
in a net transfer of $62,600 from drinking water standards and regulations implementation
($71,400); financial management ($6,700); and to Water Quality Environmental  Emergency
Response and Prevention ($29,900).

     A transfer of $9,300 to Toxic Substances Enforcement for PCB Compliance Inspection
and PCB and Asbestos Lab Analysis.
                                            DW-25

-------
1982 Plan

     In 1982, the Agency requests a total of $970,900 for this program, all  of which is for
the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.  The request for 28 permanent workyears is the same
as the level requested in 1981.  During 1982, the highest priority of the drinking water
enforcement program will continue to be in response to emergency drinking water situations
that involve imminent and substantial hazards to public health and safety.  Prinking Water
Enforcement will continue to focus on two programs:  PWS and UIC.  PWS activities will
focus on support for enforcement actions in non-primacy States.  UIC activities will increase
with a reprogramming of 21 workyears of effort from PWS enforcement activities to the Issuance
of UIC permits.  A total of 210 UIC permits will be issued in 1982.

     Enforcement program activities for 1982 will also include review and approval of the
enforcement sections of primacy applications for both PWS and UIC programs and overview of
UIC enforcement programs in delegated States.
                                             DW-26

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
Research and
Development
    SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                      DRINKING WATER

                                  Drinking Water -  Non-Energy
                                        Budget       Current
                              Actual    Estimate     Estimate
                              JLg80_      1981*        1981
                                         (dollars in thousands)
                                  . Estimate
                                    1982
                          Increase +
                          Decrease -
                          1982 vs. 1981
Appropriation
Energy Health Effects:
  Salaries and Expenses..       $   237    $  238
  Research and
   Development	               2         14

Monitoring Systems
 and Quality Assurance:
  Salaries and Expenses..           760       875
  Research and
   Development	             423       433

Health Effects:
  Salaries and Expenses..         2,719     3,054
  Research and
   Development......	           8,624     9,380

Environmental Engineering:
 and Technology
  Salaries and Expenses..         2,353     2,958
  Research and
   Development	           5,955     9,221

Environmental Processes
 and Effects:             .
  Salaries and Expenses..           738       799
  Research and
   Development...........           1,207     1,721
Totaij                                   *___

  Salaries and Expenses..          6,807     7,924
  Research and
   Development	          16,211     20,769
Total, Research
 and Development
 Programs:
                       $   247     $  241

                            14         14
                           901

                           318


                         3,099

                         8,242



                         2,925

                         8,471



                           937

                         1,620
             1,083

              735


             3,045

             8,961



             3,274

             8,040



             1,296

             3,738
                         8,109

                        18,665
            8.939

            21,488
                                 -$6
-t  182

+  417


 -  54

*  719



•*•  34?

-  431



+  359

+ 2,118
   830

  2,823
23,018     28,693
26,774      30,427
  3,653
                                           DW-27

-------
Actual
 1980
Budget
Estimate
 1981*
Current
Estimate
 1981
Estimate
 1982
                                                                                   Increase +
                                                                                   Decrease -
                                                                                   1982 vs. 1981
     17
     58
     16
     52
      16
      47
    17
    46
48
17
62
19
60
19
60
26
'+7
21
83
61
19
20
73-
83
21
20
68
81
22
21
67
81
28
+1
-1
...
+6
Permanent Positions
Technical Information
 and Liaison.........
Monitoring Systems
 and Quality Assurance..
Health Effects...........
Environmental Engineering
 and Technology...	
Environmental Processes..

Full-time Equivalency
Technical Information
 and Liaison	
Monitoring Systems
 and Qutuity Assurance-
Health Effects	
Environmental Engineering
 and Technology...	
Environmental Processes..

* January 1980 President's Buedget as adjusted by the ORD restructuring.

Budget Request

     The Agency  requests  a total of $30,426,000 and  153 permanent  positions for
this  program  of  which  $8,939,100 is  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation
and  $21,487,500   is  for  the   Research  and   Development   appropriation.     This
represents an increase of $6,653,000  and 7 position; $830,000 respectively.

Program Description

     This  program  has  been developed  under the  auspices of  the  Drinking Water
Research  Committee.     The  disciplinary  components  (or  subprograms)   of   the
program  are   integrated  into   an  overall  research  effort   designed   to   produce
outputs clearly focused on Agency  research needs in this subject area.

     The Drinking  Water  program 1) identifies  substances  that occur in   drinking
vyater  supplies  at  a  sufficient   number  of  locations  to  warrant  regulations;  2)
defines  drinking   watr   contamination   effects  on   human   health;-  3)  establishes
analytical  procedures   to  monitor  contaminants;   and  4)  decribes   changes  in
treatment processes  or  new   treatment  technologies   to  minimize   contaminant
formation  or  reduce  concentration  levels.   The  contaminants  addressed her   fall
+1
+1
       ON-28

-------
1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $8,800 results from several actions, as follows;

     -   Shortly  after  the  1981  budget estimate  was  submitted,  President Carter
         transmitted  revisions  to  the   budget  (House   Document  96-294);   these
         revisions  resulted  in  a  decrease  of   $7  million  to  EPA's  request  for
         Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied to this activity is $1,400.

     -   An increase  of  $10,200  results from  the cost  of  the October  1980 pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.


1982 Plan

     The  Agency  requests   a total  of $255,500  for  this  sub-program,  of  which
$241,100  is   for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation  and  $14.400  is  for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     This  reflects a  decrease  of $5,600  reflecting diminished need  for  technical
information services.

     Specific  activities planned for 1982:

     The  development  and  production  of  technical information products  to  insure
     that  research  information  is  properly and adequately  communicated  to  the
     environmental decision-making community.

     Specific  products  planned  by  the appropriate  Research  Committee will be
     developed.

     Support  to  managing   systems  which  track . ORD's  research  projects  and
     resources  will be provided  as  will strong  liaison  with  Regional  offices, of
     a similar nature to that conducted in 1981.

MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,  the  Agency  used a total   of  $1,183,200   for  this  sub-program, of
which  $759,900  was for  Salaries and  Expenses and  $423,300  was  for  extramural
research activities.

     -   Studies  to  optimize  the  liquid-liquid   extraction  method  for  volatile
         halides  were  completed; a  total   organic  halide  analyzer  was  developed;
         and   a  simple, rapid field  test for  visible  detection  of  trihalomethanes
         was developed.

     -   Methodology  was developed  and  provided  in  support of  Drinking  Water
         programs.   This  included  methodology  for chlorine  dioxide  and  low  levels
         of total  organic  carbon  (TOO  monitoring  for  use  by   water  supply
         laboratories.

     -   Quality   assurance    support   for   the   Drinking   Water    Laboratory
         Certification  Program  included;    (a)  semi-annual  performance  evaluation
         studies   of   700  EPA.    State  and  local laboratories  for  trace  metals,
         nitrates,   fluoride,   pesticides,   herbicides,   trihalomethanes,    turbidity,
         and   residual  chlorine   measurements;   (b)  distribution  of  10,000  quality
         control  check  samples;  and  (c)  formal  interlaboratory  method  validation
         studies  conducted for organic  compounds  in the  Safe  Drinking Water Act
         (SDWA) regulations.
                                        DW-29

-------
     -   A repository for toxic and hazardous reference materials was established.
     -   Twenty-two alternate test procedures applications were processed.
     -   Laboratory certification actions were completed for Regions tt, VI, VII and X.

1981 Program
     In  1981, the  Agency  has allocated a total of $1,219,500 to  this sub-program, of
which  $901,500  is  for the Salaries and Expenses Appropriation  and  $318,000 is for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.
     -   Standard samples  and reference materials are being distributed to water supply
         laboratories.
     -   Methods validation and performance evaluation studies for EPA, State  and local
         laboratories are being conducted.
     -   Sampling and analytical methodology and quality control guidelines and manuals
         to support  the Agency's Drinking Water Program are being developed.
     -   On-site  evaluations are  being conducted for three Regional Surveillance and
         Analysis Laboratories for certification as water supply laboratories.
     -   Quality  control  and  performance evaluation samples  for  the water supply
         laboratory certification program are being produced and distributed.
     -   Methods validation studies are being conducted for organic  compounds in support
         of the SDWA regulations.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate
     The net decrease of $88,300 results from several actions, as follows:
     -   Shortly  after the  1981  budget  estimate was  submitted, President  Carter
         transmitted revisions to the  budget (House Document 96-294}*, these  revisions
         resulted in a  decrease of $7 million  to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
         The reduction applied to this activity is $5,100.
     -   An increase of $37,500 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and is
         included in a proposed supplemental appropriation,
     -   A   transfer   of   $120,700   to   solid   waste   monitoring  and    quality
         assurance/uncontrolled sites to support efforts in Love Canal.

1982 Plan
     The Agency requests  a total of $1,817,800 for this sub-program, of which $1,082,700
is  for the Salaries  and Expenses Appropriation  and  $735,100 is for extramural purposes
under the Research  and Development Appropriation.
     This reflects an increase of $598,300. This increase will accelerate the development
of  sampling procedures and equipment  for groundwater analysis  and augment the
development of procedures  to document pollutant concentration and migration in drinking
water sources.
                                          DW-30

-------
      -   Procedures  for  measurement  of  radionuclides  in drinking  water  will  be
         evaluated and improved.

      -   Alternative  membrane  filter  media  will be developed  for  the analysis  of
         total conforms in public drinking water supply.

      -   Sample  holding  times  will be  evaluated  for  microbiological  analyses  of
         public drinking water supplies.

      -   Deficiencies in  measurement  of coliform group  in drinking  water  samples
         will be corrected.

      -   Evaluation  of  alternate   test  procedures  to  meet  requirements  of  Safe
         Drinking Water Act will be continued.

      -   Quality   control  and   performance   evaluation  samples  for  water  supply
         laboratory certification program will be produced and distributed.

      -   On-site  evaluation  of  EPA  regional laboratories  for  the  Drinking Water
         Certification Program will be conducted.

      -   A  repository  of  1,500 radioactive   standards  and reference  samples  will
         be maintained and distributed to Federal, state and local laboratories.

      -   Twenty    laboratory    performance   studies   will   be   conducted   for
         radiochemical  analysis   of  public  drinking  water.    These  studies  will
         include  up  to  ten  on-site  inspections  and  performance  evaluations  for
         principal State and  other  laboratories  making  radiochemical  measurements
         of public drinking water.

      -   The following areas for groundwater research will be investigated:

         o Modify well sampling equipment to control contamination.
         o Demonstrate operational sampling procedures for ground water analysis.
         o Locate abandoned wells nationally.
         o Determine movement of fluids in injected wells.
         o Develop optional sampling for 15 aquifer types.
         o Determine  monitoring   schemes  condensing  aquifer,  soil  and  climatic
           characteristics.

      Support  to  the  mandatory  quality  assurance  program will  provide  technical
      guidance,   support  and  overview  to   assure  that   the   Agency will  have
      environmental data of known quality that are appropriate for the EPA needs.

HEALTH EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

      In  1980,  the  Agency  used  a  total  of $11,342,700  for  this  sub-program,  of
which $2,719,000  was for Salaries  and Expenses  and $8,623,700  was  for extramural
research activities.

      -   The data  from two clinical studies  of  humans  were found to indicate  that
         the  ingestion  of   as   few   as  ten   virus   particles  caused   infections
                                         OW-31

-------
         in  a  significant  portion  of  the  exposed  population.    Similar  studies  of
         pigs  indicated  that  infection  may  also   occur  when  lower  numbers  of
         viruses  are fed to  pigs  over  a longer period of  time.   These  data may be
         important  in  determining  the  role  of  disinfection in  the  drinking  water
         treatment process and in developing potable reuse treatment criteria.

     -   An   epidemiologies!  study  found   a  statistically  significant   correlation
         between  water   chlorination   and  cancer  in   the   gastrointestinal   and
         urinary   tracts.     This  finding   will   be  useful  in   reevaluating  water
         treatment processes, particularly chlorination.

     -   The  first  conference  on  algal  toxins  successfully  brought  together  world
         scientists for  the  exchange  of  information  and  ideas,  and for  discussion
         of  problems  encountered  in  case  studies  and  labortory  research.    The
         conference  was  extremely  useful  in conveying   EPA's  expertise,  e.g.,  the
         States   of   Pennsylvania   and  South   Dakota   requested  assistance  in
         investigating such illnesses.

     -   Several     waterborne    disease    outbreaks     were     investigated    for
         municipalities  and   the  causative   agents   were   sucessfully   isolated.
         Appropriate improvements were also recommended  to alleviate the problem.

1981 Program

     In  1981,  the  Agency has  allocated  a  total  of  $11,341,500  to  this  sub-
program,  of which  $3,099,400  is for  the  Salaries   end   Expenses  Appropriation  and
$8,242,100  is   for  extramural   purposes   under  the  Research   and  Development
Appropriation.

     Health effects research  on  drinking  water  continues to  focus  on  organic
contaminants  and  is concentrated  on  carcinogens.    Epidemiological, chemical,  and
toxicological  data  will be  used by  the  Agency to  provide guidelines  for setting
preliminary  limits for  selected chemicals  that are  known to be  carcinogens and/or
toxic.   The  results  of   chemical   analyses  and   biological  screening   tests   will
potentially  provide  the data base  for the  establishment of maximum  contaminant
levels of several widely occurring carcinogens in drinking water.

     Screening  tests based  upon mutagenic effects are  being  developed  to predict
carcinogenic  activity  for   various  organics  found   in  drinking  water at  very  low
levels   (i.e.,  part  per billion).    These   tests  supplement  the  current  bioassay
tests  which  have  limitations. Development  of methods  devoted  to  the  preparation
of  organic  concen   trates   and  identification  of  biologically  active   fractions
will  continue.    Key   compounds  such as   benzene; 2,4,  dichlorophenol  and  1,1-
dichloroethylene  will be  the  subject  of long-term   toxicologic  study to  determine
the carcinogenic risk of these organic contaminants.

     Research on the  health effects  of  inorganic  contaminants  in  drinking  water
includes  epidemiological   studies   to   establish  the  relationship  of  hypertension
to  sodium  and  barium levels  in  drinking  water  and   the  relationship  of  heart
attack  rates  to  magnesium  levels  in  drinking  water.   Also,  the  effects  of  using
home water softeners  are  being  examined since  many of  these  devices  increase the
level  of  sodium.  Toxicological  studies  on  the  impact   of  various combinations  of
                                          DW-32

-------
calcium,  magnesium,  lead, cadmium,  sodium and other chemical  substances found in
drinking water are long-term ongoing studies to provide data for verifying the preliminary
observations.  Other toxicological studies are being continued to determine whether blood
lead levels, which are currently considered to be  in the  normal range, delay central
nervous system  development in children.   Epidemiological studies which examine  the
incidence of  cancer are  being completed to determine  whether asbestos occurring in
drinking water from natural erosion, mining operations,  and asbestos-cement pipe is a
contributing factor  to increased cancer rates.  This research will provide the necessary
data base for deciding if  a treatment technique is  necessary to reduce leaching of
asbestos fibers from pipes.

     Efforts   which support  the  assessment of  alternative practices for disinfecting
drinking water are being completed.  Both the epidemiologies! studies of the carcinogenic
effects from  by-products of disinfectants and the  studies on  comparative  toxicity of
organic  reaction  products  of  ehloramines,  chlorine,   chlorine  dioxide,  and  ozone
disinfection are included here.

     In collaboration with the Center for Disease Control,  EPA is continuing to provide
technical  assistance on microbiological contaminants in drinking water and investigates
ongoing  water-borne  disease  outbreaks.   In  addition, -the health  effects research is
continuing to examine waterborne outbreaks of  infectious diseases  to determine  the
causative agent.

     •Work is continuing on improving methods for the concentration and identification of
viruses found in drinking water which are known to be associated with waterborne disease
outbreaks.   These  improvements  will  permit  a  more accurate  assessment  of  the
significance to health of viruses in drinking water.

     Studies on the potential  health effects associated with the reuse of  highly treated
wastewater are being continued.  This is part of a ten year  program to develop a data base
sufficient to set reasonable criteria for reuse standards.  Criteria will be developed by
1985 for reuse of treated wastewater in emergency situations.


1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net deerease of  $1,092,500 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly  after the  1981  budget estimate was submitted,  President Carter
        transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
        resulted in  a deerease of $7 million to EPA's  request for Salaries and Expenses.
        The reduction applied to this activity is $13,100.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a  decrease of $3,800
        was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8  million; a decrease
        of $25,300 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general  reduction of $12,214,000 to the Research  and
        Development appropriation; a decrease of $938,000 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agenoywide ADP services by $2 million;  a decrease of
        $20,000 was applied to this activity.
                                           DWT33

-------
      -  An  increase of  $105,500  results from the  cost of  the  October  1980  pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

      -  A   transfer   of  $197,800   to  solid   waste   monitoring   and   quality
         assurance/uncontrolled sites to support efforts in Love Canal.


1982  Plan

      The  Agency  requests a total of  $12,006,400 for  this  sub-program,  of  which
$3,045,100  is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation  and  $8,961,300  is  for
extramural purposes under the  Research and Development Appropriation.

      This  reflects  an  increase  of  $664,900.    This  increase  will  provide  for
conduct   of   mulitple  stress studies   to  more   closely  approximate . real   world
exposure  to  complex  mixtures  and expanded  efforts  to correlate  in  vivo  and in
vitro   short-term  tests  to  quantitatively   predict   health   endpoints  when  more
expensive long-term tests are now in use.

      The drinking water  health effects research program will continue to focus on
five   areas:      organic    contaminants,  inorganic   contaminants,    microbiological
contaminants,   alternative    disinfectants,   and   the   reuse   of    highly   treated
wastewater.   Research  performed  in the organic contaminants area  will address  the
occurrence   and   related  health   effects   of  specific  organic  drinking   water
contaminants that have been identified by the Office  of  Drinking Water as  being
important  with regard  to health problems.   Compounds which  have  been  identified
include  the   chlorinated  ethanes,  eth'ylenes,  and  ' benzenes;    disinfection   by-
products such  as  gasoline  and kerosene.   lexicological tests  will  be performed to
determine  the  carcinogenic,   reproductive  and  teratogenic   human  health  effects
resulting  from  consumption  of  water  contaminated  with these compounds.  Further
lexicological   testing   will   investigate  the  effects   of   complex   mixtures   of
organics  extracted  from  actual  drinking  water  samples  taken  before  and  after
treatment  with granular  activated carbon to  determine whether  this technology is
effective in protecting humans.

      Research on  inorganic  contaminants in drinking  water  is primarily concerned
with  .disease  of two health  endpoints;  cardiovascular  and  neurological.    Studies
on  the effects which various levels and combinations of inorganic compounds such
as  sodium,  magnesium  and  calcium  have  on  the  development  of  cardiovascular
disease will continue.

      The  role   of  toxic  metals  and   viruses  as  etiological  agents  of  certain
neurological   disorders  such   as   multiple   sclerosis   will   also    be  investigated.
Research  of  microbiological  contaminants  in  drinking water will  continue  to  be
concerned   with   investigating   waterborne   outbreaks  of  infectious  diseases   by
identifying  the  causative  agents  in  drinking  water,  determining  route  of  entry
and recommending corrective action.

