United States           Administration And         EPA 205-R-96-001
              Environmental Protection      Resources Management      March 1996
              Agency              (3302)

EPA        Fiscal Year 1997
         Justification Of Appropriation
         Estimates For The Committees
               On Appropriations
                                            Recycled/Recydable
                                            Printed on Paper that contain
                                            at least 50% recycled paper

-------
                      '  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1997 BUDGET ESTIMATE

                               TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                         Page

SUMMARY 	  .  .,......;	   1-1

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS AND MANAGEMENT	2-1
      AIR	-	.  .   2-5
      RADIATION	.".2-15
      WATER QUALITY	  2 -19
      DRINKING WATER	'	2-33
      PESTICIDES   ....:.	. • .  .	,  .  2-41
      TOXIC SUBSTANCES	2-47
      HAZARDOUS WASTE  .  ,  .	2-55'
      MULTIMEDIA	'	,  .,,......,'.  2-S7
      MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT	'.  .  .  2-79
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION	,  ,  .  .	.  2-89

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY	3-1
      AIR TOXICS RESEARCH  	  .........  	  .   3-4
      CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS  RESEARCH	3-7
      INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS RESEARCH   ......  .  .  .  .  .	*  .  .3-13
      GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH   .....'	3-15
      WASTE/SITE/RISK CHARACTERIZATION  RESEARCH  .....'	3-19
      WASTE MANAGEMENT AND SITE REMEDIATION RESEARCH  	  3-21
      DRINKING WATER RESEARCH	  '.	3-23
      ECOSYSTEMS PROTECTION RESEARCH   .  .  	  3-27
      HUMAN HEALTH PROTECTION  RESEARCH	  .  3-33
      SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS RESEARCH  	  3-37
      NEW TECHNOLOGY AND POLLUTION PREVENTION  RESEARCH  .'........3-39
      SCIENCE QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH	  3-43
      NATIONAL VEHICLES AND FUELS EMISSIONS LABORATORY  	  3-47
      NATIONAL RADIATION LABORATORIES  	  3-49
      ANALYTICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES  	  3-51
      DRINKING WATER PROGRAM LABORATORY	  3-53
      NATIONAL ENFORCEMENT INVESTIGATIONS  CENTER  	  3-55
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION  	  3-57

INSPECTOR GENERAL	.....-,."....   4-1
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION	4-7

BUILDINGS & FACILITIES	,	5-1
      REPAIRS & IMPROVEMENT	  ,	   5-3
      NEW FACILITIES   .'.....,	5-3
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION"	5-5

SUPERFUND	6-1
      RESPONSE	6-3
      ENFORCEMENT	6-9
      MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT   .	:	6-11
      OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES	-	6-15
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION  .  .  .	  6-17

LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TRUST	  ...........   7-1
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION	   7-7

-------
                               TABLE OF" CONTENTS
                                  (Continued)

OIL SPILL RESPONSE	' .  .  .	8-1
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATON	"	8-5

STATE AND TRIBAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS '..........•	  9-1
      CLEAN WATER STATE REVOLVING FUND	  9-5
      DRINKING WATER STATE. REVOLVING  FUND  	  .....  9-7
      SPECIAL INFRASTRUCTURE	-...'.  9-9
      STATE AND TRIBAL ASSISTANCE	9-11
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION	'.   . 9-17
                           i
NON APPROPRIATED FUNDS	'	10-1

WORKING CAPITAL FUND	•	11-1

USER FEES	.'	..,.'...	12-1

SPECIAL ANALYSES	'	13-1

-------
Summary
   SECTION TAB

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY




                             1997 BUDGET ESTIMATE




                              TABLE :QF  CONTENTS




                                      .                         .         Page




SUMMARY	'.	1-1

-------
                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
               REALIGNED ACCOUNTS IN THE FISCAL YEAR 1997 BUDGET


      The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will operate under a new account
structure in 1997.  In Conference on the 1996 Appropriation,- the House and Senate
agreed to this new structure,  and several EPA accounts have been realigned to
reflect this  Congressional  action.  While several  accounts  .retain their same
structure, three new accounts were created: Science and Technology; Environmental.
Programs and Management; and  State and Tribal Assistance Grants.  These three
accounts  were created  by  merging  the old  Program and  Research operations;
Abatement,  Control   &  Compliance;  Research   and Development;   and  Water
Infrastructure/State Revolving Fund accounts.  A short description of the funding
derivation for these accounts follows:


SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

      The Science and Technology  (S&T) account  consists  of  the entire former
Research and Development (R&D)  account.  In addition, all Abatement, Control and
Compliance  (AC&C)  account program office lab  funding,  Program  and  Research
Operations (PRO)  account program office lab funding, and  all former personnel,
compensation, benefits and .travel from the former PRO account for the Office of
Research and Development (ORD)  are also funded  in  the'S&T account.  'Finally,
research  and  development activities  formerly funded under  the Comprehensive
Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act  of 1980  (CERCLA) will be
appropriated in the Hazardous Substance Superfund account, then transferred to
S&T.  All funds in the Science and Technology account will be two-year funds.


BWIRONMENTALPROGRAMS AMP MANAGEMENT

      The Environmental Programs and Management (EPM) account is comprised of the
remaining PRO 'account  funds   and funds from  the former AC&C account with the
exception of  program office lab  funding  and state  grants.  All funds in the
Environmental Programs and Management account will be two-year funds.


STATE AND TRIBAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS

      The State and Tribal Assistance Grants  (STAG) account will be comprised of
the entire former Water Infrastructure Financing  (WIF)  account, as well as the
state grants portion  of the former AC&C account.  The funds the State and Tribal
Assistance Grants account will be no-year funds.


      Three  former  appropriations  accounts  were eliminated as part  of  this'
realignment.   They  are: Program and t Research  ' Operations  (PRO),  Abatement,
Compliance & Control  (AC&C)  and the Research  and  Development  (R&D) account.  As
detailed .above, all portions of these accounts have been  consumed into the new
account structure.  The only other EPA account affected  by the restructuring is
the Hazardous Substance  Superfund account.   Funds will be appropriated in the
same manner as in the past, however, the research function will be transferred
to the S&T account after the 1997 Bill is enacted.

      All of  the remaining  EPA  accounts:   .Office-  of  the  Inspector General,
Buildings and Facilities, Oil Spill Response, Leaking Underground Storage Tank
Trust Fund,' and Working Capital Fund remain unchanged.

      A chart detailing the new account structure follows on the next page.
                                      l-l

-------
NEW EPA ACCOUNT STRUCTURE
OLD NEW
PRO,
entire account \
except ORD \
PC&B and \
program wffice \ '._
lab fundiffg " \
AC&C EPM
entire account ^^^ M^M. A.WM*
except' *^*"^
program office
lab funding and
stale grants
Two Year Availability


.
OLD NEW
PRO
ORD- PC&B \
and program \
office lab \
funding \
AC&C_\
program office ^^ ^^ C3C^ M.
. lab funding J^
R&D^
entire account
Two Year Availability




OLD NEW

AC&C
state grants ^s^
STAG
WIF /
entire account
                       No Year Funds

-------
                     ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             Summary of Budget Authority,
                          Obligations, Outlays and Workyears
                                  By Appropriation

                                  (dollars in millions)
Conference Levels President's
Actual with Add-Backs Request
FY 1995 FY 1996 FY 1997
Program and Research Operations
Budget Authority ..
Obligations. .........
Outlays 	
Total Workyears
Budget Authority . - • . .
Obligations... 	
Outlays 	 ',
Environmental Program and Management

Obligations.,... 	
Outlays 	
Total Workyears 	
Research and Development
Budget Authority 	
Obligations 	 	
Outlays 	 	
Science and Technology
Budget Authority S&T Program 	
Budget Authority derived ftom Superfund;....
Budget Authority Appropriated in S&T 	
Obligations... 	
Outlays.... 	
Total Workyears 	
Office of Inspector General
Budget Authority IG Program 	
Budget Authority derived frorn Superfund 	
Budget Authority derived from LUST.....
Budget Authority Appropriated in IG 	
Obligations.. 	
Outlays 	
915.5
902.7
. 892.1
13,015.9
1,401.1
1,380.0
1,330.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
$334.6
322.5
303.4
$0.0
$0.0
so.o
0.0
0.0
0.0
$44.6
($15,4)
($0.7)
$28.5
26.0
26.1
0.0
0.0
59.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1,739.3
1,798.0
1,896.5
11,186.0
$0.0
0.0
0.0
$562.0
$0.0
$562.0
584.0
512.4
2,308.7
$40.0
($11.0)
($0.5)
$28.5
28.5
22.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1,894.3
1,894.3
1,904.3
11,110.5
$0.0
0.0
0.0
$621.2
($42.5)
$578.7
578.7
570.5
2,260.3
$42.8
($11.5)
($0.6)
$30.7
'30,7
30.1
Total Workyears...
                                                424.3
426.3
408.4

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

       Summary of Budget Authority,
     Obligations, Outlays and Workyears
            By Appropriation

            (dollars in millions)
Conference Levels President's
Actual with Add-Backs Request
FY 1995 FY 1996 FY 1997 .
Buildings and Facilities
Obligations 	
Outlays,. 	 ....
Oil Spill Response
Budget Authority 	
Obligations... 	
Outlays
Total Workyears.w .. ...
Asbestos Loan Program
Obligations 	
Outlays 	 	 	
Hazardous Substance Superfuiid
Budget Authority Superfund Program.....
Budget Authority Transferred to S&T 	
Budget Authority Transferred to IG 	
Budget Authority Appropriated-in SF 	
Obligations...... 	
Outlays 	
Total Workyears. i 	
L..U.S.T Trust Fund
Budget Authority LUST Program 	
Budget Authority Transferred to IG 	
Budget Authority Appropriated in LUST 	
Obligations... ......
Outlays... . ...
Total Wortcysars 	 	
Water Infrastructure Financing /SRF
Budget Authority... .. ..
Obligations 	 	
Outlays 	 	
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Budget Authority 	
Obligations... 	
Outlays 	
($39.4)
30.5
26.0
S19.9
21.7
22.4 •
94.5
0.0
8.7
$1,338.3
so.o
$15.4
$1,353.7
1,439.0
1,471.8
3,517.9
$69.2
$0.7
$69.9
71.1
72.8
86.5
1,884.6
3,222.8
2,454.9
, SO.O
0.0
0.0
$110.0
142.0
75.0
$15.0
17.7
17.7
107.1
0.0
4.0
$1,302.4
$0.0
$11.0
$1,313.4
1,527.0
1,389.4 '
3,579.3
$45.3
$0.5
$45.8
47.3
59.4
82.4 '
0.0
0.0
0.0
$2,863.0
3,341.0
2.499.4
$209.2
209.2
152.4
$15.3
15.3
15.9
104.4
0.0
2.0
$1,340.3
$42.5
$11.5
$1,394.2
1,394.2
1,377.0
3,344.9
$66.5
$0.6
$67,1
67.1
61.6
88.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
$2,852.2
2,302.0
2.579.4

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                               Summary of Budget Authority,
                             Obligations, Outlays and Workyears
                                     By Appropriation

                                     (dollars in millions)
                                                          Conference Levels   President's
                                                Actual      with Add-Backs      Request
                                               FY1995        FY1996          FY1997
Obligations	
Outlays	

Total Workyeais	

aarJang Capital Fund

Total Workyears	


Reregistration & Expedited
EetcjsAigJB&YMsdngJLiiB-d
Obligations	......
Outlays	

Total Workyears	
   «

Reregistration Revolving Fund (proposed)
Budget Authority	
Obligations	
Outlays	


Asbestos in Schools Fund
Outlays....,	


Reimbursements - PRO
Obligations.....	

Total Workyears	

BMBrfmrse
Obligations

EMm!fflJS£n
Obligations	

Total Wockyeais.,..,.,,,,

Reimbursements - R&D
Obligations	

Beimhujsement?! -S&T
Obligations	

Total Workyears	
 $2.3
 (0.3)

 28.0
  0.0
$14.8
  0.1

159.1
 $0.0
  0.0
  0.0
 $1.5



 $8.8

 78.9


$29.5


 $0.0

  0.0


$25.0


 so.o

  0.0
  $3.0
   0.0

  30.0
                    0.0
 $16.0
   2.0

 185.7
  $0-0
   0,0
   0.0
  $1-0



  $0.0

   0.0


  $0.0


$103.0

  88.2


  $0.0


 $60.0

   0.0
  $2.0
   0.0

  24.0
                 79.0
 $16.0
   2.0

 179.1
  $0.0
   5.0
  (1.0)
  $0.0



  $0.0

   0.0


  $0.0


$103.0

  72.4


  $0.0


 $60.0

 131.8

-------
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

       Summary of Budget Authority,
     Obligations, Outlays and Workyears
            By Appropriation

            (dollars in millions)
Conference Levels President's
Actual wit k Arid-Backs Request
FY1995 FY1996 FY 1997
Reimbursements - IG
Total Workyears..........
Reimbursements - Oil Spill Response
Obligations 	 	
Total Workyears 	
Reimbursements - Superfnnd
Obligations. .. 	 .

Pesticides Registration Fees
(Receipts requiring Approp Action)
Budget Authority.......,.,
Outlays 	 	
TOTAL, EPA
Budget Authority
Obligations. .........
Outlays
Total Workvears 	
S3. 2
0.0
$3,2
0.0
$175.7
II
102.9
$0.0
0.0
$5,968.5
$7,700.7
$6,609.8
17.508.0
S2.0
0.0
$15.0
0,0
$316.0
146.0
so.o
0.0
• $6,677.0
$8,018.1
$6,539.0
18.139.7
$2.0
0.0
$15.0
0.0
$90.0
148.0
($15.0)
(15.0)
$7,026.9
$6,800,0
$6,679.0
17.951.1

-------
        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
               Summary of Budget Authority,
                   Outlays and Workyears
                         By Media

                     (dollars in millions)
• Media
President's
 Request
 FY1997
Air
Budget Authority.
Outlays	

Total Workyears..
      $624.0
       465.fi

     2,386.2
Rutlialimi
Budget Authority.
Outlays	

Total Workyears..
       $25.2
        33.4

      ..224,2
 Water Quality
 Budget Authority.
 Outlays	
Total Workyears.,
      $516.2
       358,9

     2,048.2
Drinking Water
Budget Authority,
Outlays	,.
Total Workyears.
      $198,6
        100.1

       •783.5
       Infrastructure
 Budget Authority
'Outlays .......... •
     $2,178.0
     2,579.4
 Budget Authority.
 Outlays	

 Total Workyears..
      $117,8
        89.6

      1,032.5
Toric Substances
Budget Authority..
Outlays	

Total Workyears...
      $106.6
        123.8

        679.1
 Hazardous Waste
 Budget Authority...
 Outlays	

 Total Workyears.,..
      $314.9
       250.5

      1,384.0
 Multimedia
 Budget Authority.
 Outlays	
      $698.8
       328.0
Total Workyears..
                                       1-7
      2,445.9

-------
       ' ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

               Summary of Budget Authority,
                  Outlays and Workyears
                        By Media

                     (dollars in millions)

Media
President's
Request \
FY 1997 1
Management and Support
.Budget Authority	
Outlays,...;	

Total Workyears	
   575,9
   537.3

 3,040,9
Buildings and Facilities
Budget Authority	
Outlays	
  $209.2
   152.4
Hazardous Substance Superftmd
Budget Authority	
Outlays	
Total Workyears.
$1,394.2
 1,377.0

 3,728.1
L.U.S.T.
Budget Authority.
Outlays	
Total Workyears.
   $61.1
    61.6

    94.1
 Oil SpiH Respoiisi
.Budget Authority.
 Outlays	

 Total Workyears..
   $15.3
    15.9

   104.4
Pesticides Registration Fees
(Receipts requiring Approp Action)
Budget Authority	
Outlays	
  ($15.0)
   (15.0)
TOTAL,EPA
Budget Authority.
Outlays....	,

Total Workyears..
$7,026,9
 6,458.5

.17,951.1
                                       1-8

-------
Environmental
Programs and
 Management
    SECTION TAB

-------
                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                              1997 BUDGET ESTIMATE  .   •         '            ,•

                               TAB.LE . QE	CONTENTS

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS AND MANAGEMENT	,	' .  .'  .  2-1
      AIR .•......;•,.-.	I .  .  .  .'	•	2-5
      RADIATION	 2-15
      WATER QUALITY	2-19
      DRINKING WATER   	 2-33
      PESTICIDES   ..;..-	' .  . 2-41
      TOXIC SUBSTANCES		2-47
      HAZARDOUS WASTE	2-55
      MULTIMEDIA	2-67
      MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT	'.  ........ 2 -79
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION •.	2-89

-------

-------
                     ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM AND MANAGEMENT ,


      The -Agency requests a total of $1,894,329,200 and .11,216.0 workyears for
1997 in the Environmental Programs and Management Appropriation Account.  This
appropriation funds  programs that  represent the  backbone  of  EPA's standard
setting, enforcement, and direct implementation programs to ensure that our water
is pure,  our air  clean,  and our  food safe._  This appropriation  also funds
programs to maintain and-promote better management of the Agency's resources.

      Despite significant gains  over the last 25 years, the nation continues to
face significant environmental challenges.  A third of Americans still live in
areas  that  exceed air  quality standards,  and  17  percent  of  the  population
increased risk at least once this year because drinking water -systems violated
drinking water health standards or  had inadequate or no filtration treatment.
Clean water Is essential to the ecological and economic health.of the country,
and the Agency will continue to aggressively implement program to protect surface
waters, groundwater and wetlands.   This appropriation will also fund programs
to ensure proper management of the more than 200 million tons of hazardous and
municipal solid wastes produced each year,  and to address the  highest risks posed
by the more  than 20,000 pesticides products on the market and more than 2,200 new
chemicals introduced each  year.   The Agency  will  continue  efforts  to resolve
complex attainment issues for  33 ozone nonattainment areas and 9 carbon monoxide
nonattainment areas that do not  meet health standards.  This appropriation also
supports the  enforcement and  compliance-assurance activities needed to ensure
compliance with, the environmental statutes enacted by Congress.

      The President is committed to meet the challenges necessary to protect the
environment.   In this  budget,  the  Agency  fully  funds  EPA's portion  of  the
President's Climate Change Action plan.   This program- creates partnerships to
produce,  innovative  energy  conservation  programs  to meet  our international
commitments to reduce  greenhouse gases.   The budget funds  the Environmental
Technology  Initiative which  will  spur the development of new technologies to
protect public health,  cut  costs,  create new  jobs  and to  increase exports.  The
Agency supports the Everglades/South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Initiative.
SPA and other federal agencies are working to restore the Everglades ecosystem.
Finally, the budget continues  to support the watershed approach in the key water
systems such as the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.

      In  1997,   the  Agency  conti-nues  to move  forward with  its  Regulatory
Reinvention activities  as  proposed  in the  NAPA  report,  "Setting  Priorities,
Getting Results:  A New Direction for EPA", and the March 1995 package from the
President,  Reinventing  Environmental Regulation.    The  reinvention  activities
provide businesses and community-based groups with an opportunity to join in a
partnership with the Agency and encourages them to take the initiative  to protect
the environment.

      The Agency's regulatory reinvention efforts  will achieve  results that are
cleaner for the environment,  cheaper for business  and taxpayers and smarter for
America's future.   The  Agency is using an  approach that takes  a look at  the
environment industry-by-industry, and community-by-community to achieve the very
best environmental results at -the least cost.

      The 1997 request will include 25 high-priority actions,  such as Project XL,
the Common Sense Initiative (CSI) and the Sustainable Development Challenge Grant
Program.  Under Project XL, companies have an opportunity to set aside current
EPA rules if they can design an alternative system that will  be  both cheaper for
the company and cleaner for the environment.  Project XL will forge challenging
partnerships between the Agency, businesses, and communities 'who are interested
in  contributing  innovative  strategies for  smarter and better environmental
management.  CSI invites a broad spectrum of  stakeholders,  including industry,
environmentalists, state governments, communities and labor unions to look at the

                                      2-1

-------
full range of  environmental regulations affecting six  specific industries to
improve and simplify the permit system, identify more  flexible ways of achieving
compliance, and design integrated systems for reporting environmental data.  The
Sustainable Development  Challenge Grant Program will be used to leverage private
investment in environmental efforts and  to  link environmental  protection with
sustainable development and reinvention  to  encourage innovated approaches for
community-based environmental protection.

      EPA is committed  to setting priorities  that allow the Agency  to apply
limited resources where they will gain  the  most public  health  and environment
benefits.  As we set environmental priorities, one of  the most important'factors
that we use is  relative risk.  Examples of the use of  risk-based decision making
can be found throughout the Agency's programs and environmental media.

       The Drinking Water Program will  use human health risk-based priorities for
setting high  quality,  drinking water standards  based  on sound science and data;
build and maintain flexible partnerships with the states and local governments
in implementing drinking water regulations;  and, promote community-based source
water protection programs that prevent pollution of lakes,  rives,  streams, and
groundwater that serve as drinking water sources.

      Water Quality activities will  build upon the  solid  foundation  of basic
programs by continuing to expand use of the place-based approach.  This approach
promotes  flexibility  to   address   wide   ranges   of  risks  affectig  specific
localities.  Priorities in FY 1997 include improved wet-weather flow controls,
comprehensive wetlands management, and improved service delivery to clients and
stakeholders.

      The Air  program,  in  partnership  with interested  states,  will  help to
establish a market-based, cap-and-trade  program to reduce  emissions  of NOx,  a
major contributor to ozone pollution in highly-populous regions.  The expanded
use of market-based approaches pioneered in the acid rain  program exemplifies
work process reinvention and will provide a highly cost-effective way of reducing
risks to populations in some of the most polluted regions of the country.

      The Pesticides-and Toxics programs will focus on reducing use and exposure
to toxic  pesticides  and chemicals  and enhance 'public health for  farm workers
while improving environmental protection.

      The Agency continues to  strengthen  its role with our tribal partners.  One
priority is to  improve the management of solid waste on Indian lands.  Work with
specific  tribes' will  center on identifying  appropriate  and practical landfill
management techniques, including alternative waste management technologies thai:
would be  appropriate  for  small,  remote  communities.   Resources and technical
support  will  also  be provided  to help tribes  establish partnerships  with
governmental and non-governmental groups in dealing with waste management issues.
In addition,  the Agency  will  work with 'tribes to  implement  the  underground
storage  tank  program as  most tribes  rely heavily  on  groundwater  for their
•drinking  water supply.

      In the  1997  request, strong enforcement of environmental laws continues to
be a high priority.   We  want to  ensure  that  polluters  find a  cop  on the
environmental  beat.  EPA will  target  violators  of key Agency  geographic and
ecological initiatives.  The Criminal Enforcement program will hire additional
support for criminal investigators as mandated under the Pollution Prosecution
Act.  The program will target  large  facilities  and major incidents with special
emphasis  on those violations involving the greatest risk to human health or the
environment.     At the same time,  the Agency will pursue  its  dual enforcement
strategy of compliance assistance by expanding cooperative partnerships with the
regulated community and focusing assistance On small businesses.
                                      2-2

-------
      The budget also provides funding for the management and support activities
carried throughout the Agency.  To make better use of its people, programs and
resources, the Agency is reinventing its management and administrative processes.
An example of the Agency  streamlining  is  the Information Resources Management
Strategic plan.  This initiative is an effort to consolidate the Agency's various
data  collections  so that • duplicative  elements  are . eliminated  and reporting,
requirements are streamlined and clearer to the regulated'community.
                                      2-3

-------
2-4

-------
                                     AIR

OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a-total  of  $304,405,300  and 1,669.7 total workyears
under the EPA appropriation "for 1997 in the A'ir media.

      Air pollution continues to be a widespread problem in the United States,
contributing to human  illnesses such as  cancer, respiratory and reproductive
problems, and  mental  impairment.   Air pollution  also  reduces  visibilility,
corrodes buildings, and damages natural resources and ecosystems through toxic
accumulation and  acidification of soils  and lakes.   By the end of  1995,  60
metropolitan areas, with a combined population of 120 million residents, were not
in attainment with air quality standards for one or more of 'the six "criteria"
pollutants for which EPA has established standards.  The most difficult problem
is ozone, caused by emissions from  motor vehicles,  industrial plants, and other
mobile and stationary sources.  Carbon monoxide, chiefly from cars and trucks,
is the second-most common problem.  Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and
particulate matter (PM-10) also continue to cause environmental and public health
challenges,  although most areas of the nation now meet  the  standards set for
these pollutants.   In addition to these six familiar pollutants,  over one million
tons of  hundreds  of other air toxic pollutants are released annually.   These
pollutants individually and interactively .threaten the environmental and economic *
health of the country.

      The Clean Air Act authorizes a nationwide program to prevent  and reduce air
pollution through  air quality planning,  regulation,  compliance, enforcement, and
research.  EPA now has  completed a large number of rules mandated by Congress in
1990.  Much remains to be done, however, if the Act's health and environmental
goals are to be achieved.  Over the next few years EPA must, among other things,
issue additional  rules and  guidance documents,  as well as  complete  mandated
studies  and reports.  At  the same  time, the Agency must  accelerate  and expand
activities to ensure that the Act is effectively implemented and enforced.  In
addition, the Agency must strive to ensure  that sources Subject to multiple Clean
Air Act rules or programs can comply without unnecessary  burdens.  Finally, EPA
must continue  air research  activities to strengthen the scientific  basis for
policy decisions and regulatory actions.   Air research activities are described
under the Science and Technology appropriation.

      The air program helps  carry out three  major national environmental goals:
Clean Air, Safe Homes and Work Places, and Reducing Global Environmental Risks.
Under the Clean Air goal the Agency protects public health and the environment
through programs to attain clean air standards,  reduce  air toxics emissions, and
control acid rain.  Under the Reducing Global Environmental Risks goal the Agency
seeks to reduce greenhouse  gas emissions  to 1990  levels by  the  year 2000 and
return the stratospheric ozone layer to levels found prior to the discovery of
the Antarctic ozone hole.  Finally, under the Safe Homes and Work Places goal,
the Agency  attempts  to ensure that the air inside buildings  is  as  healthy as
outdoor  air that meets federal clean air  standards.

      The Agency has established six program objectives for 1997 to help achieve
these environmental goals:   1) continue to  work with states to attain National
Ambient  Air Quality Standards  (NAAQSs); 2)  develop and implement an urban air
toxics strategy;  3)  continue to carry out  a market-based  acid rain emissions
trading  system;  4} reduce  energy consumption  and prevent  pollution through
voluntary,  profitable   measures;   5)   implement  domestic   rules   and  U.S.
responsibilities under the Clean Air Act and the revised Montreal Protocol for
reducing stratospheric ozone depletion; and, 6) provide technical  support to
state and 'tribal indoor air  programs.
                                      2-5-

-------
                                      AIR

 PROGRAM and 'ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

 NON-ATTAINMENT  PROGRAMS

       The Agency requests  a total  of  $64,024,600  and 555.0  total  workyears  for
 1997  in the Criteria Pollutant Program.

       EPA  sets  NAAQSs for six "criteria" pollutants:  ozone,  carbon monoxide,
 particulate matter (PM-10), lead, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.  EPA will
 work  with states, tribes, and multi-state organizations to reduce  the number of
 areas not meeting NAAQSs from 190 to-six  by  the year  2005.  This will reduce  the
 number of  people living  in areas with  unhealthy air from 148 million to  45
 million.   The  remaining six areas will  have air meeting all NAAQSs by 2010.
 Nonattainment of standards is most widespread for the first three  pollutants.
 Today,  33 areas in the United States do not meet the national health standard for
 ozone;  nine areas do not meet the health  standards for carbon monoxide; and over
 33  areas do not meet the health  standards for PM-lO.  Recent research suggests
 that  particulate levels may cause 70,000 premature deaths  each year in the United
 States.  In 1997 the Agency will devote  $6,433,000 and 29.9 total workyears  to
 complete review of  the ozone and PM-10 standards and propose  new standards  if
 necessary  to protect public health.

       In 1997 EPA will  issue seven national guidelines and  standards for major
 stationary sources that contribute  to ozone,  sulfur dioxide,  and nitrogen dioxide
 pollution.  EPA will also carry out programs that will help meet NAAQSs for ozone
 and particulate matter by  reducing pollution from vehicles  and fuels.

       Under the Clean Air Act states must develop clean air plans to meet NAAQSs.
 In  1997 EPA will provide states with national policy, guidance,.and technical
 assistance  for  developing plans and for determining whether program requirements
 and milestones  are being met.  EPA  Regions will assist states, tribes, and local
 communities in implementing pollution control strategies that provide multi-media
 benefits and co-control of both toxic and criteria pollutants.  The Regions will
 also  work  extensively  with states and  other  stakeholders  to  resolve  complex
 issues affecting attainment of NAAQSs, including 'issues involving the long-range
 transport  of ozone-forming compounds.

       In 1997 Regions will assess  whether areas have come into compliance with
 NAAQSs and complete actions to redesignate them  as  "attainment" as  quickly  as
 possible.   Measurements of  air quality for  the past three years show that 65  of
 the 98 areas  identified as nonattainment for the ozone  NAAQS  in 1991  now meet
 health standards; 33 of the 42 carbon monoxide nonattainment areas also now meet
 health standards.

       In 1997 the Agency will work  on identifying previously unquantified health
 benefits (such  as reduced non-cancer effects from  air toxics and reduced chronic
 effects from ozone)  and  unquantified  secondary benefits  (such  as  ecosystem
 benefits and benefits from exported technologies and job creation)•   The Agency
 also  will  assess the full range of human health  and environmental  benefits  of
 implementing various control strategies associated with  a  revised  PM NAAQS  in
 conjunction with the development the regional haze visibility rule that will  be
 issued in  1997.  Additionally,  the Agency will  provide an assessment of  air
 quality benefit approaches.   Finally,  EPA will  document  and  communicate  the
 results from analyses in technical and non-technical terms  so  that  they can be
 understood by  the regulatory community,  industry, and the public.

       Accurate  air  quality measurements  are-essential both in  developing state
 plans and evaluating their effectiveness.  In 1997 EPA Regions will assist state
 and  local  agencies  in  improving air  monitoring networks,  refining  quality
.assurance  programs,  and strengthening programs for  analyzing  monitoring data.

                                      2-6

-------
Regions  also will  continue their  multi-state and  multi-Regional  efforts  to
coordinate  the  enhanced ozone monitoring network  as well as provide  analytic
support for multi-state organizations such as the Ozone Transport Commission,  the
Ozone  Transport  Assessment  Group,  and  the  Lake  Michigan  Air  Director's
Consortium.   This work will include the  allocation of $315,900 and 4.6  total
workyears  under  this•  account  for  addressing air quality  problems  in  the
U.S./Mexico border region.  In addition, EPA will  continue.to  support  states in
accurately inventorying pollutant emissions from mobile and  stationary sources.
Complete,  accurate,   and  comprehensive emission  inventories  are key to  the
development  of  sound and enforceable  state plane,  effective regulations,  and
meaningful measures of progress for achieving clean air.  Such inventories also
are  integral  to  the success of new  market-based pollution control approaches.

      In 1997 EPA will devote a total of $3,461,200 and 20.7 total workyears to
assist Indian tribes  in developing  programs to protect  and  improve air quality
on  tribal  lands.-   The Clean Air Act  provides  tribes with  the authority  to
implement and administer air quality programs in essentially the same manner as
states.  Funding  support for states and tribes is  described  in detail'under  the
State and Tribal  Assistance Grant appropriation.

CLEAN VEHICLES AND FUELS PROGRAMS

      The Agency requests a total of $14,416,200 and 148.8  total workyears  for
1997 for the  Clean Vehicles and Fuels  Programs.

      EPA's  clean vehicles and fuels programs are  designed  to help meet NAAQSs
and  reduce air toxics.  Air pollution from mobile sources accounts for  over half
of   the  nationwide  emissions  of  ozone-forming  compounds   (volatile  organic
compounds  and nitrogen oxides)  .and carbon monoxide.   Because mobile source
emissions account for such a large percentage of the total air pollution problem,
reducing these emissions holds the greatest potential for cleaning our  nation's
air.

      In 1997 EPA will focus on maintaining  and improving the credibility of  the
scientific and technological basis for decisions and programs by using sound data
and  scientific and .engineering principles.  The Agency will  seek acceptance  for
.the  scientific basis of Its programs by obtaining peer reviews from the technical
community.  The Agency also will seek increased public acceptance of its programs
and  policies  through the development of partnerships with the  states,  industry,
and  environmental  organizations  and  stakeholders, as  well  as  through   an
institutionalized outreach and communication program.   (The EPM account covers
activities  focused on  fuels  and  vehicle  and emissions  compliance programs;
complementary programs are described under the Science and Technology account.)

       EPA and the states will work together to carry out mobile source pollution
abatement  programs:    vehicle  inspection  and  maintenance,  oxygenated  and
reformulated fuels; clean fuel fleets; and other transportation control measures'.
The  Regions  will  help .maintain conformity among transportation and air quality
plans and projects through working  relationships with regional  Federal Highway
Administration  offices  and  state/local transportation agencies.

NATIONAL AIR TOXICS STRATEGIES, STANDARDS,  AND PROGRAMS

      The Agency requests a total of $44,633,500 and 219.1  total workyears  for
1997 for the Air Toxics Program.

      Under  the  clean air sub-goal  for air  toxics  the Agency  will, by  the year
2005,  reduce  toxic  air  emissions from  all major  sources  to  the lowest
technically-achievable  levels.  By 2010 the incidence of cancer due to exposure
to pollution from vehicles will be  reduced  by 50 percent.  .
                                      2-7

-------
      According to  industry estimates,  more than 1.8  billion pounds of toxic
pollutants were emitted 'into the atmosphere in 1992.   These pollutants can cause
cancer, reproductive effects, birth  defects,  respiratory illnesses,  and other
serious health effects.   The CAAA  requires EPA by  the year 2000  to issue
technology based standards  to control  189  hazardous air pollutants emitted by
major sources and small "area" sources.

      During 1997 the Agency will  continue work on  Maximum Achievable Control
Technology (MACT)  standards required within seven and ten years of enactment by
devoting a total of  $19,341,300 and 82.7 total workyears to this effort-  Timely
issuance of these standards is needed to avoid triggering requirements  for states
to regulate air toxics  sources  on a facility-by-facility basis.   To set MACT
standards  EPA  must gather information  on  toxics emissions,  manufacturing
processes, pollution controls,  and environmental and control  Costs.  As part of
the standards development the Agency will examine process  changes, substitution
of  feedstocks,  and  other pollution prevention options.   To complete  these
standards as efficiently  as possible,  EPA will  form partnerships  among major
stakeholders (industry,  states,  and the public)  to leverage' their resources and
expertise.  Through  1996,  the Agency will  have  proposed 49  and promulgated 25
MACT standards.  In 1997 the Agency will propose  five additional MACT standards
and promulgate nineteen of those proposed in 1996.

      Under the Clean Air  Act EPA is required to issue a report to Congress that
identifies  the  methods  for calculating   the   health  risk remaining' after
application of MACT standards, describes the significance of that risk and how
it could be reduced,  and recommends any legislation regarding the  risk.  In 1997
EPA will issue  a Residual  Risk Report to Congress that will describe the methods
for calculating the health  risk remaining after application of .MACT  and its
significance but will not contain control strategy recommendations.

      In 1997 EPA will  issue its urban  air  toxics strategy to reduce  the health
risks posed by urban air  toxic  pollutants.  Under  the Clean Air Act EPA must
develop a strategy to control 90 percent of the  emissions of  the 30 or more air
toxics from, area sources that pose the greatest health risk in urban areas.  EPA
intends to develop a. strategy that  includes area sources,  as  well as mobile and
other sources which can  contribute significantly to the  overall urban  air toxics
problem.  In addition,  EPA will  identify air toxics  control measures  already in
effect  or actions 'underway that  assist  in addressing  the urban air toxics
problems.  Those measures that are  identified will be considered as meeting the
requirements of the  urban area source  program.   Many of the actions needed to
meet the cancer and noncancer reduction goals in the urban program are already
underway.  These measures include mobile source  tailpipe  standards,, clean fuels
programs, onboard vapor recovery devices,  I/M programs and new nonroad engine
regulations.    Similarly,  many of  the efforts already underway to  address
stationary area source  emissions will contribute significantly to achieving the
75 percent cancer reduction  target.

      The Clean Air Act  requires EPA to .evaluate the  deposition of hazardous air
pollutants to the Great Waters of the tf.S.  In 1997  the Agency will allocate a
total of $1,506,100 and 6.9 total workyears to this  effort.   The evaluation and
findings are to be summarized in reports to Congress.   The first report, issued
in May  1994,  raised significant  concerns  about  the  effect  of toxics on Great
Waters ecosystems and human health.   In 1997 EPA will report  to Congress for the
second  time  updating the state of  the  science provided  in  the  first report.
Under the Act EPA  is also  required to determine whether  the toxics provisions of
the Clean Air  Act are  adequate to prevent serious  adverse  effects  to public
health  and serious or  widespread  adverse  environmental  effects in  the Great
Waters.  EPA is also required to issue emission standards or  control measures as
may -be  necessary  and appropriate to prevent such  effects.    In  1997 EPA will
continue the process to make the determination.
                                      2-8

-------
      EPA will provide assistance to state and local agencies in establishing and
expanding their air toxics program capabilities  and in reviewing and processing
permit applications for  air toxics sources.  The  Agency will provide information
and training to state and local agencies on the new federal rules being"issued
and hold  frequent  and open dialogue with state and  local  managers to resolve
problems  encountered.   Also, EPA' will  support  the  implementation of section
112(1),  which allows states to reduce emissions in ways different than prescribed
by federal rules, and section 112(g), which ensures that controls will be applied
to new and modified sources of hazardous  air pollutants,  before the seven and ten
year MACT standards are promulgated.

REDUCING BURDEN AND MAKING INFORMATION AVAILABLE

      The Agency requests  a total of $7,926,300 and 99.5 total workyears for 1997
in this program.

      EPA will  remove  obstacles to the implementation of  its  air permitting
programs  by  providing  .greater  flexibility  and  certainties  to  industries  and
states while maintaining  the  current  level  of environmental protection.  This
will include completing  the major reinvention of the new source review program,
enabling  sources needing  new major construction ;permits to  acquire  them' more
easily,  more  quickly, and more cheaply.  In addition,  the  Agency will  define
situations where new construction permits are no longer needed. It will include
issuing guidance on additional less burdensome approaches that sources can use
to  establish  that  they  are not major sources,  thus eliminating  the  need  for
acquiring operating permits altogether.  Providing assistance to states that are
beginning to issue  operating permits will be  key  to the success of Air Permitting
Programs, as the 35. of  more  new state programs,  and 50  or more  local programs
come  on  line.    During  1997  these  agencies  will be required to receive
applications  and issue  permits  to one  third  of the  major  sources  in their
jurisdictions.   Finally,  EPA will  continue to  work with  interested industry
representatives to  identify flexible permit options that would enable industry
to more easily make process changes at their facilities.  Regions will provide
assistance to state and local agencies in modifying their  permit programs to
incorporate revisions that allow greater flexibility in the permit program.

      EPA recognizes the  need to further develop its  information systems  and
increase  use of  cutting  edge  technology  (e.g.,  the   Internet)  to  make  its
information available to more people,  more inexpensively, and in ways that are
more user-friendly.  EPA Regions will provide technical support to state small
business assistance programs  and facilitate training to state and local agencies
on the technical aspects of the nation's air pollution control programs. 'This
will be  accomplished by use of the Agency's satellite  downlinks  to  12,000 to
15,000 professionals at more than 100 sites across the country.

ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING MARKET-BASED EMISSIONS TRADING SYSTEMS

      The Agency requests  a  total  of  $12,369,600  and 80.3  total workyears  for
1997 for market-based trading programs.

      Acid rain and its  precursors cause damage  to lakes, forests, and man-made
structures, reduce visibility, and cause damage to human health. Under  the clean
air  sub-goal of  controlling acid  rain,  the Agency seeks  to  reduce  sulfur
deposition by a range of 25 to 40  percent  in the eastern U.S.  by the year 2005.

      To  achieve its environmental  goal,  EPA' will reduce sulfur  dioxide  (SO:)
emissions by 10 million  tons  from  1980 levels and reduce NOX  by two million tons
from 1980 levels.   The  Agency will  achieve  the  SOj emission reductions through
an innovative market-based emission  allowance program that will provide affected
sources with  flexibility  in  meeting required emission  reductions.  Successful
implementation of the allowance trading system will minimize  compliance costs,


                                      2-9.

-------
maximize economic efficiency, and allow  for  growth.   The acid rain program is
seen as a model for regulatory reform efforts here and abroad.

      In partnership with interested states,  EPA will  help to establish a pilot
market-based, cap-and-trade program to reduce emissions of NOX'.   NOX is a major
contributor to ozone pollution in highly-populous regions,, causing significant
health problems.   In this market approach the Agency will  leverage the knowledge
gained in developing the acid rain program.  Reductions in ozone,  acidification,
eutrophication, and fine particulate pollution will be achieved by reducing and
capping NOX emissions.   The NOX  cap  will  be implemented through  the allocation
of NOX allowances  to electric utilities and other affected sources.
                                             -i
      By using data  systems nearly identical to those developed for the acid rain
program, EPA can  implement a proven market-based program at a fraction of the
cost of building a program from the ground up.  This approach exemplifies work
process reinvention, since the same processes  developed and streamlined over time
for the acid rain  program will be shared with the NOK program.  The expansion of
the use of market  approaches  will provide a more  cost-effective way of reducing
risks to populations in some of the most polluted regions of the country.

      Additionally,  to facilitate market-based approaches  nationally  EPA will
finalize a model  rule  in 1996  for emissions trading of  smog-creating pollutants
called the open market trading rule.  The rule is the  first strictly voluntary
compliance option for emissions trading  of ozone precursors (volatile organic
compounds and NOJ  that does not require • source -specif ic revisions  to SlPs or
operating permits.  The  rule should significantly reduce the  time  it takes a
state to get an open  market  trading program set up and  running.  In  1997 EPA
Regions will assist states that wish to  adopt emission trading programs under
either the model rule or a modified version  of it.

VOLUNTARY PROGRAMS TO PROFITABLY PREVENT AIR POLLUTION

      The Agency requests a total of $82,014,200 and 119.8 total workyears for
1997 for the Climate Change Action Plan program.

      Under  the  Agency's  Reducing  Global  Environmental  Risks  goal,  energy
efficient technologies will reduce energy  consumption and prevent pollution while
delivering better products  to the marketplace and increasing  the competitiveness
of U.S. businesses.   In addition to preventing the emission of air pollutants,
saving energy through energy-efficient products also reduces environmental damage
caused by the mining and transportation of fuels-(e.g. strip, mine damage, acid
mine damage, natural gas  leakage, etc.) and the disposal of utility wastes (e.g.
boiler ash, scrubber waste, and spent nuclear  fuel).

      In enhancing free market operations for energy efficiency,  the Agency will
prevent  pollution  through voluntary public-private partnerships  rather than
regulations. Efforts will include:  (1) increasing the level  of energy-efficient
lighting, where profitable, through expanding marketing and implementation of the
Green 'Lights Program; (2) expanding marketing  and implementation of the Energy
Star  Buildings Program to  encourage the  profitable  use of  energy efficient
heating,  ventilation,  air  conditioning  and transformers;  (3)  marketing  and
implementation of Energy Star commercial and residential technologies, including
fax machines and copiers;  (4) developing residential energy efficiency programs;
 (5) expanding initiatives to reduce methane emissions in a cost-effective manner;
and,  (6)  reducing  the  precursors  of global  warming associated with mobile
sources.  Success  will be measured through expanding partnerships  and evaluating
the impacts of proposed protocols  from other countries on U.S. economic growth,
jobs, and key industrial sectors.

      EPA seeks partners who want to work with the Agency to prevent pollution,
including  conventional  and hazardous air  pollutants  and greenhouse gases,  by
increasing the productivity of energy systems.  Although the  Agency will provide

                                     2-10

-------
strong'assistance to partners to help -them decide how to accomplish their goals,
EPA will not dictate solutions  or  subsidize  investments.  The'Regions will play
a significant role in marketing the Green Lights and Energy  Star programs and in
securing partnerships.

REDUCING STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION

      The Agency requests a total of  $24,151,300 and 26,6  total  workyears for
1997 in the Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Program,

    .  Restoration of the stratospheric ozone  layer will  reduce certain health
effects:,  skin cancers, cataracts, and immune suppression.   Under EPA's Reducing
Global Environmental Risks  goal  the Agency has the sub-goal  of  stopping the
decline in  ozone  concentrations  in  the stratosphere by 2005  and  allowing the
recovery to levels found in  the 1970s.  A report  released by the United Nations
Environment Program in September  1994 found that the rates of build-up in the
atmosphere of human-made compounds that deplete the ozone layer (chlorofluoro-
carbons and halons) have slowed in recent years.

      In 1997 SPA will focus on  four areas: 'domestic and international phase-out
of three  ozone  depleting chemicals:   chlorofluorocarbons  (CFCs),  halons,  and
methyl chloroform; implementation of limitations on two other ozone depleters,
hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and  methyl bromide; more intensive recycling programs
in the U.S. and abroad; and earlier voluntary phase-out of CFCs and HCFCs from
developing countries.

      In 1997 EPA will  work  with key agricultural•and commodity groups on field
and laboratory  studies  to  evaluate  alternatives  to methyl  bromide.   This
chemical, which could account  for as much as one-sixth of the depletion of the
ozone  layer by  the turn  of  the century  unless efforts  are successful  in
restricting its use, is widely used as a fumigant for crops and .is required by
the Department of  Agriculture  as a quarantine  fumigant for  most- agricultural
goods entering the U.S.

      EPA  will  continue to support  the  Montreal  Protocol  Multi-lateral Fund
(total request of $19,000,000 extramural).  The Fund supports developing country
efforts  to phaseout  the use  of  ozone  depleting  substances by paying  the
incremental cost of worthy projects that reduce the use of these substances.  To
date,  the fund has financed over 400 activities in 56 developing countries.  When
fully implemented these activities will result in the annual prevention of over
30,000 tons • of ozone depleting substance emissions,

ADDRESSING INDOOR,ENVIRONMENTS

      The Agency requests a total of $20",714,100 and 112.5 total workyears for
1997 in the Indoor Environments program.

      Comparative risk studies  performed by EPA headquarters,_regional offices,
and states consistently rank poor indoor environmental quality, including high
•radon levels, among the top  five environmental risks to public health.  EPA will
continue  to employ  voluntary approaches   to  improve the  quality of indoor
environments by refining the science on which recommended actions for exposure
reduction are based,- raising public awareness of potential indoor risks and steps
that can be taken to reduce exposure; and by using partnerships and technology
transfer  to improve the way  in  which  all 'types of buildings are  designed,
operated, and maintained to bring about healthier environments indoors.

      Under the Safe Homes and  Other Indoor  Environments goal,  EPA will seek to
ensure  that  all  people  will  live,  work, and learn  in  safe  and  healthy
environments.   To accomplish  this  goal,   the  agency has  -established  several
measurable  milestones  and  strategic targets  for  the  year  2005,  including:
decreasing  the number  of Americans exposed to elevated  radon levels in homes;

                                     2-11

-------
decreasing the proportion -of children who are regularly exposed to tobacco smoke
in the home;  substantially increasing the number of schools and public buildings
implementing state-of-the-art pollution prevention guidance deve loped 'by EPA; and
establishing vpluntary agreements with industries to reduce emissions from their
products that impact on indoor air quality and public health.

      In 1997  the  indoor environments program will  continue to implement the
activities authorized by the Indoor Radon Abatement Act (IRAA) and Title IV (the
Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research Act) of the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act of 1986  (SARA).   IRAA activities  encompass a broad range of
activities including outreach, technical assistance, and financial assistance to
reduce the public  health risks  of radon.  This  includes  the operation  of the
State  Indoor  Ai'r   Radon Grants  program,  oversight  of  the national  radon
proficiency  programs,  work  related to  reduce  elevated  levels  of   radon  in
residences and  schools,  promotion of model building standards,  and  technical
assistance to build capacities at  the  state and local.level to identify and fix
radon problems.  As authorized under SARA, the program will continue>to address
sources and levels  of other  indoor air pollutants  of'concern,  better understand
the adverse health  effects of poor indoor air quality, refine  guidance on issues
such as building design, operation  and maintenance, and disseminate new knowledge
to key audiences including  state  and  local  environmental  health officials and
building facility managers.

      The Agency is continuing to  acquire and  analyze building performance data
during the third year of field measurements planned for the multi-year Building
Assessment Survey and Evaluation project.  In addition, the program's hotlines
and clearinghouses   continue to  provide  information to a growing body of users,
including  the  general public and environmental  health organizations who are
interested in reducing their constituencies'  Indoor air and radon-related health
risks by providing clear messages about exposure- reduction.

      Efforts to reduce  the health' risk specifically from radon exposure will
focus  on  achieving  results by  tracking  and  setting goals  for environmental
indicators that include:  the  number of  homes  and  schools  tested and mitigated;
the number  of  homes built using  radon  resistant features;   and the  number  of
jurisdictions requiring radon-resistant new construction features.  The indoor
environments program is working  with EPA Regions and states to develop and track
similar measures of  success for radon and other pollutants of concern indoors.
The program also will increase its efforts in the area of environmental equity
by working with organizations that  specialize in reaching minority and low-income
populations and developing messages and using communication channels that are
effective goal  to ensure safe indoor environments,   '            •       '      '

      In 1997 EPA will continue to  work with states to set and  achieve measurable
gains in indoor environmental quality through effective targeting of performance
partnership grants.  Regional  indoor environments  staff will  actively work with
state officials and  with other governmental and non-governmental organizations'
at  the local  and   community  level  to, expand radon reduction activities  to
encompass  other indoor pollutants and  provide leadership in galvanizing the
resources  available to address them.    Regions  will increase  their  focus  on
improving indoor environmental quality in schools nationwide.  Other audiences
specially targeted  for  public awareness campaigns,  literature development and
distribution,  guidance  document dissemination, training  course delivery,  and
related outreach efforts will  include  homebuilders and  buyers,  real  estate
professionals,  including agents  and home  inspectors,  health  professionals,
environmental  and  public health officials,  facility owners  and managers,  and
providers  of  services  delivered  indoors  to  children  and other  sensitive
populations.
                                     2-12

-------
WORKING CAPITAL FUND - AIR

      The Agency requests a total of $11,448,700 for the Working Capital  Fund for
the Air Media in 1997.                                   '

      The, resources included are for both Headquarters and Regional offices to
pay  for  program   postage   costs  and  for  on-going   data  processing  and
telecommunications services provide through the operations of the National Data
Processing Division (NDPD).  These NDPD services are classified into five cost
centers:  Enterprise  Computing Services, Network Services,  Desktop Services,
Technincal  Consulting Services,  and  Scientific  Computing  Services.    These
resources will  also provide  the program's  share  of depreciation  of  capital
assets, increased service  costs,  additional mainframe capacity, and network and
technical consulting services.

IMPLEMENTING STATIONARY SOURCE ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES

     • The Agency requests a  total of $22,706,700 in the BPM account supported by
308.1 total workyears for 1997  in the  Stationary Sources Enforcement program.
This program,manages and supports the implementation of a national air compliance
and enforcement program through  operations  in each  of  the  ten Agency regional
offices.

      In 1997, the Stationary Source Enforcement program will continue to support
achievement of  several  of  the  Agency goals  identified as priorities  in the
President's  Budget  request  through  its   compliance  monitoring,  compliance
assistance,  and enforcement activities.

      The air enforcement  program priorities in 1997  are: implementation of the
Title  V operating  permit  program,  the  hazardous  air pollutant  (air  toxics)
programs' under Title III and the innovative enforcement programs including new
enforcement  initiatives:    field citation,  citizen awards,  and open market
emissions trading under the Clean Air Act  (CAA) .  Implementation will be achieved
in a manner that minimizes  the  reporting and record keeping  requirements on
facilities.

      In  1997,  the air program continues  to enforce  several new  air toxics
standards designed  to reduce the  emissions of some of the most  harmful air
pollutants.    The standards  affect  dry cleaners  (25,000  sources),  degreasers
 (50,000  sources),  coke  ovens,  synthetic organic chemical  manufacturers  (300
sources) ,   the   aerospace   industry,   chromium  electroplaters,   commercial
sterilizers, petroleum refineries and  ot;her hazardous  air pollutant emitters.
The  Regional  air program  continues to  provide  a  total  of 55  workyears for
compliance  assistance activities to educate the  state and  local  permitting
authorities on the  new requirements; educate and provide  technical assistance to
aid industries in achieving compliance; and target enforcement  actions to deter
noncompliance. The Regions will continue  to implement strategies for addressing.
multi-state and multi-program violators ,of the CAA amendment requirements and for
corporate-wide patterns of non-compliance.

      A total of 85 workyears  and $1,000,000 extramural funding support 2,100
inspections and a total of 117.2 workyears support the initiation of an estimated
95 penalty orders, completion of 125  administrative penalty orders and completion
of 175  compliance orders'.

      The Regional  program will explore new measures of outputs for multimedia
enforcement and compliance activities.  Regions will maintain  operational data
on  investigations   and  enforcement  actions,  including  tracking  Supplemental
Environmental  Projects.    'They  will  also assess  outputs  and environmental
improvements and the impacts on human health and air quality.
                                     2-13

-------
2-14

-------
                                   RADIATION           '                .  .

OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total of $20,416,400 and 114.5  total workyears under
the EPM appropriation for 1997 in the Radiation media.

      The E)?A program to protect public health  and  the  environment from adverse
effects of radiation exposure is derived from several statutes including:  the
Indoor Radon  Abatement  Act; • the Clean  Air  Act Amendments of  1990;  the Waste
Isolation Pilot Project  Land Withdrawal Act of 1992;  the  Energy Policy Act of
1992; the Atomic  Energy Act;  the  Public Health Service Act;  the Uranium'Mill
Tailings Radiation Control Act; the Marine Protection,  Research, and Sanctuaries
Act; and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.  These Acts authorize
a wide range of regulatory, assessment, assistance, and research activities.

      EPA's radiation program  has  four major  objectives  including:   reducing
adverse health effects and environmental impacts from radiation exposure through
a program of  standards  and guidelines;  assessing  and quantifying existing and
emerging radiation problems and their potential impacts on  public health and the
environment;   responding to radiation  issues  of serious  public  concern;  and,
maintaining the capability.to  respond to radiological emergencies  and to aid
development and testing of  Federal,  state,  and  local  plans for  emergency
response.                                •

     •'To accomplish  these objectives,  EPA  assesses and  regulates  sources of
airborne radionuclides;  evaluates and  regulates   radioactive  waste  disposal;
provides site assessments and radiochemical analyses of environmental samples;
operates the  Radon Action Program;  operates  the Environmental Radiation Ambient
Monitoring System; develops radiation clean-up and waste management standards;
arid responds  to radiological emergencies.  In 1997  the Agency will give priority
to .the areas described below.
                                     2-15

-------
                                   RADIATION

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

      In October  1992 Congress enacted  legislation for  evaluating the Waste
Isolation Pilot Plant  (WIPP) ,' a proposed radioactive waste disposal site operated
by the Department of- Energy  (DOE)  in  New Mexico.   The Act gives EPA oversight
responsibility for the DOE waste disposal activities at WIPP.  In 1997 the Agency-
will allocate  a total of $6,451,700 and  26.9  total  workyears to this effort.
Carrying out this responsibility requires four major rulemakings:   radioactive
waste disposal  standards,  compliance  criteria, compliance  certification,  and
determinations of• continued compliance.   In 1994 EPA completed the  development
of final standards  for the disposal of high-level and'transuranic  radioactive
wastes.

      In 1995 EPA completed the compliance  criteria for implementing the 1994
radioactive 'waste disposal regulations.  With the criteria in place EPA has begun
to prepare for the compliance  certification  for WIPP. • EPA will' develop methods
and  guidance  for.  systematic  review  of  the DOE  compliance  certification
application.   The Agency  will identify  the  technical areas  involved (e.g.,
engineering, geology,  computer modeling,  chemistry, hydrology,  etc.)  and the
major regulatory  provisions  that  will be implemented.   The'  Agency also will
develop position  papers  .and review guidance  on  issues in  need of additional
explanation,  EPA may have to do a rulemaking to approve any modifications to the
WIPP test plan that DOE might propose.

      In addition,  EPA will  review on a semiannual basis  the  draft  DOE WIPP
performance assessment.  Through this,review EPA can identify the strengths and
weaknesses of WIPP  and can direct  DOE where to focus additional -efforts.   EPA
will review DOE's finding.that  the  waste  used in  the tests  is and will remain
retrievable.   EPA also will  provide oversight of  the  management of hazardous
waste at the WIPP under  the terms  of  the "No Migration Determination" review,
check DOB's quality assurance and quality control procedures, and review DOE's
draft WIPP performance assessment.

      Under  the Energy  Policy Act  of 1992,  the  Agency must  set standards
regulating the disposal of high level  nuclear waste and  spent nuclear fuel rods
at the proposed repository of Yucca Mountain,. Nevada.  These standards will be
multi-media  in focus, addressing issues  of air,   land, and water  surrounding
disposal at  Yucca Mountain.    Public  participation in  the  development of the
standards  will include  local  meetings,  written  information,  and  stakeholder
(e.g., DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nevada) meetings.  Final standards
will be promulgated in 1997 to ensure that  the Yucca Mountain disposal system
adequately controls releases  of radioactive material,  thereby protecting both
individuals and populations.   The  Yucca Mountain standard, along with the Waste
Isolation Pilot Plant responsibilities, implement the EPA's environmental goal
to ensure safe waste management protective  of public health.

      In 1997  EPA will continue to concentrate on establishing standards for
radioactive  waste management  and developing  Federal  guidance.   ,A  total - of
$10,057,800 and 62.7 total workyears will be devoted to this effort.  EPA will
continue  to  promote  transfer of  implementation  responsibilities  for  the
radionuclide National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs'}'.
to the states.  Videotape training will be  supplemented with direct -assistance
to deal with unique problems  incurred by the states and  local authorities.  EPA
will provide technical assistance  in determining the acceptability of alternate
compliance procedure  requests. .SPA  will  work  closely  with  the  DOE  as  DOE
continues  to decontaminate and decommission  (D&D) buildings  and  facilities.
These D&D efforts provide unique challenges in assessing  radionuclide emissions.
Implementation of the  radionuclide NESHAPs will further EPA'-s environmental goal
to ensure clean air reducing public exposure to air toxics.


                                     2-16

-------
      Radioactive  materials 'are  used  at  over  20,000  sites   including  DOE
facilities and over  100  nuclear power reactors.  Many  of these sites will be
candidates for  decommissioning over  the  next  several  decades.   Billions of
dollars could be potentially wasted by inadequate clean-up efforts.   In 1997 EPA
will  continue  development  of  clean-up criteria  for sites  contaminated with
radionuclides that will provide clear  and  consistent ground rules for clean-up.

      'Working toward its environmental goal for  the,restoration of contaminated
sites, during 1997 the Agency  will  evaluate  comments received on the proposed
clean-up  standards  and  prepare  a  draft  rule  for workgroup  consideration.
Following publication of  the proposed rule, EPA will  conduct workgroup meetings,
public hearings, and  further analyses.   The Agency also will continue work on the
Federal radioactive  waste  management  regulations.  The  regulations and their
implementing guidances are  critical to the reduction of risk to human health and
the  environment  through  the   proper  storage,   treatment,   and  disposal  of
radioactive waste; waste minimization and restricted recycle/reuse activities;
as well as the encouragement of innovative environmental technology to minimize
the volume  of radioactive  waste  found at thousands  of  sites  throughout  the
nation.

      In  1997 the Agency  will provide a total  of  $1,497,900  and  17.0 total
workyears for its radiological emergency preparedness efforts.  As part of its
emergency preparedness efforts  and the Agency environmental goal for preventing
accidental releases,  EPA will continue its classroom and field training programs
to maintain  and  improve the   capabilities of  the ,EPA  Radiological Emergency
Response Team.  The Agency will  also continue working with other Federal agencies
and the international community on  formal agreements dealing with communications*
coordination  of   response  efforts,  and  mutual  assistance  for  responding to
emergencies.

      EPA will continue to provide  coordination, oversight, and technical support
to ensure that radioactively contaminated federal facilities are cleaned up to
acceptable EPA  risk levels consistent with the  requirements of  the federal
facility  agreements.   The  program  is composed of  two primary  elements:   1)
development of overall guidance that is applicable to all .federal facility sites
and 2) development of operational  controls for site characterization, sampling,
handling, analysis,  treatment, and  disposal  of mixed  wastes (combinations of
radioactive waste and hazardous chemicals).  The latter is of  particular concern
for DOE sites with substantial amounts of mixed wastes.

      The Agency requests a total  of $1,872,700 for the Working Capital Fund for
the Radiation Media  in 1997.   The resources included are  for both .Headquarters
and Regional  offices to pay for  program  postage costs and  for on-going data
processing and telecommunications  services provide through the operations of the
National  Data Processing Division (NDPD).  These NDPD services are classified
into five cost centers:  Enterprise Computing Services, Network Services, Desktop
Services, Technincal Consulting Services, and  'Scientific Computing Services.
These resources  will  also provide  the program's share of depreciation of capital
assets, increased service costs, additional mainframe  capacity,  and network and
technical consulting services.
                                     2-17

-------
2-18

-------
                                WATER QUALITY

•OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total of $274,160,300 and 1,855.9 total workyears for
FY 1997 in the Water Quality media.  Clean water is integral to the growth of the
nation's economy and to our quality of life. Water quality is also essential for
the health and survival of  fish, shellfish, and  other aquatic organisms.  Whether
it is found on the  earth's surface,  in  the ground, or in wetlands, clean water
is essential  to life and contributes billions  of dollars to America's economy.

      EPA's Water Quality Program faces three  main challenges.   First,  we  seek
to prevent or control  pollution  sources  and  adverse physical alteration,  to
restore degraded areas,  and to gain  a better understanding of  the condition  of
our surface water resources.  Second, the Agency must protect ground  water  from
pollution  and help  the  public better understand the ways in which ground water
becomes polluted. Finally, EPA is seeking to continue the trend towards  reduced
wetlands loss; ultimately realizing a net gain in wetland acreage through  efforts
to create  new wetlands and to protect,  improve and better understand wetlands
conditions.

      The  1997 program emphasizes  common  sense,  place-based  approaches  to
improving  water quality.  Built on the solid foundation  of basic water programs
and  incorporating  a', risk-based approach  to  decision-making,  the ,1997  program
focuses on improving wet weather flow controls,  encouraging comprehensive place-
based  wetlands management, and. overall streamlining of our  program delivery
efforts.

      The  Agency will  continue  orienting water  quality programs  to  protect
"places."  Drawing on the experience arid successes of the Great Lakes,  Chesapeake
Bay, and Gulf of Mexico Program Offices  and the National  Estuary Programs (NEP),
EPA  will  help States,  local  communities, and  Tribes use scientific tools  to
address their environmental problems.  The Agency will facilitate cross-program
support for implementing estuarine management plans and use the experience of the
NEP to encourage other  coastal watershed protection efforts.  We will disseminate
new and revised user-friendly computer models that integrate  geographic location
data to facilitate effluent trading among point and nonpoint sources.  The Agency
will coordinate with other environmental programs to address  complex multi-media
problems  (such as air deposition of pollutants in U.S. waters).  EPA  will issue
an Advance•Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to conduct a watershed- and multimedia-
oriented  review of the criteria  and  standards program  and  a water  quality
Criteria Development Plan to  explain the  future directions of  that program.

       In  1997,  the Agency will  better communicate water program actions and
policies  to  assure that  stakeholders  understand . and  participate  in  Agency
decision-making.   We will help States use environmental indicators  to  measure
progress  against watershed goals.   The  Agency will  annually  communicate the
results of program activities to the general public and stakeholders and  will
extensively use new electronic technologies  to communicate with other federal,
State,  Tribal,  and local water programs and to  distribute  information  to
interested parties.  EPA will continue working  with States and other agencies  to
link  national water quality  databases  through the  Interagency Task Force  on
Monitoring.

      'The  Agency will  'focus  on  two priority  water  quality programs in 1997:
improving  wet weather flow controls and  encouraging comprehensive place-based
wetlands management.    EPA will work with the  urban wet weather advisory group
to address both technical  and policy issues for controlling  urban runoff, storm
water, sanitary sewer  overflows, and combined sewer overflows.   The Agency  will
also • streamline monitoring and storm water permitting  requirements to reduce


                                     2-19

-------
existing  and potential  burdens.  Working  with  stakeholders,  EPA  will  issue
national guidance to help upgrade existing state Nonpoint Source  (UPS) programs,
encourage greater focus on priority  watersheds and environmental results,  and
eliminate the competitive grants application process.  .Finally,  the Agency will
use- pollution prevention,  incentive-based volunteer efforts, and outreach to
address traditionally unregulated nonpoint sources.

      In  1997,  the Agency will  support projects  to  reinvent environmental
regulation, including  Project XL pilots and the Agency's Common Sense Initiative.
The Agency will'continue to reinvent  the ocean dumping program by focusing on
long-term disposal site planning and management in advance of individual permit
applications.  We will encourage effluent trading in watersheds  and promote the
creation  of  wetland   mitigation  banks.   EPA will   continue working  with
stakeholders to reinvent the NPD1S program  (i.e.,  reduce permittee monitoring
requirements, streamline application  data requirements,  and expand the use of
general permits) .  The Agency will identify reporting burdens that can be reduced
or eliminated.  EPA will  implement the Environmental Technology Initiative by
developing  technology  verification  protocols  to  test  the  viability  and
performance  of  new water  pollution   prevention  and control  technologies  and
methods.

      In 1997, the Agency will continue to enhance wetlands protection, making
wetlands regulation more cost-effective and flexible.  EPA will encourage States
and Tribes to develop and implement Wetlands Conservation Plans and promote State
and Tribal assumption  of regulatory authority  and other  mechanisms that rely on
local decision-making.  We -will increase  the use  of wetlands mitigation banking
and support  landowners  interested in  voluntary wetlands stewardship.   Through
stakeholder partnerships, the Agency will pursue voluntary and  incentive-based
measures throughout the Mississippi River watershed to address excessive nutrient
run-off that contributes to hypoxia problems 'in coastal Louisiana and Texas,

      • The 1997 Water Quality Enforcement program will promote a comprehensive.
approach for compliance and enforcement to ensure environmental accountability
in protection of the nation's waterways. The program will concentrate activities
in targeted  high  risk sectors, ecosystems,  and  populations. All instances of
significant noncompliance will be responded to on a timely manner.
                                     2-20

-------
                                 WATER  QUALITY


PROGRAM AND.ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE

      The Agency requests  $9,500,000 in  1997  for the Environmental Technology
Initiative, in the water programs.  EPA will use these resources to assist our
partners  in making 'wise  investment decisions  about  cutting-edge wastewater
treatment  technologies.   In 1997,. we  will make special  efforts  to implement
small-community technology verification protocols,  which are 'EPA procedures to
test the performance and viability of treatment  technologies.  These procedures
will be shared with independent testing facilities to establish responsibility
for technology testing in the private sector.

REINVENTING AND REDUCING WATER REGULATIONS      '  .      .   .

       In 1997,  the Agency is requesting  $5,952,300 and 69.4 total workyears to
continue to improve the regulatory structure of  the NPDES program.  The'efforts
started in  1995 require completion of  a number of rules  including those that
reduce permit application paperwork for NPDES,  sludge and stormwater and focus
pretreatment  programs on  environmental  results.  We anticipate, that  these
improvements will yield, beginning in early 1996, a'25% reduction in monitoring
and reporting requirements  for permittees, without any loss in ability to detect
violations.

      The Agency requests a total of $834,000 and 1.0 total workyears in  1997 for
Effluent Trading.   In support of President Clinton's Reinventing Environmental
Regulation  (March  1995),  EPA is  promoting effluent  trading to  achieve water
quality  objectives and  standards,    EPA will  work  cooperatively with  key
stakeholders to find sensible, innovative ways to meet water quality standards
faster and at less overall  cost  than "traditional" approaches.  EPA will assure
that effluent trades are implemented responsibly so that environmental progress
is enhanced, not hindered.

      EPA activities associated with effluent trading have included the release
of the  Policy Statement  (January 25,  1996) and Trading  Framework (late March
1996).  Substantial public outreach efforts are  planned to obtain stakeholders'
recommendations and insights on the draft framework prior  to  implementation.  In
1997 EPA plans to provide technical assistance for implementing trading.

PROTECTING WETLANDS

      The Agency requests a total of $15,041,800 and 153.6 total workyears for
1997 for  the  Wetlands- protection in the Water  Quality Program.   In 1997,  the
Agency will continue  to develop  and implement  reforms,  in accordance with the
'Clinton Administration's Wetlands Plan,  to make  wetlands regulations more fair,
flexible, and cost-effective.  We will develop tools and guidance for wetlands
and watershed management,  and work with other agencies and stakeholders to put
watershed techniques into practice as an  alternative  to traditional project-by-
project  decision  making.    Since considerable  regulatory policy  and guidance
development had already been completed under the Administration Plan, additional
attention  will  be  directed toward implementation issues,  such as interagency
training,  State  primacy,  supplemental  guidance  on  specific'  issues,  and
consistency in field application.  In addition,  more regulatory emphasis will be
placed on  sector-specific issues and problems,   such as forestry, homebuilders,
site developers, and the recreation industry.
                                     2-21

-------
      EPA will increase its dialogue with those we regulate to resolve"areas of
ongoing difficulties.  The Agency will  continue  to  assist States,  Tribes, and
local governments to take more active roles in wetlands planning, protection, and
regulation.  EPA will emphasize the development and dissemination of technical
information and  outreach materials  to  assist other  partners to  assume  more
responsibility  for  wetlands  protection  and  to communicate  effectively  on
controversial issues with stakeholders and the public. Disinvestment will occur
through more  reliance on  other  federal and State  agencies to  make wetlands
jUrisdictional determinations, conduct wetland and impact evaluations, establish
requirements for compensatory mitigation, and make permitting decisions.

      The Agency requests $1,842,300 and 27.0  total  workyears in  its Water
Quality Program for Wetlands Protection enforcement.  Compliance and enforcement
tools will  be used  to  support  the environmental  protection of  wetlands  by
ensuring there is no net loss of wetlands resulting from discharges of dredged
and fill materials.  The program will establish strong partnerships with federal,
State and local  agencies  in  addressing  wetlands  protection through compliance
assurance  activities.   This  program  will focus  on  improving  interagency
relationships  with  the  U.S.  Army  Corps  of  Engineers,  the   Department  of
Agriculture, the Fish and Wildlife service, and other stakeholders, through joint"
enforcement workshops and training efforts.  The Agency's compliance assistance
activities will  promote  innovative',  comprehensive  approaches to environmental
compliance by the regulated community.

      In 1997,  the  program will  continue to develop a  systematic  approach to
addressing  barriers  to wetlands protection through an effective  enforcement
program.  The Regions will work  closely with headquarters in:  1) publishing a
Section 404  Enforcement Compendium;  2) developing  a   litigation  report  with
guidance specific  to Section 404  issues;  3) developing  enforcement response
guidance; 4) establishing significant noncompliance guidance; 5) revising penalty
policies; 6) developing  national and regional  case  selection criteria;  and 7)
drafting a media communication strategy.  The Agency will develop a regionally
based Compliance Outreach Strategy targeted at State, Local, and Tribal planning
agencies to promote, wetlands protection and.restoration under Section 404.

      The program will focus on ecosystem protection through targeted section 404
enforcement actions  in  high  priority   watersheds.   EPA  will  use  all  of its
enforcement tools,  such as administrative orders,  administrative penalty orders,
civil judicial and criminal prosecution against violators of wetlands protection.
Where feasible,  Regions will track  and report lass or gain of wetlands acreage,
biodiversity,  and floral and faunal composition.

PLACE-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

      The Agency requests a total of $3,323,400 and 7.0  total  workyears for X997
for South Florida.   In support of the Vice President's initiative  to prepare and
implement an Everglades Restoration Plan, the Agency will continue its support
for planning and restoration activities". This' will  be done in conjunction with
the multi-Agency South Florida Ecosystem Restoration  Task Force, and will include
preparation of a Water Quality Management Plan that  will continue the work that
is underway by  several agencies.   The  plan will ensure  that  the  major water
movements expected in the restored  System of canals  and  levies will not degrade
the  fragile  ecosystem and will  incorporate all  major  projects  now underway.
These projects include implementation of the Water Quality Protection Plan for
the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and,,the preparation of a Comprehensive
Wetlands Conservation, Mitigation and Permitting Strategy.

      The Agency requests a total of $793,600 and  5.5 total workyears in 1997 for
the Northwest Forest program.  The Agency will continue  efforts to implement the
President's Forest Plan,  participating  in and providing  technical assistance to
<-\

                                     2-22

-------
interagency and  intergovernmental teams tasked" with  protecting and restoring
watersheds in the northwest forests of the United States.

COMMON- SENSE INITIATIVE

      In 1997, the Agency requests  $1,553,584  and 5,0 total workyears for the
Common Sense  Initiative.   The  water programs  will continue  efforts  to find
"cheaper,  cleaner and .smarter"  ways  of protecting  the  environment  through
continuing participation in the Agency's Common Sense  Initiative (CSI) .  As eo-
'ehair of the  iron and steel sector initiative, 1PA will  support six to- eight
cnulti-media pilot projects that  the sector  is pursuing  to  test  new ideas;
coordinate and facilitate the participation of representatives from the  iron and
steel industry,  environmental  and community groups,  labor organizations,  and
state and  local  regulators as  they develop  consensus-based  recommendations;
coordinate sector activities  with all media programs;  and manage the Federal
Advisory Committee Act (FACA) requirements associated with the effort.   Areas of
focus include  improving  the permitting process,  reducing reporting burdens,
promoting awareness of innovative, pollution-reducing technology, and developing
the  mechanisms  to  enable the   redevelopment  of  abandoned  iron and  steel
manufacturing sites  (Brownfields).

WATERSHED TARGETING/TMDLs

      The Agency requests a total 'of $4,698,300  and 39.4 total workyears  for 1997
in the Watershed Program.  We will begin implementing the reinvented CWA Section1
303 (d) total maximum  daily load (TMDL) program developed by a State-EPA workgroup
in  1996, including issuing updated  guidance and integrating 303(d) lists into
five-year consolidated assessments.  .EPA will continue providing technical and
market-based tools and training to empower interested  watershed partnerships to
develop 'and  implement  community-based watershed  strategies, "including- help
implementing the effluent trading policy and  holding the Watershed Academy across
the U.S.

DREDGED MATERIAL MANAGEMENT/OTHER OCEAN DISPOSAL

      The Agency requests a total of $7,287,300  and 48.0 total workyears  for 1997
to reinvent the ocean dumping program.  We intend to shift its-focus to long term
disposal  site  planning  and  management   in  advance  of   individual  permit
applications, and increase the use of risk-based approaches in  decision-making.
The implementation of site management plans, in concert with'development of long
term management strategies, will provide an opportunity to manage ocean  disposal
of  dredged material  on ' a place-by-place,  rather than permit-by-permit., basis.
The Agency will  develop revised regulations for the ocean disposal of dredged
materials, and continue  its partnership with  the  Corps of Engineers (COB)  and
other members of  the National Dredging Team to develop long-term management plans
for dredged material. The  focus of long  term planning actions will be assistance
and participation in the development of community-based plans 'at key cities that
address dredged material disposal, as we'll as pollution prevention,  to eliminate
contamination in future dredged material.  The  Agency will work with the COE to
improve technical guidance for sampling, analysis, and data  interpretation.

NPDES WATERSHED  PROTECTION                       "

      The Agency  requests  a total of $22,131,000 and 251.1  total workyears for
its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System {NPDES)  permit, pretreatment
and sludge programs.  we  intend to further  focus them toward a community-based
approach  (rather  than   individual  sources  of  pollution)   and  to  ensure  the
protection of ecosystems and  the  'attainment of clean surface waters.  So far,
about half the States are  issuing permits on a, watershed basis or developing a
framework to do so. EPA will implement  effluent trading where the Agency issues


                                     2-23 '

-------
 permits,  which will  have a potential  cost savings  to  the permittees  in  the
 hundreds  of millions  of dollars.

       In  its partnerships with regions,  States,  Tribes, 'localities and other
" stakeholders,  EPA will continue to simplify and tailor these relationships, with
 a focus on measures of success, watershed protection, and clear delineation of
 the roles of EPA, States and municipalities.  New  approaches  such as  tailored
 oversight practices,  new performance measures, more flexible use of grants,  and
 simplified delegation procedures  will  reduce both Federal costs and 'reduce the
 burden on authorized States.  The number of authorized State programs is expected
 to increase by two in 1997,  for a total of 45 States*

       EPA and States  will  continue to work with their local  stakeholders in
 developing  basin management  plans,   establishing  priorities  and  developing
 environmental indicators that clearly demonstrate progress toward attainment of
 water quality goals.  The Agency will continue to work with -states to synchronize
 permit issuance  and reissue major and  minor permits  consistent with basin
 management plans.  EPA will provide technical assistance to build Tribal capacity
 for administering authorized water and sludge management programs.

       Through the Water Alliances for Voluntary Efficiency (WAVE),and Municipal
 Water Pollution Prevention  (MWPP)  programs,  EPA will heighten  awareness of the
 'benefits  of preventing water pollution and reducing energy and water use.  The
 WAVE program  offers  companies .an  opportunity to  participate  in one  of  the
 Agency's  primary voluntary programs.  Recognition and technical support through
 the WAVE  program provide strong incentives to conserve water in the hotel/motel
 industry; in 1997,  EPA will expand the program into  other 'commercial  sectors,
 such .as office buildings.

 NQNPOINT  SOURCE POLLUTION

       The Agency requests a  total of  $10,407,300  and 104.5  total workyears for
 1997 in the Nonpoint Source  (NPS)  Pollution Program.   Since States report that
 nonpoint  sources are their most  significant water quality problems,  the Agency
 will continue to bolster ongoing NPS programs to achieve better community-based
 watershed management.  Based on the 1996 State-EPA workgroup strategy to reinvent
 NPS management under  Section 319,  we  will make program  improvements  in 1997:
 issuing  better  evaluation  criteria  for  upgraded  state  programs;  reducing
 reporting requirements; and  revising  the Section  319 funds  allocation formula.
 As coastal States have submitted and EPA has acted on  their coastal NPS programs
 .under  Section  6217 of  Coastal  Zone  Act  Reauthorization Amendments,   we will
 substantially reduce our technical assistance that helped States develop these
 programs.  We will work  with States to upgrade their NPS management programs,
 addressing weaknesses identified  during our 1996  program review.

       EPA will continue working with private sector grass-roots  groups to promote
 an increase in voluntary adoption of NpS  management  practices and controls by
 reaching private land owners and managers.  We will  support voluntary compliance
 by developing self-assessment procedures.  The Agency will continue ongoing broad
 public outreach efforts,  including internet access,  to increase awareness of NPS
 pollution and watershed protection  and to encourage voluntary public actions to
 reduce watershed pollution.

 WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS

      .The Agency requests a total  of $11,511,800 and 64.1 total  workyears  in 1997
 for water quality monitoring and  information systems.  The Agency will continue
 to identify and characterize impaired/threatened  waters and to increase the use
 of  environmental  indicators  to  measure  progress  against  watershed  goals.
 Headquarters and the Regions will help the- States  begin the  transition to the


                                      2-24

-------
 reinvented five-year cycle  for CWA  Section 305Cb)  reports and  consolidated
 assessments.  EPA will help States implement comprehensive monitoring strategies
 and   subsequent   reporting  on   water  quality"  conditions   using   agreed-upon
 environmental  indicators.   Headquarters will begin full  implementation of  the
 modernized STORET/BIOS/ODIS national'water quality data system and a point/click
 capability for  displaying local watershed  conditions  and  problems based  on
 information  incorporated from a wide range of existing computer data  systems.
 We will provide  training to stakeholders on GIS/INTERNET and STORET as  tools to
 use  indicators and related data.  We  will  continue  to provide monitoring  tools
 to stakeholders,  including assistance on biological and volunteer, monitoring.

 COASTAL WATERSHED PROTECTION/NATIONAL ESTUARY  PROGRAM

      The  Agency requests  $20,168,400 million  and 80.6 total workyears in 1997
 to promote coastal watershed protection  through targeted support  to  critical
 estuaries  and other  coastal and marine  areas.   Emphasis  will be placed  on
 transferring lessons  learned from the estuaries in the National  Estuary Program
 (NEP) to other coastal watershed communities.  Specific activities in support of
 coastal watershed protection will include: continuing support for the 28  National
 Estuary Programs; providing technical  assistance, training and support to coastal
 resource  managers; examining the adverse  impacts of atmospheric  pollution  on
 coastal  waters,  with  an emphasis  on estuarine  waters and  development  of
 management strategies; implementing ecologically-based water quality controls for
 marine point source dischargers; using existing technical guidance on ecological
 decision   criteria  to  assess  whether  marine ' dischargers   are  meeting  ocean
 discharge  criteria (CWA  section 403 (c)) ,- developing low-cost, practical watershed
 protection tools for protecting coral reefs; developing  and encouraging  beach
 cleanups  and the use of  control mechanisms  for marine debris; and developing
 standards  for pollution impacts from  vessel  discharges.

      Grant  funding  for  post-Comprehensive  Conservation and  Management  Plan
 (CCMP) activities at  NEP  estuaries will demonstrate innovative  techniques that
 are  potentially  applicable to other estuaries. As such, these activities will be
 funded under our existing CWA section  104 (b) (3) or a new CWA reauthorization for
 section 320.  Grant funding for post-CCMP activities is  not intended to support
 activities to monitor the progress or the  effectiveness  of CCMP  implementation.

 CHESAPEAKE BAY PROGRAM

      The  Agency requests a total of $20,022,900 and 16.8 total workyears in 1997
 for  Chesapeake  Bay Program  (CBP) .  The CBP  is responsible  for developing  and
'implementing a program which protects  and restores  the  overall environmental
 health of  the Chesapeake  Bay. .

      The  basinwide  Nutrient Reduction Strategy for the Chesapeake Bay will
 undergo a formal reevaluation in 1997 including  an assessment  of  the  progress
 made by  the four participating jurisdictions  {Virginia,  District  of Columbia,
 Maryland,  and Pennsylvania)  under  the1 tributary specific  nutrient reduction
 strategies.  Additional actions needed to  be  taken to  close the gap on achieving
 the  40 nutrient reduction goal by the year 2000  will  be  determined  through
 additional modeling,  monitoring and assessments  and integrating air deposition
 control with water quality agreements 'negotiated with the various stakeholders.
 The  Environmental  Indicators program will be continually maintained and expanded
 to   incorporate  newly developed measures  for  sustainable   development,  local
 government participation,  and other localized  measures of progress.

      Implementation of  the 1994 Basinwide Toxics  Reduction  and  Prevention
 Strategy will continue.   This will include: determining whether additional  areas
 of   the   Bay  shall  be  designated  as  Regions   of Concern;  publishing  a
 characterization of all Bay and tidal tributary  habitat  status with regard to


                                      2-25

-------
chemical pollution;  updating and expanding  the Basinwide Toxics  Loading and
Release Inventory; , securing  agreement on loading  reduction  targets for urban
stormwater run-off,  atmospheric deposition, and acid mine drainage, to .be-achieved
over the next decade.

      EPA  staff  will  continue  to  manage attainment  of goals  for fisheries
recovery and habitat restoration, including: underwater grasses and  aquatic reef
restoration; implementation of"an amended Blue Crab Management Plan  for the Bay;
and taking actions necessary to ensure the 1998 goal of opening 582 streams to
fish passage will be achieved.

      Implementation of  the  Forest  Buffer Policy  as adopted by the Executive
Council'in 1996 will begin, as will implementation of the  recommendations of the
local Government  Partnership Task  Force,  including  the  establishment of a Local
Government Tool Box and expanded use of environmental data bases at a local level
via the internet.  These  two efforts, working together,  will result  in a program
focus on small watersheds and the restoration of natural systems.

GREAT LAKES

      The Agency  requests a total of $13,451,900 and 46.2 total workyears in 1997
for Great  Lakes  National  Program   (GLNPO).    GLNPO will- interpret and  report
information  from the  first-ever  integrated,  cooperative,   and science-based
intensive monitoring of  Lake  Michigan air, water,  sediments, and biota.   This
effort supports the Great Waters provisions of section 112(m) of the Clean Air
Act and section 118  of the CWA. EPA's integrated Great Lakes information system,
developed  by  GLNPO . and   its  State  and   Federal  partners,  will  'deliver
scientifically sound, easily  accessible  environmental  information to decision
makers and  the public  by traditional means and via  the  internet;  ' GLNPO will
complete its $1,000,000 contribution to  a  State/Federal cleanup  of  contaminated
sediments at a competitively  chosen Great Lakes location.   In addition,  GLNPO
will do field work and fund contaminant modeling or remediation design for State
and local groups at seven Areas of Concern (having provided  this assistance at
25 out of the 31 United States Areas of Concern).  GLNPO will  commence up to ten
habitat restorations  to  impact between 5,000  and 6,000 acres  of  Great Lakes
habitat identified as important in The Nature  Conservancy's Biodiversity Report.
GLNPO and Environment Canada will address binational environmental priorities of
the  Great  Lakes,   especially those  resulting  from  the  Binational  virtual
Elimination Strategy.

      In  additipn,   resources in  the  Coastal  Watershed  Protection  Program'
($7,017,200 and 10.0 total  workyears) support  the  Great  Lakes program.   These
resources enable EPA to continue implementing Lakewide  Management Plans (LaMPs)
for Lakes Erie, Michigan,  Ontario and Superior..  EPA has identified stressors
which are adversely impacting, or  have the potential  to impact,  beneficial uses
in  the Great  Lakes and ' is  implementing appropriate -management  actions  in
partnerships with other stakeholders.  EPA will  continue to support and encourage
broad public participation throughout the LaMP programs.

GULF. OF MEXICO PROGRAM                               -

      The Agency requests a total of $4,728,300  and  13.8 total  workyears for 1997
for the Gulf of Mexico Program Office (GMPO). GMPO  will support  State and local
community-based programs that protect human health and critical Gulf ecosystem
resources.  The GMPO., through its broad consortium of  Federal,  State, and non-
governmental partners, will channel extensive scientific assessment,  information,
technical assistance and financial support to address the  critical ecosystem
issues.   Specific attention will be  given  to the  issues of coastal hypoxia,
shellfish  contamination, and critical  fishery nursery  habitat  losses  that
threaten public  health  and  the  economic sustainability of  the multi-billion


                                      2-26

-------
dollar Gulf fisheries.  The GMPO will provide in-the-field financial assistance,
on a  competitive basis,   to  the Gulf's  State  and local programs  involved in
implementing unique and effective approaches that address those three priority
issues.

      The GMPO will work to establish a,model national partnership with State,
.federal,  local,  and private  interests  throughout  the  Region to  design and
implement voluntary and incentive-based approaches to mitigate wasteful run-off
nutrients to the  watershed-  The GMPO will conduct specific field work with State
and local  programs  in  targeted estuaries throughout the five-State region to
transform contaminated shellfish-growing waters to safe harvest  standards.  The
GMPO will continue to expand the.capabilities of the Gulf Information Network,
to provide integrated,  extensive environmental  information access and retrieval
to all county and parish communities  in the Gulf region.   The GMPO will continue
to enhance its partnerships with organized regional businesses and environmental
and  industrial  sectors  involved   in  the  application  and  advancement  of
ecologically beneficial sustainable  development programs.

      Efforts to improve water  quality enhancement in the Gulf of Mexico will be
enhanced through continued support of National  Estuary Program  {NEP) activities
in the Gulf watershed.  Specific NEP activities that  will  compliment and support
GMPO efforts  .include  continued development  of  Comprehensive  Conservation and
Management Plans (CCMPs) for the newly-designated Charlotte Harbor, Florida, and
Mobile Bay, Alabama, estuaries.

AIR DEPOSITION                .

      The Agency requests  a total of  $1,134,809 and 1.5 total workyears for 1997
in the  Community-Based - Environmental Protection program for investigating the
adverse'effects  of  atmospheric pollution on the  Nation's water quality.   The
Agency  is  investing in this area  in order to assure that we  achieve several
environmental goals, including those addressing healthy and diverse aquatic life,
stable  or  increasing populations  of  threatened or endangered aquatic species,
edible fish and  shellfish harvests,  and safe recreational waters.

        EPA  has  concluded  that " atmospheric  deposition  -can  significantly
contribute to the distribution,  deposition,  and subsequent  loading to surface
waters  of  various  metals  (e.g.,  mercury),  pesticidesr  and organic  chemical
contaminants  (e.g., PCBs).  Monitoring and'modeling information indicates that
air emissions from stationary and mobile sources represent a significant portion
of the  total  loading of nitrogen  into  waters of the eastern United States and.
contributes  to  the  eutrophication of  estuarine and coastal waters  along the
Atlantic coast.   The environmental and human health protection goals of the Clean
Water and Clean Air  Acts can be better achieved through multimedia-based control
and prevention actions.

      In  1997,   the Agency  will  further  quantify  the adverse   impacts  of
atmospheric pollution on  the Nation's  Water quality,  begin  to incorporate its
findings in  five environmental  models,  and provide  technical  assistance to 20
local  watershed partnerships  that  are  developing scientifically  defensible
loading information.

      The  Agency's  strategy for accomplishing  these  plans  is  to  develop and
refine relative loadings, cost-effectiveness information, and modeling techniques
to coincide with existing water quality models,for the Chesapeake Bay by focusing
on the  nitrogen  load to the Bay from inflow at the Bay's mouth and expand, the
atmospheric deposition model of  the  Bay's  350,000 square mile  airshed and its
64,000' square mile  watershed.    EPA will then  distribute the  information and
modeling  techniques to States and  Tribes  so they  can  develop cost-effective
multi-media strategies for nutrient management  from  point and nonpoint sources.


                                     2-27

-------
The Agency will use data collected on the amount of nitrogen compounds that are
deposited directly  to Atlantic coastal waters  to define  the  nutrient source
components causing eutrophication in coastal estuaries in four additional regions
of the Atlantic Coast.  Based upon the values  derived, States and local agencies
will be able  to'define cost-effective nutrient management strategies  and "may
realize significant  local  cost savings in the  control  of major contributing
sources.

WET WEATHER FLOWS

      The Agency  requests  a total  of  $9,127,900  and 78.5  total  workyears to
combat pollution  caused by wet weather events,  one of  the  greatest problems
threatening our public health and aquatic ecosystems.  In 1997,  by shifting $1.1
million of  its resources from  guidance  issuance  and technical  assistance to
support permitting,   the  Agency  will better  address  wet weather  pollution
problems,  such as combined sewer overflows  (CSOs), sanitary sewer overflows and
stormwater.  To control these remaining sources, the Agency has already tripled
the number of permittees from 70,000 to 200,000, and will increase this figure
even more when Phase II of the stormwater program is implemented.

      The Agency will  assist  local  communities  with  holistic planning  and
implementation•on an urban watershed basis.  By January  1,  1997, all CSO cities
will have nine  minimum"control  measures  in place.  EPA expects  to reissue 78
general stormwater permits in 1997.  EPA will'also reissue  220 CSO permits with
Long Term Control Plans that will have expired.   The Agency  will ensure issuance'
of all NPDES permits  required for municipal separate  storm sewer systems serving
populations over 100,000 in 1997,  and will  complete guidance on confined•animal
feeding operations, a major source of wet weather pollution.

      The Agency  will  implement the recommendations of  the Urban  Wet  Weather
Flows  (UWWF) Advisory Committee on wet weather issues.   The guidance, policies,
incentives and  technical assistance  to be  implemented  in this  program  are now
being developed by over 50  stakeholders participating  in the Federal Advisory
Committee  Act  (FACA)  chartered  effort.    They  advise the Agency on  major
improvements  to  the  existing  stormwater  program,  help   design  and  target
discharges for the next phase of  the stormwater program, develop  a cost-effective
approach to dealing with sanitary  sewer overflows, and  look at issues that cut
across all  urban wet weather problems.  EPA expects to extend the stormwater
program to  some  municipalities  and industrial/commercial sources,  but  only to
those  facilities where  a water  quality   problem  exists.    This  will  exempt
thousands of sites (nearly 80% of the universe now subject to regulation)  without
any significant impact on water quality.

WATER INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT

      The Agency  requests  $20,948,500 and 174.4 total  workyears  for 1997 for
water infrastructure management.  EPA continues  to manage and ensure the fiscal
integrity of several financing programs" devoted  to improving the Nation's water
infrastructure.   With over $17 billion  (including  Federal investments,  state
matching funds, bond proceeds, and repayments) available  for loans to provide for
water quality infrastructure improvements  in  all 50  States  and  Puerto Rico, the
Clean  Water State Revolving  Fund  (CWSRF)  supports approximately 3400 projects
nationally, and is responsible for  supporting  28,000  jobs annually and over
280,000 jobs since its  inception.  One of the Agency's premier tools  for building
our  partners'  financial capacity,  the CWSRF program  fosters EPA's .goals of
ecosystem protection by promoting a more comprehensive,  priority-based approach
to  selecting  point or non-point  source control projects.   In 1997,  EPA will
develop  guidance' encouraging  states  to 'fund  priority projects  in targeted
watersheds  at  risk,  and will promote environmental  justice by better enabling
states to provide loans to small or  disadvantaged communities.


                                     2-28

-------
      EPA plans to  complete  the 1996 Clean Water Nee.ds  Survey in 1997, which
identifies wastewater and related infrastructure  investment requirements across
the U.S.  EPA will  also continue a modernization to  upgrade the Needs Survey
database.  We  also  will allocate resources to develop and  administer the new
Drinking  Water ,SRF  program,  once  authorizing  legislation   is  enacted.   The
Administration is proposing that, when Drinking Water SRF'legislation is enacted,
the Administrator  could  award -to  a State,  from funds  available  for State
revolving funds, a.  single capitalization  grant  to  support both wastewater and
drinking water  revolving  funds.   This would allow the Governor  of a State to
transfer funds between the State's wastewater and drinking water revolving funds
to  address   high  priority  needs,  subject to   terms  and  conditions  as  the
Administrator would establish.

      Progress towards closeout of the construction grants program will continue
in 1997.  Through 1996, EPA  estimates that approximately 40,000 projects will
have been closed out,  leaving  approximately    226 projects remaining  to be
administratively completed and 934  to be closed out  at  the  beginning of 19-97
(this figure includes grants awarded after 1991).  EPA will continue to assist
the States with administrative completions  and closeouts, resolve audit problems,
and oversee  activities of the  Corps  of  Engineers in its completion/closeout
efforts.

      More than 50  infrastructure projects have been funded out of  almost $2
billion in grants that EPA has made to  coastal and special  needs communities from
funds appropriated  after  1991.   Next year the Agency will  devote significant
management attention to those projects, many of which will be in the  early stages
of  construction.    Finally,   through  its  Municipal  Operations  &  Maintenance
program, EPA promotes compliance, addresses pollution prevention opportunities,
and supports other priorities in targeted watersheds.

EFFLUENT GUIDELINES

      The Agency requests a  total  of  $22,485,516 and  84.0 total workyears for
1997 in the Effluent Guidelines program.  In 1997,  the Agency plans to issue final
effluent standards for the Pulp and Paper industry and propose  effluent standards
for three additional industries.

      For the effluent standards scheduled to  be  proposed, we  are involving the
regulated community  and other stakeholders  in the regulatory development process.
We anticipate that the effluent standards in these three industrial  sectors will
apply  to  nearly 5,000 facilities.   When  promulgated, we estimate that these
regulations  will ultimately  result in  substantial pollutant removals,  health
benefits,  and  water .quality  improvements.    The scope of these  proposed
regulations  includes  reducing   (or  eliminating)  discharges  of human  health
toxicants, aquatic life toxicants, and volatile compounds,

      The effluent guidelines program will continue to support the  Common Sense
Initiative,  'with a particular emphasis on those sectors being affected by planned
guidelines.   As part of the Administration's regulatory reinvention efforts, we
will propose to reformat existing effluent limitations  guidelines.   Although
these changes will not be substantive, they will  make  the  regulations easier to
read and  understand,  and will reduce the overall size of the' Code of Federal
Regulations, saving the government money  in terms of printing and  reproduction
costs.

      The effluent  guidelines program  will  finalize  test procedures  for the
analysis of dioxins  and furans in wastewater in 1997 .   These methods will assist
in the determination of compliance with new effluent guidelines.   We will also
finalize  test  procedures for  the  analysis  of  oil,   grease  and  petroleum
hydrocarbons  in 1997.   This  method was developed in  response to the Montreal


                                      2-29

-------
Protocol phase-out  of  freon,  which is used in existing methods.  We will  also
propose test procedures for the analysis of trace metals and  cyanide.

STANDARDS AND CRITERIA

      The Agency requests a total of $7,100,203 and 46.9 total workyears for 1997
to  reinvent  the  Water  Quality Standards  and  Criteria  program  and promote
effective watershed management.                                               .

      'In  1997,   this  'program will  continue   to  reinvent  administrative  and
management  tools to   improve  program delivery  as  well  as  to find  and  use
innovative ways to assist States, communities,  and Tribes in achieving their own
environmental goals.   In  1997, EPA will issue an-Advance  Notice of  Proposed
Rulemaking to effect'a watershed- and multimedia-oriented review of the'criteria
and standards program  and  will  issue  a water  quality-Criteria Development  Plan
to focus the future direction of that program.  EPA will revise existing human
health  and aquatic life  criteria and  methodologies  to  help  States,   local
communities,  and  Tribes select and use  scientifically-based tools to achieve
their goals and address environmental problems in a place-based context.   EPA
will  revise  four criteria and the  human health  and aquatic  life  criteria,
methodologies in  1997.  The Agency will work with stakeholders to develop Total
Maximum Daily Loads,  Wasteload Allocations,  and Load Allocations for  priority
water quality watersheds and waterbodies, including developing and disseminating
three new or revised user-friendly computer models that integrate GIS .information
to facilitate effluent trading among point and nonpoint  sources.  The Agency will
provide this  information through  a variety of methods, including  three Water
Quality Academies and three multi-regional workshops/ nine support documents and
users' guides,  and  various public  information documents.

BIOACCOMULATIVE POLLUTANTS

      The Agency requests a total of $4,076,719 and 12.9 total workyears for 1997
in  the  Water  Quality  Standards  and . Criteria  program   to  examine highly
bioaccumulative pollutants. Accomplishments in this.program area will contribute
to attainment of  all water quality-related environmental goals.

      Activities  in this area promote States'  and  Tribes'  ability to address
environmental   issues  in  a place-based context  that   recognizes  the complex
relationships in  individual ecosystems and watersheds.   The  Agency will publish
a national study of  existing data on contamination of bioaccumulative  pollutants,
particularly  mercury,   in  fish.   -In  1997, the  Agency will  also  develop  and
"distribute  two  guidance documents  to address State  concerns  with issuing  fish
consumption advisories. . To support these activities, the Agency will collect and
analyze State/federal measurements  of mercury and other  contaminants.  To provide
greater  assistance to State/Tribal  programs, EPA will  update  the  national
database of fish  advisories .and will  provide  training  and technical  assistance
to 20 States and  Tribes in managing their fish advisory programs.  Finally,  the
Agency  will  coordinate and  contribute,  to   the  State/Federal  Forum  on  fish
advisories.

      In 1997,  the  Agency will publish the first biennial Report to  Congress on
the National  Inventory of Contaminated Sites and sources of  contamination.   EPA
will  make available to the public, the national sediment inventory database that
identifies the  extent, severity, and ecosystem impacts of sediment contamination
in  specific  watersheds.   EPA  will develop , the first national  human health
criterion for mercury  accounting for  the  concentration of mercury  in sediments
in  1997.   We  will also make  available two improved standard  sediment  toxicity
assessment methods, five sediment quality criteria,  and guidance on metals.  The
Agency will continue to broaden the integrated approach to  the fate,  transport,
and assessment  of chemicals,  particularly metals, in sediments, water  columns,


                                      2-30

-------
and aquatic tissues.  Results of investigations  in these areas will include two
guidance documents, and  improvements  to two existing water  quality models to
better support states and tribes in addressing their environmental problems.

MULTIPLE STRESSORS IN ECOSYSTEMS-

      The Agency requests a total of $9,613,968 and 56.0 total  workyears for 19,97
in the Water Quality Standards and Criteria program to address  multiple stressors
in  ecosystems.    Accomplishments  in  this  program  area  will  contribute  to
successful attainment of all water quality-related environmental goals.

      In response to requests from States,  the  Agency will pursue a number of
activities designed to - provide a, sound scientific  basis for assessing,  the
cumulative  impacts  of  habitat  degradation  and  pollutants  on  ecological
communities.   The Agency'will develop  an ecological risk assessment methodology
designed to improve watershed-based environmental decision-making and priority-
setting based on multiple stressors.  EPA is requesting $1,000,000 to complete
work begun in 1996 and to provide the methodology to States and Tribes.  Using
these  scientific  methods,  EPA's partners will  better  address  those stressors
impairing the ecology of specific  watersheds and to  guide urban and rural wet
weather programs.  The scientific framework will be supported with water quality,
sediment, biological criteria and technical  assistance and training.  Together,
these tools will improve  program assessments based on environmental indicators.

      The Agency  will assess  the monetary values of  the ecological and health
benefits of pollution prevention and treatment.  The  Agency will  add to existing
information on the economic values  of  human  health and the environment,'on non-
cancer health risks, and On ecological  impacts. Better information will allow the
Agency to  improve its  evaluation of proposed regulatory  actions  and to enact
regulations that protect  human health and the environment while minimizing costs
to the regulated  community.   This  effort will  include  the establishment  of a
Benefits Transfer Database for use  Agency-wide,  contingent valuation surveys of
non-use water quality values and recreation benefits,  a health  benefits valuation
study, and human  health  and ecological benefits dose-response  studies.   As a,
result of this effort, EPA, States,  communities,  and Tribes will be  in a position
to more fully assess the success or failure of their programs by comparing the
cost of pollution prevention and control programs against their resulting social
and economic benefits.  This investment will enable the environmental regulators
to  identify  those  areas  where  efforts  will  have  the  greatest environmental
benefit and achieve environmental goals at the lowest possible cost.

      Finally, the Agency will continue  to address issues related with the Round
I sewage sludge rulemaking.

WATER QUALITY ENFORCEMENT

      The Agency  requests a  total  of  $21,593,700 and 333.3 total workyears in
1997 for the Water Quality Enforcement program.  A total of 23 workyears are to
provide direction on compliance  to the regulated community  through comprehensive
guidelines and technical and compliance assistance.

       In  1997,  the program will continue  with the  new place-based targeting
approach developed by the Agency and implemented in 1996.  Regions will work with
state,  local,  and tribal  partners  in identifying  stressed  and  threatened
ecosystems  in high-risk sectors  and  geographic areas  and select the  most
appropriate  enforcement response   (i.e. administrative,  civil,  judicial)  to
address any given violation.

      The Water Quality Enforcement program will  continue to -implement the Posted
Stream  Segments  Enforcement Initiative.    This initiative gives  prominent


                                     2-31

-------
attention to  environmental  justice issues'based  on  targeted data analysis of
communities exposed  to  multiple  environmental risks.  In 1997, attention will
continue to be given to the  Native American  populations  that  live near polluted
water  segments.   While- these  segments  are  no longer safe  for public fishing
and/or swimming,, some are continuing to be used for  subsistence fishing. • This
initiative  will  reduce human  health risks  and  reduce  toxic  exposure  due to
consumption of fish.   .

      Another program emphasis continuing into 1997 will be  to  sources with wet
weather  problems,  'such'  as • Combined  Sewer  Overflows   (CSOs),   storm  water,
agricultural run off from  feedlots, and overflows from separate  sanitary sewers.
All  instances  of  significant  noncompliance  will  be  responded to  on a timely
basis.

PERFORMANCE PARTNERSHIP GRANTS

      In 1997,  EPA will actively participate  in the Performance Partnership Grant
 (PPG) program. The Water Quality Program will continue to provide leadership for
1) evaluating  the  PPG program,- 2) resolving PPG  related issues  identified by
Regions, National Program Managers, and States; and 3) revising  the  PPG guidance
if needed.   EOA will support the efforts of the  Office of Administration and
Resources  Management to  develop  a  rule  for PPGs  and  to  revise . the . grant
requirements in 40  CFR  Part 35 Subpart  A.   OW will also support the Office of
Regional Operations and State/Local Relations in its role of coordinating cross -
cutting issues.

      In 1997, the Agency requests authority from  Congress to award Performance
Partnership Grants   (PPGs) and will  encourage states and Tribes  to use PPGs.
Through PPGs,  recipients will have greater flexibility to target grant resources
to high priority problems and'implement multi-media solutions within a watershed.

ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE

      The Agency  requests.  $5,646,600 'and 35.0 total workyears for 1997 for
continued  support   of  our  Environmental  Justice  activities.    Financial and
technical  support  will .be   offered to  improve  or  establish wastewater and
drinking water  services  in smaller, poorer  communities.  Technical  tools will
continue to be improved to reduce  health risks associated with  harmful drinking
water  contaminants  and chemically-contaminated   fisheries.   Public access to
water  data and  information   will  be  improved  through development  of  data
•management tools and by  increasing our presence  on  the  internet.

      EPA is  committed  to improving environmental and human health  conditions
along  the  U.S.  Mexico  Border.  By  supporting   the  planning,   design,  and
construction of wastewater treatment facilities and other projects we will reduce
the incidence of water-borne diseases along the Border and in disadvantaged U.S...
 "colonias."    EPA  will  support  two  Border  offices  and  assist  the  Border
Environment Cooperation Commission.

      The Agency will also  administer  its several grant programs  to attend to
di sadvaritaged communities including programs for Indian tribes and Alaskan Native
Villages. We will also provide grant funds for rural  water technical  assistance
to small and disadvantaged communities.   The American Indian Environmental Office
 (funded through multi-media) will continue to support native  Americans in  their
efforts to  address  environmental  issues.
                                      2-32

-------
                                DRINKING WATER

OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total of $69,786,000 and 576.0 total workyears for
1997 in the Drinking Water media.

      Violations of  drinking  water health standards have  increased since -the
implementation of major new regulations under the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act
Amendments.   In 1994,  23 million  people were  provided water  that  violated
drinking water health standards at least once during the year.  An additional 23
million people were placed at increased risk because they were  served by systems
that had inadequate or no filtration treatment.

     . Based in part on these violations,  the  overall goal of the Drinking Water
Program, is to ensure that every  public water system will provide water that is
consistently safe  to drink.   To meet  this  goal, two  challenges must  be met.
First,- EPA,  in partnership  with the  states,  must ensure  that  people  already
receiving high-quality drinking water continue  to  do  so.   Second,  EPA and the
states  must • continue  to reduce the  percentage  of  the population receiving
drinking water from public water  systems  that are in violation of EPA standards
and  state health requirements.'   The milestones  that EPA has  proposed  to meet
these challenges include, setting  a target for  reducing the  number of people
receiving potentially contaminated  drinking water from  public'water  systems and
increasing the number of people receiving drinking water from systems that have •
implemented source water protection programs.     •

      For the past  year, EPA has been conducting an extensive reassessment  of its
drinking wat&r protection program in  response-  to the  need  to focus on highest
risk reduction activities, implement stakeholder requested  improvements, and be
better  prepared  to  deal with  serious public health   concerns' caused  by
contaminated  drinking  water.   The  Agency held  a series  of  public meetings,
attended  by   over  500   stakeholders  to discuss  EPA's   approach  to  this
reinvention/redirection effort.   Three of the  four primary objectives  of this
effort (i.e.,  risk-based priorities for setting high quality  standards, standards
based on sound science and data,  and strong,  flexible partnerships with states
and  local governments  in implementation)  are included in the Administration's
Environmental  Reinvention initiative.   The  fourth  objective,  community-based
effective source water protection,  is a major priority for the water program.

       EPA will continue to  implement  the drinking water regulatory reinvention
initiative, presented in  the Administration's report, "Reinventing Environmental
Regulations," on March 16,  1995.  The  primary focus of  this effort is to target
safety standards,  research, and  resources at drinking water contaminants that
pose the greatest  threats to  human  health.   This initiative includes standard
setting activities  and the preparation  of scientifically defensible microbial and
chemical risk characterizations and guidance documents that provide technical and
health information on drinking water contaminants.  ..

      Most of  the  contaminants are  being addressed in the  Agency's Microbial-
Disinfection-By-Products  (M-DBP)  rule   cluster,    a  Court-supervised  rule
identified by stakeholders as their highest priority for EPA.  This rule cluster,
which encompasses six complex rules, will address health risk assessment, cost,
treatment  technologies,  and  risk  analysis.    EPA  will also  focus on  other
critical, high-risk threats to drinking water  safety that are currently not being
adequately addressed  (e.g.,  arsenic and total triazines).

      The Agency will continue support  for drinking water program implementation,
especially with small systems.  EPA will  support the activities of  rural water
organizations  to deliver assistance in rural areas.


                                     2-33

-------
    .  The development of the five core modules for the new Safe Drinking Water
Information System  (SDWIS) will be  completed in 1997,  and the installation of
      in up to 15 states is expected.  '   '   .
      In. 1997,  'EPA will continue to implement  the Source Water Protection  (SWP)
program. SWP is a community- based approach to protecting ground and surface water
sources of drinking water from contamination.  SWP offers a pollution prevention
approach to ensure safe drinking water.

      EPA will  continue regulation and management of Class I,  II,  III underground
injection wells and will promulgate the Underground Injection Control  (DIC) rule
on Class V shallow injection wells.

    '  The Drinking Water Enforcement program will support the achievement of the
Agency's  guiding  principles  of ecosystem  protection,  pollution prevention,
environmental  justice,  and environmental  accountability.  The  Drinking  Water
Enforcement program will prevent the 'endangerment of human health by contaminants
in drinking water through  a variety of compliance assistance  activities !and the
enforcement  of  the National Primary  Drinking 'Water  Regulations (NPDWRs)  and
through increased attention to . source protection activities.
                                     2-34

-------
                                DRINKING WATER


PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

DRINKING WATER REINVENTION INITIATIVE

      The Agency requests a  total  of  $23,130,600  and 130,5 total workyears in
1997 to  address  Presidential and Administration priorities  identified in the
March 16,  1995  "Reinventing  Environmental Regulations" Report-.    This Report
directed the focusing of drinking  water treatment requirement$ on the highest
risk.-  In 1997,  EPA will continue to implement the Administration's regulatory
reinvention initiative that targets safety standards, research, and resources at
contaminants that pose the greatest threats  to human health.  This initiative
includes both standard setting activities and the preparation of scientifically
defensible microbial and chemical risk characterizations and  guidance documents
which provide technical and health information on drinking water contaminants.

      Supported  by  the written  guidance and  recommendations of  the  Science
Advisory Board (SAB), EPA will concentrate a,major portion of its resources on
developing safety standards  for  microbiological  contaminants (e.g.,  bacteria,
protozoa, viruses),  especially cryptosporidium, and the. risks created from the
treatment of microbial  contaminants.   These risks  are being addressed in the
Agency' s Microbial-Disinfection-By-Products  (M-DBP) rule cluster, one of  the most
comprehensive and complex set of  rules under  development in the Agency.  The M~
DBF rule cluster is a statutorily-required and Court-supervised effort that is
the  product  of  a  successful regulatory  negotiation effort.    It has  been
identified by drinking water stakeholders, during meetings held in 1995,  as their
highest drinking water priority for EPA.  This rule cluster,  which encompasses
six complex rules dealing with 14 interrelated drinking water  contaminants, will
include  health  risk assessment,   cost,  treatment technologies,  and risk/risk
analysis.    The  scientific,  technical,  and policy  issues  of  this- cluster
necessitate  innovative approaches  to  occurrence  assessments, data management,
analytical methods,  and impact assessment.  Work is also necessary for updated
methodologies  on cost  assessments,  dealing  with  risk/risk  tradeoffs,  and
approaches for sensitive subpopulations.  The resources devoted  to these public
health  standards and  related  priority  activities  account for  a total  of
$11,741,400 and 67.9 total workyears in 1997.

      The  Information  Collection Rule  (ICR) ,  one  of the  rules  in  the M-DBP
cluster, will  be issued  in   Spring 1996,  and a  total  of $2,100,000  of  1997
resources requested within the Administration1s priority will  be directed to its
implementation.   The investment  funds the  Federal government's role  in the
collection and analysis of $130 million worth of occurrence  and treatment data
by local public  utilities.   The  large amounts of ICR occurrence and treatment
data for disinfectants,  disinfection byproducts,  and microorganisms required
development of a special component of the Safe Drinking Water  Information System
(SDWIS)   to ensure timely  and effective processing and analysis.  Public water
systems  will use this  data  base to simplify submission of treatment data and
characterization information.  EPA will provide extensive  technical assistance
and training to up to 700 drinking water treatment plants  on this data system,
including quality assurance/quality control  issues, and will prepare materials
to be disseminated  by water  utilities'  organizations,' like the American Water
Works Association.  Technical  assistance will also be directed to the development
of sample  plans  for these 700 drinking  water  plants  which will be submitting
plans to EPA for approval  in  1997 k  The relationship between the ICR data system
and  the  development of  these  sample  plans is  crucial to  the  successful
implementation of the  ICR.    Laboratories that  test and  assess drinking water
samples  also play an important  role  in the  ICR.   In 1997,  EPA,  through the
Drinking Water Program  Laboratory in  the Science and Technology Appropriation
Account, will work with about 400  laboratories, particularly on microbial and DBP
analyses.  EPA plans to monitor laboratory performance in 1997 and will  use both
the Performance Evaluations  studies, including 360 microbial  sample sets and
                                    .2-35

-------
1,400 DBP sample sets, and laboratory Quality Assurance/ Quality Control  (QA/QC)
to ensure that ICR data quality objectives are being met.

      In addition to the contaminants addressed in the M-DBP  rule cluster, there
are other critical, high-risk threats to drinking water safety that are currently
not'being adequately addressed (e.g., arsenic and total triazines).   With  a total
of $940,000 and 4.0 total workyears for 1997, EPA will initiate development of
safety  standards  for these  contaminants.    EPA  will develop  information and
conduct technical analyses related to occurrence,  treatment effectiveness, and
analytical methods  issues for  these chemical contaminants.   Work  will  also
address the important and precedent-setting policy issues (e.g., additive effects
and whether and how to discount treatable cancers).

      The Agency's  1997 .request includes  a  total  of $4,639,200 arid 15.6 total
workyears  that will be directed  to  the  development of  he-alth  assessments to
support regulations.  Work includes six risk characterizations for M-DBPs, and
two micro methods for indicator   species.    Other  important work focuses on
arsenic and total  triazines.  In addition, EPA will issue 10-12 health advisories
providing  guidance  for  unregulated contaminants to  address future regulatory
concerns.. Special  attention will  be  given  to non-cancer health effects  (e.g,
immunologic and reproductive) of microbiological contaminants.

      Improving risk targeting, sound  data  and science,  and the  benefits from
non-regulatory initiatives will continue to be a focus in 1997.  EPA's-request
for these Administration priorities includes a total of $2,900,500 and 35.0 total
workyears  for  1997.  Agency  efforts to provide  core tools and  training for
Federal/drinking  water stakeholder partnerships will produce significant risk
reduction benefits.   One such collaborative effort underway is the Safe Drinking
Water Partnership, a voluntary initiative through which public water utilities
pledge to reduce microbial contaminants beyond regulatory requirements through
a series of good engineering practices.  It  is expected that by the end of 1997
over 500 water utilities across the nation will have joined with EPA and major
water associations  in  this Partnership.   This effort  involves  a. four-phased,
self-assessment and peer-review process by which water suppliers examine their
water  operations, maintenance, and management practices to  determine where
improvements can be  made.  Other activities include improvements to  ensure well-
documented and focused contaminant selection that maximizes  subsequent research
and standard setting expenditures.  Revision of the Drinking  Water Priority List
will assure greater  involvement of stakeholders and more consensus on regulatory
efforts.   Likewise,  .work  on appropriate  and  cost-effective small  systems
technology will address the needs  of  small municipalities  and accelerate public
health improvements.

      Another component of the drinking water reinvention- initiative addresses
stakeholders'  concerns  that drinking  water monitoring  requirements  are  both
inflexible and costly.  There have been strong recommendations to allow states
to target  their monitoring efforts  to  where they  are needed to protect public
health.  As a first  step in this area, EPA is working .on the simplification of
monitoring requirements  for  chemical '• contaminants  in  drinking  water.   The
chemical monitoring rule will provide flexibility to  state and local governments
in setting sampling  frequencies based on the vulnerability of the drinking water
system.  The resources within the 1997 Agency request for the Administration's
priority  dedicated  to this  activity  are a total  of  $809,500 and  8.0 total
workyears.    EPA  will  be  reviewing  comments  and  developing the  necessary
occurrence  data,  including  associated  statistical  analysis,  and  technical
guidance  documents  to  support rulemaking.   These materials must  be completed
prior to the  rule's promulgation, in part  to support timely implementation of the
final rule.

IMPLEMENTATION OF'DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS/SMALL SYSTEMS.

      The Agency  requests  a  total of $14,030,000  and 82.9 total workyears for
1997.  EPA will be assisting the states  in theit implementation of drinking water
regulations for the  number of additio.nal3£equirements that have taken effect over

-------
the last  several  years.   For  example,  drinking water  systems  will be taking
actions to meet monitoring requirements under the Lead and Copper  rule  and will
need rule interpretation guidance  and  technical assistance.   Also, the Agency
supports  the  Drinking Water Hotline,   a nationwide  service to  public water
systems, state and local officials, and the general public. The  Hotline answers
over 5,000 calls  per month and disseminates a  wide  variety  of drinking water
related materials, based on the information requested.

      In 1997, the Agency will continue to focus on support for small drinking
water systems. EPA will support the states in ensuring that small drinking water
systems (i.e., those  that serve 3,300  or fewer people)  have  the capability to
attain and maintain compliance over the long term.  EPA is working with states
and small systems to provide additional flexibility for small systems wherever
possible,  including monitoring waivers, special best available technology, and
prevention approaches to streamline and tailor implementation.

      EPA will continue its partnership  with rural water organizations to deliver
assistance to some 175,000 community public water systems, regulated under the
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), in  rural areas.  These organizations will provide
technical assistance  to small  communities  in such .areas as system management,
financing, rate  .setting,  budgeting,  accounting, operations  and maintenance,
regulatory compliance, and owner responsibilities.  This technical  assistance is
directed to system owners,  operators, and community leaders.  Priority  is given
to  systems  identified by a  state drinking-water  primacy agency  as  needing
assistance to  stay in compliance  with SDWA  requirements.   Furthermore, these
organizations  promote pollution  prevention  efforts  by assisting  many rural
communities in developing and implementing wellhead protection programs.

SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM

      The Agency  requests  a total of $6,343,400  and  46.0 total workyears for
1997.   The  development of  the  five  core modules  (i.e.,  inventory, sampling,
compliance scheduling, compliance  determination,  and enforcement)  for the new
Safe Drinking Water Information System  (SDWIS) will be completed in 1997 and the
installation of SDWIS in approximately  15 states is  ^expected.  EPA will provide
hands-on training to state and Regional  staff.  To be successful,  the system must
have  complete and  timely  data.    Furthermore,   state  acceptance and  use are
critical to that success.  The Agency will improve the Quality Assurance/Quality
Control (QA/QC) of data  used to evaluate the .drinking  water and ground water
environmental  indicators.   There  are many existing  sources  of information by
which the drinking water and ground water programs can determine how well they
are achieving environmental results.  The Agency will focus  significant attention
on this effort to ensure  that the  accurately  collected data assess how well the
drinking water and ground water programs are meeting  both program and Agency
goals,  as  stated  in  the   Agency's  "Environmental  Goals,  Milestones,  and
Strategies," report.

SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

      The Agency requests a total of $19,740,900 and 214.5 total workyears for
1997.  In  1997, EPA will continue to emphasize the implementation of  "community-
based" programs 'to protect the source waters -- both surface and ground-- that
supply the drinking water for some 60,000 community public water systems.  The
Source Water Protection {SWP) program is a common-sense approach to preventing
pollution of  lakes,  rivers,  streams, and ground  water  that  serve as drinking
water supplies.  SWP  is an important barrier t;o contamination.  It serves as both
an "insurance" policy for a community (i.e.,  risks to the  health of  citizens of
a  community  are reduced from  drinking water contamination)  and  also  a "wise
investment"  (i.e., communities with high quality,'well-protected source waters
may  be able  to  avoid costly  treatment without  compromising  public health
protection and may reduce the need for some types of monitoring).   SWP expands
upon the Wellhead Protection (WHP) program, which 45 states and territories will
be implementing in 1997, not only by focusing on both surface and ground water
but also by including broader protectaaprs^reas (e.g., recharge areas) .   EPA will

-------
work  with primary stakeholders to develop education and outreach materials that
will  be  used by  states and  related organizations  to. assist  communities  in
implementing, WHP activities and to initiate  SWP efforts  if the community relies
on both surface and. ground water for their drinking water supplies.  In addition,
EPA will implement a multi-partner  effort in  20  states to assist an estimated
total  of  1,250-1,800  communities in establishing citizen-led  SWP programs*
County and  local  government organizations  will  work with  non-profit,  senior
citizen organizations to recruit retired volunteers who are trained in activities
that will assist communities in their SWP endeavors.  These volunteers will be
trained by the state's  source  water protection manager who will also serve as a
mentor to the volunteers for more difficult technical issues that communities may
face.

      included within the 1997 Agency request for SWP is a total of $475,000 and
126.0 total  workyears for Underground Injection Control  (UIC) efforts.  EPA will
continue regulation and management of  Class I,  II,  III underground injection
wells. '  Only  36  states and  territories have  primary  enforcement authority
(primacy) to implement  and  maintain UIC  programs, ' Consequently, EPA has direct
implementation responsibilities in IS states and  on 66 tribal lands.  Six other
states share primacy with EPA.   The final UIC  rule on Class V shallow injection
wells will be promulgated in 1997.  This rule will restrict the use of Class V
injection wells for  an estimated 120,000 industrial waste  disposal concerns.
Principal outreach and  education efforts for the Class V rule will be focuse'd on
the owners/operators of these  shallow,  industrial  disposal  wells to encourage
voluntary compliance with  the  rule  and  persuade  local  government officials to
include Class V well management as part of their SWP programs.  The total number
of Class  V  wells  nationwide has  been estimated  as high as over  one  million.
Consequently, EPA will  also develop and issue education and .outreach materials
on other  Class V subsets, particularly agricultural drainage and stormwater wells
in SWP areas.                                            '

DRINKING WATER ENFORCEMENT

      The Agency requests .a total  of $6,541,100  and 102.1 total workyears for
1997  in  the Drinking Water Enforcement program.    The  Regions  will  maximize
compliance and return violators to compliance  as  quickly as possible by using a
total of  43.8  workyears  and a variety" of.enforcement  tools:   administrative,
civil, and criminal.  A total of 13.1 workyears are devoted to targeted outreach,
compliance activities and technical assistance while a total of 24.8 workyears
will  perform compliance  monitoring activities  and  respond  aggressively  to
noncompliance  in  order to encourage the  regulated community  to  meet  their
obligations.

      In the Public Water  System  Supervision  (PWSS)  program in 1997,  priority
will  be  given to increased enforcement of the  Surface Water  Treatment  Rule
(SWTR), total coliform, and Lead  and Copper regulations.  Enforcement actions
will be taken against,systems that missed the 1993 deadline tp install filtration
and  to  upgrade  their filtration  and  disinfectant  treatment to meet  new
performance requirements.   The Regions  will also take  action on  the  Lead and
Copper Rule, against systems which are not implementing  their corrosion control
plans.  EPA will take enforcement actions in cases where primacy states do not
act or have requested assistance and/or where EPA is the primary agent,

      In August 1995, the Agency awarded four grants to launch a pilot 'Compliance
assurance project called ^Partners in Healthy Drinking Water^.   The purpose of
this project is to assist small public water systems to better comply with the
microbiological monitoring requirements for drinking water.  The project teams
public water systems that have excellent  compliance records with  systems that are
regularly or intermittently not in compliance.  The  Agency will be working with
the  grantees,   to  assess   the  effectiveness  of  this  project  in achieving
compliance.

      The Underground Injection Control (UIC)  enforcement program will enforce
Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act  feSQ^A) and implement regulations to prevent

-------
adverse affects to health and the environment and to protect the integrity of the
nation's ground water.  In  1996,  the Agency will  be directly implementing the
program in 15 states without primacy for the Old program, and on Indian lands,
and will share responsibility with six states.
                                     2-39

-------
2-40

-------
                                  PESTICIDES

OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total of  $82,052,900  and 683,2 total workyears in
1997 for  the  Pesticides media.  An  additional 179.1 total workyears  will be
supported by the F1FRA Revolving Fund.

      Pesticides, are used in a remarkably diverse array of products, 'from insect
repellents to  crop  weed killers to  household disinfectants  to  swimming pool
chemicals. They are often intentionally applied in the environment, rather than
occurring as a byproduct of industry of other human activity. They are found .and
used in nearly every home and business in the United States.

      EPA'g  Pesticides  Program  was  established  pursuant  to  the  Federal
Insecticide, '.Fungicide and'Rodenticide Act  (FIFR&)  to protect public health and
the environment from pesticides.  The  law requires  the Agency to balance public
health and environmental concerns with the  expected economic  benefits derived
from pesticides. The Agency's decision whether or not to  register new pesticides
and reregister existing pesticides reflect the balance between risks to public
health and the environment and economic benefits to manufacturers and users.

      The major goal of the Pesticides Program is  to ensure the  safety of the
nation's food supply.  This goal is accomplished by registering new pesticides
for use,  bringing the  registrations  of older pesticides  up  to  date,  and by
setting tolerances for safe levels  of  pesticide residues in food.  At levels in
excess of the  EPA tolerance,  these residues  can cause  serious acute effects,
including death, as well as chronic health problems such as cancer and genetic
damage.  Although pesticides may pose  health  risks,  they can be safely managed.

      The Agency reviews and analyzes  scientific studies submitted by pesticide
registrants as the  basis  for determining  risks  to public  health and  the
environment.   The registration and reregistration decisions'specify permissible
uses, product  concentrations,  methods  of and/or conditions  for application, and
similar measures designed to ensure the safe  use of the pesticide.   Under the
Federal Food,  Drug,  and Cosmetic Act,  the Agency  establishes  tolerances for
pesticide residues in raw and processed foods.  These tolerances are issued based
on  scientific   criteria  similar to  the .criteria  used for .registration  and
reregistration.

      The guiding principles of the Pesticides Program are  to reduce risks from
pesticides in food, .the workplace, and other exposure pathways and to prevent
pollution by  encouraging the  use  of  new,  safer pesticides  and biologicals.
Implementing the  recommendations of  the- National  Academy of Sciences  (HAS)
Pesticides in  the  Diets  of  Children  Study  remains a priority, along  with
implementation of the Worker Protection Standards.

      The  Pesticides  Enforcement  program  will  emphasize implementation  of
priorities relating to  food  safety, antimicrobials,  worker protection surface
water, and groundwater  through its continued management and oversight of  the
state pesticide enforcement cooperative agreement program.
                                     2-41

-------
                                  PESTICIDES

PROGRAM AND ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

REGISTRATION

      The Agency is requesting a total  of  $14,018,000 and 155.5 total workyears
in  1997  for  the  pesticide  registration  program.  This prograin  supports, the
Agency's food safety goal.

      FIFRA requires that,  before anyone can sell or distribute any pesticide in
the United States,  they must obtain a registration,  or  license, from EPA.  When
making a pesticide  registration decision, the Agency ensures that the pesticide,
when used in accordance with label directions, will not  cause adverse effects to
human health or the environment.

      Registration'decisions are based primarily on the Agency's evaluation of
test  data provided by applicants.   The  Agency  has  established a  number of
requirements,  such as the  Good  Laboratory Standards,  that  apply  to  both
registrants and testing facilities  to  ensure the quality  and integrity of the
pesticide data.

      Depending on the type of pesticide,  the Agency can require more than 100
different scientific tests.  Testing is needed to determine  whether a pesticide
has the potential to cause  adverse effects to humans, wildlife, fish, or plants.
Potential human risks include acute toxic  reactions (such as poisoning and skin
and eye irritation) as  well as  long term effects  (such as cancer, birth defects,
and reproductive disorders.)  Data on the  fate of pesticides in the environment
supports the EPA's  clean water goal by  allowing  the Agency  to assess threats to
ground and surface water and other environmental risks.

      In  1997,  the   Agency  anticipates  that  approximately  40  pesticide
registrations will be  issued as a result of the Agency's efforts to accelerate
the  registration ' process  for , reduced  risk  pesticides. •   Many  of  these  new
registrations will be  reduced  risk pesticides or biopesticides.  Biopesticides
include "microbial  pesticides" (bacteria,  -viruses,  or other  microorganisms used
to control pests)  and  biochemical pesticides  such as pheromones (insect mating
attractants) , insect or plant growth regulators,  and hormones used as pesticides.
Biopesticides generally pose less risk  to  human  health  and  the environment than
conventional chemical pesticides and the Agency  places  a priority on processing
these registrations.

      The Pesticide Registration program  will continue to analyze new uses of
currently  registered  products,  and  will  process  requests  received  from
agricultural states for emergency exemptions.  Industry requests for experimental
use permits' will be processed by the program,  as well as amendments to existing
pesticide registrations.

REREGISTRATION

      The Agency requests  a total  of $18,015,100 and  137.2 total workyears in
1997  for the  Pesticide Reregistration Program.   An   additional  179.1 total
workyears will be  supported by the FIFRA Revolving  Fund.  These resources will
support the Agency's food  safety goal.

      Many chemicals which currently exist  have not been tested and evaluated
using current scientific technology  and knowledge.  The Pesticides Program was
therefdre required by the 1988 Amendments  to FIFRA to perform .a thorough review
and evaluation of  pesticide products.  The  review was  to include all existing
pesticides that contain active ingredients initially registered before November


                                     2-42

-------
1,  1984.   The  goal is  to update  labeling and  use requirements  and reduce
potential risks associated with older pesticide active ingredients -  those first
registered when the standards for government approval were less stringent than
they  are  today.    The  reregistrat.ion program ' encompasses  over  400  active
ingredients and 22,000 pesticide products.  This comprehensive reevaluation of
pesticides under current  scientific  standards  is  critical to protecting human
health and the environment.                                           "

      Th.e Agency examines the health and environmental effects of pesticides and
employs measures to mitigate risks most effectively.  This evaluation and risk
mitigation process  is  complete when  the  Agency is  satisfied  that  the active
ingredient in a pesticide, used in accordance with approved labeling, will not
pose  unreasonable,  risks  to  human health or the  environment.   The Agency's
regulatory conclusions about a pesticide  or a  related group of pesticides are
presented in a Reregistration Eligibility  Decision (RED) document.  Later, once
product-specific data and revised labeling  are submitted and approved,  the .Agency
registers  products  containing the  eligible pesticide(s)  .   A. product  is not
reregistered) however,  until all of  its  active ingredients  are  eligible for
reregistration.  In 1997, the Agency anticipates that 40 REDs will be issued.

      .The  reregistration of a  pesticide   is  supported by  an' average  of 100
scientific  studies.    These studies  provide  data  on  the  pesticide's  human
toxicology  and ecotoxicology. '  Each  of  these studies must be  analyzed and
reviewed by Agency scientific staff before a RED can be prepared.   In 1997, this
program will reduce the backlog of scientific studies in the program, currently
estimated at 7,800 studies.

       Aa  data  gathered through the  reregistration  process  continues through
review,  the  Agency expects  that some  pesticides will be  found to meet the
triggers for special reviews, meaning that there is a particular risk  identified
in reregistration which will  require a more intensive investigation of risks and
benefits.  The Agency requests a total of $10,242,000 and 91.6 total workyears
in  1997  for special review  activities.   In 1997, the program will intensify
negotiations with pesticide  registrants on  risk  reduction  measures.  Special
reviews which present higher risk to human health will take priority.

FOOD  SAFETY/TOLERANCES

      The Agency requests a total of $2,376,100  and 2.0 total workyears in 1997
for food safety activities.  In response to the  1993  NAS report identifying and
recommending significant improvements  in  the scientific methodology underlying
the government' s food safety programs, especially to protect children,  the Agency
is  continuing its efforts  in the reinvention of the tolerance setting system.
Cooperative efforts with the United States Department of Agriculture  IOSDA), the
Food  and Drug Administration (FDA),  and EPA will continue  in  this  area to carry
out improvements .and to meet EPA's goals for continued improvement in the safety
of our food supply.  These include:  funding'basic toxicological research on age-
related differences in  response  to  chemical exposure;  creation of a national
residue monitoring database; and generation of  significantly improved data on
human consumption of food,  The Agency anticipates that the development of the
Pesticide Handler Exposure Database  (PHED)-like databases to characterize non-
dietary exposures in indoor and outdoor residential situations will be completed
in  1997 to address, among other concerns,   exposures  from  lawn  care compounds.

      The  Agency requests  $5,397,400 and  67.3 total workyears in  1997 for
tolerance activities. The Agency  will continue to ensure that  tolerances reflect
the  most current  regulatory status  of  each active ingredient.   The Agency
continues  to cooperate  and, consult  with  the USDA,  FDA, and states by sharing
information and working together  to monitor pesticide use and pesticide residues
in  food and feed.  International  activities include  the exchange of information


                                     2-43

-------
between  the  U.S.  and foreign  countries and  the harmonization  of  U.-S.  and
international standards.

PUBLIC ACCESS TO PESTICIDE DATA

      The Agency requests a  total of  $800,000 to  improve public  access to
pesticide databases.   These  activities support the Agency's  goal of improved
public awareness and understanding of the environment.  The Pesticides Program
collects and reviews enormous volumes of health and safety studies, but there is
currently no easy access to the databases by the public and regulatory partners.
In 1997, efforts to increase access to this data include:

      General Public Access.to Pesticide Information -  This proposal will create
      public access  in economically disadvantaged  areas to Agency information
      that answers questions asked by  average  citizens  about  pesticides.   The
      development of this project includes three steps:    (1) installation of a
      library  turnkey system,   (2)  preparation of pesticide  information  for
      public access, and  (3)  acceleration of electronic 'dissemination efforts.

      Automated  Data  Collection  System - An Automated  Data Collection System
      will be  developed  in coordination  with  the DSDA's Survey Systems/Food
      Consumption Laboratory.  The system will permit direct computer entry of
      survey responses, thereby  expediting public access to  food consumption
      survey data.  This  system will also  allow computerized translation of the
      food consumption survey data to the raw agricultural commodity level for
      use in dietary  risk.assessments.  This will  reduce delays in conducting
      risk  assessments and  allow  more  up-to-date  estimates of  risk ' from
      pesticides in food.  This,  in turn, will allow better access  to the public
      and better assessment of  the success of state and  Federal food programs.

DESIGN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT FOR FARMERS

      The Agency requests  a total of $885,400 and 2.0 total workyears  in 1997 fjor
activities in the Design'for  the  Environment for Farmers project.  This project
supports the Agency' s goal of improved public awareness and understanding of the
environment and provides for implementation of a community-based environmental
protection (CBEP) program.   By 1997, a completed catalogue of existing  tools for
CBEP  and a  survey  of  potential users  of  such  tools  will be  available.
Additionally, an assessment of the needs  of organizations actually conducting
community-based environmental protection will be available,  providing  us with a
better understanding of customer needs.  Tools will be developed to meet these
needs,  including:    (If information on  pesticides  and  toxic  substances  in an
easily accessible, user friendly  delivery system; (2)  staff expertise to support
community-based projects; (3) flexible regulatory approaches to meet the needs
of Communities; and {4} technical guidance and  analytical  tools which will help
communities evaluate  their  environmental problems.   The  Agency will increase
direct participation in community-based projects and cooperate with other program
offices to provide multimedia,  holistic support to community-based protection.

TRIBAL INITIATIVES

      The Agency, requests a total of $1,08,0,500 and 2.5  total workyears in 1997
for tribal initiatives.   The tribal initiatives support  the  Agency's healthy
terrestrial  ecosystems goal.    These   initiatives include  development  of  a
pesticide course for indian colleges; studies of pesticide use,  exposure and risk
assessment  on   indian  basket  weavers,  medicine  men   arid  food  .gatherers;
contribution to Indian Tribal Lands Scholarship Program; seminars  for  tribes on
Pesticide Programs;  Pesticide  Program  participation  in  studies  of pesticide•
contamination of fish (a  staple  in indian  diets); preparation of a manual on
indian use of plants for  food,  medicine  and' religious  rituals; participation in


                                     2-44

-------
the Indian Summer Intern Program; sponsorship of a work-study program at Sinte
Gleske  University,  the  only  Indian  college  in the  American  Indian  Higher
Education  Consortium   that   awards  graduate'  degrees;'  development   of  an
environmental laboratory technician training program for tribes; and a tribal
pesticide needs  assessment study.  These  activities will  result  in improved
communications with tribal  communities and  a better understanding of the impact
of- pesticide use in the affected communities.

WORKER PROTECTION

      The Agency requests a total of $2,807,000 and 35.0 total workyears in 1997
for the  worker  protection  program.   This  program supports the  Agency's safe
workplaces goal.  Implementation  of the  Worker Protection Standard (WPS) will
continue  through . a   we'll-targeted,   high  quality  communications 'program,
Development and  distribution of  support  materials,  training,  and follow-up is
critical  to  its  success.    Implementation  of  the  WPS   requires  substantial
coordination with all  affected parties including the  states,  growers,  grower
organizations,  local governments,  and  farm  workers.   This  rule affects three to
four million handlers,  as well  as  over one million agricultural establishments.
In 1997,  states  will  continue to develop,  reproduce,  and distribute training
materials. Training and outreach efforts will be pursued aggressively.  Regional
technical assistance to states,  coordination with affected agencies, assistance
in ensuring  training,  development and  use of  public  information  materials
explaining the new regulations, and distribution of these materials are also a
vital part of this program.

COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEMS                .

      A key initiative in 1997  will be a  series of multimedia pilot projects to
support  community  ecosystems,  involving both  toxic substances  and pesticide
components.  These projects support the Agency's  goal of toxic free communities
through preventing waste.   The pesticides portion of  this initiative  will be
funded with a total of  $668,000 and 2.5 total workyears and will be conducted in
the Regional offices.   The Regions will provide technical assistance  to the
states, public,  industry ajad other stakeholders.  The  programmatic and financial
assistance  that  the   Regions  deliver  are  crucial  to   the.  development  and
implementation of the Pesticides Program  by states and  local communities.  They
are'also important outreach and education sources for the public and others on
pesticides.  Key to the success  of the  pilot projects  is  the  development of
partnerships in  the communities and tribes  to  keep  EPA firmly grounded in the
issues of concern to these  communities.  EPA will provide  states and tribes with
the capacity to  identify significant  environmental  problems,  prioritize those
problems, and identify barriers to resolving them.

PESTICIDE ENFORCEMENT

      The Agency requests a total of $4,,145, 200 and 6.0.5 total workyears in 1997
for  the  pesticides   enforcement  program.     The   program   will  emphasize
implementation of priorities  relating to urban  pesticide misuse,  ineffective
hospital  disinfectants,  food  safety, and  worker  protection,  surface  water.-
Approximately 19 workyears will be used to develop and issue enforcement cases
for FIFRA violations posing high risks for which the states do not  have delegated
authority under  the  statutes, or do not have the data  necessary to handle the
case.

      In  the  laboratory data  integrity program,  three   Regions  will  support
Headquarters by conducting inspections  to monitor  compliance  with  the Good
Laboratory Practices regulations at laboratories  engaged  in testing in response
to the FIFRA data requirements.                                       •
                                     2-45 '

-------
      The  Pesticides  Enforcement 'program  will  also  promote  environmental
accountability through enforcement programs  designed to build the capacity of
states and tribes to enhance public health and safety.  The program will continue
to manage  and oversee the  state pesticide  enforcement cooperative agreement
program 'and will continue  to encourage participation of  the  state and indian
tribes  not currently  involved  in the  program.    The  program will  provide
enforcement training  and policy guidance to  the states  and will  work with
Headquarters in the development of national enforcement guidance.  The program
will  ensure  the availability  of  inspector  training so  that the  statute  is
properly  enforced  and cases  are  developed  soundly'.   The program  will also
continue  to  devote  10 workyears to  conduct  inspections  in  states  without
cooperative agreements.  These inspections will include import/export inspections
to address the "circle of poison" concerns.

      The program will provide 8.6 workyears for compliance assistance activities
to  the regulated  Community.    These  include:  seminars,  guidance documents,
brochures,  and other  forms  of  communications   to  assure  knowledge  of  and
compliance with environmental rules.  The program will work with the states to
involve  them  in national  enforcement  initiatives.   The program  will  place
emphasis on providing assistance  to.the states in developing enforcement cases
based on the revised Worker Protection Standard which took effect in 1995 and in
addressing urban pesticide misuse problems which involve improper applications
made by commercial pesticide applicators in the homes of the general public.
                                     .2-46

-------
                               TOXIC SUBSTANCES

OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total of $81,780,000 and 589.7 total workyears for
1997 in the Toxic Substances media.

      Human beings and the environment are exposed each year to a large number
of chemical substances  and mixtures.   Among the many  chemical substances and
mixtures which are  constantly "being developed and produced,  there are some whose
manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or  disposal may present
an unreasonable risk to health or the environment.

      EPA's Pollution Prevention and Toxics Program was established to protect
the public  and -the  environment  from unreasonable  risks  associated  with the
manufacture, use and disposal  of toxic chemicals.   EPA  relies on legislative
authority under the Toxic Substances Control Act  {TSCA), Asbestos School Hazard
Abatement Act, Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act, Emergency Preparedness and
Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) , Pollution Prevention Act, and Title X of the
Residential Lead-based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X).   These laws focus
on the prevention or elimination  of unreasonable  risks  to public health and the
environment from exposures to toxic chemicals.  Inherent in the implementation
of these statutes  is  the  dissemination  of  information  to the public,  which is
specifically provided for under  EPCRA.   The guiding principles  p.f  the  toxics
program are  to prevent  or • eliminate unreasonable  risk  to public  health and
environment; reduce  unnecessary  exposures; promote pollution  prevention; and
encourage safer chemicals and use patterns.  EPA is shifting its  program emphasis
from command and control regulations to partnerships,  voluntary participation,
market incentives, empowerment at  the  state -and  local  .levels .and common sense
solutions.

      Improving  the  public's  understanding  of  the   environment  is  key  to
protecting human health and the  environment.   It is critical that an informed
public participate  in making  environmental decisions.   EPA  will  provide .more
effective, accurate and efficient information  to  a wide variety of audiences to
assist them in comparing the severity of environmental  risks,  understanding the
opportunities for  pollution prevention,  and being  aware  of uncertainties that
underlie environmental decisions. EPA will provide  better access to information
on individual facilities,  and better information on  toxic  chemical releases into
the  environment.    Electronic access   to  environmental  information  will  be
improved,  and  an  increased  amount of information  will be  made  available
electronically.

      EPA  expects  to see  industry modify existing processes and  design new
processes'that  create less waste and improve  worker safety.   Over the next 10
years, 'EPA expects that virtually every product and service will be redesigned
at least  once,  so  the opportunity to produce  and purchase new environmentally
preferable products  is  immense.   Industrial  facilities are among the greatest
sources of toxic chemicals released into the environment.  The introduction of
toxic chemicals into waste streams also represents an inefficient use of natural
resources.  Reducing toxic releases will  improve the  efficient use of natural
resources and contribute  significantly to the goal of toxic-free communities.

      The  Toxic  Substances  Enforcement  program  will   conduct  inspections
addressing  Toxic  Substances Control  Act  (TSCA)  sections 5,  6,  and 8,  with
particular emphasis  on  worker  protection,  pre-manufacturing, substantial risk
notification, and  environmental  effects  of reporting  requirements.   The EPCRA
Enforcement program will conduct compliance inspections and to  provide compliance
outreach  to  chemical facilities  that use, manufacture or -process potentially
harmful chemicals and are  required to report under EPCRA.


                                     2-47

-------
                               TOXIC SUBSTANCES                          '  •

PROGRAM AMD ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

LEAD ABATEMENT PROGRAM

    • 'The Agency requests a total of $17,755,900 and 96,4 total workyears in 1997
for the  lead abatement  program.   The Agency's  lead activities  support  the
Agency's.safe indoor environments goal,                   ' -

      A major goal of EPA's lead program, authorized under Title X,  is to empower
citizens with accurate information, and to have in place state,  local and private
delivery systems to  allow  them to protect their  children and themselves from
health risks associated with-exposure to lead.  The Agency will work with states
to develop programs to (1)  ensure that  individuals involved in lead-based paint
abatement activities are trained, that training programs are accredited and that
contractors are certified,  (2) set standards for doing abatement activities, and
(3)  develop,  a  model  state  program  for  compliance  with  the   training  and
accreditation  requirements.   EPA  will  'ensure  'that  sellers'  and lessors  of
residential property  disclose known lead-based paint hazards  to purchasers or
renters.  Lead exposure has  been  shown to  affect   subgroups of  the general
population disproportionately.  Children,  particularly minorities and  the poor
in urban areas,  have the highest incidence of lead poisoning and elevated blood
lead levels.  EPA's lead environmental  justice' program provides grant resources
to  minority and 'low-income  communities  to  help bring  pollution  prevention-
strategies and activities to bear on local  environmental problems.  An important
part of  the lead program  is  communicating  the  risks of lead to the general
population, health professionals,  lead-based  paint abatement  workers,  and state
and local governments. EPA operates a lead hotline and lead clearinghouse.  The
National  Lead Laboratory Accreditation Program recognizes  laboratories  on a
nationwide basis that can  analyze  lead in paint chips,  dust  and soil  samples.
EPA coordinates its efforts with the Department 'of Housing and Urban Development
and other Federal agencies on an Interagency Lead Task Force.

      The  Regions  play  a  key  role in  the  Agency's lead  abatement program
activities.   Regions work with  the  states  to reduce  human  and environmental
exposure to lead.  SPA's Regional toxics strategy includes developing and setting
up methods to identify geographic "hot spots," developing and  transferring cost-
effective abatement technology, promoting environmentally and  economically sound
pollution  prevention and  recycling, and  outreach  to people  affected by the
dangers of toxic chemicals.  The Regional toxics program  in 1997 will  continue
to nourish .states' efforts as  they carry  out comprehensive lead abatement and
lead risk reduction programs.

PCB DISPOSAL PROGRAM  - REGULATORY REINVENTION PROJECT

      The Agency requests "a total of $61,7,500 and 7.7 total workyears in 1997 for
the polychlorinated biphenyls  (PCB) program.  This program supports the Agency's
goal of safe waste management.

      EPA  has banned  PCBs from manufacture,  processing and distribution in
commerce.  In addition, EPA established disposal and spill cleanup  programs that
reduce  the harmful  effects of  spills, leaks,  uncontrolled  discharges,  and
abandoned waste sites contaminated by PCBs,  Although no longer produced in large
quantities, exposure hazards persist from the more than 1.55 billion pounds of
PCBs manufactured in the United States.   EPA issues permits to facilities for the
storage and disposal  of existing PCB wastes.  EPA is proposing a  change in the
management of the PCB waste disposal permitting  program.   While recognizing the
severe  hazards  that  PCBs  still  pose,   EPA  will  devolve  the  permitting
responsibilities to the states.  States are. closer to the PCB problems and issues


                                     2-48

-------
and therefore better positioned to carry out PCB disposal permitting., This move
is consistent with the larger Federal effort to streamline Federal functions and
to empower states to decide environmental matters.

      EPA conducted a comprehensive review of the PCB  program and proposed an
amendment to the PCB disposal rule to provide more flexibility in disposing of
PCB wastes.  It simplified the  process  for  the approval  or use of certain types
of  non-liquid  PCBs.    The  amendment reduces  duplicative  requirements  by
recognizing Federal or state permits and other administrative actions.

EMERGENCY PLANKING AND COMMONITY RIGHT TO KNOW

      The Agency requests a total of  $25,697,500  and 111.6  total workyears in
1977 for the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act  (EPCRA) program.
This'program supports the Agency's goal of increasing the public's awareness and
understanding of the environment.

      EPCRA section 313  requires  businesses to  report  annually to EPA and state
officials  on  the  amounts  of  chemicals  their  facilities  release into  the
environment.   The  information,  the Agency  receives  through  this  reporting
requirement is known Collectively as the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI).   EPCRA
requires  EPA to  make  TRI  information  publicly  accessible.   The  Pollution
Prevention Act of 1990 expanded  TRI reporting requirements to  include information
on source reduction and recycling efforts at reporting facilities.  The pollution
prevention information that is  collected measures the nation's progress toward
meeting  overall  Agency  pollution  prevention  goals  and,   at  the   same  time,
supplements TRI data to  identify  the greatest opportunities  for risk reduction.

      In  1997,  EPA will, continue 'its  administration of EPCRA by  collecting,
processing and  disseminating TRI data.   The  Agency  will concentrate  on data
management, data quality, public data access,  and use of TRI data by state and
local governments,  other EPA  offices,  industry and  the public.   The  annual
national report on toxic  emissions will be published.  EPA will develop tools to
facilitate public, access  to chemical information and the public's ability to use
that information  effectively.    Technological  changes will be  implemented to
assist industry in submitting TRI reports.   EPA will also continue to implement
Executive Order 12856,  requiring Federal facilities to report Under TRI and to
develop goals to reduce releases and transfers of toxic chemicals by  50% by 1999.
EPA offers technical assistance and training to other  Federal agencies, as well
as  information on toxicity, regulatory  status,  energy .demand,  etc., of  the
materials they procure.   This assists them  in making environmentally preferable
choices.

      EPA will continue  to pursue a  number  of activities  to  expand the public's
right-to-know.    EPA will  implement   Executive  Order  12969,  which  requires
companies  to  make  TRI reports  in order to be  considered for award of Federal
contracts.  Additionally, under the  terms of a Presidential  directive issued to
EPA in August 1995, the Agency will consider expanding the number and types of
facilities that are required to submit TRI data.  The directive also requires EPA
to explore  expansion of  the  types of data required to  be  reported under TRI,
including chemical use data.  In this context,  EPA will continue development and
implementation of a chemical use  inventory (GUI).  The CUI will provide data on
chemical  use patterns  that, combined with hazard and  exposure  information,
screens chemicals to identify those of greatest potential  concern. EPA will make
CUI information available to the public to identify prevention and risk reduction
opportunities and to help identify exposures and risks not  currently available
through TRI data.
                                     2-49

-------
CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

      The Agency requests a.total  of  $28,952,000 and 254.1 total workyears in
1997 for the Chemical Assessment and Management program.  The Chemical Assessment
and Management  program element  includes  the chemical  testing knowledge base
program, new  chemicals/biotechnology  review, and  the  existing chemicals risk
management program. • These programs form the core of the Agency's TSCA regulatory
program, arid  they  support the  Agency's goal of toxic-free communities through
preventing wastes.

      In 1997, the chemical  testing program will concentrate on  (1)  chemicals
designated by the  TSCA Interagency Testing Committee,  (2)  chemicals for which
other EPA program'  offices'and  other Federal agencies have identified specific
data needs, and (3) U.S. nigh production/importation volume  chemicals for .which
testing  needs are identified  by  EPA screening  analyses.    Development, will
continue on multi-chemical testing actions utilizing a mix of TSCA section 4 test
rules, 'enforceable consent agreements,  and voluntary testing agreements,  some
with accompanying Memoranda of Understanding for voluntary product stewardship
programs that include risk reduction actions. These testing actions are expected
to result in an increased number, of chemicals being tested and to  bring about a
variety of industry actions  to  reduce  and/or eliminate  health  and  environmental
risks.   EPA  will  continue  to revise and publicize  its Master Testing List to
reflect both the agenda and priorities  of the chemical testing program.  'Finally,
EPA will continue to  lead  the ongoing U.S.  efforts  in the Organization for
Economic  Development  Screening  Information  Data  Set  testing  program  for
international- high production volume chemicals, the vast majority of which are
also domestically produced or imported in high volumes.

      The new chemicals/biotechnology review program will  review new chemical
substances and new biotechnology products  for human health and  environmental
concerns.  Manufacturers must submit a premanufacture notice (PMN)  to the Agency
for review before the chemical  or biotechnology product may  be manufactured for
commerce.  In 1997,- EPA anticipates receiving approximately 2,200 PMNs-, of which
about 2(50 are expected to result in voluntary or formal control actions.  Most
PMNs are subject to user fees,  which generate annual revenues of  approximately
$3,000,000.  Implementation of the new chemical follow-up rule enables the new
chemical review program to include  more new chemicals under  Significant New Use
Rules, thereby helping  to establish regulatory equity throughout industry.  Other
recent  regulatory changes,   including  expanding  exemptions sfor polymers,  low
volume  production, and low  release/low exposure,  will reduce the  regulatory
burden on industry.  These changes will also enable EPA to concentrate its new
chemical review resources on substances having  the  greatest  potential for human
health  or environmental risk.   EPA  will  implement  the  requirements  of  the
biotechnology rule, which  formalizes  the  PMN review requirements  for producers
of  new  genetically engineered  organisms.   Biotechnology  reviews broaden our'
understanding of the  potential  risks in the use and/or  release of  biotechnology
products.  The movement of these microorganisms into the environment and their
accompanying  environmental  impacts  are  a primary  focus  of   the  Agency's
biotechnology review efforts.

      The existing chemicals program identifies  risks, assesses alternatives, and
identifies pollution prevention opportunities through the screening of existing
chemicals, chemical clusters, processes, and use patterns.  To mitigate risks,
the program  focuses on both  voluntary agreements with industry and-regulatory
approaches.   The program  stresses information  collection  and dissemination,
taking advantage of the wealth of  information EPA holds on  toxic  chemicals,
                                     2-50

-------
DESIGN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND THS COMMON SENSE INITIATIVE

      A key component of the  President's Environmental Technology Initiative is
the Design for the Environment (DfE) program, which promotes pollution prevention
in the private sector.  The DfE program supports the Agency's goal of improved
understanding of the environment.  The DfE program harnesses EPA's scientific and
chemical expertise and leadership to facilitate information exchange and research
on risk reduction and  pollution prevention efforts,  DfE works with companies
of all .sizes on a voluntary basis.  Generally, projects include changing business
practices to incorporate environmental concerns, working with specific industries
to evaluate the  risks, performance and costs of alternative chemicals, processes
and technologies; and helping individual'businesses undertake new environmental
design efforts that prevent or reduce pollution.

      In 1997 EPA will work with the nation's 20,000  graphic  art  screen printing
shops to reduce  the use  of toxic  screen reclamation chemicals.  The DfE program.
will focus on the lithography and flexography sectors of the printing industry
under  three  distinct project areas: technical studies,  implementation,  and
outreach. .EPA will share  case'  study information" relating  to  environmentally
preferable emerging,technologies  in the printing industry. The DfE program will
conduct industry and user cluster profiles, particularly of the textile industry,
a newly emerging partner in. the DfS program.

      The DfE program will reduce dangerous toxic  emissions released  by over
3,000 metal finishing facilities  nationwide.  Similarly,  DfE will work with the
nation's 35,000  dry-cleaners to reduce exposure to perchloroethylenes, a chemical
solvent used by  most dry-cleaners which poses potential health and environmental
concerns.  In partnering with the metal finishing and dry-cleaning.industries,
DfE will  continue  to  generate and disseminate  information on viable pollution
prevention alternatives. This'information will likely include cleaner technology
substitute assessments,  life-cycle assessment tools, data on chemical design, .and
will collaborate on new accounting tools which incorporate environmental costs
and benefits into managerial and capital budgeting.

      The. Agency's Common  Sense  Initiative  will achieve greater environmental
protection at less cost by addressing pollution on an  industry-by-industry basis,
rather than by a pollutant-by-pollutant approach.  EPA selected six industrial
sectors  to  serve  as  pilots  for the Common  Sense  approach to environmental
protection.  The six sectors are: auto manufacturing,  computers and electronics,
iron and  steel,  metal finishing and plating, petroleum refining, and printing.
By examining the impact of environmental regulations on industry,  team's from
private  industry,  environmental groups,  environmental   justice groups,  local
governments,   labor unions, and Federal agencies will identify opportunities for
greater reductions in pollution through a  coordinated, flexible, and innovative
environmental approach.    Program staff will  work with the printed wiring board
industry  in  the electronics  sector to  evaluate  and  implement  alternative
materials, processes, and technologies .that  reduce both environmental risks and
production costs.

      The Green Chemistry program promotes the  development  of products  and
processes' that  reduce or eliminate the use  or  generation of  toxic substances
associated with the  design,  manufacture, and  use  of  chemicals.   The  Green
Chemistry program  was  established  to  recognize  and  promote  fundamental
breakthroughs in chemistry  that  accomplish  pollution  prevention  in a cost
effective manner.   The  program seeks to  support  research  in  the  area  ,of
environmentally  benign  chemistry,  promote  partnerships  with  industry  in
developing green chemistry technologies, and work with other Federal agencies in
building  green chemistry principles into their operations.
                                     2-51

-------
      Expected accomplishments for 1997 -include  the review of 300 new chemicals
to identify more environmentally benign alternative chemicals. Case studies will
be developed to provide examples of how green chemistry principles can be used
in industrial operations.  The Agency will  support a variety of efforts to speed
the incorporation  of  pollution prevention  into the training  of  professional
chemists  in  industry and  the education  of students  in academia.   The  Green
Chemistry  Challenge will  continue  to provide  non-monetary awards  and public
recognition to scientists and companies that are outstanding'practitioners and
developers of green chemistry.

POLLUTION PREVENTION

      Pollution prevention is  a  guiding principle at EPA and  is  the Agency's
option of first choice in environmental protection.  The  Pollution Prevention Act
of 1990  required EPA to  develop and implement  a  strategy to promote source
reduction.  within the Agency, the  Office of Prevention,  Pesticides and Toxic
Substances is the major focal  point for pollution prevention and source reduction
programs  and activities.    Resources  associated  with  pollution  prevention
activities are found  in  the  Multi-Media narrative. • Project descriptions are
provided here as  these programs are  closely  linked to project activities in the
toxics program.

