Summary and Analysis of the 2009
   Gasoline Benzene Pre-Compliance
   Reports
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency

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                    Summary and Analysis of the 2009
                    Gasoline Benzene Pre-Compliance
                                       Reports
                             Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
                                Office of Transportation and Air Quality
                                U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                  NOTICE

                  This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
                  positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
                  that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
                  facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
                  technical developments.
SER&
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA-420-R-09-017
November 2009

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Table of Contents

I.   Executive Summary	i
II.  Gasoline Benzene Program Overview	2
III.  Gasoline Benzene Pre-Compliance Reporting Requirements	3
IV.  Summary Data	4
  A.   Nationwide Analysis	4
    1.     Refinery Numbers and Production	4
    2.     Projected Credit Generation and Use	5
    3.     Project Scope and Timing	7
  B.      PADD Analysis	7
    1.     PADD 1	10
    2.     PADD 2	11
    3.     PADD 3	12
    4.     PADD 4	13
    5.     PADD 5	14
  C.      Comparison of 2008 and 2009 Pre-compliance Reports	15

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                                                              I. Executive Summary
I.      Executive Summary

          Most refiners planning to produce gasoline after January 1, 2011 are required to
   submit to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) annual pre-compliance reports
   indicating their progress toward complying with EPA's gasoline benzene standards. Reports
   are due annually by June 1 from 2008 through 2011 under the gasoline benzene regulations
   finalized in February, 2007, in order to provide updates on refiners' compliance plans. This
   report summarizes information received from refiners in their June 2009 pre-compliance
   reports.

          Refiners' benzene pre-compliance reports must contain estimates of average daily
   gasoline production and annual average benzene concentration from June 1, 2007 through
   December 31, 2015.  For those refiners planning on participating in the credit program, the
   reports must contain a projection of how many credits will be generated or used by each
   refinery.  The pre-compliance reports must also contain information outlining each refinery's
   timeline for complying with the gasoline benzene standards and provide information
   regarding engineering plans (e.g., design and construction), and capital  commitments for
   making the necessary modifications to produce gasoline which meets the new benzene
   standards.

          EPA received benzene pre-compliance reports for 110 refineries in 2009.  The 2009
   benzene pre-compliance reports showed that:

              refiners are planning to comply with the benzene standards  on time by installing
              new benzene removal equipment at many of their refineries and using the
              averaging, banking and trading provisions in the regulations to comply at the rest
              63 refineries are planning to install equipment to reduce gasoline benzene
          -   47 refineries are not planning to install equipment to reduce gasoline benzene
              because they already comply with the gasoline benzene standards, or are
              planning to use credits for compliance
              25 refineries are planning to generate early credits from 2007 through 2010, and
              41 refineries are planning to generate standard credits beginning in 2011
          -   overall average reported benzene levels are expected to decrease from 1.05
              volume percent (vol%) in 2007 to 0.60 vol% in 2015

          This data represents estimates made by refiners whose final actual compliance plans
   may change prior to January 1, 2011.  While the reported information is preliminary, the
   results provide the clearest snapshot of refiners' aggregate benzene compliance plans
   available as of June, 2009. They represent the assessment of those who have first-hand
   knowledge of the unique situation faced by each refinery.  EPA expects that next year's
   benzene pre-compliance reports will contain more definite information  on refiners' plans to
   produce gasoline which meets the benzene standards beginning January 1,  2011.

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                                   II. Gasoline Benzene Program Overview
II.     Gasoline Benzene Program Overview

       The Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSAT2) final rule (72 FR 8428, February 26,
2007) contains a two-step approach to reducing the benzene content of gasoline.
Beginning January 1, 2011, importers and most refineries are required to import or
produce gasoline containing no more than 0.62 vol% benzene on an annual average basis.
This 0.62 vol% benzene standard can be met by using credits. In addition, beginning July
1, 2012, importers and most refineries are required to import or produce gasoline with a
maximum annual average gasoline benzene content of 1.3 vol%. A refinery's or
importer's actual annual average gasoline benzene level may not exceed this maximum
average standard.  Credits may not be used to meet the 1.3 vol% standard.