      Research on  the  health  impact  of alternative  disinfectants  and direct  and
indirect  additives  will  be  conducted.    The  program  includes  the   completion  of  a
study  to  assess  the effectiveness  of  alternative  disinfectants and  the  impact  of
the by-products  resulting from their use.  Data, from  this work  will be  useful in
the assessment  of  disinfection  techniques  other   than chlorination which  may  be
used by water suppliers.
                                      DW-34

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TEqHKQLQGY

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1P80,  the  Agency  used  a total of  $8,308,000 for  this  sub-program,  of
which  $2,353,400  was for Salaries  and Expenses  and $5,954,600 was for extramural
research activities. Accomplishments under the program include:


     -   A  state-of-the-art  report  on  trihalomethane  treatment  techniques  and  of
         the  impact of  trihalomethane control on  the mierobiologic quality  of  the
         treated  water  has  been  written.   This  report  will be  used by  the water
         utility  industry, and by State and  local water  supply  agencies  in  meeting
         the trihalomethane standard.

     -   A  second report  was  made  available  that  describes  the  results  of   full
         scale  studies  at several  utilities  in the  Ohio River   Valley  to  control
         trihalomethane   levels  by  treatment  plant  modifications  or  changes  in
         plant operations.

     -   An  electric  furnace  was  evaluated  to  test the cost  and  effectiveness  of
         reactivating  granular  carbon.    The  exhausted carbon   was  restored  to
         near-virgin  conditions  and  the   costs  were   competitive  with  fossil  fuel
         furnaces.

     -   A report on  the removal of barium  and radium from drinking water has been
         published  and   a   report   on  sodium   removal  has   been  prepared   for
         publication.   These  documents are being used as  treatment guides  by  the
         water utilities, and by State and local water supply agencies.

     -   A seminar  entitled  "Corrosion Control in  Water Distribution Systems"  was
         attended  by  approximately  120  researchers  and  covered   topics such  as
         measurement   techniques,   control  strategies,   health  effects   and  cost.
         The seminar defined the present state of knowledge on  corrosion control.

     -   The  first  generation of  a Master Analytical Scheme, a scheme to allow
         measurement  of organic  compounds  which  are difficult  to  detect,  was
         developed and made available to an initial user community.

1981Program              '                                •

     In  1981,  the   Agency  has   allocated a total  of  $11,395,200 to  this   sub-
program,  of  which  $2,924,600  is  for   the  Salaries  and   Expenses  Appropriation   and
$8,470,600  is   for  extramural   purposes  under  the  Research  and  Development
Appropriation*

     -   A  major effort  is  focused  specifically on  the  needs  of small  drinking
         water systems  (serving  a  population of  10,000  and under),  which comprise
         80  to 90 percent  of all  drinking water systems and which regularly serve
         approximately  20 percent  of  the U.S. population.   Research is  needed  to
         develop   and   evaluate  information  on   cost-effective   technology    and
         illustrate the  use of  cooperative arrangements  for small  systems.    This
         type  of  data   will  enable  these  systems   to   meet  national  and state
         drinking water standards established to protect public health.
                                          DW-35

-------
     -   The program is continuing to provide  information  on economical  treatment
         processes  to control  specific  contaminants  of  health  concern  which  are
         discharged  to,  and are  found  in,  our drinking  water  sources.    Work  on
         specific synthetic  organics  is  being emphasized and includes development
         of  improved  analytical methods.  Efforts are  also  being made to produce,
         evaluate  and  bring together  information on  the  performance of  existing
         units  producing  drinking  water  from  questionable  or  suspect  sources.
         The evaluations will include  cost data and  information  on  the  effects  of
         treatment and treatment changes  on microbiological quality.


1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $784,000 results from several actions, as follows:

     -   Shortly  after  the  1981  budget estimate was  submitted,  President  Carter
         transmitted  revisions   to  the  budget   (House  Document   96-294);  these
         revisions  resulted  in  a  decrease  of  $7 . million   to   EPA's request  for
         Salaries  and   Expenses,     The  reduction   applied  to  this  activity  is
         126,100.

     -   The Congress  reduced  agenoywide travel  costs by  $850,000; a decrease  of
         $5,300 was applied to this activity.

     -   The Congress  reduced agencywide  consulting  services  by  $3.8   million;  a
         decrease of $8,400 was  applied to  this activity.

     -   The Congress applied   a  general reduction of  $12,214,000  to  the  Research
         and Development   appropriation; a  decrease  of $909,900   was  applied  to
         this activity.

     -   The Congress reduced  agencywide  ADP services by  $2 million; a decrease of
         $20,000 was applied to this activity.

     -   An  increase  of $136,500 results  from  the  cost of  the October 1980  pay
         raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     -   A  net  transfer   of  $49,200  from  environmental   processes  and effects
         ($149,900) which  affected the Research and  Development appropriation  and
         to   environmental  processes  and  effects  ($100,700)   which  affeced  the
         Salaries  and   Expenses  appropriation  to  realign  contract  funds   with
         operating costs.

1982 Plan

     The Agency requests  a  total  of  $11,313,700  for  this  sub-program, of  which
$3,274,100   is for the Salaries and  Expenses  Appropriation  and $8,039,600  is  for
extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

     This  reflects  a   decrease  of   $81,500.    This  decrease   reflects   as  slight
reduction in drinking water reserch  which does  not directly suport the  regulatory
program.
                                           DW-36

-------
      Various surveys have shown that certain organic compounds  of  health concern
retain   their   form   through   rivers,  reservoirs,   treatment,   and   distribution
systems.   They also demonstrated that other organic compounds formed during water
treatment are  equally  persistent.   However, data  from  pilot  plant activities  and
modular  and   full  scale  field   evaluations  have   illustrated  that  by  modifying
disinfeetion/ehlorination   and  treatment  practices,   a   considerable   reduction  in
certain  organic ohlorination  by-products can be attained.    Currently  under study
are  the organic halogen  compounds  which  are of health  concern that  occur widely
where  chlorination  is  practiced.    Research  will   investigate  the  influence  that
factors  such as  precursor concentration,  disinfectant dose,  temperature,  pH,  and
time  have  on  the  rate  and  quantity  of  organic  halogen  material  formed.   In
addition,   large-scale   pilot   plant    and  full-scale   plant  evaluations   will   be
conducted  to   determine  the  fate  of  various  organics,  not  only  during:  water
treatment but  throughout  the entire system-from source  to tap.   The  objective of
the projects will be to provide more ecomical  and efficient treatment methods.

      Field-scale  pilot  projects   will  be  conducted  in   cooperation  with   drinking
water utilities  and  local  and state  governments to determine  how effectively  and
at   what   cost   certain   experimental   treatment   processes   remove   specific
environmental   contaminants.  These   research projects are  necessary  to determine
how   these  technologies   will   perform   under   actual   operating   conditions.
Furthermore, the  results  of  these  studies  will  facilitate  our  ability  to   describe
water  treatment  methods when  a  health  risk from   organics   is  suggested  and
monitoring is not practical.

      Chlorination  has  been  the   primary  method  used in  this  country  to destroy
microbes in drinking water.   But,  though this  disinfection process  has proved  to
be  highly successful in  reducing waterborne  disease, there  is concern about  the
microbiological  contaminants   in  drinking water,  particularly  in  light   of   the  use
of  alternate disinfectants  and  possible  changes  in treatment  processes.   This
concern  has  been  deepened   by   the  discovery  of  disinfectant-resistant pathogens
and  because in widespread  areas of  America only  limited treatment is applied to
purify water.

      Pilot  and  field-scale studies  will determine   whether  changes  in treatment
processes  bring  about  new  microbiological  problems.   These  studies will   examine
such  changes   as  shifts  in  the   location  of  disinfectant  application,   the use  of
alternative  disinfectants,  eoversion   of  rapid sand  filters to  granular  activated
carbon   filters,   and  use  of  biologically  activated  carbon  as  a  treatment  unit
process  and any  other  methods  used  to  reduce  undesirable  by-products.   Field
studies  are  planned  to  evaluate  how  water turbidity   effects  the  efficiency  of
microbiologie disinfectants.   Also to  be studied are the  physical,  chemical,  and
microbial   characteristics  that   permit  the   growth   of   microbes   in   water
distribution  systems  with inadequate  treatment   practices,  such   as  poor  pipe
corrosion control.

      Also,   treating   water   for   the   removal    of   inorganics   can   present
technological problems,  particularly  for small  communities.   To  alleviate  these
problems,  EPA  will   improve   treatment   technologies.     Field  and  pilot-scale
studies will  examine a number  of  treatment processes  for  their effectiveness  in
removing  arsenic,  barium,  cadmium,  chromium, flouride,  lead,   mercury,   nitrate-
nitrogen,  selenium  and radionuclides.    The  effort  will  include  investigations  of
those polymers that may be used to improve coagulation or filtration.

      Analytical  methods   for  the  measurement  of  the  toxic  species  of   arsenic,
selenium,  and  chromium  will  be  developed as   will  measurement   methods  for
                                          DW-37

-------
monitoring  the removal of  specific  inorganic  contaminants  by treatment  systems.                             |
The work  will focus on applying  technology to small communities.   Several studies                           .• :
will provide cost  data  for technologies  capable of  removing one  or a  combination
of  contaminants from a variety of source  waters.   Field testing  and cost  analysis
of  full-scale  facilities  will  be a necessary  aspect  of  this  future  work.   EPA is
examining  existing package  plant  systems  being used  by  small  communities  to
determine  the  effectiveness  of  the  systems  in •  removing  contaminants   from  a
variety of  surface waters;  a technical  evaluation   of  the package plants   will  be
provided  to  allow  more   widespread application of   effective systems  by  small
utlities.    Methods to  minimize costs  of successful  treatment  technologies  will  be
emphasized.    The relative  value  of  regionalization  of several water   utilities is
being examined as are  the parameters for  determining whether  or not  this approach
will solve some of the small system  water quality problems.

     This  program  also  identifies  critical  water  stabilization factors  and  will
develop  cost-effective   treatment  methods  to  prevent   corrosion  of  metal  or
asbestos-cement  pipes.    Difficulties  in drinking  water  distribution  systems  and
effects of  these   systems  on  water quality will  likely  demand increased attention
in the future.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1980 Accomplishments

     In  1980,   the Agency  used  a total  of  $1,944,700  for  this  sub-program,  of
which  $737,900 was for Salaries  and  Expenses and  $1,206,800  was for  extramural
research activities.

     -   A book was published describing  indicators which can potentially  be  used
         in groundwater investigations to detect biochemical contamination.

     -   Workshops  were  held for  the  grondwater  protection  community (Federal,
         State,  and  local  managers,  consultants,   researchers)  on  the  state-of-
         the-art of groundwster modeling.

     -   An  article  was  published  describing  the  behavior  of  arsenic   in  the
         subsurface.

     *   A geohydrologic study was begun at Love Canal to assess  the  extent of the
         imminent  hazard resulting  from  the disposal  of hazardous  wastes  at  that
         site.

1981 Program

     In  1981,  the Agency has  allocated a  total  of  $2,557,200  to  this sub-program,
of  which  $937,200  is for  the Salaries and Expenses  Appropriation and $1,620,000
is for extramural purposes under the Research  and Development Appropriation.

     The  1981   program   is  concentrating  on   assessing   surface   methods  for
detecting  subsurface  pollution,  completing the  Love   Canal  geohydrologic  study,
determining  the   mobility   of  selected   organic   chemicals  in   poundwater  in
                                           DW-38

-------
            different  soil  regimes,  publishing  a  manual  (in  cooperation  with  the  municipal
            technology program)  describing  how  State  and  local  groundwater  managers  can
j           protect   groundwater   from  pollution  by   septic  tanks,   determining  the  natural
'           microbial  populations  in  groundwater,  and publishing  a   manual  on  groundwater
            sampling  practices.    Technical assistance  will  continue   to  be  provided  on  the
            development  of  an   Agency  graundwater   strategy,  implementation  of  the  UIC
            regulations,  and  assessment  and  remedy   of  uncontrolled  hazardous  waste  sites.
            Additional resources in the  Solid Waste program  will  allow development of methods
            for  approximating   the  subsurface  mobility  of  hazardous  wastes  and  predicting
            their  environmental  movement.    In  addition,  field  evaluation of  these  methods
            will begin.

            1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

                 The net increase of $37,200 results from several actions, as follows:

                 -  Shortly after  the  1981 budget  estimate  was  submitted,  President  Carter
                    transmitted  revisions  to   the   budget  (House  Document  96-294);   these
                    revisions  resulted  in   a decrease  of  $7   million  to  EPA's  request  for
                    Salaries and Expenses. The reduction applied to this activity is $2,300.

                 -  The  Congress  reduced agencywide   travel  costs  by  $850,000;  a decrease  of
                    $800 was applied to this activity.

                 -  The  Congress reduced   agencywide  consulting  services  by  $3.8  million;  a
                    decrease of $3,900 was applied to this activity.

                 -  An  increase  of  $93,400  results from  the  cost of  the October  1980 pay
                    raise and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

                 -  A net transfer of $0 from toxic substances monitoring systems and quality
                    assurance   ($49,200)   and   to   solid    waste    monitoring   and   quality
                    assurance/uncontrolled    sites   ($49,200)    to   realign   support   to   all
                    programs supported by what was formerly anticipatory research funds.

                 *  A net  transfer  of  $49,200  to environmental  engineering  and  technology
                    ($149,900)  which affected the  Research and Development  appropriation and
                    from  environmental  engineering and technology  ($100,700)  which  affected
                    the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  to realign  contract  funds with
                    operating costs.

            1982 Plan

                 The  Agency  requests  a  total  of $5,033,500  for  this  sub-program,  of which
            $1,296,100  is  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  Appropriation and  $3,737,400  is  for
            extramural purposes under the Research and Development Appropriation.

                 This reflects  an  increase   of  $2,476,300.    This  increase  is  directed  toward
            expanded research on transport and fate of pollutants in groundwater.
                                                   DW-39

-------
     In  1982,  the groundwater  research  program  will,  with  additional  resources
described  in  the  solid  waste  area,  concentrate   on  _ developing   models   for
predicting  the  movement and  transformation  of  trace  organic  chemicals  in  the
subsurface environment.   Of  great  improtanee  to the success  of  this  effort  is  the
characterization  of  geologic  materials  in  terms  of their  effects  on processes  in
groundwater.   Work  will  also  continue  to  characterize  the  pollutants  of concern
in groundwater from  specific polluting  sources.   The  development of  methods  for
conducting  groundwater  pollution  investigations  remains  a high  priority,  as does
technical assistance  for  groundwater  investigations and  development of  state-of-
knowledge documents.

     The program  will  provide (1) the capability to  develop  a  first-generation
classification    of    subsurface    geological    materials       a   step    beyond
characterization   ,  (2)   accelerated  transport  and  fate  research  which  can  be
applied  in  various  hydrogeological  regimes,  (3)  guidance for  translating  quality
requirements  into  source  control   plans,  and (4)  quality requirement  documents
for  unregulated  groundwater  pollutants  as   well  as   for  non-drinking   uses   of
groundwater.
                                          DW-40

-------
Solid Waste
    SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
SOLID WASTE
Appropriation
.Salaries and Expenses...
Research and Development
Abatement, Control and
Compl i a nee 	
Total 	 	 	
Permanent Workyears .....
Full-time Equivalency...
Outl ays ••••••«•••«••••••
Authorization Levels....
PROGRAM JHISHLIGHTS
Solid Waste Non-Energy(RCRA):
Salaries and Expenses...
Research and Development
Total , Research and
Development Program....
Waste Management Regulations,
Gui del i nes and Pol ices :
Salaries and Expenses...
Abatement, Control and
Financial Assistance:
Salaries and Expenses....
Abatement, Control and
Waste Management Strategies
Implementation:
Salaries and Expenses...
Abatement, Control and
Technical Assistance:
Salaries and Expenses..
Abatement, Control and
Uncontrolled Hazardous
Waste Sites:
Salaries and Expenses..
Abatement, Control and
Compl i ance 	
Total:
Salaries and Expenses..
Abatement, Control and
Total , Abatement and
Actual
1980
$19,760
11,224
78,791
109,775
484
617
77,533
130,243
1,889
11,224
13,113
5,111
9,997
.* * *
45,992
4,401
108
1,695
5,482
1,271
16,567
12,478
78,146
90.624
Budget
Estimate
1981*
Current
Estimate
1981
Estimate
1982
(dollars in thousands)
$33,133 $37,017 $35,324
22,674 25,059 23,432
91,991 92,639 84,580
147,798
778
994
125,500
166,446
4,122
22,674
26,796
6,369
18,637
48,000
10,130
3,033
1,600
5,094
1,736
16,570
19,835
91,334
111.169
154,715
855
1,080
79,612
166,446
. *
4,505
25,059
29,564
7,288
16,941
* * •
42,000
8,118
4,009
1,601
5,081
; 4,216
21,661
21 ,223
89,692
110.915
143,336
713
1,037
83,802
150.000
8,536
23,432
31,968
7,114
21,833
• * •
54,300
8,627
2,973
1,929
4,994
* * •
17,670
84,100
101 .770
Increase +
Decrease -
1982 vs 1981
-$1,693
- 1,627
- 8,059
-11,379
-142
-43
+4,190
+4,031
-1,627
+2,404
-174
+4,892
ft * *
+12,300
+509
-1,036
+328
-87
-4,216
-21,661
-3,553
-5,592
-9.145
Page
SW-52
SW-12
SW-22
SW-27
SW-34
SW-40


  SW-1

-------
Budget    Currant               Increase +
Uncontrolled Hazardous
Waste Sites:
Salaries and Expenses..
Abatement, Control and
Hazardous Waste Permit
Enforcement:
Salaries and Expenses..
Abatement, Control and
Hazardous Waste Enforce-
ment:
Salaries and Expenses..
Abatement, Control and
Total -.
Abatement, Control and
Total , Enforcement
Permanent Positions
Solid Waste Non-Energy(RCRA).
Total, Research and
Devel opment "rogram. . . .
Waste Management Regulations,
Guidelines and Policies*.
Waste Management Strategies

Uncontrolled Hazardous
Waste Sites 	 	
Total, Abatement, and
Control Programs......
Uncontrolled Hazardous
Wa ste Si tas .»....»»... » . .
Hazardous Waste Permit
Hazardous Waste
Total , Enforcement
Actual
1980
2,711
2
187
* * *
2,495
643
5,393
645
6,038
33
33
112
* a *
138
33
•23
306
71
8
66
145
Estimate
1981*
Estimate
1981
Estimate
1982
{dollars in thousands)
1,925 4,313 . ...
2,271
4,090 4.039 4,981
25 24 25
3,161 2,937 4,137
632 652 455
9,176 11,289 9,118
657 2,947 480
9,833
73
73
140
* * *
262
27
19
448
53
121
83
257
14,236
78
78
133
* « •
253
25
65
476
103
114
84
301
9,598
105
105
133
* • •
220
27
* • •
380
» * •
135
93
228
Decrease -
1982 vs 1981 Paqe
-4,313
-2,271
+942
+1
+1,200
-197
-2,171
-2,467
-4,638
+27
+27
* a *
» * *
-33
+2
-65
-96
-103
+21
+9
-73
SW-43
SW-43
SW-43
SW-53
SW-12
SW-22
SW-27
SW-34
SW-40
SW-43
SW-43
SW-43

     SW-2

-------
                                  Actual
                                   1980
 Budget
Estimate
  1981*
Current
Estimate
  1981
                                              (do!Tars In thousands)"
                                                                           Estimate
                                                                             1982
Increase +
Decrease -
1982 vs 1981
64
64
145
* • *
160
44
105
105
197
* • *
313
34
109
109
187
* * *
301
32
' 155
155
187
9D
272
34
+46
+46
• * *
+90
-29
+2
                                     28
    19
    67
377
ion-£nergy{RCRA) .
        Total, Research and
          Development Program......
       Waste Management Regulations,
        Guidelines and Policies...
       Financial Assistance.......
       Waste Management Strategies
        Imp! emen tat ion, .......... ,
       Technical Assistance. ......
       Uncontrolled Hazardous
        Waste Sites....... ....... .
       Total , Abatement and
           Control Program ........
       Uncontrolled Hazardous
        Waste Sites..... ..........
       Hazardous Waste Permit
        Enf orcement ...............
       Hazardous Waste
        Enforcement. ..... ... ......
       Total » Enforcement
           Program _____ ...... ..... .         176        326         384

January 1980 President's Budget as adjusted by the ORD's restructuring.

       OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

            Despite recent legislative and regulatory achievements, hazardous waste
       management remains the major environmental problem facing the nation.  The
       extent to which the new Federal efforts under the Resource Conservation and
       Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental P.esponse, Compensation,
       and Liability Act of 1980 ("Superfund") will effectively bring under control the
       problems caused by decades of improper management depends on strong implemen-
       tation and enforcement programs in the near-term.  Without a concerted Federal
       and State commitment, as reflected by the resource levels featured in this budget
       request, thousands of American communities face the possible risk of public
       health and environmental damages from poor hazardous waste management practices.
       Incidents at Love Canal , Valley of the Drums and Toone, Tennessee have already
       demonstrated the high cost to health, quality of life and environment, as well
       as public dollars, of insufficient governmental attention to industrial  waste
                  practices.
    -67
                                                                                             Page
                                                                                             SW-53
SW-12
SW-22

SW-27
SW-34

SW-40
                                                                                             SW-43

                                                                                             SW-43

                                                                                             SW-43
                                                                      298
                                       -86
     Approximately 500 million metric tons of municipal  and industrial, wastes
are generated each year in the United States.  This amount is growing steadily.
In 1981, an estimated 41 million metric tons;will be classified as hazardous,
Including toxic organic chemicals, pesticides, acids, caustics, flammables and
explosives.  EPA estimates that approximately 20 percent of this amount is speci-
fically included in the promulgated lists of hazardous wastes.  Another 50 percent
can be identified as hazardous by the four RCRA §3001 characteristics of ignita-
bility, corrosivity, reactivity and EP (Extraction Procedure) toxicity.  The
remaining industrial wastes cannot be identified with enough specificity for
inclusion in the hazardous waste system.

     Existing coverage of the RCRA hazardous waste program is incomplete.  For
example, many organic chemical wastes, which are highly toxic, are not covered
by the toxicity characteristics.  If they are not specifically listed — and many
are not — they will not be covered by the RCRA hazardous waste program."

     This incomplete coverage must be added to the fact that only 10 percent of
previously generated hazardous wastes were disposed of safely.  The remainder
found their way into municipal or insecure dumpsites, waterways and community
sewers.  Many thousands of waste dumpsites may already be contaminated by
hazardous wastes; EPA estimates 1,200-2,000 sites may pose significant threats to
public health and environmental quality in the vicinity.
                                         SW-3

-------
     EPA's program is to attack the national waste management problem on two
fronts:  initially, by continuing to develop and administer a regulatory program
under RCRA for the current and future management of hazardous wastes-, and more
recently, by implementing a strategy to identify, investigate, evaluate and, as
necessary, respond to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in anticipation of full
administration of new SUperfund authorities.

Hazardous/Solid Waste Regulatory Program

     The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended, establishes
the first national program to protect public health and the environment from
damages caused by Improper waste management operations.  To handle prospective
hazardous waste problems, EPA will continue to develop and initiate, on a priority
basis, the regulatory program outlined by RCRA to reduce risks from improper
hazardous waste management practices.

     EPA established a phased schedule for issuance of hazardous waste regulations
which, in accordance with promulgation commitments made to the Federal District
Court, put the core regulatory program in place during 1980:

     Phase I
        February 1980

        Section 3002
        Section 3003

        Hay 1980
Standards for Generators of Hazardous Waste
Standards for Transporters of Hazardous Waste
        Section 3001    Identification and Listing of Hazardous Wastes
        Section 3005/6  Consolidated Permit Regulations
        Section 3004    Interim Status Standards
        July 1980

        Section 3001

     Phase II

        November 1980

        Section 3001

        January 1981

        Section 3004
Additional Listing of Hazardous Wastes
Additional  Listing of Hazardous Wastes
Technical Performance Standards (BEJ) for tanks, pilas,
containers, site selection, incineration and (proposed)
landfills
        Section 3004    Financial  Responsibility Requirements

     The Phase I regulations signaled initial  implementation of the hazardous
waste program.  Since November 19, eight States have already been granted interim
authorization.  EPA anticipates that 39 States will be granted interim authorization
by FY 1982.  Interim authorization allows States to administer their hazardous
waste program for two years while continuing to work toward final authorization.
                                         SW-4

-------
To be eligible for final authorization, the State program must be fully equivalent
with that of the Federal government.  EPA will also negotiate Cooperative Arrangements
(CA's).  Through Cooperative Arrangements States are encouraged to work toward
qualifying for authorization, and to operate selected delegated aspects of the
Federal hazardous waste regulatory program as EPA's agent; however, EPA maintains
overall responsibility for administering the program until the State achieves
interim or final authorization.  Under this alternative financial assistance
program, States will receive federal funds commensurate with the elements of the
Federal hazardous waste program they administer as EPA's agent.

     1982 will be the first full year of RCRA permitting against the §3004 Best
Engineering Judgement (BEJ) Standards issued during Phase II.  The six-year
strategy for EPA and State permitting of the estimated 30,000 hazardous waste
management facilities nationwide concentrates 1982 efforts on permitting new
facilities, the best facilities, and the worst facilities in order to
minimize health and environmental threats while increasing disposal capacity.
                                                              •

     Permit issuance will require legal review, administrative processing and
technical evaluation of individual permit applications against the technical
performance standards for treatment, storage and disposal facilities.  In un-
authorized States, where EPA will issue facility permits, the Regional Abatement
and Control and Enforcement Offices will share responsibility for developing the
permit conditions and issuing the permits.

     The limited scope of the May and July §3001 promulgations and the general
nature of the BEJ technical performance standards now being finalized demand that
extensive regulatory efforts (Phase III) continue through the decade*  These
efforts will be directed toward extending RCRA coverage and tailoring management
guidance or standards to specific hazardous wastes or industries.

     The solid waste enforcement program has been developed to assure that all
affected parties comply with standards established under the Resource Conserva-
tion and Recovery Act regulating generation, transportation, treatment, storage,
and disposal of hazardous wastes.

     RCRA enforcement will take place through the permitting of hazardous waste
management 'acilities and subsequent monitoring of those facilities to verify
compliance.  Permitting and compliance monitoring programs will regulate not only
the generators of hazardous wastes, but treatment, storage, and disposal facili-
ties as well.  A separate enforcement mechanism, the hazardous waste manifest
system, will monitor hazardous waste transporters to ensure that waste transported
from a generator to a treatment, storage, or disposal facility actually reach the
intended destination.

     The enforcement activities will center upon the administrative and public
hearing requirements of permit issuance, and upon compliance monitoring activi-
ties in those States which do not assume responsibility for hazardous waste
management.  The enforcement program "is responsible for developing enforcement
provisions of the regulations; mechanisms for Regional  oversight of authorized
States and enforcement programs in unauthorized States; and mechanisms for
taking enforcement or prosecutory actions, ,and negotiating enforcement agree-
ments.  During 1982, Regions will have established compliance monitoring
programs in unauthorized States.  In these Stastes, EPA will conduct site
inspections; initiate enforcement actions, {Compliance Orders, Civil and
Criminal  Actions) where generators, transporters, and storage, treatment and
disposal  facilities fail  to comply with the interim status standards or permit
requirements, and operate ADP tracking systems to maintain and monitor manifest,
inspection, and enforcement Information.  For authorized states, EPA will
conduct oversight activities, including joint inspections with the States, to
determine whether or not States are adequately enforcing PvCRA requirements.
Additionally, a new initiative to identify and investigate suspected illegal
activities will  be established.


                                       SW-5

-------
     The Resource Conservation and Reccovery Act complements the extensive hazardous
waste control program with programs for managing other-than-hazardous  solid waste
and encouraging resource conservation and recovery.   In  1932, States will
be implementing their comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plans and continuing
their Open Dump Inventories.  Through EPA's resource  recovery activities the
Federal government will continue to encourage  and cooperate with local governments
and private enterprise to establish the necessary national momentum towards
resource recovery as a self-sustaining, preferred solid  waste management tech-
nique.  The Local Resource Recovery Grant Progam, extended only through 1982,
will assure a nationally visible level of resource recovery implementation.

     Financial and technical assistance will continue to be provided to assist the
States in implementing their responsibilities  under RCRA,  Assistance  to Federal,
State and local agencies is provided 1n all areas of  waste management  through
Technical Assistance Panels of expert contractors, experienced public  administra-
tors and EPA staff.  Grants to States are awarded annually for the development
and operation of State hazardous and solid waste programs.  Subtitle D grants are
being phased out over five years (1980-1984) as self-sufficiency of State non-
hazardous waste programs improves.

Research And Development

     The focus of ORD's solid waste research has shifted from non-hazardous waste
to hazardous waste to provide support for implementation of the hazardous waste
management regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the
newly enacted Superfund legislation.  Research in the area of non-hazardous waste,
including resource recovery, was for the most  part phased out in FY 1981.

     One of the top priority activities in FY  1982 and a key component of the solid
waste research will be the continuation of a program  to  develop new or improved
sampling and analytical methodologies and validation  procedures for identification
of hazardous waste.  Another top priority activity will  be the creation of a
quality assurance program to ensure the validity of all  data generated.  Efforts
will  continue on incineration and land disposal research for hazardous wastes
in FY 1982.  This effort will provide useful technical data to EPA permit
writers for hazardous waste treatment, disposal and storage.  Empahsis will
be placed on the thermal  decompositon and containment of hazardous wastes.

     Attention will also be directed to research in the  hazardous waste risk
assessment area, both for health and ecological effects  and pollutants trans-
port and fate.  Health effects efforts are directed toward development and application
of screening techniques, identification of bioassay methods and evaluation of
relative risk of exposure to complex mixtures  from hazardous waste sites.  Health
hazard profiles and exposure analyses and guidance will  be developed in support
of waste management regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
and Superfund activities.  A new initiative will be undertaken to develop techniques
for assessing ecological  damage and bioenviromental  stress arising from disposal
of hazardous wastes.  These results can also be used  for detecting and evaluating
uncontrolled sites and determining the potential for entry of mismanaged hazardous
wastes into the human food chain.  In the pollutant transport and fate area,
efforts will continue to develop methods and models for predicting the movement
of hazardous wastes through the subsurface environmental and a new Start will
adapt existing environmental  assessment models for use in hazardous waste mismanage-
ment  scenarios.

Purpose - Research and Development  '

     The solid waste research and-development program, consistent with the goals
of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), is directed to the
development of technologies, methodologies, and the scientific data base necessary
to achieve environmentally acceptable, cost-effective solid and hazardous waste
management from generation through disposal.
                                         SW-6

-------
     The research program provides the scientific bases which will allow the
private and public sector to (1) reduce the quantities of waste, especially
hazardous waste, requiring disposal through process change, waste recycling and
reuse, or waste treatment, (2) ensure the environmentally sound disposal or
destruction of the future wastes and (3) correct the past mismanagement practices.
The major objective is to support the regulatory and enforcement offices:  in
the identification and listing of hazardous wastes, hazardous waste streams from
industry and "polluting" hazardous waste disposal sites; in the development
and revision of regulations for disposal of wastes by land disposal, thermal
destruction or chemical, biological or physical treatment; in the evaluation of
permit applications; and in the assessment of risk from hazardous waste pro-
duction and mismanagement.

Purpose-Abatement and Control Program

     The solid waste abatement and control budget activity is comprised of
activities for promoting the protection of public health and the environment
through improved solid and hazardous waste management practices.  These activities
include developing and promulgating regulations under Subtitles C and D of the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); promoting resource conservation
and recovery as the preferred solid waste management approach; providing technical
and policy guidance to accompany these activities; assisting and encouraging
State programs; providing technical assistance as mandated by RCRA; managing
the local  resource recovery grant program; and, for hazardous waste management,
implementing a Federal program in unauthorized States.

     States have the primary role in implementing the RCRA.  The authorization
of State hazardous waste management programs is of primary importance to the
successful implementation of Subtitle C of RCRA.  Federal  financial  assistance
will be available to help States carry out this responsibility.  However, the
Federal  government, along with the States, has a mandated responsibility to
protect public health and the environment from improper hazardous waste
management practices.  Therefore, a Federal  program will  be operated in States
not seeking or denied authorization; Cooperative Arrangements will provide funds
to State governments operating aspects of the Federal program on EPA's behalf.

     EPA strongly encourages States to Implement their responsibilities outlined
in Subtitle D of the Act for non-hazardous solid waste, and will provide finan-
cial and technical assistance to do so.  Federal Subtitle D grant assistance is
being phased out over a 5-year period, with States expected to move towards
self-supporting non-hazardous waste regulatory programs.

     EPA has the primary role in establishing national standards and programs to
ensure proper management, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of
hazardous waste; proper disposal of waste not classified as hazardous and prono-
tion of resource conservation and recovery as the preferred solid waste management
approach.

     For hazardous waste, this responsibility includes developing a list and
criteria for determining what constitutes ;a hazardous waste; developing
standards for handlers of hazardous waste, including generators, transporters,
and owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal
facilities; implementing procedures for notification of hazardous waste activi-
ties; developing technical standards for permitting hazardous waste facilities
using "Best Engineering Judgment" and determining requirements for authorization
of State hazardous waste programs.  For waste not classified as hazardous,
EPA must promulgate criteria defining a sanitary landfill, conduct an inventory
of all  land disposal sites and provide national guidelines for State Solid Waste
Management 3lans.
                                         SW-7

-------
     EPA is also responsible for providing technical and other guidance for
implementing the regulations.  The RCRA mandated Technical  Assistance Panels
program will provide an avenue for delivery of expertise to State and local
governments encountering problens in waste management.

     The Abatement and Control activities are categorized under the following
subactivities:

Waste Management Regulations, Guidel ines and Poli cies;  This subactivity involves
(1) the development and promulgation of hazardous and solid waste regulations and
guidelines; (2) the development of technical and policy guidance for implementing
the regulations; (3) the conduct of engineering, design, environmental and economic
evaluations and assessments of solid waste management technologies and practices;
and (4) national management and oversight of regional program implementation
activities.

     Fi nanci alAssi stance:  This subactivity provides grants (1) to States for
the development and operation of hazardous waste management programs under
Subtitle C of RCRA; (2) to States for the development of State solid waste
regulatory programs and conduct of the RCRA mandated land disposal site inventory
under Subtitle D of RCRA; and (3) to local governments for feasibility studies
and other project development activities leading to the implementation of resource
and energy recovery systems.

     Waste ManagementStrategies and Implementation;  This subactivity involves:
(1) oversight of authorized States that are developing and implementing hazardous
waste programs; (2) conduct of a Federal  Subtitle C program either directly or
through States as EPA agents, for unauthorized States, including technical review
of permits to hazardous waste facilities using "Best Engineering Judgment";
(3) direct support and oversight for implementation of the solid waste management
planning and land disposal site inventory requirements under Subtitle D; and
(4) management of grants to local governments for resource and energy recovery
projects under the Local  Resource Recovery Program.

     Technical Assistance:   This subactivity provides for (1) national management
of the Technical Assistance Panels program; (Z) technical assistance to State and
local  governments on all  aspects of solid waste management; (3) public participa-
tion and education progams; and (4) the development and distribution of public
and technical information materials.

Purpose •* Enforcement Program

     The goals of the solid waste enforcement program are to see that all affected
parties comply with standards, established under the Resources Conservation and
Recovery Act, regulating generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and
disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, and to take legal action to co^pal
responsible parties to take remedial steps regarding uncontrolled sites
posing an imminent and substantive hazard to health and the environnmeit.
To achieve these goals, EPA has established three program elements:  (1) the
hazardous waste permit Issuance program, (2) the hazardous waste enforcement
program, and (3) the uncontrolled hazardous waste site enforcement program.
                                          SW-8

-------
     Solid waste enforcement provisions were enacted largely as a result of
wide scale, historical mismanagement of hazardous wastes, and are designed
to prevent similar mismanagement from occurring in the future.  Regulation
will take place through the permitting of hazardous waste management facilities
and subsequent monitoring of those facilities to verify compliance.  Permitting
and compliance monitoring programs will regulate not only the generators of
hazardous wastes, but treatment, storage, and disposal  facilities as well.
A separate enforcement mechanism, the hazardous waste manifest system, will
monitor hazardous waste transporters to ensure that wastes transported from
a generator to a treatment, storage, or disposal facility actually reach the
intended destination.

     tinder the provisions of RCRA, States may assume the responsibility for
operating permit and enforcement programs.  In cases where a State has interim
or final authorization to conduct such programs, EPA is available to assist
in State efforts, and will overview authorized programs for adequacy.  The Agency
will also provide training for State and Regional  personnel in the procedures
of hazardous waste permitting.


SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES                     (in thousands of dollars)

1981 Solid Waste Program	                    $154,715

  Salaries and Expenses...,	                      -1,693

   The net decrease is primarily related to
   the decreased workyears.

  Research and Development.................                      -1,627

   The net decrease is primarily related to
   a reduced monitoring effort at the Love
   Canal hazardous waste site, coupled with
   a reduction to the scientific assessments
   program.

Abatement, Control and Compliance.....	                      -3,059

  The net decreases are primarily in State
  solid waste management planning grants,
  resources recovery grants and regional
  implementation and/or oversight of
  hazardous waste programs and the transfer
  of resources to "Superfund".  These decreases
  are offset by increases for regulatory
  support under Subtitle C of RCRA and State
  grants for hazardous waste management.