      In  1997,  the Agency's Pollution  Prevention program  will  support  the
Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse and other information sources for
the public.  Other activities for 1997 will help Federal agencies  identify and
procure environmentally preferable products, and assist businesses in adopting
environmental accounting to help them identify how pollution prevention pays off,
financially.  The  Agency  will fund a broad  array  of  innovative  environmental
justice projects,  including  grants  to states and community groups  to support
neighborhood  pollution  prevention  activities.    Other  environmental  justice
projects  will reduce  lead  exposures,  especially from  paints,  continue  the
geographical  targeting  of toxic  chemical emissions  using the Agency's  Toxic
Release  Inventory, -and  continue  to  reduce  chemical  exposures and  risks from
ambient sources and personal use practices.

      EPA manages the  Source  Reduction Review Project, which seeks to integrate
pollution prevention options into key air, water, and solid waste  rulemakings.
EPA also engages  in outreach  activities  which encourage use of information as a
means of promoting voluntary pollution  prevention  by  industry  where pollution
prevention may offer cost-saving incentives.  At the regional level, pollution
prevention project funds support environmental  education, pollution prevention
demonstration projects, technical assistance to small  business, assistance to
state  and local governments,  and promotion of pollution prevention  tnrough
existing  regulatory  programs.    The   projects combat  releases  in  various
environmental media, and promote prevention approaches in energy,  agriculture,
the Federal sector and the consumer sector.

      In 1997, the  Agency will build community self-reliance by sharing chemical
information and environmental  evaluation  tools  with the  public.   This project
encompasses  two  components:   one addresses  expanded distribution of chemical
information, and the second focuses on enhanced  capabilities of, and .access to,
environmental tools.  The first component will include the development  and public
accessibility of a  broad range of information products,  which will be integrated
to enhance their utility.  This  project will make  use  of secondary providers,
such as libraries and public interest groups,.to make information available to
the public.  A variety of electronic methods will also be  used to enhance public
access.  The second component involves development of a comprehensive software
package'of chemical  and economic assessment, exposure modeling and priority-
setting tools already in use at EPA for use by state and local governments and
others  in  assessing chemical risks.  The second  component will  be  particularly


                                     2-52

-------
useful to .state and local governments as more responsibility for environmental
matters devolves to them.

      Also  in  1997,  EPA will conduct a voluntary industrial toxics reduction
program that will  encourage reductions  in the production, emission and use of
toxic .chemicals,  building on the success of the 33/50 Program.  The 33/50 Program
has been very successful  in achieving rapid environmental improvements through
voluntary efforts outside the traditional regulatory framework and has been cited
by industry as a  model example of the .Federal government's role in environmental
protection  programs.   This enthusiasm has  resulted  in a voluntary reductions
program' for 1997  that maintains the concept of the original 33/50 Program, using
that program as its model.

TOXIC SUBSTANCES ENFORCEMENT

      The Agency requests a total of $6,111,200 and 86.8 total.workyears in 1997
for the Toxics Enforcement  program.   The program has identified prevention of
waste and  chemical releases as its major goal  "for 1997  and  will  continue to
provide  support  for TSCA compliance monitoring  by  devoting 22  workyears to
conduct over  600 inspections and  27  workyears  for enforcement actions.   The
program  will  conduct   inspections  addressing  TSCA  sections   5  and 8,  with
particular emphasis on worker protection and pre-manufacturing notification. In
those  states without  cooperative  enforcement  agreements-,  the program  will
continue  to conduct  risk-based  compliance .inspections  for TSCA,  including
inspections for  the high-risk PCB and asbestos  in public/commercial buildings
programs (section 6).

      The  program  will, continue  to  manage and oversee  the state cooperative
enforcement agreements  for  asbestos  and PCBs (combined total of 36 agreements
nationwide), and the emerging lead-based paint; enforcement program  of Title IV.
The Agency will be responsible for enforcing the new lead based  paint abatement
requirements and training requirements  in any state  that does  not assume the
-program by October 1997.   The program will provide  state capacity building
support and state cooperative enforcement agreement oversight, assist states with
compliance monitoring: and enforcement guidance, and conduct compliance monitoring
and  enforcement  activities  in  any  states  without   cooperative  enforcement
agreements.

      Based on state and Regional compliance monitoring results, the  program will
issue and resolve enforcement actions,  including notices of noncompliance, civil,
administrative, and judicial complaints, and provide assistance in criminal cases
as  appropriate.   The Regions  will  assist headquarters  in  the  development of
national policy and guidance, and provide technical and litigation support in the
prosecution of cases.   The Agency, will  place significant emphasis on issuing
enforcement actions in follow-up to TSCA violations posing potential high risk.

      The Agency will continue to provide compliance assistance to firms that are
either seeking to  comply voluntarily or who  wish to  take remedial actions to
achieve' compliance.  During settlement negotiations, the program will work with
companies   to  incorporate   pollution  prevention  projects  into  settlement
agreements.

EPCRA ENFORCEMENT   •               l                             '

      The Agency requests a total of $1,437,8-00 and 20.9 total workyears in 1997
for"the EPCRA Enforcement program.  The program will  conduct approximately 700
compliance  inspections of,  and increase  compliance  assistance outreach to,
chemical  facilities  that  use,  manufacture  or  process potentially  harmful
chemicals that are required to report under  EPCRA,  The  data submitted informs
the public and the Agency of the presence of toxic chemicals at the manufacturing


                                     2-53

-------
facility and documents the release of toxic chemicals into the community.  The
Agency will continue to utilize  this  information to develop the Toxic Release
Inventory.  The * use of TRI.data  by Federal,  state and local governments, is an
important pollution prevention and risk reduction tool.  With this information,
the Agency will be able•to determine appropriate pollution prevention measures
to  incorporate  into case  settlements,  and  local authorities will  be  able to
prepare  more  effective  emergency  response  plans, , training  programs  .and
notification procedures to protect health-and the  environment.  Overall, TRI data
is .used  to target opportunities for  reducing risks to public  health  and the
environment.

      The  EPCRA  Enforcement  program  will  support  the  Agency's  ecological
protection goal identified in the 1997 budget request.  In 1997,  the program will
target inspections and enforcement  actions  at companies  with data quality and
data reporting violations,  particularly in light of the expansion in chemicals
covered  under  TRI.   The program will also  conduct  compliance  inspections to
detect companies that have failed to report toxic chemical emissions.  Most of
these inspections will be  conducted by contract employees working under a grant
with the National Council of Senior Citizens.

      Other  high priority  areas  for  EPCRA  Enforcement  involve  accidental
releases.  Without prompt notification of  an accidental release, the government
bodies set  up  to respond to  chemical  emergencies cannot assess  the  risk and
prevent harm to the community  following the release.   The program will expand
EPCRA Enforcement  activities  under sections  302,  303,  311,  and  312,  against
companies that fail  to submit to the Local Emergency Planning  Commission and the
State Emergency Response  Commission information, necessary for an emergency plan
to be used in the event of an accidental release.
                                     2-54

-------
                               'HAZARDOUS  WASTE

OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total  of  $135,705,900 million and 1,327.1 wbrkyears
to meet  the environmental  goals  of  the  Hazardous  Waste program.   The major
direction for the hazardous waste program will be  to focus private and public
resources on  efforts that  address  the greatest environmental  risk including
corrective action stabilizations and permits'.  For RCRA regulatory reinvention"
activities,  the Agency will work to implement waste management standards based
on levels of  risk rather  than  the  one-size-fit-all approach.   EPA will help"
tribal governments establish integrated waste management programs,  including the
safe management of solid waste, hazardous waste and underground storage tanks.
Resources will  also  fund a comprehensive state and  federal  review of'current
information  systems  in  order  to  streamline  reporting,  enhance  measures  of
environmental results and complement the Agency's One Stop Reporting initiative.

      Hazardous and  municipal solid  wastes are an unavoidable  part of modern
life.   Hazardous  wastes  are produced  by  over  ISO,000  large  business  and
industries,  such as chemical and manufacturing plants, and small businesses, such
as dry cleaners  and printing plants. Approximately 209 million tons, 4 pounds per
person per  day, of  municipal  solid wastes are  produced annually.  Improperly
.managed > these  wastes can lead  to fires,  explosions,  -and contamination of the
air,  soil,  surface water and underground drinking water  supplies,  and can cause
harm to the health of workers  and  communities.   The Hazardous Waste program was
established  to  meet the overall  goal of prevention,  proper  management  .and
disposal of hazardous and municipal solid wastes generated nationwide.

      The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA),  as revised by
the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984  (HWSA) , provides the legislative
mandate to  ensure safe management  and  disposal of  solid and hazardous wastes,
minimize generation of both hazardous and solid wastes, and prevent and detect
leakage from underground  storage tanks  (UST)  ,  Under the RCRA program, EPA' has
worked with our partners  to  establish regulations and national  policies and
provide guidance for regulated  entities,  including those who generate, treat,
store, or dispose of waste. The Emergency Planning and Community  Right-to-Know
Act,  Title III of the Superfund Amendments and  Reauthorization Act of 1986, set
up a framework  to address risks posed by hazardous chemicals in communities.

      As' corporate America began to equate environmental pollution with economic
waste,  opportunities for  recycling,  reuse,  and  other improvements  in waste
management have increased.  Through the RCRA program, the Agency  has worked to
greatly improve the way hazardous and solid wastes and underground storage tanks
are'managed over the last decade and half.  There are fewer fires'and explosions,
and fewer toxic  releases to air, land, and  water.  On-site workers and the public
are exposed to  fewer toxic•constituents,  reducing  risk for cancer and serious
health effects  such  as birth  defects and  nervous  system damage.  In addition,
fewer sites become contaminated and require cleanup-

      The Agency's strategy is to ensure adequate and safe treatment of hazardous
waste through the management of storing, treating and disposal.  Minimizing the
volume and  toxicity of wastes is one of the most effective means  of protecting
public health and the environment from exposure  to hazardous waste.  The priority
in 1997  will  be to  increase  flexibility  by using a  common  sense approach to
revising, implementing and enforcing  regulations and standards.  The Agency will
focus resources on addressing immediate risks and taking action to control the
further spread  of contamination, helping  to ensure maximum protection of human
health  and  the' environment.   In addition,  the Agency will  continue ongoing
initiatives  to  speed  up  and  simplify  the  cleanup,  permitting and  state
authorization processes .   In particular, the Hazardous Waste  Identification Media


                                     2-55

-------
and Process Rules and revisions  to  the'Subpart  S rule,  will yield significant
savings for  industry as well as  states  and the Agency.   In combination with
increased attention,  to1  the  use of, state and  other  cleanup authorities,  these
measures will continue the momentum toward environmental results rather than a
process-driven program.

   EPA  will  also  continue  to  build  strong  cooperative -partnerships  among
industry,  government, and the public to communicate clearly and persuasively the
risks and hazards of spills and accidents.  More than 5,000 chemical accidents
are  reported each year to the  National Response  Center .and  EPA's Regional
offices.  Many of these accidents have killed or injured workers and .emergency
responders, disrupted lives through injury and evacuation, and destroyed billions
of dollars of property in communities across the country.  To reach  the goal of
reducing accidental releases, the agency will strengthen outreach efforts with
industry and community leaders to prevent, prepare for, and respond to incidents.
                                     2-56

-------
                                HAZARDOUS  WASTE

PROGRAM AND ACTIVITYHIGHLIGHTS

WASTE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES AND POLICIES

      The Agency requests $137,279.300  and  827.8  FTE to support the hazardous
waste management regulations/ guidelines and policies program.

      The RCRA program will seek to increase the  flexibility granted to industry
for safe waste management, to avoid unnecessary costs incurred when prescriptive
regulations preclude  other,  more.efficient but equally protective 'methods of
handling wastes.  A primary objective will  be to manage wastes based on the level
of risk, moving away from a one-size-fits-all approach.  The net  effect of these
changes will be to match the waste  management with the wastes'  risks,  neither
over-  nor  under-regulating,  and  thus  saving   industry,  state  and  federal
resources.

        The Regions are critical players in the Agency's effort to make the RCRA
program more efficient as well as to meet the program's environmental goals.  It
is through the Regions' vital link to the states,  tribes, industry and the public
at large,  that RCRA can become more flexible, effective, efficient and responsive
at the  local  and facility level.   Federal leadership extends  beyond policy to
public outreach and involvement,  to  ensuring access  to practical information as
well  as compliance with  regulations.   The existing partnerships  to  manage
hazardous and solid wastes among the Agency, states,  tribes, industry and local
governments will be emphasized  and strengthened  through  closer coordination and.
cooperative activities and form the  basis for much of the Agency's efforts to
attain RCRA's environmental goals for waste minimization, the safe management of
wastes and the clean-up of contaminated sites.   Technical assistance, training
and partnering with states, tribal governments, industry and local organizations
will provide the  foundation for locally tailored programs that meet these goals.

      The  Agency   is   requesting   $8,788,800   and  39-.3  workyears  for  the
comprehensive  regulatory reinvention  program.   Reinvention  efforts  in  RCRA
encompass  regulatory,  procedural  and  outreach activities.   'One  regulatory
approach under exploration is the greater use of contingent management standards,
which  takes  into account the  type  of  unit in  which wastes  are  managed,  its
location, and  other factors which affect  the hazards  that the wastes pose when
setting  treatment,  storage  and disposal  requirements.    Similarly,  self-
implementation provisions will  enable  industry  and states to  begin using more
flexible or less costly methods without delays caused by permit modification or
authorization procedures.  The EPA Regions' commitment to effective outreach and
technical assistance will be  critical to the early adoption of these reinvented
regulations and management approaches by industry and the  states.  For example,
in 1997 RCRA Regional offices will proceed  with several pilots under the Agency's.
project XL initiative,; which encourages  industry  to use  innovative  and less
costly  or  restrictive management standards while attaining the same level of
environmental protection afforded by the  current systems.

      Ensuring protective regulation while avoiding over-regulation is also the
objective  of  several  ongoing program priorities which  will be  implemented in
1997.   Increasingly,  regulatory and management  guidelines are tailored to the
level of risk posed by the contaminant - how hazardous is  it in this particular
situation?   One example is the Hazardous  Was.te  Identification Rule for Process
Waste, which considers contingent management as  a possible approach to offering
relief  for  low-risk wastes from stringent management requirements.   Work will
also proceed in implementing the definition of solid waste recommendations, which
form  the  basis for  efforts  to resolve jurisdictional issues  over secondary
materials and  to reduce the disincentives to the recycling of hazardous waste.


                                     2-57

-------
Cost benefit analysis and  risk  assessment  tools and methods will be improved,
aiding the  general  effort • to  incorporate  efficient and  effective risk-based
decision making into RCRA regulatory development.  Other regulatory reinvention
efforts will involve outreach and  coordination  with other agencies as well as
with industry.  A small business review will work to "demystify RCRA" - and to
increase responsiveness' -  by recodifyirig parts of  RCRA  rules,  and developing
pertinent outreach and training  materials.  The review will also, seek to address
inconsistencies and .overlap with  other  EPA and Department  of Transportation
regulations that cause inefficiencies for small businesses.  Another joint effort
with  the  Department  of  Transportation  examines  the possibility  of  using
electronic transfer of  hazardous waste shipment information  in lieu of paper
manifest forms.  Elimination of  this requirement alone  could result in a burden
reduction of millions of hours annually for industry.

      The Agency  requests  $1,5,32,500 and 9.1 workyears to support  the Common
Sense Initiative which will support OSWER's co-lead  for the petroleum sector as
well as Headquarters and'Regional participation on other sector teams'.  Our work
will encompass  regulatory,  implementation  and  management  improvements.   Some
examples  of projects  under  consideration  are alternative,  sector-specific
regulatory  strategies,   such as  industry-sector   inventories  of  regulatory
thresholds for permitting. Life cycle management systems examine the potential
for  source reduction and the  use of  recycled materials  at every  stage  of
production, as well as eventual recycling of the used  item.

      The Agency requests $15,548,300 and 64,0 workyears to augment efficiency
while maintaining effectiveness  in the base regulatory  program.  Implementation
of  the Agency's  Waste  Minimization  and  Combustion  Strategy  for  combustion
facilities will proceed, moving  in  1997 to the development  of improved technical
standards  for  Boiler and  Industrial  Furnaces.   The  Agency  will .continue to
develop and refine  innovative approaches for entry to and exit from the RCRA
hazardous waste management system,  strengthening the focus  on  truly toxic waste
streams under  the listings program.   EPA  Regions  were recently  provided the
authority to grant or deny hazardous waste delistings, allowing faster processing
of delisting petitions and local decision-making on these site-specific actions.
Regulatory  reinvention strategies will be  integrated  into  all aspects  of
rulemaking.   For example,  in  1997 a  contingent  management  approach  will be
evaluated  as  a possible  alternative  to regulation of cement kiln  dust  as a
hazardous waste.  Under this approach, cement  kiln dust  would be exempt from
hazardous waste regulation either when the states have EPA-approved programs that
stipulate  safe  management  of cement kiln dust, or  when  the facility complies
directly with specifically tailored management  standards.

      The Agency requests $2,917,000 and 19.7 workyears for the Corrective Action
program to finalize the Hazardous Waste Identifical Rule,  which will establish
a regulatory framework for cleanup waste that better addresses the risks posed
by  those wastes'and relieves many of  the  disincentives for cleanups that are
encountered under the current,system.   It will establish a  less  stringent, more
common'sense process for handling the contaminated media to be removed  or treated
as part of a cleanup.  The Agency also will  propose the  Subpart S Rule, intended
to  significantly  streamline corrective action  procedures,  reducing  industry,
state and federal administrative costs.

      The Agency requests $23,668,000 and 127.8 workyears  in Corrective Action
implementation to conduct performance based stabilization and remediation, while
working  to maintain effectiveness  without- losing  sight  of  the  need  for
efficiency.  By focusing on the highest priority facilities, the Agency will
continue to ensure that  those individuals with the greatest risk of exposure are
protected.  As many as 3,500 facilities will need some type of remediation.  Many
cleanup projects involve minimizing exposures long before  the site is actually
cleaned up, and in 1997  the Agency will continue to focus on these'stabilization


                                     2-58

-------
 actions  rather  than  long term  remediations  to leverage  corrective  action
 resources.  To date,  stabilization actions have been implemented at more than 350
 facilities, and an additional  35 stabilization efforts will be initiated in 1997.
 The Agency has placed a priority on'community-based environmental projects that
 .empower  and'equip  a  community to  participate in environmental  decision-making.
 Corrective   action  activities,   with  their   integral   importance   to  local
 communities,'figure  strongly  in the  RCRA program's work in  this  area.

       The Agency requests $2,705,100 and 7,4 workyears  for waste  minimization
 activities.   A reduction  in  both the  volume and toxicity of  wastes  lower all
 risks; and  saves industry significant  amounts in materials  and disposal costs.
 Working  directly with generators to  identify opportunities to reduce wastes will
 help   build  momentum  in  this  key  component  of  sustainable   environmental
 protection.

       The  Agency  requests  $16,560,200 and  154.3  workyears  to  support  permit
 assistance.  The  Agency  will continue  to  emphasize waste  minimization  and
 maintaining protective hazardous  waste disposal capacity through permitting, in
 tandem with our State partners.   HSWA permitting  assistance will  include base
 permits, closure plans, and permit modifications. Tn 1997, over 70% of disposal
 and combustion facilities  will have received permits.  Activities will continue
 to focus on high risk facilities,  including  combustion facilities. Approximately
 220 new permits  will  be  issued  during 1997.   Regional offices will  provide
 guidance and site-specific technical assistance to our partners for implementing
 new regulations  and standards to  ensure   the  permit serves  as an  effective
 reference  point  for the  facility  on proper  site  specific  hazardous  waste
"management activities.  The Agency will work with tribal governments on hazardous
 waste  issues such as infrastructure, technical  capacity and implementation as
 well.

       In 1997, another major task  will be to implement the recommendations of the
 permits  improvements team, as the Agency works  to make  the permitting process
 .more  flexible  and  efficient.    The  Agency  is providing  $1,935,600  .and  3.3
 workyears  to support this activity,    RCRA permits typically include a variety
 of site-specific conditions for the  safe design,  operations and  performance of
 the facility. Regional offices will  continue to design and coordinate pilots and
 innovative techniques for  improving-the permit process.   For example,  the Agency
 is looking at the feasibility of issuing general permits in some, cases,  which
 could  substantially  reduce the time  and resources required  by  industry,  states
 and the  Agency for permitting.  In 1997 in conjunction with the states of Texas
 and California,  the Agency will continue to pilot the use of general permits for
 lower  risk  facilities.

       The Agency is  requesting $7,231,100 and 92,7 workyears to support ongoing
 actions  to streamline  the state authorization process, thereby reducing the
 legislative  and administrative burdens of the procedures.  The Agency will also
 provide  incentives  and  technical  assistance  for  states  to  move  to  full
 authorization.  For example, expanded training modules and technical guidance for
 problems associated with  corrective action at contaminated  waste  sites wil.l
 assist states that are -making the transition to full implementation.

       The Agency is  requesting $2,733,600 and 11.5 workyears to support  certain
 regionally focused initiatives to implement our responsibilities with respect to
 the Waste Isolation Pilot Project  (WIPP) and the permitting of-facilities for the
 chemical demilitarization of  expired weapons stock.  The Regions will continue to
 support  expanded permitting efforts and corrective action activities in-an effort
 to reduce  environmental risk around the Gulf of Mexico  and along the Mexican
 border.  Groundwater contamination  and the movement of waste along the Mexican
 border are  areas of  particular concern.
                                      2-59

-------
      The Agency requests  $2,487,-200 and 15.9 workyears to support activities in
the solid waste area.  The  Wastewi$e program will promote  source reduction  with
industry, Government, and the public, demonstrating that pollution prevention and
economic efficiency form a powerful incentive for environmental protection.  In
1997,  over  1000  industry participants will  work  to achieve their selected
Wastewi$e goals  in  three  areas: preventing waste,  collecting recyclables and
increasing the purchase or manufacture of recycled products.  Waste prevention
and recycling yield significant reductions in global warming gases.

      The Agency requests  $4,757,700  and  32.2 workyears to  support  ongoing
recycling outreach and awareness projects, educating consumers and businesses in
methods to optimize recycling programs as well as in the selection of recycled
content  products.   The Agency will proceed  with  the  next component  of the
President's Executive Order 12873, which establishes Comprehensive Procurement
Guidelines for the Federal government, setting preferences for various categories
of items with  recycled content.   The Guidelines help create markets for local
recycling programs and .stimulate business investment  in plants and equipment that
utilize collected recyclables  as raw material.   Another  facet of expanding the
markets for recycled and recovered materials is the Agehcy'-s partnership with the
Chicago Board of Trade,  facilitating an electronic market which allows traders
to broadcast their interests in buying and selling^ recovered materials.

      The Agency requests  $3,281,100  and 5.8 workyears to support the  Jobs
Through Recycling .Program.  Under this program, the Agency is applying community-
based environmental  protection principles to foster economic development through
recycling.  Early successes demonstrate that Jobs Through recycling projects can
decrease disposal costs and create jobs. It is estimated  that in the first year
alone, the projects were instrumental  in creating  290 jobs, over $40 million in
capital investments in recycling,  and 4 million tons of recycling capacity.  The
Agency  will continue  to  stimulate  the  development of  recycling  and reuse
businesses  and  encourage  innovative  approaches  to  recycling  processing,
transporting and remanufacturing.

      The Agency requests  $2,378,100 and 22.3 workyears to support the municipal
solid waste program.  The program will continue to implement greater state/tribal
flexibility for municipal landfill permits, to afford the best balance between
national  environmental  protection  standards  and  .local  solutions  that  are
reasonable  and cost-effective.   Another  priority will be  the development of
national  measurement guidelines  for  municipal  solid  waste goals such  as
reductions in per capita waste generation,  and an  increase  in recycling rates.

      The Agency requests $2,743,900 and 4.8 workyears to increase the focus of
the RCRA program on tribal issues,  providing more direct assistance and guidance-
Improving solid waste management is  a priority  for many tribes.   Work  with"
specific  tribal  governments will  center on identifying  viable and affordable
landfill  management   techniques,  including  alternative  waste  management
technologies that would be  appropriate,for small,  remote communities such as
Alaskan Native Villages  and indian tribes.  In addition,  resources and technical
support  will  be provided  to bring together interested tribes, Native  Alaskan
Villages and other  governmental and non-governmental entities, to analyze the
potential benefits  from developing and implementing partnerships  to  improve
tribal waste management.

      The Agency requests $2,322,400 and 9.8 workyears to coordinate closely with
our State partners and with industry in encouraging safe, effective and efficient
mining, and industrial solid waste  management.  Program activities will continue
to address  the need for environmentally protective  production of minerals by
assisting in state and tribal efforts' to develop environmental
guidelines  (including groundwater protection measures) for-mining operations.
The  development of  voluntary,  industry-specific  techniques .for  safe,  cost-


                                     2-60

-------
effective management  is  the focus of ongoing  stakeholder meetings concerning
industrial solid waste.

      The Agency requests $2,038,800 and 9.1 workyears for information systems
improvementa.   Timely,  accurate and flexible information systems are integral to
streamlining program management while maintaining effective measurement capacity
for evaluating progress toward environmental goals.  Working with its partners,
the Agency has launched a comprehensive  state  and federal review of its waste
information needs  and technologies  in order to  streamline  reporting,  enhance
measures of environmental results, and increase  public access.  This effort will
improve both efficiency and  effectiveness as the Agency seeks  to attain the best
possible measurement with the  least  possible reporting burden.   Combined with
efforts  to  condense,  clarify and tailor regulations  and outreach,  automated
access will increase the efficiency,and the responsiveness of the program.,

      The Agency requests $3,854,300  and  10.1 workyears for public access which
is another vital part of increasing responsiveness.  Using the Internet, targeted
publications  and  fact  sheets,  the  Agency  will  keep  the general  public  and
industry informed of  environmental decisions that affect them,  and offer them
easier .access to relevant data,  explanations tailored  to their situation,  and
contacts for  further  assistance.  Better access  helps ensure community-based
environmental  decision  making,'  comprehensible  regulations,    and   better
environmental policy through more participation.

      The Agency requests $4,483,100  and one workyear  to continue work on its
Innovative  Environmental  Technology  program  in  support  of- the  President's
technology initiative. The Agency will continue to build partnerships leveraging
public and private resources to promote the development, commercialization and
use of "environmental technologies.

UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS
REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES AND POLICIES

      The Agency requests a total of $7,318,900  and 58.5 total  workyears for 1997
in the Underground Storage Tanks program.

      The Agency requests a total of  $2,377,815  and 15.0 total work years in 1997
to promote early compliance with the  1998 deadline  in  an effort  to reduce the
risk from leaking underground  storage  tanks  (USTs).  These resources will enable
EPA to accelerate its work with the states to implement and enforce the 1998 tank
deadline for upgrading, replacing or closing  tanks.  Approximately 700,000 of the '
1.1 million active  tanks will  still need to be upgraded or replaced.  The Agency
will  work  with state and local  governments to explore  options  for financial
assistance programs to help small 'business owners/operators upgrade, replace or
close their tanks.  The Agency will use outreach efforts to directly reach owners
and operators and in a new public education  campaign.   A  joint strategy between
the Regions and states for follow-up  enforcement with the 1998 deadline will be
developed.   Compliance 'with  the 1998 "deadline  will  prevent the  creation of
another  generation  of leaking UST systems by  ensuring that  upgrading  is done
properly and that new tanks and piping comply with applicable regulations. EPA
estimates that 75-80%  of the total universe of active tanks will be in compliance
by the end of 1997.

      The Agency  requests a  total  of $1,152,738  and  7.4 total  workyears to
continue efforts to build and  support "state-,  local and'tribal  programs that
prevent, detect  and  correct  leaks  from USTs.   Regional  strategic overviews
evaluate  the  status  of  state   programs  and  outline  plans  for implementing
improvement  strategies.    State improvement  projects  include  training  UST
owners/operators on the operational,  technical and regulatory requirements of
USTs  to  improve the management of USTs by owners/operators.  State improvement


                                      2-61

-------
projects also include improving enforcement  efforts  in the states and providing
corrosion  science  training to  state UST  staff to  qualify them  as  cathodic
protection   testers.  ,   Resources   will   support   state   efforts   to  track
notification/registration of regulated tanks; compliance/non-compliance of tanks
in meeting the 1998 deadline for upgrading,  replacing or closing tanks; tracking
the number of tanks inspected and corrective actions taken, if any; and managing
tank registration fees.

      The Agency requests a total of $700,831 and 5.3 total workyears to continue
to support  partnerships with tribal governments by .building their capacity to
implement the program.  The Agency's goal is to increase compliance activities
for USTs  on tribal  lands..  The  Agency will provide technical  assistance for
Indian tribes by developing national outreach materials,  providing a mechanism
for  tribal  program  approvals,  and providing  guidance  on and options  for
alternative  funding  mechanisms  for  upgrading  tanks and managing tribal  UST
programs.   These resources are focused to ensure safe UST management and provide
limited funds  for corrective action  for. leaking underground storage  tanks for
tribal lands. This investment is critical, as tribes  rely heavily on groundwater
for their  drinking water supply.  Developing  tribal program capacity and training
for tank inspections will lay the groundwork for effective programs protecting
human health as well  as sensitive ecosystems.  The Agency anticipates providing
support to approximately 150 tribes.

      The  Agency requests a total  of   $1,071,103 and  7.3   total workyears to
develop private sector incentives to ensure  good tank management.  Specifically
this will involve working with the banking,  real estate and insurance industry
sectors to incorporate UST management principles into their business decisions,
and in  piloting third .party service provider programs such as  licensed site
professional programs.  The Agency will develop new pilots in states for third
party programs, .exploring options and sharing states' experiences  in moving from
State funds to private insurance coverage, and establish state and local forums
for regulators to interact with their local bankers and real estate and insurance
interests.   This will serve to educate, the private  sector  on  tank issues and
provide a mechanism to resolve problems and work together.   EPA estimates that
a privatization pilot will be initiated for each of the three industry sectors
(banking,  real estate and insurance).

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $1,264,307  and 12.0  total workyears to
coordinate  and assist states in applying  for  state program approval through
technical, regulatory, and policy support. To  date,  22 states have approved UST
programs.   State program approval is achieved through states' efforts to develop
authorities, develop an application for state program approval, and apply for the
approval.   The  Agency will  continue  to  work to resolve state specific issues,
EPA's role in state  program approval  includes reviewing and  approving state
applications.  Upon EPA approval, states have the authority to operate the state
program in lieu of  the Federal program.   Some states may then delegate the.
program to local governments.  EPA estimates that 32 states will have approved
UST State programs by the end of 1997.

HAZARDOUS WASTE  ENFORCEMENT

      The Agency requests a total of $33,575,200 and 364.4 total workyears for
1997 in the  Hazardous Waste Enforcement program,

      The Agency's goal in the Hazardous Waste Enforcement Program is to prevent
improper  handling of wastes  arid toxic  products   and to  ensure safe  waste
management.  The Agency will continue to conduct compliance monitoring activities
including  inspections and to bring  enforcement actions  to  remove violations,
recover economic benefits  and obtain  injunctive relief,  and-return facilities to
compliance.   EPA will work with  state and tribal partners to develop voluntary


                                     2-62

-------
compliance programs and will help them develop monitoring systems to determine
if these systems are effective in preventing, accidental releases,

      In 1997, the Agency will support 900 inspections and "an estimated
300 enforcement actions.  Federal, state, and local facilities that store, treat,
and/or  dispose of hazardous  waste will  continue to  be inspected  either by
authorized states  or  the Agency.   The  program will devote  29.8 workyears to
provide compliance assistance through  mechanisms  such as  responding to requests
for clarification on requirements by the regulated community, participating in
seminars and workshops, or developing manuals for specific industry sectors.

      Federal  compliance monitoring  and  assistance  as  well as  enforcement
activities will be used  to enhance  and  complement state  efforts  as the states
continue to assume the responsibility for the bulk of the mandated  inspection and
enforcement work.  The Agency will direct its compliance monitoring, compliance
assistance, and"enforcement activities toward sectors of industry identified as
higher risks, such as  dry cleaners,  petroleum refiners, and primary non-ferrous
metals.  The  Agency will  also focus  on environmental or non-compliance problems
associated  with   particular   communities  or   places   including  ecosystems,
watersheds,  air sheds,  and other  natural  resources that  are threatened with
environmental hazards. Inspections  will be conducted as appropriate with states
to assist with technical assistance and training on new rules to improve state
program capability. Monitoring of  state progress will continue through program
evaluation.

      The program wj.ll provide $1,200,000 to assist-tribes in building their own
capability to monitor  Subtitle D facilities on indian lands.  The Agency will use
its imminent  hazardous authority to  address  serious  solid  waste  problems on
Indian lands.

EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW ACT
AND CLEAN AIR ACT  -- ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PROVISIONS

      The Agency  requests a  total  of  $14,853,000 and  69.0 total  workyears for
1997 to-establish a chemical accident release prevention program,

      The Agency requests a total of $5,329,540 and 22.5 total workyears in 1997
for State implementation of the chemical accidental release prevention program.
With the risk management plan  (RMP) rule due to be completed in  1996, there is
a narrow window to get states on board to operate  an accident prevention program
before facilities begin submitting their HMPs.  We anticipate  the first of more
than 100,000  facilities  covered  under the  law  may have to register within one
year of  the  rule being published.   With this  in mind, it is crucial that the
program work closely with states to provide the tools they need  to build their
prevention program infrastructure.

      In 1997  we  will target states that are  at greatest risk for a chemical
accident.  In 1997 the program will concentrate on states  that are interested in
assuming delegation of the program, as well  as those that have shown interest but
are not at this point  committed.  This  modest investment of resources will avert
the need for a large  Federal program if states  elect  not to manage their own
program.  As  a result  of  this early investment,  we anticipate that as many as 10
states will seek authority to implement the RMP program.   To assist the states
preparation  for program  implementation,  the Agency will  develop guidance and
provide technical  assistance  and training  to help States develop legislation,
establish  funding  mechanisms,  develop accident prevention techniques  and
structure a system to register and audit facility management plans.

      The Agency will develop additional technical guidance to assist industry
and states in furthering their understanding of accident prevention issues such


                                      2-63

-------
as  worst case,  chemical properties,  and  other factors  that  contribute  to
accidents,.'  We will also begin to develop training on this guidance which will
be  delivered by  the Regions.   In  addition,  EPA  will' begin to  develop  an
electronic system to assist  states  in  receiving,* reviewing and tracking RMPs.
The development of an electronic system for  managing' information  required to be
made available under this program is  consistent with the President's directive,
under  the Paperwork  -Reduction  Act  that agencies  should,  if  possible,  use
electronic means for reporting and making information available to the'public.

      In an effort  to meet the  requirements of  the-Government Performance and
Results Act,  the  Agency will undertake  an  initiative to  measure  progress  in
implementing the accidental release prevention program.  The Agency will conduct"
a baseline study of selected facilities required to report under the RMP rule.
The study will.identify, facility  risks by examining the safe management programs
and processes  facilities currently have in place and track  any modifications
after incorporating HMP requirements  into their programs.   The Agency will also
use this information to tailor the  accident  prevention program to deal with the
risks posed by small-to-medium sized facilities.

      The Agency requests a total of $2,897,214 and 11.0 total  workyears for 1997
to conduct chemical  accident  investigations.  In conjunction with  the Occupation
Safety and Health Administration  (OSHA)  , EPA will  conduct investigations of major
facility  chemical'  accidents  to  determine  probable  root  cause  and  make
recommendations  to  enhance  chemical  safety.    EPA  activities  will  include
developing  new and refining existing criteria  with OSHA  for selection  of
accidents for joint investigation or independent investigation by the lead
agencies', enhancing investigation techniques of significant chemical accidents,
and improving training to EPA, OSHA and other parties on .accident investigations
techniques.  To assist these operations, EPA and OSHA will support an external
expert panel to review accident  investigation reports and make recommendations
for further prevention and safety.

      The Agency requests a total of  $4,211,850 and 25 total workyears for 1997
to  improve public  safety from  chemical accidents  in  communities  under  the
Emergency Planning and.Community  Right-to-Know program. In 1997 the program will
continue to implement the Local Emergency Planning Committee  (LEPC) effectiveness
strategy.  Initiated in  1996 to strengthen  chemical emergency programs at the»
state and local level, the strategy is central to achieving a highly effective
state  and  local  network  that  promotes  community  safety  and  environmental
protection.   Toward that goal,  program effort  will  concentrate on promoting
public access to community right-to-know (CRTK) information and assisting local
communities  in  integrating  chemical   accident  preparedness  and  prevention
programs.  CRTK activities will focus on helping LEPCs to become better known in
the community as a  source for information on hazardous materials and chemical
safety.  The Agency will provide guidance,  technical assistance, training and
electronic access  to information to promote public awareness of  LEPCs.   The
Agency will  develop guidance to assist LEPCs in- identifying and'working with
different population segments in  the community and provide training and technical
assistance  in  developing outreach  strategies  tailored  to meet  individual
community needs.

      Key elements of the LEPC effectiveness strategy  will  be incorporated into
the  criteria for awarding Title III  state  program grants.   While  the grant
program  will continue to concentrate  on populations  at  greatest risk  for a
chemical -accident, EPA will  encourage projects .that promote Community Right-to-
Know  and integration of  accident  prevention programs.   Another key area for
improving access to information  is the development  of electronic systems that
allow facilities to transmit.reporting information.   Under the grant program,
States/LBPCs will be encouraged  to submit projects that establish such systems
in their communities',


                                     2-64

-------
      In 1997 the Agency will undertake tribal initiative to reduce the risk of
chemical accidents and integrate waste management programs.  The Agency will'work
with  tribes to  conduct hazard assessments  and  develop comprehensive  tribal
emergency plans.  In concert with this effort,  EPA will  coordinate  reservation -
.wide assessments of potential Superfund and other hazardous  waste _sites.

      The Agency requests a total of $1,060,977 and 10.5 total workyears for 1997
to  conduct enforcement and  compliance  activities  under the  EPCRA  program.
Enforcement, activities  will focus on facilities riot  immediately notifying
Federal, state and local  entities of releases  as  required under CERCLA Section
103 and EPCRA Section 304,  Regions will be able to use  the General  Duty Clause
under Section 112(r)  of the Clean Air Act to .foster chemical accident prevention
and to minimize the consequences of releases when they occur.

      With  the risk management plan  (RMP) regulatory framework in place in 1997,
Regions will be  able to use the former Chemical  Safety Audit program, a non-
enforcement audit  program to  encourage  facilities   to   practice   accident
prevention,  to conduct  non-enforcement  RMP audits.   These  audits will help
prepare facilities for  the actual .RMP audits and help the implementing agencies
to flush out needed changes and interpretation of the risk management program rule
and guidance.
                                      2-65

-------
2-66

-------
                                   MULTIMEDIA

OVERVIEW   .

      The Agency-requests a total of $331,771.9 and 1,749.0 total workyears for
1997 in the Multimedia media.  The .Multimedia  media develops and uses tools which
address environmental problems not specific to a media,  span two or more distinct
media, or  reflect a shift in the Agency's approach to  centralized,  integrated
innovative programs.   Multimedia programs and  initiatives   include  Enforcement
and Compliance Assurance, activities related  to our Tribal partners,  Sustainable
Development  Challenge  Grants  and Project XL,

      Multimedia  resources  will support  the environmental education  program,
Regional  operations,   state and local relations,  and  sustainable  development
challenge grants.  The  American Indian Environmental Office (AIEO) will receive
funds' to support  and .address  environmental issues  in  Indian Country.   EPA will
continue  to  expand and  improve  public health  and environmental protection  in
Indian Country, where  most  tribes  still lack basic environmental programs.

      The Multimedia  Policy Development  program will analyze the economic  and
environmental effects  of regulations, policies, programs, and legislation.   The
program will work to ensure that environmental hazards and risks are consistently
managed  across Agency programs  and the  Federal  government by  employing  a
multimedia approach.

      The Multimedia Policy Development program will  also  continue  'to lead the
cross-Agency implementation of Project XL, a  cooperative venture between EPA and
the state environmental agencies that seeks to  end one-size-fits-all government
regulation.  The program is also the Agency lead for the Environmental Technology
Initiative  which  aims  to  strengthen the" environmental security and  economic
standing of  the United States in the world marketplace.

      The Pollution Prevention program will encourage more businesses to identify
and benefit from pollution prevention practices through efforts such as providing
businesses  with  information  about  substitute, chemicals  that  are  safer  than
• chemicals they currently use.                                        . -  ;

      The  General Counsel   serves as  the  primary  legal  advisor  to  the
Administrator,  focusing on Federal and  international  environmental law  and
governmental law  that  furthers environmental programs.

      The Enforcement  and Compliance Assurance program will continue to place a
priority on ensuring compliance with environmental statutes enacted by Congress.
The program will preserve the  strong enforcement program that has been essential
to the  environmental  and public health improvements  of the past 25  years  and
which must  remain in  placeif EPA is to fulfill its mandate to bring safe air,.
water and food to all Americans. This request fully funds EPA's front line work
force of environmental inspectors and enforcers.  Keeping the  environmental cop
on the beat means that the vast majority of businesses which seek to comply with-
the  law will be  rewarded with a level playing field, that bad actors will  not
'gain from violating the law,  and that every  American  will  have  equal' access to
a clean environment in which  to live and work.

       At the same time, this  budget supports the Agency's compliance assistance
efforts.  EPA will redirect additional resources  from addressing single media,
single industry compliance  problems to multimedia compliance assistance.   The
program will expand our cooperative  efforts with key industry sectors and small
businesses to encourage their partnership and assist them in complying with the
nation's environmental regulations.
                                      2-67

-------
     • The Executive Steering Committee for Information Resources Management (ESC)
will act as the Agency's  senior  level, decision-making body for the supervision
of information management resources  and oversees implementation of the Agency's
Information Resources Management Strategic Plan,
                                     2-68

-------
                                   MULTIMEDIA


 PROGRAM AND ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

 AMERICAN INDIAN ENVIRONMENTAL OFFICE

       The Agency requests a total of $3,679,900 and 41.3 total workyears for the
 American Indian  Environmental  Office  (AIEO)  to continue building  multi-media
 tribal public health and environmental  programs to address the  lack  of basic
 environmental programs  in much of Indian Country.

       The AIEO will assist tribes in addressing multi-media environmental issues
 through the  following  activities:  Issuing grants to  tribes under  the  Indian
 Environmental General Assistance Program Act to develop tribal  capability, to
 administer    multi-media   environmental   programs;    Developing   Tribal/EPA
 Environmental Agreements to prioritize tribal environmental problems and identify
 specific programs and activities  for,tribal capacity building and  direct EPA
 implementation;   Promoting   the  use  of  comprehensive  watershed  management
 frameworks, geographic information tools and tribal environmental policy acts to
 support  tribal   environmental  management;  Strengthening tribal  programs  by
 ensuring that EPA Regions and Headquarters Offices provide sufficient staff and
 senior management involvement for their Indian programs;  Enhancing communication
 with tribal  governments to ensure  appropriate  tribal  input to  SPA decision-
 making; Providing training  to Agency staff on how to work more effectively with
 tribal governments;  and Promoting grant  flexibility through the development of
 Performance Partnership Grants with tribes.

 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGE GRANTS AND MULTI-MEDIA INITIATIVES

       The Agency requests  $38,727,000  and 28.9 workyears to support multimedia
 functions  including  the Environmental  Education program.  Authorized  by the
 National Environmental Education Act, this program will  continue to focus on two
 broad  areas:  improving  basic  science  literacy as  the core of  environmental
 education for students 'in grades K-12 and colleges, and  informing  the general
 public about the environmental consequences of their individual and collective
 actions.

       The 'Sustainable Development Challenge Grants program will be launched in
 1997 with $10,000,000 and  5.0 workyears.  This program will fund projects that
 leverage  private  investment   in   environmental  efforts   as  well  as  link
 environmental protection with  sustainable development  and  revitalization.  In
 1997,  multimedia funding  will also  address:  1)  the  Regional  Environmental
 Services Divisions and  their funding for  capital equipment; .and  2)  Regional
 multimedia  projects- that provide funding  for  local projects identified  by the
 Regions  as  being significant  and  critical  to Regional,  state  and  local
1 jurisdictions environmental  programs.   ,This multimedia program  also  provides
 staffing for the National  Advisory Council  for  Environmental  Policy  and
 Technology whose goal is improved environmental pollution prevention, increased
 leverage of public and private  resources and assistance with the development of
 needed new technologies.

 MDLTIMEDIA POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMICS

       The Agency requests  a  total of $70,540,200  and 172.9  total workyears in
 1997 for Multimedia Policy Development and Economics. In 1997, this program will
 continue or  initiate: -the  Environmental Technology Initiative  (ETI),  Climate
 Change  Activities,   the   Common  Sense  Initiative,   Project   XL,-  Sectors,
 Transportation,  and Economic Analysis.
                                      2-69

-------
       The Multimedia Policy Development and Economics program will continue to
 catalyze  and coordinate the Agency*.? technology innovation activities.  In 1997,
 this program will devote $13,300,000 and 25.6 workyears and serve as a trustee
 for the President's Environmental Technology  Initiative  (ETI)  and advance its
 primary  goal  of  adapting  EPA's  regulatory framework  to  promote  technology
 innovation.   Building on the  existing program, ETI  will emphasize innovative
 technology performance,   cost  validation, policy  reforms and  flexibility for
 better environmental  solutions  by:    expanding  the technology  verification
 program;  reducing regulatory, permitting  and enforcement barriers and providing
 incentives for the  approval of' innovative  technologies  at all stages  in the
 regulatory process;  diffusing  information  about  innovative  technological
 solutions to regulators  and users; and working with program "offices, states and
 other stakeholders to encourage the use of improved monitoring technologies.  The
 program will coordinate and integrate Agency efforts with  the White House, other
 Federal  agencies and  external  stakeholders  on  national  and  international
 technology policy issues.  Follow-up activities, such  as tracking and evaluating
 the success of technology verification programs, will also  be performed.

       In  1997, the program will  continue to contribute  to the President's Climate
 Change Action Plan (CCAP) and its goal of bringing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
 back to 1990  levels by  the year  2000,   To meet this commitment,  this program
 requests  $30,900,000 and 30.5 workyears to carry out six components  of the United
 States CCAP:   (1)  Waste Source Reduction,  Pollution  Prevention and Recycling;
 (2)   Transportation  Efficiency;    (3)    Climate  Wise;    (4)  State  Sk 'Local
 Partnerships;   (.5) the U. S". Initiative on Joint Implementation  (OSIJI); and (6)
 the Country Studies  Program.  With requested levels of funding, these programs,
 with hundreds  of partners  in  the private  sector,  NGOs and state and local
 governments,  are expected  to  reduce "GHG by  109 million metric tons  (MMT)  of
 carbon-equivalent by the year 2000, or about 17.5%  of  what the CCAP is projected
 to achieve.                                                           •

       The Multimedia Policy Development  and Economics  program will assess the
 environmental  and economic  risks of  climate change, options to mitigate it, and
 the costs and benefits of alternative policies. The program will communicate the
 results to policy makers and the public/ and will assist in negotiations of a new
 international  agreement  due in 1398 under the  Framework  Convention on Climate
 Change (FCCC).   The  program will work in partnership with affected stakeholders
 to evaluate, communicate, and address the  risks posed by climate change to public-
 health (including the potential spread of infectious  diseases in the U.S.), the
• environment  (including  impacts on  forests  and agriculture,   water resources,
 coastal  zones,  and  unique  ecosystems  like the Everglades),  and  the economy
 '(including financial losses to the U.S.  property  insurance industry-and other
 businesses,  and  distributional  effects of  climate   change  across  different
 segments  of  society).   The program will identify and  quantify greenhouse gas
 mitigation policies' that  also have  multiple  non-climate" environmental  and
 economic  benefits.  The program will also evaluate and recommend actions that
 other countries should take, and assist developing and transition countries to
 meet their commitments through the interagency Country Studies Program.

       The Multimedia Policy Development and Economics program requests $1, 825, 000
 and 12,5  workyears to provide leadership  and core staffing for the Common Sense
 Initiative's  (CSI) Metal Finishing Industry sector.  CSI is the centerpiece of
 the Administrator's  reinvention initiatives.  In 1997, the program  will move the
 metal finishing  sector  from a project design  and analysis phase  to  a  policy
 recommendation and implementation phase.   This will build upon current work in
 many areas of  reinvention  including {but not  limited  to)  flexible1 regulatory
 design,  performance-based  environmental management,  paperwork reduction and
 electronic data  interchange.   The program will perform-analysis  and implement
 change on selected issues in other CSI sectors.  The  program will also develop
 criteria   and  approaches for expanding  the  CSI sector model by  working with


                                      2-70

-------
stakeholder groups in our  Sustainable  Industries  projects.   This will provide
opportunities to expand the reinvention program to the chemical, plastics, and
photographic industries  sectors and lay the foundation for future CSI and related
programs.  All of these  projects  implement the  core goals and principles of the
President's program for  "Reinventing Environmental Regulation."  These projects
are  designed  to  overcome  the problems  that many  groups   (e.g., NAPA,  PCSD)
identified under   the  current system  for regulating  and  managing  industrial
pollution.

      The Multimedia Policy Development and Economics program will continue to
lead the  EPA's  implementation of Project XL,  coordinate EPA  policy and pilot
project selection processes, create tools necessary for implementing projects at
the state and regional  level, and evaluate pilot  projects  and the program for
broader implementation.   For  this  effort, we  will devote  $1,000,000  and 10.0
workyears in 1997. Project XL is a flagship of  the Administration's Reinventing
Environmental Regulation activities  (actions  19 - 22) ,  The Project XL pilot will
provide  .a limited  number of  regulated  companies,-  communities, and .federal
facilities with  the  opportunity  to replace  existing  environmental  rules with
alternative -strategies of  their own design that achieve superior environmental
performance.  Designed in the context of an open and inclusive local stakeholder
process, these alternatives will be building blocks for environmental management
in the 21st century.    '   .

      In 1997,  the program will develop alternative management strategies in five
broad  sectors of the  economy:  Energy,  Natural Resource Management,  Urban
Development, Financial  and Transportation Sectors.  The-program will continue
efforts to analyze alternative policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
in the energy sector. The program will continue analysis and mitigation of the
environmental impacts of  electricity deregulation.   This  involves  the use of
large  scale  models  of  both  the  domestic and  international  economy  and the
analysis of specific policy mechanisms for reducing emissions as raised in the
context of international negotiations.   Efforts in Natural Resource Management
will focus on analyzing alternatives for  the sustainable development of forest
products, environmentally  sound livestock management 'and fostering strong ties
between environmental quality/ tourism and the balance of trade.  The Multimedia
Policy  Development  and Economics  program will  influence  major  economic and
industrial sectors-or activities (e.g.,  architecture, development, construction,
demolition, brownfields redevelopment,  mortgage  lending,   building  materials
manufacturing)  that  affect regional growth and economic  development.    The
program's  Financial  Sector activities  will aim  to  strengthen relationships
between  environmental  regulators and  the various  segments of  the  financial
community including  institutional investors, banks,  insurers^  accountants and
investment analysts.  In the transportation sector, the program  will lead a new
initiative which will include a cross-Agency team to develop opportunities for
greater  integration  of  transportation  and policy and environmental decision-
making .

      In  1997,  the  Multimedia Policy  "Development and  Economics  program will
expand the Agency's  ability to characterize  and quantify benefits for all EPA
programs.  An Economic  Studies Center  with $1,000,000 and 18.9 workyears will
serve as  a  resource  that augments the capacity of the EPA program  offices to
perform  economic  analyses.    The  Center  would  not"  assume  any  of  the
responsibilities now carried out by the program offices, including preparation
of program  specific  economic  analyses  but instead focus-on applied research,
information provision,  and technical  assistance that  can be  provided more
efficiently by a central group.   Creation of  a  Center will achieve economies of
scale in pooling and managing some part of EPA's  resources devoted to economic
analysis,  thereby  avoiding   duplication  of 'effort,   and  promoting  greater
consistency and reliability of measurement techniques.   The Center will also
                                     2-71

-------
support improved distribution'of data bases and software used in the development
of regulatory options and economic analyses.

      The Multimedia Policy Development and Economics program will continue to
conduct empirical analyses 'of the benefits of regulatory programs, and support
advancements, in economic benefit  and cost  assessment methods  across the Agency.
This  includes:  conducting  research  on benefit-cost  techniques;   producing
training and guidance materials on economic  analysis methods;  coordinating the
identification and funding of  research and analysis of  critical information gaps
for categories of economic benefits;  and preparing analyses on the benefits and
costs on cumulative numbers of proposed and established regulations arising from
environmental legislation. The office  will also support economic analyses on the
effects of environmental regulations on the  size,  structure,  and performance of
domestic and international economic markets.

REGULATORY MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

      The Agency requests a total of $10,399,600 and 63.0 total workyears in 1997
for Regulatory Management  and Community Based Environmental Protection,.   This
program consists of: the National Service Program,  Regulatory Management, Project
XL for Communities and Community Based Environmental Protection.

      In 1997,  the .program will continue  the President's National Service Program
(NSP), working with EPA programs and Regions, as well as with community groups
around the country, to put National Service volunteers to work in support of the
environment.  Because more and more environmental  problems are proving resistant
to traditional regulatory approaches, EPA needs  a means,to target significant
national problems that  require concerted  action  at  the local level.   With the
support of  $1,000,000  and 2.0 workyears,  EPA will  supplement  State  and local
projects receiving support from the Corporation for National Service and other
providers.   These projects  will  direct  Americorps,   VISTA,  RSVP,  and  other
volunteers  at  the  local level to correct, environmental  problems  that require
innovative, site-specific solutions, such as stream restoration, lead abatement,
radon detection, 'and solid waste management in Native American communities.

      The program  will  administer the Agency's  rulemaking process to promote
compliance with the requirements of Executive Order 12866 that adequate risk and
benefit/cost analysis lie  behind  the  Agency's most  significant actions.   OPPE
will continue  to provide strategic advice  to all six CSI subcommittees,  and
supervise and coordinate contract facilitator support to four of the six.   The
program will  incorporate learning from the  CSI and Project  XL to minimize or
eliminate regulatory burden where possible.  The program will continue  to oversee
the  day-to-day  management  of  the  Agency's  rulemaking  system,  including
administration of the Tiering exercises, and expansion of the system to provide
streamlined review and approval of Reports to Congress.  To support this work,
the program will complete implementation of an Agency-wide regulatory information
system  (RIS) system for  developing, managing and reporting on EPA regulations.
The program will manage  submission to OMB of  the Regulatory Plan and Agenda, with
special emphasis  on  regulatory reinvention.  This plan  will be  developed and
transmitted electronically through the new RIS.

      In 1997,' the program will seek to reduce EPA1 s information burden on the
public through development and promotion of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI),
and  through  the  analysis  and   evaluation  of   EPA's  information  gathering
activities.  EDI is a system  of standards that allows the elimination of paper
forms, and  their attendant burden and errors, from the public's duty to report
to EPA.   In 1997, the  program will bring the results  of  several pilots  into
mainstream production, allowing industry to report electronically to EPA and the
states.  In addition, building on the current effort  to reduce EPA's existing
report burden by 25%, the program will  evaluate EPA's requests .for information


                                     2-72

-------
to eliminate unnecessary burden and otherwise minimize information requirements
that prove essential to environmental protection.

      With $2,058,300 and 32.7 workyears in 1997, this program will assist EPA
programs and Regions, state and local governments in implementing Community-Based
Environmental Protection (CBEP)  activities.  EPA's goal is to protect ecological
integrity while -supporting human  communities  and  their economic base.   The
program will develop alliances and partnerships with other organizations to pilot
innovative programs and to foster wider implementation of CBEP.  Project XL for
communities will be a centerpiece of this effort.  The program will identify and
disseminate or develop and disseminate ecological, economic and social science
tools needed by community-based environmental practitioners.   The program will
work with Regional partners to develop a core set of goals and indicators that
link national goals'to  goals for -geographically-delineated places.  The program
will manage  a clearinghouse for community-based environmental practitioners that
will provide integrated access to ecological, economic and social data and tools,
and to foster transfer of knowledge 'among community-based practitioners.

POLLUTION PREVENTION

      The Agency requests a total of $23,362,200 and 64,5 total workyears for the
multimedia  Pollution Prevention program.   The  Pollution Prevention  program's
multimedia'mission includes the development of multimedia-pollution'prevention
strategies  and  their use through national, Regional, and state  environmental
programs. This  program coordinates the Agency's activities to  implement the
requirements of the Pollution Prevention Act of  1990  and  contains activities in
the toxic substances media as well.

      In 1997, the multimedia pollution prevention program will target it efforts
to areas where prevention offers•the greatest opportunity to reduce threats to
the  environment and public  health.    Because  EPA  believes  that  pollution
prevention can benefit  both  the environment and the economy, the Agency's policy.
is designed  to maximize  private sector initiatives  by challenging industry to
achieve ambitious prevention goals.  This approach encourages more businesses to
identify  and profit from  opportunities for prevention,  which  in turn yield
significant public dividends in the form of increased environmental protection.

BORDER XXI PROGRAM

      The Agency requests a total of $2,651,600 and 12.6 total workyears for this
program in the Office of International Activities.   In 1997,  this program will
continue  to implement  the  La Paz  Agreement  and  maintain the  lead  Agency
responsible for implementation of the  environmental  side  agreement to the North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).  Our major focus in 1997 continues to be
in programs  addressing the major  health  and environmental issues facing our
citizens along the U.S.-Mexico border, which remains one  of the fastest growing
and  poorest regions in the  U.S.   These  efforts  are  supported through the
operation of two Border offices  (El Paso, Texas and San Diego, California) which
serve as a .mechanism for coordinating public input into the Border XXI Plan (a
plan negotiated between the U.S. and Mexico to address common, problems).  These
offices provide citizens along the border access to information related to EPA' s
domestic programs;  serves as a communications hub for OIA, and Regions VI and IX
on bilateral issues; and as an outreach office for BPA.  The Border xxi Program
aims to  protect  human  health and the  environment while  promoting sustainable
development in the border region.   The program emphasizes public participation,
local  empowerment  and  decentralization   of  government  decision-making  and
interagency  cooperation.  The Border  XXI Program also funds  community grants,
improves  the management of solid and  hazardous  waste,  strengthens  binational
enforcement and compliance,  promotes pollution prevention and addresses critical
air and water pollution problems.


                                     2-73

-------
GENERAL COUNSEL

      The Agency requests a total of $26,517,800 and 279.7 total workyears  for'
the Office of General Counsel (OGC)  and the Office  of Regional  Counsels  (ORCs).
Priority activities include defense of the Agency in litigation,  support  of  the
Agency's  promulgation of  rules,  establishment  of policy and preparation  of
guidance documents  for  the  implementation of. the Agency's programs, review of
enforcement litigation-, and legal advice to program managers.   OGC  handles  all
litigation  activities in which  EPA is  a defendant,  in  conjunction with  the
Department of 'Justice.   OGC also provides grants and contracts management  and
administrative law support in the areas of information law, claims, personnel  and
property  issues.  Additionally,   ORC's  assist  state  agencies  on   the  legal
requirements of delegable environmental  protection programs.

     In 1997, OGC and ORCs will continue to  strongly embrace EPA's  new ways of
doing  business.    These program  areas  include  the Common  Sense   Initiative,
regulatory reform,  and Community Based Environmental Programs.'  OGC and ORCs will
work with their customers to ensure that they provide top quality legal support
to these initiatives,  as well as to continue to address traditional client  needs.

      OGC will provide a focal point for  addressing legal issues that cut  across
all of EPA's programs.1  The  Cross Cutting Division is designed to  complement  and
draw upon the expertise of OGC's other  divisions in a manner that  will enable it
to more quickly respond to'increased demands for'sector or place-based approaches
and  other  efforts   to  unify,   or  generally  improve   the  Agency's  diverse
environmental  protection  programs.    It  will  provide   a  forum for  further
developing OGC's existing cross-cutting  expertise.

      OGC  will  identify  and analyze  emerging  legal  trends  relevant  to  the
•Agency's mission and  coordinate its involvement in an effort to improve Federal
Register  publications,  reporting and  tracking  of  court-ordered deadlines-  and
Executive Orders, work on the National Environmental Policy Act,  the Endangered
Species Act,  Ecosystem Management/Community Environmental Management,   Native
.American  issues,  Environmental   Justice,  the  Paperwork  Reduction Act,   the
Regulatory  Flexibility Act, the  Unfunded Mandates  Reform Act,  cross-cutting
legislation  and initiatives,  changes  to 'the  state authorization/delegation
process, regulatory reform  and reinvention,  and non-regulatory approaches.

ENFORCEMENT AND  COMPLIANCE

      The Agency requests a total of $126,0,64.2 and 1,078.7 total workyears  for
the Enforcement  and Compliance Assurance program in the  Multimedia  media.

STRONG ENFORCEMENT  PROGRAM

      The multimedia  portion of the enforcement program  covers  Headquarters  and
Field  civil  and  criminal  enforcement,  resources  plus  Regional   multimedia
activiteis.  Single  media enforcement  .and compliance  assistance resources  are
contained in the enforcement components of the air,  drinking water,  pesticides,
toxic substances and  hazardous waste media descriptions.

      In 1997, the Regulatory Enforcement program will enforce key provisions of
the 'Clean Air Act to  reduce toxic  air  emissions and work to prevent accidental
releases.   The  program  will  improve and centralize permitting  through  the
Operating  Permits  program.   The program  will  implement a nationally-managed
enforcement  program  to address  Clean Air Act  violations of  the reformulated
gasoline,  diesel  fuel  and volatility  requirements.     The  program  is also
responsible  for  enforcing"provisions designed to protect people in hospitals,
child care centers and other institutions from ineffective disinfectants,  and for
                                      2-74

-------
enforcing  reporting  of  adverse  health  effects  by chemical  manufacturers,
processors or distributors under the Toxic Substances Control Act.

      The Regulatory Enforcement program will also provide direction to, and sets
goals and priorities  for,  the  national  civil and criminal enforcement program
which is largely implemented by the Regions.  Tn  1997, the program will develop
and  implement  policies which  call for  equitable, risk-based  and .nationally
consistent application of  our  environmental laws.   Examples  of such policies
include  the  small  business policy,  economic benefit  policy,'  definition  of
significant  non-compliance,  and  the  voluntary  self-disclosure policy.   The
program also provides the Regional offices with expert advice and legal counsel
on nationally significant enforcement litigation.  The program will also initiate
investigations against violators operating nationally.

      The Regulatory Enforcement program will reduce  public exposure to lead in
paint under  provisions of the  Toxic Substances  Control Act;  take enforcement
actions in priority watersheds  to protect communities* drinking water supplies;
protect the health of workers who handle pesticides; eliminate household risks
to  children  -from pesticides;  and,  enforce reporting violations of hazardous
chemical releases and community  right-to-know requirements.   The program will
also  focus  on  high priority  hazardous ' waste generators  under • the  Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act.

      The program  will  continue  to develop inspection guidelines  and sector
specific multi-media inspector training programs.  For example,  in 1997 we will
develop a lead compliance monitoring strategy and  train lead inspectors.

      Regional Counsels provide  Regional legal   support to  the  Agency's civil
judicial, administrative,  criminal and Federal facilities programs.  In addition
to the priority areas outlined above, the counsels support multimedia enforcement
initiatives designed  to protect  sensitive ecosystems and at-risk communities.
Their work addresses the disproportionate impacts  of hazardous waste and other
sources of environmental risk on minority and low-income communities.

      In' 1997 Regional Counsel will focus on administrative and civil judicial
enforcement to maximize compliance with  the environmental statutes.  They will
increasingly rely on the use of  integrated, multimedia data to effectively target
enforcement actions on an industry-wide  or geographic basis.

      The Agency's  1997  request will  fully  fund the criminal  investigators
mandated by the Pollution Prosecution Act and provide administrative, legal and
technical support for the investigation  of environmental crimes.

      The Criminal Enforcement  program deploys criminal investigators or special
agents  in 32 field  locations nationwide.  A Headquarters-based staff provides
administrative support.  Headquarters attorneys provide legal policy and direct
case  support,  and  Regional attorneys  .support   investigations,   referrals  and
prosecutions.  The National  Enforcement  Investigations Center (see Science and
Technology Appropriation) provides forensic  technical  support to the criminal
program.

      In  1997,  the  Criminal  Enforcement program will  enforce  the  criminal
provisions of all the environmental laws administered by EPA.  The program will
particularly  focus  on  illegal  imports and  exports of  hazardous and toxic
substances (e.g., maguiladora industries located  on the Mexican side of the U.S.
border) , illegal hazardous waste disposal cases and violations of the Clean Air
and Water Acts.

      Criminal  investigators'  will  concentrate   on  pursuing   those  criminal
violations which  pose the  greatest risk to  people  or the "environment.   The


                                     2-75

-------
 positive publicity and public  reaction  generated by'criminal cases  creates  a
 ripple  effect of voluntary compliance.   Recent cases have sent a clear message
 that prison sentences and heavy fines are the penalty for criminal violations.
 Thus,  an  investment  in  the  criminal program  pays  off  in  both  tangible  and
 intangible ways in protecting public health and environmental resources.

 COMPLIANCE ASSISTANCE

      While a strong  enforcement program is fundamental to ensuring compliance
 with our environmental laws,  EPA recognizes that most businesses and regulated
 facilities want to comply with  the  law.   Often, however, they  need  help  with
 understanding environmental 'requirements and coming  into compliance with  them.
 This is particularly  true of  small businesses.

      In 1997,  the multimedia Compliance Assistance  program will work with the
 media program  offices  to identify  targets  for compliance initiatives and  to
 assess  how well this program is succeeding in meeting national compliance goals.
 The program will expand the development of compliance assistance tools including
 outreach programs,  plain English guides  to environmental rules,  information on
 ways to minimize waste and prevent  pollution,  and inspector/operator training
 programs.   The  Federal  Facilities program will conduct  on-site environmental
 management reviews in all 10  EPA Regions with emphasis on assisting facilities
 of smaller Federal agencies.

      By early 1997  the  Agency will have established  six environmental  Small'
 Business Compliance Assistance Centers.   During 1997 the Compliance assistance
 program will  start  two additional compliance assistance centers.  These centers
 will provide one-stop shopping for regulatory and technical assistance, pollution
 prevention assistance, and other information tailored to the particular sector,-
 The information available at these centers will also  be made widely available to
 the public through  the  World Wide- Web.    The program  will  also  develop
 environmental curriculum modules for use  at  community and technical colleges.

      An innovative product of the multimedia Compliance Assistance program is
 the sector notebook tailored  to  a specific industry.   The program has published
 18 notebooks 'which profile  information  on industry demographics,  processes,
 pollution  outputs,  compliance  history,  pollution  prevention and  regulatory
 requirements.  During  1996-1997 the program will develop  notebooks from among the
 following  industries:   power  generation,  transportation,   wood  preserving,
 foundries, Pharmaceuticals, food,  animal feedlots, and Federal facilities.-

 COMMON  SENSE INITIATIVE                '                  '      .

      The  Enforcement  and Compliance  program  will support  all  six  sectors
 participating in the  Common Sense Initiative and has the lead for the printing
 sector.   In  1997,  the program  will promote pollution  prevention activities,
 encourage the use of innovative technologies, and undertake innovative compliance
 assistance and enforcement initiatives in the sectors.

 REGULATORY REINVENTION

      The multimedia  Enforcement and Compliance'Assistance program is developing
' and implementing performance-based strategies for facilities, industrial sectors,
 communities and  Federal  agencies.    Through new policies  and  demonstration
 programs,  the program will provide  environmental managers the  flexibility  to
 employ  technological  innovation to achieve environmental goals beyond what the
 law requires,  while requiring accountability for performance.

       In 1997,  the "enforcement and compliance program will implement policies to
 facilitate small'businesses1 and small communities' compliance with environmental


                                      2-76

-------
laws.   The  Policy on Compliance  Incentives for Small  Businesses- gives small
businesses  incentives  to  participate  in  compliance  assistance  programs,  to
conduct audits and disclose violations, and to correct 'violations promptly.  The
Policy on Flexible State Enforcement Responses  to  Small Community Violations
supports  compliance  assistance to  small communities  .and enables 'States  and
communities  to  tackle  their  most critical environmental  compliance problems
first.

      The Environmental Leadership Program (ELP)  will move  from  the pilot phase
to  full-scale, implementation  in 1997.    This  budget  request increases  the
program's investment in  ELP  to expand our  efforts  to  encourage facilities to
develop innovative compliance and auditing programs.  As participating industries
take -greater responsibility for  self-monitoring and  third party audits,  the
payoff  will  be increased  compliance,  pollution prevention  and environmental
protection.   Benefits will also extend to non-participating companies because EPA
will use ELP to identify and promote outstanding environmental and compliance
management programs. ELP will .also enable OECA to direct enforcement resources
away from companie.3 that  are complying with or exceeding requirements toward bad
actors and those needing compliance assistance.

      In  1997,  the program  will  implement its policy Incentives  for Self-
Pol.igi.nct..;Discovery, Disclosure/ Correction, and Prevention of Violations., which
encourages businesses to voluntarily conduct audits or establish procedures to
discover environmental violations, disclose and  correct them,  in exchange for
penalty mitigation.  In  1997,  the program  will market  this policy on a sector
basis and develop measures of success for determining its effectiveness.

      A final Regulatory Reinvention  effort OECA will spearhead in  1997 is Risk-
based Targeting of Enforcement Actions.  Through more focused targeting of our
enforcement efforts, OECA will ensure we  are concentrating  on the environmental
violations which  present  the  most  serious threats to public  health  and the
environment.    The  targeting  effort  will  use risk  models  that  consider
concentrations of  pollutants  and demographics.  In 1997 OECA  will expand the
risk-based evaluation of water bodies by adding information on pesticide use and
community right-to-know  laws.  The improved targeting techniques combined with
OECA's  multimedia,  whole  facility approach to   compliance  monitoring  and
enforcement  will result  in greater environmental benefits at lower cost.  They
will  also allow OECA to better  evaluate the  disproportionate  risks  faced by
minorities and low income groups and to revise our targeting  efforts accordingly.

BUILDING STATE AND TRIBAL  PARTNERSHIPS

      The Agency will work with delegated State enforcement  programs through new
performance  partnership  arrangements.  EPA  expects  that a high percentage of
States will  be under PPA's by 1997.  Through these new agreements, the program
will emphasize evaluating State performance by measuring environmental results..
The program  will  continue to sponsor £he  Senior Environmental  and Compliance
Forum, which is composed of senior enforcement officials from the Federal, State
and tribal levels.  This forum identifies  opportunities for new ways of doing
business and improving partnerships.

IMPROVING PUBLIC ACCESS  TO INFORMATION

      In 1997, the improving Public Access to Information will establish Internet
access  to  allow the public  to request multimedia  compliance  and enforcement
information  for facilities in their community.  The Agency will also develop a
Key Identifier for each regulated  facility so as to be able to link various media
databases and provide the public with a clearer picture  of  facilities' impacts.
                                     2-77

-------
      The program will' improve the communication of enforcement and compliance
goals, expectations and accomplishments to all of EPA's constituencies in 1997.
We  will  also expand  the public's  and industry's  access to  enforcement  and
compliance guidance documents.

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT

      The Environmental Review and Coordination  (ERC) program will handle EPA's
responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act to ensure that major
Federal actions  do not adversely affect  the environment.  This  program will
review major actions taken by other federal agencies and by EPA.   It will provide
public notice  of -federal  Environmental .Impact Statements  (EIS's).  '  The  ERC
provides international enforcement technical assistance and training.

      In 1997, the  ERC program will review  approximately 500 EIS's and over 1,000
Environmental Assessments.   The program targets  those Federal projects with the
greatest  environmental-' impact, ' including those affecting  the South  Florida
Everglades and Northwest Forests.  Projects are reviewed for compliance with EPA-
administered statutes as well as other Federal environmental laws.

EXECUTIVE STEERING COMMITTEE FOR INFORMATION RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

      The Agency requests a total of $29,829,400 and 7.4  total workyears for the
Executive Steering Committee for Information Resources Management (ESC) .  In 1997
the ESC will  focus on three key  area:  Reinventing  Environmental  Regulations,
Community-Based  Environmental  Protection,  and Work Process Reinvention.   The
Reinventing Environmental Regulations effort will substantially reduce reporting
burdens for the  regulated community, integrate reporting requirements, and make
environmental information more  acceptable to the public.   The Community-Based
Environmental Protection effort  will  provide  easy  access to environmental
information for state  and local  governments to allow them to  act on local issues
and protect ecosystems.  The Work Process Reinvention initiative will automate
reporting by industry  and states through the use  of Electronic Data Interchange.

AGENCY ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE

      The Agency requests a  total of 3.4 millon and 11.4 workyears for the Agency
Environmental Justice  program. The Agency  program  will continue to  support
Regional  and  Headquarters  organizations on  environmental justice  issues.  The
program will support the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council which
advises the Administrator on environmental problems in low'income and minority
communities.  The  program   will also  fund  grants  to   community  groups  and
universities to address environmental justice issues.
                                     2-78

-------
                          -  MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT

OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total of $534,250,500 and 2,650.9 total workyears in
1997  for  management and support  .activities  in  the  Environmental  Program
Management  (EPM) account.  The Management and Support media provides executive
leadership and guidance for Agency policy and programs including high priority
initiatives such as the President's Climate Change Action Plan,  the Environmental
Technology Initiative, the National Service Program, the Common Sense Initiative,
Project XL, and Community Based Environmental Protection.  Primary activities of
the Management  and Support,  function  include planning  and  budgeting,  program
evaluation,   financial   management,   economic   analysis,   audit   follow-up,
intergovernmental  and international  relations,  public/private partnerships,
information  and  human   resources  management,  and  property maintenance  and
security.  These activities are primarily carried out through the efforts* of the
Office of  Policy, Planning and  Evaluation  (OPPE),  the Office of International
Activities  (OIA) , the Office  of  Administration and Resources Management  (OARM) ,
the Office  of- the General Counsel  (OGC), and the Office  of the .Administrator
(OA) .

      The Agency is  reinventing its management and  administrative  process to
ensure the most effective use of  its people, programs, and resources in achieving
the nation's environmental goals.  Specifically,  EPA's management objectives are
to:          '                                  ,              •

•      Reinvent, streamline and automate the Agency's  administrative processes to
      reduce costs, better support .EPA's environmental mission and meet customer
      needs.  In  1997,   the   Agency  will   focus  on automation  and  process
      improvement. This effort will  include broad-scale automation efforts aimed
      at reengineering our human resources function including the development of
      an automated personnel  process,  streamlining the process for applying and
      managing grants to  provide better information and reduce "processing times,
      and implementing electronic .improvements in time and attendance, travel,
      and payroll functions that will provide EPA. financial services in a more
      efficient, businesslike manner,

«      Develop and put in place  an integrated approach, to Agencywide strategic
      planning,  budgeting, financial  management,  and program evaluation that
      will  guide the Agency's program and  investment decisions and meets the
      mandates of the Chief Financial  Officers (CFO)  Act,  the  Federal Managers'
      Financial  Integrity Act  (FMFIA), and the  Government Performance  and
      Results  Act (GPRA) .   The Agency  will orchestrate the  changes  in the
      management process, organizational culture, and budget  structure necessary
      to meet the 1997 deadlines for implementing  the GPRA.  Specifically, this
      will  include incorporating National Environmental Goals into the Agency-
      wide Strategic Plan, continuing  tg restructure the Agency budget according
      to environmental outcomes, incorporating program performance measures into
      the  Agency budget requests,  and ensuring_ accountability through  the
      measurement and reporting of program performance.

»  .    Establish  a Working Capital Fund  (WCP) to  provide  more appropriate and
      efficient  administrative  services,  better identify the cost  of running
      programs,  and logically plan for and purchase  capital  equipment.  The WCF
      moves away from the historically centralized control of services to a more
      efficient  approach  in which the costs of goods  and  services are provided
      on a businesslike competitive basis.   In 1997, the SPA proposes to charge
      Agency Offices for their use of centralized computer  services  (provided by
      the Agency's Data Center at RTP, North Carolina)and postage.
                                     2-79

-------
Ensure greater  involvement of  state,  tribal, and  local  governments in
development of management strategies early in the process.  In 1997, our
investments will allow us to develop a framework under which performance
partnership grants (PP<3s)  would be awarded. Specifically, the investments
will enable the  Agency to develop guidance that will  define  the practical,
logistical, administrative, and reporting requirements that would govern
this new approach to grant making.

Provide all Agency employees with a quality work environment that  is safe,
healthy and secure.'  The Agency'is also committed to designing workplaces!
that incorporate the latest energy conservation technologies and  improved
access  for  the  handicapped-    Our  1997  Request   includes  funds  for
additional building  security and  guard services  to  ensure the -safety of
the public and  EPA  employees  as  required by  the  President's Executive
Order regarding upgrading security at federal facilities.
                               2-80

-------
                            MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT


PROGRAM AND ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

MANAGEMENT

Executive Guidance and Leadership: The Agency requests a total of $18,413,400 'and
204.7 total workyears in 1997 for the Administrator, the Deputy Administrator,
the  Regional  Administrators  and  their  immediate  staff  to  provide  overall
direction of the Agency-  Policy positions and program priorities are provided
by  the  'Immediate  Office  of the  Administrator and  shared with' the Regional
Administrators and other senior managers who translate Agency policy for their
specific programs or geographical area of the country.  Additional support and
leadership at Regional,  State and local  levels  is provided  by the Office of the
Associate  Administrator for  Regional  Operations  and  State/Local  Relations.
Maintaining positive partnerships with small communities remains a priority of
this office.   In  addition,  OA's Office  of Small and  Disadvantaged Business
Utilization (OSBDU)  is responsible for development of the Agency's small business
regulatory strategy as  well  as national policy for the Agency's socioeconomic
programs as they relate  to both direct and indirect procurement.  The Associate
Administrator for  Congressional  and  Legislative Affairs advises senior Agency
officials, members of Congress,  Committee staff and external organizations on
legislative activities.

Judicial.  Scientific and Technical Analvsis and Support: The Agency requests, a
total of $6,095,800 and  64.3 total workyears  in 1997 for judicial,  scientific and
technical analysis and support.  Administrative decisions and judicial review of
Agency  decisions  are the  responsibility of  the Administrative L*aw Judges and
Environmental  Appeals   Board.    The   Science  Advisory  Board  provides  expert
independent  advice to  the  Administrator and  the Agency on  scientific  and
technical issues facing EPA.

Communications/Outreach/Liaison:   In   1997,   the  Agency  requests  a  total  of
$18,560,000 and 197.7 total workyears for necessary executive support services
at, Headquarters and within the Regions.  These  include executive correspondence
control;- Freedom  of Information  Act  management and control;  equal employment
opportunity and external  civil  rights compliance under Title  VI of  the Civil
Rights Act; coordination within the Agency for communications activities related
to major Agency actions; and long  range planning of  public information activities
in coordination with major EPA program offices and Regional' offices.