       The MSAT2 rule includes provisions for refiners and importers to generate
gasoline benzene credits. Refiners may generate early benzene credits from June 1, 2007
through December 31, 2010 if a refinery's annual  average gasoline benzene is at least
10% less than its average benzene from January 1, 2004 through December 31,  2005, and
the refinery reduces their benzene by implementing certain technological improvements
specified in the regulations.  Refiners and importers may generate standard benzene
credits beginning in 2011 if a refinery's or importer's annual average gasoline benzene is
less than 0.62 vol%. Early benzene credits may be used to  comply with the 0.62 vol%
standard during the 2011, 2012 and 2013 averaging periods, while standard benzene
credits may be used to comply with the 0.62 vol% standard within five years from the
year they were generated. For both early credits and standard credits, one credit is
equivalent to one gallon of benzene removed from gasoline. Gasoline benzene  credits
may be transferred nationwide.

   Small Refiner Flexibilities

       Additional compliance flexibilities are provided for small refiners in the gasoline
benzene regulations. The criteria for qualification as a gasoline benzene small refiner are
similar to those under the Gasoline Sulfur and Diesel Sulfur rules.  To qualify as "small",
a refiner must: 1) have produced gasoline by processing crude oil through refinery
processing units from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005; 2) have employed no
more than 1,500 people company-wide, based on the average number of employees for
all pay periods from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005; and, 3) have  a
corporate crude oil capacity less than or equal to 155,000 bpcd for 2005.

       Small refiners are allowed an additional four years to comply with each  benzene
standard. They must begin complying with the 0.62 vol% standard no later than January
1, 2015, and begin complying with the 1.3 vol% standard no later than July 1, 2016.

   Other Flexibilities

       In addition to allowing refiners and importers to use credits to meet the 0.62 vol%
annual average standard, the gasoline benzene regulations also allow refiners and

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                                   II. Gasoline Benzene Program Overview
importers to carry forward a benzene deficit from one year to the next year. If a refinery
or importer exceeds the 0.62 vol% annual average standard, and does not procure
sufficient credits to meet the standard, they may offset the deficit during the following
year by reducing their benzene concentration below 0.62 vol%, and/or procuring credits.
Benzene deficits for one year must be offset during the following year, and may not be
carried over for a second consecutive year.

III.   Benzene Pre-Compliance Reporting Requirements

       The gasoline benzene regulations require refiners to submit annual pre-
compliance reports for each of their refineries to EPA. The first pre-compliance report
was due by June 1, 2008 and subsequent reports are due annually through 2011.

       The pre-compliance reports must contain the following information:

       1.  Any changes in the refiner's basic company or facility information since
          registration.
       2.  Estimates of the average daily volume of gasoline produced at each refinery.
          The volume estimates must include gasoline produced during the periods of
          June 1, 2007 through December 31,  2007, and calendar years 2008 through
          2015.
       3.  An estimate of the average gasoline  benzene concentration for the periods
          listed above in 2.
       4.  For refineries expecting to participate in the benzene credit program, estimates
          of the number of credits generated and/or used during the periods listed above
          in  2.
       5.  Information on project schedule by known or projected completion date (by
          quarter) for each stage of the project (strategic planning, front-end
          engineering, detailed engineering and permitting, procurement and
          construction, and commissioning and startup).
       6.  Basic information regarding the selected technology pathway for compliance
          (e.g. re-routing of benzene precursors or other technologies, revamp versus
          grassroots, etc.).
       7.  Whether capital investments have been made or are projected to be made.
       8.  An update of the progress in each of these areas.

       The pre-compliance reporting requirements do not apply to certain types of
gasoline, including imported gasoline, gasoline produced for and used in California,
gasoline produced by small refiners, gasoline exported for use outside the United States,
and gasoline produced through distillation of transmix. These products are not included
in this summary and analysis.

       We recognize that the pre-compliance reports contain preliminary information
and that final  decisions on benzene removal plans may not have been made in all cases as

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                   III. Benzene Pre-Compliance Reporting Requirements
of the reporting deadline. Accordingly, the information in this summary and analysis is
based on the best available refinery information as of June 1, 2009. The information
presented here will be updated with more current analyses from subsequent annual pre-
compliance reports in 2010 and 2011.