1982 Solid Waste Program...	,                     143,336
                                            SW-9

-------
SUMMARY OF BUDGET ESTIMATE

    1.  Summary of Budget Request

        An appropriation of $143,336,300 is requested in 1982.  Tnis request,
by appropriation account is as follows:

        Salaries and Expenses	,	          $35,323,700
        Research and Development	,	           23,432,200
        Abatement, Control and Compliance..	         '  84,580,400


     This represents a decreases of $11,378,600 over the 1981 level.  This is
due to several actions:  $1.6 million for monitoring efforts  at the Love Canal
hazardous waste site; - $.1 million for scientific assessments; - $2,0 million
for a 5-year phase out of Federal  financial assistance under  Subtitle D of
RCRA; - $21.7 million to transfer uncontrolled hazardous waste site resources
to "Superfund; - $1.0 million for hazardous waste management  regulatory strategies
implementation; -$2.3 million to transfer uncontrolled hazardous waste site
enforcement resources to "Superfund."   These decreases are partially offset by
the following:  +$11.7 for States applying for second stage of Phase II authoriza-
tion and for permitting of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities under
hazardous waste management finanical  assistance; +$2.6 million to fulfill  the
commitment made in the resource recovery local finanical assistance program;
+$4,6 million for regulatory support under Subtitle C of RCRA;

     2-  Changes from Original 1981 Budget Estimate

         Changes from the budget are as follows:

                                                       (in thousands of dollars)

         Original 1981  Estimate	               $147,798

         Congressional  increase/decrease:

           Resource recovery grants...............               -6,000
           Travel..	...                  -91
           Consulting Services...,.	,.                 -333
           ADP services...........................                 -143
           Abatement, Control and Compliance
            general reduction	               -1,433
           Research and Development
            general reduction.....	               -2,200
           Senior Executive Services bonuses......                  -15
         Presidential reduction of $7 million
           (House Document 96-294)	                -178
         Proposed hazardous waste amendment........             +12,718
         Proposed supplemental for 1980 pay raise                +1,687
         Miscellaneous reprogramming actions.......              +2,905
         Current 1981 estimate..	             154,715

     Congressional  decreases to the solid waste media request included a reduction
of $6,000,000 to resource recovery grants; and $850 thousand decrease to travel
resulting in a reduction of $91,100; a $3.8 million decrease to consulting
services resulting in a decrease of $333,400; a $2 million decrease to ADP
services resulting in a reduction of $143,100; a general  reduction of $7.5
million to the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation resulting in a
decrease of $1,433,400; a $12.2 million general  reduction to the Research and
Development appropriation resulting in a decrease .of $2,200,000; and, a  S750
thousand decrease to senior executive service bonuses resulting in a reduction
of $14,500.
                                         SW-10

-------
     A supplemental is proposed to fund the October 1930 pay raise and Includes
$1,686,800 for this media.

     The 1981 hazardous waste amendment submitted to the Congress resulted in
an increase of $12,718,000 to this media.

     A Presidential reduction of $7 million (House Document 96-294) to the Agency's
request for Salaries and Expenses resulted in a decrease of $178,000 to this media.

     Miscellaneous reprogrammi ngs result In an increase of $2,905,600 to this media.

ANALYSIS OF INCREASES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

                                                       Current
                                                       Estimate        Estimate
                                                         1981            1982
                                                       (in thousands of dollars!

Prior year obligations	       $109,775         $152,970
  Effect of congressional changes	         -6,215
  Pay raise supplemental	         +1,687
  Reprogrammi ngs	         +2,905
  Proposed Hazardous Waste Amendment...........        +12,718
  Presidential  reduction in Salaries and
   Expenses...........	           -178
  Changes in amount of carryover funds
   available		         -8,122           +1,746
  Program increase......	        +31,099           -7,954
  Change in rate of obligation.................         +9.301            ...
Total estimated obligations.	        152,970          146,762
  {From new obligation authority)	       (146,721)        (138,767)
  (From prior year-funds)..,.........	         (6,249)          (7,995)

EXPLANATION OF INCRESES AND DECREASES TO OBLIGATIONS

     Congressional changes discussed 1n the previous section are expected to result
in a decrease of $6,215,000 to obligations.  The effect of the proposed supplemental
for funding of the October 1980 pay raise results in an increase of $1,686,800.

     Reprogrammings result in an increase of $2,905,600 to obligations.  The proposed
hazardous waste amendment will increase obligations by $12,718,000.  The Presidential
reduction to salaries and expenses will decrease obligations by $178,000.

     The amount of carryover funds to be obligated in 1981 is $6,249,300,a decrease
of $8,121,900 from the 1980 level.  In 1982, it is estimated that $7,995,000 of
carryover funds will  be obligated, an increase of $1,745,700 from the 1931 level.

     The increase in budget authoritiy in 1981 was previously estimated to decrease
obligations by $31 million.  In 1982, the program change will increase obligations
by $7,954,000
                                           SW-11  .

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
Abatement and
    Control
     SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                         SOLID  WASTE

                  Uaste Management Regulations, Guidelines and Policies
Appropriation
Regulations, G'r'delines
 and Policies/Hazardous
 Waste:
  Salaries and Expenses .
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	
Regulations, Guidelines
 and Policies/Solid Waste:
  Salaries and Expenses ..
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	...
Regulations, Guidelines
 and Policies/Resource
 Recovery
  Salaries and Expenses .
  Abatement, Control and
   .Compliance	
Total:
  Salaries and Expenses .
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	
Grand Total
Permanent Positions
Regulations, Guidelines
 and Policies/Hazardous
 Waste	
Regulations, Guidelines
 and Policies/Solid
 Waste 	
Regulations, Guidelines
 and Policies/Resource
 Recovery	
Total
Fu 11-1jme Egirj va1 ency
R egulat i on s, Gui del ines
 and Policies/Hazardous
 Haste	
Reflations, Guidelines
 and Policies/Solid
 Waste 	:	
Regulations, Guidelines
 and Policies/Resource
 Recovery 	
                                               Budget    Current               Increase +
                                      Actual  Estimate   Estimate'  Estimate   Decrease -
                                       1980     1981       1981       1982     1982 v.s. 1981

$3,815
8,484
920
963
376
550
5,111
9,997
15,108
75
28
9
112
98
33
14

54,994
17,726
740
600
635
311
6,369
18,637
25,006
119
13
8
140
151
23
23
(dollars
S&.396
15,680
517
425
375
836
7,288
. 16,941
24,229
112
13
8
133
158
17
12
in thousands)
$6,134 -S262
20,247 +4,567
594 +77
453 +28
386 +11
1,133 +297
7,114 -174
21,833 +4,892
28,947 +4,713
112
13
P.
133
158
17
12
Total
145
197
187
187
                                           SW-12

-------
Budget Request

     The Agency request is 133 permanent workyears and $28,947,200 which includes
?7,113,900 for t^e Salaries and Expenses appropriation and 521,833,600 for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.  An increase of $4;S92,300 is provided for 1982
extramural resources to support regulatory refinement of the hazardous waste program
under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

Program Description

     The Agency's regulatory, guidance and policy-making activities are carried out
under the hazardous waste, solid waste and resource recovery program elements described
below.

Regulations, Guidelines. Policies/Hazardous Waste

     This progran orovides for management of the national RCRA Subtitle C Hazardous Waste
program.  Included are the promulgation, implementation and refinement of the criteria
and regulations for identification, management and disposal of hazardous wastes and
supportive analyses and assessments of management approaches and technologies.  Further,
guidance to the regions and States for nationally consistent implementation of the
Subtitle C regulations is provided.

Regulations, Guidelines, Policies/Solid Waste

     This program provides for national management of the RCRA Subtitle D program.
Activities include guidelines upon which development and approval of comprehensive solid
waste management plans are based and guidance on implementation of the criteria for
classification of sanitary landfills and conducting the Open Dump inventory.

Regulations. Guidelines, Policies/Resource Recovery

     This program provides continued national management and evaluation of the Urban
Policy Local resource recovery grant program; development of guidelines for Federal
procurement of products containing recycled materials, evaluation of resource recovery
technologies and promotion of resource recovery as an alternative solid waste manage-
ment technique in Federal, State and local waste program and planning activities.

REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, POLICIES/HAZARDOUS WASTE

1980 Accomplishments

     Obligations for 1930 totaled $12,299,000.  The Agency, in agreencnt with a schedule
approved by the Federal District court, promulgated regulations in February 1930 under
the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) covering standards for generators of
hazardous waste (Section 3002); standards for transporters of hazarc.-.is waste (Section
3002} and a notice on notification requirements (Section 3010).  In Vay 1930, the
Agency promulgated additional regulations covering the criteria for identification and
listing of hazardous waste (section 3001); interim status standards for ov/ners and
operators of treatment, storage and disposal  facilities (Section 3004); and requirements
for authorization of State programs and permit issuance as part of the Consolidated
Permit regulations (Section 3005/6).  These Phase I regulations represent the core
Subtitle C regulatory program to which initial implementation is geared.

     Since May 1980 fifty-one petitions have  been filed by trade associations, individual
companies, environmental groups and a State to review the regulations.  Resolution of
issues arising from these suits will lead to  further refinement of the regulations
through the issuance of amendments.

     Successful implementation of the hazardous waste program depends upon the avail-
ability of sites at which sufficient capacity will be created to safely treat, store
and dispose of hazardous wastes.  Intense opposition on the part of the local public
is the principal  difficulty in creating new disposal  sites.  To address this issue the
Agency formed a Siting Policy Committee.  The result was Agency policy to encourage
private sector solutions to the problem of establishing sites.  In cases where govern-
mental involvement is necessary, the States will have the prime responsibility for the
                                            SW-13

-------
 establishment  of adequate capacity.   EPA  will  asssist  States  in  seeing that  adequate
 capacity is  available.   To this  end  EPA developed  goals  and criteria for  assessing
 proposed siting  policies, conducted  a  preliminary  investigation  into the  use of  the
 ADP  system to  monitor the status of  the hazardous  waste  disposal  industry and  began
 initial  efforts  toward  the development of handbooks  to outline possible approaches to
 siting  and State regulatory and  legislative  differences.

      In  late 1980 EPA initiated  an extensive industrial  waste evaluation  program
 to yield data  and information to support  the future  regulatory development needs of
 the  hazardous  waste  program:

      - assessments of industry-specific treatment  and  disposal practices  and
        impact? to support issuance of  permits  against  Section 3004  performance
        standards;

      - prompt  response  to petitions  to remove  a  hazardous waste  from the  initial
        section 3001  list;

      - justification of additional listings  under  Section 3001;  and

      - identification of candidate wastestreams  for  reuse and recovery activities.

      The Agency  developed a basic strategy for the industry studies program  which will  be
 reflected in the development of  future programs  and  regulations  under §3001  and  §3004 of
 RCRA.  The focus of  this strategy is nn the  development  of waste listings and waste or
 industry-specific standards or guidance that carry the program beyond the more generic
 standards promulgated in 1980.   Based  upon the criteria  of volume,  degree of hazard,
 economic impact  and  need to list identified  in this  early strategy, the Agency identified,
 in priority  order, those industries  and wastestreams that should come under  Federal
 regulations.

      Further,  the Office of Solid Waste began  an industry assistance program.  Public
 notice of this program  appeared  in the May 1980  Federal  Register.   Under  this program the
 agency will  identify industry and community  RCRA compliance problems and  coordinate
 assistance activities with the States or  other Federal agencies.   In 1980 the industry
 assistance hotline to answer public  inquiries  on the RCRA regulations was planned.
 Additionally,  an electroplating  seminar Series was held  to discuss  impact of RCRA regu-
 lations  on the electroplating industry.

      Initial national strategy and guidance  on implementing the  regulations was  developed
 and  issued to  prepare for effective  implementation.

      With contractor assistance,  the Agency  undertook  analysis of inplementation issues
 such  as  state  authorization and  permitting procedures; refinement  of ADP  systems to
 facilitate implementation and reporting requirements;  ^nd development of  the Consolidated
 Permit ADP System.   Publication  of the public  notice for notification was completed and
 mailing  of notification packages to  all candidate  individuals and  firms was managed.  As
 of September 3.0,  198P,  EPA had received approximately  59,000 notifications.

      Prngram
     The  current  estimate  for this  program  is  112  permanent workyears and S22, 075,900 of
 which 56,396,100  is for Salaries and  Expenses  and  $15,679,800 is for Abatement, Control
"and  Compliance.

     In 1981, EPA will promulgate Phase  II  of  the  Subtitle C core  regulations to
 include an  additional  list of hazardous  waste  (Section 3001), Best Engineering Judgneit
 (BEJ) technical performance  standards  (Section 3004)  including REJ standards for tanks,
 piles, containers, site selection,  incineration and  landfills.  Also rcech;nisns to ensure
 adequate  closure  and post-closure financial  responsibility for hazardous waste facilities
 will be promulgated.
                                             SW-14

-------
     'Jrder the BEJ concept, EPA will Issue permits to any facility that uses "best
available technology."  As technologies evolve, EPA will translate them into more stringent
standards for facilities.  Revising permits to incorporate new technology will ensure the
continued uparading of facilities.

     Some refinements to existing RCRA regulations were made in parly 1981: mining and
cenent kiln waste exemptions (Sections 1006, 2002(a) and 3001); small quantity generator
standards and generator waste accumulations amendment (Section 3002); Hazardous Waste
spill response exemption (Section 3004); and clarification of Interim Status recuirements
(Section 3004). Further refinements of regulations will be carried out through issuance of
Regulation Interpretation Memoranda (RIMS) or Technical Amendments to the Regulations
(TARS).

     In addition, major efforts are being directed towards the full, second year of the
industrial waste evaluation program to develop wastestream specific information as the
basis for further Section 3001 waste listings and Section 3004 regulations.

     Based upon the criteria established for this program to analyze 23 industry segments,
the highest priority industries for analysis and regulation are organic chemicals and
organic chemical products.  These will  be the focus of EPA's industrial waste work and
contract funding plan.

     Activities include:

     - conducting special listing studies to provide support for review of delist-
       ing petitions, to justify near-term listings, and to provide litigation
       support;

     - developing of methods, procedures and tests to identify the harmful
       contaminants in complex industrial waste streams;

     - sampling and analyzing wastestreams to determine their hazardous character-
       istics and the seriousness of their hazard; and

     - conducting economic impact analysis to cost out the regulatory requirements
       for storage, incineration, treatment and land disposal facilities; determine
       impact of costs on affected industry; analyze recordkeeping and reporting
       burden of the regulations; and develop environmental  impact statements
       on regulations

     In addition, during 1981 a plan will be developed to begin to address one or more of
the other priority industry segments such as inorganic chemicals,  agricultural services,
wood preserving, textile mill products, electroplating and metal  finishing, and paints and
allied products.

     Limited engineering analysis, sampling and analysis, waste management tpchnology
assessment and pollutant fate and effects analysis activities will be continued for mining
and utility wastes.

     In support of the synthetic fuels  initiative, the Agency will conduct waste management
studies for the developing synfuels industry.  These studies will  be designed to identify
and characterize all  solid wastes generated from synfuel processes (oil shale, coal liqui-
fication/gasification, gasphol  and geothermal).  An in-depth characterization study will
include tqxicity, corrosivity, reactivity and ignitability tests  as outMned in RCSA §3001;
organic analysis to scan for priority pollutants and metals; and  chronic and acute bio-
logical tests to identify mutagenic and carcinogenic constituents.  Studies to investigate
alternative management practices for the purposes of developing best management standards
for the synfuels industry will  be conducted.

     To accompany these activities, a full fledged industry assistance program to help
industry comply with. RCRA regulations will be maintained.  The RCRA hotline will  become
operational  early in 1981 and alternatives for dissemination of industry-assistance infor-
mation i.e.  workshops or training modules, will be planned.
                                             SW-15

-------
     Headquarters will also continue to develop and deliver guidance and training on initial
implementation of the regulations.  A technical and procedural  guidance manual  pertaining
to RCRA Section 3005 consolidated permit regulations will be developed and guidance on the
development of State Work Programs covering authorized State programs, cooperative arrange-
rents and allocation of  ;rant funds is being issued.  Further,  training modules covering
RCRA Implementation issues will  be continued and Headquarters staff will provide assistance
and guidance to regions in development of quality assurance programs and plans.

     An evaluation of initial implementation methods, activities and policies and adequacy
of basic RCRA strategies will be conducted.  Overall evaluation of progress in  development
and administration of the Subtitle C program will be the basis  for enhancing and
strengthening program elements,  through refinements to regulations, before final authori-
zation of States, in 1933.  Policies affecting national progress in hazardous waste
management such as facility siting, will continue to be defined and analyzed,

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of 5644,200 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a  decrease
of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The  reduction applied to this
activitly is $.28,300.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel cost by $850,000; a decrease of 35,000 was
applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general  reduction of $7 million to the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation; a  decrease of $632,000 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congess reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 miHion; a decrease of 365,500
was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $284,800 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and
is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-boaH needs resulted
in a transfer of 5470,700: from  solid waste regulations, guidelines and policies ($179,500);
resource conservation regulations, guidelines and policies ($267,500) and technical
information development ($23,700)

     - Reprogramming of ^107,800 to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in orrler to reflect
the establishment of the uncontrolled hazardous waste site program.

     - Transfer of 555,000 from  regulations, guideline's and policies-solid waste, in
order to support industrial waste evaluation program activities.

     - Transfer of 3117,000 to program management, nationwide support costs, in order to
meet increased RCRA progratimatic requirements.

     - Transfer of $80,600 to personnel administration in order to provide additional
resources to administer the RCRA programmatic increases.

     - Offsetting transfers between hazardous waste management  regulatory strategies
implementation and regulations,  guidelines and policies hazardous waste in order to
realign funds required to support hazardous waste activities. Salaries and Expenses
(+$1,000,000) and Abatement, Control  and Compliance (-$1,000,000).  The offsetting
transfers are in hazardous waste management regulatory strategies implementation.

     - Transfer of $364,000 to regulations, guidelines and policies/resource conservation
and recovery in order to support the immediate need to begin evaluation of dioxin confami-
nation in the resource recovery  plant stacks.

     - A transfer of $54,500 was made to the radiation media in order to support
the Radiation Policy Council.
                                             SW-16

-------
1982	Plan

     Resources required for this program are 112 permanent workyears and $26,38.1 ..200
of which 56,134,200 is for Salaries and Exoenses and 520,247,000 for Abatement, Control
and Compliance.  Abatement, Control and Compliance funds will support regulatory refinement
of the hazardous waste program under Subtitle C through the industry study program,
economic and regulatory analysis of the actual and indirect impacts of RCRA regulations
and development of waste disposal guidance for synfuels industries.

     The effective development refinement, and implementation of the regulatory program
in the future requires the rapid establishment of an extensive information base on the
generation, composition, management, and ultimate fate of wastes produced by industry.

     Due to the large, but unknown number of process streams industry uses to produce
its products and the time and costs involved in studying each process stream, a number
of years will  be required for the industry studies to achieve a broad industry coverage.
Thus, it is necessary to continue to focus efforts in 1982 on a few industry segments,
based upon the criteria established to prioritize potential impact of waste from an
industry on public health and the environment.  The outputs of these studies, addressing
the organic chemicals industry first, will support the first Phase III Subtitle C regula-
tions through:

     - support for and expansion/refinement of the RCRA Section 3001 list of
       hazardous wastes.

     - development of RCRA Section 3004 industry specific waste management
       guidance or renditions in those cases where unique waste properties or
       particular environmental  impacts necessitate tailored management
       requirements.

     - accomplishment of a more integrated approach to regulations for an industry
       or industry segment under RCRA and other Acts (e.g. Clean Water Act, Clean
       Air Act or Toxic Substances Control Act) when significant environmental
       or economic benefits are achievable from such an approach*

     The synfuels proqram will continue.  Identification, characterization and analysis
of solid wastes generated from synfuels processes and investigation of alternative
management practices  will be explored.  The output of these activities will be the
development of waste  disposal  guidance for synfuels technologies.