National Program  Direction: A total  of  $3,586,000  and 21.0 total workyears in
1997 is requested by the Agency for national program direction.  The Associate
Administrator for Regional Operations  and State/Local Relations  is the principal
'national contact for the Agency's Regional Environmental Services Divisions and
is  the  national  program  manager for ,  the  multi-media  regional geographical
initiatives as  well as the  manager  of" the  EPA'a  new Sustainable Development
Challenge  Grants  program.   The  Associate  Administrator  for  Communications,
Education, and Public Affairs is  the national  manager for the Agency's multi-
media environmental education program which focuses on improved basic science
literacy and informing  the general public of the environmental consequences of
individual and  collective  actions.   This includes  a  request of 51,000,000 to
support the Vice President's GLOBE Program which is an international science and
environmental education partnership with  students, teachers and the scientific
community.

Re sour c_e s___Manage.me.nt: The  Agency  requests" a total of $29,884,800 and 332.3 total
workyears  for 1997  for  financial and resources management services to support
Agency-wide fiscal management and control functions including current year and


                                      2-81

-------
outyear  budget development,  budget  utilization,  and  accounting  and fiscal
operations. .These resources also support the development of Agency-wide policies
and national guidance,  audit  management,  environmental  finance, and technical.
assistance  to  the  Agency's management  integrity process.  Support  for budget
processes  includes  designing  and  overseeing  the  outyear- budget  process,
providing budget analyses and  reports to Agency program offices,  and maintaining
fiscal allocation  controls, and review systems for all workyear and financial
resources.  Accounting and  fiscal  operations  support  includes  the Financial
Management Centers in Headquarters, field locations,  and  Regions that provide
payroll  and travel   processing;  contract  and  grants  payments,  interagency
agreements; development of financial policy; financial reporting and analysis;
operation and maintenance of the integrated financial management system  (IFMS);
quality assurance;  and customer service.

      While most activities in 1997 will 'be devoted to providing continued core
resource management services to the Agency, efforts will  also focus on continued
improvements' to  the  integration  of  Agency-wide'  planning,  budgeting  and
accountability processes.  In addition,  resources will be used to provide Agency
leadership for the  development of performance-based management tools consistent
with the National Performance Review, Government Performance and Results Act, and
the Chief Financial Officers Act.  Further,  resources will be devoted to EPA's
own streamlining and administrative reform initiatives; including automation and
efficiency  improvements to  financial reporting,  payroll  processing,  grants
payment processing, and information management.

Contracts and Grants Management: The Agency  requests a total  of  $29,700,700 and
410.2  total  workyears for  1997 for contracts .and  grants management.   These
resources will  be used to process and award new contracts, assistance agreements
and  purchase  orders;  cqntinue the  liaison  group  initiative;  and  process
procurement actions and  awards.  In addition the Integrated Contracts Management
System will be expanded to the Regions,  Labs, and Program Offices.

      In support of the  President's order to implement  an electronic commerce
system,  these  resources will  enable EPA  to continue the implementation  of a
modern electronic commerce system using an electronic data interchange system.
The  system will provide  significant labor  and  price  savings,  as  well  as a
significant reduction in purchasing lead time.

      In 'the grants  area,  resources will  allow the Agency to  simplify and
streamline assistance regulations and policy and procedural guidance  for new and
existing Agency-wide assistance programs; to award and administer Headquarters
and Regional grants, cooperative and interagency agreements; and, to develop a
fully  automated, PC-based  award management system in support  of the Agency's
Administrative Reduction Initiative.  In addition, resources will also be used
to maintain a suspension and debarment effort to  combat waste, fraud, and abuse
in Federal assistance programs.

Facilities. Health and Environmental Management:  The Agency  requests a total of
$28,100,000 and 404.9  total workyears for 1997 for OARM's facilities, health and
environmental  management  programs.    Resources  will  be used  to  administer
Nationwide Support,- Headquarters Support, and Building and Facilities,  provide
operational support and housekeeping services, and continue to monitor and direct
support contracts and  efforts to improve working conditions at the Waterside Mall
Complex,  RTF  and  the Cincinnati  Laboratory.   The Agency will continue  to
coordinate the  planning,  design,  construction,and relocation processes for a new
consolidated Agency headquarters; and to develop  and implement internal safety,
health,  and environmental  management policies,   program models, and  support
systems;' provide technical assistance and high-technology-based  training to EPA
laboratories and ensure that EPA meets its statutory and regulatory mandates.
                                     2-82

-------
Human Resources Management:  The Agency requests a total of $20,785,900 and 285.7
total workyears for 1997 for OARM's human resources management program which will
support the development of policies,  procedures, and implementation of the full
range of human resources customer services for Headquarters,  Regional and Field
.employees.   In 1997, ••resources will be used to automate processes  and systems
including the Office of Personnel Management/Microcomputer-Assisted Rating System
which  will be expanded  across the Agency,  the  Automated/Simplified  Official
Personnel  File, and other 0PM led Federal efforts.   Resources will also support
the  Labor  Management Partnerships  that provide  a  forum  for  the  extensive
involvement  of unions  in  reinvention  initiatives  to  reduce  costs,  improve
efficiency, and enhance the Agency's ability to meet mission objectives.

Information Systems and Services: The Agency requests a total of $17,271,600 and
205.4  total workyears  for  1997  for  OARM's  information systems  and  services
program  which  will provide the  personnel  to manage  the Agency's  central and
distributed computing and data transmission  network, major  administrative and
programmatic data  system's,  and library services.   In addition, these  services
will permit the Agency to continue to strengthen the  information infrastructure
needed for Integrated Environmental Management, including Agency LAN services and
Data Integration  provisions.   Technical support is  provided for the  Regional
geographic information systems  effort  and emphasis is placed on improving data
sharing  and integration with  state  environmental  agencies.   In  the  Regions,
development  of state data  management  plans  to ensure  efficient  and  reliable
methods  of State/EPA data sharing will  receive priority attention as well as
assisting  the  public  to access  environmental data systems.

Working  Capital Fund:  The Agency requests  a  total  of $15,610,600 for  1997 for
OARM's portion of the Agency's Working Capital Fund (WCF).   This is  an internal
fee for service effort designed to help better identify true costs and to improve
both the efficiency and effectiveness of our management services.  Under the WCF,
the cost of services provided by the Enterprise Technology Services Division for
computer and telecommunication services and by the Office of Administration for
postage  costs will be charged back  to the Agency  offices which  use  those
services.  'The requested resources will enable the Agency to maintain current
centrally  administered  computer and  telecommunication services  and postage
services in support of EPA  programs.

Government Performance  and Results  Act:    The Agency requests  a  total  of
§1,715,000 in  extramural  resources and 20.3 total workyears  in 1997  for  OPPE's
efforts to implement the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA),  which is
intended  to improve the  performance  of.government programs  through a set of
integrated activities:  strategic planning, setting  annual  performance  targets,
measuring progress made toward reaching those targets, and reporting on results.
Recommendations proceeding  from  recent  Agency efforts  to  assess  the  current
planning, budgeting,, and accountability system are consistent with the managing-
for-results system  envisioned by GPRA, and are intended to  foster effective and
efficient  implementation.  OPPE  will work with the  other offices to update the
Agency-'wide  strategic plan,  developing" EPA environmental,  programmatic and
management goals consistent  with the directions set by the national environmental
goals project.  Further, OPPE  will work with others to develop the framework and
process  for preparing annual performance plans, reflecting the general  goals
included in the long-term strategic plan. Finally,  OPPE will play a  key role in
the development .of an outcome-driven  Agency  accountability system, needed to
assess accomplishments relative to long-term goals and commitments made in annual
performance plans.                         .,'...

Comparative  Risk  initiatives:   The  Agency requests a  total of $1,8.88,000 in
extramural resources and 18.0  total workyears in  1997 to' expand  the use of
comparative  risk  for priority  setting, planning,  allocating resources and
'implementation at the .national and .state level,. EPA will continue to work with


                                     2-83

-------
Alaska, Iowa, Minnesota-,  New Hampshire,  New York,  Tennessee,  and New Jersey and
will offer assistance to  five additional states. OPPE will complete comparative
risk projects in Arizona, Florida, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Mississippi, Ohio,
Texas, and Utah. Having already completed work in  seven  states and territories,
the Agency will have increased the  comparative risk capabilities in-approximately
5.6% of the states in  the U.S.   As more  and more states move into the National
Environmental Performance Partnership System, they will benefit from comparative
risk capabilities as they determine their priorities, set environmental goals,
and  develop  measures  of  environmental progress.   OPPE  will  also  complete
community-based  efforts,  in  Allegheny  County   (PA) ,  Charlott'esville   (VA) ,
Cleveland(OH) ,  Columbus(OH) ,'  the Elizabeth  River  Watershed  (VA),  Hamilton
County (OH)  , and Houston (TX) .   OPPE will continue work with' the Pine Ridge Oglala
Sioux and the Southern Ute tribes to share comparative risk tools as appropriate
to their needs.

Center for Environmental  Information and Statistics:  The  President's Report on
Reinventing  Environmental  Regulation calls for EPA to  .establish  a  Center for
Environmental .Information and Statistics  (CEIS) .  In 1997, OPPE will devote over
half of the  $1,015,000 in extramural resources and 21.3 workyears dedicated to
statistical work to create  a formal organizational entity  called the CEIS.  The
Center will  be  responsible  for  the development of  Environmental  Indicator
Bulletins,  an Environmental Information and Acquisition Plan, establishment of
an Agency "Official Statistics" Information Base linked  to highly sophisticated
data  management and  analysis software,   development 'of  state environmental
indicators and making them available on the Internet as more states  move into the
National Environmental Performance Partnership System. The CEIS will provide EPA
with the organizational  focus to "harmonize the  collection  and management of
EPA1 s  environmental  data and to provide for  public access to  quality-assured
environmental .statistics and  information.^

Futures Activities; A priority activity for the Futures Group in the Office of
Policy, Planning and Evaluation is to promote ^futures^  analysis-- a capability
to routinely and systematically study the range of possible  environmental futures
ahead--  as  a  vehicle for anticipating  future  environmental  problems.   By
developing a ^futures^ capability, the Agency would be  in a better position to
advise the nation  on possible actions to take  in the  present to  reduce these
problems or  to  avoid  them  entirely.   In 1997,  this will be done by developing
methods for  futures analysis  (i.e., compile a geographically referenced set of
drivers and  forecasting data); and 2) establishing cooperative  futures-related
projects with Programs and Regions, including the creation of an Environmental
Futures Homepage. The Environmental Futures Staff will  provide support to the
Science  Advisory Board  (SAB)  Lookout  Panel,   follow-up SAB  Subcommittees'
recommendations on futures  activities and analysis of overarching problem areas
and forces of change as put forward in the report ^Beyond the Horizon.^

U.S. -Mexico  Border/Commission:.   The Agency requests a  total of $5,800,000 in
extramural resources and 8.0 total workyears in 1997 for OIA's efforts with the
D.S.-Mexico'Border/Commission for Environmental Cooperation  (CEC)  program.  Of
this amount, #3,000,000 is for the CEC.  Through  the CEC, the U.S.,  Canada and
Mexico will  develop and implement adequate environmental enforcement policies,
protect natural resources and habitats through  sound environmental management,
monitor  the  state of  the  North  American  environment,  and  promote  the sound
management of chemicals.

       In cooperation with Mexico,  EPA will undertake efforts to reduce pollution
by  meeting environmental infrastructure  needs and the adoption  of pollution
prevention practices.  Specific activities will leverage  funds to build water and
wastewater treatment  plants  .and municipal•landfills;   expand efforts such as
those  currently in California to  conduct truck  inspections-along the border to
control  illegal disposal of  hazardous  wastes; provide  information  to border


                                     2-84

-------
residents on environmental conditions in their communities; enhance enforcement,
and  support  border community grants to address high priority community needs.
EPA  will work with authorities  in Mexico and with  state and  local  officials  in
the U.S. to determine the levels of  toxic pollutants in the lower Colorado River
and.the New River  as part of an effort to improve the  quality of water, - improve
water and wastewater treatment  services  and thus protect public health in the
border  communities of California and Arizona,   EPA  will train local customs
officials on regulatory and safety concerns surrounding transboundary movements
of hazardous wastes ensuring the safe transportation of .such  wastes through the
U.S.  IPA will also help implement a new  air quality management  basin agreement
for  the El" Paso/Juarez area.

Promoting U.S.Environmental Technologies Overseas: The Agency requests a total
•of $4,300,000 in extramural resources arid 5.0 total workyears in 1997 for OIA  to
promote U.S. environmental technologies overseas.  The United States is a world
leader  in   environmental  technologies  and  expertise.     Enlisting  greater
participation   of   American   companies  in  meeting  the  global   demand  for
environmental technologies and services --a market currently estimated at more
than $400 billion  a year -- will -help solve pressing global,  regional and local
environmental problems abroad while fueling economic  growth  and creating high-
paying  jobs  in  the United  States.

      Emphasizing  pollution  prevention,  energy efficiency and  renewables, and
other "sectors in  which  U.S. industry has a competitive advantage, OIA will
strengthen the U.S.  Technology  for  International Environmental  Solutions  (U.S.
TIES)  Program.   The U.S.  TIES  Program is the  international component to the
President's Environmental Technology Initiative.  For example, OIA will use the
vehicles of international technical assistance and training, information  exchange
and  technology demonstrations to match environmental problems overseas  with the
suppliers of.proven and cost-effective technologies in the U.S.  OIA will  train
foreign  officials  in U.S.  environmental  management  techniques,   disseminate
information  on the  performance and  costs of  environmental technologies and
provide technical   assistance in solving specific  environmental problems,  OIA
will target  Mexico,  Poland,  and other countries that have been identified for
priority attention by the  U.S.  government.

International  ToxicsRisk Reduction Program:    The Agency .requests a  total  of
$650,000 in  extramural  resources in  1997  for OIA to support an international
toxics risk reduction program since  a number of organic pollutants,  heavy metals
and  radionuclides  are transported  long distances  to  and from  U.S.  territory.
These toxins have  been associated with serious  health effects,  such as cancer,
immune  system  suppression, and/or endocrine system disruption.

      OIA,  with other EPA offices  and Federal  agencies, will  participate  in
several international initiatives to identify and  adopt cost-effective ways  to
reduce  risks  from persistent  organic pollutants and certain, heavy metals.
Expected outcomes  include the development of North American action plans for'
PCBs,.DDT, chlordane and mercury; and completion of international  protocols  on
persistent organic pollutants  (POPs)  and heavy  metals.  OIA  will also  continue
its  cooperative programs to  phase  out leaded gasoline in selected regions and
.countries,,  including Latin America, Eastern Europe, Russia,  China,  and Egypt.
Additionally,  OIA will  continue to- protect U.S.  coastal waters  and  national
security interests through its  cooperation with other agencies  and with Russia
and  Norway  to design and  construct an expanded and upgraded' low-level liquid
radioactive  waste  (LLW)  processing  facility in Murmansk,  Russia. Completion  of
the  Murmansk facility should prompt  Russia's  formal  adherence  to  the amended
London  Convention  and  accelerate   Russia's nuclear submarine  decommissioning
dperations.                        '                               ,
                                      2-85

-------
 International Partnerships for.lPollutipn_Prevention: The Agency requests a total
.of  $500,000  in  extramural  resources  in  1997  for  OIA  to  support  several
 international partnerships for pollution prevention. These funds will allow EPA
 to deliver on key Administration commitments to support environmental cooperation
 in  the Americas  (e.g.  through  the Partnership  for Pollution Prevention,  the
 Pacific Basin (e.g.  through the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum), and via
 important  bilateral activities  with China/  Egypt,  India,  and South  Africa.
 Specific  activities will include  technical, and policy information  exchange,
 training,, a short  term technical assistance,  and institutional capacity building.

 SUPPORT

       The Agency  requests a  total  of $271,351,800 and 14.3 total  workyears in
 1997 for Support  Services to the Agency's'Operating Programs.  These  resources
 include investments to maintain'essential Agency infrastructure  including rent;
 security upgrades to  comply  with the new standards recommended by the  Justice
 Department  as  a  result of the  Oklahoma City  bombing;  support  to  major
 administrative  systems;  and  rate  increases  for  utilities  and  operational
 contracts including security, mail services and  facilities maintenance.

       The major components of  the  Support account include Nationwide Support,
 Headquarters Support, and Regional Support,

 Nationwide Support: The Agency requests a total of $152,549,000 for 1997 for this
 program.   These  resources  will  pay for  standard Agency-wide  support  costs
 including  space  rental,  national   security.   Code  of   Federal   Regulations
 typesetting,  unemployment  compensati.on,   workers'  compensation,   Agency-wide
 safety, health, and environmental  management program, the  Integrated Financial
 Management System (IFMS) , the Integrated Contracts .Management System (ICMS) , the
 Integrated Grants Management System   (IGMS), National Agency Check and  Inquiry
 (NACI), and  the EPA Awards program.

 Headquarters Support:   The Agency  requests  a total of $64,681,700  for 1997 for
 this program.   These resources will  provide  Headquarters Support  services  at
 Washington, RTF,  and Cincinnati including facilities operation and maintenance,
 utilities,  security,  janitorial services,  telephones,  ADP technical support,
 motorpool/shuttle buses, transit subsidy, printing and copying, and the health
 units. These resources also fund additional  building security and guard services
 to  ensure  the  safety  of EPA  employees  as  required  by  the  June  28,  1995
 Presidential Executive Order regarding upgrading  security at federal facilities.

       The Agency  is carrying, out a coordinated program of  administrative staff
 reductions through consolidation of functions, process streamlining, automation,
 outsourcing, and  disinvestment  of  lower priorities.  To complete  this program,
 the Agency will make investments to  automate several administrative processes,
 including consolidating LAN  administration  in Headquarters,  automating  various
 office forms,   developing  an  automated  financial  management system for  the
 Agency's senior management,  and implementing a national  correspondence tracking
 system to network correspondence control points  Agencywide.

 Regional  Support: The  Agency requests  a total  of $52, 510,,.30Q  and 14.3  total
 workyears  for  1997 for this  program.  These  resources  will provide the  ten
 Regional Offices with basic support services including printing and copying, LAN
 operations  and ADP technical  support,  security,  utilities,  mail,  telephone,
 library operations,  general training, off ice'and laboratory facility maintenance,
 and technical support as well as regional moves.  Also,  all extramural workforce
 expenses for Regional employees are  accounted for in this  program.   Extramural
 workforce expenses are items  required by employees to conduct day to day business
 Agency business.   Workforce  expenses   includes all   regional   office  and
 administrative  supplies, forms, letterhead and miscellaneous support items such


                                      2-86

-------
as photography  supplies,  supplies for  hazardous  waste disposal, etc.   These
resources also support facility and guard service improvements to meet required
post-Oklahoma City security standards.   The 14.3 workyears support the Regional
Stay in School program.
                                     2-87

-------
2-88

-------

-------
    UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                FY 1997 PRESIDENTS BUDGET
                 (dollars in thousands)
PROGRAM ELEMENT
EMIS STDS&TECH ASMT
ST PRG GDLNS® DE
AIR QDAL MGT IMPLEM
AMBIENT AIR Q MNTRG
AQ&EMIS DATA ANALYS
MOBILE SRC PROG IMPL
STRAT PROTECT PROGRAM
STAT SRCE ENF
TEST-, TECHSeADMI SU
1MMISS & FUEL ECON
TRIBAL PROGRAM IMPLEMENT,
WCF - AIR
ACID RAIN PROGRAM
' INDOOR AIR PROGRAM
GLOBAL CHANGE PROGRAM
AIR .
RAD CRIT,STDS&GDLNS
WASTE ISOLATION PILOT
RAD PROG IMPLMNTION
RAD ENV IMPACT ASM
WCF - RADIATION
RADIATION
GREAT LAKES PROGRAM
CHESAPEAKE BAY PROG
ENGINEERING & ANAL.
"OCEAN DISPOSAL PERM
WTR Q CRIT STD &. AP
ASSESS WATERSHED PROT
WATER QUAL ENFORCEMENT
WETLANDS PROTECTION
COASTAL ENVIRON MGT
WASTE WATER MGMT. TECH.
WATER QUALITY FIN. ASSIT.
WCF - WATER QUALITY
WETLAND PROTECTION ENF.
WATER QUALITY '
CRIT, STDS & GDLNS
SPEC STUDYS & DEMO
DRINKING WATER INFO
GROUNDWATER PROTECTION
DRINKING WATER IMPLEM ,
WCF - DRINKING WATER
DOLLARS
35, 614.2
17,918.8
26,361,3
6,179.5 '
36', 670.9
4,100,5
24,151.3
22,706.7
3,319.2
6,996.5
3,337.3,
1,951.2
12,369.6
20,714.1
82,014.2
304 ,40.5 ,3
11,657.0
6,451.7
884.7
1,349.6
73.4
20,416.4
13,451.9
20,022.9
23', 538.0
7,441.2
22,009.2
36,777.4
21,593,7
15,463.8
35,588.3
47,205.7
2€,704.2
2,406..6
1,957.4
274,160.3
4,639.2
6,312.0
6,541.1
20,202.9
31,366.4
724.4
FTE
154.7
116.5
384.2
88.1
110 .4
60.4
26.6
308.1
24.0
64.4
19.7
0.0
80.3
112.5
119.8
1,669.7
61.6
26.9
12.9
13 .1
0.0
114.5
46.2
16.8
85.5
48,6 '
117.4
306.9
333.3
153.6
106.9
401 .4
212.3
0.0
27.0
1,855.9 .
15.6
0.0
102 .1
217,6
240.7
0,0
DRINKING WATER
69,786.0
576.0
                            2-89

-------
                UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           FY 1997  PRESIDENTS  BUDGET
                             (dollars in thousands)
PROGRAM ELEMENT
         REGIS, SPEC REGIS, AND TO
         PESTICIDES ENFORCEM
         GENERIC CHEM REV
        'PEST PROG IMPLEMENT.
         WCF • - PESTICIDES

         PESTICIDES

         TOX SOB ENFRCMENT
         OPTS - EPCRA
         OPTS - EPCRA - ENF
         CHEMICAL ASSESS •& MGT.
         NATIONAL PROGRAM CHEMICAL
         WCF - TOXIC SUBSTANCES

         TOXIC SUBSTANCES

         HW MGT REG STRAT IM
         HAZ WST ENF - OSWER
         REGS GDLNS & POL HW
         RCRA REG. PROG-OW
         UST - REGULATION, GUIDELI
         EMERG PLAN/COMM RIGHT TO
         WCF - HAZARDOUS WASTE

         HAZARDOUS WASTE•
                               DOLLARS

                                27,490.7
                                 4,145.2
                                39,420.4
                                10,711.2
                                   285.4

                                82,052.9

                                 6,111.2
                                25,697.5
                                 1,437.8
                                28,952.0
                                19,289.3
                                   292.2

                                81,780,0
                                                                    FTE
                247.8
                 60.5
                280.6'
                 94.3
                  0.0

                683.2

                 86.8
                111.6
                 20.9
                254.1
                116.3
                  0.0

                589.7
65,783.7
33,575.2
71,495.6
517.2
7,318.9
14,853.0
2,162.3
547.2
364.4
280.6
7.4
58.5
69.0
0.0
                               195,705.9
              1,327 .1
         REGIONAL COUNSEL
         GENERAL COUNSEL
         ANAL. ENV. SERVICES
         POLICY DEVLP & ECONOMICS
         REGS DEVLP & CBEP
         REGIONAL MULTI-MEDIA PROG
         AGENCY ENV. JUSTICE
         ENF POLICY & OPRNS
         ENV. REV.& COORD.
         ENV. BORDER ACTIVITIES
         CRIMINAL ENFORCEMENT PROG
         ENV. EDUCATION PROGRAM
         REGULATORY ENFORCEMENT
         SECTOR & MULTIMEDIA
         HAZ WASTE - SITE REM~ ENF
         OS, AND CAPACITY OUTREACH
         OFF OF CO-OP ENV. MGT.
         POLLUTION PREVENTION
         OFFICE OF TRIBAL AFFAIRS
         WCF - MULTIMEDIA
         EXEC. STEERING COMMITTEE
         FEDERAL FACILITY ENFORCE
         MULTIMEDIA

         PROGRAM MGT -
         PROGRAM MGT -
8,455.7
18,062.1
2,666.3
70,540.2
10,399.6
26,174.8
3,434.0
22,124.9
10,738.7
2,651.6
22,453.0 '
8,150.4
21,631.4
33,787.0
777.5
5,391.0
1,735.5
23,362.2
3,679.9
610.1
29,829.4
5,116.6
107.8
171.9
0.0
172.9
63.0
5.0
. 11.4
296.4
108.4
12.6
239.5
14.7
144.0
213.9
5.5
22.5
9.2
64.5
41.3
0.0
7.4
37.1
OAR
OW
331,771.9

  5,0-93.4
  5,764 .1
1,749.0

   49.3
   50.3
                                     2-90

-------
          UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                  FY 1997  PRESIDENTS BUDGET
                    (dollars in thousands)
PROGRAM ELEMENT
PROGRAM
PROGRAM
PROGRAM
MISSION
PROGRAM
MISSION
DOLLARS
MGT
MGT
MGT
AND
MGT
- OPTS
- OE
- OSWER
POLICY - OPPE
- OGC
4
6
2
3

& POLICY MGMT
,061,
,476,
,922,
,687,
936,
550,
.6 '
.5
.5
.0
.2
.0
FTE
'40
30
26
23
10
8
.8
.5
.7
.9
.5
.0
MISSION AND POLICY

IMMED OFC OF ADMIN
ADMINR'S REP FUND
INTERNTL ACTIVITIES
CIVIL RIGHTS
SCIENCE ADVISORY BO
ADMIN LAW JUDGES
ORG. & HEALTH SERV. .
CONTRACTS GROTS MGMT
FAC & MGT SERVICES
INFO SYS &. SERVICES
ENVIR ED, FOUNDATION
OFF OF SMALL & DISA
PROGRAM MGT - OARM
STRATEGIC PLAN. & DATA
CONG. & LEGIS. AFFAIRS
COMM., ED. & PUB. AFFAIRS
EXECUTIVE SUPPORT
REG. OPER. STATE/LOCAL
OFC OF HUMAN RESOURCES AN
OFC OF EXEC. SEC.  (OEX)
COMM. ON ENVIR. COOP.
RESOURCE MGT - HQ
RESOURCE MGT - REGIONS
AGENCY MGT. REIMBMTS

AGENCY MANAGEMENT

REGIONAL MANAGEMENT
PLAN. EVAL. & ANALYSIS
HUMAN RESOURCES MGT-REGIO
ADMIN MGMT-REGIONS
WCF - REGIONAL "MANAGEMENT
CONTRACTS & GRTS MGMT-RT
REGIONAL MGT REIMBU

REGIONAL MANAGEMENT

PROFESSIONAL TRAINI
NATIONWIDE SUPP SERV
HDQRS SUPPORT SERV
REG SUPPORT SERVIC
ADP SUPPORT COSTS
SUPPORT COSTS

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM  & MANAG
   29,491.3
  174,699.6

   21,271.1
    7,413.6
    5,774.9
   13,847.0
    1,680.6
    8,720.6
        0.0

   58,707.8

    1,249.8
  152,549.0
   64,681.7
   52,510.3
      361.0
  271,351.8

1,894,329.2
   240,6
•4,016
6
16,428
2,717
2,308
2,7,87
1,982
20,980
12,270
32,882
780
1,136
4,246
9,779
3,130
5,583
1,526
2,735
15,011
1,506
3,000
23,387
6,497
0
.5
.0
.1
.7
.3
.5
.9
-1 '
.1
.2
.0
.9
.0
.9
.2
.2
.2
.6
.0
.4
.0
.2
.6
.0
41.9
0.0
'56,5
28.7
22.7
29.6
24 . 2
267.8
154.6
205.4
0,0
8.9
20.4
59.9
. 39.8
• 47.9
17.4
24.8
191.4
19.1
0.0
226.2
10S.1
1.5
 1,604.8

   226.2
   101.8
    94.3
   226.1
     0.0
   142.4
     1.0

   791.8

     0.0
     0,0
     0.0
    14.3
     0.0
    14.3

11,216.0
                            2-91

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                  EMISSION STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT


 NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  Office of Air and Radiation

 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATOR? FRAMEWORK

 The  provisions  of  Title  I,  Nonattainment,   and Title  III,  Hazardous  Air
 Pollutants,  of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA)  of 1990 provide the statutory
 framework for this program  element.   Title III directed the  Administrator to
 publish a schedule  for the  issuing  of maximum achievable  control  technology
 (MAC?)  standards for all sources  categories of major sources listed under Section
 112 of  the CAA.   Title I directed the development of control technique guidelines
 (CTGs)  for  volatile organic  compounds (VOC)   emissions  for at  least  13  new
 sources.  Additionally, the CAA Amendments of 1977  directed the,-Administrator to
 publish a  list  of  all  major  source  categories not  covered by new  source
.performance  standards (NSPSs) and to promulgate new NSPSs within  five years.

 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

.The major focus  of  the  air toxics  program will be  the  development of  MACT
 standards to control emissions of 189 air toxics from 174  source  categories as
 required under section 112  of  CAAA and other  regulatory authorities.   Within
 eight years  after the issuance of MACT standards,  additional standards must be
 promulgated  to further  reduce  risk to public  health and the  environment,  if
 warranted.   The  Agency's strategies for  air  pollution control  incorporate a
 strong  regulatory role for State and local  agencies in implementing the national
 standards'and for problems that are not of  broad national concern.  This program
 element supports several  non-regulatory activities aimed at providing State and
 local agencies  the technical skills  and assistance  (risk/exposure assessment,
 control technology) needed to address  local environmental problems for air toxics
 and criteria pollutants  and the information  needed  to provide  technical  and
 compliance assistance to small businesses.  Primary mechanisms for  delivering
 this support are  the Control  Technology Center  (CTC),  Air Risk Information
 Support Center  (AirRlSC) ,  the  MACT  database,  and  the RACT/BACT/LAER  Clear-
 inghouse .

 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

 The goals and  objectives of this  program are:   (l)  developing  policies  and
 regulations  for controlling air toxics under Section 112 of the  Clean Air Act
 (CAA) and other regulatory authorities; (,2)  setting and periodically reviewing
 and revising new source performance standards   (NSPSs}  under Section  111  of the
 CAA for major air pollution  sources;  (3) setting and periodically reviewing and
 revising CTQrs  for major sources of VOC emissions,  oxides  of nitrogen (NOx)  and
 particulate  matter emissions; (4)  performing studies  on specific  air pollution
 issues  such  as  the deposition of air toxics into  selected U.S. waters and VOC
 emissions from  the  use  of  consumer  products,  conducting risk analyses  to
 determine whether the residual risk remaining  after the application  of MACT is
 sufficient to warrant regulation: and ,(5) providing technical assistance on air
 pollution control, technologies and specific small business compliance and control
 requirements to State and local air pollution  agencies,  and performing studies
 on specific air  pollution issues  such as the  deposition  of  air toxics  into
 selected U.S. waters and VOC emissions from the use of consumer products.   The
 program also responds to litigation of NSPSs and National Emission Standards for
 Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs)  and to technical issues  in  implementing air
 standards under these and other CAA programs.
                                      2-92

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
            STATE PROGRAM GUIDELINES AND AIR STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES' / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK          ;

Most activities focus on implementing the Clean Air Act (CAA) provisions dealing
with nohattainment in Title I and operating permits in Title V.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This  program  is responsible for  implementing  the  air quality  management
provisions of the CAA  (Titles I and V";) .  This includes setting; new and revised
National  Ambient Air  Quality Standards  (NAAQS)   and providing  guidance and
assistance to Regions 'and States to develop State Implementation Plans  (SIPS) to
attain the NAAQS by the statutory deadlines established in the  CAA.  The program
also provides guidance and .assistance for the New Source  Review Program and in
developing operating  permit programs under Title V and ensures State programs are
adequately implemented.                         '                   '


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this program element are to implement the Clean Air Act  {CAA}
requirements to:  (1) review, revise, and set new national ambient air quality
standards .[NAAQS),  (2)  develop policies,  guidelines  and regulations  for air
pollution control programs [principally State implementation plans  (SIP's)], (3)
develop  and  manage   operating  permit  programs,  (4)  assist  and  audit the
development and implementation of air pollution control programs to facilitate
national consistency at the Regional,  State,  and local levels,  and  (5) manage a
training program for air pollution professionals funded under  section 105. The
SIP's provide for attainment and maintenance of the NAAQS and establish programs
to review new sources, prevent significant deterioration {PSDJ  of air quality in
clean air areas, and  protect  visibility in national parks  and wilderness areas.
                                     2-93

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION

 NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:      Office of'Air and Radiation


 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

 The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 provide the statutory basis for this program
 element.    The  program's   focus  i's  the  implementation of  the  requirements
 established by the 199Q Amendments  principally those requirements contained in
 Titles  I,  II,  III,  IV,  and  V.    Additionally,  the  program performs,  where
 necessary,  certain direct  Federal regulatory  activities  where States  have not
 developed an approvable regulatory program or  accepted delegation.


 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  -  '

 This program  element  provides supports  for  the operation  of  an air  quality
 management program  within  each  of  the Agency's  ten Regional  Offices.   The
 Regional program provides policy guidance and technical support to states in the
 development of control strategies, emission inventories, regulatory programs for
 the attainment  and  maintenance  .of  National  Ambient Air  Quality  Standards
 (NAAQSs), operating permits,  and  acid  deposition.   .The  Regional program also
 provides support,to those states assuming delegable responsibilities for national
 strategies and requirements,  including  strategies  for air toxics.   The Regions
 assist  states- in developing  approvable strategies  and regulatory  programs;
 provide programmatic input into the air  grants  process  and play a principal role
 in negotiating air quality  program grants  to state  and local control  agencies;
 and audit  individual  state  regulatory  programs  .to  assess the  adequacy  of
 capabilities and procedures and  to ensure consistency in the implementation of
'the Clean Air Act.  The Regions also conduct the 'necessary regulatory review and
•coordination for approval in the  Federal Register  of individual  strategies and
 regulations in state implementation plans  (SIPs) submitted to EPA,  "The program
 performs, where necessary,  certain direct  Federal  regulatory activities where
 states   have  not  developed   an  appro'vable   regulatory  program  or,  accepted
 delegation.


 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

 The major objectives of this program are :  (1)  provide technical  assistance and
 guidance to States  for the development  and  implementation of  strategies  and
 regulatory programs  for the attainment  and maintenance of national  ambient air
 quality standards (NAAQS);   (2) provide guidance and  assistance  regarding the
 operating permit program,   air toxic  redaction program and the  small  business
 technical assistance program;  (3)  perform' activities necesssary to implement the
 regulations issued  under Section 112  that  have  not  completed  the  delegation
 process  to  states;   (4)   provide,  assistance  to   those  States   delegated
 responsibilities for certain national strategies and requirements, including the
 Prevention of Significant  Deterioration  (PSD)and  the New Source Review {NSR).
 programs;  (5)  the review and  formulation of  appropriate approval  actions for
 State developed strategies  and regulatory programs;  {6) the timely negotiation,
 award and oversight  of the  air program  grants;, and (7) review individual State
 regulatory programs  to  assess the adequacy of capabilities and procedures and to
 ensure  consistency in the implementation of the Clean Air Act  (CAA).
                                      2-94

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

National Program Manager:     Office of Air and Radiation

.STATUTORY AUTHORITIES  / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The  activities  of  this program  focus  on implementing  the  1990  Clean Air Act
Amendments and the implementation of air monitoring strategies as  delineated  in
40 CFR 58.                           •                 '

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program supports the  operation of an ambient air quality monitoring program
in each of the ten EPA Regional Offices.  Through  the program, EPA manages and
oversees state ambient  air quality monitoring networks, associated laboratory and
field  quality  assurance  activities  and  implementation   of air  monitoring
strategies  described  in  EPA air monitoring  regulations.    Additionally, EPA
provides technical support to and the coordination of Regional and state  field
investigation  activities  for  collecting ambient air  quality  samples,  and
coordinates, validates, and  stores state  emission  data  repo.rted to EPA.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goals of this program  are:   (1) the management and provide  technical support
for the State ambient air quality monitoring networks, associated  laboratory and
field quality  assurance  activities;  and  the  implementation of air monitoring
strategies as delineated in  40 CFR 58;  (2) to provide technical support to and
the  coordination pf  Regional  and  State  field  investigation  'activities for
collecting  ambient  air quality  samples  for  subsequent analysis  and related
quality control; and (3)  the management and coordination of State arrangements
for storing ambient and emission data in  the Environmental .Protection Agency's
(EPA) Aerometric Information Retrieval Systems.
                                     2-95

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROQRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
              AIR QUALITY & EMISSION DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS

National Program Manager:     Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

All major programs will be continued and directed at implementation of the Clean"
Air Act  (CAA).  Primary support will be directed at Title I programs  to monitor
and attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards  (NAAQS).   Title III efforts
included emission test  support and modeling to develop emission standards.' Title
V efforts will focus on developing and operating systems for storing,  retrieving
and tracking operating permits  data.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program provides scientific and technical guidance and support to other  EPA
Headquarters  Offices,  Regional Offices, _and  state and  local  agencies  in .the
following areas:  ambient air quality monitoring and modeling,  emission factors
and  inventories,  control  strategy  demonstrations, and  emissions, measurement
through source tests,   In addition, this program provides, for the issuance o.f  new
and revised regulatory requirements  and related technical guidance; development
and operation  of information management  systems  for  storing,  retrieving,   and
.analyzing ambient air quality and emission data at the state and national level;
and preparation of trends analyses and related air quality and emission progress
assessments  for program evaluation and development  as 'well as  for  public
information needs.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The major objectives of this program are:   (1) providing scientific and technical
guidance and quality assurance* support  to other Environmental Protection Agency
Headquarters Offices,  Regional  Offices  (R0''s) and  State  and  local agencies  air
quality  monitoring and  modeling,  emission  factors and inventories, control
strategy demonstrations, emissions measurement, and development.of ambient  and
emission, standards;  (2)  developing  and  operating  national  data  systems which
address  the  major needs of  Headquarters, . RO  and State/local users for   air
quality, operating permits, emissions and compliance data; (3) measure and track
progress in reducing emissions  and improving air quality nationwide.
                                     2-96

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     MOBILE SOURCE PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:   .  Office of Air and Radiation


STATUTORYAUTHORITIES/ REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Clean Air Act requires that EPA address significant environmental problems
related to motor vehicle emissions — ozone/carbon monoxide  (CO) non-attainment
and air toxics.  The Amendments to'the Clean Air Act require that EPA reassess
much of the work that has  been done over the last 20  years, revise motor vehicle
and fuel standards  that are already in place,  and  develop  completely new and
innovative programs to  address  persistent air quality problems which have not
responded to traditional controls.

•In addition to this broad statutory authority,  this  program  operates within the
regulatory   framework   governing  the   establishment  of   state   and  local
Inspection/Maintenance programs  {I/M}  and,  more broadly,  State Implementation
Plans  (SIPs).


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program supports the operation of mobile source-related programs within each
of the  Agency's ten Regional  Offices.   The Regional  program provides 'policy
guidance and technical  support to states  developing and  implementing motor
vehicle emission control programs,  including I/M programs,  and clean vehicle and
fuels programs as part of their SIPs.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this program is to  ensure that all motor vehicle and fuel emission
control strategies adopted at the state and  local level, including market-based
incentives and other innovative approaches to emission control,  are designed and
implemented to achieve the emission reductions  necessary to  attain the national
ambient air quality standards for  criteria pollutants.  Vehicle emissions from
the  tailpipe  and  fuel  evaporation from the  engine and  fuel tank  account
nationwide for 50 percent of all  (EC)  hydrogen emissions—the main contributor
to ozone; 9'0 percent of all CO  emissions; and 30 percent of all (NOx) nitrogen
oxide emissions.  Approximately half of  toxic emissions are related to mobile
sources.  These toxic 'emissions from motor vehicles  contribute to approximately
700 fatal cancers annually and are associated with respiratory disease and birth
defects.
                                     2-97

-------
                UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          STRATOSPHERIC OZONE PROGRAM


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:     Office of Air and Radiation


STATUTORY FRAMEWORK / REGUItATORY AUTHORITIES

Title VI of the  Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 provide the statutory authority
to protect  the  stratosphere.  In addition,  the .United  States  has  signed the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

PROGRftM DESCRIPTION

The  Stratospheric  Protection Program is  responsible  for   policy  analysis,
regulatory  development   and   implementation,  and  assessment of  alternatives
regarding the effect that chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-depleting compounds
have on the stratospheric ozone layer.  This includes developing and analyzing
the  costs  and benefits  of  different .options  for rulemakings,  responding to
potential litigation, and developing-and implementing final rules  associated with
Title VI of the  CAAA.  The program is also responsible for analyzing and helping
develop  U.-S. negotiating positions at meetings of  the international parties to
the Montreal Protocol.   In addition,  through the Montreal Protocol, the program
helps transfer ozone-friendly technologies to developing  countries. In addition
to  creating the  regulatory   program  needed to  phase  out  and  find  adequate
substitutes for ozone depleting substances, the program is also working to create.
educat-ion and prevention initiatives so that the incidence of skin cancer due to
ozone depletion can be minimized.  Finally,  the program is responsible for policy
analysis of  research on  ozone depleting substances and their effects  on human
health and the environment.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The program seeks to phase-out ozone-depleting substances by  early next decade.
                                     2-98

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         STATIONARY SOURCE COMPLIANCE
OFFICE:  OECA
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/ REGULATORY FRRMEWORK

This program  implements  the Clean  Air Act with  a  primary focus  on the 1990
amendments  (PL  105-459 of November 15, 1990).   The applicable provisions are
Title I,  Nonattainment;  Title III, Hazardous Air  Pollutants;  Title IV, Acid
Deposition Control, Title V, Operating Permits;  Title VI,  Stratospheric Ozone
Protection; and Title VII Enforcement.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program manages and supports the implementation  of a national air  compliance
and  enforcement  program  primarily through  operations  in each  of  the  ten EPA
Regional Offices.   The  program ensures1 attainment  and  maintenance of ambient
standards for Clean Air Act  {CAA)  criteria  and toxic pollutants  and ensures the
reduction of hazardous air emissions.   Regional Offices assure high  compliance
with requirements applicable to stationary  sources of air pollution established
under state implementation plans  (SIPs), New Source Performance  Standards  (NSPS)
National  Emission  Standards   for  Hazardous  Air Pollutants   (NESHAPS),  Acid
Deposition Control and Stratospheric Ozone Protection.  Compliance monitoring and
enforcement efforts are  focused on major1  stationary  sources  in nonattainment
areas,  on new sources, and on problem sources in attainment  areas to ensure that
a high compliance  rate is maintained.   The regional air compliance program is
designed to support and  supplement the efforts of  state  and .local air pollution
control agencies by ensuring effective inspection programs, providing  assistance
in developing enforcement response plans, and  providing  appropriate enforcement
followup.  Regional compliance and enforcement efforts will continue to  assure
the  phase  out  of acid rain precursors and chemical emissions  harmful  to the
stratospheric ozone layer and on improving data quality from sources applying for
permits.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The  goals of this  program are  to ensure attainment  and maintenance of ambient
standards for Clean Air Act (CAA) criteria pollutants, to ensure the reduction
of air toxic emissions, to ensure compliance with the recycling provisions  of the
stratospheric ozone program  to advance the operating permits  program,  and to
monitor  the  implementation  of the-acid  rain  requirements.   To address  these
goals,  program  objectives  include ensuring high  compliance  with requirements
applicable to stationary sources  of air pollution  established under section 110
State Implementation-Plans (SIPs),' section  111 New Source Performance Standards
(NSPSs), section  112 National  Emission'" Standards  for Hazardous Air  Pollutants
(NESHAPs) and section  608  of the CAA.  Compliance  monitoring and enforcement
efforts  are  focused on  stationary sources,  on  NSPS  sources,  and  on NESHAPs
sources.   The  regional  air  compliance program  is designed  to  support  and
supplement  the  efforts  of State  and  local air pollution  control  agencies by
ensuring  effective inspection programs,  providing  technical, workshops  and
support, and providing appropriate enforcement followup.
                                     2-99

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGSNCI
                         PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                TESTING, TECHNICAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:     Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK.'

The  Clean  Air Act  Amendments  (CAAA).  of  1990  require  that' EPA  address  the
significant  environmental   problems  related  to  motor  vehicle emissions
ozone/carbon monoxide (CO)   non-attainment  and air  toxics.   Other programs and
activities are carried out  in accordance  with the mandates of the Motor Vehicle
Information and Cost Savings Act and the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of- 1988.

In addition  to  these statutory  authorities,  the program operates  within the
framework of a number of regulations relating  to motor vehicle certification,
light-duty and heavy-duty recall,  light-duty and heavy-duty selective enforcement
audits,  a  full  array  of  regulations  governing  the  quality  of  fuel,  and
requirements.to develop emission factors for all mobile sources.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION                    '              '               .

This program element provides testing,  technical and administrative management
support  to  the operating  programs of the Office of  Mobile Sources  and  EPA
National Vehicle  and Fuel  Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL).   Programs supported
include   Recall,  ' Tampering/Fuel.  Switching,   Standard   Setting,   Emissions
Characterization,  Technology Assessment, Clean Fuels/Vehicles,  Fuel Economy,
In-Use Vehicle Emissions Assessment, Certification, and Inspection/Maintenance,
described under program  elements HTA2B  and HVA2B. The support provided includes
automated data processing (ADP)  timesharing services  (providing  over  95 percent
of time-share services separately from the National Computing Center) , laboratory
data acquisition,  and computer operations;  fuel sample analysis and'testing of
motor  vehicles  to  measure emissions  and   fuel  economy;  quality  control  and
correlation  services, for EPA  and  industry testing  programs;  maintenance and
engineering design of emission testing equipment; personnel, procurement, general
administration,   safety,   facilities   support  services,   and  environmental
compliance; and management  of the assurance activities.

Testing activities supported at the NVFEL range from performing standard, well
established  engineering  tests  to the development and  performance  of new test
procedures to accommodate  new program needs or  changing  technology.  Testing
supports the recall  surveillance, tampezing/fuel switching programs, development
of emission  factors, and the assessment  of  the effectiveness of new emissions
control technology in maintaining the emission standards in Use.    The facility
services function is fully  administered by EPA since  the February 1991 purchase
of the NVFEL by the  Federal  government.  A high level  of occupational  safety and
health is maintained,  as  well as full compliance with EPA, State of Michigan, and
City of Ann Arbor environmental compliance  requirements.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The  mobile  source  support programs are an integral  element  of  the overall
programs aimed at implementing the CAAA and controlling and reducing  ozone, CO,
and air toxics.  Vehicle emissions from  the tailpipe and fuel evaporation from
the  engine  and  fuel  tank  account  nationwide  for  50  percent  of  all  {HO
hydrocarbon  emissions-—the main  contributor  to ozone;  90  percent  of  all  CO
emissions; and 30 percent of all  (NOx)  nitrogen oxide emissions.
These toxic emissions from motor vehicles contribute  to approximately 700 fatal
cancers annually and are associated with  respiratory disease and birth defects,

                                     2-100

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONO&S COMPLIANCE

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:     Office of Air and Radiation  .


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRMJEWOKK

The Clean Air Act (CAA)  requires  that EPA address the significant environmental
problems  related to  motor vehicle  emissions  —-  ozone/carbon  monoxide  (CO)
non-attainment and air toxics.  Fuel economy and other activities are carried out
in accordance with the mandates of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings
Act and the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of  1988 (AMFA).

This program  functions  within"a  broad-regulatory  framework dealing with motor
vehicle emissions, including motor vehicle certification,  light-duty and heavy-
duty  recall,  light-duty  and heavy-duty  selective  enforcement  audits,  the
importation . of non-conforming  motor  vehicles,  a  full array  of  regulations
governing the quality 'of fuel, Tier I  standards adopted as a result of the CAA
amendments  of  1990,  cold temperature  CO  standards, on-board  diagnostics,
durability,  and  inspection/maintenance   (I/M)  short  test  procedures -. with
increased emphasis on using innovative approaches and market-based incentives to
achieve the goals,


PROGRAM DlSCRIfTION

This program element provides for  mobile sources emissions  and  fuel economy
compliance activities.  The program assures that new  motor vehicles  offered for
sale- in the  U.S.  are in compliance with  the  emission  standards prescribed by
model  year and  class  of  vehicle.   The  programs also:  (1)  assure  that new
production vehicles meet emission standards  (through the Selective  Enforcement
Audit  (SEA) program};  (2}  assure that vehicles meet emission standards in-use
(the recall  program is  directed at assuring  that  manufacturers fulfill their
responsibility to produce vehicles which comply with these'standards) ; (3) assure
that vehicles incapable of meeting emission standards are  not imported into the
country; (4)  provide support to states opting for California emission standards
under Section 177  and process California emissions waivers;  (5)  assure that fuels
and fuel additive requirements are implemented (e.g., through regulations); and
(6) implement banking  and trading and  non-compliance penalty programs.   In
addition, the program works with the Department of Energy to provide accurate
fuel economy information to the consumer.   The program oversees Corporate Average
Fuel Economy  (CAFE) activities and provides audit followup,

GOALSAND,OBJECTIVES

Vehicle emissions from the  tailpipe and fuel evaporation from the engine and fuel
tank account nationwide for 50 percent of all  (HC) hydrogen emissions'—the main
contributor to ozone;  90 percent of all CO emissions; and 30 percent of all. (NOx)
nitrogen oxide emissions.  Approximately half of toxic  emissions are related to
mobile sources.  These emissions  from motor vehicles contribute to approximately
700 fatal cancers annually and are associated with respiratory  disease and birth
defects.

Specific objectives  include the  development and implementation of programs to
ensure that current mandated vehicle emissions standards are met,  that accurate
fuel economy information is  made  available to the  consumer* (through the MPG
values published in the Gas Mileage Guide), and that  EPA's  responsibilities are
met under the CAFE compliance program, including changes made by the AMFA.

                                   .  2-101

-------
                 UNITED STATES 1ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         TRIBAL PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

NATIONAL 'PROGRAM MANAGER:     Office of Air and Radiation "

STATUTORY AUTHORITY\REGULATORY FRAMEWORK  '

Activities focus on implementation of the Clean Air Act (CAA),  section 301  (d).


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION               .

This program element provides  regional support to Federally recognized Indian
Tribes for the prevention and control of air pollution on Indian reservations.'
Assistance will  be provided  to Indian Tribes  to help develop  and implement
strategies and regulatory programs  to  protect  tribal air  quality and meet 'the
requirements of the Clean Air Act  (CAA).  These programs may  include  air quality
monitoring, emissions  inventories,  attainment  and maintenance o,f National Air
Quality Standards  (NAAQSs),  operating permits, acid deposition and  air toxics.

The regional support provided under this program element will go toward tribal
activities that assess tribal air quality; develop tribal implementation plans
.(TIPs) for the attainment and maintenance of the NAAQSs as  specified  in Title I;
enforce source emission regulations  and requirements  contained within the TIPs;
review and permit new and existing sources; monitor ambient air quality in order
to assess environmental quality and progress; and develop data bases necessary
to protect  tribal air quality.   In addition,  the regional  support will help
promote  the  assumption  and  implementation  of  other CAA responsibilities,
including • those  for the protection  of visibility,  the implementation  of New
Source Performance  Standards  (NSPSs),  and implementation  of National Emission
Standards for the Hazardous Air Pollutants  (NESHAPs),  Assistance will also be
provided to Indian Tribes in air pollution control training.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                           .

The major objectives  of  this  program  are to  provide  technical  assistance to
Federally recognized Indian Tribes to: (1)  ensure that tribal  health and welfare,
including reservation ecosystems, are adequately protected under the CAA; and,
(2)  assist  Tribes in  developing  comprehensive  and  effective air  quality
management programs to ensure that tribal air quality management programs will
be implemented to the extent necessary on Indian reservations.
                                     2-102

-------
                 UNITED -STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      REGIONAL WORKINS CAPITAL FOND—AIR

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  '   Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / RSStJLATORY FRAMEWORK

None.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION •

     This program element  contains  resources  for the Regional Working Capital
Fund for the Air Media.'   The resources  include  the  base  resources to pay  for
program postage costs that provide all  routine, day-to-day  U.S. Postal Services
and includes regular  First,  Third and Fourth Class  mail,  'Post Office Express
Mail,   two-day  priority mail,  registered and certified mail " and  pouch mail/-
Federal Expres.s overnight mail and United  Parcel Service shipments.  The increase
will provide for annualization of the February,  1995  postal rate increase of
10.3%,   For NDPD operations, the base dollars provide an on-going data processing
and telecommunication services for this Program.   These  services are classified
into five cost  centers: Enterprise Computing Services, Network Services, Desktop
Services, Technical  Consulting  Services and  Scientific  Computing  'Services.
Investment resources  will  provide the Program's share of Depreciation of Capital
Assets, Increased Service Costs, Additional Mainframe Capacity, Investments in
Network Services and Investments in Technical Consulting Services.
                                     2-103

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                               ACID  RAIN PROGRAM


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:     Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The acid rain program is responsible for the development and implementation of
all  EPA acid  rain  program activities  under Title  .IV. of  the Clean  Air Act
Amendments of 1990  (CAAA).  The acid rain program also supports development of
market-based initiatives under Title I of the CAAA.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program element includes  the development of strategic policy, regulations,
and  technical  and procedural. guidance  to assure the  effective  management of
national activities designed to control  sulfur dioxide  (SQ2) and nitrogen oxides
(NOJ,  the  principal precursors of acidic  deposition.   In addition, the program
is responsible for directly implementing the allowance  trading system, the cer-
tification of emissions  monitors  at .all affected facilities,  the tracking of all
allowances and emissions, and  the permitting of all Phase I sources and any Phase
II sources for which state  programs  have* not been  established.   As the Agency
lead on acid rain issues, the program recommends research'activities, assesses
program  progress   and   impacts,  conducts  outreach  activities,   and  supports
international agreements.  Finally, the program provides support to other Agency
regulatory  reinvention  efforts,  such  as  the  application  of  market-based
approaches to address ozone and particulate matter nonattainment problems.

GOALS AMP OBJECTIVES

The  acid  rain program  goals  and objectives are to  achieve a 10 million ton
reduction  of emissions   of  sulfur dioxide  and  a 2  million ton  reduction of
nitrogen oxides and to demonstrate the efficacy of market-based approaches for
addressing environmental problems.  By 2010 the  compliance costs associated with
the SO, control effort are now  expected  to be $2.0 to $2.5 billion per year—half
the level expected when  the  law was enacted in 1990.   The public health benefits
of sulfate reduction are expected  to  reach $12 to  $40 billion  per  year and
improvements  to  visibility from  sulfate reduction  have  been valued  at  $3.5
billion per year.   The  emissions  reductions of  S02 and NOX are expected to: 1)
prevent more lakes and streams from becoming acidic and result in the eventual
recovery of  most lakes  and  streams currently  experiencing acidic  damage 'to
aquatic life; 2) decrease damage  to forests; 3)  reduce the rate of deterioration
of buildings and monuments occurring due to acidic deposition.
                                     2-104

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS PROGRAM


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:     Office of Air and Radiation


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK    '           "

The indoor environments  program is responsible for implementation of the policy
and  non-research  components  of  Title  IV of  .the  Superfund Amendments  and
Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and the Indoor Radon Abatement Act  (IRAA).

PROSRAM DESCRIPTION

This program element supports  the analysis,  development,  and review of indoor
environments programs and activities necessary for coordination and oversight by
the National Program Manager,   The Indoor Environments Program implements the
provisions of the Indoor  Radon Abatement Act operation of the  State Indoor Radon
Grants Program, oversight of  the national radon proficiency programs,  work to
reduce  elevated  levels  of  radon  in  schools,  promotion  of. model  building
standards, and technical  assistance to build capabilities at the state and local
level to identify and fix radon problems.  As authorized under SARA, the program
will continue to  address  sources and levels  of othex indoor air pollutants of
concern, better 'understand the adverse health effects of poor indoor air quality,
refine guidance on issues such as building design, operation and maintenance, and
disseminate  new  knowledge   to   key • audiences  including  state  and  local
environmental health officials and building facility managers,

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The  indoor  environments  program goals  and objectives  are to reduce,  to the
greatest extent practicable,  human exposure  to  the  entire  range of indoor air
pollutants  including   radon,   VOCs,   biocontaminants   carbon   monoxide  and
environmental tobacco smoke that  are known to cause significant excess mortality
and which range in their effects from cancer to non cancer-endpoints including
mild irritation to acute toxicity and chronic organ damage.
                                     2-105

-------
                 UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             GLOBAL  CHANGE PROGRAM
NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:     Office of Air and Radiation


STATUTORY FRAMEWORK / REGULATORY AUTHORITIES '   .   '      '       '

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990  provide  the statutory authority to protect
the  stratosphere.    This responsibility  includes  climate  change  related to
stratospheric  and tropospheric  alterations,  and  all  effects and  emissions
associated with upper atmospheric change.

The Pollution Prevention Act.provides for reducing pollution through pollution
prevention mechanisms.  The Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Program supports key
voluntary  programs  to profitably  reduce pollution-.   , These  programs  involve
diverse'  technologies  including lighting,  heating,  air  conditioning,  thermal
systems,  and motors.   These  voluntary programs  form the  core  of  the  U.S.
commitment to the Rio Treaty .on climate change.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Atmospheric  Pollution Prevention Program  is  responsible for implementing
voluntary  programs   as   a  means  to   reduce  global  warming  and   fulfil-  U.S.
commitments under the Rio'Treaty and the subsequent U.S. Climate Change Action
Plan.  This Plan seeks to 'return greenhouse ga.s emissions in the United States
to 1990 levels by the year 2000.  Through demonstrating the pollution prevention
benefits  of  energy  efficiency,  the  program educates  manufacturers,  building
owners, equipment and service providers,  designers  and consumers on  the purchase,
installation, and use of  energy efficient products (e.g., lighting, heating, air
conditioning, ventilation,  computers and other energy using equipment).  Further,
the program is responsible for managing  the  reduction  of methane emissions  into
the atmosphere from each of the major methane sources  through an additional set
of strategically  designed voluntary  outreach programs.  The program works to
attain this goal  by identifying, developing and promoting profitable options for
reducing methane emissions, overcoming technical, legal and  other barriers and
supporting  this  technology  with industry  and members  of  the  international
community devoted to effective methane source control measures.  The program-also
works with key indus-tries to cost-effectively reduce emissions of other highly
potent greenhouse gases  such as HFCs and PFCs.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The  Atmospheric   Pollution  Prevention  Program goals  and  objectives  include
providing about 50%  of the reductions iri emissions of  greenhouse gases expected
from the  Climate Change Action Plan  (which has  the  overall goal of reducing
emissions  in  the  year  2000 to 1990 levels).   The Program  provides 25% of the
reductions in  carbon dioxide  emissions,  over 50%  of the reductions in methane-
emissions, 50% of the reductions in HFC emissions, and 100%  of the  reductions in
PFC emissions expected under the Plan.
                                     2-106

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM EIiEMENT DESCRIPTION
                              GREAT LAKES PROGRAM

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: WATER

STATUTORYAUTHORITIES/ REGOLATORY FRAMEWORK

    The Great Lakes National Program Office {GLNPO)  has various responsibilities
for meeting the expanded Great Lakes toxics  and  nutrient monitoring  and control
requirements under Section  118 of the Clean Water Act, as' amended, including
responsibilities specified in the Great-Lakes Critical Programs  Act  of 1990 and
United States commitments under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement  (GLWQA)
of- 1978, as amended;  and responsibilities under  Section  112 of the Clean Air Act
Amendments.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION                "

     EPA's  Great  Lakes  Program  utilizes a  multimedia approach  to ecosystem
management.  Hallmarks  of the program are geographically targeted, risk-based
prioritization, pollution prevention,  and coordinated cooperative efforts' on the
parts of  states,  other' Federal  agencies, non-governmental  organizations, and
Canada.    GLNPO supports  state and Regional  implementation via demonstration
projects for contaminated sediment remediation and critical 'habitat restoration;
toxics and nutrients monitoring; assistance in remedial action planning for Great
Lakes areas of concern'and in  lakewide management  planning; environmental data
management; and public  education and outreach.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

     The goal o-f the Agency's  Great Lakes Program is to restore and maintain the
chemical, physical,  and biological integrity of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem.
GLNPO,  in  concert with  Regions  2,  3, and ,5,  is  leading the development and
utilization  of a consortium  of  programs,  agencies,  and  public  and private
institutions to  reduce the level of  toxic  substances  in the  Great Lakes; to
protect and restore vital habitats; to restore and maintain stable, diverse, and
self-sustaining populations;  and  to protect human health.  These joint objectives
were established  in  the Great Lakes  Five Year Strategy  (developed by  EPA in
conjunction   with other  Federal,  state, and  Tribal agencies)   to  achieve an
ultimate goal of restoring the chemical, physical, and  biological-integrity of
the waters  of the Great  Lakes Basin Ecosystem,   The  Strategy, built  on the
foundation of the Great Lakes  Water Quality Agreement between the US  and Canada,
guides coordination and implementation of ecosystem protection  and  restoration
in the Great Lakes by participating agencies.
                                     2-107

-------
                 UNITED -STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             CHESAPEAKE BAI PROGRAM

 NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  WATER

 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/ REGULATORY FRAMEWORK.

 Section 117  of  the clean Water Act  (CWA) establishes the Chesapeake Bay Program
 within EPA,  authorizes  scientific investigations and dissemination  of public
 information  about the health of the Bay,  and the implementation of inter-state
 management measures  to address key problems including provisions  of financial
 assistance to  states..  The program has no regulatory authority on its own,  but
 builds on and   targets  regulatory programs as well as non-regulatory efforts of
 the Federal, state  and local  governments.   Inter-state management  measures,
 contained in multiple party agreements,  strategies, and  plans,  provide  the
 framework for action.  The  Chesapeake Bay Agreement of 1987 as amended prescribes
 a joint  restoration effort conducted by the Federal government (led by EPA)  ,
 the states of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, • the District of Columbia, and
 the Chesapeake Bay Commission  (a body  of  state  legislators  from Pennsylvania,
 Maryland and Virginia),

 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

 The program  is  dedicated to the restoration and protection of Chesapeake Bay and
 is a  comprehensive  effort to  deal  with point  and  nonpoint sources  of  water
 pollution;   air deposition  to  the  Bay directly and through its  watershed;
 management of  the agricultural, urban,  and suburban landscapes; tidal and non-
 tidal  habitats; fisheries-, waterfowl,  and other living resources of the Bay.
 Approximately  half of the  funds are provided to  the states  and the District of
 Columbia as  implementation  grants;  much of this is expended  on  cost sharing
 projects, to  reduce*   agricultural  s.ources  of  pollution.   Other  funds  go  to
 modeling, monitoring,   information management  analysis, education  and public
 outreach, living resource  management,  and management of  air and water toxics.

 GOALS  AND OBJECTIVES

 The 1987 Chesapeake  Bay Agreement,  as amended in 1992,  establishes the overall
 goal for restoration of water quality  and living resources  of  the Bay and its
 tributaries.   Specific goals  are provided  in   the  Agreement and  subsequent
 directives .of  the Executive  Council  and include; a 40% reduction in nutrient
 loads  from  point  and nonpoint  sources between  1985-2000;  achievement  of  a
 "toxic-free" Bay through a series  of specific pollution  prevention and control
 objectives;  an  interim goal of restoration of 114,000 acres of Bay grasses by the
 year 2005; opening over 1300 stream miles of -fish spawning  habitat through the
 provision of fish passage;  a short-term "no net loss" of wetlands and a long-term
 gain;   fisheries management targets ajid- numeric  goals for the restoration of a
.variety of aquatic and terrestrial species.  Through linked airshed/watershed
 models,   the relative  contributions  to  the  total  nitrogen  loadings,  from
 atmospheric  deposition of  nitrogen to the Chesapeake Bay will be quantified in
 1997.
                                     2-108

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                           ENGINEERINS AND ANALYSIS

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: WATER

STATOTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK  .

     The Agency develops and promulgates effluent standards and guidelines under
Sections 301, 304, 306, 307 and 501 of the Clean Water Act  {CWA} based on Best
Available Technology Economically Achievable; Best Conventional Technology; Best
Practicable Control Technology; New Source Performance Standards; Pretreatment
Standards for Existing  Sources; and Pretreatment Standards  for New Sources.  This
EPA  program is  supported  by detailed  engineering,  economic  and statistical
analyses,  including the  development  of analytical ''methods  for  toxics  and
hazardous pollutants.  Further,  effluent standards  and guidelines are developed
under the  Consent Decree  with  the Natural  Resources  Defense  Council  and as
required in the plan  developed pursuant to Section  304 (m)  of the  CWA,   The
Agency,   under  Section  104, conducts  studies  relating to  the  extent o-f water
pollution,

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

     The technology-based effluent guidelines program addresses multimedia risks
by developing, rules  in coordination with other Agency  programs.   Emphasis is
directed  toward:  {!)  establishing  effluent limitations   for  industries  that
discharge toxic  chemicals  directly into' waterways and  indirectly through the
discharge of toxic  chemicals  into  Publicly  Owned Treatment Works (POTWs); (2)
reviewing and identifying new and  previously regulated industrial categories to
determine candidates for promulgation of new standards or  revision to existing
standards;  (3)  providing economic,  statistical,  and wastewater  sampling and
analysis as well as engineering, technological and analytical methods  to support
the  effluent  guidelines  program;   and  (4)  encouraging/requiring  pollution
prevention as part of the program's recommended technology.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

     To  prevent  water  pollution,  the Agency develops  effluent guidelines for
industries  that present the  most  significant   risk  to  public  health  and the
environment,.  These effluent guideline regulations annually prevent the direct
release of more than 500 million pounds of toxic chemicals .into the water from
51 types of industries,  including iron  and  steel,  organic chemical,  and metal
finishing plants.
                                     2-109

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCZ
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            OCEAN DISPOSAL PERMITS

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: WATER

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

     The  Agency's  Ocean  Disposal  Programs  are  authorized  by  the  Marine
Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act  (MPRSA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the
Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988 fQDBA) ,  the  S'hore  Protection Act  (SPA) of 1988, and
the Marine Plastic Pollution,  Research and Control Act (MPPRCA) of 1987,  and are
consistent with the mandatory  provisions of the  London Dumping Convention and
Marpol, Annex V.   Resources  in  this program can be used to fund grants under the
authority of Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3).

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

     The Agency develops, coordinates  and implements policy, regulations, and
guidance  for  the  Agency's  Ocean  -Disposal  Programs.    EPA* has   statutory
responsibility 'for issuing permits for'any materials -to be dumped in ocean waters
except for dredged materials, for which  EPA has review and concurrence authority.
EPA also has statutory responsibility for  designation, monitoring, and management
of all ocean dumping sites,  including those for dredged material.  While ocean
dumping of sewage sludge and industrial waste has  ceased under QDBA,  there is a
continuing  need  under  ODBA to  provide  "oversight,  technical  assistance and
monitoring assessments after dumping has ceased.  Amendments  to the  MPRSA made
by the Water Resources  Development Act of 1992 have increased BPA's role  in site
management  and  permit  review  and set  deadlines   for  ocean  dumping  site
designations.  MPPRCA requires  EPA to establish and conduct beach monitoring fp'r
marine debris and to promote public awareness  of causes, effects,  and controls
for marine debris through public education programs.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

     The goal of this program is  to manage the  disposal  of  materials  into ocean
waters, primarily  dredged materials, such  that  the disposal  action does not
degrade the environment or endanger human  health.  Management actions can  include
site designation,permitting/ monitoring,  and enforcement actions.   In addition,
the goals of the marine debris program are to encourage pollution prevention, to
control floatable  materials before they reach the marine environment  and to
ensure  that floatable  materials  {e.g.,   plastics)  are  disposed  in the most
environmentally sound manner.
                                     2-110

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCI
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
              HATER QUALITY CRITERIA, STANDARDS ASD APPLICATIONS

 OFFICE:  OFFICE OF WATER


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Agency publishes-water quality standards under Section 304 of the Clean Water
Act (CWA),  and develops regulations and guidance to assist states in adopting and
implementing water quality standards required by Section 303.  EPA also publishes
regulations for the beneficial use and disposal of sewage sludge as  required by
Section 405(d).   Under  Section 104,  the Agency makes  available  information
through technical support publications to assist  states in  their work under the
water quality standards program,


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Agency provides  scientific support and  technical  assistance  to states in
meeting their  CWA mandate to  adopt  and implement water quality  criteria and
standards.

Specifically,  the Agency develops  national  water  quality  criteria  and  is
increasing its efforts to instill watershed based approaches .to allow States to
tailor  designation of water  uses and  criteria  to  meet  their unique, . local
requirements; e.g.,  criteria  for  arid ecosystems.    In support  of its water
related regulations, environmental assessments are conducted and Total  Maximum
Daily Load guidance is developed to assess and manage the risks from contaminated
water, sediment and fish.  Structured training is provided  to States and Indian
tribes  in  the development  and  implementation of. these programs.    EPA also
approves or  disapproves  state standards and promulgates Federal  standards if
state programs fail  to meet the CWA  requirements.   Through  this  program, EPA
promotes  those  municipal  sludge  management practices  that provide  for the
beneficial use and disposal of sludge while improving the environment and public
health.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The Agency controls unaddressed ecological and human health risks by establishing
and implementing  environmentally sound and scientifically-based water  quality
criteria and standards and sewage sludge regulations.  These activities  serve to
protect the chemical, physical,  and biological integrity of  surface waters.
                                     2-111

-------
                        STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ASENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      ASSESSMENT AND WATERSHED PROTECTION
NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / RBSOTATORY FRAMEWORK

     EPA's assessment and watershed protection activities and requirements  are
authorized by Sections 104, 106, 205, 303, 304, 305, 307, 314, 319, and  604  of
the  Clean  Water Act  and  by  Section  6217  of  the  1990  Coastal  Zone  Act
Reauthorization Amendments .  Resources in this program can be used to fund  grants
under the authority of Clean Water Act Section 104 (b) (3) .

PROGRftM DESCRIPTION                                   '

     Through  this  program  EPA manages  .and  conducts  the  identification  and
targeting of specific -water bodies  for watershed protection  and management,  the
diagnosis of  causes  of water quality problems, and the determination o.f cost
effective levels of control required to meet local water quality objectives.  EPA
develops  national  policy,  guidance  and- regulations,   and  "serves  as primary
implementors of the Federal program, by providing policy and  assistance to state
and local agencie.s for biological, chemical, and physical monitoring methods  and
water  quality  techniques.    Major  components  of  watershed protection  and
management are the nonpoint source  (NFS) control program requirements  mandated
by Section 319 of the Clean Water  Act and by Section 6217 of the  1990 Coastal
Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments,

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES '                                       •

    The goal of this program is to ensure  that Federal, state, and  local. agencies
identify, assess, and develop control of water quality problems  (including  NFS
problems), particularly on a watershed basis.
                                     2-112

-------
                 UNITED 'STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          WATER QUALITY ENFORCEMENT
OFFICE:  OECA
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

     The 'statutory  authorities the  National 'Pollutant  Discharge Elimination
System {NPDES)  program,  including the National Pretreatment and Sludge programs,
appear in  Sections  318,  402 and 405  of the Clean Water  Act  (CWA) .   Specific
enforcement authorities are found in Sections 307,  308  and 309 of  the'Act.  The
regulations implementing these Sectioiis appear at 40 CFR  Parts 122-125; 40 CFR
Part 403; and 40 CFR 501.   The  activities  in this program  element  are supported
by demonstration grants authorized under Section 104 {b}(3).


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

    This program;  1)  tracks  and evaluates  compliance of municipal  and non-
municipal permittees with NPDES permits; 2) ensures  that municipalities, federal
facilities, and industrial users discharging to municipal treatment plants, fully
comply with their pretreatment requirements; 3} operates an EPA/State compliance
inspection program; 4)  initiates enforcement for unpermitted and unauthorized
discharges into the  nation's waterways;  5}  initiates administrative enforcement
or  technical   case   support  for   civil/criminal   judicial  actions  against
noncomplying  facilities  and-'6)  identifies  geographic area  watersheds  where
noncomplying  facilities cause  water  quality problems   and  takes  action  as
appropriate.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Regions  will  promote a  multi-media  perspective   in  compliance monitoring,
targeting  and  enforcement  operations,  including  sector based  inspections,
geographic selection of enforcement cases,  and sector based design of remedies
for noncompliance.  Together with Headquarters, Regions will ensure the integrity
of  data  provided  by permittees  which is  used for  assessing  compliance  by
conducting-an effective inspection program,  as well as by implementing a'quality
assurance p-rogram for Discharge Monitoring Reports (DMRs).  Regions will maintain
data in  the  Permit  Compliance  System (PCS)  to ensure  compliance with laws and
regulations.                                         .

As the water quality enforcement and compliance program moves into a watershed
approach, Regions will initiate enforcement actions in priority watersheds and
use  risk-based targeting  for  compliance promotion and  enforcement  in  "areas
outside  priority watersheds  in  order ,',to  reduce  risk to  the health of  the
community and  the environment.   Enforcement actions undertaken by the Regions
will promote the equitable application  of environmental  regulation across all
communities at risk from water quality problems.  Regions  will also ensure that
a balance of compliance assurance and enforcement  activity and the quality of
actions both promote compliance and ensure deterrence in the regulated community
and provide justice for the individual violator.
                                     2-113

-------
                 UNITED. STATES ENVIRONMENT*!. PROTECTION AGENCt
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                              WETLANDS PROTECTION

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: WATER

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/ REGULATORYFRAMEWORK

     Through this program EPA implements  responsibilities under: Sections 104,
308,  309",  401,  and , 404 of  the  Clean Water  Act t'CWA) ; the  Coastal Wetlands
Planning,  Protection,  and  Restoration Act  of  1990;  and  the  North American
Wetlands Conservation  Act.  This,  ensures  that discharges of  dredged and fill
material are done* in  a manner that adequately protects wetlands and other waters
of the United States, and that other measures are taken to protect and restore
wetlands.   Resources in  this program  can  be used  to fund  grants  under the
authority of Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3).

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

     EPA's Wetlands Protection Program relies on partnerships with other programs
within EPA,  other Federal agencies, state, tribal and local governments, private
landowners,  and  the general public,  to improve  protection  of  our nation's
valuable wetlands resources.  Working with other Federal agencies and directly
with  states,  tribes,  and local  programs,  EPA ensures a sound and  consistent
approach to  wetlands protection.  Major  activities  include administration of
EPA's .role in the Section 404 program; development and dissemination of rules,
guidance, informational materials, and scientific tools to improve management and
public understanding of wetlands programs and legal  requirements; and managing
financial  assistance to states  and 'tribes  to  support development  of strong
wetlands protection programs. The Agency emphasizes an ecosystem approach in its
wetlands program.  EPA assists states,  tribes  and regional/local  governments in
incorporating wetlands  into watershed management  planning,  including advance
identification and multi-objective natural resource management planning.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

     The goals of.this  program are consistent with  the Administration's goal of
no overall net loss of wetlands  and an increase  in the quality and quantity of
wetlands.   This  includes development  of state,  tribal and. local  programs to
protect  wetlands  and  coordination  of public and private  programs affecting
wetlands to improve levels of protection for environmentally important  functions.
                                     2-114

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         COASTAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

'NATIONAL  PROGRAM MANAGER:  WATER

 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES  /  REGUIATORY  FRftMBHORK.

     Activities  in this  program are authorized under  Clean Water  Act  Sections
 104, 118, 312,  301 (h), 319,  320,  and 403-.   The  program, provides scientific and
 technical support  for state  and local management .of  co.astal watersheds .in
 response  to  human health and  aquatic  life  risks  due to pollution and  loss  of
 habitat.  This  program uses funds for grants under  Sections 104(b}(3),  319 and
 320.

     The  Gulf  of Mexico  Program is  commissioned by  the Administrator under the
 authorities  of Section 102(a)  of the Clean Water Act  (CWA) .  Grant  assistance
 activities of  the Program are authorized under Section  104(b)(3) of the CWA. The
 Program is operating in" response "to Gulf-wide  community  concerns  for  enhanced
 coordination and facilitation  of measures to protect,  enhance,  and restore the
 ecological health  and  economic sustainability of  the Gulf of  Mexico  ecosystem.

 PROGRAM.DESCRIPTION       .        -              ,

     The  Water  Program  provides  national  assistance  and coordination of the
.Agency's  coastal and marine activities.  Working with other EPA  programs and
 other  Federal  agencies,  the  Water Program develops  and disseminates  policy and
 technical guidance.  The program works  directly with state and  local agencies,
 the  regulated  community,  and the public to implement  the  national coastal and
 marine protection  program.   This program integrated Agency coastal  and marine
 activities conducted under the Clean  Water "Act (CWA), including .the  National
 Estuary Program  (N'EP), Point Source Program for Discharges to  Marine  Maters and
 the  "Great Water Bodies"  (Chesapeake Bay, Great  takes,  and Gulf .of Mexico),  The
 objectives of  these programs include:  (1) NEP projects  to develop and implement
 Comprehensive  Conservation and Management Plans  (CCMPs); (2) Cooperative efforts
 between Non-Point  Source Programs (i.e.-, CWA Section 319)  and  other programs to
 develop  and  implement   Regional  coastal  ecosystem protection/enhancement
 strategies,  including" enhancement/integration  of  ongoing water programs;  .(3)
 water  quality  controls for point  source dischargers, including, {a} development
 of   regulations   and   technical   guidance   for  marine   discharge  waiver
 applicants/recipients and permit reissuance and  (b) development of ocean disposal
 criteria  -and  technical  guidance for  marine discharge permittees  addressing
 ecological risk  protection criteria;  and (4) support for  the  "Great  Water Body
 Programs".

     The Gulf of Mexico Program is a community-based multi-jurisdictional program
 designed  to  address  the  myriad of complex environmental issues  threatening the
 Gulf ecosystem and its unique  resources.and cultures.  The Program is comprised
 of an  extensive  partnership of state, Federal,  public,  and.private  stakeholders
 involved  in  the development, and  implementation of collaborative projects and
 actions to address the critical issues that threaten  the  ecosystem.   Specific
 priorities include:  the  identification and coordination of voluntary  incentive-
 based  actions to mitigate excessive loadings  of nitrogen and phosphorus currently
 threatening  the  near coastal  Gulf  fisheries;  delivery  of  community-based
 technical assistance to address human-pathogen contamination and  closure of  vital
 shellfish growing  waters  Gulf-wide;  development  and  coordination  of state,
 Federal,  and local partnerships to maintain and improve critical Gulf-habitats;
 and,  cooperation and  assistance  in implementing  the  Gulf's  National  Estuary
 Management Programs.
                                     2-115

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        COASTAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES .                                                 '      '  .

     The goals  of this program are to:  restore the  physical,  chemical;  and
biological  integrity of  the  nation's -estuarie'3  and  coastal  ecosystems  by
protecting  and  enhancing  water  quality  and the living  resources;  ensure the
protection  of the marine  ecosystems  through adequate controls on point source
discharges; through the  watershed protection approach,  highlight  coastal waters
in  need of  attention and  encourage environmental  managers  to  use .existing
regulatory  authority and  resources  more  effectively to  solve  environmental
problems.