IV.    Gasoline Benzene Summary Data

A.     Nationwide Analysis

       1.     Refinery Numbers and Production

       We received benzene pre-compliance reports in 2009 for 110 refineries. Refiners
indicated that, for most of their refineries, they have made decisions on producing
gasoline which meets the benzene standards beginning January 1, 2011. Table 1 shows
the aggregated results for all reporting refineries for the four years leading up to the
beginning of the gasoline benzene standards, and Table 2 shows the aggregated results
for the first five years when the standards are in effect.
Table 1
Reported Data for Total U.S., 2007-2010
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol% and < or = 1.3 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 1.3 vol%
2007
110
7,032,887
1.05
21
43
46
2008
110
6,788,798
1.08
23
36
51
2009
110
7,094,997
1.02
24
39
47
2010
110
7,460,758
0.99
27
40
43
Table 2
Reported Data for Total U.S., 2011-2015
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2011
110
7,687,068
0.70
56
54
2012
110
7,715,576
0.63
64
46
2013
110
7,747,637
0.60
68
42
2014
110
7,742,999
0.60
68
42
2015
110
7,751,801
0.60
69
41
       Table 1 shows that in 2007, only 21 refineries produced gasoline averaging 0.62
vol% benzene or less. Also in 2007, 89 refineries produced gasoline averaging greater
than 0.62 vol% benzene, including 46 refineries that produced gasoline averaging greater
than 1.3 vol% benzene. Table 2 shows that 35 of these 89 refineries plan to begin

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                                       IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
producing gasoline averaging 0.62 vol% benzene or less by 2011, as the number of
refineries producing gasoline averaging 0.62 vol% benzene or less increases from 21 in
2007 to 56 in 2011.  The number of refineries producing gasoline averaging 0.62 vol%
benzene or less further increases to 68 by 2013, after the 1.3 vol% benzene maximum
annual average standard takes effect in mid-2012, and increases to 69 by 2015.

       Table 2 shows that the average benzene concentration for all reporting refineries
is slightly  greater than 0.62 vol% in 2011 and 2012, as some  refineries plan to use early
credits to meet the 0.62 vol% standard in 2011 and 2012. Refiners begin producing
gasoline averaging 0.62 vol% benzene or less in 2013, when  average benzene
concentration decreases to 0.60 vol%. Table 2 also shows that refiners plan to
significantly increase production of gasoline from 2007 to 2011, by approximately
654,000 bbls/day.

       Figure 1 illustrates reported gasoline production, by benzene concentration, for
each reported year. By 2013, approximately 76 percent of all gasoline will  contain 0.62
vol% benzene or less.

   Figure 1. Reported U.S. Gasoline Production and Benzene Content, 2007-2015
          8,000
                2007 2008  2009  2010  2011  2012  2013  2014 2015

                                     Year
       2.     Projected Credit Generation and Use

       Table 3 shows total reported gasoline benzene credits generated and used for each
reported year. Twenty five refineries indicated they plan to generate a total of 158.9
million benzene credits (1 credit = 1 gallon benzene) during the early credit generation
period from June 1, 2007 through December 31, 2010.  Twenty three of these refineries
are owned by refiners who own multiple refineries.  To spread out the transition to the