     Industry assistance to industries and their trade associations will ^e expanded by
developing technology transfer tools and examining avenues for innovative or cooperative
approaches to  hazardous wasta problems.  Manuals and implementation projects will  be
developed to help affected industries understand Subtitle 7 regulation and how they
apply, in terns meaningful to the concerned industrial sectors.

     An important extramural component of the hazardous waste program in 1982 will be
economic and regulatory analyses of the actual  and indirect' impacts of the P>CRA regulations
on various economic sectors and  geographic areas.

     Other Office of  Solid Waste activities will include the promulgation and defense
of additional  Section 3001 Hazardous Waste listing and delisting regulations  :id
evaluation of alternative treatment technologies prior to refinement and development
of Section 3004 regulations.  Maintenance and enhancement of the hazardous waste data
management system and continued development of the Consolidated Permit ADP system
will occur.  Further, assessment of implementation progress during interim authorization;
provision of guidance to States and Regions on implementation policies and requirements,
particularly for development of facility permits based on Phase II 53004 technical
standards, and oversight of regional implementation of quality assurance plans submitted
in 1981 will take place.
                                              SW-17

-------
the Urban Policy Program to move into the second phase of their planning for projects
to convert municipal solid waste to useable energy and materials,  A contract to
provide a model to assist EPA and grantees in technical project management was completed
and workshops to train grantees in the model's use took place.  Headquarters provided
national oversight of regional management of the grants and evaluated the grantees'
use of funds in the first phase.

     In 1980 comprehensive evaluation of several resource recovery systems on commercial-
scale facilities, such as evaluation of co-disposal systems; refusefired energy systems
in Europe and small modular incinerators with heat recovery were completed.  The evaluations
of the technological, operational, economic, environmental and institutional aspects of
performance of resource recovery systems expanded the knowledge base available to local
decision-makers.

     Nine resource recovery seminars and an ongoing Resource Recovery Implementation
Guide supplied information to support technology transfer among State and local public
administrators.

     A draft of an interagency 5-year plan for Federal resource conservation and recovery
programs was completed in conjunction with the Departments of Energy and Commerce.

     As a result of the discovery of dioxin contamination in a resource recovery plant, a
dioxin risk assessment program, including the development of sampling protocols, was
initiated.  The Agency will collect samples from resource recovery plants, analyze samples
for dioxins and other compounds and determine what risk levels are associated with the
compounds found.  In 1980 one resource recovery plant was sampled.

1981Program

     The 1981 allocation for this program is 8 permanent workyears and SI,211,000 of
which 3374,500 is for Salaries and Expenses and $836,500 is for Abatement, Control and
Compliance.

     Headquarters vn'll maintain its oversight and evaluation of ongoing regional management
of the Urban Policy grant program to assist selected local governments complete their
feasibility studies, procurement and pre-implementation activities for resource conservation
and recovery projects.  This includes providing assistance to the regions in refining
project work plans for the final phase and evaluating the progress of second phase projects.
National management of the final phases of many projects will  be continued until their
completion.

     Initial Federal procurement guidelines for fly ash as a cement supplement and recycled
paper products and composted sewage sludge under RCRA Section 6002 will  be proposed.

     The 1980 Amendments to RCRA established an Interagency Coordinating Committee on
Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Activities.  This committee is charged with the
responsibility for coordinating all activities dealing with resource conservation and
recovery from solid waste and for submitting a five-year action plan for Federal resource
conservation or recovery activities to Congress in 1981 and annually thereafter.

     The Agency will work with the Office of Management and Budget and Departments of
Interior and Treasury to develop the final  interagency 5-year plan for resource recovery.
The plan will help systematize long-term planning.

     Evaluation will be continued on selected resource recovery systems such as the A?!DCO-
TORAX pyrolysis plant in Frankfurt, Germany and reports will be issued on the design and
performance of state-of-the-art and commercial technologies, particularly in regard to
small-scale usage.  This activity will form a contribution to the ongoing recovery seminars
organized by EPA to aid decision-makers and expand resource recovery.

     In 1931, the Agency will expand the d-ioxin risk assessment program by publishing
documents which specify risk levels of compounds found in resource recovery plants and
by initiating an Agency olan for a comparative risk analysis of alternative waste
management strategies.
                                          SW-20

-------
1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     - The net decrease of $397,800 results from several  actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease
of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to the
activity is 34,800.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of 52,300
was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a  decrease
of $500 was applied to the activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by S2 million; a decrease  of
$500 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $29,200 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogramrm'ngs to realign salary and related costs to meet on-boarrt needs
resulted in a transfer of $179,500 to regulations, guidelines and policies-
hazardous waste.                                    .        .

     - A transfer of $9,4PO was made to the radiation media in order to support' the
Radiation Policy Council.

     - Transfer of $175,000 to regulations quidelines and policies/resource conservation
and recovery in order to support the immediate need to begin evaluation of dioxin
contamination in resource recovery plant stacks.

     - Transfer of $55,000 to regulations guidelines and polices/hazardous waste in
order to support industrial waste evaluation program activities.

1982 Plan

     For 1982, the Agency requests 13 permanent workyears and $1,047,400, of which
$594,100 is for Salaries and Expenses and $453,300 is for Abatement, Control and Compli-
ance.  Abatement, Control and Compliance funds will be used to support guidance for
solid waste management in accordance with Federal criteria and State Plans; national
management of the Open Dump Inventory; and development of Clean Water Act, Section 405
regulations.

     Through national management and coordination, Headquarters will emphasize States'
implementation of their approved solid waste management plans and States' continued
evaluation of disposal facilities for the Open Dump Inventory.  Guidance on technical
and policy issues of solid waste management planning and implementation will continue.

     Clean Water Act Section 405 guidelines concerning the marketing and distribution
of sludge will be promulgated.  Additional guidelines to satisfy requirements  of both
CWA and RCP.A for sludge management will be proposed and finalized for promulgation.
Sludge incineration, energy recovery, landfilling, landspreading anH disposal  of sludge
in surface inpoundnents are expected to be covered in promulgations beginning in 19?2.

     The Office of Solid Waste will continue to participate in the further development
of the groundwater strategy to include criteria for classifying groundwater.

REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, POLICIES/RESOURCE RECOVERY

1S80 Accomplishments

     In 1980, obligations totaled $925,300, of which $549,700 was used for-extramural
purposes.  Follow-up funding of $10 million was provided for the 61 urban grantees of
                                             SW-19

-------
REGULATIONS. GUIDELINES. POLICIES/SOLID HASTE

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980, obligations totaled $1,833,200, of which $963,100 was used for extramural
purposes.  Guidance on implementation of the RCRA §4004 Criteria for Classification of
Sanitary Landfills, such as Landfill Performance Evaluation, and 'on conduct of the
States' disposal site inventory v/as developed and distributed.  The §4004 criteria
specified conditions that must be met regarding flood plains, surface water, ground
water, application to land producing food chain crops, disease, air quality and safety
before sites are classified as environmentally acceptable.  All non-complying land
disposal facilities are identified and published in the open dump inventory and put on
compliance schedules to either upgrade or close the sites.  Approximately 1100-1200
open dumps were identified in 1980, in preparation for the first Inventory publication.

     Work continued on development of Clean Water Act (CWA) §405 regulations on municipal
wastewater treatment sludge disposal and utilization, particularly for the distribution
and marketing, (such as give-away or sale) of processed sludge.

     Additionally, EPA conducted studies on ground water monitoring, landfill, land
spreading and surface impoundment design and operation to support refinement of technical
guidance for States and regions on solid waste disposal.  A final report on landfill
methane recovery was issued.

     The Office of Solid Waste participated in the development of the Agency Groundwater
Strategy that would use existing laws and programs in a better coordinated, more effective
manner to protect the quality of United States groundwater.

1981 Program

   .  In 1981, the Apency has allocated 13 permanent workyears and $942,200 to this program,
of which $517,200 is for Salaries and Expenses and $425,000 is for Abatement, Control
and Compliance.  The Headquarters program will continue to concentrate on national
management of the Open Dump Inventory, and publication of the first installment of the
Inventory.  States will  evaluate the accuracy of this data prior to publication of the
first installment of the Inventory in 1981.  Additional  installments will be published
annually thereafter.  A proposed modification to the public participation requirement
for State planning guidelines, to provide more input to owners and operators of facilities,
will be promulgated upon analysis of public comment.

     Given the broad scope of the State solid waste management plans and the number of
?tate agencies and organizations to be involved, EPA will continue to provide comprehensive
guidance on implementation as States'  plans are approved by EPA in 1981.

     Regulations concerning the distribution and marketing of sewage sludge products
under Section 405 of the Clean Water Act will be proposed in 1981.  The objective of the
regulation is to protect the public from toxic substances and pathogens that may be
present in some sludges  and to encourage resource recovery through the beneficial use  of
sludge as a fertilizer or soil conditioner.  A sludge characterization study will supply
information for use in development of further sljidge management regulations.

     As a result of the  1981  proposed groundwater strategy and ongoing groundwater
monitoring and protection technology evaluations, the Office of Solid Waste will  issue
refinements to the groundwater parts of RCRA regulations.

     The Office of Solid Waste will participate with the Food and Drug Administration
and the Department of Agriculture in the development and publication of Solid Waste
Policy Guidance to food  processors and growers for use of good quality municipal  sludges
for production of fruits and vegetables.
                                            SW-18

-------
1981 Explanation of Changefrom Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $265,000 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted. President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses
The reduction applied to this activity is $4,200.

     - The Congress reduced angencywide travel cost by $850,000, a decrease of
52,30.0 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywfde consulting service by $3.8 million; a
decrease of $1,100 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general  reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement,
Control and Compliance approprtaiton;  a decrease of $13,500 was applied to
this activity.

     - The Cong-3ss reduced agencywide AQP services by $2 million; a decrease
of $6,800 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $21,400 results  from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     * Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in a transfer of $267,500 to  regulations guidelines and policies/
hazardous waste.

     - Transfers resulted in a decrease of $539,000 from regulations, guidelines
and polices/solid waste ($175,000) and from regulations, guidelines and policies/
hazardous waste ($364.000) to support  the immediate need to begin evaluation
of dioxin contamination in resource recovery plant stacks.

1982 Plan

     The 1932 resources requested for  the program are 8 permanent workyears and
SI,518,900, of which $385,600 is for Salaries and Expenses and $1,133,300 is for
Abatement, Control and Compliance.  The Abatement, Control and Compliance funds will
be used to analyze the environmental impact of resource recovery systems and dioxin
contamination in resource recovery facilities.

     EPA will  continue to carry out national management, oversight and evaluation
activities for the final phase of the  remaining local resource recovery grant projects.

     Funding to the outstanding urban  grant projects will be allocated and management
of the close-out of the 61 cooperative agreements will begin in order to terminate the
Federal role in the grant program in FY 1982.  Many of the projects will proceed to
construction within several years.  Aside from the potentially benefitting population
and the capital construction expenditures, the projects are enhancing the waste management
decision-making capabilities of municipal officials, indicating a high likelihood for
successful resource recovery system implementation.

     An annual update of the Interagency 5-year Resource Recovery Plan will be prepared
for submission to Congress.  Further development of RCRA Section 6002 guidelines specifying
the recycled content in federally procured office paper, highway construction materials
and compost will occur prior to promulgation in 1982.  Resource recovery seminars to
support information and technology transfer to local decision makers will continue to
be designed and sponsored.

     In 1982, the dioxin risk assessment program will be further expanded by evaluation
of operating characteristics and environmental impacts of commercial scale resource
recovery facilities, with emphasis on  facility wastes' contamination by dioxin or
other toxic substances, and preparation of a report which will identify conclusions
including impact on the concept of resource recovery.
                                         SW-21

-------
                                         SOLID  WASTE

                                    Financial  Assistance


                                          Budget      Current                   Increase *
                               Actual    Estimate     Estimate   Estimate       Decrease -
                               1980       1981        1981        1982        1982 vs. 1981
                                             (dollars  in thousands)

Appropri at 1 on
Hazardous Waste Manage-
 ment Financial Assistance
 to States:
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance...,.,.,	   $18,082     $30,000     $30,000    $41,700       +$11,700

Solid Waste Management
 Financial Assistance
 to States:
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	    14,011      8,000        8,000       6,000         -2,000

Resource Recovery Local
 Financial Assistance;
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	    13.899     10.000        4.000       6.600         +2.600

Total
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance.............    45,992     48,000       42,000     54,300         +12,300


Permanent Positions             ...          ...         ...        ...            ...

Full-time Equivalency           ...          ...         ....         90            +90- -


Budget Request

     The Agency request for this budget  subactivity is $54,300,000 for the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation, an increase of  $12,300,000.  This reflects a
decrease of $2,000,000 for solid waste management grants to States due to the  5-year
phase out of Federal financial assistance under Subtitle 0 of RCRA,-  An increase of
$11,700,000 is requested for hazardous waste management grants to States for Subtitle
C implementation.  $6,600,000 is requested in  local resource recovery financial
assistance to complete funding of the 61 projects initiated in 1979.  This resource
recovery financial assistance reflects an increase of $2,600,000  from the 1981 level.

Program Description

    This subactivity provides financial  assistance to  State governments for developing
and implementing hazardous and non-hazardous waste management programs under Subtitles
C and 0 of RCRA.  Under this subactivity financial assistance is  also currently provided
to local government grantees for resource and  energy  recovery projects consistent with
§4002(a)(2) of RCRA.
                                            SW-22

-------
Hazardous Waste Management Financial Assistance

    This program provides financial assistance to States in developing, implementing and
enforcing programs to control hazardous wastes from "cradle to grave" including storage,
treatment, transportation and disposal.  States awarded grants must either be operating
a "substantially equivalent" hazardous waste program under interim authorization, or
working toward interim authorization through a cooperative arrangement.  Grant targets
are allocated on a formula basis which accounts for a State's population, area, number'
of hazardous waste generators, amount of hazardous waste, and the portion of the Federal
program the State is operating.

Solid Waste Management Financial Assistance to States

    This program provides grants to State solid waste management agencies under Subtitle
D of RCRA.  Grants are awarded on the basis of State population.  The grants support
State solid waste activities under RCRA including the inventory of all solid waste
land disposal sites, completion of State solid waste management plans, and implementa-
tion of State regulatory programs for the management of nonhazardous waste.

Local Resource Recovery Financial Assistance

    This program provides assistance, as part of the Urban Policy Program initiated in
1979, to 61 grantees undertaking a three-phase project leading to implementation of
resource and energy recovery systems in their communities.  This program is planned
for funding through 1982.

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

1980 Accompli shments

    Grants totalling $18,082,200 were awarded in 1980.  Financial assistance was allocated
to all States for use in developing a substantially equivalent hazardous waste program
eligible for interim authorization.  States worked to establish legislative and regulatory
powers required to operate a program which regulates the same wastes, manages the same
aspects of hazardous waste operations (generation, transportation, treatment, storage and
disposal), and provides substantially equivalent protection to human health and the
environment as the Federal program.  Phase I interim authorization is keyed to the RCRA
Phase I regulatory program and applies to the States generator and transporter requirements
and preliminary facility standards.  States also continued to hire and/or train staff,
within their resource constraints, capable to develop and implement a hazardous waste
management program.

    In 1980 States prepared to apply for Phase I interim authorization status.  To receive
interim authorization - Phase I or Phase II - a State program is required to have:

    - legislative authority adequate for the State to carry out its responsi-
bility for that phase;

    - regulations in effect necessary to implement the requirements of that phase;

    - control over a substantial majority of hazardous wastes generated, transported,
treated, stored and disposed of in the State;

    - capacity to inspect, monitor, and require record keeping, reporting and monitoring
iri order to determine compliance with the requirements of that phase;

    - enforcement capabilities adequate to ensure compliance with the requirements
of that phase; and

    - adequate resources to administer and enforce the requirements of that phase.

1981 Program

    The total current estimate for this program is $30,000,000 for Abatement, Control
and Compliance.  This reflects an increase of $11,917,800 over the 1980 obligated
level reflecting the priority status afforded the management of hazardous waste.
These funds will allow States to continue to develop and implement hazardous waste
management programs.
                                           SW-23

-------
     In early 1981, States will begin to receive interim authorization.  Interim
authorized States will be eligible for their full grant allocation established by
formula.  Six months after promulgation of the Federal Phase II Standards States
will be eligible to apply for Phase II interim authorization.  Phase II authorization
will be granted to those States already authorized for Phase I, and to those States
applying for Phase I and II authorization simultaneously.  It is expected that during
the  period of interim authorization States will upgrade their programs to qualify
them for final authorization.

     States ineligible for interim authorization in 1981 can receive grant funds to
continue developing a program eligible for authorization, and to operate aspects of
the  Federal program as negotiated through Cooperative Arrangements,  these unauthorized
States will enter into Cooperative Arrangements with EPA in which an application for
financial assistance is combined with a plan for working toward authorization.  Funding
of Cooperative Arrangement States will be based on negotiated tasks.  Unobligated
funds, after negotiation with Cooperative Arrangement States, will be reprogrammed to
the  Regions to support implementation of the federal hazardous waste program.

     In 1981 interim authorized States will use funds to begin to implement procedures
for  the permitting program, assign priorities for facility permitting and initiate
processing of permit applications from any new or expanded facility.

1981 Explanation_of Change from Budget Estimate

    There is no change to this activity.

1982 Plan

    EPA requests a total of $41,700,000 in Hazardous Waste Management Financial
Assistance for Abatement, Control and Compliance.  This reflects an increase of
$11,700,000 over the 1981 level.

     In 1982 most States will be operating under Phase II interim authorization.  If
the Phase II regulations are promulgated in two stages, in late 1982 States may apply
for  the second stage of Phase II authorization.  States will continue to upgrade
their programs to achieve full authorization.                                   —

     A primary activity of the States in 1982 will be permitting of treatment, storage,
and  disposal facilities.  Per EPA policy, priority facilities for permitting include
new  and expanding facilities, and those facilities with the greatest potential for
causing severe environmental and public health problems.  States will evaluate permits
against EPA promulgated "best engineering judgment" standards; these will require an
extensive case-by-case analysis, which EPA contractors will be available to help
provide.

     States with interim authorization, and most States under Cooperative Arrangements,
will also continue to operate the tracking aspects of hazardous waste management.
The manifest program, initiated in 1981, will be the major tool for tracking hazardous
wastes from generation to disposal.  States will also process discrepancy/exception
reports filed alerting the State and EPA to lost,, misplaced, or delayed shipments of
waste.

     The 1982 request for this grant program includes 90 positions that may be used
for  the State Assignee program pending the Administration's final approval of their
use.  These positions will be used to quickly and temporarily augment State staff
required to effectively implement the hazardous waste program with federally recruited
personnel.
                                           SW-24

-------
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO STATES

1980 Accomplishments

    In 1980 solid waste management financial assistance totaled $14,011,100.  States
continued to develop their State comprehensive solid waste management plans consistent
with the requirements of Subtitle D of RCRA.  States also established legislative
and regulatory authority, where it had not previously existed, necessary to oversee
and manage non-hazardous waste, and strengthened their capability to assume solid
waste management responsibilities consistent with RCRA.