     'The  specific goals  of the Gulf  of  Mexico Program  are to  restore  the
ecosystem's  physical,  chemical, and biological integrity by protecting  and
enhancing water quality, habitat health and diversity, and sustainability of its
natural resources in ways that are  consistent  and  supportive of the economic
well-being  of the region.   The  Program will accomplish these goals through the
use of collaborative  state, Federal,  local and private partnerships dedicated to:
developing  and  implementing   community  or  place-based  habitat  management
approaches;  working  as partners with  the  region's business and industrial
sectors, the environmental  community and other interested groups to institute
common sense approaches  to reaching environmental goals in the  earliest possible
time frames  and  in  the  most cost effective  manner;  enhancing the delivery of
technical assistance  programs at the community level; empowering communities with
access to environmental  information as  a critical building block  of their local
programs.
                                     2-116

-------
                 UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: WATER

STATUTORYAUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

     The Clean Water Act  (CWA) ,  as  amended,  provides for the establishment of
national programs for the prevention,  reduction  and  elimination of pollution of
the nation's surface.waters.  Section  402 prohibits  the  discharge of pollutants
into waters  of  the. United States by  point sources  unless  in compliance with
National Pollutant Discharge  Elimination System  (N.PD'ES)  permits conforming with
the regulations published pursuant to that legislation (40 CFR 122,  123,  124, and
125} .   Pollution  control activities relating to industrial wastewater discharges
to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW)  (pretreatment program)  are authorized
by Sections 307 and 402 of the CWA, and requirements pursuant'to that section are
published in 40  CFR  403 and  405-471.   Activities relating  to the disposal of
sewage sludge resulting from  the operation of treatment  works  are authorized by
Section 405 of  the CWA,  and requirements  pursuant to that section are published
in 40  CFR 122-124, 501, 503.  Where a state has been authorized to administer the
NPDES  program,  it is  responsible  for NPDES permit issuance.   EPA reviews certain
permits and  related  program  activities   for approved states,  and  issues .NPDES
permits in the  remaining jurisdictions.   Section 104 provides  for EPA to assist
POTWs  by supporting  the development, dissemination and. review of  the latest
technologies  for  the  prevention,  reduction  and  elimination  of  pollution.
Cooperative  agreements  for the  Environmental Technology Initiative  are also
authorized under section 104  of the Clean Water Act.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

     The wastewater  management and technology  program administers  regulatory
policy,  guidance and implementation of NPDES and sludge programs which address
the interdependence  between  human  and  ecosystem health;  establish  effective
partnerships with  states,  tribes and local governments;  and promote  new and
innovative wastewater  management programs  and  technology development.   This
includes the development of regulations  for the  NPDES, pretreatment, and sludge
permit  programs  and 'supports  responses  to  legal   challenges of  promulgated
regulations.  The program  as.sists in  the development,  review, and approval of
State  (and Indian tribe)  NPDES  programs  and modifications, encourages States to
obtain federal facility, pretreatment, sludge permitting, and general permitting
authority and strives  to achieve consistent  implementation  of  these programs
across all  watersheds.   The program provides guidance, training, and assistance
to states to support  water quality-based  permitting  (emphasizing the control of
pollution from toxic substances),  sludge  permitting,  storm water permitting,
pretreatment   program    implementation,    industrial '   effluent    guidelines
implementation,   and  sediment   toxicity  control.     EPA  is  responsible  for
issuing/reissuing NPDES permits where  the state(s) have  not obtained permitting
authority,  overseeing State performance through review of permits and performance
of program audits, assisting states in   obtaining and  modifying  state program
authority,  and  providing training and  technical  assistance to  states.to address
watershed  issues  and  improve'  performance.   EPA also  defends challenges  to
specific permit decisions through the appeals process-.  EPA is responsible for
issuing  sludge  permits  until  states  have  authorized programs,  and provides
information to  the public about the beneficial use of biosolids.

     EPA promotes pollution prevention through its support of the Municipal Water
Pollution Prevention (MWPP) and Water Alliances  for  Voluntary  Efficiency  (WAVE)
programs, which heighten awareness of the merits of preventing water pollution
and reducing energy and  water  use.  This program includes -technology transfer
guidance and policy development, which provides ongoing technology assessments
and assists others in making wise investment decisions about conventional and
cutting-edge wastewater treatment technologies (including constructed wetlands)

                                    2-117

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                       WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT &  TECHNOLOGY


 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Con't

 while  fostering partnerships with  academic institutions, businesses,  and  the
 public.  The program also provides information  to officials in small communities
 to  help  them  in  managing  their  wastewater infrastructure.    Through  its
 Environmental Technology Initiative, EPA promotes incentives for the creation and
 adoption of .the next generation of innovative technologies by our stakeholders.

 GOALS  AND OgJECTIVE 3

     The goal of.the Wastewater Management and Technology program is to protect
 the Nation's watersheds from pollution by implementing programs to improve water
 quality and assure an effective,  place-based ecosystem approach.  This ecosystem
 approach addresses municipal,  industrial, and non-traditional  (storm water) point
 source discharges  to waters of the U.S. and achieves environmental and economic
 benefits through  the reduction of conventional and  toxic 'pollution  to promote
 healthy, balanced ecosystems and foster better environmental results  at  less
 cost.

     To support improvements to the  Nation's vast network of municipal pollution
 control infrastructure,  EPA  provides  a wide  array  of  assistance programs  to
.address the  needs of   municipalities,   including  small   .and   disadvantaged
 communities and Indian Tribes. The Municipal Water Pollution Prevention program
 seeks  to establish state capacity to identify and correct significant wastewater
 problems.before  they occur, and supports municipal  capacity  to  operate source
 reduction programs to reduce levels of pollutants before they reach the treatment
 facility.   The program  improves public awareness  about water  efficiency  and
 reuse,  and .fosters the values of pollution prevention.
                                     2 -1.1.8

-------
                 UNITED- STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                       WATER QUALITY FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

 NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  WAT1R

 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES /  REGULATORY FRAMEWORK.

      The Clean'Water Act,'as amended, provides  for the establishment of national
 programs"for the prevention,  reduction, and elimination of pollution.  Included
 in this Act is authority for the Clean Water State Revolving Fund under Title VI,
 Construction Grants  under  Title II,  and other grants and programs under Title I
 '{Sections  104,   106  and  109)  and  Section   510.     Regulations  governing
 implementation of the Clean Water SRF and  construction grants programs are found
 at 40 CFR part 35.3100 et.  seq. and  40 CRF part 35.2000 et. seq.,  respectively.
 Regulations  appear at 40 CFR  Parts  130 and 35, Subparts I, J, .and K.  The Clean
 Water Needs  Survey   Report to Congress  is  required  by  sections 205(a)  and
 516(b)(1)  of the Clean Water Act.

 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION                 ,                        .

      The Water Quality Financial  Assistance program includes resources for the
 support and administration of wastewater infrastructure (and related  financial and
 grant assistance activities.  The  program seeks to provide  leadership  to the
.states and municipalities  to control municipal sources  of pollution,  including
 wastewater,   stormwater,  combined  sewer  overflows,  urban  runoff,  and  other
 significant  sources.    This  program  directs and " provides  guidance  for  the
 establishment and long-term-viability of  the Clean Water State. Revolving Funds
 (CWSRF)  in each  state and Puerto, Rico.   The program also  conducts a  biennial
 national  survey,  the  Clean  Water Needs  Survey  Report  to  Congress,  which
 identifies wastewater and other SRF-eligible- needs.  The Needs Survey informs
 decision makers   at  EPA and  elsewhere about  wastewater and  related  pollution
 control infrastructure investment  needs,  and helps to  quantify  the  need for
 environmental investment  in  the  U.S.    The  program  continues to manage the
 completion and  close-out  of  the  Construction Grants program   and manages the
 ongoing grant programs for the Territories, District of Columbia, and coastal and
 special needs cities.   Further,  EPA manages financial assistance programs  to
 address  the  significant  human health  and  environmental  threats along  the
 U.S./Mexican' Border,  and  gives support  for  the administration of wastewater
 infrastructure grants-to Indian tribes and Alaskan Native Villages.  The Operator
 Training program provides  technical assistance  to small  communities which may
 lack the expertise o'r resources to operate treatment facilities effectively and
 efficiently.  The program includes  resources for .the management of grant programs
 for water quality cooperative agreements,  as well  as  the Section  106  grants
 program, which assists all  fifty states, six' interstate and 'territorial agencies
 and qualified Indian tribes  in  the development  and  implementation  of  water
 pollution control programs.  The Water Quality Financial Assistance program will
 also assist in the development and  administration of the new Drinking Water SRF
 program once authorizing legislation is  enacted.  Funds will be made available
 to make grants   to the Rural  Community Assistance  Program and to  West ..Virginia
 University for the Small Flows Clearinghouse for rural water technical assistance
 activities.

 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

      One of  the  main  objectives  of this  program is to establish  and  maintain
 effective State  Revolving  Fund (SRF) programs that will remain viable financing
 mechanisms for  the foreseeable future and to ensure that limited resources are
 targeted to the most significant problems in the highest priority watersheds. The
 program will assist in the development and  administration  o-f the  new  Drinking
 Water SRF program .once authorizing  legislation  is enacted.   The  Water Quality
 Financial Assistance, program  continues the successful completion and closeout of
 construction grant projects and resolution of audit problems with major emphasis

                                      2-119

-------
                 UNITED STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT! DESCRIPTION
                      WATER QUALITY FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES con't

on -maintaining  the  technical,  environmental and  financial  integrity  of the
program, and has responsibility for management of the ongoing  grant programs to
the'" Territories, District of Columbia,  and coastal  and special needs cities.
Resources are provided  to administer  grants targeted toward Indian Tribes and
Native Alaskan Villages.   Under the  Operator Training program, financial and
technical  assistance  is  provided  to small  communities which may  lack the
expertise  or  resources  to  operate  treatment  facilities  effectively  and
efficiently.  In support of  the La Paz Agreement, the North American Free 'Trade
Agreement  (NAFTA)  and  other  international  agreements,  this  program manages
financial assistance programs  to help  address the very significant human health
problems  that  exist  along  the  U.S./Mexican Border.   This  program supports
administration of  the  Section  106 grants program,  and promotes administrative
streamlining to  enhance the management  of state water pollution control programs;
resources  are  also   included   for  management  of   water quality  cooperative
agreements, which provide  funds  to states., local  governments,  Indian Tribes, and
nonprofit•organizations to stimulate  the creation  of innovative approaches to
addressing water pollution problems.   EPA will also provide financial assistance
to  promote  Improved  water  .and wastewater  technical  assistance   for   rural
communities.
                                     2-12.0

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      WORKING CAPITAL FUND-Water Quality
OFFICE:  OW
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRRMEWORK                 ,

The Agency will propose legislation in FY 1995  to establish the working capital
fund.                    •                      •


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION   '                                         '       .

This program element provides base  resources for postage costs and on-going data
processing and telecommunication services for Water Quality activities.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The primary goal of this program element is to provide essential postage, data
processing, and telecommunication  services for the- Program Office,
                                     2-121

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        WETLANDS PROTECTION ENFORCEMENT
OFFICE: OECA
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGOIATORY FRAMEWORK

The Agency implements responsibilities under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act
(CWAJ to promote compliance and enforcement to ensure that there is  no net  loss
of wetlands as a result of discharges of dredged and  fill  material.  The Agency
conducts  compliance  and enforcement  activities  in cooperation with Corps of
Engineers, Soil  Conservation Service and  U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife Service and
Department of Agriculture to protect wetlands and restore  wetlands.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Regions work directly with States and other  Federal agencies to  implement a
sound  .and  consistent  approach  to  wetlands, protection  through   compliance
assistance activities  and targeted enforcement actions.   The  Regions support
strong partnerships with federal, state,  and tribal programs through coordination
of  compliance  assistance .and  targeted  enforcement  actions  in high  priority
watersheds.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Activities of this program are consistent with the goal of no  overall  net  loss
of wetlands  and an increase in  the quality and quantity of wetlands through
increased  compliance and  enforcement  activities.    The  Agency  will improve
environmental accountability through strong compliance and enforcement activities
with  federal,  state,  tribal and  local  partnerships  to  improve protection of
wetlands.
                                     "2-122

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCX
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            DRINKING WATER CRITERIA
OFFICE: WATER
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY  FRAMEWORK

As  mandated by Section  1412 -of the Safe  Drinking  Water Act, the Agency  sets
•Maximum  Contaminant  Level-Goals in support of National  Primary  Drinking Water
Regulations, as well as health advisories for contaminants known,  or anticipated
•to  occur in public water systems.   In addition,  EPA addresses  drinking water
protection  responsibilities enacted under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and
Rodenticide Act Amendments of 1988.


PROGRAM  DESCRIPTION

Through-' this  program,   EPA  sets   health  goals  and acceptable  standards  for
contaminants in public  water  systems which may have an adverse effect  on human
health.  To do so, the Agency identifies contaminants that present human health
risks, and  develops  sound and scientifically based  risk  as-sessment  methods  to
assess those  risks.   EPA develops  health  advisories for unregulated  drinking
water -contaminants  for  use   by  state  and  local  authorities  in setting  site
specific standards.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVE S

The Agency  seeks to identify risks and establish  criteria for contaminants  that
present  human health  risks   in  drinking water.    This  entails  assessing  the
exposure to known or  anticipated drinking water contaminants and developing human
health criteria using up-to-date scientific'methodologies  for contaminants which
are to be regulated.
                                     2-123

-------
                 UNITED- STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      SPECIAL STUDIES AND DEMONSTRATIONS

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: WATER

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES /REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

     Section 1442 of the Safe Drinking Water Act  (SDWA), as amended,  provides  for
broad  grant  authority 'in the  areas of  research,  technical  assistance,   and
training of personnel.   Section  1442 (b)(3)(C)  provides the authority to give
grants or enter into contracts with a wide range of  organizations to  develop or
expand the .capabilities of s.tate and municipal programs with a specific exclusion
for the ongoing Public.Water Supply Supervision (PWSS)  and Underground Injection
Control (UIC)  state grants.  The relevant regulatory provisions are  40 CFR Parts
141 through 149.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

     Under this authority, emphasis is placed on supporting projects  that provide
technical  assistance  to  small public water systems  to  enable such  systems  to
achieve and maintain compliance with. National Drinking^Water  Regulations.

     Of' the some 200,000 community public water systems regulated under the SDWA,
87 percent fall into the  category  of  small systems, i,e.,  those that serve 3,300
or fewer people, primarily in rural  areas.  Many  of these small, rural systems
lack both the technical and financial capacity to meet•the  requirements  of  the
SDWA and,  therefore,  face serious non-compliance  problems.  This program supports
efforts to provide  technical  assistance and training to  small,  rural water
systems, including  such  specific  topics as system management, financing, rate
setting,   budgeting,   accounting,   operations   and  maintenance,    regulatory
compliance, and owner/operator responsibilities.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

    The goal of the Special Studies and Demonstrations program is to  enable rural
water  systems  to achieve  and maintain  compliance  with the  National Primary
Drinking Water Regulations and to  assist in resolving actual  or potential  public
health problems for this group of consumers. The objectives a're to use technical
assistance and training to meet the  priority needs of these systems.
                                     2-124

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          DRINKING WATER ENFORCEMENT
 OFFICE;  OECA
 STATUTORY  AUTHORITY/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

 The  Safe Drinking Water Act  (SWDA), as amended, mandates federal enforcement of
 drinking water (section  1414)  and underground injection control (UIC)  {Section
 1423)  regulations  in the absence of timely and appropriate  State  action or in
• States  that  do not  have  primary enforcement  authority.   EPA also has authority
•in cases where a contaminant present in or likely  to enter a Public Water Supply
 (PWS).or an  Underground  Source  of Drinking Water  (USDW)  may present an imminent
 and  substantial endangerment to public  health   (Section 1431) .   The  relevant
 regulatory provisions  are 40 CFR Parts 141 through 148.

 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

 This program supports Regional enforcement actions under  the Safe Drinking Water
 Act. EPA  enforcement action is required in two cases:  first, when a State with
 primary enforcement responsibility  has  not.  taken' ah appropriate  enforcement
 action  after being notified of a violation;  and  second, where  EPA is  directly
 implementing either the Public Water Supply Supervision {PWSS)  or the UIC program
 requirements.   EPA focuses, on systems  that are Significant  Non-compliers (SNC)
 as defined by  the relative  risk posed by the violation.   In States where EPA is
 directly implementing  the program,  EPA uses  a variety of informal methods as a
 first step in  returning  a system or facility to compliance.   The formal process
 includes Notices of Violation,  Administrative Orders and, for the PWSS program,
 complaints for penalty.  Where appropriate,  EPA-pursues either criminal or civil
 actions through referral to the Department of Justice,

 Regions review and  strengthen State enforcement programs  and assist in improving
 the  quality  of the inventory,  violation, and  enforcement data.   This  activity
 involves  auditing  State and Federal  data,  conducting data  verifications,  and
 following  up on recommendations made in earlier data verifications.  Regions also
 provide enforcement support or assistance when requested by the State.

 GOALSAND  OBJECTIVES  •

 The  goal of  this program is to prevent  endangerment of human health from harmful
 contamination  of  (1) PWSs through enforcing the National Primary Drinking Water
 Regulations  and   (2)  USDWs  through  enforcement of  regulato.ry  controls  on
 underground  injection.  The objectives  are to maximize compliance by PWSs and UIC
 facilities and to return violators, particularly  SNCs, to compliance as quickly
 as possible  using  a variety,of informal, administrative, civil,  and  criminal
 methods and  authorities.                !
                                     2-125

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            GROUND WATER PROTECTION

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: WATER

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Safe  Drinking Water Act  (SDWA) ,  as amended, mandates:  the protection of
underground sources  of drinking water  from contamination  by unsafe injection
practices  (Sections  1421  through 1426); the  protection of  critical  aquifer
protection'areas for sole or principal source aquifers  {Section 1427);  and .the
creation of state programs to establish wellhead protection areas  (Section 1428).
Projects  'that demonstrate  protecting  ground  water  resources  that serve as
drinking water  supplies  as well as support research,  technical assistance or
training of personnel on protecting ground water resources that serve as drinking
water supplies  (Section 1442).

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

EPA provides technical  support to state and local governments- for the protection
of high priority ground water resources, including the wellhead protection areas
of public water systems and sole source aquifer protection areas.   EPA provides
technical guidance and  support for the implementation of comprehensive, ground
water protection by  the states including focusing on integrating grant funding
for Agency ground water-related programs, including Section 106 and 319(h) grants
under the Clean Water Act {CWA) . Building on existing cross-program  ground water
protection initiatives and  the CWA watershed program,  the Agency is promoting
pollution  prevention by  working  with  states  and  drinking water  systems to
institute  Source  Water Protection programs  for  protecting  ground  and  surface
water sources of drinking water.  EPA also promotes data sharing and  the transfer
of information management technology among  Federal, state and local programs.

The Agency promulgates  Underground Injection  Control  (UIC) regulations  and
ensures the  implementation of these  regulations  through oversight of  primacy
state programs and by directly implementing  program  requirements in non-primacy
states.  The UIC program complements the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA) activities through consistency of regulations on hazardous  waste disposal.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The primary  goals  of  the  program are;  to provide  national  leadership  and
assistance  to states and EPA  Regions  in their efforts  to  protect ground and
surface  water  sources  of  drinking   water  from  contamination;   to  protect
underground sources-of  drinking water from unsafe injection practices, including
shallow wells and to provide a consistent policy  framework  for comprehensively
protecting the Nation's ground water•resources.  The objectives are to prevent
contamination of sources of drinking water through state and local  Source Water
Protection  programs,  Wellhead  Protection  programs  and Underground Injection
Control programs and to implement  the  Agency's Ground Water  Protection Strategy
through comprehensive state programs for protecting ground water.
                                     2-126

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         DRINKING WATER IMPLEMENTATION

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER; WATER

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK             '            '

     Parts B and  E of the Safe -Drinking Water Act (SDWA) , as amended, mandate the
promulgation of,National Primary Drinking'Water Regulations  (NPDWR) and provide
for national  implementation  through approved state programs.   Part  F of SDWA
delineates additional,requirements to regulate lead in drinking water coolers and
in school drinking water.  -The specific program requirements are set forth  in 40
CFR Parts 141 through  143.  Various grant authorities which further  the purposes
of this Act are specified in  Sections  1442  and  1444.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

     This program evaluates engineering and scientific data (including treatment
technologies,  monitoring  approaches   and   analytical  methods)   to  -develop
regulations  that insure  the  safety  of  drinking  water.    These  regulations
guarantee that exposure  to contaminants  in'  .finished drinking water is reduced
below  the level established by  human health  risk assessments  developed in
drinking water criteria.  For each contaminant, EPA-identifies either the Best
Available Treatment (BAT) for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL)' or a treatment
technology to ensure the requisite 'level of contaminant control.  Contaminants
include microbiological/ organic and inorganic  chemicals, and radionuclides,

     In addition, the program provides national  policy  and direction  for the
Public  Water  System  Supervision  (PWSS)   program.   This  program  includes
responsibility for: setting national priorities and developing national guidance;
encouraging and assisting in state capacity building efforts;  providing technical
assistance  to states;  reviewing/approving  state  primacy  revisions  for new
regulations;  maintaining and improving  a  national  data  system,;  monitoring
state/Regional  adherence'  to  programmatic  requirements:   representing  and
advocating the program to those outside of the Agency; promoting and transferring
innovative approaches; and providing technical assistance for implementing SDWA.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

     The goal of this program is  to reduce  health risks from contamination of.
drinking water and underground sources-of drinking water by: 1} setting NPDWRs
for contaminants known or anticipated to occur in  public water systems that may
have any  adverse effect on  the  health of  persons  and  2}  assuring aggressive
implementation of the  regulatory requirements by the  states and EPA Regions,  The
objectives  are to  develop   and  analyze scientific and  risk  data  to  ensure
regulation  of the  most  significant  contaminants  and to  ensure  that Regions,
states and public water systems have the training,  expertise and capability to
effectively implement these-requirements.
                                     2-127

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENvIROtMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      WORKING CAPITAL FUND-Drinking Water

.OFFICE: OFFICE  OF WATER


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGUIATORY FRAMEWORK

The Agency will propose legislation in FY 1995 to establish the working capital
fund.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program element provides base resources for postage costs and on-going data
processing and  telecommunication services  for Drinking Water activities,

GOALS AND OBJECTI¥ES                '

The primary goal  of this  program element is to provide essential postage, data
processing, and telecommunication services  for the Program Office.
                                     2-128

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          EROSRRM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
        HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REGULATORY STRATEGIC IMPLMENTATION

 OFFICE: OSWER                               "


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/ REGUIATORX FRftMEHORK

This program implements  the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act (RCPA)  of 1976 and the Hazardous  and Solid Waste Amendments  (HSWA) of 1984,
and implementing regulations  (40 CFR 240-272),


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

EPA's  Regional  offices  work directly  with  the  States,   and  Tribes  where
appropriate, "on  all aspects  of  the  hazardous  and  solid waste  program.   The
Regions jointly process permits  and  oversee corrective action with the States
until the  States  are authorized  for  HSWA provisions,  and  EPA implements  the
hazardous waste program directly in States that  are not authorized for the base
RCRA program.  The Regions assist the  States and Tribes  in developing hazardous
waste management programs equivalent to the Federal program by providing guidance
and"technical assistance  for  building program  capabilities.  The Regions work
with State programs to ensure  that"the implementation of RCRA is  carried out-in
a nationally consistent manner and that minimum RCRA. standards are maintained.
Regions also provide support and technical  assistance to the States and Tribes
in municipal solid waste management.  In fiscal year 1996, the  corrective action
program shifts to this program element as  a  result of the Agency's  reorganization
of enforcement activities.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Permitting efforts focus on continuing processing of environmentally significant -
storage, treatment and incinerator facility permits,  and on issuing permits to
land  disposal  facilities. The  program seeks to  ensure safe,  adequate waste
disposal  capacity  and effective waste  minimization programs through  its
permitting  efforts.   In  addition,  the program seeks to ensure that  closing
facilities,  do so  in a manner  that  is  protective  of human health and  the
environment.   The  corrective action program  emphasizes  -stabilizations as a.
preferred option over longer term-remediations.   On-going remedy  selection and
clean-up for,high priority  facilities  is supported  where stabilization is  not
viable.  In the  solid waste  area, the Regional offices are  working  with  the
States and  local  communities  to implement  a national  program to minimize  the
generation of solid waste  and  to promote recycling. The program seeks to foster
pollution prevention  in both  its solid, waste and permitting activities. -  The
ultimate objective of this program is to develop State and Tribal capabilities
so that the States and Tribes operate and maintain independent programs.
                                     2-129

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          HAZARDOUS WASTE ENFORCEMENT
 OFFICE:  OECA
•STATUTORY AUTHORITIES  /  REGULATORY  FRAMEWORK

 The  Hazardous  Waste  Enforcement  program draws  its  authority - to protect human
 life and the environment from the risks of .improper management of hazardous and
 solid  wastes - from  the  Resource Conservation  and  Recovery Act of ,1976 (RCRA) ,
 the  Hazardous   and Solid  Waste  Amendments  of  1984  (HSWA) ,  and the  Federal
 Facilities  Compliance  Act  of 1992.


 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

 The  purpose of this program  is to ensure facility compliance with the s-tatutory
 and  regulatory requirements.  Compliance monitoring and enforcement actions, are
 conducted at handlers  and  non-notifiers  on the basis  of  threat to human health
 and  the  environment  and  deterrent  impact.    Significant  non-compilers  are
 addressed  by  administrative  or judicial  enforcement  actions.    Compliance
 monitoring  inspections are  focussed  throughout the regulated  community,  with
 special emphasis on non-notifiers, combustion facilities,  federal facilities, and
 facilities  that  receive  off-site  Superfund waste.    In addition,  compliance
 assistance  and  outreach  activities  are  targeted  in  a  holistic,  multi-media
 approach  to specific industrial  sectors  of the regulated community.   Through
 technical enforcement support and State program evaluations, the Agency evaluates
 the  ability of the States to  take timely and appropriate enforcement actions and,
 should the  States  be unwilling or unable,  initiates enforcement actions.   When
 States are not  authorized, the Agency brings enforcement actions for violations
 of HSWA provisions.  Regions  and States bring enforcement  actions in concert with
 targeted  national initiatives.    The  Agency incorporates pollution  prevention
 measures in settlements when appropriate.   Special attention is given to densely
 populated urban areas  with an aim towards  increased environmental equity.


 GOALS  AND OBJECTIVES

 The  specific  objectives  of ' this  program  are to:.   1)   provide guidance  and
 technical support to the  States  in their compliance and enforcement' efforts,
 support and encourage  their  HSWA authorization and  evaluate their programs;  2)
 focus  efforts  to ensure  that facilities  posing the  worst environmental threats
 are  comprehensively addressed by the Agency  and  the States;  3) monitor  and
 evaluate  the  compliance  of active   and   closed  hazardous  waste  management
 facilities  and hazardous waste generators,  transporters,  and non-notifiers,  4}
 encourage  and  promote  compliance  by ..all  hazardous  waste  handlers  through
 compliance assistance activities and through appropriate use of administrative,
 civil,  and  criminal  enforcement  activities and; 5)  to assist  Indian  Tribes'  in
 developing  the capacity  to manage their  own, solid waste  management.
                                     2-130

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENGI
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
            REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES AND POLICIES - HAZARDOUS WASTE

OFFICE: OSWER


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK                '

The Resource Conservation  and Recovery Act  (RCRA) of  1976,  as revised by  the
Hazardous and  Solid Waste Amendments  (HSWA)  of 1984,  provides the  statutory
authority for  this program  area  which is  responsible  for providing' national
direction for the hazardous and municipal waste management programs.  Regulations
implementing these programs  are found  in  (40 CFR 240-272).


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The  headquarters,  program  promulgates   and   refines   regulations   for   the
identification, tracking,  management and disposal of hazardous and solid wastes.
It provides  national oversight and guidance for implementing consistent.State  and
Regional hazardous waste permitting programs.  In addition, the  program conducts
technical studi-es, regulatory impact analyses and risk assessments in support of
its regulatory and guidance efforts.   The'program also assesses control options
and technologies  necessary for regulatory -decision making.   In the  municipal
waste area,  the  program provides" technical assistance  and support for source
reduction and recycling efforts as well as municipal solid waste management.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The objectives  of  this program are  to  reduce risks posed  by  wastes by:   1)
developing policies and regulations which provide  incentives  for reducing  the
generation of hazardous wastes  and which  establish a regulatory framework  for
managing these wastes  from generation through disposal; 2) providing  national
models, standards and guidance for the management of municipal  solid  waste,  3)
addressing  problems associated  with  the  management   of  special  wastes;   4}
developing a program to address releases at regulated facilities, and  solid waste
management  units;  5)  establishing and maintaining strong Federal,  State  and
Tribal partnerships for implementing those rules  and  guidelines necessary  to
manage wastes,  and 6)  ensuring  equitable involvement  of  all  stakeholders  in
environmental decision-making.
                                     2-131

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                 REGULATIONS,  GUIDELINES,  AND POLICIES  - WATER

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: WATER

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

     Control of underground injection of hazardous waste is covered by Section
3004 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.  The Underground Injection
Control (UIC)  program provisions  found in Sections 1421 through 1426  of the Safe
Drinking Water Act,  as  amended, also  apply.   The  RCRA specific requirements and
restrictions are found in 40 CFR Part 148; the general  DIG provisions are found
in Parts 144 through 147.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION                  -

     In order  for UIC  wells  to  inject  hazardous waste,  they must  meet  the
appropriate requirements  of  both  RCRA and SDWA.   Specifically,  under the RCRA
Land Ban restriction, to inject hazardous  waste, the owner or operator of-a Class
I injection  well must demonstrate  that  the  waste  will not migrate  from the
injection zone for as long as  the waste remains hazardous and,  for any well with
a prior release,  there  must be a RCRA corrective action plan.   The well must
also be permitted under SDWA.  The Land Ban  is being  implemented on a staggered
schedule by groups of wastes to facilitate processing the required petitions that•
allow  continued  injection of  the waste.   Using computer  simulations  of  the
injection of hazardous waste into certain kinds  of geological formations,  the'
petitions   attempt  to dempnstrate  that  the  wastes  will not migrate  from the
injection zone for as long as the waste is hazardous.  Successful demonstrations
form the basis for the exemption  from the RCRA Land Ban prohibition.

     The Agency makes petition determinations, processes petition modifications
and provides  technical support to defend challenges to prior  determinations.  In
the event  of prior release  or suspected migration  of the waste,  the  Agency
investigates the problem and then supervises the  development and execution of a
corrective action plan.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

     The goal  of this  program is to protect underground  water,  particularly
underground sources  of  drinking water, and the public health by restricting and -
controlling the disposal of hazardous waste by injection.  The objective is to
control  all  aspects  of  the  injection  of  wastes  including  the  siting,
construction, operation, closure and post-closure practices of these injection
wells so that there is no  migration out of the injection zone for as long as the
waste  remains  hazardous;  in  the  event  of  a  release or waste migration,  the
objective is  to ensure the development and implementation of  a corrective action
plan.                                   ;
                                     2-132

-------
                UNITED  STATES,ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
       , REGULATIONS,  GUIDELINES  &  POLICIES—UNDERGROUND STORAGE  TANKS

OFFICE: OSWER

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The statutory mandate for this-program is Subtitle  I  of  the Hazardous  and Solid
Waste Amendments  of  1984 to- the Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act.  The
regulatory authority for the program,is 40 CFR Parts 280 and 281.  The  regulated
substances are  liquid petroleum  products  and substances defined as hazardous
under the Comprehensive  Environmental  Response, Compensation,  and Liability Act
of 1980,  as amended by the Superfund Amendments and  Reauthorization Act of 1986,
but not regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as
amended.               ,

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

EPA  has  adopted  a  decentralized  approach  to UST program  implementation by-
building and  supporting  strong state, local and tribal programs. The UST'program
regulates  approximately  1.1  million  active tanks  at  approximately 500,000
facilities.  State and local governments carry out program activities, including
those associated  with state program approval, leak 'detection compliance,  and
promotion bf early compliance with the  1998 tank upgrading deadline.   Regions
implement the program on Tribal lands and work with tribal governments to educate
and build tribal  capability  through technical assistance and grants.   The EPA
Headquarters  role is to provide strategic direction,.leadership,  financial and
technical .support, expertise and assistance to the Regions, Tribes,  States and
local  governments through  strategic  planning,  outreach  materials,  techncial
guidance and  policy documents, as  well  as training and targeted assistance'in the
areas of leak detection,  upgrading, and state program approval.   Headquarters
provides oversight to regional implementation of the program on  Tribal Lands,
while Regional UST offices negotiate and provide  oversight for state and tribal
grants.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The  goal  of  this _ program  is  to  prevent,  detect,  'and  correct  leaks  -from
underground storage tanks (USTs)  containing  petroleum and hazardous substances.
The objectives are to stimulate development and implementation of a .comprehensive
regulatory program with  standards at the State and local level that are at least
as stringent  as  the Federal standards;  to improve  implementation and enforcement
performance;  and  to  provide ongoing  technical  information, assistance,  and
training.   These objectives directly support the Agency's guiding principle of
partnerships  through building strong  regional,  state,  local and  tribal  UST
programs.                                                        ,              •
                                     2-133

-------
                        STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCX
                          PROQRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIQHT-TQ-KHOW
OFFICE: OSWER
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK.

The statutory mandate for this program is the Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act,  Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorizaticn Act
(SARA) of 1986.  Title  III  established' the overall regulatory and enforcement
requirements enabling EPA, States, and Localities to identify hazardous chemicals
present in their communities, to receive and use information on chemical hazards,
and to develop plans to inform and protect the public in the event of chemical
emergencies.

The statutory mandate also includes the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.  The
Accidental Releases provisions established regulatory requirements enabling EPA
and  owners  and  operators of  facilities to  prevent,   detect  and  resp'ond  to
accidental releases of hazardous pollutants into the air.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

Headquarters provides program direction,  regulations  and technical guidance for
the national emergency planning and community right~to-know program.  National
program direction has changed from development to implementation and enforcement
as final planning, reporting and notification compliance deadlines have occurred.
The  Agency  is  focusing  on  building  the  infrastructure  of State  and local
governments with emphasis on high risk areas  to  assist  them in  implementing the
Title III program.   The  Agency is  updating and providing additional guidance to
the Regions  to  support  the increasing  implementation, responsibilities  of the
States and communities.


The Regional program is  aimed  at  improving  the  capabilities of the States and
communities to implement the Title III program through  technical assistance and
training in  conducting emergency planning and community right-to-know activities.
The Regions assist  the  State  Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs)  and Local
Emergency Planning  Committees  jLEPCs) in developing mandatory emergency response
plans and in managing and effectively using community  right-to-know information.
Regions  provide technical  assistance  and  guidance  to  SERCs  and LEPCs  in
developing and implementing local  enforcement programs.  Regions also develop
enforcement cases for Title III violations and provide enforcement assistance on
cases referred by States.  Regional Response  Teams  (RRT) review local emergency
plans as requested.


Headquarters  is transitioning from  the  regulatory  development • process  to
implementing the accidental release provisions of the Clean Air Act.  Efforts
are focused on implementing  six major areas: 1) Assisting States in the develop-
ment and implementation of accidental release prevention program; 2) Reviewing
State programs submitted to EPA under Title V and 40 CFR part  63-Subpart E;
                                     2-134

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                EMERGENCY  PLANNING AND  CO&MUNITX RlGfiT-TQ-KNOW
OFFICE: OSWER
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  (aont'd)

3)  Developing  guidance and assisting industry in understanding  the  accidental
-release prevention program and meeting "the 1996 Risk Management program deadline;
4)  Providing support  and  establishing liaison with  the independent  Chemical
Safety and Hazard Investigation  Board;  5) Beginning  to implement  the  recom-
mendations  of  reports -to  Congress  (Hydrofluoric  Acid Study, "and  Presidential
Review);  and 6)  Reviewing petitions  submitted  to EPA for adding  and  deleting'
substances  to  the  list of  Chemicals  under  section 112r.

As  the Clean Air Act Accidental Release Program moves  toward implementation the
Regional program is focusing on: 1)  Providing technical assistance to States in
developing  their prevention programs;  2) Establishing  procedures for reviewing
State programs;   3)  'Providing  information to facilities about  the  accidental
release prevention program and how to meet its requirements; and.  4)  Supporting
and. providing  liaison with the Chemical Safety and Hazard  Investigation  Board
when accidents occur  in the Region.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal  of this program is to  reduce the  risk  of chemical  hazards by ensuring
that communities are  prepared  to respond to chemical emergencies.  The  objectives
are to: 1)  assist  States and  communities  in development and  implementation of
emergency plans and community  right-to-know requirements; 2)  develop regulations
and guidance  for  program  implementation;  3)   assist  States   in   utilizing
information on  hazardous .'chemicals  in   their  communities  to  promote  risk
reduction;  4)  report' environmental  and health  hazards; 5)  track  and  report
accidental  releases  of hazardous substances; and 6)  increase compliance  with
Title III  reporting  requirements.

The goal  of the accidental release prevention program  is to reduce the risk of
chemical hazards by assisting  owners and operators  of facilities in their efforts
to prevent, detect and respond to chemical releases into the air.  The  objectives
of  the program are to: 1) assist States in  the development of Accidental Release
Prevention  {ARP}  programs; 2)  review and approve State programs;  3)  develop
programmatic infrastructure at  the Regional level  to implement the ARP program
for those  States  not  implementing  the full program; 4)   assist  industry  in
understanding  their  ARP obligations  and  achieving compliance;  5) support  the
independent Chemical  Safety  and  Hazard  Investigation  Board's  investigative
function;  and  6)  implement the recommendations  of the Presidential  Review and
Hydrofluoric Acid  Reports,       ,
                                     2-135

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     WORKING CAPITAL FUND-Hazardous Wast*
OFFICE:   OSWER
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRflMEWORK.

The Agency will propose legislation in FY 1995  to  establish the working  capital
fund.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program element provides base  resources for postage costs and on-going data
processing and telecommunication services for Hazardous Waste activities.

GOALSAND OBJECTIVES

The primary goal of this program element is to provide essential  postage, data
processing, and telecommunication -services for the- Program Office,
                                     2-136

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
              REGISTRATION, SPECIAL REGISTRATION, AND TOLERANCES

OFFICE: OPPTS


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The  activities  of  Registration,  Special  Registration,  and  Tolerances  are
authorized by the Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and Rodent!cide Act (FIFRA) and
the Federal Food, Drug,  and Cosmetic Act  (FFDCA).  FIFRA governs the licensing
or  registration  of pesticide products  while  Sections  408  and 409  of FFDCA
regulate the level of pesticide  residues in raw  and processed food and animal
feed.

Under FIFRA, all pesticides must  be registered  with EPA before they may be sold
or distributed in the United States.  EPA operates under an  overall risk/benefit
standard for pesticide  registration.   Pesticides must' perform their intended
function when  used according  to  label directions,  without posing unreasonable
risks of adverse  effects on human health or the environment.  In making pesticide
registration  decisions,  EPA  is  required to take  into  account  the economic,
social, and environmental costs and benefits of pesticide  use.  This is a task
of  enormous scope and  complexity.   OPP  regulates  approximately  800  active
ingredients included in  approximately  20,000 registered products, which account
for approximately three billion pounds of pesticide active'ingredient use each
year.                                                     "

FIFRA section  5  regulates experimental use of pesticides.  Section L8 provides
the Administrator  with  authority  to  exempt Federal  and  state  agencies  from
provisions of the Act if an-emergency  warrants  it, and  section 24 (c) grants the
states authority to register additional uses  for a Federally registered pesticide
for use in  that  state, provided registration has not been  previously denied or
canceled by EPA.          •

Under the  FFDCA,  EPA sets tolerances, or maximum legal limits,' for pesticide
residues on food and  animal feed marketed in the U.S.   Before a pesticide can be
registered under FIFRA for use on a food or feed crop,  EPA must either establish
a  tolerance  or,  if appropriate,  grant  an  exemption  from the  tolerance
requirement.

The FIFRA  amendments  of  1988  require EPA to  give  expedited consideration to
applications for initial or amended registrations of products which are similar
to  pesticides already  registered  (i.e.,  certain  Old  Chemical  and  Amended
Registration Reviews).

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

To  prevent circumvention  of   section  3  registration  requirements,  stringent
criteria for granting section  18  Emergency Exemptions,  such as consideration of
progress toward  permanent registration  and clarification  of "emergency"  and
"sig-nifleant economic loss", will continue to be applied.  Headquarters continues
to work closely with  the Regions  and states  to  monitor  Emergency Exemptions and
Special Local  Needs registrations by states.

EPA has worked with FDA  on the use of  Maximum, Legal Residues  for enforcement of
import commodities bearing pesticide residues.  Inerts  of toxicological concern
will be listed on pesticide product labels and will undergo  data call-ins.
                                     2-137

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
              REGISTRATION, SPECIAL REGISTRATION, AND TOLERANCES

OFFICE: OPPTS

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Con't

The Agency will continue to implement the 1987 'antimicrobial strategy,.  Among the
objectives, -identified  in  this  strategy are the revision or update of  efficacy
test methodology and performance standards to assure reproducible efficacy tests.

Emphasis is ongoing with regard to consideration of  the  regulatory implications
of biological pesticides and, where appropriate, on accelerating the experimental
use and registration .of these pesticides, which are  the  fastest growing segment
of new product  registrations.   Special emphasis continues to be placed  on  the
regulatory  implications  of new  biological  pesticides.    There  has  been  a
significant increase in notifications/ experimental  use  permit  applications  and
registrations related to microbial and biochemical pesticides.  These biological
pesticides are  generally  safer than  chemical  pesticides,  and EPA will place  a
priority on'processing applications for  them.

Policies continue to ensure that tolerances reflect  the  most  current regulatory
status of each active ingredient.  The Agency continues to  cooperate and consult
with USpA  and  FDA by sharing  information  and  working  together to improve .the
monitoring of pesticide incidents and residues.  International activities include
the  exchange of information  between  the  U.S.  and  foreign  countries  and  the
harmonization of U.S. and international  standards.  Additionally, reduction of'
pesticide use is an emerging priority  in  the program.  Efforts will be escalated
in this -area,   in  coordination with  other Federal  and state  agencies and in
cooperation with grower organizations, food processors and food distributors to
encourage voluntary use reduction programs, focusing in the areas that present
the greatest opportunity for use  reduction.

Prevention of Ground-water contamination, including  registrant  monitoring, more
extensive  use  of environmental fate,test data, geographical restrictions,  and
restricted use  classifications will continue to be emphasized.  This will help
prevent future  environmental clean-up problems.  Information on product  labels
•will continue to be improved.

Improvement in  regional liaison will  be accomplished through close coordination
with the regional pesticide  experts and other regional staff to  improve  regional
and state understanding of national regulatory activities.   Regions will be more
routinely  involved  in consultations on  policies   affecting' their  mission,
facilitating enforcement,  enhancing public  understanding and compliance with, EPA
policies, and improving oversight of  section 18 and section 24(c) programs.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES          '         '        '

The goal of the Registration, Special Registration, and Tolerances program is to
protect public health and the environment from unwarranted exposure to pesticides
while  obtaining the  benefits  of  pesticide use.    This  program is  a major
contributor to  the Agency's pollution prevention program by emphasizing  source
reduction, and  actively supporting international efforts  to ensure sharing of
pesticide risk  and residue data reviews.
                                     2-138

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION ASENC1T
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
              REGISTRATION, SPECIAL RE0ISTRATION, AND TOLERANCES

OFFICE: OPPTS

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Con't


An ongoing objective of the program is to conduct pre-market registrationof human
and environmental  risks associated with  the introduction or  expanded  use of
pesticides in the  market place and to encourage  safer pesticide substitutes,
including biological and biotechnology products.   A second  objective of this
program  is  to  regulate  the  special  registration  of pesticides,  including
experimental use,  emergency  use,  and  state registration of pesticides.   These
functions are required by sections 5, 18, and 24(c) of FIFRA.  A third objective
of the program is^ to protect the public  health by establishing safe pesticide
residue levels (tolerances) on food and feed  as required by the FFDCA,  This is
achieved by establishing tolerance levels for residues of  both  active, and inert
pesticide ingredients (or exemptions from the requirements of a tolerance) in or
on raw agricultural commodities  and  processed foods,  establishing temporary
tolerances for products marketed  following the  application of  experimental use
pesticides,   and  ensuring,, through' the  testing  of  analytical  methods,  that
established tolerances can be adequately enforced.

The  Agency  is  actively  working  to  reduce  risks  to  human  health and  the
environment by expediting processing of potentially safer  new chemicals and new
uses  which  may  replace  hazardous  chemicals  that remain in  use  because  no
alternatives exist. Computer systems and  processes have been changed to expedite
the processing of  these applications.   Registration reviews will continue to
emphasize the  impact on  food  safety,  'ground  water,  worker  protection,  and
endangered species.

Continued special  attention  is being  given  to  biochemical and microbial pest
control agents.  For example,  the Agency requires notification of intended small-
scale field  testing of certain genetically engineered, microbial pesticides.  The
Agency is revising the  section 5 experimental use  permit regulations to reflect
this  policy and  to. provide  sufficient  oversight  of the  early  testing  of
genetically altered  microbial  pesticides, while  not  creating an unnecessary
burden  on the 'development of these new,  potentially safer pesticides.   For
experimental  use  permits,  emphasis   is  being  placed  on  the  products  of
biotechnology. . These involve special skills and  expedited review not required
of more conventional pesticides.
                                     2-139

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            GENERIC  CHEMICAL REVIEW
OFFICE:  QPPTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
(FIFRA   '88)   contain  provisions   for  a  greatly   accelerated  five-phase
reregistration program, expedited processing  of certain types of registration
applications, a complex new  system  for collecting and administering fees, and
significant revisions to the  indemnification and disposal program for pesticides
suspended and canceled after FIFRA '88.  Fees mandated by FIFRA  '88 supplement
appropriated funds to carry out reregistration and expedited processing.

The reregistration. provisions  of FIFRA '88  establish  mandatory timeframes and
duties for reregistration of pesticides. The  law  now  requires EPA to complete,
over  approximately  a  nine-year period,  the  reregistration  review  of  each
registered product containing any active ingredient registered before November
1, 1984.  Congress directed EPA to carry out reregistration in five phases.

During Phase I, the Agency developed four lists {A, B, C, and D)  of chemicals,
focusing on  those' chemicals  with the highest potential  for  exposure.   List A
chemicals are  those  for  which EPA had  issued  Registration  Standards  prior to
December  24,  1988.   These  are primarily  food  use  chemicals  and  represent
approximately  85-90  percent of  the total  volume of  agricultural  pesticides
currently used in  the United  States.  Because the List  A pesticides are  those to
which people and the environment are  most exposed  they are the Agency's highest
priority for reregistration review.

List  B,   C,  and  D  chemicals  contain a  mix  of  many  types   of  pesticides
(insecticides, fungicides, herbicides,  disinfectantst  wood preservatives, etc.)
used  in  a variety of  settings.   Each  list  consists  of pesticides  with less
potential for broad' scale  human exposure than those on  the preceding list.  Most
of the registered microbial and.biochemical pesticides are included on List D.

The reregistration  of  List B,  C, and  D chemicals proceeds  through additional
phases.. During Phase II,  the registrants declared whether they intended to seek
reregistration of their products.  If so, they had to notify the Agency, identify
applicable  data requirements  and  missing  studies,   commit  to  submitting or
replacing inadequate studies  and pay the first installment of the  reregistiration
fee.  Phase II activities were completed in 1990.

During Phase ill,  the registrants submitted,  reformatted and .s.ummarized studies,
flagged studies that indicated adverse  effects, and paid the final installment
of the reregistration fee.  Phase III  activities were completed in October, 1990.

During Phase  IV,  the Agency must review all  Phase  II and III submissions and
determine independently whether  all  applicable data  requirements are actually
satisfied,  and  if not, require  registrants  to complete  any  unfulfilled data
requirements.   Phase IV  was  completed  for all  but  two chemicals by September
1993.
In Phase V,  the Agency must  conduct  a  comprehensive  review of all the studies
submitted in support of -an active ingredient;'decide whether pesticide products
containing the active ingredient are eligible for reregistration and if so, under
what  conditions; decide whether product studies are needed,  and  if so obtain
                                     2-140

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            GENERIC CHEMICAL REVIEW
OFFICE: OPFTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REStrLATORY FRAMEWORK Con' t

these studies; and reregister products by issuing a Reregistration  Eligibility
Document  (RED) or taking appropriate regulatory action.

The Lab Support program provides analytical and environmental chemistry services
in order for the Office of Pesticide Pr.ograms to fulfill its mandated mission.
It  provides  support  to the  registration and reregistration  food  tolerance
programs,  the  Office  of  the  General  Counsel,   and  the Agency's   regional
enforcement program.

The.  Federal  Insecticide,   Fungicide,   Rodenticide Act  (FIFRA)  also places
requirements on OPP to maintain a"pesticide analytical  chemistry capability in
order to validate'food tolerance enforcement  methods.   These methods are tested
at EPA's labs  and  represent a large percentage of the work performed at  our labs .-
This, work is important to the* Food and Drug Administration (FDA)  as well because
these methods  are needed for  special  food surveys when existing multi-residue
methods  are  not  available  for  specific analytes.    Residue  tolerances of
pesticides on food crops are set by EPA, the analytical chemistry methodology is
evaluated at the Beltsville laboratory, and the final  approved  method is given
to the FDA for Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act enforcement.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

FIFRA* '88 requires a massive increase in the number of  registrant submissions.
The.collection of maintenance fees and reregistration  fees  to provide  staff and
contract support continues to support this requirement.

Activities associated  with production  of  REDs include  identifying  candidates,
reviewing databases,  and  writing REDs.   Identification of tier requirements,
review of toxicology CORT studies and section 6(a)(2)  requirements will continue
to be a priority in  the study reviews. . Science reviews of studies and  fo.llow-up
to Data Call-Ins will be conducted and summaries will be  produced. After the .RED
.is issued, reregistration  reviews and decisions will  continue at   the product
level within each reregistration case.

Special  Reviews  are major risk  reduction vehicles,  and'will  be increasingly
generated from data reviewed during the  reregistration process.    The program
reflects actual exposure and risk in its review criteria,-and emphasises concern
for  ground-water  protection,  worker  .protection  standards,.-  and   accelerated
decision making.

The Agency has continuing disposal responsibility for  pesticides suspended and
canceled  prior to 1988.   Ethylene dibromide disposal  was  completed   in 1990.
Dinoseb disposal began in 1990 and was completed in December 1992.  As of  that
date,  99 percent of  dinoseb  stocks  had  been disposed of.   Disposal of any
remaining stocks is  now the responsibility of the holder.  The disposal  of 2,4,5-
T/Silvex stocks previously stored at Dyers Warehouse was completed in  February,
1992.  The disposal of the remaining stocks of 2,4,5-T/Silvex was completed on
May 27, 1994.                                               .   '
                                     2-141

-------
                UNITED  STATES,ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            GENERIC  CHEMICAL REVIEW
OFFICE: OPPTS
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Can't


Section 19 of FIFRA '88 mandates that  the Agency promulgate  regulations  for the
storage and disposal of pesticides.  Proposed regulations will be issued in three
phases. Phase I, procedural rules for suspended/canceled/recalled pesticides was
proposed in FY 1993 and will be finalized in FY 1995.  Phase II, standards for
pesticide containers and containment,  was published in  February 1994.  Issuance
of Phase III, standards  for storage, mixing/loading, transportation  and disposal
of pesticides,  began in December 1993.

Section 6(a)(2)  of FIFRA requires that "if  any  time' after the registration of a
pesticide   the   registrant  has   additional   factual   information   regarding
unreasonable adverse effects.6n the environment  of the pesticide, he'shall submit
such information to the Administrator."  This requirement covers a wide range of
information and  may include  interim  test   results,  raw test  data,  and, .other
information  from on-going,  full  or  incomplete  studies  as well  as incident
reports.  This wide range of data makes it essential  for the Agency to  screen the
information and  quickly determine whether  further review  is  warranted.   The
Pesticides program has  taken significant steps to improve the handling  of  section
6(a)(2) information.  These include improved tracking, development of tools to
analyze incident data,  efforts  in  resolving policy and procedural  issues," and
clarification of guidance to registrants. A proposed rule has been developed and
was published in FY'1993.   The final  rule is undergoing review and is expected
to be final in FY 1995.

An  Indian  strategy  is  under implementation to enable  Indian tribes  to become
involved in all areas of the pesticide program.  Currently  tribes are eligible
for funds for the initiation of  worker protection,  ground water,  and  endangered
species programs. The Agency is  continuing development of training materials for
conducting  environmental protection awareness  training  for tribal  personnel,
conducting needs surveys on Indian  lands, conducting Pilot Pesticide Programs on
Indian lands and beginning a scholarship-work study program.

Food safety remains a priority and reregistration .is a vital component  of this
initiative'.   This initiative  includes .developing better , scientific data  on
special tolerance and residue issues,  conveying scientific  information on risks
to  the public in understandable  terms,  and using  improved risk information in
regulatory decisions.   This initiative strengthens  the  Agency's ability  to make-
pesticide deci-sions based on scientific risk assessments, and educate  the public
on  the reasons for these decisions.     ,

The Agency's  Endangered Species  Protection Program (ESPP), which features a
revised method  of consultation  with  the  U.S. Fish  and Wildlife  Service  on
potential  endangered species  which are in  jeopardy,  generic product, labeling
coupled with county bulletins and  maps of endangered species habitats,  and use
limitations to  protect endangered  species  has been initiated  on  a   voluntary
basis,.  The program will be finalized  in FY 1995 and begin implementation in FY
1996.   The nation-wide ESPP may be supplemented  by  state endangered  species
protection plans suitable for local conditions.  Worker Protection Standards for
Agricultural Pesticides {40 CFR  170), governing pesticide-treated field reentry
                                     2-142

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            GENERIC CHEMICAL REVIEW

OFFICE; OPPTS

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Con't

intervals,  protective clothing,  and label  warnings  were published as a  final
regulation  in August  1992.   Aggressive  implementation  of the  worker .protection
standards will  continue.

In response to  the Delaney court decision, EPA will continue collaborating with
USDA and FDA to develop  legislation which will  allow the continued application
of "negligible  risk"  to  the tolerance setting activities.  The Agency is  also
reviewing its tolerance  structure.

The Agency  will continue to  implement the recommendations made by the National
Academy of  Science "Kids Study" and continue expansion  of an aggressive program
encouraging reduced  use of  pesticides  through  projects  designed ,tp reduce  or
eliminate urban and agricultural pesticide use and to foster risk reduction and
pollution prevention.

The  Agency  will continue   efforts  in   international  coordination  to   ensure
consistency of  decisions and science data with  CODEX,  the General Agreement  on
Tariff  and  Trade,   and import/export   policies.    This  initiative  includes
coordination with the European  Community on its  reregistration  efforts, and
expanded technical assistance th-rough the Food and Agriculture Organization and
the Peace Corps and  supports Agency implementation of the  North  American  Free
Trade Agreement (NAFTA)  and  Rio/Agenda  21 initiatives.

Resources are  also required for  the  laboratories in  order to  validate  food,
product and environmental chemistry methods  for new  and  old pesticides.   These
methods  are needed by other .Federal and state agencies for enforcement and
monitoring  activities.  The workload associated with the  reregistration process
will increase' as the  number  of active ingredients  requiring methods validation
increases.   These  labs  evaluate  pesticide products  for extremely dangerous
impurities,  such  as  dioxins,  furans,   and  PCBs.   They  also  determine  if
registrants have complied with the Agency's  section 3(c)(2)(b)  dioxin data call-
in  notice.   OPP labs provide  the regional enforcement programs with  highly
specialized pesticide chemistry  services to support misuse and other kinds  of
enforcement cases,  especially' for newly registered pesticides,  or  the  more
difficult to analyze  older pesticides.  High priority lab services are provided
to the Office of General Counsel  for hearings, and to the Office  of Research and
Development for the Dioxin Reassessment and National Exploratory Studies.   They
.also provide high level support to the Office of  Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic
Substances  (OPPTS)  Dioxin/Furan  Panel  that   screens   new  dioxin  and   furan.
analytical  methods for pesticides  and toxic substances.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Pesticide   risks are  among  the'  highest  overall  risks  regulated  by  E'PA.
Approximately  20,000  pesticide  products containing approximately 800  active
ingredients are .currently regulated by EPA.   Almost everyone uses or is exposed
to the use  of a  pesticide product.  Pesticides are also contributors  to ground-
water pollution and agricultural runoff  to surface water.  The Agency's priority
objectives  for  pesticides are:  (1) encourage safer pesticides, (2) ensure food
                                     2-143

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT  DESCRIPTION
                            GENERIC  CHEMICAL  REVIEW

OFFICE: OPPTS

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Con't

safety, C3>  maximize productivity, (4) reduce exposure and environmental burden,
and  (5) prevent pollution.   In  order  to  manage the  risks  pesticides pose to
public health and  the  environment, EPA  must expeditiously review the effects of
previously registered pesticides, many  of  which  were  registered before the full
range of scientific data  now necessary to register new active ingredients was
required.

The registrations  of the majority of existing pesticide  chemicals are supported
by data bases  which the  Agency  has found insufficient by  today's scientific
standards, to "support  the required  determination of  "no-  unreasonable adverse
effects." The Generic Chemical Review program 'is designed to  remedy  this problem
by requiring the upgrading of the scientific data base supporting registrations,
reviewing available data  about each chemical,  and formulating scientifically
based  regulatory  positions  to  guide  the  modification,   cancellation,  or
reregistration of existing products and the  registration of new products,

Ensuring the safety of  the  food supply is one  of  the primary purposes  of the
FIFRA '88 reregistration program.  Special  Reviews, in which pesticides suspected
of  causing  unreasonable  adverse effects undergo  an  intensive   risk/benefit
analysis to further regulate the terms  and conditions of their u-se, are closely
linked  to   the  reregistration program  and  further  guarantee  food  safety.
Reregistration and 'Special reviews also have emphasized reduced human exposure
and decreased environmental burdens due to pesticides.

This program includes a number of other  activities related to  risk management and
pollution  prevention  for  previously   registered  pesticides,  including  the
Endangered Species Protection Program,  development  and implementation of'worker
protection  standards,  and  addressing,ground-water  contamination  concerns  in
registration  and   reregistration actions.    Also,  for pesticides  emergency
suspended and canceled prior to the FIFRA. '8.8 amendments, EPA has  a continuing
responsibility to bear the costs of accepting and disposing of the stocks.

The program reduces pollution in the agricultural sector by emphasizing source
reduction,   such as  restricting the uses  of  hazardous pesticides,  identifying
potential problems  through review  of  toxicity  and  environmental  fate  data,
fostering substitution  of safer  chemicals,  regulating container  design,  and
encouraging changes in disposal and recycling  habits through technical assistance
and outreach activities.  QPPTS is assuming  a leadership role  in developing and
transferring Integrated Pest Management  (IPM)  technologies.   IPM will further
pollution prevention  efforts,  and  address   food safety as  well  by stressing
biologically based alternatives to conventional chemical pesticides. The program
also emphasizes reduced  pesticide use through the development of a comprehensive
program to disco'urage reliance on large volumes of synthetic organic chemicals
and pesticides for pest control and encourage  safer alternatives. To improve the
Government's ability to  evaluate risks posed through diet, estimates of  the types
and  amounts  of  various  foods  people are  likely to  eat must be made.   These
exposure evaluations are  conducted  with the,use of  the Agency's  Dietary .Risk
Evaluation System, a computer-based tool which estimates dietary exposure to a
pesticide.
                                     2-144

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            GENERIC  CHEMICAL  REVIEW

OFFICE:  OPPTS

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES	Con ' t


In the international  arena,  the program is  increasing its focus on international
cooperation to reduce environmental  risk and  pollution  prevention.  A number of
projects are planned over the next two years to meet .these goals.  The program
also actively supports international coordination on pesticide issues by sharing
risk  and   residue   information  through  the   World   Health   Organization's
International Program on Chemical Safety. Agency implementation of the NAFTA and
Rio  initiatives  will  result  in  increased  technical  assistance,  information
dissemination, and training activities to assist developing countries effectively
manage pesticides.

The  program  also  provides  resources  to  the  Office  of Pesticide  Programs
laboratories located in Beltsville,  Maryland and Bay St. Louis,  Mississippi, .in
order to provide scientific support to  the registration,  reregistration, and food
tolerance programs by evaluating analytical methods submitted by the pesticide
registrants .to determine  if they meet  the  requirements of  the  Agency's food
residue, product and environmental chemistry  guidelines.  The laboratories have
more  recently  provided  support  to the  newly emerging  environmental chemistry
methods   (ECM)  testing  program.   This program will evaluate ECMs  sent  to the
Agency to support exposure, environmental fate and ecological effects studies.
These methods  are  used  to generate  data for exposure,  environmental  fate and
ecological effects studies which are  used to determine whether a pesticide should
be registered. The laboratories  also evaluate older pesticide  analytical methods
that  are being  resubmitte'd by registrants to  satisfy  the reregistration data
requirements.   Both  the  environmental  and  product  chemistry  programs  will
increase in  importance  and workload  as the number of reregistration actions
increase.   Laboratory  chemists   are  also  involved in  screening  new pesticide
analytical methods that are submitted to the Agency as part of  the-expedited
registration  program.   They  also  support  the Agency's  regional  enforcement
programs and the Office of General Counsel by analyzing and monitoring pesticides
found in the environment.
                                     2-145

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                       PESTICIDE PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION
OFFICE: OPPTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The  regulatory  requirements  of this  program  are  set  forth in  the Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) .  Under FIFRA,  all pesticides
must be registered with EPA before  they may be sold.or distributed in the United
States.  FIFRA requires EPA to use an overall risk/benefit standard for  pesticide
registration.    Pesticides  must  perform  their intended  function when  used
according  to label directions,  without  posing unreasonable  risks of adverse
effects on  human health  or the environment.   In making pesticide  registration
decisions,  EPA  is  required to  take  into account  the economic,  social,  and
environmental  costs and benefits of pesticide use.  This is a task  of enormous
scope and complexity.

Section  3(d)  of  FIFRA gives  EPA  the authority  to- restrict uses  of certain
pesticides  to application by or under the supervision  of a certified applicator
or subject  to other regulatory requirements that the Agency may prescribe (such
as State  Management Plans).   Section  11 of FIFRA  authorizes  EPA or approved
states to conduct a program for the certification of applicators of restricted
use  pesticides.    Section 23  of  FIFRA  authorizes  the  Agency   to  enter  into
cooperative-agreements with states/Indian tribes and territories  to (1) enforce
the provisions of FIFRA,  (2) support -the  certification  of applicators, and  (3)
contract  with Federal or  state/Indian   tribal  agencies for  the  purpose  of
encouraging the training of certified applicators.   Furthermore,  FIFRA requires
EPA,  in cooperation with the Secretary of  Agriculture,  to use the  services of the
State Cooperative Extension Services to  inform  and  educate pesticide  users.


PROGRftM DESCRIPTION

Under this program, EPA is continuing to promote the correct uses  of pesticides.
Headquarters staff will continue to provide national leadership and  coordination
of the  initiative  to- build state/local/tribal  capabilities  in the  areas  of
ground-water,  worker  protection,  and   endangered  species.   In this regard,
Headquarters  will  develop  guidance  packages  and  training and   educational
.materials,  organize national  meetings   and  workshops,  and  provide  technical
assistance.  Headquarters staff will  continue to coordinate the initiative with
other Federal  agencies, especially the United States Department  of Agriculture
 (USDA), whose  programs,  resources, and  field operations  ace  'necessary to the
success of  building regional/state capacity.

In addition to the ongoing Certification and Training (C&T) programs/ the Agency
has implemented a major program to  build  regional/state  capabilities to respond
to increasing  public  concerns  about  ground-water contamination by  pesticides,
protection  of endangered species from pesticides,  and  safety of workers exposed
to pesticides.

EPA has cooperative agreements with State Lead Agencies to certify  applicators
to use Restricted Use Pesticides. .  EPA provides  grants  to  the  states to support
this activity.   With  the  publication of  Part 171 in FY 1994, regional offices
will continue to encourage states to  implement Part  171  within the  framework of
their state laws  and regulations.  .
                                     2-145

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        PESTICIDE  PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

OFFICE: OPPTS

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  Con't

In the ground-water program,  regional  offices are disseminating final management
plan guidance, overseeing the development and implementation of both generic and
chemical-specific state management plans, resolving inter-agency organizational
roles, reviewing and sharing successful state management practices, and providing
public information materials  to users  and the public.
In the Endangered Species Program, Regions are initiating or continuing voluntary
programs,  including  pilot  programs,  assisting states in developing .customized
state-initiated  plans, providing educational materials to users and the public,
coordinating with  Federal  and state lead agencies, coordinating the  review of
habitat maps,  and distributing other  informational  materials,

In the Worker  Protection Program, the Worker Protection Rule was published as a
final  rule in  August 1992.   Regions are  overseeing the development of program
implementation strategies, assisting states in disseminating information.on the
new  regulations, promoting coordination with affected state and other Federal
agencies at the state and regional level,  assisting in making trainers available
to conduct training,  developing and using public information materials explaining
'the  new  regulations,  and providing training programs and materials to states.
regional review  staff includes  senior level pesticide experts  in  the regional
offices.   This staff  will  continue to  provide technical  expertise  on pesticide
issues  such  as  C&T,  application  techniques,  toxicity,  pesticide  disposal,
restricted use pesticides,  and pesticides.  EPA provides grants to the states.to
support activities  for  the Pesticide  Programs.

GOALS AND  OBJECTIVES

The major  goal of this program is to strengthen regional and state  capabilities
to respond to increasing public concerns  about pesticide threats to  g-roundwater,
endangered species,  and farmworkers occupationally  exposed  to  pesticides.   The
Agency provides  national leadership and  coordination  to  the-pesticide, programs
in the Regions and  states.  While most of the pesticide program is national in
scope  and  regulatory  in  approach,  this  program  encompasses  diverse,,  non- .
regulatory activities addressing pesticide issues, initiated by or  dependent on
the  Regions and  states.  The  program  contributes  significantly to  the Agency's
goal of building regional/state capacity.

EPA's operating  objectives for this program are to:   1)  administer cooperative
agreements with  states' fo'r conducting  certification programs;   2)  carry out an
interagency agreement with the USDA to  provide training to pesticide applicators
'for  certification  purposes;   3)  strengthen regional,  state, and Indian tribal
capabilities   in  high  priority   program  areas;    4)  administer   cooperative
agreements with  states  for  the  protection  'of  workers,   ground-water,   and
endangered spe.cies;   5)  strengthen efforts to provide technical assistance to
Indian tribes.   In  its  .leadership role,  Headquarters  provides  overall guidance
to  Regions and  States,  coordinates  regional  activities,  establishes  working
relationships  with other  concerned EPA and Federal  agencies  at  the  national
level,  and promotes,  coordination  and cooperation  by  the  Regions, states  and
Indian  tribes with  the  corresponding  levels  of  other  affected  government
agencies.
                                     2-147

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        WORKING CAPITAL FUND-P«sticid«S
OFFICE:   OPPTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Agency will propose legislation in FY 1995 to  establish the working  capital
fund.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This'program element provides base  resources for postage costs and on-going data
processing and telecommunication services for  Pesticide activities.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The primary goal of this program element is to provide essential  postage,  data
processing, and telecommunication  services for the Program Office.
                                     2-148,

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                 RADIATION CRITERIA, STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:     Office of Air and Radiation ,.


STATUTORYJfrUTJORITIES/RgSULATORY FRAMEWORK

The statutory authorities for this program are: the Atomic Energy Act,  the Clean
Air Act (CAA), the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA)  and.other
legislation,

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION           '

EPA develops,, promulgates, and implement5 radiation environmental standards and
guidelines under this subactivity.  These standards and guidelines protect the
public health and the environment .by minimizing risk of radiation exposures from
nuclear  energy  applications,  naturally occurring radioactive  materials,  and
medical and occupational radiation exposures.                 -

GOALS ANDOBJECTIVES

The goal of  this program is  to provide  protection  from avoidable exposure to
radiation through standards,  regulations and guidelines issued under the Atomic
Energy Act,  CAA,  UMTRCA and other legislation.  The Agency is a major participant
in the federal program that oversees the disposal  of.radioactive wastes.  Under
Federal Guidance authority,  EPA recommends to the President guidance for federal
agencies limiting exposure  to radiation.   This'entire regulatory framework is
supported  by  the  Office of Radiation  'Programs'   internal risk  assessment
expertise.
                                     2-149

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                              WIPP IMPLEMENTATION


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER;     Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGUIATORY FRAMEWORK

On October  30,  1992,  the President signed  into  law the Waste Isolation Pilot
Plant  (WIPP)  Land  Withdrawal Act • (Public Law 102-579) .   The Act provides an
extensive role for  EPA  in overseeing DOE's activities at the WIPP and in ensuring
that such activities- comply with environmental laws  and regulations.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

EPA will be  responsible for overseeing many  of  DOE's  activities  at the WIPP,
beginning  with  a  test  phase  and continuing  throughout  its operation  and
decommissioning, if EPA determines that those  phases  should be allowed.  The Act
requires EPA  to issue  final radioactive  waste disposal  standards and develop
criteria for  certifying DOE compliance  with  those  standards,  EPA must also
review and approve  DOE's .plan for testing the  WIPP's'suitability as  a permanent
disposal facility  and  for  removing waste if necessary.  In addition, EPA must
determine on' an  ongoing  basis  whether  DOE is  complying with all environmental
laws,  rsgulations,  and permit requirements that are  applicable to WIPP.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this activity is to finalize radioactive waste disposal  standards and
oversee DOE radioactive waste disposal activities at the WIPP in New Mexico to.
ensure  environmental  compliance.   The  ultimate  goal  of this, activity  is to
provide a safe disposal site for radioactive  wastes  generated by DOE's weapons
development activities.
                                     2-150

-------
                 UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                       RADIATION PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:     Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK •

The statutory authorities for this program are:  the Atomic Energy Act,  the Clean
Air Act (CAA), th'e Uranium Mill  Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA)  and other
legislation.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This  program  supports   activities  of  EPA15  Regional  offices  and  includes
participation in the  implementation of standards for airborne radionuclides from
regulated source categories and in the review and testing  of state radiological
emergency response plans.                      -               .

Other activities include reviewing environmental impact statements; providing the
public with technical information; providing direct"assistance to state  and local
governments  with  special  radiation  problems  of  a  short-term  nature;  and,
providing  the  radiological  expertise  needed  by  the  Regions  to  address
radiological problems  under the  Agency's- drinking water  and hazardous waste
programs.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this program element is  to implement the Agency's radiation program
at the regional  level.   The  Regional  radiations  staff are  instrumental to the
successful implementation of  the Agency's radiation priorities.  Primary regional
responsibilities  include:  implementing  the  radionuclide   National  Emission
Standards  for Hazardous  Air Pollutants;  reviewing  and coordinating state and
local nuclear emergency  response  plans  and exercises;  assisting the states in
responding to other radiation problems or concerns; and providing Headquarter's
national-  programs early warning  of new  problems  and  direct  feedback  and
evaluation of ongoing and proposed activities.
                                     2-151

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                   RADIATION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: .    Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The statutory authorities for this program are: the Atomic Energy Act,  the Clean
Air Act (CAA), the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRGA)  and other
legislation.

PRQGRAM DESCRIPTION

Activities in this  program element provide the information necessary  to identify
and analyze radiological problems having  potential public health impacts.  This
includes support of the development of  standards and- guidelines,  as well as
monitoring,  of environmental  radiation,   conduct ~of  laboratory  analysis  and
technology assessments,  and  maintenance of an emergency preparedness  capability.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES  '                               .

The major objectives of this program are.: to develop and maintain an emergency
preparedness  program which  will  avert  excessive  exposure to  radiation  from
nuclear accidents;  to provide field,  laboratory,  and  technical support to EPA's
radiation  regulatory development  and  implementation  activities through  the
collection  and  analysis  of environmental  samples;  to  monitor environmental
radiation levels and assess the effects   of  radiation  exposure  to the general
public from ambient  radiation;  to characterize and evaluate special radiation
problems; to  provide,analytical support  to  other parts  of EPA for assessing
radiation risks;  and to  provide training  and support  to other federal .and state
agencies and to Indian nations.
                                     2-152

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                   REGIONAL WORKING CAPITAL FUND—RADIATION

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:     Office of Air and Radiation  .   .                '

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGUIiATORY FRAMEWORK

None.                                                •

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program elemetit contains resources for the Regional Working-Capital Fund for
the Radiation Media.  The resources pay for'program postage costs that provide
all routine, day-to-day U.S. Postal Services and includes  regular1 First, Third
and  Fourth  Class  mail,  Post  Office Express  Mail,  two^day  priority ' mail,
registered and certified mail  and pouch mail;- Federal Express  overnight mail and
United Parcel Service  shipments.  The increase will provide for .annualization of
the February, 1995 postal rate  increase of  10.31.  For NDP.D operations,  the  base
dollars provide an on-going data processing and telecommunication services  for
this Program.  These services  are classified into  five cost centers: Enterprise
Computing  Services, Network Services, Desktop  Services,  'Technical Consulting
Services and Scientific Computing Services.  Investment resources will provide
the Program',s share of .Depreciation of Capital Assets,  Increased Service Costs,
Additional Mainframe Capacity, Investments  in Network  Services  and  investments
in Technical Consulting Services.                      ,                 ,
                                     2-153

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                               REGIONAL COUNSEL

OFFICE: OGC

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATOR* FRAMEWORK

      The Offices of Regional Counsel (ORCs)  are  responsible  for  legal  services
for all 'statutes  relevant to the operation of the Agency, including the Clean
Air Act,  Clean Water Act, Safe  Drinking Water Act,  Ocean  Dumping Act, Solid
Waste Disposal  Act-,  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act,  Toxic Substances
Control Act,  Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and Rodenticide Act,  and other
environmental statutes, as well as statutes- relating  to  internal  administration
of Federal agencies..

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

      The ORCs participate in litigation related  to defense of regional  program
actions.    Several  hundred   such  cases  are  anticipated  annually.    Formal
administrative  proceedings   involve  resolution  of  procurement,  contracts
administration  issues,  grant disputes  and assistance appeals,  suspensions and
debarment, and personnel  related proceedings.  The ORCs also provide attorneys
to preside over an ever-increasing number of  administrative enforcement  actions
in lieu of Administrative Law Judges, as well as  hearing clerks,who must docket'
all administrative pleadings.   State program work, relating to delegations and
authorizations .includes review of State legislation and  regulations, assistance
to States in developing and  implementing authorized programs, and oversight of
States' implementation.    ORCs also  review many  Freedom of  Information  Act
requests and make  business confidentiality determinations.   Legal counselling
services consist of  providing timely legal advice to the regional programs on
both envirnonmental media-specific and administrative matters  (e.g., employment
law,  ethics, conflicts of  interest).

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

      The major goals of  the ORCs  in this program element are to: (1)   provide
legal services  and advice to the  Regional Administrator and Regional  program
managers;   (2)  represent  the Regions  in civil  litigation' filed  against  the
Agency;  (3) .represent the Agency in formal administrative proceedings regarding
contract actions • and personnel disputes;  (4)  assist the States in obtaining
adequate  legal authorities  to  undertake  program delegation;  and  (5)  review
Regional decisions for legal  defensibility.
                                     2-154

-------
                 OTTITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                                GENERAL COUNSEL
OFFICE:OGC


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

      The Office of General Counsel (OGC)  is responsible for legal services for
all statutes relevant to  the  operation of the Agency,  including the Clean Air
Act, Clean Water Act, Safe  Drinking  Water Act,  Ocean Dumping Act, Solid Waste
Disposal Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substances Control
environmental  statutes,  as   well   as  statutes   relating  to  the  internal
administration of Federal agencies.

PROGRflM DESCRIPTION

      EPA's OGC serves as the primary  legal advisor to  the Administrator.  The
office also provides  legal services to all organizational elements of .the Agency
with respect  to all Agency programs  and  activities  and  also  provides  legal
opinions, legal  counsel, and litigation support;  and assists in the formation and
administration of the Agency's policies and programs' as legal advisor.

      Priority activities are the defense of the Agency in litigation, support
to the Agency's  promulgation of rules,  establishment of  policy, and preparation
of guidance documents for  the implementation of the Agency's programs, review of
enforcement litigation,  the provision  of support on administrative law issues,
and the  provision of legal advice to  program managers.   .OGC  provides  legal
support  for  the development  and  defense of regulations,  policies,  and other
program  decisions,  and  review of  enforcement litigation.   OGC  handles  all
litigation activities in which EPA is a defendant.  OGC works in conjunction'with
the Department of Justice,  and Offices*of Regional Counsel (where relevant) in
the conduct of litigation.  National  oversight and  support is provided to the
ORCs.    Grant,   contract,  and  administrative  law support' is  provided  to  the
Agency's programs, providing legal assistance in the areas of regulation, policy,
and guidance document development; project  review; contract review information
and property law, claims, and personnel matters.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

      The OGC defends the Agency in litigation filed against it,  provides legal
advice and counselling  to the Agency in rulemakings,  adjudicatory activities,
policy development,  extramural funding agreements, procurements,  ethics issues,
and  employment  law  to  avoid  time-consuming and  costly   legal  errors  in
implementing Agendy programs an operations.
                                     2-155

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                       ANALYTICAL ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

 OFFICE:   ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES /  REGUIATORY FRAMEWORK

 Regional  offices  require  technical  support  to  implement  the  environmental
 statutes  mandated by the Congress  and the President.   These  statutes currently
 consist of the Clean Water Act (CWA) ; Clean Air Act (CAA).; Federal Insecticide,
 Fungicide, and Rodent.icide  Act  (FIFRA);  Resource Conservation  and Recovery Act
 (RCRA);  Toxic Substances Control Act  (TSCA);.and the Safe Drinking  Water Act
 (SDWA) .   The  Regional Analytical Environmental Services program is coordinated
 in  the Office of  Regional Operations  and State/Local  Relations,  which provides
 the Regions with Headquarters policy guidance, oversight, and management support.


 PROGRftM DESCRIPTION

 The Regional  Analytical  Environmental Services program provides a wide range of
 activities and services that affect every part of the Agency's responsibilities,
 including support for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (E-
 MAP).  They also  conduct  training and multi-media inspections;  develop and test
 environmental indicators; work with compliance data;  expand  the utilization of
 TRI data; engage in Regional laboratory activities  and increase cooperation with
 States and local  governments.


 GOALS ANP OBJECTIVES                      , .