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                                        IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
0.62 vol% benzene standard, refiners plan to use some of these early credits during the
2011 and 2012 compliance periods.  In 2011, 41 refineries are projected to generate a
total of 69.1 million credits, and 54 refineries are projected to use a total of 167.3 million
credits. In 2012, 47 refineries are projected to generate a total of 91.6 million credits and
46 refineries are projected to use a total of 103.5 million credits.  Annual generation of
standard credits begins to exceed annual usage of standard credits in 2013, when 48
refineries are projected to generate 90.1 million credits and 42 refineries are projected to
use only 70.7 million credits.  By 2015, annual credit generation  exceeds annual credit
usage by 32.2 million credits, as 48 refineries plan to generate 90.1 million credits and 41
refineries plan to use only 67.9 million credits.
Table 3
Reported Gasoline Benzene Credits for Total U.S., 2007-2015
Year
# refineries generating benzene credits
Benzene credits generated, millions
Year
# refineries generating benzene credits
# refineries using benzene credits
Benzene credits generated, millions
Benzene credits used, millions
2007
5
10.8
2011
41
54
69.1
167.3
2008
12
30.7
2012
47
46
91.6
103.5
2009
16
48.2
2013
48
42
90.1
70.7
2010
20
69.2
2014
48
42
89.4
69.4
total
25
158.9
2015
48
41
90.1
67.9
       Figure 2 shows cumulative projected generation and usage of gasoline benzene
credits for each reported year. Refiners are planning to generate sufficient credits for
overall compliance during each annual compliance period from 2011 onward.

                   Figure 2. Cumulative U.S. Gasoline Benzene Credits
              2007  2008  2009  2010  2011  2012   2013   2014  2015

                                       Year

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                                        IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
       3.     Project Scope and Timing

       In addition to providing projections of gasoline production, benzene
concentration, and credit generation/usage, refineries must also include information
outlining both their timeline for compliance with the gasoline benzene standards and their
engineering plans (e.g., design and construction) in their pre-compliance reports.  We
requested that refineries report their progress according to the following five stages:  1)
strategic planning, 2) planning and front-end engineering, 3) detailed engineering and
permitting, 4) procurement and construction, and 5) commissioning and start-up.

       In the 2009 benzene pre-compliance reports, refiners indicated they have plans to
install new benzene reduction facilities at 63 refineries. These refineries are generally in
the early stages of their projects to comply with the gasoline benzene standards.  Most
have completed their strategic planning phase,  and have started front-end engineering
design work.

       Most of the 63 refineries indicated that they plan to use one or more of the
gasoline benzene reduction strategies identified by EPA in the gasoline benzene
rulemaking. Reported scopes for benzene compliance projects are summarized in the
following list:

       - 19 refineries plan to install additional  naphtha pre-fractionation capacity to
       reduce the amount of benzene precursors in their naphtha reformer feed
       - 15 refineries plan to install a new reformate splitter tower
       - 17 refineries plan to install a new benzene saturation unit
       - 2 refineries plan to install new benzene extraction facilities
       - 7 refineries plan to revamp existing benzene extraction facilities.
       - 2 refineries plan to install new isomerization units
       - 3 refineries plan to revamp existing isomerization units
       - 11 refineries plan to outhaul benzene-rich light reformate to other refineries for
       processing

       In addition, 5 refineries indicated they planned to make operational changes to
reduce gasoline benzene.

       Refiners indicated they were not planning to install benzene reduction facilities at
47 refineries, either because these refineries already comply with the gasoline benzene
standards, or because they are planning to use credits for compliance.

B.     PADD Analysis

       This section presents information  specific to each Petroleum  Administration for
Defense District (PADD). Tables 4, 5 and 6 show aggregated reported data for 2007,
2011 and 2015, by PADD1.  From 2007 to 2011, reported national average benzene
1 These tables do not include imported gasoline, gasoline used in California, gasoline produced by small
refiners, gasoline exported outside the U.S., and gasoline produced by transmix processors.

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                                       IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
concentration decreased by 33 percent, with the largest decrease occurring in PADD 5
(39 percent), followed by PADD 2 (36 percent), PADD 3 (35 percent), PADD 4 (21
percent), and PADD 1 (18 percent). Also from 2007 to 2011, the number of refineries
producing gasoline containing 0.62 vol% benzene or less increases from 21 to 56, with
the largest increase occurring in PADD 3 (18 refineries), followed by PADD 2 (8
refineries), PADD 1 (4 refineries), and PADD 5 (3 refineries), and PADD 4 (2 refineries).
From 2011 to 2015, reported average benzene concentration decreases further in each
PADD, with the largest decreases occurring in PADDs 2, 4 and 5, while projected
gasoline production changes little in each PADD. From 2011 to 2015, 13 additional
refineries begin producing gasoline containing 0.62 vol% benzene or less, including 3
refineries in PADD 1, 4 in PADD 2, 3 in PADD 3, 2 in PADD 4, and 1 in PADD 5.
Table 4
Reported Data by PADD for 2007

# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
PADD1
14
1,164,395
0.81
4
10
PADD 2
21
1,697,399
1.28
1
20
PADD 3
45
3,540,971
0.95
10
35
PADD 4
11
231,461
1.55
0
11
PADDS
19
398,661
1.42
6
13
total U.S.
110
7,032,887
1.05
21
89
Table 5
Reported Data by PADD for 2011

# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
PADD1
14
1,224,824
0.66
8
6
PADD 2
21
1,792,531
0.82
9
12
PADD 3
45
4,026,379
0.62
28
17
PADD 4
11
244,396
1.22
2
9
PADDS
19
398,938
0.87
9
10
total U.S.
110
7,687,068
0.70
56
54
Table 6
Reported Data by PADD for 2015

# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
PADD1
14
1,205,775
0.57
11
3
PADD 2
21
1,853,102
0.63
13
8
PADD 3
45
4,042,351
0.57
31
14
PADD 4
11
246,445
0.94
4
7
PADDS
19
404,129
0.69
10
9
total U.S.
110
7,751,801
0.60
69
41
       Figure 3 illustrates the effect of the benzene standards on national average
benzene levels from 2007 through 2015. Figure 3 also shows the volume-weighted

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                                      IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
contribution of each PADD to national average benzene concentration for each reported
year. PADD 3 consistently has the greatest volume-weighted contribution because
PADD 3 consistently produces the most gasoline of any PADD (even though PADD 3
has the lowest gasoline benzene concentrations among all PADDs from 2011 through
2015). Conversely, PADD 4 consistently has the smallest volume-weighted contribution
because PADD 4 consistently produces the least gasoline of any PADD (even though
PADD 4 has the highest gasoline benzene concentrations among all PADDs in every
reported year).

      Figure 3. PADD Contributions to National Average Benzene, 2007-2015
       1.20
             2007  2008  2009  2010  2011  2012  2013  2014  2015

                                    Year
      More detailed information for each PADD is shown below in Tables 7 through
16.

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                                        IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
       1.     PADDI
       Reported data for 14 PADD 1 refineries is summarized below in Tables 7 and 8.
PADD 1 average gasoline benzene concentration decreases from 0.81 vol% in 2007 to
0.66 vol% in 2011, as the number of refineries producing gasoline containing 0.62 vol%
benzene or less increases from 4 to 8. PADD 1 average gasoline benzene concentration
decreases further to 0.57 vol% by 2015, as 3 more refineries reduce their gasoline
benzene concentration to 0.62 vol% or less.  Projected gasoline production also increases
slightly from 2007 to 2015, by approximately 42,000 bbls/day.
Table 7
Reported Data for PADD 1, 2007-2010
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2007
14
1,164,395
0.81
4
10
2008
14
1,169,596
0.75
6
8
2009
14
1,175,302
0.80
5
9
2010
14
1,199,158
0.80
5
9
Table 8
Reported Data for PADD 1, 2011-2015
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2011
14
1,224,824
0.66
8
6
2012
14
1,210,352
0.60
9
5
2013
14
1,205,775
0.58
10
4
2014
14
1,205,775
0.57
10
4
2015
14
1,205,775
0.57
11
3
2 These tables do not include imported gasoline, gasoline produced by small refiners, gasoline exported
outside the U.S., and gasoline produced by transmix processors.
                                        10