     A major activity in 1980 was the initial inventory of solid waste land disposal
sites.  States evaluated sites against the RCRA §4004 Criteria for Classifying Solid
Waste Disposal Facilities.  The State strategy 1n site evaluation was to Identify
priority sites and those sites most Hkely to be causing damage to the environment
or public health.  The States were responsible for overseeing closing, openings and
upgradings of sanitary landfills under Subtitle 0 of RCRA*

    The States, with EPA assistance, continued to work to identify and develop long-term
financial alternatives to support the solid waste management program.  The strategy
most suitable for a specific State should be implemented within a five-year period,
to coincide with the phase-out of Federal financial assistance which began in 1980.

1981 Program

    The current estimate for this program 1s $8,000,000 for Abatement, Control and
Compliance.  This reflects a $6,011,100 decrease over the 1980 obligated level,
reflecting the 5-year phase-out of Federal financial assistance under Subtitle D of
RCRA.

    The management of the lend disposal site inventory will continue in 1981.  Highest
priority sites will be identified and evaluated first, consistent with the strategy
developed in previous years.  The States will continue to oversee the closing,
upgradings, and openings of land disposal sites within their jurisdiction.  This
State activity will continue to be the primary use of Subtitle D grant funds.

    The Solid Waste Management Plans will be completed in early 1981 and submitted
to EPA for review and approval.  The States will implement the approved Plans using
their established legislative authority and regulatory powers.  To remain eligible
for funds, States will revise and resubmit plans not approved to EPA.

    The States will continue to identify and implement alternative funding strategy
to assure an adequate and self supporting solid waste management program by 1985.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

    There is no change to this activity.

1982 Plan

    EPA requests a total of $6,000,000 under this program for Abatement, Control and
Compliance.  This reflects a decrease of $2,000,000 from the 1981 level reflecting
the 5-year phase out of Federal financial assistance under Subtitle 0 of RCRA,

    In 1982 States will  begin to implement the comprehensive Solid Haste Management
Plans approved by EPA in 1981.  States will complete revisions of the plans or sections
of the plans as necessary to fully comply with RCRA requirements.

    The States will continue to invest at least 60 percent of federal funds in conducting
the inventory of solid waste land disposal sites using the Criteria for Classifying
Solid Waste Disposal -acilities.  Major emphasis will continue to be on priority sites.
                                            SW-25

-------
LOCAL RESOURCE RECOVERY FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

1980 .
    1980 obligations totaled 313,899,200.  In i960, EPA provided funds to 61 communities
selected a year earlier for resource recovery grants under the Urban Policy Program.
These funds are awarded in as many as three phases -- feasibility analysis (Phase
I), planning procurement (Phase II) and procurement (Phase III),  In 1980, 31 projects
were completely funded through Phase II.  These activities will improve the probability
of successful implementation of resource and energy recovery systems by the participating
communities.  The Federal financial assistance helps overcome a major barrier to
urban resource recovery implementation of inadequate funding for planning activities.
The 61 projects being supported represent nearly 20% of the national municipal solid
waste stream.  The projects also represent a potential total construction expenditure
of over $4 billion and will provide over 2,000 permanent jobs.

    A preliminary evaluation performed in 1980 indicated thf-s program is establishing
the necessary national momentum towards resource recovery as a preferred solid
waste management technique.  Examples include a source separation project in New
Britain, Connecticut in which the community planned and implemented a city-wide curb
side source separation program, and a Hillsboro County, Florida project in which the
county developed regional solid waste authority to implement several large scale
resource recovery projects in the near future.

    Federal emphasis on resource and energy recovery, through this financial assistance
program, is crucial to a self-sustaining resource and energy recovery industry and
to community confidence in the availability and operating experience of resource
recovery systems.  Federal  encouragement, as is currently being provided, is creating
both the technical, financial, legal and management skills and the local community
markets to maintain a nationally visible level of resource recovery implementation.

1 981 Program

    The total current estimate for this progam is $4,000,000 for Abatement, Control
and Compliance.  EPA will continue funding for feasibility studies, procurement
planning, and project development activities to improve the probability of successful
Implementation of resource and energy recovery systems by participating communities.

    Seven projects (Portland, Oregon; Central Massachusetts; Virgin Islands; San Francisco;
Baltimore; Bell County, Kentucky; and New York/ New Jersey, Port Authority) in the resource
recovery grant program will be implemented in 1981.  These projects will complete the
procurement planning stage and move towards the selling of bonds to finance the actual
procurement of the system.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

    The Congress applied a  reduction of $6,000,000 to resource recovery grants.

1982 Plan

    The total current estimate for this program is $6,600,000 for Abatement, Control
and Compliance, which represents an increase of $2,600,000 from the 1981 current
estimate.  The resources will be used to fulfill the commitment made to this program
and to fully fund and conclude projects from the original solicitation.

    The funding will  extend and complete Federal support to the communities for their
remaining activities to fully implement a resource recovery system.  Most grant
recipients will be in final project stages such as bid preparation and evaluation,
preparation of contracts to secure markets and waste supply for the system; site
selection; and public participation.
                                            SW-25

-------
                                   SOLID WASTE
                    Waste Management Strategies Implementation

                                       Budget    Current                 Increase +
                            Actual    Estimate   Estimate   Estimate     Decrease -
                             1980       1981       1931    •   1982     1982 vs. 1981
                                          (dollars in thousands)
Appropriation
Hazardous Waste
 Management Regulatory
  Strategies Implementation:
   Salaries and Expenses...
   Abatement, Control
    and Compliance	

Solid Waste Management
 Program Implementation:
  Salaries and Expenses...
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance.........
Total:
  Salaries and Expenses.,
  Abatement, Control
   and Compliance........
$3,092
93
1,309
15
4,401
108
$9,052
3,018
1,078
15
10,130
3,033
$6,973
3,994
1,145
15
8,118
4,009
$7,754
2,958
873
15
8,627
2,973
+$781
-1,036
-272
* * •
+509
-1,036
Grand Total,
4,509
Permanent Po si t i ons—
Hazardous Waste Management
 Regulatory Strategies
 Implementation 	
Solid Waste Management
 Program Implementation ..
Total,
Full-time Equivalency
Hazardous Waste Management
 Regulatory Strategies
 Implementation ..........

Solid Waste Management
 Program Implementation...
  138
Total
  160
Budget Request
13,163
12,127    11,600
           -527
98
40
227
35
219
34
195
25
-24
-9
   262
   253
220
-33
112
48
275
38
265
36
244
28
-21
-8
   313
   301
272
-29
     The resources requested for this budget subactivity are $11,599,300 and 220
permanent workyears allocated to national hazardous and solid waste management
as follows.

     The resources requested for hazardous waste are $10,711,700 and 195 perma-
nent workyears.  This includes a total of $7,753,600 for Salaries and Expenses
and 52,953,100 for Abatement, Control and Compl 1ance-an increase of 5780,900 In
Salaries and Expenses and a decrease of $1,036,000 in Abatement, Control and
r.-yipliance.  The net change is a decrease of $255,100.  Permanent workyears
decrease by 24.  The continued availability of the permit assistance contract
from 1981 lessens the need for Abatement, Control and Compliance resources for
1982.

     The Solid Waste resource request totals $887,600 and 25 permanent workyears,
of rfhich 3372,600 is for Salaries and Expenses and $15,000 is for Abatement,
Control and Compliance.  This represents a decrease of 9 permanent workyears and
5272,900, resulting from a lessening of support  requirements stemming from a
reduced level  of Subtitle D grant resources. .

-------
 Program Description

 Hazardous Waste Management

     The Hazardous Waste Management Regulatory Strategies Implementation program
 incorporates the regional activities necessary to oversee and operate when required,
 the RCRA mandated hazardous waste program.  Under Subtitle C.of RCRA, regions
 assist States in developing substantially equivalent hazardous waste management
 programs to qualify for interim authorization, and equivalent programs to qualify
 for final authorization when applicable.  The regions' responsibility includes
 administration of the program (day-to-day management and special  problem solving),
 and either operation of programs In lieu of delegated State responsibility or
 oversight of State operation.  Major activities include the manifest system,
 technical review of permits, quality control, and programs to assure compliance
 with RCRA hazardous waste regulations.

 Solid Waste Implementation

     The Solid Waste Management Program Implementation program includes regional
 activities that increase the ability of States to implement solid waste management
 programs under Subtitle D of RCRA.  The EPA regions oversee State procedures for
 conducting the Solid Waste disposal  site inventory required under Subtitle D of
 RCRA; assist States in developing their comprehensive Solid Waste Management
 Plans and in developing and implementing the non-hazardous waste regulatory
 program; manage the Urban Policy Resource Recovery grants within their Region;
 and negotiate grant-funded solid waste activities with the States.

 HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

 1980Accomplishments

     In 1980,  obligations totaled $3,185,300, of which $93,200 was used for
 extramural  purposes.  The major activity of the regions was support to the States
 to develop and implement programs qualifying them for interim authorization.
 Regions assisted the States in developing legislative authority,  regulatory
 powers, and program strategy required to implement a substantially equivalent
 hazardous waste program, and assisted States prepare the Phase I  Interim Author-
 ization application packages.

     In 1980,  the regions were responsible for the negotiation, award, and over-
 sight of State hazardous waste grants to assist States in continuing to develop
 hazardous waste management programs.  The regions also negotiated the hazardous
waste portion  of the State/EPA agreements with other participating programs.

     The regions were integrally Involved in the notification process.  They
responded to information requests from candidate hazardous waste handlers,
assisted notifiers in completing the forms, and provided various  procedural  and
public education support activities.  As of September 30, 1980, 59,000 notifica-
tions had been received.

     The regions strengthened their own capabilities to implement a Federal
hazardous waste program in unauthorized States.  Activities critical to implemen-
tation of the  program include technical review of permit applications.  They
also enhanced  their capability to operate other RCRA required hazardous waste
programs including manifest systems, and Agency quality assurance programs.

     The regions also began advising facility owners and operators on application
 procedures  for RCRA hazardous waste  permits, processing approximately 25,000
 initial  requests for Part A permit application packages in 1980,  and assisting
applicants  in  the completion of the  application when difficulties arose.


     By filing a Part A application, consisting of general  information-concerning
the facility and a hazardous waste permit application, the facility is entitled
to interim status.  The regions processed Part A applications, as submitted,
beginning in late 1980.
                                      SW-28

-------
1981 Program

     The total current estimate for this program is 219 permanent workyears and
$10,965,800 of which $6,972,700 is for Salaries and Expenses and $3,994,100 is
for Abatement, Control and Compliance.

     In 19S1 the regions will continue to negotiate, award and administer the
State hazardous waste grants, and coordinate the hazardous waste portion of the
annual  State/EPA agreements with other participating programs.  In States not
achieving interim authorization but desiring to operate elements of the hazard-
ous waste program, the regions will negotiate specific portions of the hazardous
waste program for which the States will be responsible.  The grants awarded to
these Cooperative Arrangement States will reflect these negotiations.  With the
approval of the Administrator, the Agency will reprogram unobligated grant funds
to defray the costs of operating a Federal  program in unauthorized and non-parti-
cipating States.  These reprogrammed funds will supplement the regions'
contractor support funds.

     In 1931, the regions will work extensively with States applying for interim
authorization.  The regions assist States in preparing a draft plan for submission
to EPA for review and comment and subsequent revision by the States as necessary.
After receiving the States' revised packages, the regions review the application
for completeness and initiate the 30-day public comment proceedings.  Regions
review and respond to the comments received and issue an approval/ disapproval
of Phase I Interim authorization.  The regions anticipate that 24 States will
achieve interim authorization during 1981.

     During 1Q81 the regions are responsible for overseeing interim-authorized
States' work toward Phase II and final  authorization.  Regions will assist States
applying for Phase II interim authorization in late 1981.  The regional over-
sight activities in 19S1  include technical  guidance to both States and hazardous
waste management facilities on operation of the manifest system and review of
exception/discrepancy reports; monitoring the States' program authorization
status; ensuring consistent implementation of interim standards; and identifica-
tion and resolution of problems that occur during implementation.

     The implementation of hazardous waste management programs in unauthorized
States is also the regions' responsibility.  Regional activities include the
implementation and operation of the manifest system and handling exception/
discrepancy -eports; providing review and technical  evaluation of facility permits;
and responding to questions and resolving problems of generators, transporters
and facility owners regarding the hazardous waste regulations.  The regions will
operate the Federal  hazardous waste program until  the States achieve interim or
final authorization.  Reprogrammed State hazardous waste grant funds will help
support regional  operation of the federal program.

     During early 1981 regions will continue to process Part A pemit requests.
Sased upon the permit priority system giving priority to new, model and potentially
dangerous facilities, the regions will  begin calling for Part B applications.
Permitting will  be initiated for these on-site and off-site treatment and disposal
facilities in late 1931.   Regions will  use  Best Engineering Judgment (3EJ) standards
to begin to develop oermits for facilities  in unauthorized States, and oversee
technical  permitting activities in interim authorized States.  Permit applications
will require a case-by-case evaluation and  technical review.  The evaluation and
review techniques developed in 1981 will be the basis for modifying strategy to
carry on extensive permitting in 1982.   The extramural  resources in 1981 fund
contractor support to the regions and the States by providing technical support
in evaluating individual  permit applications and enhancing regional technical
permitting oversight activities for interim authorized States.

     In early 1981, the regions will  continue to process notification fonns as
late and new hazardous waste handlers notify.  The regions also will be responsi-
ble for handling new notifications required as EPA promulgates additions to
the P»CRA 53001 listing regulations.
                                      SW-29

-------
1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $1,103,100 results from several actions, as follows:

   - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
The reduction applied to this activity is $48,100.

   - The Congress reduced agencywide travel cost by $850,000; a decrease of $14,100
was applied to this activity.

   - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease
of $100,100 was applied to this activity.

   - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $47,200 was applied to this activity,

   - An increase of $426,500 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

   - Preprogramming* to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in a net transfer of -$990,500: from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites
(+$11,100); public systems supervision program assistance(+$16,400); and to water
quality environmental  emergency response and prevention(-$8,100); dredge and fill
(-$19,900); ambient water quality monitoring(-$178,300); municipal  waste treatment
facility construction(-$453,600); manpower planning and training(-$4,100); NEPA
compliance-municipal  waste facility construction(-$26,QOQ); solid waste uncon-
trolled hazardous waste sites(-$26,900); solid waste technical assistance delivery^.
headquarters(-$3,200); solid waste technical assistance delivery-regions(-$12,500);
solid waste management program implementation(-S8,300); drinking water underground
injection control program(-$ll,800); pesticides use management(-$18,800); pesticides
enforcement(-$67,600); radiation program implementation(-$2,500); noise regional
program implementation(-$13,700); interdisciplinary EIS review-air(-$5,000); EIS
review-water quality(-$7,500); energy review and permittfng(-$3,100); toxics
management(-$35,OOQ);  and to program management regional counsel (-$32,900),
regional  management{-$65,000), and regional personnel  management(-$14,200).

   - Transfer of $3,900 to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in order to cover
necessary supplies and materials.

   - Transfer of $22,900 from ambient air quality monitoring in order to provide for
sample analysis of hazardous materials.

   - Transfer of $50,000 to hazardous waste permit enforcement in order to support an
ADP contract for RCRA  notification Part A, to establish and complete the inital program
registry and data base.

   - Tranfer of $13,700 to hazardous waste enforcement in order to  provide basic lab
support.

   - Transfer of $12,000 to solid waste management program implementation in order to
provide additional  support to hold the public hearing  mandated as part of the State
plan approval  process.

   - Transfer of $1,800 to radiation program implementation in order to cover the
cost of procuring a lead brick shield and sodium-iodide crystal for the regional
radiation measurement  chamber.

   - Transfer of $7,700 to planning, evaluation and analysis in order to provide
minimum support to the regional  analytic center.

   - Transfer $3,200 from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in order to reallocate
travel  funds.

   - A transfer of $13,600 was made to the Office of Inspector General  in order to
provide additional  resources to that Office.

-------
    - Transfer of $253,000 to the  Office of  General  Counsel in  order to  provide  for
the legal  services  workload associated with hazardous  program  implementation.

    - Offsetting transfers between  hazardous waste management regulatory strategies
implementation and  regulations, guidelines  and  policies hazardous  waste in order to
realign  funds required to support  hazardous waste activities.   Salaries and Expenses
(-$1,000,000) and Abatement Control and Compliance  (+$1,000,000).  The  offsetting
transfers  are in hazardous waste management regulatory strategies  implementation.

1982 Plan

     EPA requests a total of 195 permanent  workyears and $10,771,700, of which
$7,753,600 1s for Salaries and Expenses and $2,958,100 is for  Abatement, Control
and Compliance.  This reflects a decrease of 24 permanent workyears and a decrease
of  $255,100 from the 1981 current  estimate.

     Regions in 1982 will negotiate the State hazardous waste  grants to interim
authorized and Cooperative Arrangement States.  In  Cooperative Arrangement States,
the regions will operate those aspects of the Federal  program  not  delegated to  the
States through negotiations including the technical evaluation required in the
permitting process.  Functions operated by  the region  will be  specified in State-EPA
grant negotiations.  Funds not awarded to the States will be reprogrammed to the
Agency to  help finance operation of the Federal program in unauthorized States.
As  in 1981, State Assignees will be included in the hazardous  waste grant negotia-
tions.

     Resources in 1932 allow regions to continue to administer the hazardous
waste program, and  assist the States in moving toward  final authorization.  EPA
regions will  continue the interim  authorization process, working with those
unauthorized States to develop and strengthen their programs,  and  ensuring that
all authorized programs meet the "substantial equivalence" requirements.

     Regions will assist States still lacking Phase II interim authorization
construct  the authorization packages, as they did for  Phase I  authorization. If
the Phase  II regulations are promulgated in  two stages, regions will assist all
the State  apply for the second stage of Phase II authorization  during 1982.

     Permitting of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities  will be  a focus  of
the regions in 1982. Target facilities include new and expanding facilities  to
ensure availability of adequate disposal  capacity, and those facilities  with
potential  to cause the most severe environmental and public health problems.
The permits will  be based on "Best Engineering Judgment" (BEJ)  and issued to
facilities using the best available technology.  Facilities will have to be
evaluated, therefore, on a case-by-case basis with extensive analysis to ensure
compliance with BEJ standards.  The regional technical  staff also  will  be
responsible for participating in response to public comment, and in public hear-
ings as required by RCRA before issuing a permit.

     The Abatement, Control  and Compliance resources requested  in  this  program
fund the support of contractors required to  provide in-depth technical  review
and evaluation of the permit applications and; individual  facility  evaluations
against the BEJ standards.  These resources  will allow EPA to meet the  first
year plan of the six year permitting strategy.  The initial  BEJ permits may need
to be revised as BEJ standards are refined and national standards  are promulgated.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

1980 Accomplishments

     In 1980 obligations totaled $1,323,800 of which $15,000 was used for extramural
purposes.  The regions were responsible for the negotiation, award, and oversight
of State solid waste grants to assist States in continuing to develop solid waste
management plans and fund other RCRA Subtitle D programs.  The regions-also negotiate,
award and administer the solid waste portion of the State/EPA agreements.
                                      SW-31

-------
     The regions continued to assist the States in assuming respondibiltiy for their
solid waste management programs required by Subtitle D of RCRA.  Regions provided
advice to States concerning development and implementation of State legislative
authority and regulatory powers required to manage the non-hazardous waste within
the State, and provided assistance to States as they worked toward completing their
comprehensive solid waste management plans for developing and implementing program
for disposal  of all non-hazardous wastes.