 The major objective,of the Regional Analytical Environmental Services Program is
 to  provide the'  required analytical  and technical expertise  to  the  Regional
 Administrators  (RAs) .    The RAs  need  to  have  credible information  on  the
 environmental specifics  of  their regions when working with their state,  tribal,
 and local governments, or when pursuing enforcement actions.  The information is
 critical  in court actions in enforcing Agency statutes  such as the Clean Air Act
 Amendments.   Equipment   used  in  the Regional  laboratories  is  essential  to
 guaranteeing  quality information to the Federal government on a timely basis, and
 to  maintaining  an  adequate technical expertise over  inherently  governmental
•functions.    Whereas,  strengthening -the ..science  base  of EPA  is  critical  to
 effective  environmental  decision  making,   the  maintenance  of  a   strong
 Environmental Services laboratory  system is a key ingredient  in "this effort.
                                     2-156

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                  MULTIMEDIA POLICX DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMICS

NATIONAL  PROGRAM MANAGER:  OPPE

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The  Office of  Policy,  Planning and  Evaluation  (OPPE)  participates  in  cross-
office,  multi-media Policy Development  and Economic activities  which  suppo.rt
Federal statutes under EPA purview, including  (but not limited to):  the Global
Climate Protection Act of 1987, the Climate Change Research and Development Act
of 1990,  the  Clean Air Act Amendment  of  1990,  the  Clean Water Act, the  Economy
Act  of 1932, the National Environmental Policy  act, the Safe Drinking Water Act,
the  Food, Agriculture  Conservation  Trade  Act of 1990,  the Toxic  Substances
Control Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability
Act,  the  Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery Act,  the Federal  Insecticide,
Fungicide and Rodenticide Act,  and the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic  Act, as
well as Congressional authorization.  Among other things,  activities 'Support  the
President's Environmental Technology  Initiative, the President's Climate Change
Action  Plan,  regulatory reinvention  through  Project  XL, and the Common Sense
Initiative.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

OPPE:     (1)   leads cross-Agency implementation of Project  XL,  the flagship of
EPA's  effoxts  to.  create the  building blocks  for  2lst .Century  environmental
management,   and a  real world test  of  alternative  compliance concepts;   ,(2)
leads  and  provides  core  staffing  for  the  metal  finishing, sector  of  the
Administrator's Common Sense Initiative (CSI),  undertakes projects which address
industrial  sector eco-efficiency  issues on an industry-specific basis and works
with other CSI  sector  teams  to develop  cross-media  policy initiatives;   -(3)
develops, analyzes  and  evaluates alternative policy  approaches used to  achieve
the  Agency's  strategic objectives  in  ways consistent with long run economic and
environmental trends;   (4)    works to ensure  that  environmental hazards  and
cumulative  risks  are   managed  effectively,  efficiently  and  equitably  and
prioritized by employing a cross-media  approach that is  either  sector-based,
place-based or  both;    (5)   .analyzes the  economic,  environmental  and  equity
effects of policies, programs  and legislation across broad sectors  of the economy
including energy, urban  development,  finance, transportation and the management
of  renewable natural  resources;   (6)  reports on  the  potential  physical  and
socioeconomic impacts of climate change, both domestically and internationally,
and  the benefits of actions;  (7) represents the Agency and presents finding$ on
.impacts  and adaptation  at key interagency and international meetings;'  (8)  in
partnership with affected constituencies, works with them to communicate what we
have learned about climate change, to conduct more detailed, place-based analyses
of potential  climate change impacts to augment  national analyses,  and to use pc-
based decision-support' systems which  incorporate climate change 'considerations;
 (9)  performs assessments  of  multiple  (ancillary)  environmental  and  economic
benefits  associated.with both climate and  non-climate  policies  and programs;
 .(10) provides integrated assessment capabilities to program offices in EPA, other
Federal agencies, and state and local  governments so that integrated assessments
o.f other  environmental  issues can be  performed-;  (11) uses EPA's assessments of
human activities on climate change to develop appropriate economic, technological
and  institutional  strategies  to mitigate the,risks  of  atmospheric change; (12)
identifies  and evaluates options for  mitigating the  risks of .climate change in
the  U.S.  and internationally,  particularly for  reducing greenhouse gas emissions
and  enhancing sinks;  (13) provides technical support to the Agency on scientific
theories  and  empirical  analyses  that  characterize, relationships between  the
performance of  the economy and the quality of the environment;  (14) conducts in-
depth  analyses of  economic  and policy  issues  relating to economic  costs  and
benefits  of EPA regulatory programs,  policies  and  guidance; (15)  fosters


                                      2-157

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                 MULTIMEDIA POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMICS

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: OPPE


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION eon't

collaborative working relationships with other EPA program offices in an
effort to increase the capabilities of other EPA offices to perform
scientifically sound'economic analyses;  (16) perform economic and policy
analyses of the economic impacts of EPA programs for which multiple
regulations or programs are involved;  (17) coordinates support systems for
technology-related programs, in particular the President's Environmental
Technology Initiative (ETI);  (18)  identifies regulations/ policies-and
procedures that'inhibit technology development and deployment,; working with
other Agency offices,  .Federal and  state agencies, and other customers, and
makes recommendations regarding the mitigation of these barriers;  (19) plans,
coordinates- and implements activities needed to achieve the goals and
recommendations on the Administration's Environmental Technology Exports
Strategy; (20) conducts outreach activities with stakeholders, including
states, environmental technology developers, technology users, and other
public and private entities; and  (21) studies trade competitiveness effects of
environmental regulations, analyzing the environmental effects of trade
agreements and supporting the development of institutional mechanisms for
addressing trade and environment issues.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

OPPE promotes EPA's guiding principles and supports goals of the Agency's Five
Year Strategic Plan, including, Improved Understanding of the Environment and
Climate Change Risk Reduction.  OPPE is engaged in implementing many of the
recommendations contained in the National Academy of Public Administration
report, Setting.Priorities, Getting Results A New Direction at EPA (1995),
including those that address Risk, Partnerships and Alternative Environmental
Management Strategies.  .OPPE provides policy advice and analysis on
legislative and other environmental issues for the Administrator, Deputy
Administrator, the Regions, and Program Offices.  Its major objectives are to
shape Federal decisions and initiatives to reflect relative risks within and
across media;  integrate environmental and economic priorities within and
across broad sectors of the economy;' develop both sector-based and placed-
based initiatives to promote sustainable development and pollution prevention;
 promote environmental protection  and economic well-being using an
interdisciplinary approach that informs policy makers on an ongoing basis
about climate, non-climate, and cross-cutting climate/non-climate issues;
provide approaches which stimulate economic development and which achieve
multiple environmental and social  objectives along with the objective of the
Framework Convention on Climate Change; identify scientifically sound
principles .and data that can be used to communicate a complete view of the
relationships that exist between economic and environmental systems; and
coordinate development and implementation of technology policy within the
Agency.
                                     2-158

-------
                 UNITEB STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
     REGULATORY  DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: OPPE                         . .


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Through, its Regulatory Development and Community-Based  Environmental Protection
(CBEP)  programs,  the Office of  Policy, Planning and Evaluation  (OPPE) operates
under  all  laws  for which  EPA .has  the  lead  responsibility and  fosters the
implementation of integrated geographic approaches  to environmental protection.
OPPE oversees  the  Agency's  regulatory development process  which supports the
preparation and issuance under  the Administrative Procedure Act of regulations
written under  several  environmental  protection statutes for which EPA has the
lead responsibility.  OPPE manages EPA programs under the Negotiated Rulemaking
Act and the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

OPPE:   (1) administers and directs the internal regulation development review
and analysis process; reviews regulatory and  policy documents for compliance with
all  applicable requirements;  develops  the Administration's  Regulatory Plan'
required by E.O.  12866;  and publishes the semi-annual  Agenda of Regulations; (2)
promotes negotiation  as an  alternative  to  traditional rulemaking  and policy
setting, and fosters the application of consensus-building  techniques  in dispute
resolution; (3) manages EPA's liaison with the Office  of the Federal Register to
ensure appropriate paper and electronic publication of  all Agency proposals and
actions; (4) provides analytic  and policy leadership to reduce EPA's paperwork
burden imposed on the public;  provides policy support  and analytic review of EPA
information and  reporting systems;  provides quality  control and pre-clearance
review for all EPA  Information Collection Requests under the Paperwork Reduction
Act,  and   prepares  the  annual  Information Collection  Budget;  (5)  develops
standards and protocols to enable electronic data interchange to replace  paper
transactions  as  the basis for  environmental  reporting;  (6)  coordinates  EPA's
support and participation with local voluntary service  organizations seeking to
provide essential,  non-regulatory  environmental  protection  at  the  community
level; • (7)  identifies,  develops  and disseminates tools and information needed
by environmental professionals  and  others interested in implementing the CBEP
approach,  with special emphasis on economic,  ecological and social scienc.e tools;
(8)  develops   alliances  and  partnerships with  other  organizations  to   pilot
innovative programs and to foster wider implementation of CBEP; (9)  leads Project
XL for Communities, a flagship Reinvention project; and (10)   conducts analysis
and other activities to assist  Regional Office and Headquarters Office program
managers in overcoming  institutional barriers  to CBEP.

GOALS ANDOBJECTIVES

OPPE strives to provide EPA  with a well-managed regulation development, review,
and analysis process; improves the quality and reduces the burden associated with
EPA  regulations   and   data  collection;  advances  technical  innovation  in
en-vironmental information exchange; integrates appropriate  scientific, economic,
and risk reduction policies in Agency decisionmaking; and assists Agency managers
in solving implementation problems and in finding innovative means'of achieving
environmental  goals.  OPPE also  fosters the implementation of  CBEP within EPA
and with the Agency's partners  at the Federal, state,  and local levels.   CBEP
efforts complement the Agency efforts to  implement  the  Common  Sense Initiative.
Together,  they are  the main tenets, of the Agency's strategy for "reinventing" its
approach  to  environmental  protection  by  addressing  environmental  problems
holistically.  CBEP is a multi-media approach  (sometimes called a "place-based"


                                     2-159

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
     REGULATORY DEVELOPMENT AMD COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES con't

or "ecosystem-based" approach) that is a way to identify environmental
problems, set priorities and  forge solutions through an open, inclusive
process driven by places and  the people who live in them.  It integrates
environmental protection with human needs, considers long-term ecosystem
health, and fosters linkages between prosperity and environmental well-being.
It encourages communities to  create their vision of environmental health and
quality of life and to encourage human activity compatible with that vision.

OPPE objectives are consistent with the recommendations of the National
Academy of Public Administration's report, Setting Priorities, Getting
Results; AMew Direction for EPA  (1995), on ecosystem protection and the
recommendations made in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and' . •
Development's 1996 Environmental Performance Review of the United States to
protect ecosystems.  OPPE's work also is consistent with EPA's five-year
strategic plan, The New Generation of Environmental Protection (1994), in the
areas of improved understanding of the environment and ecosystem protection.
Some of OPPE's activities also aim at implementing the recommendations of
EPA's Science Advisory Board's pivotal report on ReducingRisk;Setting
Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Protection  (1990), such as placing
more emphasison ecological risksand developing better methods for valuing
ecological resources.
                                     2-160

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         REGIONAL MULTI MEDIA PROGRAMS

 OFFICE:      ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF      •                                '


 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY  FRAMEWORK

 The  Regional Multimedia program provides  funding for'local projects identified
 by the Regions through their strategic planning and budgeting processes as being
 significant  and  critical   to  the  regional,  State,  and  local  jurisdictions'
 environmental  programs.  Projects in all  media  areas,  as  well as environmental
 education and pollution prevention,  allow the Regions  to  support a broad range
 of environmental  goals.- Statutory  authority-comes  from all media areas within
 the  Agency and also expands a broad  authority given to EPA under the National
 Environmental  Policy Act and Section 309  of the  Clean Air Act.


 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION     ''                                                   '

 Specific projects are initiated to address environmental problems  in the Agency's
 ten  Regional offices  which  are considered for funding during the development of
 Regional  strategic  plans  and  budgets.    These  initiatives,  which  address
 environmental  problems  identified   as  being of high  risk  to  human  health;
 ecosystems,   or  both,  are  developed  under the  direction  of-" the  Regional
 Administrators with broad oversight from-the Office of Regional  Operations and
 State/Local  Relations within the Headquarters Office of the Administrator.  All
 projects funded  are  of immediate  concern to individual 'Regions  and  support
 innovative efforts  to  define and resolve complicated, multi-media environmental
 problems confronting Tribal, local,  State and regional jurisdictions.  By funding
 these initiatives,  such as  lead contamination in the northeast or mining waste
 in the west, each Region can target  critical environmental problems that present
 the  greatest  risk  to  local environments even when  the risk presented  to the
 entire country is significantly lower than the  local risk.


 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES '

 While the Regions" comparative risk evaluations revealed .many similarities in the
 risks across the country, there are  frequently distinct differences that reflect
•the  environmental diversity of our Nation.  Even where risks  are similar, the
 causes  of risk  sometimes  differ,  necessitating unique solutions  within  each
 Region to achieve the greatest risk reduction for  our environmental protection
 dollar.

 This program provides  the needed flexibility for the Regional offices to handle
 risk-based priorities that are geographically unique to the  regions, and are not
 adequately addressed by the Agency's national programs.   With the exception of
 the  funds in this program,  Regional offices receive a relatively small portion
 of the Agency's  extramural  resources.  This program attempts to  further Agency
 management goals by making program funds available to those levels of management
 that have the  most  direct responsibility for carrying out the Agency's mission.
                                     2-161

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        ENFORCEMENT POLICY & OPERATIONS
OFFICE:  OECA
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Enforcement Policy and Operations program is responsible for providing
legal support for the following environmental statutes: Resource Conservation
Recovery .Act (RCRA); Clean Air Act  (CAA); Safe Drinking Water Act  (SDWA);
Clean Water Act (CWA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Roderiticide Act
(FIFRA); Emergency Planning and Community-Right-to~Know Act  (EPCRA); Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA), Oil  Pollution Act (OPA),  Marine Protection,
Research and Sanctuaries Act  (MPRSA), Medical Waste Tracking Act  (MWTA), and
the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA).  OECA is also responsible  for
implementing the Pollution Prosecution Act  (PPA) requirements.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The OECA Regional 'legal enforcement program supports the Agency media offices
in meeting the statutory requirements by providing:

1)  support to administrative enforcement in the preparation and. review  of
complaints, development of"model"language for routine use/ and management of
administrative actions up to and including hearings before an Administrative
Law Judge or hearing officer.

2)  support to civil enforcement in the initiation of  new civil judicial
actions, ongoing case support for discovery, depositions, and resolution of
ongoing cases (ease closure)  through trial or settlement, and follow through
to ensure compliance with settlement provisions,

3)  support to criminal enforcement in case screening; legal advice with
potential criminal investigations;assistance to Department of Justice
prosecutors in grand jury investigations, pre-trial preparation, trials, plea
agreement and/or sentencing process; assistance with search warrants and
supporting affidavits; participating in multi-agency criminal enforcement task
force's; and maintaining expertise in parallel proceedings issues.

4)  support for Agency priorities,  such as NAFTA, Mexican Border, and
International,     ecosystem and sector targeting, and  environmental equity.

5)  support 'for Federal Facilities  Compliance^ Agreements and administrative
order with"Federal agencies to conduct environmental restoration and
compliance activities at Federally  owned sites and facilities.

6) support to permit activities, including appeals and evidentiary hearings
under* the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA.) , and Underground  Injection Control
Programs.
                                     2-162

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         AGENCY ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: OECA


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The  environmental  justice  program  activities  are  executed  in  support  of
Executive  Order  12898,  "Federal  Actions to Address  Environmental  Justice in
Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations.".

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Agency Environmental Justice program, works closely with each EPA Regional
and  headquarters offices  in   a  catalytic,   coordinated,  advocacy  and  policy
development role to:  (1) assure that environmental justice issues are integrated
into the Agency's inspection,  enforcement and compliance assurance efforts,  (2)
assure  that  environmental  justice needs  are  a  priority in  Agency  resource
allocation decisions; ' (3)  establish short-term and 'long-range objectives  for
Agency environmental policies addressing all individual citizens concerns; .. (4)
develop appropriate'monitoring systems  to ensure  that  these objectives are met;
(5) encourage cooperative  and  collaborative efforts among EPA offices to address
specific  environmental  .justice  needs;  and  (6)  encourage -and  initiate   the
development and use of  innovative approaches for decreasing the gap in status
among varying populations.  The program  serves as the lead for  the  Interagency
Working  Group  on Environmental  Justice  overseeing the  implementation  .of  the
executive order on environmental  justice  at EPA as well as at  the eleven Federal
agencies named in the executive order.  The  program also serves  as the Agency's
focus  for  receiving advice  on  environmental  issues from  stakeholder  groups
through the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, a  Federal advisory
committee.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES .

The goal of the  Agency  Environmental Justice program is to facilitate agency-
wide initiatives  to create a cross-media,  risk reduction  approach in  making
environmental  information  more  accessible  to  EPA's  constituency  groups,
including state, local and tribal governments," academia, industry,  government,
non-government  and  environmental  organizations,  with  special  emphasis  on
community organizations in low income and culturally diverse communities.   The
program   will   promote    community-based    self-help    programs   such   as
economic/environmental development, establishing  clearinghouses for  information
and providing financial  and technical assistance'through the.award of grants to
community organizations and academia.   ,The program will place special emphasis
on  encouraging communities to engage,"  education  and  ultimately  empower  the
citizens to become involved in environmental decision-making at the local level.
                                     2-163

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        ENFORCEMENT POLICY & OPERATIONS

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  OECA


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Enforcement Policy and Operations program is .responsible for providing legal
support for the following environmental statutes: Resource Conservation Recovery
Act (RCRA); Clean Air Act  (CM); Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); Clean  Water Act
(CWA); Federal  Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and Rodenticide Act  (FIFRA);  Emergency
Planning and Coramunity-Right-to-Know Act  (EPC.RA); Toxic Substances Control Act
(TSCA),  Oil Pollution  Act  (OPA),   Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries
Act  (MPRSA),  Medical  Waste  Tracking Act  (MWTA),  and the  Federal Facilities
Compliance Act  (FFCA)',  OECA is also responsible for implementing the  Pollution
Prosecution Act  (PPA)  requirements.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The OECA Regional  legal  enforcement program supports the Agency media offices
in  meeting   the  statutory  requirements  by  providing:   1)     support  to
administrative  enforcement  in  the  preparation  and review of  complaints,•
development   of  "model"  language   for  routine,   use,   and  management  of
administrative actions up to  and including hearings before an Administrative, Law
Judge or hearing  officer;  "2)   support to civil enforcement  in the initiation
of new civil judicial actions,  ongoing case support  for discovery, depositions,
and resolution of ongoing cases (case closure)  through trial or settlement, and
follow through to ensure compliance with settlement provisions;   3) • support to
criminal enforcement  in case screening; legal  advice with potential criminal
investigations;  assistance to  Department of Justice prosecutors  in grand jury
investigations, pre-trial preparation, trials,  plea agreement and/or sentencing
process;   assistance  with   search   warrants   and   supporting  affidavits;
participating in multi-agency criminal enforcement task forces; and maintaining
expertise in parallel proceedings  issues; 4) support for Agency priorities, such
as NAFTA,  Mexican Border,  and International, ecosystem and sector  targeting, and
environmental justice; 5)   support for Federal  Facilities  Compliance Agreements
and  administrative  order  with  Federal  agencies  to  conduct  environmental
restoration and compliance activities at Federally  owned -sites and facilities;
and 6) support to permit activities,  including  appeals and evidentiary hearings
under the  National  Pollutant  Discharge Elimination  System  (.NPDES) ,  .Resource
Conservation  and  Recovery Act  (RCRA),  and Underground Injection Control  (UIC)
Programs.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this  program is  to effectively enforce our environmental statutes
to.  protect against  risks  to  human' health  and  the environment.   Regional
resources  are  used 'to translate  Agency priorities into a credible enforcement
presence,  tailored  to Regional   characteristics,  and  designed  to  maintain
statutory  compliance in ^the most  cost-effective manner.   Objectives to this
program include:  providing  legal  support for Regional enforcement actions and
resolution  of compliance problems to  address  environmental concerns  of the
greatest   risk,   including   ecosystem  concerns;   maximizing  Region-specific
compliance assurance and enforcement strategies; achieving equitable resolution
of  enforcement  matters and  the rapid  return of violators to compliance; and,
utilizing pollution prevention mechanisms  in case settlements.
                                     2-164

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW AND COORDINATION

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  OECA


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES  / REGULATORY FRflMEWORK

      The Environmental  Review and Coordination  (ER&C)  program, reviews  major
federal actions significantly affecting  the  environment,  as  required  under  the
§309  of the  Clean  Air Act  (CAA) and  the National  Environmental  Policy  Act
(NEPA) ; ensures that EPA programs and activities comply with  environmental laws
and regulations, including NEPA,  the Endangered Species Act (ESA) , the National
Historic Preservation  Act (NHPA) ,  and Executive Orders  (EOs) -on environmental
justice, and the protection of floodplain,  wetlands and agricultural lands;  and
manages  the  official  filing  activity   for  all federal  environmental   impact
statements  (EISs) in accordance with a memorandum.of agreement with the  Council
on Environmental  Quality  for implementing  the  procedural provisions  of  NEPA.
'OFA's   international   activities  are   carried  out  under  _the  legislation
implementing  the  North American  Free Trade Agreement  (NAFTA)  and  other U.S.
treaty  obligations,   under  other  international   agreements   and  diplomatic
commitments, and under the environmental statutes  that  EPA implements.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

      The ER&C program: 1) reviews over 500 major federal actions significantly
affecting the environment and 1200-rlSOO environmental assessments  of  smaller
federal projects  with  potential  environmental impacts', as required under §309
of the  CAA,  NEPA  and  -the EO  on Environmental  Justice,  identifies  potential
problems, and ensures  incorporation  of  needed  environmental improvements;  2)
develops pplicy and technical guidance on  issues related  to  NEPA, the ESA,  the
NHPA,, and relevant EOs; 3) ensures that EPA programs and activities comply with
NEPA  and  the  other  environmental laws,  regulations and  EOs;  4}  manages  the
official filing activity  for all  federal EISs;  5)  assists in EPA participation
in the  development of international  impact  assessment procedures and  project
reviews with  specific  emphasis on the Mexican Border to  provide instruction on
implementing  environmental' impact  assessment  (E.IA)  principles and  technical
assistance; 6) coordinates OECA strategy  and budget for international activities
and serves as OECA's principal  point of contact with the Office of International
Activities;  7)  provides  environmental impact assessment  (EIA)  support  through
coordination  with  the  State Department, Agency for  International Development
(AID),  multi-lateral  development  'banks,   and other   relevant  entities  'on
international issues concerning EIA and infrastructure development in developing
countries;  8) provides focused enforcement and compliance activities to  protect
against  air,  water,  and  land pollution along  U.S. borders  with  Mexico  and
Canada; and', 9} directs cooperative enforcement and compliance assurance  efforts
and  provides  technical  assistance  and  training  to  enhance environmental
enforcement and compliance in the Western  Hemisphere and in  selected  countries
elsewhere.  ,
                                     2-165

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW AND COORDINATION

 NATIONAL PROGRftM MANAGER:   OECA

 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES  "

       The goal of the ER&C  program  is to. work with other  federal  agencies to
 ensure that  they carry out their activities in an environmentally sound manner;
 ensure that  EPA complies with the requirements.of NEPA, functional equivalency,
 and other applicable statutes  and EOs; and promote environmental protection by
 other nations  and  fair international trade.  These international goals-have the
 effects of. reducing the cost  of  environmental  protection within the  U.S.  and
 expanding the demand for U.S.  exports.  The ER&C program's  objectives  are: 1)
 close  coordination  with  federal  agencies  whose  programs  may  affect  the
 environment;  2) the prevention of  significant  air and water  degradation from
 proposed major federal projects, particularly land management, power generation,
 and  transportation  projects  impacting  sensitive, ecological  resources;  3}
 assurance that EPA  develops a solid  program of  compliance with  NEPA,  other
 applicable statutes  {e.g.,  the  ESA, NHPAJ, and EOs for-the Agency's laboratories,
 facilities' construction and alterations, new source National  Pollutant Discharge
 Elimination  System  (NPDES)   permit  issuance,  and remaining  construction grant
.activity; 4)  targeting high  impact federal program areas (e.g., water resources
 and  energy  related  projects)  through  interagency working  groups to  better
 integrate EPA's pollution prevention efforts and ecological risk assessment with
 an emphasis  on ecosystem protection',  and the development  of sound data  and
 methodologies to assess environmental impact and ecological risks; 5)  cooperating
 with other federal agencies  on project design-studies that identify significant
 adverse  effects,  focusing   on  specific targeted  areas under the  Geographic
 Initiative theme:  Ecosystem Assessment and Protection, the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  the
 South Florida Everglades, Northwest Forests, Wetlands, Non-point Sources,  and the
 Mexican Border; 6) providing focused  enforcement and  compliance  activities to
 protect against air,  water,  and land pollution along U.S. borders with Mexico and
 Canada; and 7} directing cooperative enforcement and compliance assurance efforts
 and  providing technical  assistance  and   training to  enhance  environmental
 enforcement  and compliance  in  the Western  Hemisphere and  in selected countries
 elsewhere in  accordance with U.S.  treaty obligations,  other  international
 commitments,  and foreign policy objectives.
                                     2-16S

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        BORDER ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITIES

OFFICE:      Office of International Activities

3TATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Office of International Activities  (QIAJ- exercises lead responsibility  for
the Agency in addressing  environmental  problems along the U.S.-Mexico Border.
OIA exercises this responsibility-in cooperation with EPA Regions  VI  and  IX, as
well as relevant program  offices..   OIA  programs are authorized under multiple
acts for which EPA has the lead responsibility.  These acts include: Glean Air-
Act,  Section  103;  Clean  Water  Act,  Section  104;  Resource  Conservation and
Recovery Act,  Section  8001; Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act,
Section  20;  Toxic  Substances  Control   Act,  Section  10; - Marine Protection,
Research, and Sanctuaries Act, Section 203; Safe .Drinking Water Act, Section 1442
(b); the National Environmental Policy Act, Section 102(2) (F).


PROGRAM DE SCRIPTION

The U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  and  Mexico's Secretariat for
Social  Development  (SEDESOL)  engaged  in a  set of  cooperative  activities  to
improve environmental  conditions along  the  border and  to assure that  future
growth is  environmentally sustainable. Currently, there are six bi-national work
groups that have been  formed to address water, air,  hazardous waste, contingency
planning, enforcement, and pollution prevention issues.  During the coming year,
a new Border  Action Plan will be developed  in  cooperation with other Federal
agencies to guide the  long-term programs recognizing the  need  to expand current
programs  to  include   environmental  health  and  conservation  efforts   in  an
integrated program to protect the border  environment.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goals and objectives  of this  bi-lateral  effort are to address the serious
environmental problems along the U.S.-Mexico border and reduce the risk to both
the population living in this region, as  well as critical ecosystems in  danger
from pollution and toxic spills and releases.
                                     2-167

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         CRIMINAL ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: OECA


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Criminal Enforcement program is  responsible  for 'fulfilling the requirements
of  the  Pollution  Prosecution Aqt  of  1990  (PPA)  and  enforcing  the criminal
provisions  of  the following  environmental  statutes:   Resource  Conservation
Recovery Act  (RCRA); Clean Air Act (CAA);  Safe Drinking  Water  Act  (SDWA); Clean
Water Act  (CWA) ; .Federal  Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and Rodenticide Act  (FIFRA);
Emergency  Planning and  Community-Right-to-Know Act  (EPCRA);  Toxic  Substances
Control Act  (TSCA) ; Medical  Waste Tracking Act  (MWTA);  and Marine Protection,
Research, and Sanctuaries Act  (MPRSA).  Having  full law enforcement  authority,
the special agents are expected to respond to violations of the Federal Criminal
Code.            •

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION      •             '

The Criminal Enforcement Program has four distinct elements:  1)  special agents
(or  criminal investigators),  who  are  stationed primarily   in  field offices
nationwide; 2} attorneys, who provide policy and  direct case support; 3) Regional
attorneys,  who  provide  legal  support   for investigations,  development  of
referrals,  and support  for  prosecutions  (supported  in  the  Regional Counsel
program element};  and 4(laboratory and technical support  staff at the Agency's
National  Enforcement Investigations  Center,  who  provide operational  field
support, scientific expertise, evidence  sampling,  data targeting and evidence
audit support.

The Criminal Enforcement program investigative staff performs the  following major'
functions: 1} develops national investigative procedures to ensure uniform, fair
and appropriate enforcement responses to violations of environmental statutes;
2}  screens  all  investigative  leads and  pursues  the most  egregious criminal
offenders which provides a deterrence to  others  who would willfully violate the
environmental laws; 3)pursues joint  investigations with other Federal, state and
local  law  enforcement  agencies, or  refers  appropriate  leads • to  other  law
enforcement  agencies when circumstances  'Warrant? 4}  coordinates  with foreign
governments  to  reduce environmental  and  health  risks created by transboundary
shipment of chemicals,  pesticides,  wastes  and  hazard  substances;  5) supports
training  of Federal,  state,  local  and  tribal  law  enforcement  personnel  and
regulatory agencies in the investigation of environmental crimes  to increase the
presence of  Law enforcement and build state  capacity.

The Criminal Enforcement program attorneys perform the following major  functions:
1)  develop  and implement  national  criminal, enforcement  policies  to ensure a
consistent  and  appropriate application of  environmental  statutes;  2} provide
legal advice during the  criminal  investigations  and case development, including
legal review of criminal  case  referrals to the Department of Justice;  3} provide
legal advice and support  to the prosecuting attorneys during prosecution or plea
negotiations; 4) analyze  proposed legislation/ regulations and takes the  lead in
the legislation reauthorization process to ensure enforceability and consistency
with criminal procedural requirements; 5)support the Agency Program  Offices to
ensure  appropriate use  of criminal investigative  and enforcement  tools;  6)
coordinate  with  Program .Offices  to  secure necessary scientific,  technical and
other expert support for  criminal investigations and prosecutions;  and 7) assist
in course development and training EPA Special Agents; and other Federal, state,
local  and  tribal  Enforcement  and technical personnel  in the  prosecution  of
environmental statutes.


                                     2-168

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         CRIMINAL ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: OECA


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of the Criminal Enforcement program is to investigate and present for
prosecution criminal violations of environmental laws and deter such violations
in  the  future,  by demonstrating  to the  regulated  community that intentional
disregard of the law will be met with harsh sanctions in terms of  both  fines and
jail  sentences.   The Agency  has  responded  to  the  Congressional  emphasis on
criminal enforcement, brought  about by the passage of enhanced.criminal  sanctions
within the reauthorized  environmental statutes.   The deterrent effect of these
criminal sanctions is significant — misdemeanors have become felonies,  potential
fines have been increased/ and maximum jail sentences have been  lengthened.

Criminal investigations  and enforcement constitute a highly visible and  effective
force  in  the Agency's  enforcement strategy.   As   environmental statutes , are
reauthorized with new or enhanced criminal authorities,  the  Criminal Enforcement
program becomes a more integral and effective part of EPA's enforcement effort.
Criminal Investigators  will continue  to  pursue  significant lead's of  potential'
violations  of  environmental   statutes,    concentrating on   those  violations
involving the greatest risk to human health or the environment. EPA's  increased
emphasis on the Criminal Enforcement program over the past four  years, coupled
with  the  implementation of the  Pollution Prosecution  Act,  has  "significantly
raised the profile of criminal enforcement both  within  EPA  and in the  regulated
community.                                  .
                                     2-169

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION PROGRAM

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES  '/ REGULATORY  FRftMEWORK

The   Environmental   Education   Program  (EEP)is   authorized   by   the   National
Environmental   Education  Act   of   1990   and  is   located  in the  Office   of
Communication,  Education, and  Public Affairs.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The environmental education program focuses on  two broad areas:  improving basic
science literacy as  the core of environmental  education  for  students  in  grades
K-12  and  colleges;  and informing  the general public about   the  environmental
consequences of their individual and collective actions.  This approach is  firmly
directed toward the  goal  of pollution  prevention,  the foundation  of long range
environmental protection,  which may prove longer lasting and more effective than
traditional command  and control activities.

To accomplish  this  goal,  the  EEP supports projects to design,- demonstrate,  or
disseminate practices, methods,  or techniques related to environmental education.
The program also provides national leadership in promoting environmental literacy
in our  youth and increasing  the  public's awareness of environmental problems  and
solutions.

The EEP develops and supports programs and related efforts, in consultation  and
coordination with other Federal  agencies, to improve understanding of the natural
and   built  environment,  and   the  relationships   between   humans  and   their
environment, including the global aspects of environmental  problems.    Supports
development and broad  dissemination of model curricula,  educational materials,
and training programs for  elementary and  secondary students and other interested
.groups.  Manages Federal grant assistance provided under Section 6 of  the NEEA.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

To advance and support  national and international environmental education efforts
to develop an  environmentally  conscious  and responsible  public, and to inspire
in  all individuals  a sense of personal  responsibility  for the  care of  the
environment.
                                     2-170

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             REGULATORY ENFORCEMENT

 NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:   OECA


 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

 The Regulatory Enforcement program has enforcement  authority under the following
 environmental statutes:  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  (RCRA); Clean Air
 Act  (CAA);  Safe Drinking .Water Act  (SDWA);  Clean Water  Act  (CWA);  Federal
 Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); Toxic'Substances Control Act
 (TSCA),   including  lead exposure  reduction under Title  IV;  Asbestos  Hazard
 Emergency Response  Act (AHERA);  Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know.
 Act  (EPCRA); and Oil Pollution Act (OPA).


 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

 The   Regulatory  Enforcement   program  develops '  national   policy  for   the
 implementation of enforcement programs under the above statutes and participates
 in  regulation  development to ensure enforceability of new and  existing rules.
 The  program is  responsible for civil and  administrative enforcement  cases,
 including national  investigation,  review,  development,  issuance,  referral,
 litigation,  settlement and appellate  work.    The  program  determines   the
 appropriate  enforcement  responses  to violations  of environmental  laws  and
 implements enforcement case initiatives  to advance Agency priorities.

       The Regulatory Enforcement program serves as  liaison on enforcement issues
 with the Regions and states, the Department  of Justice, the  Congress and other
 Agency offices and  provides  legal and  technical assistance to the Regions.   The
 program  provides   national  direction,  leadership  and  consistency  in  case
 selection,  development,   resolution   and  appeal   of   civil  judicial   and
 administrative  enforcement  actions pursuant  to its statutory authorities.   The
 program also develops  settlement policies  encouraging pollution  prevention,
 technological  innovation,  environmental  auditing  and  environmental justice.


 GOALS  AND OBJECTIVES

•The goal of  the  Regulatory  Enforcement program is  to  enforce our environmental
 statutes  to  protect  against  risks  to   human  health  and  the  environment.
 Objectives of this program include:  ensuring clear and enforceable regulations/-
 nationally consistent   enforcement policies;  targeting enforcement  actions  to
 address environmental  concerns of  the  greatest  risk;  providing  enforcement
 actions which protect  all  segments of the  population equally; and utilizing
 pollution prevention mechanisms in 'case settlements,
                                     2-171

-------
                 UNITED STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                       SECTOR AND MULTI-MEDIA COMPLIANCE
OFFICE:  OECA
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Compliance  program is responsible  for  providing multi-media cross-sector
compliance assurance support under the following environmental statutes: Resource
Conservation Recovery Act  (RCRA); Clean Air Act  (CAA); Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA); Clean Water Act  (CWA) ; Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide
Act  (FIFRA);  Emergency Planning and Community-Right-to-Know  Act (EPCRA);  and
Toxic  Substances  Control  Act  (TSCA)   and  for  implementing   the  Pollution
Prosecution Act  (PPA)  requirements.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Compliance  program serves  as  a poi-nt  of focus and  coordination  for  all
aspects of  compliance  monitoring and compliance assurance,  and  for the broad
strategic planning, data management, and program accountability concerns -of the
Agency's multi-media compliance effort.  The program's major  functions include
policy  and regulation  development; program  oversight;  program  analyses  and
evaluations;  developing Regional  and  State  capabilities to  ensure  facility
compliance with mandated requirements; and maintaining the import/export waste
tracking system to monitor the transboundary movement of hazardous waste.

Strong  emphasis is  pla'ced  compliance  assurance  aimed  at  using  innovative
techniques  to  enhance  compliance, maximize  deterrence and  minimize  non-
compliance. The Office  of Compliance  (OC)   is  involved in  implementing  the
Administrator's  Themes  and  Initiatives;   such as  Multi-media  Enforcement;
Geographic  enforcement  initiatives; State  and Local Capacity  Building;  Data
targeting; and the Common Sense Initiative.  •

The Compliance Assistance program employs a  sector-based  approach to serve as a
point of focus and  coordination for multi-media compliance and for the strategic
planning  of  the  Agency's  industry specific compliance assistance  efforts.
Through a  system of National  Compliance Assistance Centers  for specific small
business  sectors  the  Agency  will  supply  industry-specific  outreach  to  the
regulated community by providing sector-based materials and services to improve
industry's regulatory and technical  knowledge and awareness, promote adoption of
innovative technologies (including pollution prevention and waste minimization),
and increase regulatory compliance  thus  reducing Overall environmental risk.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of the  Compliance program is to assure that both the private and Federal
sectors are in full compliance with environmental laws to  achieve  protection of
the environment  and  elimination of human health risks and  to promote overall
cross-media compliance with environmental laws.  On  an industry by industry basis
the Agency will prepare, consolidate, and disseminate compliance information and
provide technical  and compliance assistance.
                                     2-X72

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION     .
                       SECTOR AND MULTI-MEDIA COMPLIANCE

OFFICE: OECA

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Con't

The major objectives of the program are to:  1) provide national program guidance
to  the  Regions  and  States;   2)  develop  national  compliance  policies  and
strategies;  3')  coordinate national  enforcement initiatives;   4) .develop  and
participate  in the design  of comprehensive and  enforceable regulations;   5)
conduct oversight and evaluation for  measuring and directing program efforts; 6)
work with industry to  promote voluntary'compliance; 7) direct  the  Regions  and
support,the States in expanding States' enforcement capabilities  and efforts;  and
'8)  coordinate with  other offices to develop  an  effective Agency  compliance
program.               '

The objectives in shifting emphasis to sector-based  approach  are to:-  1)  address
noncomplying  sectors more effectively; 2)  allow  for whole facility approaches to
enforcement;  3) measure With  greater precision  the  rates  of compliance  and  the
effectiveness of the enforcement strategies;  4) augment enforcement strategies
with  appropriate  compliance  enhancement  activities;  and   5)  develop  sector
expertise.
                                     2-173

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY •
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          HAZARDOUS WASTE ENFORCEMENT

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  OECA


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REggLATORY FRAMEWORK

the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  (TRCRA) corrective  action program
functions under the authority provided by the RCRA of  1976 as amended by,the
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments  
-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                       ENFORCEMENT CAPACITY AND OUTREACH

 NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  OECA

 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

 The Enforcement Capacity and Outreach program is  responsible for promoting
 improvement in strata,  tribal and local, enforcement and compliance efforts
 through a program of communication,  coordination  and training under the
 authority of the following statutes:  the Clean Air Act(CAA); -the Clean Water
 Act (CWA);  the Emergency Planning and Community-Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA); the
 Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); the Pollution
 Prosecution Act 
-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     COOPERATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES  / REGULATOR? FRAMEWORK

The National Advisory  Council  for Environmental Policy  and Technology
 (NACEPT), staffed by the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management
 (OCEM), serves as the  policy advisory body  to the Administrator and is
authorized under the Federal Advisory Committee Act.  It is composed of  senior
officials representing business and industry, government, academia, and  non
government organizations.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Council and its five standing committees address priority.trade and
pollution prevention implementation issues  related to professional and public
education, state/local programs, technology innovation, measurement and
reporting.  The Council considers key cultural, institutional,, regulatory,
technology transfer, and economic issues affecting North-South and East-West
trade  and environmental relationships.

Office staff work with the Administrator's  office and EPA program officials to
help interpret Council reports and to"assist implementation of accepted
recommendations.  The  Office staff also provides essential support to the
substantive and administrative operation of NACEPT and  its standing
committees.  This includes working with the Administrator and with EPA program
offices to define annual priorities, develop agendas, plan and coordinate
meetings, identify and obtain assistance from subject matter experts, manage
contractor and grantee activities, and prepare Council  reports and
.recommendations for submittal to the Administrator.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goals of OCEM and .NACEPT are to help the Agency achieve improved
environmental pollution prevention and control results; increase leveraging of
other -public and private resources; and assist development of 'needed new
technologies and institutional arrangements both domestically and
internationally.
                                     2-176

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    ^                     PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             POLLUTION PREVENTION

OFFICE: OPPTS                                                    .

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGtTLATORY FRAMEWORK

The Pollution-Prevention Act of 1990 established a national policy that pollution
should be prevented or reduced at the source wherever possible.  The Pollution
Prevention Act requires  the establishment of an office to carry out the functions
of the Administrator under that Act, and the Office of Prevention,  Pesticides and
toxic  Substances has the  Agency  lead for implementing these  responsibilities.
Regional pollution prevention project funds support the effort to  make pollution
prevention the guiding principle .for all regional EPA programs.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Pollution Prevention program element  is  the catalyst.for  other parts-of the
Agency and. outs-ide organizations to develop and implement pollution prevention
strategies, policies,  and regulations,  it leverage's  available data, scientific
expertise, and analytical tools to applications across the Agency and to- other
Federal, state and private organizations.

Program activities are  focused on  institutionalizing  pollution prevention in
federal  and  state  programs and policies,  implementing  targeted  prevention
initiatives and developing  the tools,  incentives and  technical assistance to
assure and- measure success. . Specific  pollution  prevention activities include
managing the state grants and the pollution prevention clearinghouse, integrating
prevention into the development and implementation of regulations and policies,
engaging  in  collaborative  efforts  with industry  to  reduce  toxic  chemical
pollution  (the  33/50  Program),  promoting more environmentally benign choices
among  chemicals,  products  and  technologies  {the  Design  for the  Environment
program) ,  and providing  advice  and assistance  to  other  federal  agencies in
implementing E.O.  12856 and E.G. 12873.

Additionally,  regional pollution prevention project funds provide EPA regional
offices with  the  ability to address high-risk environmental problems through
implementing  pollution  prevention  solutions.    Regional activities  include
environmental  education,  pollution prevention   research and   demonstration,
technical  assistance  to  small  businesses,   interaction  with state  and local
governments, and promoting prevention through existing regulatory and enforcement
programs.   The  projects  involve   working  to  reduce  multi-media  industrial
pollution and promoting pollution prevention approaches  in energy, agriculture,
the federal sector and the consumer  sectar.
                                     2-177

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRftM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             POLLUTION PREVENTION

OFFICE:  OPPTS

SOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of the  Pollution  Prevention program element is to develop and integrate
multi-media pollution prevention approaches in national,  regional,  and state
environmental programs through both regulatory  approaches and  the encouragement
of voluntary actions by industry.  In  addition,  this  program element focuses on
addressing  high-priority  environmental  problems   through regional  efforts.
Regional offices are best .situated to  identify  multi-media approaches involving
innovative and non-regulatory approaches  that cut across traditional program and
jurisdictional boundaries.
                                     2-178

-------
                 UNITED' STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     AMERICAN INDIAN ENVIRONMENTAL OFFICE
NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  WATER

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The American  Indian Environmental Office develops  policy and coordinates EPA
programs for assisting tribal governments in building capacity through general
assistance  agreements  and developing  environmental  programs  under Federal
environmental statutes.   The American Indian Environmental Office  operates  under
the following statutory authorities: The Indian Environmental General Assistance
Program Act of. 1992, as amended, Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide, and Rodenticide
Act (FlFRA}-(7 U.S.C.A.); Toxic Substances Control Act  (TSCA)-(.15 U.S.C.A. Sec.
2601 to  2692);  Clean  Water Act-(33 U.S.C.A. Sec.1251  to 1387);  Safe Drinking'
Water Act-(42. U.S.C.A. Sec. 300f to 300J-26) ; National Environmental Policy Act-
(42 U.S.C.A. Sec. 4321 to 4370d);  Solid Waste Disposal Act-(42 U.S.C.A.  Sec. 6901
to   6992k), .Clean  Air-  Act-(42  U.S.C.A. Sec.  7401 to  7671g);  Comprehensive
Environmental Response,  Compensation, and Liability Act-(42  U.S.C.A.  Sec. 9601
to 9675); Emergency Planning'and Community Right-To-Know Act-(42 U.S.C.A. Sec.
11001 to  11050); and  the Pollution Prevention Act-(42  U.S.C.A.  Sec.  13101 to
13109) .

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

EPA will continue to work with Indian tribes  on  a  government-to-government  basis
to address the lack of basic pub-lie health and''environmental programs across much
of Indian Country.  Most of the  American Indian Environmental Office's  (AIEO)
workforce resources administer the General Assistance Program grants and direct
program and technical assistance to tribes.

The American Indian  Environmental Office provides a focal point in the Agency for
the development  of  government-to-government  relationships with, tribes and the
development, coordination and implementation of Indian policy and environmental
programs throughout the Agency and with other Federal entities.  The  Office of
Water supports  the  AIEO which is  the  point of  contact  for all  Agency Indian
program activities.  .AI.ED oversees the Indian Environmental  General Assistance
Program Act of 1992, which provides tribal governments and intertribal  consortia
with general  assistance  grants,  and technical  assistance for the  purpose of
planning,  developing  and  establishing the  capability to  implement  programs
administered by the Agency.

GOALS ANDOBJECTIVES      ...

The Office goals are: 1)  Developing comprehensive Tribal Environmental Agreements
with  tribes,   through  the General  Assistance  Program,  to  prioritize  tribal
environmental  problems  and to identify specific EPA programs  tribes wish to
assume.   2}   Promoting the  use  of the  watershed  management frameworks and
methodologies as a  tool  for tribes to identify and manage tribal environmental
priorities;  3)  Strengthening  tribal  programs by  ensuring  that EPA provides
sufficient  staff and  direct  senior  management involvement to  their  Indian
programs,   4)  Enhancing  communication  with  tribal  governments  to  ensure
appropriate tribal input  to EPA decision-making, including support for the Tribal
Operations  Committee,   5) Providing training  to Agency  staff, on  how to more
effectively work with tribal governments, and  6)  Promoting grant flexibility
through the development  of Performance Partnership Grants with tribes.
                                     2-179

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                       WORKING CAPITAL FUND-Multi Media
OFFICE:   OA
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Agency will propose legislation in FY 1995 to establish the  working  capital
fund.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program element provides  base  resources for postage costs and on-going data
processing and telecommunication services for Multimedia  activities.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The primary goal of, this program element is to provide essential  postage,  data
processing, and telecommunication  services for the Program office.
                                     2-180

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
       EXECUTIVE STEERING COMMITTEE FOR INFORMATION RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

.NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:   / OARM

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Activities in this program element are authorized by the Information Technology
Management Reform Act, the Paperwork.Reduction Act,  and supported by the  annual
Appropriations  Bill.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION                     '  .     .

The  activities  funded under the auspices of the Executive Steering  Committee
 (ESC), for Information Resources Management (IRM) support the Agency's multi-media
approaches for  enterprise-level information management.   The ESC for IRM  has
Agency-wide,  senior  management membership  and,  with broad stakeholder  input,
provides  for the  development  and  implementation  of  Information  management
initiatives.  The ESC for IRM supports those information management  activities
which require an Agency-level approach to successfully  accomplish  the Agency's
mission.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The  primary  goal of  this program is to provide  for Agency-level,  not program-
level, information management  to support the Agency's multi-media  approaches.
Objectives  of  the  program include:" providing  sound  information  resources
management  investment practices  at  the  Agency-level,  including  stakeholder
requirements in Agency-level initiatives; and ensuring  effective and efficient
information  resources management support for the Agency's  mission.
                                     2-181

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        FEDERAL FACILITIES ENFORCEMENT


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: OECA


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Federal  government currently manages or  operates  over 387,000 buildings,
27,000 installations,  729 million acres, and over 10,000  environmental projects,
and must meet the Same environmental standards as private entities.  Executive
Order 12088 requires that each Executive agency be responsible for all necessary
actions for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution.
Executive  Order  12856, signed by  President Clinton August  3,  1993,  requires
Federal  agencies  to   develop comprehensive  pollution  prevention strategies
(including facility-specific plans)  and seek to reduce by 50% their emissions of
toxic chemicals or toxic pollutants by 1999.   Because of the various operations
conducted by the  Federal government', its facilities generally fall under multiple
environmental  statutes and regulations.   Their environmental  activities are
governed by the  Resource,  Conservation and  Recovery Act (RCRA); Clean Air Act
(CAA);  Clean  Water Act  (CWA); Toxic  Substances Control Act  (TSCA);  the Safe
Drinking Water Act  (SDWA) ;  Emergency  .Planning and Community Right-to—Know Act
(EPCRA); Comprehensive Environmental  Response,  Compensation and Liability Act
(CERCLA), as amended by Super fund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) ; and
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act-(FIPRA).  These authorities
require  Federal  facilities to  assume  responsibility  for the  prevention and
control  of air,  water  or soil contamination  at  Facilities or-on lands they
control.  The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) of 1992  clarifies Federal
facilities obligation  to  comply with hazardous waste laws, requires annual EPA
inspections of all Federal treatment,  storage  and disposal  (TSD)  facilities and
strengthens EPA/state  enforcement and penalty authorities at Federal facilities.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION ,

To address the myriad of  applicable statutes and regulations at Federal facility
operations, the Office o.f Enforcement  and Compliance Assurance has developed  a
multimedia compliance and enforcement  strategy.  FFEO's  multi-media enforcement
strategy contains five components: 1)   a national program to improve compliance
through training, technical.assistance  on regulatory matters,  and development of
a  long term  strategy  for  compliance  promotion,  technology  innovation,  and
pollution prevention;   2) nationally coordinated Federal Facility. Tracking  System
(FFTS)  to  manage  information on EPA  and state inspection,  enforcement,  and
compliance activities;  3) an improved   E.O. 12088 budgeting and planning process
in conjunction with Federal agencies and OMB; 4) coordinated planning with state
and local enforcement and regulatory agencies to ensure consistency with national
priorities;  and  5) prioritized  enforcement  through .comprehensive multimedia
inspections emphasizing pollution prevention  solutions  to compliance problems.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES •

                  The Federal Facilities Enforcement program in cooperation with
the Defense Department, is participating in  Project  XL/ENVEST, which is part of
the Agency's  Regulatory  Reinvention  initiative.    This initiative emphasizes
eliminating or reducing less'significant regulatory  requirements,  thus allowing
facilities to focus on more significant areas to achieve compliance.
                                     2-182

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         FEDERAL FACILITIES ENFORCEMENT


 NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  OECA

 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES (cont'd)

 As  part  of  the Agency's  Common  Sense  Initiative,   the  Federal  Facilities
 Enforcement program has  begun to  emphasize compliance assistance  to  Federal
 agencies through on-site environmental management reviews ('EMRs) , with emphasis
 on  assistance to ..smaller civilian agencies.   EMRs emphasize the need to review
 all operational  and  management practices at  a facility to improve environmental
 performance.   FFEO  will  continue  to expand  the use  of  EMRs  as  a tool  for
 environmental compliance in all ten Regions.

 In  1993 the  President  signed  Executive  Order 12856,  "Federal  Compliance with
 Right-To-Know Laws   and  Pollution  Prevention   Requirements",  which   covers
 approximately 2,500 Federal  facilities.   This  Executive  Order  (EO)  requires
 Federal agencies to develop comprehensive pollution prevention strategies and to
 reduce by 50% their emissions of toxic chemicals or toxic  pollutants by 1999.
 In  addition,  Federal facilities are now  required to  comply with all provisions
.of  Emergency  Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act  (EPCRA) and the Pollution
 Prevention Act   (PPA),  including  Toxic  Release  Inventory   (TRI)  reporting
 requirements.   EPA will  work  with  the  other  Federal agencies  and  oversee
 implementation of facility-specific pollution prevention plans required for 2000+
 Federal facilities covered  by  EO 12856.  OECA will also continue implementation
 of  the Federal Government Environmental Challenge Program, including the Code of
 Environmental Management  Principles and the  Model Facility Program, as required
 by  EO 12856.

 The Federal Facilities  Compliance Act (FFCA) expanded  EPA's ability to  conduct
 hazardous waste inspections and exercise enforcement/penalty authority at Federal
 facilities, resulting-in significantly more'  inspections and related enforcement
 actions.   The FFCA requires annual inspections  of all Federal treatment,  storage
 and disposal  (TSD)  facilities  {approximately  330), which are  conducted by EPA
 Regional offices or  authorized States.   Interagency  Agreements signed with the
 Defense Department for cost reimbursement require EPA to complete FFCA inspection
 reports within  120  days  from  the date of inspection,  which  places additional
 resource  burdens on  EPA  and  State  RCRA  programs.   The  Federal  Facilities
 Enforcement Office  (FFEO), within  EPA's  Office  of Enforcement and Compliance
 Assurance (OECA) , manages a national program and  works  with the  states to ensure
 that    Federal   Facilities   and  government-owned-contractor-operated   (GOCO)
 facilities conduct their activities in an environmentally sound manner and comply'
 with  all applicable environmental  statutes  and  regulations.   EPA's program is
 responsible for  ensuring that  Federal Facilities take  mitigative actions where
 their operations could  endanger the environment  and  human  health.
                                     2-183

-------
                 UNITED- STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        FEDERAL FACILITIES ENFORCEMENT

OFFICE:  OECA

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Con't

The Program's goals are to ensure that the Federal government, including EPA,
is accountable to the public for its environmental management decisions; to
use the full range of enforcement authorities to ensure that the Federal
government complies with all environmental laws; and to marshal public and
private technical and scientific  resources and expertise in order to reduce
risk, prevent pollution, optimize efficiency, and promote environmental
justice.  EPA strives to achieve these goals by utilizing an appropriate mix
of the pollution prevention, compliance, enforcement, and technical assistance
tools available to the Agency.
                                     2-184

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          TOXIC SUBSTANCES  ENFORCEMENT
 OFFICE: '  OECA
 STATUTORY  AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

 The  Regions  administer the state cooperative enforcement .agreements which are
•issued  under TSCA section 28.   Under this  provision,  the states perform
 compliance inspections in support of TSCA  section 6 existing chemicals .rules
 controlling  asbestos  under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA)
 .and  PCBs.   The  Regions are implementing programs  for lead exposure reduction
 under Title  IV  of TSCA.   Due to statutory  restrictions  in TSCA with respect to
 state operations,  states without TSCA-like authorities  are not permitted to
 initiate enforcement  actions and can only  conduct inspections in support of
 Federal regulations issued under TSCA section 6.   Additional activities
 include monitoring and technical assistance for TSCA import/export controls.
 The  Regions  also ensure that facilities comply with regulations regarding
 disposal of  PCBs,  collection of valid information on chemicals under sections
 4,  5, and  8,  verify reporting and certification .requirements under sections 12
 and  13, .and  monitor compliance with asbestos controls in the nation's schools.


 PROGRAM DE 3CRTPTION '

 Major responsibilities' of the Regions include:  conducting compliance
 inspections  in  support of existing TSCA regulations,  developing and initiating
 .enforcement  actions when violations are detected, overseeing compliance orders
 and  agreements  for federal facilities,  and managing and .overseeing the
 contract NCSC inspectors and state compliance inspection programs.
 Implementation  of lead exposure reduction  activities under Title IV of TSCA
 will require new compliance and enforcement activities.by EPA Headquarters,
 Regions and the states.   Traditional base  program inspections for asbestos and
 PCBs will  diminish as resources are diverted to address these new
 responsibilities.

 Currently  there are 36 cooperative enforcement agreements with the states and
 an Indian  tribe.  Because most states do not have expanded authorities,
 Regions prepare and initiate enforcement actions  in response to inspection
 reports issued  by the states.   Other Regional responsibilities related to the
 cooperative  enforcement agreement program  include negotiation, review and
 processing of applications for cooperative agreements,  facilitating training
 of state inspection.and analytical staff,  reviewing state programs.and
 outputs, and providing guidance and technical assistance-to the states.

• Enforcement activities in support of TSCA  section 4 are carried out by the
 laboratory data integrity program.  Three  Regions support'Headquarters by
 conducting inspections to monitor compliance with Good Laboratory Practices
 fGLP)  regulations at  laboratories engaged  in testing response to TSCA
 requirements.
                                     2-185

-------
                 0NITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         TOXIC SUBSTANCES ENFORCEMENT
OFFICE:   OECA

PROG3RAM DESCRIPTION con't

The Regions provide compliance and technical assistance to the regulated
community and the public.  -This includes reviewing Headquarters policy and
guidance proposals for Regional implications, and supporting an Asbestos
coordinator•in"each Region.  -        •


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                            .     '   ' •

The goal of this program is to enforce the Toxic Substances Control Act  (TSCA)
through responding to situations involving substantial threats to public
health or the environment from toxic substances regulated under TSCA;
conducting inspections in support of existing chemical, hazard assessment, and
information collection rules; managing and overseeing state compliance
monitoring activities under the state/Federal toxic substances cooperative
enforcement agreement program; developing enforcement actions when violations
are detected, whether through Federal, State, or.-contract inspections;
permitting PCB disposal sites; and providing technical and compliance
assistance to the regulated community, the public, and the states.
                                     2-186

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                                     EPCRA
OFFICE:  OPPTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGUIATORY FRAMEWORK                         '   ,  '

Section 313 of the Emergency. Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act  (EP.CRA),
commonly known as Title III of the Superfun-d Amendments and Reauthorization
Act  (SARA), requires owners and operators of certain classes of facilities
that manufacture, import, process, or otherwise use certain chemicals  to
report' their annual environmental releases of those chemicals.  The Pollution
Prevention Act of 1990  (PPA) resulted in new reporting" requirements for
facilities reporting under section 313.  The chemical accident prevention
provisions 'of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments complement EPCRA in emergency
preparedness activities.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

SARA section 313 and the PPA require certain businesses annually to report to
EPA and state officials on the amounts of chemicals their facilities release
into the environment, and on source reduction and recycling efforts.   The
database created through this reporting ' requirement is known as the Toxic
Release Inventory (TRI).  Maintaining this database involves all facets of
data management from records management,' data input, data processing,  and
auditing to information dissemination to the public by computer
telecommunications and other'means, as required by the law.  The Agency
maintains the list of toxic chemicals subject to TRI reporting requirements
and revises it periodically based on petitions and the application of
statutory criteria.  The program also publishes reports on the analysis of TRI
data to assist the public in identifying risk reduction opportunities.
Another important element is providing assistance t& Regions and states to
ensure TRI and PPA data requirements are understood, building the field
presence necessary to take the pollution prevention message to individual
facilities, and other activities deemed necessary.

The regional EPCRA program serves as an important component of the overall
national EPCRA program in the Regions and states.  Major activities include
promoting full reporting by all covered facilities; informing the regulated
public about changes in TRI reporting requirements; encouraging and supporting
TRI data use within the regional offices and in the states; supporting the
public's use of TRI data through general access and technical assistance;
conducting industry outreach and training; and conducting multi-media
environmental audits of selected TRI facilities.

The emergency planning, preparedness, arid prevention program involves
providing guidance to local communities and industry on evaluating the
potential for chemical accidents and actions to prevent them.  The program
establishes 'by rules lists of chemicals for which plans are required.
                                     2-187

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                                     EPCRA

OFFICE:  OPPTS             '

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES  • '

The purpose of the EPCRA program element is to inform government officials and
the public about releases of toxic chemicals in the environment.  To do so/
the Agency works with affected industries to ensure that they fully understand
the reporting requirements and provide complete and accurate emissions data.
This -information provides a previously unavailable opportunity to establish
program priorities for health and environmental risk reduction based on cross1-
media understanding of the environmental releases of over 300 different
chemicals.
                                     2-188

-------
                 UNITED" STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                               EPCRA ENFORCEMENT
OFFICE:   OECA
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act •(.EPCRA) requires that
users, manufacturers, and processors of potentially harmful chemicals inform
Lpcal officials or authorities, commissions or committees established by each
state and the public of the presence of such chemicals within localities, as
well as inform EPA and the state of releases of such substances into the
environment.  With the information, local authorities can prepare emergency
response'plans, training programs, and notification procedures to protect
health and the environment locally.

This program is responsible for enforcing sections 302, 303, 311, and 31,2 of
EPCRA which require reporting based on thresholds and chemical substances as
well as section 313 which requires facilities to annually submit .toxic
chemical release forms to EPA and the state.  Such forms, known as the Toxics
Release Inventory (TRI) , list amounts of chemicals released into the
environment during the preceding year.


PROGRAM 'DESCRIPTION

At the Regional level, compliance inspections to detect companies that have
failed to make section 313 reports are high-priority activities.  Most of
these inspections are conducted by contract employees working under a grant
with the National Council of Senior Citizens (NCSC).  In addition, Regions are
increasing priority for inspections and enforcement actions directed toward
data quality violations and late reporters.  The Regional offices are also
responsible for developing enforcement actions taken under EPCRA.  EPA staff
provide compliance assistance and guidance to the regulated community as
necessary.  Beginning in 1995 Federal Facilities are required to participate
in TRI reporting based upon Executive Order 12856.

The non-reporter compliance program involves identifying and taking action
against those industry and federal facilities that are required to report
under section 313 but which fail to do so.  Inspections to identify non-
reporters help to. define the regulated universe, enabling Regions to become
increasingly efficient in targeting inspections with each new section 313
reporting cycle.  Regional inspection targeting efforts are enhanced by
information from the Headquarters targeting system.

Regions target enforcement efforts toward facilities which have violated other
environmental statutes, are located in sensitive ecosystems or near population
centers, or might otherwise be appropriate enforcement targets-  Regional FTE
continue to conduct case development and settlement negotiations.
                                     2-189

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                               EPCRA ENFORCEMENT
OFFICE:   OECA
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION con't                                             .

Under sections 302, 303,  311, and 312 of EPCRA, pursuing enforcement  actions
against companies that failed to submit to the Local Emergency Planning
Commission (LEPC) information necessary for an emergency plan, the name of an
emergency coordinator, or failure to notify the LEPC of facility changes are
high priority.  Other high priority areas for enforcement include the failure
to submit notification of a release to the State Emergency Response Commission
(SERC)  and LEPC,  and the failure to submit information to the LEPC, SERC or
fire department.


GOALSAND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this  program is to enforce EPCRA..  Under sections 302, 303,  311,
and 312 of EPCRA, the compliance/enforcement program"attempts to enhance the
emergency planning, emergency release notification, and community right-to-
know reporting requirements present in the statute.  Ensuring the information
available is accurate, allows communities to better assess potential chemical
emergencies.

The compliance/enforcement program under section 313 of EPCRA is designed to
ensure collection of accurate and timely information on chemical emissions.
The Agency, state and local governments, industry, federal facilities and
private citizens  use this data,  known as the TRI, to assess potential chemical
risks and to develop necessary risk reduction responses.
                                     2-190

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
OFFICE: OPPTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Several statutory  authorities  constitute  the legal  basis  to  regulate  toxic
chemicals that present  risks to human health and  the  environment.   The  Toxic
Substances Control Act  (TSCA)  provides  EPA with broad authorities  to  eliminate
or  reduce risks caused  by exposure to toxic chemicals.  Section  4  of  TSCA
authorizes EPA to  require by rule that  chemical manufacturers and  processors
test their products to  develop health and/or environmental data.   TSCA  section
5 requires any person who intends to manufacture  or import a new chemical
substance to provide-EPA with  all available data  on the chemical structure,
production, use, release, exposure, and health and  environmental effects- of
the substance.  TSCA section 6 authorizes EPA to  regulate chemicals already in
.commerce, while TSCA section 8 permits  EPA to collect a variety  of data to
inform and support regulatory  decision-making.  The TSCA  regulatory framework
is  also supported  by data collected under Title III of the Superfund
Amendments and Reauthorization Act — the Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act.  In  addition, the Pollution Prevention Act authorizes the
Agency to work with private and public  sectors to•prevent pollution of  toxic
chemicals through  multi-media  source reduction.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Chemical Assessment and Management  program element is comprised-of  three
.complementary functions: chemical testing activities,  new chemical review, and
existing chemical  risk  management.  Under the chemical testing program,
testing candidates are  designated or recommended  by the Interagency Testing
Committee, a committee  authorized by TSCA to review available data on
chemicals in commerce.  EPA must respond  within one year  to  each designation
by  initiating rulemaking to require testing or by providing  reasons for not
doing so.  EPA also uses negotiated consent orders  in lieu of rulemaking where
feasible in order  to expedite  the initiation of testing.  In addition to.
Interagency Testing Committee  testing,  the chemical testing  program also
focuses on obtaining test data for chemicals identified by other federal
agencies, other EPA programs,  .and international organizations.   The testing
."required under section  4 may be comprehensive or  selective depending  on gaps
in  existing information.  EPA  may require industry  to provide health  effects.
testing, environmental  effects testing, chemical  fate testing, physical -
chemical property  testing, or  exposure  testing.   EPA's testing priorities are
communicated to the public through a periodically updated Master Testing List.

The new chemical review program is one  '-of EPA's most  powerful pollution
prevention programs.  Before a new chemical or a  new  genetically engineered
microorganism enters commerce, a company must notify  the  Agency.   EPA
determines whether proposed controls are  appropriate-,  whether additional data
are needed, and whether production and  use should be  restricted  or prohibited.
This is also
                                     2-191

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
OFFICE:  OPP'TS
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION eon't

the Agency's first opportunity to establish pollution prevention practices for
new substances.  The new chemical review program examines approximately 2,500
new chemical substances a year. . Additionally, in 1986 EPA issued a policy on
biotechnology that provided for review of certain new genetically-engineered
microorganisms under TSCA.   Rules to implement this policy are still under
development.                                    '                • •  .

Of the thousands of existing chemicals in commerce in this country, many may
be toxic and potentially pose unreasonable risks to human health and/or the
environment.  The existing chemical review program'relies upon an array of
analytical tools and techniques to identify and assess risks and to implement•
risk management approaches to reducing unreasonable risk.  TSCA's authorities
are unique within the Agency, because they are based upon a multi-media life
cycle approach to toxic chemical risk assessment and risk management.  The
program emphasizes use of innovative non-regulatory or voluntary approaches
that serve to reduce risk from exposure to toxic chemicals without imposing
strict regulatory requirements upon industry or incurring long delays before
risk management actions can be implemented.  The program also, enables the
public to initiate or promote risk management practices through dissemination
of information on chemical hazards.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The Chemical Assessment and Management program element directly supports risk
reduction by (1) generating scientific test data necessary for sound decision-
making, (2) identifying and preventing unreasonable risks and exposure to
human health and the environment by prohibiting or restricting manufacture of
new chemicals that would pose unreasonable risks,  (3)  making information
concerning chemical risks and remedies available to the public, and  (4>
reducing risks posed by chemicals currently in production or use through
screening, risk assessment and risk management.  In addition the program is
particularly well suited tp support the Agency's pollution prevention goals
since it.provides a direct opportunity to ban or alter the production, use or
disposal of toxic chemicals based on a multi-media assessment of risks and
alternatives.
                                     2-192

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          NATIONAL PROGRAM CHEMICALS
OFFICE:  OPPTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORyFRAMEWORK

The National Program Chemicals program element uses several statutory
authorities to support its functions, which involve risk management of
existing chemicals of nation-wide significance.  The Toxic Substances Control
Act (TSCA)  provides broad authority to eliminate or reduce risks to human
health and the environment posed by exposure to toxic chemicals.  The
Pollution Prevention Act authorizes EPA to work with the private .and public
sectors to prevent pollution from toxic chemicals 'through multi-media source  .
reduction.   Title III of the Superfund Amendments' and Reauthorization Act —
the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act — provides data on
environmental releases of toxic or hazardous chemicals to inform and support
TSCA regulatory decision-making.  The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard
Reduction Act of 1992 (which is designated as Title IV of TSCA) requires EPA
to provide a comprehensive national approach to dealing with lead-based paint
in the nation's housing stock.  .The Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act
(ASHAA), the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act, and the Asbestos
Information Act comprise the legislative bases for regulation of asbestos, one
of the specific chemicals that is the responsibility of the National Program
Chemicals program element.

PROGRAMDESCRIPTION

The activities found within the National Program Chemical program element,
which has both headquarters and regional components, focus on the risk
management of toxic chemicals of national import.  As of 1996 these chemicals
include lead, asbestos,  polychlorinated biphenyls  (PCBs) and dioxin.
Chemicals may be added in this program as new chemical risk concerns surface,
and chemicals may be deleted as risk management programs directed at
alleviating hazards come to an end.  This program element relies on an array
of analytical tools to identify and assess risks and to implement risk
management approaches to controlling the dangers.posed by these chemicals.
Where possible this program emphasizes innovative non-regulatory or voluntary
approaches to reduce exposure without imposing "strict regulatory requirements
upon industry or incurring long delays before risk management actions can
begin.  This program also empowers the public  through dissemination of
information on chemical hazards to start risk management activities.

The regional component of this program element provides support for the
building of state infrastructure and capabilities to address risks posed by
PCBs,  asbestos, lead and other toxic po'llutants.  The Regions support new and
expanding state ris'k management projects and a variety o'f related outreach and
technical assistance activities.  Lead resources support the states in
implementing th£ Agency's lead strategy.   The national goal for asbestos
continues to be reducing exposure of the public to asbestos in the nation's
schools through ASHAA project monitoring and developing a risk-based program
to address asbestos in public and
                                     2-193

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          NATIONAL PROGRAM CHEMICALS
OFFICE: QPPTS-
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION con't

commercial buildings, with particular emphasis on enhancing state asbestos
accreditation programs.   Two key regional PCB activities are ensuring
technical integrity of- PCB disposal facilities and promoting remedial programs
at contaminated sites.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                            .

Activities under the National Program Chemicals program element decrease risks
to human health and the environment posed by exposure to dangerous chemicals
through risk assessment and risk management activities.  The program provides
direct pollution prevention opportunities to ban or alter the production, use
or disposal of hazardous chemicals using a multi-media assessment of risks and
alternatives.
                                     2-194

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     WORKING CAPITAL FUND-ToxiC Substances
OFFICE:   OPPTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Agency will propose legislation in FY 1995 to establish the working capital
fund.


PROGRflM DESCRIPTION    '  '   •                     .

This program element provides  base  resources for postage costs and on-going data
processing and telecommunication'services for Toxic  Substances  activities.

SOAIiS AND OBJECTIVES                  '   .                  '      '

The primary.goal of this program element is to provide  essential postage,  data
processing, and telecommunication  services for the Program.Office.
                                     2-195

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT ANALYSIS
               MISSION AND POLICY - OFFICE OF AIR AND RADIATION

National Program Manager:     Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The  statutory  authorities under  this  program element  are the  Clean  Air Act
Amendments of 1990; the Indoor Radon Abatement Act; the Resource Conservation .and
Recovery Act; the Atomic Energy Act; the Uranium Mill Tailings  Radiation Control
Act and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

At the. Assistant Administrator's level,  this program develops national policy for
air and radiation programs, and directs  the implementation of national regulatory
and non-regulatory programs  to  reduce  health  and environmental  risks from air
pollution and radiation.   These activities are done primarily through in-house
efforts that provide;  advice and counsel to the Administrator  on the air and
radiation programs; effective policy,  program, and  management guidance to the
Office of Air  and  Radiation (OAR) program, staff,  and  regional offices; and,
analysis", planning,  budgeting'  and management capability to assure  analytic
support to regional programs for which the Assistant Administrator  is National.
Program Manager,

At the Office Director level, the program assists in the development of program
specific guidance  for air quality planning and  standards,  mobile sources air
pollution control,  air enforcement, atmospheric programs, indoor environments and
radiation exposure reductions.   The resources also  support management of the
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, the Office of Mobile Sources, the
Office of Radiation and Indoor Air and the Office of Atmospheric Programs.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The objectives  of this program are to develop national policy  for and to direct
other  federal   implementation  of  national  programs   to  reduce   health  and
environmental risks from air pollution and radiation; to provide for coordination
of these programs with agencies, and state and local  governments;  and to provide
•for  development  of program specific  guidance  for  air quality- planning and
standards, mobile source air pollution control, atmospheric protection, indoor
environments and radiation exposure reductions.
                                     2-196

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         MISSION AND POLICY MANAGEMENT

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  WATER

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES /REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

      Statutory  authorities  include the Clean Water  Act  (CWA);  Safe Drinking
Water Act (SDWA),; Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act  (MPRSA)'; the
Marine Plastic Pollution Research Control Act (MPPRCA) ; the Ocean Dumping Ban Act
(ODBA) ;  the  Great  Lakes Critical  Programs  Act;  the Coastal  Zone  Act and its
Reauthorization Amendments; and the North American Free Trade Agreement.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION '

      This program supports development  of national policy and implementation of
the  national regulatory  programs  for  the Office  of Water. (OW)  authorizing
statutes. ••   Specifically,  these  resources are  used to:  review  and analyze
legislative  initiatives  and  program policies;  provide management direction to
organizations performing OW functions; and manage national strategic planning for
water  programs.    The  staff  leads reinvention  efforts within  OW,   including
reinvention/re-engineering of regulations,' other program activities, and internal
management controls.   The staff performs  liaison with other Executive and outside
agencies; manages the  OW Regional Management Agreement System (including regional
evaluations); develops OW program plans  and budgets for implementation of Agency
policies  and programs;  and  tracks budget  expenditures.   In addition,  -staff
provides, quality  control   of  regulations  produced  by  the  OW;  provides
administrative support  to  the'program offices,  Great Water Body programs, and
Regions; monitors and  evaluates program performance; and manages human resources
within OW. '  The staff also develops communications strategies and a'variety of
outreach activities related to Water Quality and Drinking Water issues.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES '

      The primary goal of this program is to provide  overall program  direction/
develop national  policy, and provide management and administrative support within
the. Office  of Water   (OW) .   The  resources  in  this  program are directed 'toward
planning and overseeing the national programs  designed to  ensure that the goals
of the Clean Water Act  (CWA),  the Safe  Drinking Water Act and other  statutory
requirements are met.   Major activities  include'continued  implementation.of the'
CWA  and  SDWA as currently  amended,  and support for  reauthorization of these
statutes.                                                 •
                                     2-197

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCX
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
              PROGRAM MANAGEMENT-PESTICIDES AND TOXIC SUBSTANCES

OFFICE:  OPPTS


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

This program  supports  senior-level management of  the 'immediate office of the
Assistant Administrator,  the  Office of Pesticide  Programs,  and the Office of
Pollution Prevention and  Toxics •..  This program provides  for the planning and
oversight of EPA activities under the Toxic Substances Control Act, Title X of
the Residential  Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act  of 1992, the Pollution
Prevention Act of 1990,  the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act,  the Asbestos
School Hazard Abatement Act, section 313 of Title III of the Superfund Amendments
and Reauthorization Act, the Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
(FlFRA)  as amended in 1988, and a  portion of  the Federal Food, Drug,  and Cosmetic
Act,    ••                                            •

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

To increase productivity  and  better integrate activities  within the Office of
Prevention, Pesticides  and Toxic Substances  (OPPTS) and with.other offices, this
program supports critical  review of program documents and  activities and makes
recommendations -to  the Assistant Administrator on  science and policy issues.
Activities include specific projects oix cross-program issues such as agricultural
chemicals in ground-water,  risk assessment policy,  dioxins,  chlorofluorocarbons,
asbestos, implementation of the 1988 amendments to FIFRA,  and implementation of
the Pollution Prevention  Act of  1990,   This program supports  OPPTS budget
formulation,  execution  and control; manages  the  OPPTS  Information Collection
Budget;  'and provides oversight and guidance  to OPPTS  programs on  various Agency
systems and reports, such  as  the Strategic  Planning and Management  System, the
Action  Tracking  System,   the  annual  Operating  Guidance,  and  the Four-Year
Strategic  Plan.    The   staff  provides  guidance,   direction and  oversight  on
statutory  and regulatory  actions.   We  continue  to stress  developing risk
assessment  guidelines,  including  guidelines  for  ecological  effects,  and
communication of risk assessment,  risk management, and risk reduction information
to state and local governments, the Regions,  and other Federal agencies.  OPPTS
provides administrative support for the Biotechnology Science Advisory Committee,
chartered in 1987, to'provide  the Administrator" with expert advice  on the risks
and effects of applied  biotechnology.


GOALSAND OBJECTIVES

The major goal is to ensure that OPPTS carries out  its statutory responsibilities
taking  into  account  the  intent  of" the   laws,   guidance  provided  by  the
Administrator, and the  public  interest.   Specific  program  management objectives
include:   1}  providing policy guidance  and monitoring  program activities;  2)
ensuring quality'scientific judgments for the basis of regulatory decisions; 3)
increasing  productivity;  i.e., reducing  the time and  resources required for
decision.making on applications, petitions and other requests; 4) documenting and
monitoring  utilization  of resources; 5)  increasing  environmental  results;  6)
inter-office coordination with other Assistant Administrators on toxic  chemical
and pesticide-related  issues; and  7)  proper liaison with regional and state
officials on policy issues.
                                     2-198

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                 MISSION AND POLICY MANAGEMENT - ENFORCEMENT

OFFICE:   .  'OECA        .                       •                       ,


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Office  of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance is responsible for providing
legal and technical support for the following environmental statutes: Resource
Conservation Recovery Act  (RCRA); Clean Air Act' (CAA); Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA);  Clean Water Act  (CWA); Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide, and Rodenticide
Act (FIFRA);  Emergency Planning and Community-Right-to-Know Act  (EPCRA); Marine
Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)  and, Toxic Substances Control Act
(TSCA).   OECA is  also responsible for implementing the Pollution  Prosecution Act
(PPA)  requirements.                    '


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program provides  executive direction  and management support in the areas'  of
program  planning,   administrative  and  personnel   operations,   budgeting  and
financial  management,  information  management,   communications',  and/or  office
automation for all OECA components.


GOALSAND OBJECTIVES

This program identifies resources for program planning, direction, and management
support  for  the Office of  Enforcement   Compliance  Assurance  (OECA) .   These
resources contribute to  the overall executive leadership, program management,
personnel  and  administrative  services,   budget .  formulation  and  execution,
financial management,  funds control and information management  support functions
for all  OECA components.   Budget coordination and limited support is  provided  to
the program management staff at the National Enforcement  Investigations Center
(NEIC) in Denver Colorado.  In addition,  management support is provided  for the
Offices of  Regional Counsel  (ORC), Office of Regulatory Enforcement (ORE), Office
of Criminal Enforcement  (OCE), Office of  Federal Activities' (OFA),  the  Federal
Facilities Enforcement  Office (FFEO),  Office  of Site Remediation  (OSRE), the
Office of Enforcement  Capacity and Outreach  (OECO),  and the Office of Compliance
(OC) .   Additional support  is  provided  to  regional  enforcement  components
addressing water quality, wetlands, safe drinking water, to.xic substances, FIFRA,
EPCRA, hazardous waste and  clean "air compliance.
                                     2-199

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
      MISSION AND POLICY - OFFICE OF SOLID WASTE AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE

OFFICE:  OSWER


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

  This  account supports the  implementation of  the  Resource Conservation  and
Recovery  Act  of  1976  (RCRA),  as amended, by the  Hazardous and  Solid Waste
Amendments  of  1984   
-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                         . PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
        MISSION AND POLICY MANAGEMENT - POLICY,  PLANNING AND EVALUATION


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  OPPE

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATpRY raAMEWORK

Under the Reorganization  Plan of 1970 {5 USC Appendix), the Office of  Policy,
Planning  and Evaluation  (OPPE)  directs  the Agency's  regulation development
process,  formulates Agency,  policy,  manages  the Agency's  strategic planning
process,   leads Agency  efforts  in  climate  change,  environmental statistics,
performs economic impact and benefit cost analysis,  and manages  the President's
Environmental Technology Initiative (ETI).   OPPE works under all laws  for which
EPA .has the  lead  responsibility  as  well as  in the  implementation  of other
statutory authorities  relating to the environment  under the purview of other
Federal agencies.  In addition, OPPE ensures Agency compliance with the  Paperwork
Reduction Act of 1980;  Executive Orders 12291, 12498, 12612,  and  12866;   and. the
Regulatory Flexibility Act.