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                                        IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
       2.     PADD 23
       Reported data for 21 reporting PADD 2 refineries is summarized below in Tables
9 and 10. PADD 2 average gasoline benzene concentration decreases from 1.28 vol% in
2007 to 0.82 vol% in 2011, as the number of refineries producing gasoline containing
0.62 vol% benzene or less  increases from  1 to 9.  PADD 2 average gasoline benzene
concentration decreases further to 0.63 vol% by 2015, as 4 more refineries reduce their
gasoline benzene concentration to 0.62 vol% or less.  Projected gasoline production also
increases moderately from 2007 to 2015, by approximately 156,000 bbls/day.
Table 9
Reported Data for PADD 2, 2007-2010
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2007
21
1,697,399
1.28
1
20
2008
21
1,649,094
1.30
1
20
2009
21
1,711,287
1.31
1
20
2010
21
1,760,535
1.30
1
20
Table 10
Reported Data for PADD 2, 2011-2015
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2011
21
1,792,531
0.82
9
12
2012
21
1,821,081
0.71
10
11
2013
21
1,853,102
0.63
13
8
2014
21
1,843,337
0.64
13
8
2015
21
1,853,102
0.63
13
8
3 These tables do not include imported gasoline, gasoline produced by small refiners, gasoline exported
outside the U.S., and gasoline produced by transmix processors.
                                        11

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                                        IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
       3.     PADD 34
       Reported data for 45 PADD 3 refineries is summarized below in Tables 11 and
12. PADD 3 average gasoline benzene concentration decreases from 0.95 vol% in 2007
to 0.62 vol% in 2011, as the number of refineries producing gasoline containing 0.62
vol% benzene or less increases from 10 to 28. PADD 3 average gasoline benzene
concentration decreases further to 0.57 vol% by 2015, as 3 more refineries reduce their
gasoline benzene concentration to 0.62 vol% or less. Projected gasoline production also
increases significantly from 2007 to 2015, by approximately 501,000 bbls/day.
Table 11
Reported Data for PADD 3, 2007-2010
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2007
45
3,540,971
0.95
10
35
2008
45
3,258,603
0.97
11
34
2009
45
3,580,916
0.87
13
32
2010
45
3,854,485
0.83
16
29
Table 12
Reported Data for PADD 3, 2011-2015
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2011
45
4,026,379
0.62
28
17
2012
45
4,029,915
0.57
31
14
2013
45
4,036,885
0.57
31
14
2014
45
4,041,121
0.57
31
14
2015
45
4,042,351
0.57
31
14
4 These tables do not include imported gasoline, gasoline used in California, gasoline produced by small
refiners, gasoline exported outside the U.S., and gasoline produced by transmix processors.
                                        12

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                                        IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
       4.     PADD 45
       Data for 11 reporting PADD 4 refineries is summarized below in Tables 13 and
14. PADD 4 average gasoline benzene concentration decreases from 1.55 vol% in 2007
to 1.22 vol% in 2011, as the number of refineries producing gasoline containing 0.62
vol% benzene or less increases from 0 to 2. PADD 4 average gasoline benzene
concentration decreases further to 0.94 vol% by 2015, as refineries further reduce their
gasoline benzene concentration.  Projected gasoline production also increases slightly
from 2007 to 2015, by approximately 15,000 bbls/day.
Table 13
Reported Data for PADD 4, 2007-2010
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2007
11
231,461
1.55
0
11
2008
11
351,710
1.58
0
11
2009
11
237,169
1.54
0
11
2010
11
248,666
1.54
0
11
Table 14
Reported Data for PADD 4, 2011-2015
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2011
11
244,396
1.22
2
9
2012
11
248,456
1.01
4
7
2013
11
247,746
0.94
4
7
2014
11
248,638
0.94
4
7
2015
11
246,445
0.94
4
7
5 These tables do not include imported gasoline, gasoline used in California, gasoline produced by small
refiners, gasoline exported outside the U.S., and gasoline produced by transmix processors.
                                        13