     Another major activity within this program element is the management of the
land disposal site inventory process initiated in 1980.  Regions ensure that
States concentrate their inventory and evaluation efforts on the highest priority
land disposal sites.  The regional activities included management of the inventory
process; oversight of site closings, openings, and upgradings; and the conduct
of public participation activities, hearings, and other support functions.

     Under the Urban Policy program, the regions adminstered and managed the 61
local resource recovery grants.

198,1 Program

     The current estimate for this program is 34 permanent workyears and $1,160,500
of which $1,145,500 is for Salaries and Expenses and $15,000 is for Abatement,
Control and Compliance.

     In 1981, the regions will  continue to negotiate award and administer the State
solid waste grants, and coordinate the solid waste portion of the annual State/EPA
agreements with other participating programs.

     In consideration of the currently mandated phase-out of Federal Subtitle D
financial assistance, the regions will  continue to assist the States work
toward finalizing their solid waste management plans and establishing and
implementing adequate and self-supporting non-hazardous waste programs.  Regions'
activities in this regard include assisting States complete their solid waste
management plan for submission to EPA by January 31, 1981, review and approval
of the plans and advising States oh legislation and Implementation of required
regulations.  The regions will  also assist the States Investigate alternative
funding strategies to support the State solid waste management program.

     The management of the land disposal site inventory will continue in 1981,
identifying and evaluating sites of highest priority and overseeing the closings,
openings and upgradings of sites.  The inventory information will be coordinated
with EPA Headquarters by the regions for inclusion in the annual  national
inventory of land disposal sites.

     The regions will continue to manage and provide support to local  resource
recovery grantees, as they complete their feasibility studies and move into
Phase II, procurement planning, and Phase III, procurement, of their systems.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $67,400 results from several actions, as follows:

   - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
The reduction applied to this activity is $6,800.

   - An increase of $71,900 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental  appropriation.
                                     SW-32

-------
   - Rsprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in a net,transfer of -$22,200: from hazardous waste management regulatory
strategies implementation ($8,300); from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites ($26,300);
from hazardous waste enforcement ($6,300); from planning, evaluation and analysis
($4,500); from regional financial management ($900); and to regional management
($5,400); regional counsel ($200); energy review and permitting ($1,900); uncon-
trolled hazardous waste site ($24,300); and municipal waste treatment facility
construction ($36,700).

   - Transfer of $24,500: from solid waste technical assistance delivery-regions
($12,500) and from hazardous waste management regulatory strategies implementation
($12,000) in order to provide additional support to hold the public hearing man-
dated as part of the State plan approval process.

1982 Plan

     EPA requests a total of 25 permanent workyears and S887.SOO of which $872,600
is for Salaries and Expenses and $15,000 is for Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This reflects a decrease of 9 permanent workyears and $272,900
from 1981,

     As the State Solid Waste Management Plans, submitted in January 1981, are
approved regions will assist States Implement the plans.  The regions will also
work with the States to revise those plans, or sections of the plans not approved
within the initial review period.  These revised plans will be resubmitted to
EPA for approval and subsequent State implementation.

     In 1982 the regions will play a reduced role In negotiating and awarding
of the State Solid Waste grants, considering the work elements of the State
Solid Waste Management Plans.  Regions will minimally oversee these programs to
ensure proper implementation by the States.

     Regions will continue to assist States in establishing alternative funding
strategies to support the non-hazardous waste management program in conjunction
with the EPA phase-out of Federal financial assistance for solid waste programs.

     The land disposal  inventory will continue 1n 1982, and be managed by the
regions.  Activities will Include oversight of site closings, openings and up-
gradings; conduct and management of public participation requirements; and
coordination with headquarters and State support activities.

     The regions will manage the completion of the procurement planning and pro-
curement phases of the resource recovery grants under the Urban Policy Program.
It is anticipated that these projects will be completed in 1932.
                                      SW-33

-------
                                    SOLID WASTE

                               Technical Assistance
Agpr-pprlatign
Technical In?ormat i on
  Development:
  Salaries and Expenses...  $1,078       $1,094
  Abatement, Control and
    Compliance	...   1,332          600

Solid Waste Technical
  Assistance Delivery/
  Regions:
  Salaries and Expenses...     463          386

Solid Waste Technical
  Assistance Delivery/
  Headquarters:
  Salaries and Expenses...     154          120
  Abatement, Control and
    Compliance	,   4.150        4.494

Total:
  Salaries and Expenses.     1,695        1,600
  Abatement, Control and
    Compliance.	   5.482   	  5,094

Grand Total........	   7,177        6,694

Permanent Positions
Technical" Information
  Development	      11           11

Solid Waste Technical
  Assistance Delivery/
  Regions	..      18           13

Solid Waste Technical
  Assistance Delivery/
  Headquarters......	       4	L	      3

Total	      33           27

Ful1-time Equi valency
Tecnln f cart Info rmat i 6 n
  Development.	   22           16

Solid Waste Technical
  Assistance Delivery/Head-
  quarters.....	    4            3

Solid Waste Technical
  Assi stance Deli very/
  Regions	   18           15


Total	       44           34
                                       Budget       Current                  Increase +
                           Actual      Estimate      Estimate     Estimate    Decrease -
                            1380       	19811981       ,. ,1.982,	  1982 vs.  1981
                                       ""    fiollars In  thousands)
$1,026

   587
   459




   116

 4.494
 1,601

 5,081
 6,682
    10
    12
    25
    15
    14
$1,279      +$253

   600        +13
   416




   234

 4,394
 1,929

 4.994
 6,923
    11
    13
    27
    16
    15
 -43




+118

-100
+328

 -87
+241
  +2
    32
    34
  +2
                                            SW-34

-------
3udget_
     In 1982, the Agency requests 27 permanent workyears and $6,923,200, of which
$1,92°, 400 is for Salaries and Expenses and $4,993,800 for Abatement, Control and
Compliance.  These resources will fund technical assistance at the $5 million level,
as required under the 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act.  The request is an increase of $240,700 over 1981 with an increase of $328,300
in the Salaries and Expenses apropriation and a decrease of $87,600 in the Abatement,
Compliance and Control appropriation.  The increase in Salaries and Expenses is for
printing and composition costs for RCRA rule-making and background documents.
Reprogramming to support ad hoc technical assistance meetings to explain RCRA
regulations to regional. State and local officials increased Salaries and Expenses
while decreasing Abatement, Control and Compliance.

Program Description

     Funding under this subactivity enables EPA to provide State and local governments,
as well as Federal agencies, with comprehensive technical assistance on solid and
hazardous waste management and resource conservation and recovery.  EPA is also able
to manage a participatory public education and information program, as well as
develop and provide technical information concerning implementation of RCRA regulations,
policies and programs.  Section 2006(b) of RCRA mandates EPA to establish Technical
Assistance Panels for the purpose of providing technical assistance to States,
local governments, and Federal agencies upon request,  these panels consist of
experts from EPA, State and local officials (under the peer matching progam), consultants
under contract to EPA, or any other individuals serving voluntarily.  Peer matching
uses officials from one community to help another community solve a problem with
which they have had similar experience.  This subactivity includes the following
programs:
Technicali jJJP^MloJ-.De-ygTognjen^ *- This program includes the management of hearings,
meet i ngs a i rid I other • pi^lic part ici pat i on activities mandated by Section 7004(5) in
the development of all regulations, guidelines and programs under RCRA.  Management
of RCRA orientation courses for Federal and State employees will be provided.
EPA's management of a participatory public education and information program on
solid and hazardous waste management technical issues, and preparation, publication
and dissemination of reports to Congress and the President and other publications
are also included, as mandated by RCRA Sections 2005 and Subtitle H.

Technical Assistance - Regional Offices — This program includes regional management
of the technical assistance panels program for State and local governments and
delivery of technical assistance by regional personnel.

Technical Assistance -. Headquarters -- This program provides national program management
to include EPA Headquarters  establishment of regional level-of-effort contracts
for technical  assistance and management of an evaluation reporting system of
technical assistance provided.  Administration and monitoring of peer matching
technical assistance grants is also included.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION DEVELOPMENT

1 980 Accompli shments

     Obligations for 1980 totaled $2,409,900, of which $1,33J,500 was used for
extramural purposes.  The second year of the public education program on RCRA imple-
mentation, Waste Alerts continued in 1980.  The initial two years focused on identi-
fying and educating citizen leaders, developing proposals for implementing public
participation under RCRA at the State level, planning for State Waste Alert! confer-
ences, and identifying State action groups for participation in such conferences.
Six citizen education grants were awarded through which grantees developed, organized,
and managed four Regional Waste Alert! conferences,
                                             SW-35

-------
      In response to approximately 31,000 information requests from the public,
approximately 1,300,000 technical and public information documents, including 400,000
copies of the RCRA regulations, were distributed in 1980.  EPA prepared and published
151 new titles, including reports to Congress, technical reports, manuals, fact
sheets and graphic presentations.

      Initial orientation courses were held for Regional personnel on the imple-
mentation of the RCRA regulations, and three universities developed innovative
model courses on hazardous waste management.  In addition, twenty public hearings
and meetings were held on RCRA regulations, guidelines, and programs.

1981 Program

     The total current estimate for this program is 10 permanent workyears and
$1,613,100 of which $1,025,500 is for Salaries and Expenses and $587,600 is for
Abatement, Control and Compliance.

     Provision for public participation 1n RCRA programs will continue in 1981,
including public hearings and meetings on implementation of RCRA regulations,
guidelines, and programs.  Management of the RCRA regulations orientation
workshops will continue to be provided, including the periodic updating of
course material such as training manuals.

     The public education program, Waste Alert!  will continue into its third
year.  Waste Alert! conferences willbegin forming coalitions and serve as a
corps to help citizens at the local level understand solid waste management
projects and issues, such as treatment, storage and disposal  facilities siting,
resource recovery and the problems of abandoned waste sites.   Citizens in all 56
States and Territories will ultimately be involved in shaping national, State
and local programs and policies concerning waste management.

     Under the technical information program, the preparation, publication and
distribution of information documents and reports will continue and additional
regional  conferences, for EPA personnel involved in RCRA implementation, will
be held.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $80,700 results from several  actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted,  President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294);  these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
The reduction applied to this activity is $3,800.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of
$3,000 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a
decrease of $48,800 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general  reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement,
Control  and Compliance appropriation;  a decrease of $12,400 was applied to this
activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $12 million; a decrease of
$7,500 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $24,800 results from the cost of the-October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to  meet on-board needs
resulted in a transfer of $27,900: to regulations, guidelines and polices/hazardous
waste ($23,700) and solid waste technical assistance delivery-headquarters ($4,200).

     - A transfer of $2,100 was made to the radiation media in order to support the
Radiation Policy Council.
                                             SW-36

-------
1982 Plan

     EPA requests a total of 11 permanent workyears and $1,878,900 of which $1,278,900
is for Salaries and Expenses and $600,000 is for Abatement, Control and Compliance.

     The public education program on RCRA implementation, Maste Alert!. will
continue in 1982.  The fourth year's program will focus increasingly on gaining
constructive public involvement in siting treatment, storage and disposal facili-
ties and other support for State funded Subtitle C programs.  To this end, regional
and State conferences and the development of technical information materials will
continue.  Public meetings and hearings associated with the development of regulations
will be continued.

     The Agency will continue its development and distribution of public and
technical information materials as well as its response to public inquiries.
Publishing support, including an annual report to Congress on RCRA activities,
an(* Federal Register publication of regulations, disseminating staff and contrac-
tor reports, technical newsletters and other information will continue in FY 1982.

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DELIVERY ^REGIONALOFFICES

1980 Accomplishments

     Obligations for 1980 totaled $463,000 for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation,
EPA regional offices continued operation of the Technical Assistance (TA) Panels
program mandated under Section 2003 of RCRA.  Individual consultant contracts
were managed at each regional office.  This support and the other technical assistance
services enabled each Region to maintain comprehensive coverage of its jurisdiction's
needs.

     These technical assistance services act as a catalyst for States and local
governments as they begin to implement their responsibilities under Subtitles C   —*-•••
and D of RCRA, such as the inventory of solid waste disposal sites and State
hazardous waste management programs.

     The assignment of primary responsibility for provision of technical assistance
to the regions has become increasingly significant, as unique regional, State,
and local differences and needs have been encountered.  The regions are most
familiar with the specific waste management problems in their jurisdictions and can
better integrate the TA Panels program with the development of RCRA regulatory
programs.

     The regional  offices responded to 348 requests for technical assistance in
1980, an increase of 21% over the previous fiscal year, through peer matching,
consultants or directly by EPA regional personnel.  42X of these requests were
for resource recovery and waste reduction.

1981  Program

     EPA requests a total of 12 permanent workyears and $459,200 under this
program for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     The resources will  enable EPA regions to continue coordinating and adminis-
tering the delivery of technical  assistance through the RCRA-mandated TA panels
program.  This will include receiving and responding to minor technical  assistance
inquiries, reviewing and evaluating requests for assistance, selecting modes of
assistance and developing work scopes.  Technical assistance will continue to be
provided through contractor, peer matching and EPA regional personnel.
                                             SW-37

-------
     The regions will begin using Senior Environmental Employees in 1981.  They
will visit client communities, attend meetings, initiate new projects, monitor
on-going projects and supervise and coordinate with consultant contractors.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $72,700 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
The reduction applied to this activity is $2,500.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a
decrease of $10,000 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $28,900 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in a net transfer of $68,800: from uncontrolled hazardous waste sites
($18,300); uncontrolled hazardous waste sites enforcement ($16,700); hazardous
waste enforcement ($35,400); hazardous waste management regulatory strategies
implementation ($12,500); and, to municipal waste treatment facility construction
($4,200); regional management ($1,300); regional financial management ($6,800);
and regional counsel ($1,800).

     - Transfer of $12,500 to solid waste management program implementation to
provide additional support to hold the public hearing mandated as part of the
State plan approval process.

1982 Plan

     EPA requests 13 permanent workyears and $416,600 for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation.

     The regions will continue to receive and respond to minor technical assist-
ance inquiries, review and evaluate requests for major assistance and select
modes of assistance and develop workscopes.  With the implementation of the
Subtitle C regulations, EPA expects requests for technical assistance to focus
on hazardous waste program development and implementation questions.

     The regional staff will participate in the management and actual delivery
 of technical assistance.

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DELIV ERY-HEADQUARTERS

1980 Accomplishments

     Obligations for 1980 totaled $4,303,900, of which $4,150,200 was used for
extramural purposes.  To carry out the RCRA mandated Technical Assistance Panels
Programs, EPA headquarters awarded funds to 10 regional contractors and 7 public
interest groups for peer matching services.  The Office of Solid Waste continued
to provide national management of this program to ensure overall consistency
among the Regions, provide a mechanism for the development and distribution of
general policy and guidance documents, and provide the Regions with a central
contact point for shaping the program.

     EPA developed and issued a summary report of the 1980 Technical Assistance
Panels program activities.
                                            SW-38

-------
                              I
 1981 Program

      EPA requests a total of 3 permanent workyears and $4,610,200 under this
 program, of which $116,400 is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
 and $4,493,800 is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1981, national management of the Technical Assistance Panels program will
 be provided.  This will include negotiating, awarding and monitoring consultant
 contracts and public interest group peer matching grants; conducting reporting
 and record keeping activities; and evaluating the overall program to enable EPA
 to ascertain the effectiveness and responsiveness of the various technical
 assistance provided.

 1981 Ex pi an ati on of Chan ge from Budget Estmate

      The net decrease of $3,300 results from several actions, as follows;

      - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
 transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
 resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
 The reduction applied to this activity is $700.

      - An increase of $6,200 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
 and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

      - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
 resulted in a transfer of $3,200 from hazardous waste management regulatory strate-
 gies implementation.

      - A transfer of $12,000 was made to the radiation media in order to support
 the Radiation Policy Council.

 1982 Plan

      The Agency requests 3 permanent workyears and $4,627,700 under this program
 of which $233,900 is for Salaries and Expenses and $4,393,800 Is for Abatement,
 Control and Compliance.  The Abatement, Control and Compliance resources will
fund the technical assistance panels.

      National  management of the Technical Assistance Panels program will be
 provided at the same levels as in prior years.  This management activity includes
 negotiating, awarding and monitoring contracts and grants for delivery of technical
 assistance and conducting recordkeeping and reporting activities related to the
 overall program.  Annual evaluation of the program will also be performed, enabling
 the Agency to ascertain the effectiveness and responsiveness of technical assistance
 provided.
                                             SW-39

-------
                                            SOLID WASTE

                                   Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites
                                                Budget    Current   .           Increase +
                                       Actual  Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                                        1980     1981       1981       1982     1892 vs. 1981
                                                          (dollars In thousands)


 Appropriation
 Salaries and
   Expenses 	          $1,271   $1,736     $4,216        ...        -$4,216
 Abatement, Control and
   Compliance 	          16.567   16,570     21,661	           -21.661

 Total	          17,838    18,306    25,877        ...        -25,877


 Permanent Positions                      23        19        65        ...            -65


 Full-time Equivalency                    28        19        67        ...            -67



 Budget Request

      The Agency requests no appropriation in 1982 for this budget activity under the-
"Salaries"and"Expenses and Abatement,Control and Compliance appropriations.  All activities
 previously funded under this budget activity will be funded under the appropriation for the
 Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund created by the Comprehensive Environmental  Response,
 Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund).

 Program Description

      The Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Site program is currently an interim program, to address
 hazardous substance release problems In a limited way before passage of "Superfund".
 The major goal  of the program Is to address the worst known problems associated with
 uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.  The interim strategy encompasses site discovery actions,
 investigations to determine the most serious sites, emergency assistance at those sites
 eligible under Section 311 of the Clean Water Act of 1977, and development of enforcement
 cases.  The interim program will bridge the gap until the "Superfund" program is fully
 implemented.  Superfund will provide the necessary funding and authority to intensify current
 efforts and to begin undertaking engineering planning and design, containment measures.

      The primary objective of the program Is to eliminate threats to public health and welfare
 and ecologically sensitive areas from hazardous substance releases from uncontrolled waste
 sites.  Preliminary estimates reveal that there may be 30,000 to 50,000 sites containing
 hazardous waste, of which 1,200 to 2,000 may present potentially significant problems.  Over
 7,000 waste sites have been inventoried, but the extent of the risks posed by them is in most
 cases still unknown.

 1980 Accomplishments

      In 1980, the Agency obligated a total of $17,837,900 and 23 permanent workyears for the
 the Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Site program, of which $1,271,100 was for Salaries and
 Expenses, and $16,566,800 was for extramural contracts under the Abatement, Control and
 Compliance appropriation.  Additional resources for this program were provided under enforcement
 and research and development budget activities.
                                              SW-40

-------
     During 1980, the Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Site program began to implement the interim
strategy as directed by the EPA Deputy Adiministrator in 1979.  This strategy was based on
the policies established during 1979, and includes site identification and discovery, field
investigations, emergency response, and enforcement actions.