PROGRAM PE SCRIPTION

OPPE works to ensure that environmental hazards and risks are effectively managed
across  Agency programs and the  Federal  government  by employing a cross-media
approach that is either sector-based, placed-based (e.g., ecosystems),  or both.
More specifically, OPPE:             .                              *
o   Manages  the Agency's  regulation development process  to ensure  that  top
management is adequately informed on  the principal issues, policy, alternatives,
and major implications of  significant  regulations.
o  Ensures that EPA policy decisions reflect thorough consideration of  economic,
environmental,  and other costs, benefits, and impacts.
o   Improves  quality  of  statistical,  economic,  technical,  and environmental
analysis supporting EPA policies.
o  Leads Agency efforts in emerging issues and strategic analyses, such as global
climate  change, trade  and  the environment, energy and  transportation.
o  Establishes and maintains  a framework  for defining Agency goals and the means
of achieving  them.
o  Directs longer-term strategic planning for the Agency, combining analyses of
existing  programs  and regulations  with development  of  more   cost-effective
approaches for  environmental  protection.
'o    Develops  those  planning,  evaluation,   accountability,  management,   and
forecasting  systems necessary to  improve overall Agency program and management
effectiveness  and  indicators to  'measure performance  and_ the international
statistical  community.
o   Plays  a  leading  role  in oversight  and implementation  of Environmental
Technology Initiative  within  the Agency.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The principal goals of  OPPE  are  to provide the Administrator with  credible
information for improved decisionmaking and to provide Agency leadership or major
programmatic  support  oh  critical  cross-media issues.   OPPE's  priorities  are
reflected  in its  strategic  plan  and guided  by the  EPA's  .seven principles.
Although OPPE contributes  in  some  way to all.of  EPA's  goals, OPPE's priorities
most directly serve the multi-medial  goals  of Climate  Change  Risk Reduction,
Ecological Protection,  Improved Understanding of the Environment,  and Management.
Activities also aim at implementing the recommendations of the Science Advisory
Board's report on Reducing Risk, especially working with Congress, other Federal
agencies and industry to integrate risk reduction considerations into the broader
aspects of public policy and promoting a better public understanding of the  true
nature  of relative, risks.


                                     2-201

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
               MISSION AND POLICY MANAGEMENT - GENERAL COUNSEL

OFFICE:  OGC


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

     As   the  program element  containing resources  for the Office  of General
Counsel's  (OGC)  senior  managers  and  administrative  staff,  this  program  is
authorized by the Reorganization Plan of 1970, 5 U.S.C. Appendix.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

     This  program   element  provides   senior   program  direction,  regional
coordination, and management  support  resources  for the OGC.  These activities
include the planning management,  budgeting,  financial management, personnel and'
administrative services to the OGC, and.budgeting,  planning, and other services
to the counselling function in the Offices of the  Regional Counsel.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

     This  program .element  seeks  to  provide  the  resources  for  the  overall
supervision  of  OGC's   legal operations   and  to  provide  the   appropriate
administrative operations necessary for  the  office to meet its legal services
mission.
                                     2-202

-------
           UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                    PROGRAM ELEMENT  DESCRIPTION
                    MISSION AND  POLICY  MANAGEMENT .
              ADMINISTRATION AND RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

OFFICE:  OARM


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRflMEWORK

This  authorizing statue for activities in this program element is  the annual
Appropriation Bill.              .       .                                  •

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION '

The  Office  of Administration  and Resources Management  (OARM)  provides  overall
policy  guidance and management support services enabling operating .units across
•the Agency to function effectively and efficiently.  The Support provided.by OARM
includes but  is not limited to  — resources management and personnel services;
facilities  management  and  "maintenance;   occupational   health  .and  safety;
administrative  services;   organizational  and   management  analysis  and  systems
development;  information management and automated'data processing  systems;  and
procurement through contracts and grants.  The  resources in this program element
provide for  long-term and strategy development,  policy development,  budget
development and execution, human resource coordination resource monitoring,  and
administrative management  oversight for Agency-wide activities.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

o    Provide  overall'policy direction  and  guidance to  the  Agency's  management
programs;

o   Direct and manage  the development and execution of  the OARM budget, including
resource management and program analysis for  the current  year, the operating
year, and the budget  year;

o    Conduct special analyses requested by the  Assistant Administrator (AA)  and
Deputy  Assistant Administrator  (DAA),  related  to the  OARM budget  and/or to  the
efficient operation of OARM;

o    Provide "management tools" such as Action Tracking and Strategic Targeted
Activities  for  Results System  (STARS), coordinate  internal  control  reporting,
coordinate, OARM  compliance with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA),  serve
as  OARM's  Senior   Information  Resources Management  Official (IRMO),  ensure
appropriate OARM follow-up on  audits conducted by this.office of  the Inspector
General and the General Accounting  Office;

o      Monitor  OARM  personnel  issue,  including  Human -Resource  Management
coordination, coordination of OARM's compliance with the Performance  Management
and  Recognitions "Systems  (PMRS); and

o   Serve as a resource for developing and implementing management  effectiveness
strategies within  OARM and for  the  Agency.
                                     2-203

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCX
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     IMMEDIATE OFFICE OF THE ADMINISTRATOR

OFFICE: ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF      *                         "


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Administrator and Deputy  Administrator  and their immediate staffs provide
overall foreign and domestic environmental policy direction and human resources,
financial  and management  integrity guidance  to  the Agency. The• Pollution
Prevention Policy Staff is responsible  for developing policies  to guide, direct
and mediate all pollution prevention activities .throughout the Agency.

The staff of,  the Environmental Appeals  Board (EAB)  is  responsible for issuing
final  Agency  decisions and administrative  enforcement proceedings  under the
Clean  Air  Act;  Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide and Rodenticide Act;  Marine
Protection Research  and Sanctuaries Act;  Solid Waste Disposal  Act;  Resource
Conservation  and  Recovery Act;  Safe  Drinking  Water Act  and  Equal  Access to
Justice Act.   The EAB  is also responsible  for  issuing final Agency decisions
regarding reimbursements under CERCLA section 106(b).


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program  provides  necessary   support to  the Administrator and  the Deputy
Administrator  including  clerical  support,   speech  writers," trip  planners,
confidential  special assistants, along  with the Environmental  Appeals Board
Judges and staff and the  Pollution•Prevention Policy Staff.   General guidance
and support also provided to ensure implementation of the recommendations of the
Agency Executive Steering Committee for Information Resources Management.

The  Agency -Executive  steering  Committee     (ESC)   for Information  Resources
Management (IRM) provides  overall Agency  guidance  to  the management of EPA's
information resources under a,charter established by the Administrator.  The ESC
develops, selects,  or recommends  the Agency  IRM vision, goals,  and implementing
projects.  The ESC provides recommendations on policy,  acquisition strategies,
and major systems developments.

Environmental  Appeals  Board  (EAB)  serves  as the Agency's  administrative
appellate  authority  in the consideration  and resolution of  appeals  or other
requests for a decision in adjudicatory matters required by statute to be made
by the Administrator, and in  any  other  matters- of a quasi-judicial nature which
require  an appellate decision by the  Administrator  and  arise out  of EPA's
regulatory programs.  The EAB  is also
available  to  decide  or make  recommendations  on other  issues  for which  an
independent,  objective analysis  is required.
                                     2-204

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAl. PROTECTION AGENCX
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     IMMEDIATE  OFFICE  OF THE ADMINISTRATOR

OFFICE: ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


PROGRAM DESCRIPTIONcog't              '                            '

The Pollution Prevention  Policy  Staff is responsible for working closely with
the Pollution Prevention Division 'under the direction of the Office of Pollution
Prevention  and  Toxics;  and developing  Agency policies  in  this  area.   The
Pollution Prevention Policy Staff provides necessary staff support to the Senior
Policy Council  chaired by  the Deputy Administrator,  including  scheduling of
meetings and development of agenda items for review.

The Immediate Office also  houses the  President's  National Service  Program for
the EPA.  This  is  an' initiative to involve  citizens  o'f all ages in community
service to help solve some of the country's most critical problems in the ares
of the environment, education,  human services,  and public safety.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The information resource activities will provide a Agency wide focus on improved
public access to EPA information, reduced reporting burdens for industry, better
information for implementation  of GPRA, and improved partnerships  with State and
Local' governments,  and other stakeholders.

The-major focus of activity is to'continue  to put  special emphasis on better
internal management,  improve international leadership in new and emerging global
air and water pollution  issues, pursue delegation of programs to State and-local
governments, support enhanced science  as a basis of decision-making, and improve
the Agency' s" methodologies for  managing  risk.   The  Administrator  and Deputy
Administrator continue  to  provide  .policy  direction  and guidance  for Agency
programs.

EPA has  responded  to the Presidents national Service Program by proposing to
conduct projects that  would address  the  environmental  needs of disadvantaged
communities.
                                     2-205

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL .PROTECTION ASENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      ADMINISTRATOR'S REPRESENTATION FUND

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATOR? FRAMEWORK

Resources cover  the expenses  of  official receptions  and other  functions  for
visiting dignitaries and officials.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

Funding is required  to  enable the Administrator to host  receptions,  meetings,
and affairs for visiting dignitaries and'officials.  •


GOALSAND OBJECTIVES

The goal  of  the  Representation Fund is  to  enable the  Administrator to  host
official  receptions,  meetings,  and  affairs  for visiting  dignitaries  and
officials.
                                     2-206

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCX
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES

OFFICE:   •       Office of International Activities

STATUTORY AUTHORIflES/REgUIiATORY FRAMEWORK

The Office of International Activities  (OIA) exercises  lead  responsibility  for
the  international  activities  of  the Agency by  formulating and  implementing
Agency and U.S.  policies  on  a bilateral and multilateral basis,   OIA  programs
are authorized under  multiple acts  for  which EPA has the lead  responsibility.
These acts include:  East European Democracy Act,  Section 502;  Clean  Air Act,
Section  103; Clean Water  Act,  Section .104;   Resource Conservation  and  Recovery
Act, Section 8001;  Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and Rodenticide  Act, Section
20; Toxic Substances  Control Act, Section 10; Marine  Protection, Research,  and
-Sanctuaries Act, Section  203; Safe Drinking" Water Act,  Section 1442  (b) ;  the
National Environmental Policy Act, Section  102(2) (F).

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

OIA  draws  on  the  expertise  of every  EPA.  o'ffice  and region,  other  Federal
agencies such as the Departments of  State, Commerce, Treasury; non-governmental
organizations, and the private sector  in developing and implementing U.S.  policy
and programs on international environmental  issues.  OIA emphasizes  regional  and
multilateral approaches and focuses resources on key countries and international
organizations.

OIA  manages  EPA programs  designed  to  restore,  improve,   and  protect   the
environment along U.S. borders with Canada  and Mexico.  OIA  is  responsible  for
implementing the environmental side agreement to the North American  Free Trade
Agreement,  as  well  as the  Integrated Environmental  Plan for the U.S.-Mexico
Border Area.   OIA manages EPA agreements with Canada  related  to  Great Lakes
water quality, acid rain, and hazardous waste.  In the  Caribbean,  OIA  promotes
regional cooperation in  preventing  ocean  pollution and protecting  critical
marine habitats.

OIA manages comprehensive technical assistance programs in Russia and the Newly
Independent  States,   Central  and  Eastern Europe,  Asia,  and the  rest of  the
developing world.   OIA also  implements  the U.S.  Technology for International
Environmental Solutions (U.S. TIES)  program under the  President's Environmental
Technology Initiative.

OIA  addresses  regional   and  global  policy issues  related  to biodiversity,
forests, marine  pollution,  environment  and trade,  environmental  health,   and
polar issues.   OIA  also manages EPA  programs  with the World Bank,  the  United
Nations  Environment  Program,  the  United  Nations  Development Program,   the
Organization for Economic Cooperation '-and Development,  and  other  multilateral
organizations.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Serving  as a  focal point  and catalyst,  the  Office of International  Activities
{OIA)  manages  the   Agency's  international programs,  providing  leadership,,
direction,  and coordination  on behalf of the Administrator  and  initiating  new
programs where appropriate.  'Its broad, long-term goals,  directed  at achieving
the broad concept of  sustainable development worldwide, include:   (!)  protection
of the global atmosphere;  (2) protection of marine and  polar environments;  (3)
conservation of  species,  habitats, and ecosystems; and  (4)_ protection  of human
and environmental health  worldwide.   The primary means to achieve these goals
include   international   technical    assistance   and   capacity-building   and
international environmental policy and program cooperation.

                                     2-207

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AQENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            OFFICE OF CIVIL EIGHTS

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK           '    t              .

The Office of civil Rights,  under 'the supervision of the Director,  serves  as the
principal  adviser to  the Administrator  with respect  to EPA's  civil .rights.
programs.  The .office develops policies, procedures and regulations to implement
the Agency's civil rights responsibilities and to  provide  direction to  regional
a.nd  field activities.    These  civil  rights  responsibilities  encompass four
distinct   program  areas:    •• affirmative   employment,    special  emphasis,
discrimination complaints and external compliance, mandated by titles VI and VII
of  the Civil Rights  Act of  1964,  as  amended;  sections  501  -and 504  of the
Rehabilitation Act of  1973,  as amended, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act
of 1967; the  Equal  Pay Act,  title XI  of the Education Amendments  of 1972; the
Age Discrimination Act of 19,75;  and  section 13 of the Federal Water Pollution
Act Amendments of 1972.  The programs pertaining to equal employment opportunity
are  governed by  regulations and  management  directives  issued 'by the  Equal
Employment -Opportunity   Commission.    The  external  compliance  program  is
administered  pursuant  to  Agency regulations  at  40  CFR Parts  7 and  12 and
guidance and regulations from the  Department of Justice.  In addition, there are
a number  of other  significant  Executive Orders,   regulations,  directives and
guidance  documents which  are  part  of  the  regulatory  framework for  these
programs.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Office of Civil Rights manages a national equal employment opportunity (EEC)
and external  compliance  program.   The affirmative employment program provides
a blueprint  of planned initiatives  designed to achieve full representation of
minorities, women, and people with disabilities in the Agency's work force and
to identify  and  eliminate discriminatory practices and policies that serve as
barriers to  full  equal employment opportunity.   The' special emphasis programs
are  designed to  improve  the employment  status  of women,  African Americans,
Hispanics,  Asian Americans, .American Indians  and people  with disabilities.
These programs support  the implementation of the affirmative employment program,
advocate  for furthering  career  opportunities  for their  constituent  groups,
highlight the benefits of a culturally diverse work force, publically recognize
the contributions of employees, and oversee the minority  academic  institutions
program for the Agency.   The discrimination complaint program provides for the
prompt,  fair  and  impartial  processing  and  investigation  of  employment
discrimination complaints against the Agency.  It promotes  the resolution of
complaints at the earliest possible stage by requiring EEO counseling before a
formal  complaint  can  be filed  and  by encouraging  the  development  of  an
alternative  dispute  resolution   program.    The  external compliance  program
utilizes assurances of compliance,  pre-and post-award compliance  reviews, the
"processing  of discrimination  complaints  against the  recipients of  Federal
financial  assistance,  and  technical  advice  and assistance  to  the  program
offices,,  regions,  recipients  and  beneficiaries  to  achieve  the  goal  of
nondiscrimination and environmental  justice ip programs and activities receiving-
assistance from EPA.
                                     2-208

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            OFFICE OF CIVIL .RIGHTS

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF
                 i

(3OALS AND OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the Office of Civil Rights are to provide technical  guidance
and   direction   for  the  Agency'.s  civil,  rights   efforts;   to  eliminate
underrepresentation of  women,  minorities and people  with disabilities in  the
AgencyVs work force and  make  equal  employment  opportunity a reality at EPA by
monitoring and implementing the  affirmative employment program; to strengthen
and improve  a  results oriented special  emphasis  and employment participation
program;  to  establish  an  effective and  comprehensive  A'gency-wide   minority
academic institutions program  which will increase the level of  financial support
to these institutions; to expand and improve the pre.compla.int counseling program
which will increase the  rate of informal resolutions; to have a fair, impartial,
efficient-and timely discrimination complaint processing system; and improve  the
implementation  of  the  Agency  regulations  regarding   nondiscrimination   in
federally  assisted programs  in  the areas of  complaint  processing  against
recipients, pre-and post-award compliance  reviews  and technical assistance  to
programs, regions, recipients and beneficiaries.
                                     2-209

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PRQ0RAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            SCIENCE ADVISORY BOARD

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Science Advisory Board (SAB) provides those functions that are required by
the Research and Development Demonstration Authorization Act  (ERDDAA) of 1978,
Section 109 of the Clean Air Act Amendments  of  1977,  the 1986 Amendments to the
Safe Drinking Water Act, and Title IV of SARA.


PROQRftM DESCRIPTION

SAB provides expert, independent advice to the Administrator and the Agency on
scientific  and  technical issues  facing'EPA.   The  SAB continues  its  work on
Agency initiatives to protect health and the ecosystems by conducting meetings
for the review of  approximately 55  issues including: 6 drinking water issues;
1 awards issue; 5  air issues;  6 health  issues;  5  ecology issues; 2 indoqr-air
issues;  3  intermedia  issues;   2  ORD program  issues;  6  radiation  issues;  6
research  in progress  issues;  3  research  strategies  meetings;  and  4  risk
assessment guidelines.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

SAB is. called  upon to  review  both the  quality  of  research  planning  and the
scientific basis of selected criteria, regulations, and standards.
                                     2-210

-------
                 UNITED' STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                           ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES

OFFICE: ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORYFRAMEWORK

Judges from this Office preside over  and conduct  formal  administrative hearings
required by the Administrative Procedures Act, including cases under the Clean
Air Act (Sec. 120, Sec. 207, Sec. 211); Clean Water Act  (NPDES civil penalty);
Federal   Insecticide,   Fungicide,   and  Rodenticide   Act   (civil  penalty,
cancellation/suspension and data call-in); Toxic Substances Control Act  (civil
penalty);   and  Resource 'Conservation  and Recovery  Act   (Sec.  3008);  the Safe
Drinking Water Act (Sec. 1414  (g)  (3)  (B)); the Emergency Planning and Community
Right-To-Know  Act  (Sec.   11045);  and  the  Marine  Protection,   Research  and
Sanctuaries Act  (Sec. 105  (a))-.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  '

The Administrative Law Judges  preside over approximately 1700  new cases related
to suspension,  cancellation, licensing,  and enforcement actions initiated  by the
Agency on an annual basis.  Of this caseload,  approximately 400 cases are under
the Toxic  Substances Control Act  (TSCA), 300 are under the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act  (RCRA),  and 250 are under the Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide,
and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) .  In addition,  this Office handles  approximately 150
cases  under  the  Clean  Air Act  (CAA) ,  250  under  the   Emergency Planning and
Community'Right-to-Know Act  (EPCRA) ,  275  under the Clean Water Act (CWA) , and
approximately 35  cases  under  the Safe  Drinking  Water  Act  (SDWA),  as  well as
NPDES permit cases and FIFRA cancellation/suspension cases.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                                     •               '

The goal  of  the  Office  of the Administrator is to provide timely and accurate
review and judgment on all administrative procedures cases before  Administrative
Law Judges or appeals before the Environmental Appeals  Board.
                                     2-211

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        ORGANIZATION £ HEALTH SERVICES
OFFICE:   OABM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The regulatory  and legal authorities- under  which  Management and Organization
(M&O)   executes   its'  activities  include   the  Federal   Records   Act,  the
Administration Act,  the  Federal Information  Resources  Management Regulations
(FIRMR),  the Federal Advisory Committee Act  (FACA), and Executive Order  12479-
"Management  Reform  in  the  Federal  Government."    The  Safety,  Health  and
Environmental Management Division  (SHEMD)- designs  its programs to support the
mission and program  needs  of the Agency and to assure that EPA's programs are
carried out  in compliance with  Federal and  statutory  mandates,  regulations,
guidelines, and standards'.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

Resources are provided for the  Office  of Administration's Immediate Office of
the Director,  MSO,.  SHEMD, and  the New Headquarters Project.   The Immediate
Office of Administration directs management activities and support services for
its divisions  as  well  as the  New Headquarters  Project.    Together,  these
divisions provide high quality services in many centralized administrative areas
such as health  and safety, environmental  compliance,  facilities, planning and
management,  and management  analysis,   and  organizational  development.   M&O
conducts  management   and  organizational-  analytical  studies,  manages  the
development and review of Agency-wide delegations of  authority,  provides  advice
to  management on  organizational  issues, manages  the EPA Directives  System,
oversees the Agency's chartered Federal Advisory 'Committees,  provides historical
analyses,  and maintains the Agency's historical archives.  SCHEMD is responsible
for leading,  planning,  organization developing, implementing, and evaluating the
environmental compliance,  occupational  health,  medical,  fitness/wellness, and
safety, and  environmental  management  functions  of EPA.   The New Headquarters
Project ensures coordination in the planning, construction, interior design, and
relocation efforts for a  new consolidated EPA Headquarters.   This includes work
in  a  variety of structures  including  the newly constructed Federal Triangle
Building and the renovated Ariel Rios,  Customs,  and ICC Buildings.


gOALSAND OBJECTIVES

The primary goal of M&O is to provide quality organization analytical services
and management  for Headquarters, Regions,  and Field Offices.   M&O's objective
is  to  serve  as the  Agency's  primary  in-house management,  organization and
history consultant.   The  SHEMD  goal is  to help, managers comply with statutory
and regulatory  statutes  and create  a model for leading, planning, organizing,
developing,  implementing,  and  evaluating  health,  safety,  and environmental
programs throughout EPA.    SHEMD's
                                     2-212

-------
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        ORGANIZATION & HEALTH SERVICES
OFFICE:   OARM
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES con't
objective  is  to  have, in  place  a  comprehensive  program  that  is  credible
throughout EPA • and is considered the best in the Federal Government.  The goal
of the New  Headquarters  Project is to provide  timely and efficient planning,
construction,  interior design,  and  relocation for  a  new  consolidated  EPA
Headquarters.
                                     2-21,3

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                CONTRACTS AND GRANTS MANAGEMENT - HEADQUARTERS
OFFICE:  OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The authorizing  statute  for this program element  is  the annual Appropriation
Bill.  Activities are also governed by  the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR)
and contract law.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This  program  element  supports  the  contracts,  'grants,  . and   suspension  and
debarment management activities at Headquarters, the Regions, Research Triangle
Park,  and Cincinnati.  EPA contracting activities focus on meeting the specific
contracting objectives of each program office serviced.   It is also the Office
of Acquisition Management's  (0AM) responsibility to ensure that contract funds
are spent in  a prudent manner and that costs associated with  the contracting
function are accounted for to preserve the integrity of the process as well as
assert the authority of the Federal government in financial oversight.  All of
0AM's  efforts,  including  policy,  quality  assurance,  training,  oversight of
contractor property, and the development of an Integrated Contracts Management
System serve  to  maintain a high  level  of  integrity in  the management  of  the
contracts in place.

The Office of Grants and Debarment (OGD) continuously reviews and develops new
policies  and  procedures  required  to  administer  grants,   cooperative  'and
interagency  agreements.    This  is  a  programmatic effort  to   streamline  the
procedures  and  to   reduce  the  information burden  imposed upon the  client
population.   The Office provides "cradle-to-grave" business administration for,
all Headquarters grants  programs, and it  fosters  relationships with State and
local governments to support the implementation of environmental programs.

The Suspension-and  Debarment Division of OGD protects the  integrity ,of EPA's
assistance  and  procurement  activities  against  waste,   fraud,  and  abuse  by
suspending or debarring persons engaged in such activities.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The major goal of 0AM is to provide efficient and effective contracting services
to support the Agency's mission.

In the OGD,  the goals are twofold:  to ensure that grant administration policies
and procedures effectively support the qhanging requirements of  all the Agency's
assistance  programs;  and to ensure  the integrity of  contract  and assistance
awards by producing a strong suspension and'debarment program in the assistance
community.       ,        ,
                                     2-214

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             FACILITIES MANAGEMENT
OFFICE:  OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORlTlES/REGUIATQRY FRAMEWORK

The authorizing  statute  for activities in  this  program element is 'the  annual
Appropriation  Bill,  Clean  Water Act,  Clean  Air Act,  41  CFR and  the  D.C.
Recycling Act' of 1988.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program element  provides a full  range of on-going facilities management
services to Headquarters, Research Triangle  Park  (RTF), and  Cincinnati.  These
include the management of  facilities maintenance and operations,  shipping and
receiving,   security,  property management,  printing  and  reproduction,  mail
management,  and  transportation  se-rvices in these  locations.    This program
element also provides workyears to manage the centralized, nationwide  function
involved  in  the  acquisition  of   space,   the  management  of  repairs,  and
improvements and  new  construction•programs,  and establishment of Agency-wide
policy and procedures required for the property  accounting,  mail,  and  security
systems'.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES     ,                               ' .

The  overall  goals of   the  Facilities  Divisions  in  Headquarters,   RTF  and
Cincinnati  is  to  provide  timely,  high quality,  and  cost  effective support
services for EPA programs located in Agency  facilities.  These  support  services
and  assistance  are in  the  areas  relating  to property  management,   security
services,   space  utilization,   leasing,   repairs  and  improvements,   and  new
facilities.
                                     2-215

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                       INFOBMATION SYSTEMS AND SERVICES
OFFICE:   OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGUIATORY FRAMEWORK

The authorizing statutes  for  activities  in  this program element is the annual
Appropriation Bill,


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

Activities under this program  focus on establishing agency information resources
management '(IRM) policies including: data and technology standards; developing
and operating the Agency's central information services, including the library
network  and  central  data  base  services;  Agency-wide  resources  management;
administrative systems; and telecommunications.   This program also oversees and
assists Agency program and administrative offices, Regions and laboratories in
the  development  and  operation   of  information  systems  including  software
applications, records management  systems, LAN activities,- data base services,
public access programs, and international data  activities.   Oversight is also
conducted  on the  planning,  development,   acquisition and  delivery of  both
standard  and advanced  information technology  and  services,  including EPA's
agency-wide timeshare service, scientific computing network and ADP service, and
support'contracts.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This activity has  two primary goals:   to assure effective management of EPA's
investment  in  information   resources   and  .technology;  and  to  assure  the
efficiency, accessibility and utility of  information  and information technology
that support  EPA and state environmental  programs.    Resources  support EPA's
central IRM policy, planning,  and service activities  performed by the Office of
Information Resources Management,  Cincinnati and RTF to provide leadership in
managing  and delivering  information  resources  and  services to  further  the
Agency's mission.
                                     2-216

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                 SMALL AND DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS UTILIZATION

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGUIATORY FRAMEWORK

The Office of Small and  Disadvantaged  Business. Utilization  (OSBDU) receives its
statutory from P.L.  95-507, Executive Order  (E.G.)  11625  (Minority Business),
E,0. 12138  (Women's  Business),  E.O.  12432  (Minority Business Development) the
Clean  Air Act  of  1990,   EPA's grant  procurement  regulations,  P.L.  96-354
(Regulatory Flexibility Act) ,  and E.0. 12291.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION                      ,

The Office  of Small  and  Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSBDU)  develops
national policy for the Agency's socioeconomic programs as they relate to both
direct  and  indirect  procurement.    The Office  is  also  responsible  fo.r the
development and implementation of a viable small business regulatory strategy.
Direct  procurement policy  is  monitored closely  and  technical  assistance  is
provided to Headquarters and regional program offices  to assure achievement of
preferential procurement  goals.   The "fair  share"  concept which requires the
utilization  of affirmative action  steps   set  forth  in  EPA  regulations  is
encouraged under financial assistance programs.

Small, minority and women's businesses receive technical/managerial assistance
from b'oth Regional  staff and OSDBU.  Additional technical assistance is provided
by  the Minority  Business  Development  Agency  (MBDA)   under a  Memorandum  of
Understanding,  and  these  services  are  coordinated  by OSDBU.   Through the
Agency's  Small  Business  Ombudsman,  OSDBU  provides  regulatory  compliance
assistance to small  firms  by  operating a  nationwide toll-free "hotline" which
provides  both  direct and  indirect  technical assistance.   The  Ombudsman also
serves as an advocate on  small  business  issues  within the Agency and promotes
voluntary compliance  with EPA regulations.

The  Office  responds  to "hotline"  calls  and performs detailed  and complete
casework  and  follow-up on  over  14,000  small  business  inquiries;  performs
regulatory  review  'as  to  small  business  implications;   conducts- outreach
educational programs that   promote and further enhance voluntary  compliance with
Agency policy and  regulations.   In addition, the  Office continues to monitor and
provide  advice  on  new  regulations that promote  voluntary  compliance  by the
several hundred thousand "mainstreet-type" businesses.
                                     2-217

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                 SMALL AND DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS UTILIZATION

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goals of the^ Of fice of Small and Disadvantaged Business  Utilization (O.SDBU)
are  to:     (a)   assist small   and  disadvantaged  firms  in  receiving  direct
procurement  contracts with  EPA  ;   (b)  assist  small,  minority,  and  women's
businesses  in  receiving  a "fair  share" of  procurement dollars, under  EPA's
financial  assistance  programs;   and   (c)   monitor  and  attempt   to'  revise
environmental  regulatory  policy when  it adversely  impacts  small business  to
bring about a higher level of voluntary  compliance.
                                     2-218

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         MISSION AND POLICY MANAGEMENT
                  ADMINISTRATION AND RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
OFFICE:   OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIE S/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

This authorizing  statue  for activities in this  program element is the annual
Appropriation Bill,

PROGRAM DE SCRIPTION         ,

The Office of Administration  and  Resources  Management  (OARM) provides overall
policy guidance and management support services  enabling operating  units across
the Agency to function effectively and efficiently.  The' Support provided by OARM
includes but Is not limited to — resources management  and personnel services;
facilities  management   and  maintenance;   occupational  health  and  safety;
administrative  services;  organizational and  management analysis  and systems
development; information management and automated data processing  systems; and
procurement through contracts  and grants.  The resources in  this  program element
provide  for  long-term  and strategy  development,  policy  development, budget
development and execution,  human resource coordination resource  monitoring, and
administrative management oversight for Agency-wide activities.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

o    Provide  overall policy direction  and guidance  to the  Agency's management
programs;

o-   Direct and manage the development and execution of the OARM budget, including
resource management  and  program analysis  for the  current  year, the operating
year, and the budget year;

o   Conduct special analyses  requested by the Assistant Administrator  (AA) and
Deputy Assistant Administrator  (DAA),  related, to the  OARM budget and/or to the
efficient operation of OARM;

o    Provide  "management  tools"  such  as Action Tracking and  Strategic  Targeted
Activities for  Results  System (STARS), coordinate internal  control reporting,
coordinate OARM  compliance with the Freedom of  Information  Act  (FOIA), serve
as ,,OARM's Senior  Information  Resources  Management  Official  (IRMO), ensure
appropriate OARM follow-up  on audits conducted by this  office of the Inspector
General and the General Accounting Office;

o      Monitor  OARM  personnel   issue^ including   Human  Resource Management
coordination, coordination of OARM's  compliance  with the Performance Management
and Recognitions Systems (PMRS); and

o   Serve as a resource fqr developing and implementing management effectiveness
strategies within OARM and  for the Agency.
                                     2-219

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
OFFICE:  OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIE S/REGUIATORY FRAMEWORK

The services and operations of this  program fulfill  the regulatory requirements
prescribed by: the Prompt Payment Act of 1982 as amended October 1988; Section
115 of the Budget  and  Accounting  Procedures Act of 1950; Congressional Budget
Act of 1974;  Debt Collection Act of  1982; Federal Managers' Financial Integrity
Act of 1982;  the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984;  the  Chief  Financial'Officers Act
of 1990; the  .Government  Performance and Results Act  of  1993;  and the various
circulares,  regulations   and initiatives  issued  and proposed  by  OMB,  GAO,
Treasury, and GSA.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION               '                             '

This program provides all accounting and fiscal services'.for the Agency.  This
includes financial reporting, development and implementation of fiscal policies
and procedures,  financial management systems, and technical assistance for the'
Working Capital  Fund.   This program maintains  a Quality Assurance program 'to
ensure good data interpretation, reliable financial systems,  accurate reports,
and  an aggressive  Agency-wide Cash  Management' Program.   The  Headquarters,
Cincinnati, and  Las Vegas offices perform the basic financial, accounting, and
fiscal services for their site locations, and also  for Research and Development
and program office  laboratories across  the  country.   In addition,. Headquarters
provides payroll services  for  the  entire   Agency.   Cincinnati  serves, as the
Agency's focal  point  for coordination,  collection, and  payment  of all Inter-
agency Agreements between EPA and other government agencies.   Las Vegas serves
as the National Accounting and Payment Center for program grants  and the Letter
of Credit payment process.


GOALS ANDOBJECTIVES

This program  element  provides resources, for Agency-wide financial management
activities  as well  as  financial  and  accounting   services  performed by the
Agency's  financial management  offices . which are  located in  Cincinnati,  Las
Vegas, Headquarters, and  RTP.   The  primary  goal of this  program is to provide
quality  financial  management  services'  to  EPA managers and   employees  by:
developing sound fiscal policies and procedures; developing,  implementing, and
maintaining financial information  systems;  providing reliable payroll services;
directing Agency-wide financial reporting operations;  maintaining the Agency's'
grant obligations and financial transactions; providing Agency-wide accounting
and  fiscal  services;  maintaining a  Quality Assurance program  which provides
Agency management  with reliable financial  systems  and reports;  and conducting
cash management  reviews.
                                     2-220

-------
                 UNITED- STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
              OFFICE  OF STRATEGIC PLANNING AND ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

NATIONAL PROGRAM OFFICE:  'OPPE


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Through its Strategic  P 1'anning and  Environmental Data programs, the Office of
Policy, Planning and Evaluation  (OPPE) manages the Agency's  strategic planning
and management systems and develops environmental indicators and "state o.f the
environment" reports to inform Agency management  decisions,  operating under all
laws for which EPA has the lead responsibility.   OPPE will play a key role with
the Office of Administration and Resources Management (OARM)  in determining how
the Agency  will respond  to  the  recently enacted Government  Performance .and
Results Act (GPRA).


PROGRAM DE SCRIPTION

OPPE:  (1) manages and develops the Agency-wide strategic planning process;  (2)
leads the Agency-wide effort to develop  environmental goals  and the appropriate
environmental indicators to track progress toward those goals; (3) evaluates the
relationship  between specific  environmental strategies  and  their  impact on
environmental  results;  (4)   incorporates  into  Regional  planning  and  grant
processes the  environmental priorities growing  out  of state comparative risk
projects; (5)  integrates the" national and Regional assessment of relative risks
into the planning process and  establishes risk-based priorities for the'Agency
budget•process;  (6)  .analyzes   long-term environmental  problems;  (7)  directs
statistical efforts  towards developing  sound,  quality-assured techniques and
methods to assess the quality of Agency environmental data sets as well as data
from other sources;   (8)  develops the environmental information  architecture for
identifying Agency resources,  the information needs  in public  policy decision-
making; ,(9)  works closely wi'th other Federal agencies to harmonize collection of
data and to promote general standards for the  integration of disparate  data sets;
(10)  focuses  on  improving  the  collection,  organization,  .and  analysis  '.of
environmental data and statistics to provide  EPA with  credible, information for
improved decisionmaking;  and (11) develops and publishes environmental statistics
reports and directories for public use and access to  environmental information.

                                                   /
GOALSAND OBJECTIVES

OPPE's primary goals are to improve  risk-based and environmental decisionmaking
in the areas  of planning, management and budget, and enhance  Agency capabilities
to utilize environmental data  to assess  the  state of the environment and the
effectiveness of environmental programs.  A  major effort will  focus on setting
measurable goals for problems being addressed and bringing long-term strategies
and program implementation  in line  with the goals  that are being set.  OPPE's
work  promotes  all  of  EPA's guiding principles,   and  several  goals  in EPA's
strategic  plan, especially  Improved Understanding  of  the  Environment  .and
Management.   OPPE continues  'to support  "geographic  targeting of ecological
resources and building state/local/tribal capacity.  OPPE activities also aim at
implementing  the recommendations of the  Science  Advisory  Board's  report on
Re duelng Ri3k, such as  setting priorities  for  future actions  to  achieve greatest
risk'~reHuctTon,  reflecting priorities in  the Agency's strategic planning and
budgeting  process,   and  improving the  data  and analytical methodologies and
presentation and use of environmental  information in the decision process.
                                     2-221

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     CONGRESSIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE AFFAIRS

 OFFICE:   ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

 The Office of  Congressional and Legislative  Affairs  serves as  the principal
 contact  point and is responsible for the Agency's  relationship with Congress and
 the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)  on all  Congressional  and legislative
 matters.


 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

 The Office integrates  and is responsible for the Agency's Congressional Liaison
 as well  as Legislative  Analysis   functions.   The  Division of  Congressional
 Liaison  develops support for, and  advocates,  the Administration's legislative
 initiatives and advises senior Agency officials and staff, members of Congress-,
 Committee staff, and  external  organizations on  environmental  legislation  and
 Agency activities.   Also,  the Division is  responsible  for hearing preparations
 and follow-up with Agency witnesses, technical  assistance on legislation, timely
 and  appropriate  responses  to•  Congressional  inquiries • and   monitoring  of
 Congressional  activity.   In conjunction,  the  Division of Legislative Analysis
 assists  in 'the  development of  legislative initiatives with Agency  officials,
 drafts legislative proposals and obtains clearance  of those proposals through
 OMB,  and ensures that Agency actions are  taken in accordance with OMB Circular
 A-19,    The Division prepares,  or  directs the preparation of,  all testimony
 presented by  the Administrator and other key  Agency officials  and obtains  and
 negotiates clearance  with  -OMB.    In  addition,   the  Division   prepares  Agency
 reports  and recommendations on pending and enacted legislation.  The Office also
, manages  Agency  Congressional correspondence as well as the Legislative Reference
 Library   which   provides  comprehensive  legislative  research  services,  with
 computerized   tracking  systems,   to   the  Agency,   Congress,    and  external
 organizations.


 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

 The goal of the Office is to respond to and service  the  needs of Congress,  the
 Agency,   and  Administration  officials  as  related  to  proposed  and  enacted
 environmental  legislation.
                                     2-222

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCX
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                COMMUNICATIONS,  EDUCATION,  AND  PUBLIC AFFAIRS

OFFICE:   ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Office  serves as  the focal  point  for  ensuring that  communications and
education planning  occurs on  .all  Agency issues.   Additionally,  the Office
implements the requirements of the National Environmental Education Act (NEEA)
of 1990  which authorized a  variety of environmental  educational,  grant, and
award programs.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Office  assures  that the  Agency informs the public  in all  key issues;
educates private citizens and responds to their concerns  regarding environmental
issues.   It  establishes  and maintains relations  and communications with citizen
and consumer groups; maintains liaison  with the White House and the Office of
Management and Budget (OMB!  on public education and voluntary participation in
environmental control;  and manages the EPA Speakers Bureau.   The Office manages
the Agency's  relationships-with  the media,  provides  audio-visual support, and
develops non-technical publications on major EPA programs for dissemination to
the general public.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES       ,  '

The Office works with the news media and provides informational materials for
the general  public.   The Office  also  emphasizes '(15  improving coordination
within the Agency of communication activities related to major Agency actions,
and (2)   strengthening long-range  planning of public  information activities in
coordination with major EPA program offices and the Regional offices.

The Office provides national leadership in promoting environmental literacy in
our youth and  increasing the public's awareness of environmental problems and
solutions.  The focus is on two broad area's:  improving basic science literacy
as the core  of environmental education for students in grades K-12 and colleges/-
and informing the general public about the environmental consequences of their
individual and collective actions.  This is accomplished, in part, by building
upon .ongoing  work of public,  non-profit,  and  private  sector  groups already
involved in environmental education.
                                     2-223.

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT

OFFICE:   ADMINISTRATOR/STAPI"


STATUTORYAUTHORITIES / REGUIATORY FRAMEWORK

The  Office  of  Executive  Secretariat  is the  focal  point  for  processing  and
monitoring Agency  executive  correspondence and .Freedom of Information requests.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The  Office  handles,  processes,   and  tracks  approximately 100,000  pieces  of
correspondence for the Administrator/Deputy Administrator and 9,200 Headquarters
pieces of FOI Correspondence each year.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
The  goals  of  the' Office  of  Executive Secretariat  are  to  provide •-policy
development and
Freedom of  Info
correspondence.
development and coordination, program oversight  and guidance for the Agency's
Freedom of Information  (FOI)  activities;  and to  manage the Agency's executive
                                     2-224

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                REGIONAL  OPERATIONS AND STATE/LOCAL RELATIONS

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Office of Regional Operations and  State/Local Relations  (ORQS/LR) serves as
the primary  link  between  the Administrator, the Deputy Administrator  and the
Regional Offices.   The Office also serves as the principal national contact for
the Regional Environmental  Services  Divisions  (:ESDs); the  national  program
manager for  the  regional  geographic initiatives program; the liaison  for the
Administrator  and  the  - Deputy  Administrator   and   state,  local  and  tribal
governments  and their representative  organizations; and agency  lead on small
community issues.                                 •  .     .


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The OROS/LR  assists  regions,  states,  local governments and tribes  in working
with  headquarters   offices   and  one   another,  and   serves  to  facilitate
intergovernmental  participation  in  the  Agency's  planning,  "budgeting  .and
regulatory development processes.   The  office is also  the  HQ focal  point for
ES'Ds  and  the  regional  geographic  initiative  program,   providing  guidance,
oversight, assistance, and management support.

OROS/LR coordinates Agency-wide revie.w of EPA interactions with state, local and
tribal  governments;  and  establishes  mechanisms for government  to  government
cooperation. The Office builds  and maintains communications with state and local
elected   officials,   environmental   directors  and  representative   national
organizations, via task forces, advisory groups and other mechanisms.

OROS/LR facilitates the coordination of  activities among the  regional offices,
states/localities/tribes, and the National Program Offices on the  geographic and
special regional  initiatives.    Activities 'include  the development  of joint
planning  vehicles,   consideration  of   joint   operations,   the  piloting  of
coordinated  management  techniques and  structures,  the promotion  of priority
setting based upon environmental need,  the promotion  of voluntary  pollution
prevention,  the  identification  and  coordination  of technical  assistance
providers and the evaluation of results.

Other activities  with regional  offices,  states and  localities are designed to
build  state/local environmental  capacity.    OROS/LR  also  maintains  a Small
Community Coordinator function,  that  includes  incorporating monitoring of the
Regulatory Flexibility Act for small communities,  facilitating small community
cross  media outreach,  and  the  integration  of small  community issues  into
innovative financing  and  technical assistance  systems.
                                     2-225

-------
                 UNITED- STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                 REGIONAL  OPERATIONS  AND STATE/LOCAL RELATIONS

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Major objectives of this Office are to:  assure participation of the' regions and
consultation with state, local and tribal governments in Agency policy-setting
and  decision making  processes;    serve  as  a Headquarters  advocate  to the
Administrator on regional issues;  identify emerging intergovernmental  issues;.
and  coordinate  intergovernmental relations  in the  delivery • of environmental
services and program  implementation.  The Office  is also  responsible  for the
Small Town Environmental  Planning program,  the Small Town  Task Force and the
Local Government Advisory  Group.  OROS/LR serves as national,program manager for
Environmental. Services  Divisions, ensuring their  needs  are  represented and
addressed,  and manages the regional multi-media program which provides  'funding
to regions/states/local governments  to  carry out  local environmental projects
identified as most -important to their' geographic areas.
                                     2-226

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENGX
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
OFFICE:  OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Human  resources  management activities  are conducted  to  fulfill  requirements
defined in Title 5 United States'Code.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

Human Resource Management .activities  (HR) are conducted by the Office of. Human
Resources  Management  at  Headquarters  and  the  Human  Resources Management
Servicing Organizations at Cincinnati, RTP, and  Las Vegas.

The resources  are  to provide  HR management services  and  are responsible  for
policies, procedures, program .development,  and implementation of  the  full range
of human  resources  customer services.   These services are:   human resources
training, special emphasis and employment programs, organizational  development,
workplace-planning,  performance management, pay administration,  benefits  and
incentives  administration,  quality  of-  life . and  workforce  issues,  National
Performance  Review   human  resources  initiatives,  and quality  assessment of
Agencywide human resources practices and customer services initiatives.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES  -

The goal of the HR Management Program is to increase EPA's  capacity to carry out
its mission by  attracting,  retaining,  and  developing 'a  highly motivated,
talented,  and  diverse workforce.   The HR  Offices, also  serve in  the  role of
consultant/advisor helping managers in the areas of developing self-managed  work
teams, labor-management partnerships,  organizational  development, and workforce
development.
                                     2-227

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          OFFICE OF EXECUTIVE SUPPORT

OFFICE:  ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGUIATORY FRAMEWORK

The  Office  of  Executive  Support  develops resource  options and  analysis in
support  of  various  staff  office  functions;  provides  ongoing  personnel.,
financial, and  administrative  program  management functions,  and ensures staff
office automation support.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The  Office  provides  the  Administrator  and  Staff  Offices   with  centralized
personnel management;  recruitment and staffing; administrative support services
including financial management, procurement, and property management; out-year
budget development; current  year expenditure monit6ring;  planning studies to
assess  resource  requirements;   and  automated  resource  and tracking  system
development and implementation  (Automated Data Processing/Lan Support)'.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goals of the Office  of Executive Support are  to provide centralized budget,
personnel,  and  resources management,  administrative  and  ADP support  to  the
Administrator and Executive Staff Offices.    ~         '               .
                                     2-228

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                 COMMISSION ON ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION (CEC)
OFFICE:          Office of International Activities
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Office of International Activities  (OIA) exercises lead responsibility  for
the  international  activities  of  the Agency  by  formulating  and implementing
Agency and U.S.  policies and programs  on a bilateral.and multilateral basis.
OIA programs are cited authorization under  multiple acts  for which EPA has  the
lead  responsibility.   These acts  include:  Clean Air Act,  Section  103;  Clean
Water Act, Section  104;  Resource  Conservation and Recovery Act, Section 8001;
Federal  Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and  Rodenticide  Act,  Section  20;  Tozic
.Substances'Control Act, Section 10; Marine Protection,  Research,  and Sanctuaries
Act,  Section 203;  Safe  Drinking  Water Act,  Section  1442  (b) ;  the  National
Environmental Policy Act, Section  102(2) (F). .


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION    .                                             .   •

The  North American Environmental  Agreement was negotiated to  respond  to  the
concerns of  citizens and Congress  that  the  North American  Free  Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) activities  could exacerbate environmental  degradation without proper
safeguards.     This  agreement   provides for  a  Commission  for Environmental
Cooperation  (CEC),  which  will oversee a  variety of environmental commitments  and
support activities to ensure that the  increased  economic opportunities provided
by NAFTA benefit the environment  as  well.   In particular, this 'agreement will
provide pathbreaking mechanisms to ensure that  the environmental laws of NAFTA
parties will be effectively enforced.

EPA's  Administrator serves  as  the  U.S. Representative   to  the Commission's
Council, which oversees the implementation 'of  the agreements.   Working with  the
Office  of the  Administrator,   OIA provides  support  for  the  Administrator's
participation in the Council,  and  coordinates Agency-wide  participation in  the
Commission's  technical  activities.     Resources  will  go toward .trilateral
initiatives  in  enforcement,   public   access   to  environmental  information,
standards harmonization,  addressing priority transbounda;ry environmental issues,
as  well  as   a  number of others.   These  activities wil.l  benefit  both border
regions and  the U.S. environment throughout North America.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                 .  ..

Under the direction of  the Assistant Administrator for OIA, EPA will support  the
CEC.  ' OIA will coordinate  the U.S.  representation ' to the CEC, including  its
staffing, budget  development,   and work program.  OIA will  coordinate inter-
office activities  within EPA  and  with  other  Federal agencies  to  support  the
Administrator in his/her role  as the U.S. representative  to the CEC.  OIA will
also  provide liaison with  the  White  House in  selecting IKS.  membership on  the
Public Advisory Committees connected with thevCEC and provide liaison with  the
NACEPT in their staffing of the National and Government Advisory Committees.
                                     2-229

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                           RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - HQ


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: OARM

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGUIiATORY FRAMEWORK

Activities in this pro.gram fulfill the regulatory requirements prescribed by the
Prompt Pay Act of  1982  as amended October 1988,  Section 115 of the Budget  and
Accounting Procedures Act of 195Q,  the  Congressional  Budget"Act of 1974,  the
Debt Collection Act of  1982,  the Federal Managers' 'Financial Integrity Act of
19,82, the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, the Anti-Deficiency Act,  the Budget  and
Accounting Procedures Act of  1921,  the  Supplemental Appropriations Act of ,1955,
the  Congressional Budget and Impoundment  Control  Act  of  1974,  the  Federal
Manager's Financial Integrity Act  of 1985,  the  Inspector General Act of 1988,
the  Omnibus  Budget Reconciliation Act  of 1990,  the  Chief Financial Officers
(CFO) Act of 1990,' the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993,  as well
as the various  circulars, regulations,  orders and  initiatives  issued by OMB,
GAO,  Treasury,.and other  central agencies.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program supports Agency-wide  resource management  and control _ functions
including .budget development, budget utilization, financial accounting'and fiscal
operations.  This program also supports the  development of Agency-wide resource
management policies  and  national guidance,  audit  management,  environmental
financing  alternatives,  and  technical  assistance  to  the  Agency's  management
integrity process.  Support for budget processes includes designing and overseeing
the  outyear  budget process,   providing  budget analyses and reports to Agency
program offices,  and maintaining  a fiscal allocation, control, and review system
for  all  workyear  and  financial  resources.  Accounting  and fiscal  operations
support  includes  the Financial  Management  Centers in  Headquarters and field
locations  that  provide  payroll  and  travel processing;  contract  and  grants
payments,  interagency  agreements; development of  financial policy; financial
reporting and analysis;  preparation of Agency financial statements; development,
operation and maintenance of  the integrated  financial  management  system  (IFMS);
quality assurance; and customer service.

The  program  will .also  focus.on  continued improvements  to  the  integration of
Agency wide-planning,  budgeting  and accountability processes in  addition to
providing Agency leadership  for the development of performance-based management
tools consistent with the National Performance Review, Government  Performance and
Results Act,  Government Management Reform Act, and the Chief Financial Officers
Act.                     .

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The primary goals of this  program are-to provide Agency-wide budget development,
budget utilization, financial accounting and fiscal operations,  development of
Agency-wide resource management policies and  national guidance, audit  management,
environmental financing alternatives, and technical assistance to the Agency's
management integrity process.
                                     2-230

-------
                 UNITED- STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - REGIONS


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: OARM

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Activities in this program element are supported by the Chief Financial Officer's
Act,  the  Federal Manager's  Financial Integrity Act  (FMFIA),  and  the  annual
Appropriations Bill. •

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Regional Finance Offices (RFOs)  provide  accounting,  payment  processing, and
billings and collections  for grants,  travel, payroll,, contracts, purchase orders,
arid all other financial  transactions, as well as  payroll support and general
ledger  activities.    RFOs also  provide  travel  related  services  and process
contracts and other commercial and  inter-governmental payments.  Additionally,
RFOs provide a system of  fund control maintenance at the Allowance Holder  level,
monthly fund control reports, analyses of  financial status, and trend projections
to support resource control and  cash management activities.

This program will also, carry out  essential resource management activities, such
as budget  formulation, workload analysis,  operating plan preparation,  and overall
management, reporting, and accountability for the budget.

GOAL SAND . OB JECTIVES

The primary goal  of this program is to provide sound financial management for all
Regional  programs.    This  "includes:  maintaining  the  Agency  wide financial
management system; assisting  in  the preparation  of reports, both internal and
external to the'Regions;  and assuring Regional compliance with Congressional and
regulato.ry  requirements'.    Other objectives  of  this  program  element include
providing  resource  monitoring and  payroll/fiscal  support  services;  ensuring
timely collection of monies owed EPA; implementing Region-wide data integrity and
quality assurance program to ensure  timely,  complete,  and accurate financial
reports; and safeguarding the Regions' resources and preventing fraud, waste, and
abuse.

This program  element also provides  support to the Regional Administrators, the
Office of the Comptroller, and the  National Program Managers in  developing the
Agency's outyear budget,  developing  and executing operating plans, and  managing
and conducting  the  Regions'  internal planning,  budgeting,  and funds control
processes to  include complying with  requirement of FMFIA.
                                     2-231

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                              REGIONAL MANAGEMENT

OFFICE: ADMINISTRATOR/STAFF                 • '


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK


Regional  Management   operates  under 'all  laws   for   which  EPA  has  lead
responsibility and provides direction  and definitidn to EPA policy as it applies
to each of the ten EPA Regional .offices.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Regional Management program supports the  Regional,  Deputy,  and Assistant
Regional Administrator  who promote  the Agency's environmental programs at the
regional, State  and local  level,  'providing  the principal policy direction for
EPA1 s •regional   offices.   Other  regional  office  functions  supported  within
Regional Management are: (1) anticipate and resolve potential policy issues;' (2)
encourage  greater involvement  of  State  and  Tribal  governments,"  (3}  expand
relations with  local  governments;  (4) promote  Federal  Agency cooperation and
coordination on environmental issues;  (5)  improve equal opportunity performance
in the Regions  and encourage representation  of minorities and women in all EPA's
activities; (6)  maintain effective liaison with,  and provide information to the
public, media,  other Federal Agencies, State, Tribal, and local governments; and
(7) ensure that environmental justice  concerns  are  reflected in Regional Office
decision making.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Regional Management Offices define and implement EPA policy as it  applies to 'the
Regions.  They  shape  and articulate  environmental  policy  for state and local
governments; provide answers  to inquires from all sources including Congress and
the media;  maintain the  education,   civil  rights  and  Freedom of  Information
programs; coordinate information on environmental programs  and projects for the
public 'and .other Federal agencies;  and  establish  regular  communications with
public interest, environmental, and business groups.
                                     2-232

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                       PLANNING,  EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS

NATIONAL PROGRAM .MANAGEMENT: C-PPS

STATUTORY AUTHORITJtjSS/RESULATORY gRAMSWORK

Planning, Evaluation and Analysis  (PE&A), the  Regional  component  of  the  Office
of Policy, Planning and Evaluation (OPPE),  operates  under all laws  for which
EPA has the lead responsibility.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

PE&A comprises  the  following activities:   (1)  Regional and state comparative
risk and strategic planning -, including comparative risk, which identifies risk-
based priority  environmental problems and strategies .to  deal   with  them;  (2)
ecosystem  protection  and management which  includes  working with Regional
programs,  states,   tribes  and  localities   on  community-based  environmental
protection efforts, and the  Regional  geographic initiatives;   (3)  management
accountability, which  focuses on performance  measurement systems as required
under the  GPRA; (4)  EPA's  national  goals  project,  including development  of
environmental  indicators,   which  concentrate   on  developing indicators   of
environmental results and  incorporating them into management tracking systems;
•(5) risk assessment, management,  and  communication, which focus  on  developing
comprehensive  Regional risk  reduction  strategies .to  establish the  necessary
framework for addressing risk in the field;  .(6)   regulatory review and analysis
which' involve  coordinating  Regional  'review of  impacts of  new,  proposed,  or
revised  regulations, with special attention to  the workload on the  state  and
local governments; • (7)  management systems analysis which involves  studies  of
Regional management systems and key processes to improve Regional efficiency and
effectiveness;  (8)  pollution  prevention  (P2)   which includes initiating  P2
demonstration projects, cross-media management,  and coordinating  technical  and
educational  outreach  activities;  and  (9)   climate   change,   which includes
activities to support,the  Climate Change Action Plan (Presidential Initiative),
and other activities to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas  emissions.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The primary  objectives are:    (1)  to  implement the Government  Performance  and
Results .Act   {GPRA)  in EPA Regions  by providing  the  capacity   to   conduct
strategic planning, goal  setting,  and. management  accountability;  .and   (2)  to
strengthen Regional decision-making capacity through the development  and  use of
innovative planning, management and  information tools.   These two  objectives-
promote  all   o.f EPA's  Guiding  Principles,   including  ecosystem protection,
pollution  prevention,  strong  science  and  data, 'partnerships,  environmental
justice, environmental  accountability,  and reinventing  EPA management.    PE&A
risk activities  also  aim  at implementing the  recommendation's of the Science
Advisory  Board's report  on  Reducing' Risk,   such "as  working' with  states  to
integrate  risk reduction  considerationsinto  the broader  aspects  of  public
policy,  and  to  reflect priorities  to  achieve greatest risk reduction in state
strategic planning and budgeting process.
                                     2-233

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT - REGIONS
OFFICE:   OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

Activities  in  this  program  element - are  supported  by  the  Chief  Financial
Officer's Act and the annual Appropriations Bill.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Regional Finance Offices (RFOs)  provide  accounting, payment processing, and
billings  and collections  for  grants,  travel,  payroll,   contracts,  purchase
orders, and  all  other  financial transactions, as well  as payroll support and
general  ledger  activities.   RFOs  also  provide travel-related  services and
process  contracts  and  other  commercial  and  inter-governmental  payments.
Additionally, RFOs provide  a system of fund control maintenance at  the Allowance
Holder level, monthly  fund  control  reports,  analyses  of financial status, and
trend projections to support  resource control and cash management activities.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The primary goal of this  program'is  to provide sound financial management for
all Regional  programs.   This includes:  maintaining the Agency-wide financial
management system; assisting  in  the  preparation of reports,  both internal and
external to the Regions; and assuring Regional compliance with Congressional and
regulatory  requirements.   Other objective^  of this program  element  include
providing  resource  monitoring and  payroll/fiscal  support  services;  ensuring
timely collection of monies owed  to EPA; implementing Region-wide data integrity
and  quality  assurance programs to  ensure  timely,  complete,  and  accurate
financial reports;  and safeguarding the Regions' resources and preventing fraud,
waste, and abuse.
                                     2-234

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT - REGIONS
OFFICE:   OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY gRAMSWORK

Personnel  Management activities  fulfill Title  5,  USC  requirements  for the
Performance Management System for all General Schedule employees  (Chapter 54),
labor relations programs  (Subpart F,  Chapter 71,  Section  7101 and 7104), and
Affirmative Action programs including  the Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment
Program  (Section 7151) appropriate  statutory references  for the omitted human
resources functions listed above.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

Servicing  Regional Human  Resources  Offices  (HROs)  are  responsible  for the
development and  implementation  of a  comprehensive  human  resources management
program including:  human resources planning,  staffing and recruitment, position
management and classification, special emphasis programs,  employee development
and training,  performance management,  labor management, and  employee relations,
and  all  other human-resources-related  operations.   Regional HROs  strive  to
provide  expert 'advice and  assistance to Regional  managers  in  directing and
managing  organizational  and workforce  issues,  assure- effective  planning for
workforce adjustments resulting  from  organizational and  program changes which
occur in response to shifting Agency and Region-specific priorities, represent
Agency and Regional management to employee unions, and provide expert advice and
assistance to employees.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The major goal of this program element is to provide each Regional Office with
high quality personnel management services to support the accomplishment of. the
Agency's missions and programs as they are implemented in the Regional Offices,
                                     2-235

-------
                 UNITED- STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT - REGIONS
 OFFICE:   OARM
 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

 The  authorizing .statutes  for activities in this program element is the annual
 Appropriation  Bill.


 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

 Services cover  many  routine and  highly  visible activities  which  include:
 telecommunications  (voice data)  equipment management.; maintaining administrative
 information systems and  computer  operations and  ensuring  effective  automated
-data processing (ADP)  operational  support  for Regional programs;  managing ADP;
 maintaining  Regional .library   operations;  coordinating   Regional   records,
 management;  directing,  •contracting,   and  purchasing  activities;   providing
 administrative direction  for all support services and activities; and conducting
 high quality  environmental  compliance  and  health, and  safety programs  which
 implement,  and often exceed,  regulatory  requirements to provide workplaces free
 of hazards  both to  employees,  and the  surrounding  environment.


 GOALS ANDOBJECTIVES        '                                         '

 The  goal of the Regions  is to provide  effective administrative and information
 •services for environmental decision making  tq meet the various  needs  of each
 Regional office and Regional management.
                                     2-236

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                        RESOURCES MANAGEMENT - REGIONS
OFFICE:  OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The activities in  this  element are supported by the Chief Financial Officer's
Act and the Federal Manager's  Financial Integrity Act  {FMFIA).


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program will  carry out  essential resource management activities,  such  as
budget .formulation, workload analysis,, operating plan preparation, and overall
management, reporting., and accountability for the budget.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The major objectives' of this program element  are  to  support  the Regional
Administrators, the Office of the Comptroller, and the National Program Managers
in developing  the  Agency's  outyear budget,  developing and executing operating
plans, and. managing and  conducting  the Regions' internal planning,  budgeting and
funds control processes to include complying with requirements  of FMFIA.
                                     2-237

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCI
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                           WORKING CAPITAL FUND-OARM
OFFICE:  OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The Agency will propose legislation in FY 1995 to establish the working capital.
fund,


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION              .                                      ;

This program element provides base resources for postage costs and on-going data
processing and telecommunication services.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The primary goal of this program element,is to provide essential  postage,  data
processing, and telecommunication services.
                                     2-238

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCX
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                    CONTRACTS & GRANTS MANAGEMENT - REGIONS
 OFFICE;   OARM
 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK                   '          .   '

 The Regional program is mandated by EPA statutes which specifically identifies
 Agency  assistance   in   the   forms  of  grants,,  cooperative,  and  interagency
 agreements.


 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

 The Grant Management"Offices (GMQs) ensure  the appropriate  internal  control
 checks and balances for the Agency  are present and manage and administer Agency
 funds in  the most  fiscally responsible manner  so  'as to guarantee  the Public
 Trust in the Agency's  environmental mission.   They provide all program offices
 with grant administrative management expertise so that the program offices can
 best  utilize  their  scarce,  resources  in  addressing  and  executing  their
 programmatic and  technical  responsibilities  for  their respective  pro-grams.
 Contracting  officers functions include awarding and managing  small purchases and
 contracts.   Other staff  involved  in  contracts  management  issue  contract
•modifications and oversee all aspects of support to  the'Senior Resource Official
 in the review and approval of all contract actions.


 GOALSAND OBJECTIVES

 The goal of  the GMOs in the. Regions  is  to  award thpse  EPA extramural funds to
 the following co.ngressionally mandated recipients:  states;  U.S.  Territories;
 Indian Tribes;  local governments; other Federal agencies,  etc.
                                     2-239

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTS PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
OFFICE:   OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATOR^ FRAMEWORK

The authorizing  statute  for activities in this  program element is the annual
Appropriation Bill.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  •

The Professional Training Program provides learning, training, and development
opportunities  and  tools  which  support  activities   for  building  'workforce
capacity.  The program is  designed  to  build  a broadly experienced and skilled
workforce of  managers and  staff  through  individual" and group  human resource
development  programs.    The resources  provide  strategic  workforce planning,
direction on developmental needs and career options, and career counseling and
guidance,


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal  of  the  Program is  to  ensure  the success  of  the  Agency's mission by.
meeting Agency managers'  and staffs' learning, training, and developmental needs
and to improve 'the skills and competencies of the workforce.
                                     2-240

-------
                 UNITED- STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCX
                          PROGRRM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          NATIONWIDE SUPPORT'SERVICES

OFFICE:  OARM

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/KEOPLATORX gRftMSHORK '

The authorizing  statute for activities in  this  program element is the  annual
Appropriation  Bill.    Activities  are also  governed  by the  Chief  Financial
Officers Act, and- the Government Performance and Results Act.


BROGRftM DESCRIPTION          ,                        .            '

This program, element -provides  the•following services  to  all- "Agency programs
regardless of location:  Agency-wide  costs  for facility rentals  (including  GSA
and direct lease payments); Nationwide Services; Agency's Integrated  Financial
Management - Systems;   the  Agency's  Integrated  Contracts   Management System/-
National. Security; National Agency Check Investigations fNACI); Code of Federal
Regulations  Typesetting;  Unemployment  Compensation;  Workers  Compensation;
payments  to  the  Public  Health  Service   (PHS)   for  payroll  services   for
commissioned officers assigned to EPA; and contracts and inter.agency agreements
which support the Agency's healthvand safety program,


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of  this program is to provide timely, responsive, and cost  effective
services in the areas mentioned above.
                                     2-241

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             HEADQUARTERS SUPPORT
OFFICE:   OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The authorizing  statute  for activities in  this  program element is, the  annual
Appropriation Bill.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION   .                       '

This program element supports the following services in Washington,  DC,  Research
Triangle Park, NC, and Cincinnati, Ohio,

Office , Services  —  Includes  costs  for  common  supplies,   common equipment
maintenance,   motorpool,   printing/copying   services   and   supplies,    and
transportation of things.

Building Services — Provides funds for utilities, office  relocation, and labor
services, security services, common rental and purchase of equipment,  employee
health  units,  facilities   operation  and  maintenance,  mail  operations,   and
miscellaneous.

Information  Management   —  Provides  most  central IRM stewardship activities
(policy,  security,  records  management,  oversight),  management - of  Agency
administrative  systems,   library  and  public   information  s.ervices,  systems
development services, and data management and administration.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES              ' •

The principal goals for  this p.rogram are to provide quality  office,.building,
and information management  services in a cost effective manner.
                                     2-242

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                               REGIONAL SUPPORT
OFFICE:   OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK                             '

The authorizing statute for activities in this program element is the annual
Appropriation Bill.


PROGRAMDESCRIPTION

This program element supports the following services for Agency programs-in 1.0
Regional  Offices,   Regional  laboratories,  and  other  facilities   around  the
country:

Office  Services  -- Includes  costs  for  common  supplies,   common equipment
maintenance, motorpool,  printing/copying  services and  supplies,   audiovisual
services', common  rental  and  purchase of equipment,  facility* employee health
units, facilities operation and maintenance, mail operations,  and miscellaneous
contracts.

Building Services  — Provides  funds  for telecommunications,   utilities, office
relocation and labor services,  security services, 'common  rental and'purchas'e of
equipment,  alterations,   employee  health  units,  facilities  operation  and
maintenance, mail  operations, and miscellaneous  contracts.

Information  Management  —  Provides  support  dollars .  for  supplies,  library
services,  information  retrieval  services,  and  automated  data  processing
technical support.

Laboratories and  Field Operations —  Building  services  for laboratories and
field locations, plus all scientific and technical equipment  and supplies.

Health and Safety/Environmental Compliance - Provides  funds for employee health
units, health and  wellness services,  environmental compliance programs in labs
and Regional Offices.


GOALSAND OBJECTIVES                     .         '

The principal goals  for  this program are to provide quality  office, building,
laboratory, field, and information management services to  the Regional Offices
in a cost effective manner.
                                     2-243

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                                  ADP SUPPORT
OFFICE:   OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The authorizing'statute  for activities In this program element is the annual
Appropriation Bill.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This  account  funds   the  design,  acquisition  and  maintenance of  computing
equipment  for  the National Computer  Center  at Research  Triangle  Park,  North
Carolina,  and  the compatible  distributed  processors  at  EPA Headquarters,
Regional Offices  and other  major administrative  "centers;  telecommunications
equipment and' services required-to link  these sites with one another and with
state environmental agencies;  commercial  software acquisition and maintenance
for central  and distributive  processors  that comprise  EPA's  general purpose
computing and telecommunications network; and contractor  support to manage'the
operation of the computing and telecommunications network,  to conduct technology
assessments,-and to plan and deliver training and. other support to users of this
network.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The gqal of this program element is to provide timely and efficient ADP services
to the Agency.
                                     2-244

-------
Science and
Technology
    SECTION TAB

-------
                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1997 BUDGET ESTIMATE

                               TABLE OF CONTENTS

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY	...-..,•..   3-1
      AIR TOXICS 'RESEARCH	,  .	3-4
      CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS RESEARCH	  .  .  .  .  .  .  ,  . •  3 - 7
      INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS RESEARCH	....'....  3-13
      GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH   .  .  .-	.........  3-15
      WASTE/SITE/RISK CHARACTERIZATION RESEARCH	3-19
      WASTE MANAGEMENT AND SITE'  REMEDIATION--RESEARCH   ..  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  3-21
    '  DRINKING WATER RESEARCH	-	3-23
      ECOSYSTEMS PROTECTION RESEARCH	3-27
      HUMAN HEALTH PROTECTION RESEARCH	'	3-33
    •  SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS RESEARCH   .,...-.......,.  3-37
      NEW TECHNOLOGY AND POLLUTION PREVENTION  RESEARCH   ,  	  ...  3-39
      SCIENCE QUALITY AND  INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH  ..  ,.'....'.,.•..  3-'43
      NATIONAL VEHICLES AND FUELS EMISSIONS LABORATORY   .	  3-47
      NATIONAL RADIATION LABORATORIES  .  ,	  .  3-49
      ANALYTICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES  ........3-51
      DRINKING WATER PROGRAM LABORATORY	;	3-53
      NATIONAL' ENFORCEMENT INVESTIGATIONS  CENTER	',  .  .  .' .  .3-55
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION  ......	3-57

-------

-------
                            SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total of $621,256,000 and 2,392.1 total workyears for
FY 1997 -in the  Science and  Technology Appropriation  account."  Of this amount,
$42,508,000 is  requested to be  derived from the Hazardous Substance Super-fund
appropriation.

      The Science  and Technology  (S&T)  account,  created in 1996,  funds the
operating programs  of the  Office  of Research  and Development  (ORD)  and the
Program Office laboratories.  These organizations provide significant scientific'
and technical  expertise  in  meeting the Agency's broad array of environmental
goals. The S&T account  allows -the  Agency  to utilize a variety  of skills and
expertise, regardless of their organizational location.  This includes funding
for in-house  activities  (including research support for the Agency's scientists
and engineers)• and extramural research and development.  The program laboratories
directly support the Agency's regulatory programs and are  the-primary source of
multimedia technical expertise for civil and criminal enforcement.

      The Agency's science program seeks to improve our understanding of risks
to human health and ecosystems,  and develop innovative cost-effective solutions
to pollution prevention and risk reduction.   In doing so, the Agency must balance
the need for sustained long-term research with the need for  shorter-term, applied
research and science that supports the program offices  as  the Agency implements
our statutory mandates.   Specifically, the Agency's science mission is to":

o     Perform  research  and  development to identify,  understand, and  solve
      current and future environmental problems;                        •    -
o     Interpret and  integrate scientific information to help organizations at
      all levels make better decisions about improving the environment; and
o     Provide national leadership  in addressing emerging environmental issues
      and in advancing the  science and technology  of risk assessment and risk
      management.

The knowledge and tools that result from these efforts are used by EPA, state and
local authorities  to assure credible environmental  decision-making.   As the
Nation seeks to focus its limited resources on the most critical environmental
problems, the role of science in identifying, understanding and addressing these
problems will become increasingly important.

      In  recent years  the Agency  has taken aggressive action  to  improve the
quality and responsiveness of its  science  program.   The most notable of 'these
actions is the explicit use of the risk paradigm -- effects, exposure-, assessment
and management --to shape and'focus ORD's organizational structure  and research
agenda. Within the context of the risk paradigm,  the Agency has developed health
and ecological risk criteria that are applied during  the strategic planning and
budget formulation processes.  This helps assure that research and development
focuses  on the greatest  risks  to  human health and  the environment,  that the
Agency maximizes the potential to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment, and
that cost-effective approaches for preventing and managing risks are developed.
ORD's  new  risk-base priority  setting process  1)  encompasses,  stakeholder
scientific priorities, 2) ensures that ORD will support the Agency in fulfilling
its mandates,  3) focuses resources where  ORD  can make  the  most significant
contribution  to reducing risk,  and  4)  enables  ORD  to  generate  practical and
credible information and tools for risk-based decisionmaking.

      The Agency is also improving  science quality through  extensive  use of
external peer review.  Peer review is a widely accepted mechanism for assuring
the quality,  credibility,  and acceptability of work products.  While the Agency
has always utilized peer review, current policy now requires much more extensive
application  of , peer-review  on  strategic   plans,  individual research  plans,
research proposals,   and research products.

                                      3-1

-------
      Another significant  step the  Agency has  taken  to improve  its science
quality is the development of a Strategic Plan for Research and Development.  The
Strategic Plan is currently under-going extensive peer-review, and when completed
will  provide  the  blueprint  for  ORD's  risk-based .research  program;   ORD's
Strategic Plan will define new strategic directions, outline the priority-setting
process, and develop long-term goals and objectives.  The Agency will identify
high-priority research topics  that will  help  achieve  the goals and•objectives
outlined in the  Strategic Plan. Many research  topics will remain high priority
for several years, but new one's  will be added  and previous  .one's removed as
appropriate.  For each high priority topic, a peer-reviewed research plan will
be developed that will: (1) lay out the major research components and directions;
(2) describe how these components fit into the risk assessment/risk management
paradigm; and (3)  identify the major outputs.   For 1997, the six high priority
areas are drinking water disinfection, particulate matter, ecosystem protection,
endocrine disrupters, human health protection and pollution prevention and new
technologies.

      While the Strategic Plan defines1 '"what"  will be done,  the Agency is also
making  some important changes in  "who"  performs the .research  and  $Jhow§ it is
done.  The human capital required to address the Nation's environmental problems
includes  EPA  scientists,   other  Federal   scientists,  contractors,   academic
institutions,  and other  cooperators.   EPA has a  highly  skilled and  motivated
workforce that is the most qualified source of human'capital1 for  much of the
Agency's research.  The Agency will  continue to invest in its  workforce to assure
that they have the tools and resources to provide the highest quality science.
The Agency also manages an extensive extramural research program that performs
essential  research  through  grants,  contracts,   cooperative  agreements  and
interagency agreements.    EPA's  extramural research  program  is subjected to
competition and external peer-review  to  assure that only the most  meritorious
activities are funded  and that those funded  are relevant  to  the  mission and
priorities of the Agency.   The core of  the extramural  research program is an
investigator-initiated grants program, which takes advantage of the expertise and
creativity in the Nation's academic community to address some of the  most complex
environmental issues.

      As a result of  the  Agency's risk-based science planning process, a number
of critical areas,  where existing gaps in science have resulted in significant
uncertainties,  will be addressed.  The 1997  program will target'a number of these
uncertainties by increasing research in  the following areas:

o     Particulate Matter: A multi-year effort in particulate matter (less than
      10  microns)   research  will   be  expanded1  to   address  a   number  of
      uncertainties,   including  those  associated  with  mortality estimates,
      evaluation  of  biologic  mechanisms  of  toxicity,  and  evaluation  of
      innovative control strategies.

o   ,  Community Based Health and Ecological Research:  The ecology  component of
      this initiative will increase the Agency's capability to predict exposures
      or  effects  within  a  local  watershed  or  ecoregion  and provide  local
      decision  makers   with  more   effective  and   appropriate   management
      alternatives.   The  health  component of  this initiative will  focus on
      population exposures  that  are currently not  well  enough understood for
      adequate risk assessment.

o     Drinking Water Disinfectant By-products/Microbial  Research: This research
      will provide the scientific data  necessary to provide a sound basis for
      promulgation  of  necessary  reg'ulation.     This   research will  involve
      development  of exposure models  and  effects  profiles for microbes and
      selected  DBP's,  characterization of  virus  movement  and 'Survival  in
      groundwater, and  guidance to  small  water systems  on applying specific
      technologies for meeting drinking  water standards.


                                      3-2

-------
Endocrine Disrupters:  This  initiative  in endocrine disrupters research
and their potential  impacts  on  the  human and wildlife endocrine systems
will assess and address the current uncertainty associated with how and to
what extent1 such chemicals effect these systems.

Benefit/Cost Research: Science and engineering  research will be initiated
to support the Agency's benefit/cost initiative.  This effort will assist
in the development of more effective tools to  enhance community-based risk
management options,  improve the quality of analysis  for Agency regulations
and guidelines, and address consistency and relevance limitations in the
existing approaches for benefit/cost research.
                                3-3

-------
                              AIR TOXICS 'RESEARCH

OVERVIEW

      The agency, requests  a total of $15,531,000 and 82.4 total workyears  for
1997 in the Air  Toxics Research program component.

      Air toxics emitted from a wide variety of stationary and mobile  sources
pose both a major health  risk and significant ecological  risk.  The Clean Air Act
 (CAA)  Amendments require  control actions  for major  sources of  toxics,  and
research to address "Urban Toxics" and air toxics deposition to §|Great Waters".
The Office of Research and Development  (ORD) research program  is addressing key
scientific questions about the nature and extent of the  air toxics  problem-,  the
technologies  to  reduce or eliminate  significant emissions, and the methods of
analysis and measurement in support of EPA113 Office of Air  and Radiation (OAR) ,
and  state  agencies to implement  the requirements of the  CAA.    The research
activities enable measurement of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)  emissions  and
prediction  of their dispersion and  deposition in the  environment as well  as
providing information about the health and ecological effects of such emissions.
Part of the research is also• focused  on  providing some of the needed information
.on emissions  from "Mobile  Sources™ and  resulting health risk  under the  rapidly
changing  dynamics  of  fuel . compositions  and  vehicular  technologies,   with
particular  emphasis on  alternative  fuels  and  reformulated  gasolines.    The
information  developed  through 'mobile  sources research  is  essential  for  risk
assessment and the  enforcement of CAA requirements.

PROGRAM and^ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

Major Sources

      The Agency requests  a total of $5,208,400 and  37.8.workyears for  1997 in
the area of Major Sources  research program.

      The CAA Amendments  require promulgation of (l) standards to protect  against
the residual health and environmental risks  and ,(2) emission standards  for major
sources.

      The  residual  health and environmental  standards  must  achieve an  "ample
margin of safety" to protect  public  health.   EPA's Office  of  Air and Radiation
 (OAR)  is  required to   implement  health based-evaluations  of major  sources
beginning  in 1999.   In  support  of this  effort, ORD will  conduct research to
develop toxicity effects data, routes of exposure, and  risk assessment  methods
to  better assess  cancer  and noncancer  risks  for HAPs.   Quantifying  risks,
evaluating acute exposure risks,  and  assessing mixtures  are all issues  that will •
be addressed.  Researchers will also continue to develop source test methods to
enable measurement of HAPs emissions. Researchers will also shift emphasis from
development  to  the field  testing,  evaluation,  and application  of improved
chemical process monitoring technologies. Noncancer and cancer risk assessments
are developed routinely in support of the CAA Amendments implementation to assess
residual risk after the  application  of  emission standards.   Similarly,  hazard
assessments  also serve  to rank  the  hazards  of  the  CAA Amendments-listed  air
pollutants.  Further, as  data gaps are identified during the above research,  the
need for specific health testing  will emerge.

      To  support  OAR in  the  development  of the  technology-based emission
standards,  risk management  researchers will, identify,  develop,  and evaluate
control technologies to reduce or eliminate  toxic organics and metals from small
stationary  combustion sources,  including industrial  boilers and incinerators.
The overall  approach is  to work  cooperatively with industry  (pollution  control
vendors and operators of  sources)  and OAR to  identify promising technologies that
perform as  well or better  than  existing technologies  and minimize cost.   The
primary emphasis of the  program  will be to  investigate  integrated  technologies

                                      3-4

-------
 which have  the  potential  to  simultaneously -reduce  multiple 'pollutants  from
 combustion sources.   The  sources  that  the research  program will  target  are
 subject  to future Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)  regulations (or
 contribute to toxic loadings in urban areas or deposition to the Great Waters).
 The combustion control  technology research program  will  provide data  on  how
 .specific HAPs are formed  in  combustion systems  and will  identify promising
 techniques to prevent  the formation  of these compounds or manage them once they
 are formed.  This fundamental knowledge .will strengthen the ability of EPA's OAR
 to devise  Agency  risk  management strategies that target., the sources of greatest
 risk and  provide  viable cost effective  technological  options for  reducing
 emissions.