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                                        IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
       5.     PADD
       Data for 19 reporting PADD 5 refineries is summarized below in Tables 15 and
16. PADD 5 average gasoline benzene concentration decreases from 1.42 vol% in 2007
to 0.87 vol% in 2011, as the number of refineries producing gasoline containing 0.62
vol% benzene or less increases from 6 to 9. PADD 5 average gasoline benzene
concentration decreases further to 0.69 vol% by 2015, as refineries further reduce their
gasoline benzene concentration.  Projected gasoline production also increases slightly
from 2007 to 2015, by approximately 5,000 bbls/day.
Table 15
Reported Data for PADD 5, 2007-2010
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2007
19
398,661
1.42
6
13
2008
19
359,795
1.54
5
14
2009
19
390,323
1.44
5
14
2010
19
397,914
1.41
5
14
Table 16
Reported Data for PADD 5, 2011-2015
Year
# reporting refineries
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
# refineries with benzene < or = 0.62 vol%
# refineries with benzene > 0.62 vol%
2011
19
398,938
0.87
9
10
2012
19
405,771
0.76
10
9
2013
19
404,129
0.69
10
9
2014
19
404,129
0.69
10
9
2015
19
404,129
0.69
10
9
6 These tables do not include imported gasoline, gasoline used in California, gasoline produced by small
refiners, gasoline exported outside the U.S., and gasoline produced by transmix processors.
                                        14

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                                      IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
C.     Comparison of 2008 and 2009 Pre-compliance Reports

       The 2009 pre-compliance reports show a greater overall projected reduction in
benzene during the early credit generation period (June 1, 2007 through December 31,
2010), compared to the 2008 pre-compliance reports. The 2009 pre-compliance reports
also show that benzene concentrations from 2011 through 2015 are projected to be
slightly higher compared to the 2008 pre-compliance reports. Table 17 lists projected
average national gasoline production and benzene concentration from the 2008 and 2009
pre-compliance reports.
Table 17
Projected Gasoline Production and Benzene Concentration for Total U.S.,
2007-2015

2008 benzene reports
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
2009 benzene reports
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%

2008 benzene reports
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
2009 benzene reports
Reported gasoline production, bbls/day
Average benzene concentration, vol%
2007

7,009,410
1.05

7,032,887
1.05
2011

7,953,682
0.65

7,687,068
0.70
2008

7,321,248
1.07

6,788,798
1.08
2012

7,968,849
0.61

7,715,576
0.63
2009

7,523,745
1.06

7,094,997
1.02
2013

7,968,195
0.59

7,747,637
0.60
2010

7,690,694
1.04

7,460,758
0.99
2014

7,957,194
0.59

7,742,999
0.60







2015

7,968,537
0.59

7,751,801
0.60
       The 2009 pre-compliance reports show more early credits being generated from
2007 through 2010, compared to the 2008 pre-compliance reports. However, the 2009
pre-compliance reports also show fewer standard credits being generated and more
credits being used from 2011 through 2015, compared to the 2008 pre-compliance
reports. Table 18 lists projected credits generated and used from the 2008 and 2009 pre-
compliance reports, along with the cumulative credit surplus by the end of each year.
Figure 4 illustrates that the 2009 pre-compliance reports still show a cumulative credit
surplus at the end of each year from 2007 through 2015, but the cumulative credit surplus
by the end of 2015 is not as great as the cumulative credit surplus from the 2008 pre-
compliance reports.
                                      15

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                          IV. Gasoline Benzene Summary Data
Table 18
Projected Gasoline Production and Benzene Concentration for Total U.S.,
2007-2015

2008 benzene reports
Benzene credits generated, millions
Cumulative credit surplus, millions
2009 benzene reports
Benzene credits generated, millions
Cumulative credit surplus, millions

2008 benzene reports
Benzene credits generated, millions
Benzene credits used, millions
Cumulative credit surplus, millions
2009 benzene reports
Benzene credits generated, millions
Benzene credits used, millions
Cumulative credit surplus, millions
2007

9.4
9.4

10.8
10.8
2011

95.8
128.0
41.9

69.1
167.3
60.8
2008

8.7
18.2

30.7
41.5
2012

96.3
83.6
54.6

91.6
103.5
48.9
2009

18.5
36.7

48.2
89.7
2013

99.6
68.8
85.4

90.1
70.7
68.3
2010

37.5
74.2

69.2
158.9
2014

98.7
67.5
116.7

89.4
69.4
88.4







2015

99.4
65.8
150.2

90.1
67.9
110.5
    Figure 4. Cumulative U.S. Gasoline Benzene Credit Surplus
B?
S
80
Qj  O
'-  .-
S
u
D 2008 reports

 2009 reports
           2007  2008  2009  2010  2011  2012 2013  2014 2015

                               Year
                           16

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