     The 1980 program relied extensively on contractor support included in this subactivity
to provide 147 dedicated contractor field investigation personnel to the Regions for site
identification, investigation, and enforcement case preparation.  The contractor also provided
other non-dedicated services such as drilling sample wells, retaining expert consultants, and
procuring engineering services to determine remedial measures.  The $16,000,000 in contracts
included approximately $8,000,000 for the Field Investigation Team (FIT) contract, awarded in
February 1980, and a $5,000,000 series of chemical analysis contracts for analyzing samples
obtained during site investigations.  An additional contract was awarded to manage and control
the shipment of samples to and from the regional offices and laboratories.  Contract funds
of $1,000,000 were used for support of emergency response to sites.  The remaining $2,000,000
was used to fund contracts for remedial technology evaluations, aerial surveillance, and
regional training programs.

     Over 7,600 potential hazardous waste site problems are currently identified on regional
logs.  Of this total, 4,560 sites underwent preliminary assessment and 1,650 site inspections
were completed.  Tentative dispositions were made on 1,305 sites.  These activities have
supported 61 emergency response actions under Section 311 of the Clean Water Act and the
filing of 51 EPA-initaited enforcement cases.

1981 Program

     In 1981 the Agency has allocated a total of $25,876,600 and 65 permanent workyears to
this program, of which $4,216,200 is for Salaries and Expenses and $21,660,400 is for extramural
purposes under the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  Of this total, $8,200,000
and 40 permanent workyears were appropriated in a 1981 budget amendment for Superfund planning
and implementation activities.

     Contract funding of $21,660,400 will be used to provide major technical assistance and
support to EPA efforts.  The $10,600,000 field Investigation team contract will provide the
Regions with 180 dedicated field personnel to assist with preliminary assessments, site
inspections, and enforcement case preparation.  $3,400,000 will fund a series of chemical
analysis contracts in support of site investigations.  $2,600,000 will be used for contracted
design plans and engineering studies for remedial action at 5-10 sites.  $2,900,000 will fund
contracts for support of Headquarters efforts in developing and implementing Superfund
strategies.  $200,000 will be used for assessment of remedial measures taken at Love Canal.
The remaining $2,000,000 in contracts will fund aerial surveillance, a national toll-free
telephone notification system, and technical support for emergency response to sites.

1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net increase of $7,570,100 results from several actions, as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter transmitted
revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions resulted in a decrease
of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.  The reduction applied to this
activity is $3,800.

     - A 1981 budget amendment for hazardous waste programs and related activities was
submitted to the Congress.  This amendment resulted in an increase of $2,651,000 for this
activity under Salaries and Expenses and $5,505,000 under Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide travel costs by $850,000; a decrease of $11,200
was applied to this activity.


     - The Congress reduced agencywide consulting services by $3.8 million; a decrease of
$30,500 was applied to this activity.
                                             SW-41

-------
     - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million to the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $645,300 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of $6,400
was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $59,500 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise and
is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprograimnngs to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs resulted
in a decrease of $215,700: to water quality ambient water quality monitoring ($39,500);
waste treatment operations and maintenance ($25,200); municipal waste treatment facility
construction (513,700); ocean disposal permits ($9,000); permit issuance ($12,400); solid
waste hazardous waste management regulatory strategies implementation ($11,100); solid
waste implementation ($26,300); solid waste technical assistance delivery ($18,300);
pesticides use management ($6,100); interdisciplinary EIS reviews-water quality
($13,800); energy review and permitting ($14,200); and toxic substances enforcement
($26,100).

     - Reprogramming of $107,800 from the regulations, guidelines and policies-hazardous
waste in order to reflect the establishment of uncontrolled hazardous waste site program.

     - Transfer of $71,300 to hazardous waste permit enforcement in order to provide ADP
support for the permit process.

     - Transfer of $3,900 from hazardous waste management strategies implementation in g
order to support the necessary supplies and materials.

     - Transfers resulted in an Increase of $230,700: from public systems supervision
program assistance ($20,000); NEPA compliance-municipal waste facility construction
($1,200); state programs regulations and guidelines ($104,100); municipal waste
treatment facility construction ($45,400); water quality permit issuance ($13,200);
energy review and permitting ($12,300); air quality management implementation ($39,500);
and to NEPA compliance/EIS preparation new source discharge permit ($5,000) to realign
contract funds.

     - Reprogrammings resulted in a decrease of $3,600: to hazardous waste management
regulatory strategies implementation ($3,200); uncontrolled hazardous waste sites ($400)
reflecting a reallocation of travel funds.

1982 Plan

     In 1982, the activities previously funded under this budget subactivity will be funded
under the appropriation for Superfund.
                                              SM-42

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
Enforcement
    SECTION TAB

-------
Page Intentionally Blank

-------
                                           SOLID WASTE

                                     Solid Waste Enforcement
Appropriation
Hazardous Waste
 Enforcement:
  Salaries and Expenses •
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance ..,	
Uncontrolled Hazardous
 Waste:
  Salaries and Expenses .
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	
Hazardous Waste
 permit Issuance:
  Salaries and Expenses .
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	
Total:
  Salaries and Expenses .
  Abatement, Control and
   Compliance	<
Grand Total:
Permanent Positions
Ha zardbus Waste
 Enforcement	
Uncontrolled Hazardous
 Waste	
Hazardous Waste
 Permit Issuance	..
Total.
Fun-time Equivalency
HazardousWaste
 Enforcement 	
Uncontrolled Hazardous
 waste	
Hazardous Waste
 Permit Issuance ......
                                               Budget    Current               Increase +
                                      Actual  Estimate   Estimate   Estimate   Decrease -
                                       198JD     1981       1981       1982     1982 vs. 1981
                                                        (dollars in thousands)
$2,495   $3,161     $2,937     $4,137       +$1,200

   643      632        652        455          -197
2,711
2
$187
« » *
5,393
645
6,038
66
71
8
145
78
88
10
1,925
• * *
$4,090
25
9,176
657
9,833
83
53
121
257
98
53
175
4,313
2,271
$4,039
24
11,289
2,947
14,236
84
103 '
114
301
101
111
172
* • *
• * *
$4,981
25
9,118
480
9,598
!
93
• * »
135
228
109
* * *
189
-4,313
-2,271
+$942
+1
-2,171
-2,467
-4,638
+9
-103
+21
-73
+3
-111
+17
Total.
   176
326
384
298
-86
                                         SW-43

-------
Budget Request

     In 1982, the Agency requests 228 permanent workyears and a total of $9,597,600,
a decrease of 73 permanent workyears and $4,638,400 from 1981.  Included In this total
is $9,117,700 for Salaries and Expenses and $479,900 for Abatement, Control .and Com-
pliance.

Program Description

     The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) provides for comprehen-
sive control over the handling of solid and hazardous wastes.  The Act authorizes EPA
to promulgate regulations to control hazardous wastes from the point of generation
to the point of final disposal.

     The solid waste enforcement program is at thfs time organized into three major,
separate components:  (1) hazardous waste enforcement program, (2) uncontrolled
hazardous waste program, and (3) hazardous waste permit issuance program.  In July of
1979, EPA determined that the clean-up by responsible parties of hazardous waste dump-
sites threatening public health would be given "highest Agency priority" and established
an agency-wide Hazardous Waste Enforcement and Emergency Response System.  Consequently,
a "National Hazardous Waste Enforcement Task Force" (Task Force) was established to
coordinate and manage the imminent hazard cases initiated under Section 7003 of RCRA,
Section 1431 of the Safe Drinking Water Act, Section 504 of the Clean Water Act, and the
Toxic Substances Control Act.  Since its Inception, the Task Force has been active in
evaluating potential hazards at sites known to contain hazardous waste and in assist-
ing in legal action and emergency Federal actions to contain the spread of
contaminants where existing local authority and funding is Insufficient.  The Task
Force was established as a separate component to expedite handling of uncontrolled
hazardous waste site cases in conjunction with a newly-formed Hazardous Waste Section
in the Department of Justice.  (Task Force functions and activities are discussed
under the Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Site Enforcement justification).

     The hazardous waste enforcement program is responsible for development of an
overall enforcement strategy, and implementation of a monitoring program designed to
ensure compliance with RCRA Subtitle C regulations.  The regulations will require
generators and tranporters of hazardous waste to comply with certain procedural stan-
dards, such as record-keeping, reporting, and proper containerization, and will also
require that all transported hazardous wastes be accompanied by a manifest document,
and additionally, that such wastes be taken only to permitted hazardous waste manage-
ment facilities.  Facilities which manage hazardous wastes will be required to notify
EPA, qualify for interim status by completing a Part A application and obtain a per-
mit from EPA or a State with an authorized RCRA program.  Procedures for routine
inspection and sampling of facilities which generate, transport, treat, store, or
dispose of hazardous waste will be developed.  Guidelines will be promulgated
establishing standards of evidence needed to support enforcement actions in cases of
interim status standards violations and permit violations.  RCRA enforcement will
also be responsible for promulgating rules governing the issuance of compliance
orders and hearings conducted to either assess administrative penalties and/or suspend
or revoke permits.

     The hazardous waste permit program is part of the comprehensive effort required by the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to manage hazardous waste.  The Act prohibits
treatment, storage or disposal of hazardous waste except in accordance with an EPA or
approved State-issued permit. RCRA permits provide a mechanism for controlling hazardous
waste by imposing performance standards on treatment, storage, and disposal facilities.
These standards, set by the hazardous waste management program  will ensure that hazardous
waste is managed according to environmentally acceptable practices.  EPA estimates there
are a total of 30,000 sites that will require permits, 7,500 of which will be issued by
EPA.  The remaining 22,500 permits will be issued by States with approved RCRA programs.
                                        SW-44

-------
     Development of adequate State hazardous waste permit programs is another significant
aspect of the permit issuance program. RCRA places great emphasis on approving State
programs, encouraging them to issue permits with either temporary "interim authorization"
or full authorization if they meet RCRA's requirements.  EPA's role in the State author-
ization process is twofold.  First, EPA will support State efforts to develop adequate
permit program by providing technical, legal, and administrative assistance.  Secondly,
EPA will oversee approved programs to ensure that State permits are issued in conformance
with National program policies.  EPA's success in authorizing State programs will affect
the volume of permitting done by the Agency.

     As part of its continuing efforts to improve the regulatory process, EPA has con-
solidated permit issuance procedures for five permit programs: the National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), the hazardous waste permit program, the Underg-
ground Injection Control (UIC) program, the Dredge of Fill program, and the prevention
of significant deterioration (PSD) program. Coordination and consolidation of the
permitting process will benefit both the public and the Agency by reducing delay and
simplifying permitting procedures.

HAZARDOUSHASTE ENFORCEMENT

1980 Acomplishments

     Obligations in 1980 totaled $3,138,100, of which contract funds totaling $642,600
were expended in 1980 for five purposes:  development of the overall enforcement strat-
egy, development of an inspection manual for verification of compliance with interim
status standards; support of non-notlfier enforcement activities; assistance to the
Office of Solid Waste in developing an ADP system to meet anticipated program needs;
and development of a RCRA penalty policy for administrative, civil and criminal pro-
ceedings.

     Program activities in 1980 focused on efforts to formulate a comprehensive
strategy for implementation of a hazardous waste enforcement program in the beginning
of 1981, and to review State plans for interim authorization.  The program also pro-
vided extensive assistance and support to the Office of Solid Waste in the
development of draft regulations and guidelines under RCRA.  The Agency completed a
second draft of a "Case Proceedings Manual" for use in enforcement action.
A rewrite of the initial draft was necessary because of the extensive changes made to
the RCRA regulations.   Also completed in 1980 was a "General Inspections Manual" to
be used to inspect permitted sites and facilities for compliance with interim status
standards.  Training plans for conducting interim status inspections were completed.
Inspection training courses are scheduled to be given to the Regions in 1931.  The
purpose of the manual  is to provide guidance needed to properly conduct inspections
of hazardous waste facilities.

1981 Program

     In 1981, the Agency has allocated a total  of $3,589,300 to this program, of
which 52,937,200 is for Salaries and Expenses and $652,100 for the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation.  Permanent workyeaVs allocated in 1981 total 34 an
increase of 18 over the 1980 program level.

     The highest priority for the 1981 hazardous waste enforcement program is initiat-
ing enforcement actions using all available legal authority, in situations involving
substantial threats to health or the environment.  In addition, assistance will be
given to the Office of Solid Waste in the development and completion of final RCRA
regulations.  Other significant activities conducted by the Regions in 1981 include
the establishment and  conducting of compliance monitoring and enforcement programs
for all States not granted interim or final authorization and the conducting of
enforcement activities in States operating programs under Cooperative Arrangements.
As the authorized States begin implementing their program, EPA will provide legal
and technical assistance, as requested, and evaluate the adequacy of State enforce-
ment programs.  Regions will be responsible for maintaining management information
systems to track notification, manifest, compliance monitoring, inspection, and
enforcement activities in States without RCRA program authorization.
                                         SW-45

-------
1981 Explanation of Change from Budget Estimate

     The net decrease of $203,800 results from several  actions,  as follows:

     - Shortly after the 1981 budget estimate was submitted, President Carter
transmitted revisions to the budget (House Document 96-294); these revisions
resulted in a decrease of $7 million to EPA's request for Salaries and Expenses.
The reduction applied to this activity is $17,300.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide trayel costs by $850,000; a decrease  of
$25,100 was applied to this activity.

     - The Congress applied a general reduction of $7.5 million  to the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation; a decrease of $13,300 was  applied to this
activity.

     - The Congress reduced agencywide ADP services by $2 million; a decrease of
$47,400 was applied to this activity.

     - An increase of $169,300 results from the cost of the October 1980 pay raise
and is included in a proposed supplemental appropriation.

     - Reprogrammings to realign salary and related costs to meet on-board needs
resulted in transfers of $501,300 to other activities:   to municipal waste treatment
facility construction ($1,600); solid waste technical assistance deli very-regions
($12,000); pesticides enforcement ($32,500); uncontrolled hazardous waste sites
enforcement ($120,600); to regional management ($9,800); to underground Injection
control program ($23,300); hazardous waste permit enforcement ($19,800); solid waste
management program implementation ($6,300); solid waste technical assistance delivery-
regions ($23,400); pesticides use management ($37,000); pesticides enforcement
($33,000);to ElS-review-air ($2,500); to EIS review-water quality ($39,900); to toxic
substances enforcement ($13,900); to regional counsel ($39,000); to regional per-
sonnel management ($13,200); to regional administrative management ($37,500); to
uncontrolled hazardous waste sites enforcement ($8,000); to radiation program
implementation ($8,800); to noise regional program implementation ($9,200);  and to
drinking water enforcement ($10,000).

     - Transfer of $216,900: from water quality enforcement ($165,800) and from air
mobiles source enforcement ($51,100) to provide additional support for hazardous
waste enforcement and provide a level of funding consistent with prior years
experience.

     - Transfer of $13,700 from hazardous waste management regulatory strategies
implementation to provide basic lab support.

     - Transfer of $23,200 from water quality enforcement to support the costs of
providing expert witnesses and case support for hearings and/or  trials.

     - Transfer of $10,000 from air quality management implementation to realign
contract funds.

     - Transfer of $1,800 to uncontrolled hazardous waste sites  enforcement  in order
to reallocate travel funds.

     -  Transfer of $22,000 to nationwide support costs in order to provide  additional
support services resources to meet increased RCRA programmatic requirements.

     - Transfer of $7,700 to personnel administration to provide additional  resources
in order to administer RCRA programmatic increases.
                                       SW-46

-------
1982 Plan

     The Agency requests a total of $4,591,700 for this program, of which $4,136,500
is for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $455,200 for the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation, for an increase of $1,002,400.  A .total of 93 permanent
workyears will be available to the program in 1982, an increase of 9 over the 1981
level.

     The 1982 program will consist of the following activities.  Regions will conduct
compliance monitoring and enforcement programs in States not granted interim or final
authorization.  Review of final and amended interim State hazardous waste management
plans will be provided as well as legal and technical support for preparation of
enforcement actions.  Additionally, an initiative to investigate suspected criminal
activity will be established.  The Regions will also maintain management information
systems for tracking of manifest, inspection, and enforcement activities.

     Contract funds totaling $455,200 will be used for the following purposes:
to support ADP system design improvements;  to provide support for the up-date
of existing training manuals covering compliance inspection and case development
procedures;  to evaluate the effectiveness of the manifest system in controlling the
flow of hazardous waste; and to support case development.

UNCONTROLLED HAZARDOUSHASTE


198QAccomplishments

     The Agency allocated a total of $2,712,500 to this program for 1980, of which
$2,710,500 was for Salaries and Expenses and $2,000 for Abatement, Control and Com-
pliance.  A total of 71 permanent workyears were allocated for 1980.

     During 1980, the newly-established hazardous waste site enforcement program
focused on enforcement actions against uncontrolled hazardous waste sites that posed
threats to public health and safety and to the environment.

     Using "imminent hazard" authorities contained in the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA) and other environmental statutes —- as well as common law
provisions — the Agency was able to file 51 cases during 1980 at sites that posed
imminent hazards to health and the environment.  An additional 200 sites were examined
as possible targets for enforcement action.  While some of these Federal cases involved
the recovery of fines as "secondary" relief, they primarily utilized injunctive authori-
ties to require responsible parties to abate hazards posed by sites and to undertake
cleanup actions at their own expense.  By the end of 1980 eight of these cases had been
favorably resolved, with no negative decisions.

     The Hazardous Waste Site Tracking System — managed by the Office of Enforce-
ment -— was fully implemented during 1980.  This system provides the Agency with an
inventory and assessment of potential hazardous waste sites.  The information entered
and stored in this system has been used to help determine what enforcement or
remedial actions may be required to neutralize any current or potential danger pre-
sented by these sites.  By the end of 1980, 7,600 potential sites were listed in
the system and new sites were being added to the list at approximately 400 per
month.  The Agency had conducted about 4,600 preliminary assessments and 2,000
site inspections to determine the seriousness of listed sites.

     A number of training sessions with Headquarters, the Department of Justice,
Regional, and State personnel on topics such as site investigations, groundwater
characteristics, use of the safety manual, chain of custody and document control
and case development were provided during 1980.  In addition, Task Force per-
sonnel participated in the development and management of several nationwide
conferences on the subject of hazardous waste.
                                          SW-47

-------
1981Program

     In 1981, the Agecny allocated $6,583,700 to this program, of which $4,312,700
is for Salaries and Expenses and $2,271,000 is for extramural purposes under the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  The allocation, of 103 permanent
workyears represents an increase of 32 from 1980.

     The 1930 passage of "Superfund"* and major amendments to the Resource Conser-
vation and Recovery Act significantly expanded EPA's hazardous waste enforcement
responsibilities and authorities.  Previous Injunctive "imminent hazard" authority
has been butressed by judicial actions to recover Superfund expenditures, admini-
strative orders to force cleanup by responsible parties, punitive damage provisions,
and authority to order and enforce monitoring, testing and analysis requirements.

     While the goal of protecting public health and safety from threats posed by
hazardous waste sites and spills will remain unchanged, the new Federal response
options will modify the Agency's previous strategy which necessarily relied on
Iraninent hazard injunctive actions and Section 311 emergency response and con-
tainment under the Clean Water Act.  The Office of Enforcement will play a major
role in the implementation of hazardous waste authorities, providing enforcement
response to dangerous sites and spills, pursuing judical "recovery