 Urban Toxics

      The  Agency  requests a total  of $7,617,800  and 26.6 workyears for.1997 in
.the Urban  Toxics  Research program.      .

      Urban toxics research is a Congressionally-mandated program to characterize
 the risks  of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)  emitted from small sources that are
 concentrated in large  numbers in urban areas.  These sources present a residual
 risk after major  sources  of air toxics are controlled under the MACT provisions
 of Title III of the CAA Amendments.  Researchers will establish and apply methods
 to identify the pollutants that are emitted in urban 'areas in significant amounts
 and analyze the attendant health  effects of such pollutant  exposures.

      The  research in this area responds to the need for improved community-based
 tools for environmental  assessment,  particularly of urban  air  toxics.  As  a
 consequence' of environmental  degradation,  communities are 'faced with difficult
 health  and ecological risk assessment and management problems.   The  array of
 scientific methods, models and data developed by EPA and others  are frequently
 difficult   to use  and  interpret,  'particularly  for  communities  faced  with
 evaluation of their specific  situations.    In addition,  the data  and methods
 available  to assess and  manage noncancer  health risks of air toxics  are  very
 limited.     For example,  provisions of the CAA Amendments  require  substantial
 assessment of risks posed by air toxics in urban  areas  and public  comments on
 local permits within the  decade.  Exposure from these  sources impact most of the
 U.S. population; however, uncertainties in exposure assessment and dose-response
 assessment often  prohibit adequate evaluation of risks.. Such uncertainties may
 lead to either unnecessary controls if assumptions are  overly conservative or
 inadequate protection  of  public health if assumptions are not protective enough.

      Resources  will  be  used  to develop .and  demonstrate new risk assessment
 methods  for  community-based  risk assessment  of urban  toxics  and  to provide
 communities with control/prevention options.  The  goal is to take  information
 developed  in a research effort .and transfer the info.rmation more effectively to
 Regional  and  local   government   risk  assessors/managers.     These   risk
 assessors/managers will use the new risk assessment methods for chronic and acute
 noncancer   assessments and the  new  guidance for cancer  risk  assessment  to
 determine  with greater certainty the risks associated with HAPs •arising from area
 sources.   The research approach will  be:  (1)  to  develop improved  methods  via
 laboratory-based  research,  (2) to verify the methods by assessing real problems'
 in real  places in  conjunction with  local  communities,  and  (3) to  transfer the
 verified methods  tp many communities via training and through expanded and new
 information systems.

      As part of this research, ORD will initiate a significant new effort in air
 toxics, which will  include using new methods developed in the  laboratory to focus
 the epidemiology  studies  and aid in the evaluation  of  "real  world"  risks.
 Exposure researchers will  focus on  developing both methods  tp measure HAPs 'in
 urban air,  analyze chemical  composition  and  characterize  pollutant  fate  and
 transport  to identify contributing  sources  from ambient air measurements,  and
 assessment methods  to characterize actual  human  exposure.   Scientists  will

                                      3-5   .                ."

-------
combine  biomarker monitoring,  ambient monitoring,  and demographic data  where
.possible to determine whether inner city and other poor communities are  subjected
to  exposures  to  air toxics  to  a  greater  degree  than  other  communities.
Researchers will  also combine use of  epidemiology and  extrapolations  of health
data  from animals  to improve  our  understanding of  health 'effects  and  risk
assessment  methods.    Risk management  researchers  will  focus  on  devising
techniques  to improve estimates of  air toxics emissions  from key urban  area'
sources.

      Areas'of research emphasis will  include quantitative evaluation of effects
on  health  from  chronic  exposures,   effects  of acute exposures,  impacts  on
sensitive subpopulations,  evaluation of chemical  classes and common  urban air
mixtures  and  multimedia impacts.   Another aspect  of  the  research will  be  to
provide prototype risk assessment methods to assessors  in communities  for  trial
field applications  on a broader scale than attempted  in the past to get  real
world feedback on the effectiveness  of  the methods.   EPA and the communities
benefit  from  such feedback in that EPA  learns of specific  application nuances
that  improve  risk assessment models  and communities  obtain more directed and
user-friendly methods that  allow  them  to develop scientifically sound  risk
assessments.   The use of improved assessment methods and approaches will  allow
EPA decision-maker's to assess risks with  more certainty.  Methods  and approaches
developed  by  this  research program  are  recognized  as important  factors  in
improving  EPA policy and  regulatory decisions.   Following  field trials  and
incorporation of modifications  suggested  by  assessors, widespread technology
transfer  will be initiated to  transfer  the information to communities.    This
activity will include understanding the needs of local communities and  packaging
risk assessment/management information to  meet  these needs, working to develop
electronic access to risk tools, and providing technical assistance and  training.
The overall research effort for the urban toxics  initiative will be closely
coordinated and planned with related community-based  environmental protection
research efforts.

Great Waters

      The Agency  requests  a total of  $1,08,5,500 and 4.3 workyears  for 1997 for
the Great Waters  Research  program.

      Great Waters research is a Congressionally-mandated program to monitor and
assess the risks posed by  air deposition of HAPs to  the Great  Lakes, Chesapeake
Bay, Lake Champlain  and other coastal waters.

      Research will focus in the area of exposure.  The monitoring program at the -
five station Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network  (IADN) in the Great  Lakes
will be  reestablished following a review in 1996 of historical experience with
experimental  protocols  and methods for  HAPs.   The  U.S. portion  (three sites,
Canada  operates  two)  of   the IADN  program will be folded,  into the National
Framework  for  Environmental Monitoring and Research  being designed  by  the
Executive Office of Science and  Technology  Policy's Committee on Environment and
Natural  Resources, which coordinates  Feid.er.al government research in this  area.

      Research on measurement approaches and atmospheric  loadings  for specific
HAPs  (i.e. mercury,  PCBs,  PAHs,  and  pesticides)  in Lake  Michigan and  the
Baltimore area of the Chesapeake Bay will  continue.  Future  long-term research
will apply the techniques used to date in other Great Waters and will develop and
test new techniques  for other HAPs.  Results of this research will be used to
support EPA's Office of Air and  Radiation to develop and revise Agency policy and
regulatory  decisions in this area.
                                      3-6

-------
                       CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS RESEARCH

OVERVIEW        •

      The Agency requests a total of $39,983,400 and 169.2 total workyears for
1997 in the Criteria Air Pollutants Research program component.

      Ambient exposures to certain widespread air pollutants,  i.e., tropospheric
ozone (0,) , nitrogen oxides  (NOx) , carbon monoxide (CO) ,  particulate matter  (PM) ,
sulfur dioxide  {S0;} ,  and lead (Pb),  continue to pose health and environmental
risks.  The Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA)  is required to periodically
review  (every  five years),  and,  as  appropriate, revise  National  Ambient Air
Quality Standards  (NAAQS)  for these pollutants.   The Office  of  Research and
Development (ORD)  research' provides  scientific support  to  the Office  of Air and
Radiation  (OAR)  to  enable  timely  development  of  the  .mandated  periodic
review/revision of criteria  for both  primary  and  secondary  NAAQS,  related
technical support  for other mandated activities,  and tools needed  to ensure
effective development of and compliance with State Implementation 'Plans (SIPs) .
The results of  the  research conducted ensures the regulations  are scientifically
sound and accurate.

      This research program is required  to provide  the scientific information
needed to carry out Sections 108  and 109  of the  Clean Air Act (CAA)  Amendments.
The research emphasizes two major criteria air pollutants of concern, particulate
matter  (PM)  and tropospheric ozone.

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

Particulate Matter

      The Agency requests a total of $18,776,300 and  87.2  workyears for 1997  in
the PM Research program.

      Ambient  PM  exposures at  levels  below  the current PM10  NAAQS  may have
significant  impacts  on  human  health.    Epidemiological  studies  indicate
significant  associations between  a  variety  of measures of  particulate air
pollution and  both mortality and morbidity measures of health effects  at  PM
levels well below current U.S.  .standards.  Of most concern are  indications from-
epidemiology studies of increased mortality risks, especially among the elderly
and those with  preexisting cardiopulmonary  disease,  even at levels below current
PH10 NAAQS values.   Plausible  biological  mechanisms  by which PM at low ambient
levels could cause mortality and  morbidity  effedts suggested by epidemiological
studies have yet to be  identified.  It  is  not yet  possible  to determine which
ambient  PM  components are  most  significant  for health  effects.   Therefore,
research on PM is  of particularly high priority because it will help: 1) reduce
uncertainties in risk assessments and, thereby, provide credible  scientific bases
for major PM NAAQS  revision-decisions by OAR (with potential multibillion dollar
control  costs);  and 2)  produce  tools  needed to guide future risk reduction
strategies 'so  that the  PM  NAAQS can be attained to  reduce potential health
threats to the U.S. population.

      ORD will  conduct research to identify  particle-induced  health effects,
critical  exposure  concentrations, and   the  sizes,  chemical compositions and
sources' of particles which  are responsible -for health effects.  ORD will also
begin to characterize source contributions to ambient particle concentrations and
consider control options.

      Specifically, to reduce the major uncertainties  in the health effects area,
ORD will"conduct research to identify the  mechanisms by which  particles affect
human health.  To reduce uncertainties  in exposure, work will be carried out  to
better  characterize the  size and composition of particles in  the air, changes
that occur while the particles are airborne, and human  exposure patterns.  Rijiis;

                                     3-7

-------
management,  research  will  focus- on reducing uncertainties.in emissions  of  fine
particles from key sources and  investigating technologies and  improved  control
practices to  reduce  fine particles that are  less costly, perform better  than
existing  technologies,  and meet emission  reduction  targets.   Risk -assessment
research will focus  on evaluating emerging health .and exposure data.

      ORD's health  effects research is comprised of three  major efforts. One
effort will evaluate the  relationship between health effects and P.M exposures,
using epidemiology and significantly improved characterization of exposures.  A
second  effort  will  relate  ambient  concentrations  to human  exposures by
determining the amount (or dose) of particles inhaled and retained by  the lung.
'Both animal studies and human clinical studies will be conducted to determine the
impact  of  dose  levels to  the  lungs.   These  efforts  involve  study  of  the
physiology  of particle  inhalation and respiratory tract deposition,   A third
effort will investigate several  possible biologic mechanisms by which ambient PM
concentrations may induce health effects,  thereby evaluating potential causal
links between PM exposures and  health effects.  Animal models  of sensitive and
normal human populations  are  being -developed and used to assess mechanisms of
toxicity.

      Exposure research will .concentrate on measurement,  characterization, and
modeling leading to refined estimates of human exposures to PM.  Fine particulate
exposure determination suffers from imprecise measurement techniques due to the
size and nature  of the particles. • The objective of exposure research is the  full
characterization of particle size, chemical composition and  .daily variations in
exposures.' Particle profiles  in seven different U.S.  cities  will be determined.
Thi.s will reduce substantial uncertainties in the association  between exposure
estimates and observed health  effects.    New epidemiology  studies  will merge
improved  estimates  of  exposure with  health  observations  to  determine if
previously  observed  association hold true  and may be strengthened with better
exposure characterizations. Research to evaluate and improve ambient monitoring
technologies will simultaneously be carried out to provide state-of-the-art means
to characterize particles during field studies.   Research will  also continue on
a fine particle physics and chemistry module and  its adaptation for use in the
next generation  atmospheric models now under development.   The research  will
support options analysis  and attainment planning  for revising  the PM  NAAQS.

      In  the area   of  risk management  research, ORE  will  focus on  source
contributions to ambient  PM concentrations and development  of  control options.
This effort will- be  a part of the PM initiative.   In  particular, development of
improved  techniques  to   estimate  the  rate   {emission  factor) and   frequency
 (activity  factor)  of  particulate  emissions will  be  emphasized.    The   data
collected will assist risk assessors understand which sources pose the greatest
risk and risk managers develop cost-effective control strategies in the event of
a revision  to the NAAQS standard.   In carrying out this' work,  researchers  will
specifically  focus   on .characterizing  fine particle emissions and evaluating
prevention  and control strategies and devices to  reduce  these  emissions.   Fine
particle emission characterization studies  are needed to support EPA's  Office of
Air and Radiation program  efforts to reduce  uncertainties in emission inventories
which are used as the basis for development  of cost-effective  control strategies.
Initial  efforts will  evaluate  the mass  and  size  distribution  of  particle
emissions from automobile diesel engines under a  variety of load conditions on
the  road, other combustion sources, and fugitive dust  from paved and  unpaved"
roads.  Emission reduction research will include modeling studies to predict the
performance of alternative strategies to reduce exposures to  particles  augmented
by  experimental studies  of  innovative,   low.-cost control  devices  to  reduce
emissions from a variety  of industrial, commercial,  and-fugitive sources.  The
peTformance  of  air  cleaning devices  to  reduce  indoor  exposures  to - ambient
particles which infiltrate  indoors will  also  be investigated.   Controlling
exposures indoors may be extremely important for susceptible.sub-populations who
spend most of their time  indoors. Finally, preliminary studies of  the  costs and
exposure  reduction  benefits  of prevention  and control  strategies will be

                                      3-8

-------
investigated.   The  outcome  of  this  research  will be  to identify  the fine
particles sources of  greatest concern and provide the critical data needed by OAR
to develop effective risk management strategies to protect public health.

      In the  area of risk assessment,  researchers will  continue  to evaluate
emerging health and exposure data to assist in the  development  of research needs
and regulatory strategies. Assessment efforts for PM will consist of providing
follow-up assistance to OAR and the Agency in completing the final phases of the
PM  NAAQS reviews,  providing  inputs  to research  needs  identification,  and
participating-  in collaborative  research pertaining to PM.   Consultation and
support will permit risk, assessments by state. Regional, and  international air
pollution control organizations with  less uncertainty.   These  efforts will
provide OAR with research results needed to develop and implement PM policies
based on sound science.

Tropospheric Ozone                                              ,

      The Agency requests a total of $20,103,100 and 71.2 workyears for  1997 in
the Tropospheric Ozone Research program.

      Research on tropospheric ozone  (0,)  is  important  because  it will help:
1)reduce uncertainties  in  risk  assessments  and,  thereby,  provide  credible'
scientific bases for  0, NAAQS decisions by EPA; 2) produce inventory, measurement
and modeling tools needed to guide future control strategies  so that the O, NAAQS
can be  attained, reducing the  potential health  threat to an estimate of  45
million people now living in Q, non-attainment areas and the $1  billion estimated
by the .Department of  Agriculture  to be lost  annually in U.S.  crop/forest damage;
and 3) develop and implement SIPS by providing states with appropriate, reliable
methods for'measuring stack emissions,  modeling dispersion of pollutants, and
measuring ambient concentrations of pollutants,  and ensuring acceptable data
quality for the measurements to be relied on for determining compliance with the
NAAQS and related existing or new source performance standards.

      Tropospheric   ozone  resources  will  be  used  to  support  the  joint
public/private  effort  to study  widespread Ov non-attainment problems.   This
effort responds  to a report  by the National .Academy of Sciences  (NAS), which
challenged the scientific basis for the Agency's approach to meeting the O, NAAQS
and which also stated that "despite the major regulatory and pollution-control
programs of the past  10 years,- efforts  to attain the NAAQS for ozone largely have
failed."  EPA and NAS agreed that setting an effective national strategy  to deal
with this problem will require scientific information to come from an expanded
national research program.  As a result, a research program called the  "North
American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone" or (NARSTO) was chartered at
the White House in February, 1995 with a lifetime of ten years. The Interagency
Committee  on Environment  and  Natural   Resources   (CSNR)   coordinates  Federal
government-wide  research in this area.

    •  NARSTO is  a consortium of  60 public and private organizations focused on
research relating to attainment of the 03 NAAQS,   Included are many large
electric utilities, Ford and GM,  the oil industry,  the academic community, many
state environmental agencies, other Federal  agencies, and comparable Canadian and
Mexican governmental  organizations.  The principal  focus of the  NARSTO consortium
is on a. ^mid-course  adjustment^  in  the state' SIP's expected around 1999-2000.
The  secondary emphasis  is  placed  on the  §final  demonstration-of-compliance
period^ beginning in 2005.

       In the exposure area, ORD will continue research on atmospheric chemistry
and modeling to produce and evaluate a replacement Initial-Operating-Version of
Models-3, the next generation atmospheric model addressing  the well documented
deficiencies  in current urban and  regional models used  for  NAAQS attainment
demonstrations.   Also  continued as critical  input improvements  for modeled
attainment demonstrations will be research to develop and refine emissions models

                                      3-9

-------
and methodologies to improve  estimates  of  tropospheric 0, precursors  (VOGs and
NOx) emitted from mobile  and biogenic sources.  Another  area of focus is the
improvement of methods to physically observe ambient VOC and NOx chemistry and
ozone formation and the testing of these.methods in regional field studies.  As
an explicit liaison area under the NARSTO program,  ORD's in-house research will
continue to study•low-cost control technologies to  reduce  NOx emissions from
combustion sources.  As research planning moves closer to post-2000 outputs, work
on "quick fixes"  for chemistry mechanisms and initial versions  of models will be
completed and  research  efforts will shift to  more complete mechanisms,  fully
evaluated models  with quantified uncertainty,  refined emissions inventories, and
more reliable measurement methods to.ascertain ozone reductions from precursor
controls.

      In the risk management area, ORD will develop'and refine emission models
and methodologies to improve estimates  of tropospheric ozone precursors (VOCs and
NOX)  emitted from .mobile  and  biogenic  sources and  utilize* in-house' research
facilities to investigate low-cost control  technologies to reduce NOx emissions
from combustion sources.  The mobile emissions program will include efforts to
improve emissions from both light-duty vehicles  and heavy-duty diesel vehicles.
Biogenic emissions research will concentrate on improving estimates of nonmethane
organic  compounds   (NMOC)   and NOX  emitted  from  natural  sources.   Studies  to
develop emission models capable  of estimating NMOC  (e.g.  isoprene,  terpene,
alcohol, aldehyde)   over the  different seasons  and "to improve estimates, of NOX
from agricultural,   urban,- and natural soils will  be conducted.   Data on both
emission rates from natural sources (emission factors), and the distribution of
the sources across  the nation  (activity factors)  will be  generated.     The
outcome of the  mobile and biogenic emissions research will  be used by the states
to produce improved emissions estimates,  devise optimal ozone  control strategies,
and improve  the  emissions  inputs for  atmospheric models.     The NO,, control
research will  include  both  fundamental  studies  of  pollutant  formation  and
reduction  and  in-house  bench-  and  pilot-scale  demonstrations  to  verify
performance of the  most promising concepts.  Emphasis will be on hybrid systems
that synergistically combine .existing  technologies  to improve NOK removal while
minimizing costs. This  research will provide data on the performance and source
applicability of  such integrated systems for use by  EPA, states, and industry who
must jointly identify the most efficient and cost-effective way to comply with
tighter NOX  emissions .limits  which are  needed  in many areas of the country' to
attain the ozone standard,.

      Risk- assessment  activities for O3 will  consist  of providing follow-up
assistance to OAR and the  Agency in completing  work to  support the final phases
of the 0, NAAQS decision, providing inputs to research needs  identification, and
participation'in collaborative research pertaining to 03.    Consultation  and
support in the  area  of ozone will permit  risk assessments by state, Regional, and
international air pollution control organizations with  less uncertainty.  These
efforts will provide OAR with research results needed to develop-and implement
O, policies based on sound science.

      in the area of health effects,  ORD'!will continue research "on health studies
with an emphasis  on  chronic ozone exposure effects.  Both mortality and morbidity
are being assessed  using  a combination  of epidemiologic, clinical  and animal
studies.  This research will  elucidate  the  role  of ozone  in causing disease
(disease initiation and progression).   More  specifically  this  program will
determine: 1)  the  effects of recurrent  acute  and  subchronic  effects of Os on
pulmonary,  biochemical and immunologic responses in humans and/or rats; 2)  the
significance of these effects relative to  chronic  disease; 3)  the relationship
between Oj concentrations  and length of  exposure to effects; and 4) the chronic
effects of "real world" exposures to  03 for assessing public health impacts of
nonattainment.   While the  current  standard  is based on acute  health effects, the
results of chronic  exposures  could be more  serious and costly in terms of public
health.
                                     3-10

-------
      In  the  ecological effects research  area,  researchers will -evaluate  the
effects of 0,  and other stressors on tree growth,  as well as work' on integrated
risk assessment of Oj on trees in rural  areas.  Three major uncertainties exist
in understanding  the impact of ozone on trees:  (1)  tree  characteristics (age,
•size and species) ,- (2) other stressors (other pollutants, drought etc) ;  and (3)
the exposure dynamics  (concentration, 'frequency,  etc.).   These issues are being
studied to improve the risk  assessments supporting the secondary NAAQS standard.
                                      3-11

-------
3-12

-------
                        INDOOR .AIR POLLUTANTS RESEARCH

OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total of $7,565,300 and 50.0 total workyears for 1997
in the Indoor Air Pollutants Research program component.

      Indoor air  pollution in  residences,  offices,  schools, and  other large
buildings is widely recognized as one of the most  serious potential environmental
risks  to  human  health..   The  Science Advisory Board has  ranked  indoor  air
pollutiort  as  one  of  the  highest health  risks  meriting   the  Environmental
Protection Agency's (EPA}  attention.  While there is  .considerable information
about indoor pollutants, scientists know little .about the  relative magnitudes of
the potential risks associated with different indoor environments arid exposure
scenarios.  Research is needed to further identify, characterize,  and compare the
health risks associated with  exposures to indoor air pollutants  so that risk
assessors  and  risk managers  can  make  informed decisions  to protect public
health.                    '                                  '

      The indoor air research program,  authorized under Title IV of the Superfund
Amendments  and  Reauthorization Act,  contributes  to achieving   safe  indoor
environments in three ways;   improving .scientific  understanding of indoor air
pollution  health risks and the effectiveness  of  risk'  reduction  strategies;
providing critical scientific information to IPA program  offices and regions in
support of developing, implementing, and evaluating risk management  options; and
promoting  private  sector  involvement  in  identifying,  understanding,  and
addressing important indoor air pollution problems,

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

      ORD research in  the human health effects area will focus on laboratory and
cliftical  studies on  neurotoxicity,  immunotoxieity,  sensory  irritancy,  and
pulmonary  health  effects  associated with indoor exposures  to  organic vapors.
Researchers will investigate responses to mixtures  of organic  vapors commonly
measured indoors. Experimental and control populations will  include individuals
identified as having multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) ,  ORD will also continue
a program of controlled clinical studies on biocontaminants (house dust mite and
other allergens) and their effects  on  allergic,  asthmatic, and normal children.
Researchers will use  the animal  model for evaluating biologic  contaminants' to
characterize effects  and dose-responses  of various biocontaminants.   Animal
models provide a cost-effective tool for evaluating biocontaminant effects and
aid in understanding the extrapolation of immunotoxicologic data from animals to
humans."  The two pollutant  classes being  studied in the  health  effects area -
organic vapors  and biological  contaminants - are primary suspected causes of
indoor air health effects.

      In-house  research staff  will focus on the evaluation of  health effects
associated with exposures to organic compounds and mixtures found indoors.  This
will augment  research on  susceptible  populations  (e.g., MCS and  asthma)  and
improve our ability  to  extrapolate  animal data  to humans facilitating  the
evaluation of the human  risks from indoor air  pollution.   This  research will
substantially expand our ability to evaluate the effects  of pollutant exposures
and their impacts on both normal and sensitive .subpopulations by validating risk
assessment models developed using animal data.

      In  the  area of exposure,  research  efforts  will  standardize  sampling
procedures for  measuring  exposures to aero-allergens .and continue to support
regulatory programs by providing .quality assurance audit materials, procedures
'and guidance for checking/documenting the, quality of  results from indoor air
studies.
                                     3-13

-------
      In 'the  area  of risk	assessment,  one _or more indoor  air assessments or
assessment reviews for indoor  air  biological  or chemical contaminants 'will be
conducted. The assessments/reviews will be for high priority agents identified
by the Program Offices or as  assistance to state or Regional offices in dealing
with indoor air problems.   Research needs for  indoor  air assessments will be
ascertained by the  team conducting the  assessments/reviews.  The  indoor air
bibliographic database will continue to be maintained and expanded to facilitate
ongoing national/international use.  Dose-response assessments and maintenance
of,the indoor  air database will provide additional support for risk assessments.
Together, these activities will create a sound scientific basis for indoor air
risk assessments that will reduce uncertainty and be more applicable to state,
Regional and program office needs.

      Risk management research will focus on characterization of indoor source
emissions.  ORD will use environmental chambers  and  full-scale facilities to
develop  standard methods for  measuring pollutant emission rates  from indoor
materials and  products and to determine how physical,  chemical, and environmental
variables  (temperature,   relative  humidity,   air  exchange  rate)  influence
emissions. The results of this research will be used by ORD,  OAR, and the Office
of Prevention, Pesticides,  and Toxic Substances  (OPPTS)  to understand source
emissions and  pollutant transport and to guide development of source management •
options that improve indoor air quality.   This research will contribute to an
improved understanding of the factors influencing the emissions of organic vapors
and microbial  contaminants  from indoor sources and the  potential  of specific
materials to absorb and re-emit indoor pollutants.  This research will benefit
builders, architects, and product manufacturers by promoting standard methods to
produce  data  on the  indoor  air implications of  materials and products  used
indoors.   The risk management  program will also include an exclusively in-house
research program to develop and evaluate ventilation and air  cleaning strategies-
to control indoor pollutants {microbials, organic vapors and particles).  This
work will include development of standard methods to quantify the performance of
novel air cleaning and ventilation approaches.   These standard methods can be
used by industry and building owners to evaluate which approaches are the best
for their specific needs.

      The Indoor Air Research program will improve scientific understanding of
the key  determinants that  underlie indoor air pollution health risks and the
effectiveness of risk reduction strategies, with emphasis on (a)  volatile organic
compounds; biocontaminants,  and particulate matter; (b)  residential, office, and
school environments; and (c) noncancer health endpoints.  Critical scientific
information will be provided 'to and used by IPA program offices and Regions in
support of the development,  implementation, and evaluation of  risk management
options.
                                     3-14

-------
                            GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH

OVERVIEW                     •  -                         •   •

      The Agency requests a total of .$17,938,000 and 42 total workyears  for 1997
in the Global Change Research program' component.

      Many scientists and governments from around the world agree that continuing
anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons  (CFCs),
and other greenhouse gases and greenhouse gas precursors, as well as emissions
of aerosol  precursors,  .may  lead to  changes in climate,  including, changes  in
temperature  (means  and  extremes),  precipitation  patterns,  and sea level.
Additionally, chemicals  with ozone  depleting  properties have  already led  to
stratospheric ozone depletion.  However, uncertainties remain in quantifying the
magnitude, timing, and  regional patterns of climate change,  and the implications
for ecological systems and socio-economic .sectors.

      The U.S.  Global  Change  Research  Program (USGCRP) supports  research  to
provide scientific insight into these and other  global change issues.  The USGCRP
was formalized through the Global Change Research  Act  in' 1990 which established
a research  program "aimed at  understanding and  responding  to global  change,
including the cumulative  effects of human activities and natural processes on the
environment..."  The comprehensive government-wide USGCRP .is developed under the
auspices of the  Global Change Research Subcommittee of  the Interagency Committee
on  Environment  and  Natural  Resources  (CENR),   which  coordinates   Federal
government-wide research in this area.

      The Agency's Global Change  Research Program  is a part  of the comprehensive
USGCRP.  The Environmental Protection'Agency (EPA) program 'will help to  provide
the  scientific  basis  to  assess,  evaluate,   and  predict   the  ecological,
environmental,  and socio-economic sector consequences of global change, including
the feedback these systems have on climate change.

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

Global Climate Research

      The Agency requests a total-of  $10,481,500 and 36.6 workyears for 1997  in
the Global Climate Research program.

      Human  activities  over  the  past  several  hundred  years have   induced
noticeable  changes in the  Earth system and how  it  functions,  including the
increase  in  atmospheric  levels, of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
Research is needed to improve our understanding of  global climate change  because
of its potential  risk  to human health,  socioeconomic systems and the  natural
environment.  EPA is working with other federal  agencies  under the  USGCRP  to
reduce or resolve the significant scientific uncertainties regarding the  timing,
rate,' and impact of global climate change and to inform the policy making process
concerning alternative adaptation and rriitigation"  options.

      The  EPA's  Office  of  Research and Development's (ORD)  Global   Climate
Research program  was restructured in 1995 in a major way to focus resources  on
the highest priority research areas of the USGCRP. BPA is  the  only U.S. agency
to examine whole ecosystems,  landscapes and regions and to do so across political
boundaries rather than within specified political units,  and  to  do  so across
sectors  (rather than only as forests, or rangelands, or parks,  or fisheries,  or
agriculture,  etc.).     The   focus   of   the ' research  will  be  on   regional
vulnerabilities  to and  impacts  of  climate  change,   biotnass  utilization,  and
predictive  models.  These research  efforts  will be  essential parts  of the
national USGCRP program; will address questions of priority to  EPA; and will  be
in areas for which EPA scientists have the requisite expertise.


                                     3-15

-------
      EPA has the  lead in the. USGCRP for conducting  research to quantify the
sensitivities of natural  systems and regional economies  to potential climate'
change.  The REVEAL program  is  a research effort initiated in response to the
CENR identifying the need for  comprehensive research on ecosystem vulnerabilities
as one of the highest priorities for the USGCRP.  REVEAL is aimed at reducing the
substantial   uncertainties    associated   with    understanding   ecosystems
vulnerabilities to climate change and the processes that control them.  The work
is essential for the development and implementation of  mitigation  and adaptation
policies to protect the systems at risk.  This three-part program involves (.1)
the translation of  possible global change scenarios into changes at the regional
scale using regional climate, hydrology, ecosystem, and resource models; '(2)  a
quantification.of vulnerabilities of. socioeconomic systems to these changes; and
(3) integrated assessments that will be developed in cooperation with EPA program
offices and regions,  and with Federal land management agencies.

      The research will be in the effects,  exposure,_ and risk assessment areas
and will focus  on ecological vulnerabilities  exposure to  climate  change and
related health  impacts.    One of the  major areas  of  research will be  in the
Southeast because   of the  variety of potential impacts  from climate change.  For
example, in the southeast climatic  effects on  sea level  rise,  frequency of
hurricanes, hydrology of the Everglades; timber and agriculture production are
of concern.  Research  areas  anticipated  include  impacts on coastal fisheries/
inland fisheries.,  hydrology and soils,  atmospheric pollutant exposure, vector-
borne  diseases  such as  Dengue  Fever,  etc.   In  addition,  research will  be
conducted on ecological effects  of  global change on important terrestrial and
marine  and freshwater resources.   Research  in  these  areas will  reduce  key
uncertainties concerning climate change.

      Successful implementation  of REVEAL will enhance our ability to conduct
Regional and state  level vulnerability assessments, and national level integrated
assessments, allowing EPA  to develop realistic bounds on the nature and magnitude
of the  vulnerabilities identified,  and  to  assess  the cost  of mitigation and
adaptation strategies.

      The biomass utilization research ef'fort pertains to risk.^management. Use
of renewable biomass resources  is one of several approaches identified by the
Clinton Administration and the  international  community to reduce emissions of
greenhouse  gases.    EPA  research  is  designed to  demonstrate the  technical,
economic,   environmental,  and economic  feasibility of  using biomass  to offset
fossil fuel use.  Research will  focus on  small systems which convert biomass to
electricity. ORD's program complements the Department of Energy biomass program,
which  is focused  on larger  energy  conversion  systems.  EPA will  continue to
support research on the conversion of biomass to alternative transportation fuels
(methanol)  as a cost-competitive replacement for gasoline.  This research will
produce performance  data on  small combustion  systems  that will  influence
international decisions on greenhouse gas emissions reduction strategy and will
provide the fundamental data needed by  industry  to determine the viability of
pursuing biomass to alternative transportation fuels.

      EPA will also do process and modeling research to study the coupling of the
terrestrial biosphere to global change predictive  models.  The models will ensure
that  potential  feedbacks  and  effects  of  the  terrestrial  biosphere • are
incorporated into global  change prediction when and where appropriate.

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

   The Agency requests a  total of $1,256,500 "and 5.4 workyears for 1997 in the
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Research program.

   For over ten years, the protective capacity of the Earth's. stratospheric ozone
layer  has   been  diminished  due  to  synthetic compounds,  including  CFCs  and
hydrochlorofluorocarbons  (HCFCs), which migrate to  the stratosphere and destroy

                                     3-16

-------
the ozone layer.  Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has  increased  the
amount of ultraviolet  (UV-B)  radiation which reaches the Earth's surface.   In
1997,  EPA's Stratospheric  Ozone Research  Program will  focus on  studies  to
evaluate alternatives for ozone depleting substances.  This research is critical
because some of the replacements proposed by industry are now known to contribute
to other environmental problems  and  many end-uses  still do not have permanent
•replacements identified  (HCFCs are now  in use as.interim replacements for many
applications).   The  research on  alternatives  directly supports  the  Agency
responsibilities. under  Title VI  of  the 1990  Clean Air Act  Amendments which
establishes  phase-out  deadlines  for all known  ozone-depleting substances  and
requires 'the Agency 'to  ensure  the  substitutes proposed  do  not cause pther
environmental problems.

   Within the Agency'-e risk assessment/risk management paradigm,  stratospheric
ozone depletion researchers will evaluate new chemicals and technologies which
can  be used to replace ozone>-depleting  substances now  used  in commercial
chillers, low-temperature supermarket refrigeration systems, insulating foam and
other applications.   The focus will be on environmentally-friendly (does  not
cause  other pollution  problems)  solutions  which  have  no   ozone depletion
potential,  low global warming potential,  and perform as -well or better than
existing chemicals or systems. • EPA will emphasize alternatives for HCFCs because
their use will  increase as they replace CFCs now used in many of  the applications
mentioned above.. Plans are to complete  evaluations of the important chemical  and
physical properties  (flammability,  toxicity, oil  miscibility  and  atmospheric
lifetime) of the most promising substitutes .and to further emphasize studies
which will determine how  well  the substitutes perform in full-scale systems.   In
addition to  the  research on new chemicals,  ORD will: (1) evaluate  alternative
refrigeration cycles and other equipment changes which are needed to  accommodate
the new chemicals and  (2)  investigate  novel technologies which do  not require
the use of an'alternative chemical.  Based on ORD research, 'industry will be able
to  promote  the  use  of  substitutes   (either  new  chemicals   or alternate
technologies)  which  do  not  cause  other environmental problems   (e.g.,  global
warming).

Climate Change Action Plan

   The Office  of Research and Development  requests  a total of $6,200,000  for
Climate Change Action Plan Research  for 1997.

   The President's Climate  Change  Action Plan is a clear demonstration of  the
Administrations's commitment to form new partnerships--it relies almost entirely
on partnerships between  government and the private sector.  In 1997, EPA will
fully fund its responsibilities  to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to their 1990
levels by the year 2000.   The U.S.  approach toward  reducing these  emissions  has
many facets arid involves  EPA and other .Federal agencies,  such as the  Departments
of Energy, Department of Agriculture,  and Department  of Transportation.  These
partnerships will play a critical role in meeting the plan's emission reduction
goals without harming the economy.
                                      3-17

-------
3-18

-------
                   WASTE/SITE/-RISK CHARACTERIZATION RESEARCH

OVERVIEW •                    '                           '

   The Agency requests a total of $12,287,700 and 54.5  total workyears for ,1997
in the Was.te/Site/Risk Characterization. Research program component.

   Estimating the actual risks posed by hazardous waste sites is uncertain and
controversial  due  to  gaps  in  our  knowledge  of  the nature  and extent  of
contamination at the site,  as well as our understanding of how various receptors
might react  to contact with site  contaminants.   Essential to  our ability to
identify, characterize, and  clean  up  sites is the scientific understanding of
what pollutants are present, where they are, how they move and are transformed
in the environment,  how they come in contact with ecological  and human receptors,
what their effects are on ecological and human receptors, and what technologies
are appropriate to remove or minimize  the  exposure to these same receptors. Our
knowledge in all of these areas is incomplete, therefore, this program component
emphasizes the research areas described below.

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

   The main goal of the Hazardous Substances Ecological Research program is to
continue to provide the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response  (OSWER) and
the Regions with guidance on how to evaluate the impact of an unremediated and.
uncontained waste site on  its ecosystem.  Similarly, the health research program
will provide OSWER with data,  methods,  and models to assess the.potential human
health risks associated with exposures to agents encountered at Superfund sites.
Both programs will place an emphasis on chemicals that pose the greatest risk,
such  as  chlorinated  solvents,   metals,   and   persistent   bioaccumulative
contaminants.

   The goal of the exposure assessment part of the hazardous substances research
program is to continue to provide Regional staffs  with  the tools, technologies,
and procedures necessary to characterize what pollutants are present, where they
are located,  and how they move through the  environment..   This  will result in
better,  more complete and  timely  site characterizations that can then be used as
the basis of  exposure  assessments  and/or remediation strategies.  Such results
lead to quicker, less costly,  and more  effective cleanups.  Exposure assessment
work will ,focus on research that  is  more field-  oriented  with the following
objectives: 1) developing and demonstrating analytical and other characterization
tools/methods  that  can be  used  in  the  field to collect near real-time data on
three-dimensional  pollutant concentration distributions;  2}   developing  and
demonstrating non-invasive, surface-based .geophysical  tools for characterizing
the  surface  and subsurface surrounding  Superfund  sites;  3)   developing  and
demonstrating more efficient sampling methods, designs and geostatistical tools,-
and 4) developing and  supporting fate  and transport models for predicting the
exposure to ecological and human receptors.   In addition,  QRD will continue to
demonstrate innovative measurement and site characterization technologies under
the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation  (SITE) program.

   The risk assessment portion of the hazardous substances research program will
continue to provide both Regional Superfund risk assessors and OSWER staff with
the methodologies,  tools,  and support necessary  to conduct more  credible and
scientifically defensible assessments of the risks to both human and ecological
receptors at  and surrounding Superfund sites.  This goal  will  be achieved by
accomplishing the following three objectives:  developing improved methodologies,
models and factors to replace common default as-sumptions for exposure scenarios
and toxicity;  facilitating the transfer of scientific expertise to Regional risk
assessors through -the use of expert systems,  databases, guidance documents, and
consultation  with risk assessment experts,- and conducting contaminant and site
specific assessments that demonstrate innovative approaches.


                                     3-19

-------
   In the Resource Conservation  and Recovery Act (RCRA)  program, ORD research
supporting this program component will be  targeted at -reducing uncertainties in
exposure estimates and providing  technical'assistance.  Work will continue on 1)
new geostatistical approaches for the design of ground water and soil sampling
surveys/networks; 2)   development of multimedia transport and fate models for
hazardous waste management,  including computerized parameter estimation, output
visualization,'  and  .Geographic   Information  System   (GIS)   setup;-  and  3)
quantification of subsurface organic pollutants, transformation rates, and metal
speciation pathways and  rates.  ORD will also conduct in-house 'research to refine
risk assessment methodologies for indirect exposure pathways.   Results of work
in  these areas  will help  reduce  the  uncertainties  in risk  assessments  by
providing a scientific basis for predicting the transport/transformation behavior
of pollutants  released  from RCRA facilities, and produce  the  tools needed to
measure and characterize the nature  and extent of pollutants in  the  surface and
subsurface environments. This  information will allow Regional,  state, and local
officials to better judge which sites pose the greatest hazard to citizens and
the  environment.    In  the  area  of technical  support  to- the  RCRA program,
assistance will be provided to EPA  Program Offices  and Regions in the area of
pollutant fate and transport modeling.
                                     3-20

-------
                WASTE MANAGEMENT -AND SITE REMEDIATION RESEARCH

OVERVIEW

   The Agency requests a total of $25,145,100  and 86.0 total workyears for 1997
in the Waste Management and Site Remediation Research program component.

   Research  under this  program component  provides a  strong  scientific  and
technical foundation for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response  (OSWER)
to investigate and mitigate numerous health and environmental problems 'at both
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  {RCRA!  and Superfund sites. In order'to
improve our understanding of the science 'controlling the dynamics  of contaminants
in soils and  ground water,  the Office"of Research  and  Development (ORB)  will
conduct risk management  research which focuses  on the remediation of both surface
and subsurface contaminated soils,  sludges, sediments,  buildings,  debris,  and
ground water,

   ORD's risk management research for Superfund and RCRA site remediation will
be of several types.  Fundamental research to understand  the chemical, physical,
and, microbiological  processes that influence  contaminants in soil  and ground
water will  be conducted to  initiate the development  of more  economical  and
efficient remediation technologies.  The results of this research will then be
applied,  together  with engineering principles,   to   develop  and  'test  new
remediation methods' both in the laboratory and, when appropriate, in the field.
Process evaluation research will continue to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of
full-scale  (generally commercially-available}  remediation  technologies in the
field. Remediation technical support will be provided by ORD staff to Regional
Offices for RCRA Corrective Action programs on an in-house basis only.

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

Ground Water

   The Agency requests a total of $4,440,200 and  14.3 workyears  for 1997 in the
Ground Water Research program.

   In the 1997 hazardous substances research program,  EPA will expand its field
evaluation's of  innovative  extraction technologies  for  dense nonaqueous-phase
liquids (DNAPLs) ,  which  contaminate a significant  number of sites and have proven
extremely difficult to locate and clean  up.  The  emphasis will be on evaluating
these  technologies  at   larger  scale  and  under more  complex hydrogeologic
conditions.   Preliminary reports of  initial small-scale field evaluations and
initial design  guidance on 'the  use  of  these  technologies will be published.
Research on less-invasive site characterization methods and on the evaluation of
subsurface models will be included as part of these evaluations. ' Research on the
use of passive permeable barriers, composed of a mixture of  a sand and a zero
valent metal,  will be extended to pilot scale for arsenic and lead contamination.

   In the 1997 RCRA program, ground water research will be completed on the full-
scale  evaluation  of  a  passive  permeable barrier _ to  remediate  ground water
contaminated by chromium wastes.  Efforts will  continue on laboratory evaluation
of models that describe  subsurface movement of nonaqueous-phase  liquids, giving
site  officials more accurate tools with which  to track  these  highly toxic
compounds.   This process  and modeling  research  will  expand to  include  more
complex wastes and hydrogeologic  settings typical of many situations encountered
at real waste sites.

Bioremediation

   The Agency requests a total of $4,999,800 and  22.7 workyears  for 1997 in the
Bioremediation Research program.


                                     3-21

-------
   Bioremediation is  an engineered process using  microorganisms to decompose
toxic and hazardous materials.  Remediation using these processes is usually non-
toxic, non-hazardous,  and less invasive to the environment than current cleanup
methods. Successful development of bioremediation as a cleanup alternative could
significantly impact the cost of and options available for site remediation.

   In order to compare  the  effectiveness of bioremediation with other cleanup
options, bioremediation risk assessment studies of the effects of contaminants
on ecologic  and human  receptors would  continue,  with increased  emphasis on
ecological  impacts.     Research  would  include  development  of  methods  for
characterizing risk potential of  adsorbed contaminants, as well as determination
of the magnitude of impacts  of specific categories  of  contaminants on different
receptors.   Natural attenuation (NA)  studies wil.l also continue, with increased
emphasis on its potential for remediation of the vadose zone and on development
of protocols for its proper  application in this part of the subsurface.  Studies
of the bioremediation of metals will be conducted in the field.

Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation  (SITE)

   The Agency requests a total of $7,419,500 and 12.7.  workyears for 1997 in the
SITE program.

   Under the SITE program, EPA evaluates and. demonstrates vendors' new remedial
technologies.   In 1997, SITE  will  focus on areas  where  remediation problems
indicate the  need for  more cost-effective cleanup  technologies.   These  are
expected to include in-situ  remediation and containment technologies, a well as
technologies to remediate wastes  that are expensive to treat such  as dioxins and
mixtures of metals and organics.

   The use  of innovative technologies, such as in-situ 'and on-.site bioremediation
processes  (other than  pump and  treat)  for compounds that are  resistant to
biodegradation  (e.g.,   PCBs),    has  saved millions   of  dollars  the  use  of
conventional technologies. One recent  study of four EPA Regions that showed an
average  cost  savings  per  site,  from employment  of innovative  remediation
technologies, of 62%,  or $21 million per site.
                                     3-22

-------
                            DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

 OVERVIEW

    The Agency requests a total of $24,296,800 and 155.6 total workyears for 1997,
 in the Drinking Water Research program component.

    Disinfection of drinking wate-r has  been  one of the greatest  public  health
 success  stories  of  the twentieth  century.   Although  disinfection and other
 drinking water  treatment practices  have resulted in the virtual elimination of
 outbreaks of serious disease  such as  typhoid, the  continued  occurrence  of
 waterborne disease outbreaks  has demonstrated that drinking water supplies are
 still vulnerable to contamination with pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses
 that can cause  serious illness or even death.  For example,  a 1993 outbreak of
 Cryp.tosporidioeis in  Milwaukee,  which .resulted in an estimated 400,000 cases of
 acute gastroenteritis,  represents the  largest documented occurrence of disease
.associated with contamination of a  treated public water supply in the U.S.

    Additionally,  public health  concerns  have been raised  concerning  chemical
 contaminants in  our  drinking -water supply.   Surface  water and  ground water
 sources  can be  contaminated by  many different natural  and  man-made substances
•that must be efficiently  removed during the treatment process.   Furthermore,
 there is a  high  degree  of uncertainty about whether disinfection by-products
 (DBPs),  the  chemical -by-products  that  result  when  disinfectants react  with
 organic  matter  in drinking  water,  pose  a   significant  human health  threat.
 Because  of the high uncertainty,  the widespread human exposure to drinking water,
 the severity of the known .effects from certain microbes,  and the potentially high
 costs of further  regulation of drinking water, this issue is of high priority to
 Environment Protection Agency's (EPA)  Office  of Water and  to the -Office  of
 Research and Development(ORD).

    The Safe  Drinking Water Act (SDWA) mandates that.the EPA identify and regulate
 contaminants which  may threaten human  health.   ORD  research   provides  the
 scientific basis for regulations implementing the SDWA, and  addresses  health
 effects, exposure,  assessment, and supports management of risks of contaminants
 in drinking water.   ORD scientists also  p'rpvide technical assistance  to EPA
 program  and regional  offices,  states,  municipalities,  and private suppliers of
 drinking water  to assist in prevention or removal  of contaminants in drinking
 water.

 PROGRAM  and ACTIVITY  HIGHLIGHTS

 •Disinfection By- Products/Microbes

    The Agency requests a total $22,034,000 and 134.1 workyears 'for 1997 in the
 Disinfection By-Products/Microbes Research program.

    The challenge  in  providing safe drinking water today lies in reaching  an
 acceptable balance among  competing  risks.   Increased  disinfection  can  reduce
 micfobial risks,  but  increase  the potential risk from disinfection by-products.
 The optimal  balance will adequately  control risks from pathogens, simultaneously
 control  DBPs to acceptable levels, and ensure that costs of water treatment are
 commensurate with public health benefits.  To enable EPA to develop regulations
 that  will  achieve   this  balance,   research  is  needed to  obtain  a  better
 understanding of the potential  health risks and human exposures to raicrobial
 pathogens and DBPs.  Research is also needed, on water  treatment  processes and
 other means of  reducing these risks.

    ORD Exposure research will  be expanded to  include development of  analytical
 methods  to  determine and  evaluate  exposures to DBPs and microbes.   Currently
 available methods for identifying the important  pathogens in drinking water are
 not  sufficiently  effective,   and   for  some  pathogens,   no  methods  exist.

                                      3-23

-------
Additionally, adequate  methods are not  available for certain  types  of DBFs.
Efficient methods must be developed so that the occurrence of these contaminants
in source  waters can be estimated, and so that  the  effectiveness  of various
treatment  technologies   can  be  assessed by  EPA and  other  research groups.
Priorities  include developing  analytical methods  for  Cryptosporidiosis and
Norwalk viruses. Adequate methods are vital to evaluating the effectiveness of
alternative   treatment   technologies.     Extraction  methods   and  advanced
instrumentation  will  be developed to -fully characterize the  non-volatile and
difficult to extract DBFs, including chlorine dioxide at low concentrations.  Our
in-house.expertise will  focus in the area of exposure assessments, particularly
in the application of analytical methods. Performance evaluation studies of all
drinking  water   laboratories  (federal,   local  government,  state, and private
sector),  certification   of  regional   laboratories and certification  training
courses will be  conducted to ensure quality of data for  SDWA.

   Information  on the   health  effects  of DBFs  from both  epidemiology  and
toxicology   studies   are currently   inadequate   for  conducting  comparative
assessments  of  the potential cancer  and noncancer  risks posed  by  the  use of
chlorine,  chloramine,  ozone,  chlorine  dioxide, or  combinations   of  these
disinfectants. The anticipated increased use of alternatives to  chlorine in the
future underscores the  need to  assign  a high priority  to  research that will
permit  a.  better  characterization of the risks   that  may' be  associated with
exposure  to  the .by-products of  these' alternatives.   To address these  needs,
laboratory research will continue to fill critical toxicity data gaps  for DBFs,
with a focus on carcinogenieity,  reproductive and developmental toxicity, and
pharmacokinetic  (i.e., metabolism) studies. Epidemiology methodologic research
will  be  conducted  to   improve   the  ability  to  study   whether exposure  to
disinfection  by-products  in   drinking  water  is   associated  with  adverse
reproductive outcomes or cancer.

   Among the many naturally occurring and man-made source water  contaminants of
potential concern, arsenic is  one of  the .most'important  from a regulatory and
public health perspective.   Because  of the uncertainties  in the  risk assessment
for arsenic  in  drinking water  and the high cost  of  implementing a new arsenic
standard, it is  essential that the best  available science is used to-establish
treatment requirements for contaminants.  ORD scientific research on arsenic will
provide a better .understanding of the dose-response  relationships for arsenic
toxic actions,  the relationship of metabolism to toxicity,  and the.important
factors that can affect  the variable sensitivity  of humans to arsenic.

   For microbial contaminants, many uncertainties  still exist with respect to our
ability to adequately assess the health effects associated with many pathogenic
bacteria,  viruses and  parasites in  drinking water.  Microbial  research will
include clinical dose-response studies on selected pathogens and  community-based
field studies to evaluate the impact of water quality and  treatment processes on
the occurrence of waterborne disease.   Microbial  research will build upon prior
efforts  to  characterize the  health  risks posed by  high priority  viruses,
parasites  and bacteria  in  drinking water.   In-house expertise will enhance
research efforts in the  area of  drinking water health effects and particularly
epidemiology studies. These research activities will address the potential risks
of greatest  concern  for DBFs,  arsenic and pathogens  in drinking water,  and if
successful,  they will significantly reduce uncertainties  in  the current risk
assessments  and  will   lead  to  more   scientifically   sound,   cost-effective
regulations.

   Exposure to DBFs in drinking water  is  realty exposure to a complex mixture of
chemicals.   Work in  the risk assessment area  will therefore take into account
possible interactions between chemicals and evaluate the impact on health risks.
Assessments must fully characterize  actual human risks associated with  exposures
to chlorinated waters and provide improved methods for assessing epidemiologic
exposures and risks.  Critical to establishing  a regulatory strategy for drinking
water  is  identifying  those  contaminants which pose  the greatest risk to human

                                  •   3-24

-------
health and consequently, what treatments can be used to reduce these risks and
at what  cost.   .To characterize  the  magnitude and severity  of  adverse health
effects associated with exposures to DBPs,  either individually or as a complex
mixture, it is necessary to develop and apply improved risk assessment methods
and tools in order to evaluate the  scientific  data, reduce uncertainties and to
provide risk managers with qualitative and .quantitative estimates  of risks posed
by specific waterborne agents  and options for managing those risk's.  Through the
development and application of consistent methods  and tools for integrating and
interpreting  the  scientific  data,  risk  assessment studies  can provide  the
framework for comparing chemical  and microbiological risks and identify critical
research needs and uncertainties.

   Researchers will  focus  on  the areas of pathogen  risk assessment,  mixtures
feasibility  studies,  and  comparative  risks  modeling  as well  as: more  fully
characterizing uncertainties  and assumptions  associated with risks estimates,
Emphasis will be placed on developing dose-response models for viruses, including
the  Norwalk virus,  and selection of  surrogate  chemicals  and  pathogens  for
comparative risk modeling.  A framework  for comparing these risks,  i .e.,. chemical
and microbial will be developed for future application  to various exposures and
treatment assumptions.  Viral models will be developed using data on treatment
effectiveness generated by the Risk Management research program.  Efforts will
also be initiated  to test methods for inclusion of mixtures data into comparative
risk .models.

   While  uncertainties  remain,  it  is known that  certain microbes  pose  a
significant  risk  to public health.   Risk Management  research  will  focus on
developing cost-effective treatment and management approaches that can be used
to reduce  the risk .of waterborne diseases  to acceptable levels.   Effective
implementation involves a multiple barrier concept;  that is, uses of the best
available water source, protection of that source  from  contamination, treatment
to  remove  and  inactivate  pathogens  and  a  properly  designed  and  operated
distribution system. Determining the effectiveness of various treatment processes
to remove/inactivate microbial pathogens is critical to the implementation o£ a
regulatory  strategy to  address  this  issue.   Researchers will  focus on  the
evaluation of different treatment processes to control pathogens, with a focus
on CryptosporicZiumi

   Simultaneously, these treatment processes will be evaluated for their ability
to minimize and control the  formation of DBFs.  Efforts will also  be directed to
the development and  evaluation  of  technologies appropriate  for small systems,
which face  constraints  on cost  and operational complexity.   EPA has estimated
that the range in treatment  costs per household, population ranging from 25,000
to 250,000 people, for the  different options  is tremendous ranging from $5/year
to as high as  $270/year depending upon which technology might be needed to comply
with  DBP standards.   Clearly,  research  that 'could  lead  to  improvements in
conventional treatment and could  demonstrate that acceptable levels of pathogens
and DBPs can  be achieved will have major cost .implications  across the nation.
There is growing concern that bacteria that grow in the water distribution system
may  pose  a  significant  health  threat.     Scientists  will  focus  on  the
identification and  characterization  of the factors which  influence microbial
growth in the distribution system so  that strategies to control such growth can
be developed.   Efforts  will  be initiated .to' develop  effective  source  water
protection strategies and this work will be integrated  for maximum benefit with
other related programs  such' as the Wet Weather Flow Research Program.

   Research will continue on the evaluation of technologies and the development
of strategy techniques for controlling the formation of  corrosion by-products in
household  plumbing and  drinking water distribution   systems  and controlling
inorganics such as arsenic.  This will result in more  cost effective treatment
systems for small communities, in order to meet SDWA Maximum. Contaminant Levels
(MCL) .  Corrosion research will assist community water systems in achieving lead
and copper levels established under SDWA.

                    '   '  '            3-25

-------
Ground Water

   The Agency requests a total of $2,262,800 and 21.5 workyears for 1997 for the
Ground Water Research program.

   Ground water provides a source of drinking water for approximately 50 percent
of  the U.S. population.   There  are tens  of millions  of private wells and
approximately 180,000 community and non-community public water-systems-that are
dependent on ground  water.   About half of  the  ground -water community systems
disinfect, but  a majority  of the non-community systems do  not.   The  drinking
water quality of systems  that do not treat for.pathogens is dependent on having
source waters at the wellhead that do not contain pathogens in sufficient numbers
to cause  health problems.   Preliminary results of  ground water  surveys  being
conducted by EPA and  other research groups indicate that greater than 20% of the
well waters  sampled  contain  viruses.  Determination  of  the survival  times of
pathogens, especially viruses, and their transport  in the subsurface are critical
in determining  whethex ground water does or  does not need to be treated and
provides support to the EPA's Office ,of Water in the development of the Ground
Water Disinfection Rule.  Risk Management  researchers will focus on determining
the factors that govern the transport and survival of pathogens in the subsurface
which will provide input into the development of the Ground Water Disinfection
Rule.  This, as well as other information, will be used in research to develop
data and  methods  for assessing  the  vulnerability of drinking water  wells to
microbial pathogens and to determine natural protection zones, which are criteria
that will be used in granting waivers to the disinfection requirement.
                                     3-26

-------
                        ECOSYSTEMS PROTECTION RESEARCH

OVERVIEW                 •                                              '       •

   The Agency requests a total of $107,376,300 and 375.1 total workyears for 1997
in the Ecosystems Protection Research program .component.

   Our nation's ecosystems provide self-purifying systems and valuable  renewable
resources  such as  food,  fiber,  water storage  and  flood  control,  wood  for
construction, biodegradation and removal of contaminants from air and water, pest
and disease'control,  and amelioration of climatic extremes.   However, these same
ecosystems are  threatened in many  parts  of the  country by  the  products  and
byproducts of modern industrial  society.   Much  remains  to be understood about
these highly integrated ecological systems. In particular,  it is critical that
EPA develop techniques  that allow quantitative risk assessments to be  conducted
so that decisions can be  based on sound science in a context  that considers the
impact of   multiple stressors  on an  ecosystem.   Equally  important,  EPA must
develop  risk reduction strategies  that take maximum advantage  of pollution
prevention and the self-purifying potential of natural systems.

   EPA scientists and engineers  continue to discover how  the complex  interaction
of  environmental stressors  threaten  ecosystems.   More  research  is needed,
however,  to  identify and apply  remedies to threatened ecosystems.   Thus QRD's
ecosystems research in 1997 will  focus on:  (1) exposure and effects measurements,
long term monitoring, and regional surveys, (2)  development of tools,  methods,
and techniques to enable  assessment  and management of  the greatest threats,  and
(3) intensive research in selected ecoregions of national interest  and concern
(e.g., Pacific Northwest, Chesapeake Bay,  Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Florida
Everglades).

 •  ORD1s'researchers are investigating the impact of chemical stressors  (e.g.,
nutrients,  toxic metals)  and non-chemical stressors  (e.g.,  climate change,
regional vulnerability,  habitat  alteration,  biological depletion) on threatened
ecosystems.   ORD's  effects and  exposure  research will focus  on  exposure  and
effects measurements, long-term  monitoring, and regional surveys.  This research
is conducted through interrelated programs designed  to address the wide ranging
causes of  ecosystem degradation  and  the   development of the methods to most
effectively redress and minimize the damage done to these ecosystems.  Specific
research areas to be covered in  1997 include:   (1) the Environmental Monitoring
and  Assessment  Program  (EMAP)   which  will  focus  on  indicator  development,
monitoring  designs,  and  the assessment  of environmental  trends   seen  in  an
ecosystem;  (2) aquatic ecocriteria  which  will develop toxicity data for water
quality  criteria and  indicators of  biological  conditions;  (3)  contaminated
sediments  which  will explore the  cause and effect  relationships  of  multiple
stressors on the viability and sustainability of  large, deep-water  ecosystems;
(4) non-point source research focused on the development  of community-based, wet
weather  .flow watershed management  alternatives;  and  (5)  wetlands protection.
research to  develop  the tools to manage and restore the Nation's wetlands and
associated ecosystems.

   Research  in the area of risk assessment methods, tools, and techniques will
be used to evaluate  and assess data obtained on specific  ecosystems to  determine
which are under the greatest  stress and should be targeted for risk management:
attention.   Risk management  alternatives  will  be developed and  evaluated to
maintain and/or restore sensitive ecosystems.  These alternatives will consider
not only the severity of the  environmental impact, but the cost of  remediation
and/or mitigation, as .well as other non-environmental factors.  Specific research
projects to be performed in 1997 include;   research  to improve community- based
tools for environmental assessment; assessment and management alternatives in 'the
area of aquatic ecocriteria,  contaminated  sediments, watershed management,  and
ecosystem restoration.


                                     3-27

-------
     PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS
\                          *
;!    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, (EMAP)

        The Agency requests a total of $45,096,500 and 107.5 workyeajr.s for 1997 in the
     EMAP Research program.   .   •

        EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) was created to
     develop the capability of "taking the  pulse" of the environment with respect to
     ecosystem integrity and sustainability. National and regional assessments of our
     natural resources suitable to guide public policy have been  severely limited by
     the high  cost of establishing monitoring sites  and  by the  poor scientific.
    .understanding of  how to integrate, data across landscapes, EMAP has demonstrated
     that  probabilistic  sampling  designs  can add a  powerful new dimension  to
     monitoring.   The techniques  developed to address  acid rain issues have  been
     extended to  assessments of the  condition of   forests,  wetlands,  agricultural
     lands, surface waters, estuaries, and even the  Great  lakes.  EMAP field studies
     have  proven that the  scientific  approach  can  greatly reduce  the costs  of
     monitoring even difficult environments such as contaminated  sediments in coastal
     environments.'  The Office of  Water has found the EMAP-Estuaries sediments  data
     to .be the highest quality sediments .data in the National inventory.

        Consequently,  EPA has redirected EMAP to .develop the science of integration
     for more complex  monitoring networks  involving  the specialized contributions of
     numerous federal  agencies,  including  the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric
     Administration (NOAA)  and the  United States  Geological  Service  (USGS).   This
     redirection coincides with the efforts of'the OSTP Committee  on Environmental and
     Natural  Resources  {CENR)  to  coordinate  monitoring  at the   national  level.
     Recognizing that  about  $500  million  is  spent  on environmental  monitoring by
     federal agencies, CENR developed a coordinated multi-tier monitoring  and research
     framework.   Monitoring programs in USGS and NQAA make up one tier of sites for
     waters.  The Department  of Agriculture monitors count park tiers in forests and
     agricultural lands.  The interpretive power of all theses monitoring data can be
     increased when integrated with a distributive  survey that" extends .both spatial
     coverage for monitoring variables and  the representativeness'of individual sites.
     EMAP is the scientific  leader  in designing this tier and  has  been working in
     lock-step with CENR and the other federal agencies.  The EMAP contribution to the
     science is grounded  in our intramural research on design and integration..

        CENR is  planning a series of  public workshops on the monitoring framework, all
     of which culminate in a region-scale pilot study to demonstrate the cost-savings
     and improved performance of an integrated network.  EMAP had  planned  an extensive
     study in the  Mid-Atlantic region,  and all agencies  .in  the CENR concur,  this
     region  is  the best  to  demonstrate the framework.   EMAP will  contribute the
     distributive sampling tier to monitoring.  EMAP will  also assume the scientific
    .leadership for designing the  integrated monitoring network in the Mid-Atlantic
     pilot study, which will incorporate  ongoing federal  sampling  tiers.  Finally,
     EMAP has been leading the effort to  analyze existing data  for the purposes of
   '  reformulating the hypotheses  to be tested in the pilot.

        Efficient use  of existing  federal monitoring capabilities  is not  the  only
     contribution EMAP brings to the CENR. and the  federal monitoring effort.   The
     science  of synthesizing data  into  regional-scale' assessments have been the
     hallmark of EMAP. The EMAP  Multi-Tier Design Workgroup will address linkages
     between everything from remotely sensed data  on land cover to USGS and state
     monitoring to the long-term intensive study sites of NSF.  Through coordination
     with the Office  of  Water  and 305-B monitoring in  surface  waters quality, the
     Regional EMAP  (REMAP)  effort  will enhance local monitoring networks.

        One serious gap  in the  National Network is understanding  the factors  that
     govern the selection of  the intensive study sites that comprise the apex of the
     multi-tier network.   Many existing sites  have  been selected for reasons other

                                          3-28

-------
than science.  The high cost of  intensive sites dictates that'each modification
or  addition to  intensive  sites be  justified by  the potential  for reducing
uncertainty-  EMAP has a Site  Evaluation Workgroup  which will evaluate over 200
sites  identified by CKNR and rank sites  according  to  their power to answer
specific assessment questions in a national network.   One other example of this
effort is the redesign of the atmospheric deposition monitoring network (CASTNET)
which was funded by .EPA to assess sulfur trends for 'the  OAR in response to the.
Clean Air Act,  Data have been generated from the initial CASTNET network to show
that approximately 15 of the 55 sites are essential  to the new airshed models and
the elimination of trends in  sulfur in the  eastern US,   Although the remaining
sites may be'valuable for other local problems, the new  atmospheric  deposition
network for  the sulfur issue  will reduce, the annual cost of EMAP monitoring by
$3 .million.  Through redesign of the network, and by coordinating with other
potential sites developed by CENR activities, this reduced cost.should not affect
the power,of the assessment in 2002,

   In addition to bringing the science of integration  to the forefront in EMAP,
this  research  has 'accelerated the  search for more  cost-effective  and more
diagnostic ecological indicators that are used in monitoring.  Working with the
academic community through'the  Science  to Achieve  Results (STAR)  program,  the
EMAP Ecological  Indicator Workgroup  will direct  the  intramural program on new
indicators.   CENR has -acknowledged that  the  "variables" listed  in .existing
monitoring  networks  poorly represent  indicators  ,of  ecological  integrity  and
sustainability.   New technology  in molecular biology  will  be used in basic
ecology to examine the role of genetic diversity in  the long-term sustainability
of important communities.  Most ecosystem  indicators are expensive and measure
the  structure of  communities.    Yet,  functional  attributes,   such as  the
productivity of marine coastal 'regions,  are the meaningful monitoring endpoints
for a national network.  SMAP will advance  these new  indicators for use by the
CENR and state agencies.

  • The products  of  1MAP collectively have  demonstrated  a new feasibility for
monitoring  networks  to  expand spatial  coverage at lower cost.   The CENR has
recognized  that  contribution and  asked EMAP  to assist in designing  a truly
national  network.   In addition,  EMAP products will  put site selection  on a
scientific basis  and accelerate the development of better ecological indicators.

Contaminated Sediments

   The Agency requests a total of $5,945,000 and 41.0  workyears for  1997 in the
Contaminated Sediments Research program.

   Toxic chemicals and conventional pollutants  have steadily accumulated in the
sediments  of coastal,  estuarine,  and  freshwater  ecosystems  over   the past
century.  The sediment contaminants of greatest concern appear to be heavy metals,
and  persistent,  bioaccumulative .organic compounds,. Of  fundamental  concern  is
the identification of cause and effect relationships  of  multiple  stressors on
the viability and sustainability of benthic ecosystems and ultimately how such
information  can  be  used to  direct sdurce control   and pollution prevention
strategies.

  . Scientific research will focus on methods to assess the ecological and human
health  effects of  sediment   contaminants;  chemical-specific  sediment quality
criteria;  sediment  pollution  source allocation methods  and sediment clean-up
methods  for sites where natural recovery  is  not appropriate.  The funding and
workyears  requested reflect  a  strengthening  of this  program  with  particular
emphasis on research to predict  the cumulative  impact of multiple stressors, and
to predict and alter the bioavailability of  contaminants in sediments. Research
will also be enhanced in  the area of developing better chronic toxicity tests to
evaluate the long-term effects on benthic communities and the marine  food chain.
ORD  research efforts will  result  in  developing:   -1}  methods .to  assess  the
ecological  and human health  effects of sediment  contaminants;  2)   chemical-

                                     3-29  .

-------
specific sediment quality criteria;   3)   sediment pollution source allocation
methods; and 4}  sediment .clean-up methods for sites where natural recovery is
not -appropriate,

Non-Point Sources

   The Agency requests a total $4,732,200 and 16 workyears for  1997 in the Non-
Point Sources Research program,

   EPA's Office of Water has  identified  Wet  Weather Flow discharges from both
point and nonpoint  sources  as one  of the largest  remaining threats  to water
quality and human health  that exits today. ORD scientists  will  support OW by
focusing  research  efforts  on developing  and improving  community-based,  We't
Weather Flow  (WWF)  watershed  management,  including pollution prevention and
control; models and strategies,  and alternative  technologies,  that would both
integrate area-wide WWF control  and interface storm runoff  with  ground water,
contaminated  sediment,  and  surface  water impacts;  and determine  suspended
particulate characteristic requirements for adequate WWF disinfection. Studies
will be  conducted on the application  of Geographic Information System methodology
in conjunction with real-time pollution contaminant event models to simulate the
effect of WWF impacts  on human health and aquatic  ecosystems.  Modeling studies
will be conducted on the interaction of ground water and surface water; health
and ecosystem impacts  will be determined.  Research-will be conducted on the use
of constructed wetlands and  the role of contaminated sediments  in WWF watershed
management,    WWF  technical  assistance will  be provided for EPA regional and
program  offices,  and  to State, local,  and  professional' organizations.  In
addition,  research is  being conducted on  the  effects  of surface water/ground
water interactions' on aquatic ecosystems.

Wetlands Protection

   The Agency requests a total of $4,055,100  and 35  workyears for 1997 Wetlands
Protection Research program.

   The loss of wetlands is resulting in adverse impacts  on the  environment such
as increases in flood damage, reductions in waterfowl populations, etc. In 1986,
ORD  initiated a  Wetlands  Research  Program  to  support the  development  of
defensible and cost-effective regulatory  policies  related to wetland management
and to encourage and enable others to act effectively in protecting and restoring
the nation's wetlands  and  associated ecosystems.  One of the guiding principles
in  implementing   the  mission is to base decision making  on sound  science.
Research  is   needed  to  understand  the  biological,  chemical,  and  physical
relationships that dictate wetland function; quantify among-wet land  variability
within specific geographic and land use settings; and define the  role of wetlands
in the landscape and the effects of  landscape  factors on wetland functions.

   The Wetlands Research program supports  the Agency's risk-based approach  to
wetlands management activities  (i.e.,  protection, restoration, and creation).
Emphasis is placed on characterization of  wetland function in the  landscape, and
on the development and calibration  of tools needed to measure and forecast the
outcome of wetland restoration and creation projects.  Research will also focus
on   evaluating  and   predicting   the     response   of  wetlands  to   other
activities/stressors in the watershed. ORD in-house scientific capabilities will
be  expanded to  increase  the  geographic  coverage  that will  include coastal
wetlands in addition to the historical focus on inland wetlands. ORD's Wetlands
Research  Program will  lead to  understanding the  biological,  chemical,  and
physical relationships  that dictate wetland  functions;  quantify among wetland
variability with specific geographic and  land use settings;  define the role of
wetlands  in the landscape  and  the effects   of  landscape factors  on wetland
functions and develop  an improved understanding of the natural and anthropogenic
processes that govern the quantity, quality, and availability of  water resources.


                                     3-30

-------
Regional Ecosystems Initiatives

   The Agency requests a total* of $5,255,500 and 24.6  workyears  for 1997 in the
Great Lakes Research' program.

   Considerable  progress, has  been  made over  the past  20  years  to  reduce
concentrations and inputs of toxic substances in the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.
Despite these  improvements,  however, concentrations  of many toxic substances
currently  being measured'  in fish  tissue,  as  well-'as" other   indicators  of
ecosystem health,  remain at  unacceptable levels.   The Office of  Research and
Development's  (ORD) Great Lakes research  program will develop  scientific data
to help establish ecological goals  and environmental indicators to help document
progress toward achieving    these  goals.   Researchers will- develop  models  to
predict the exposures  and  responses of  ecosystems  that result  from alternate
management strategies at the watershed,  regional and national scale and emphasize
the development of indicators of ecological  condition  and diagnostic techniques
for use in  ecological risk assessments of aquatic systems.  This will provide the
•scientific understanding  and  techniques required  to examine  the effects  of
multiple stressors, and for effective integrated ecological  risk assessment and
ecosystem protection at multiple scales.  Research will continue  to focus on the
development of risk-based exposure assessment for aquatic resources by developing
predictive  and  diagnostic  methods  to  identify,  characterize,  and quantify
chemical and non-chemical stressors.  The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Program .{EMAP) will  provide additional pilot and demonstration  projects .in the
Great Lakes geographic region as part of this national  monitoring implementation
strategy.

   The Agency requests a total of "$3,139,900 and 5.5 workyears  for 1997-in the
South Florida Research program.

   The natural  systems from  the Kissimmee River, south, of Disney World, to the
coral reefs off  the Florida Keys are an interdependent landscape and seascape.
Historically,  however,  these systems have been managed as if they functioned in
isolation  from one another.   Half of the   Everglades have  been drained and
converted  to  agriculture  or urban  development.   As  a  result,  -populations  of
wading birds have  declined by   more than 90 percent,  and  South Florida has 56
threatened or endangered  species.  Florida Bay, which  in the past supported huge
commercial and   recreational fisheries,  is  in a state of  ecological collapse,
For the  Florida Everglades, EPA  will  support studies and  research  to better
understand  this ecosystem  and this water  quality problem.    Given   mercury
contamination currently in  the  Everglades, EPA will support a  study to identify
the source of  this pollution.   This will include a  special project in -EPA's
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (EMAP) to better understand the transport
and effects of toxic substances throughout  the South Florida ecosystem.   The
results will,  however,  be widely applicable both to similar contaminant problems
elsewhere,   and as  a general  framework  for computer-based exposure decision
analysis.

   The Agency requests a total of $4,682,200 and 7.1  workyears  for 1997 in the
Pacific Northwest  Research program,

   Ecological resources provide the economic basis for many communities in the
Pacific Northwest.  Competing interests e.g.,  forest products, agriculture, and
the fisheries  industry place ecosystems under pressure which cannot be sustained,
The result has been the collapse of salmon fisheries, significant constraints on
forestry practices, and the  commensurate econpmic decline of many communities.
The Pacific Northwest research program is studying ecosystem response to human
activities.    In  1997  research  is targeted  to  understand the response  of
ecosystems to  stressors  at  several  scales  from site-specific studies through
watersheds to the region.  Research  includes studies on the relationship between
the size of stream buffers-and instream condition'on fish stocks, on the effect
of forest management practices on stream water quality, and the study of multiple

                                     3-31

-------
stregsors such as nutrients,  silt, flow changes and aquaculture".  The  results of
this work will 'reduce  uncertainty in ecological  risk assessments and. improve
confidence in ecosystem management decision making.
                                     3-32

-------
                        HUMAN HEALTH PROTECTION RESEARCH  .

 OVERVIEW

    The Agency requests a total of $40,181,000 and 199.5 total workyears for 1997
 in the Human Health Protection Research program component,

    People are exposed to a variety of potentially harmful  agents in the air they
 breathe,  the liquids they drink, the products they use, the foods they eat,  and
 even the surfaces they  touch.  As  indicated in the 1994 report by the National
 Research'Council  (NRC), Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment, the public has
 become increasingly aware and concerned by these environmental exposures,  their
 potential threats to human  health,  and the  risks associated with environmental
 contaminants.  Announcements  about pesticides  in  food,  fish and  shell  fish,
 health advisories,  chemical contaminants in drinking  water,  and contamination
 from hazardous-waste  sites  have  created public concern  about the  chemical
 products and byproducts of modern industrial society.   However, there is public
 skepticism about  the reliability of scientific predictions  concerning possible
 threats  to human health and about the effectiveness of regulations in mitigating
 these threats.    Questions  have also been raised about the economic  costs  of
'controlling or eliminating emissions of chemicals that pose questionable or even
 extremely small risks.   In  the absence of exposure measurements and an ability
 t:o measure  risk  directly,   scientists  can  offer  only indirect and  uncertain
 estimates of exposure and risk.  Debates about reducing risks and the costs  of
 risk management have been fed by the lack of  accurate and widely accepted methods
 for assessing risk to humans.

    Notwithstanding these uncertainties, there is widespread public understanding
 that the public health consequences of exposure to environmental contaminants are
 substantial.  For example,  the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA)  estimated
 in its 1993  report, Researching" Health  Risks,  that the costs of  even a  small
 number  of  environmentally  related  illnesses,  such  as  lead  poisoning  and
 pollution-related  respiratory -conditions,  could reach into  the billions  of
 dollars  annually.  Thus, an important aspect of human  health protection is the
 identification,   reduction,   and  prevention  of  exposures   and  risks   from
 environmental contaminants  that  contribute to  increased  rates  of  disease,
 disability,  premature death, or significant disability.

    In 1997,  research  conducted under  the  Human Health  Protection  program
 component will support several of the EPA's national Environmental Goals such as
 safe drinking water, safe indoor environments,  clean air,  and safe food.   This
 research program  also provides support for implementation of requirements  under
 several  regulatory  statutes, including the development of methods and models used
 to  collect  data  required   under  the  Federal  Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and
 Rodenticide Act  (FIFRA),  and methods used by industry  in response to the  Toxic
 Substances Control Act  (TSCA) .  In addition, much of the research in 1997 will
 support  the Agency's Community Based Environmental Initiative (CBEI) .  This CBEI-
 related  effort is  aimed  at understanding the  sources of toxic  and pesticide
 pollution;  describing  the  pattern,  frequency/  and magnitude of total  human
 exposures;  improving and  developing  quantitative  extrapolations methods  for
 health data  (i.e.  animals-to-humans, normal-to-sensitive subpopulations and high-
 to-low exposures),, and; transferring information to the communities that require
 it.

    Specific research areas  to  be addressed  in  1997 include;  the Pesticides  in
 Children program, the U.S.-Mexican Border prqgram,  integrated exposure models,
 biologically .and pharmacokinetics-based dose-response methods,  assessment  of
 chemical and site-specific  risks  to humans, individual  variability and  human
 susceptibility to cancer, quantitative exposure-effect relationships, development
 of methods for measurements of pesticide residues, and understanding the effects
 of pollutants on  different  biological systems.


                                      3-33

-------
PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

   The  overall goal of  research conducted under  the  Human Health  Protection
research  component is aimed  at  protecting public  health by determining  what
pollutants are a risk to  human health.  Because of the economic and social impact
of regulating pollutants, however,  it is riot enough to determine that a pollutant
effects human health under a particular exposure scenario; we must also identify
at what point  and under  what  conditions these risks become unacceptable.   The
risk assessment  of a pollutant must determine: (1)  Is  the pollutant  capable of
producing a health effect (Hazard Identification)?;   (2) what is the response to
the pollutant  at the  levels to'which the population is exposed  (Dose Response
Assessment)?;  and    (3)  How  much  of  the population  is  exposed  (Exposure
Assessment)?                        '                   •

   Human exposure to chemicals and the  potential effects of a pollutant on human
health are the primary bases on  which  risk  assessment  determinations are made.
Too often, however,  scientists must depend on insufficient data and non-validated
models or theoretical scenarios to estimate the levels  of  pollution encountered
by human  populations.   As  a result, many decisions concerning assessment  and
management of  risks bear uncertainties.

   A significant step towards  addressing these uncertainties has  been achieved
'through recent exposure measurement research (e.g., the National Human Exposure
Assessment  Survey  (NHEXAS),  the  National  Activity  Pattern Survey,  and  the
Agriculture Health Study) . This measurement research applied pilot protocols for.
developing  statistically valid  measures of human exposures to  a variety  of
chemicals through both biological  sampling  of  the  individuals and measurements
of exposures  through air, food, and water.   In 1997,  Human Health  Protection
research  will  build on the results of  the  NHEXAS  pilot  studies to  assess  the
population  distributions of  measured  exposures  in the  three  study  regions,
identify  the  most  important  determinants of  exposure,  integrate  exposure
information across pathways and  sources,  and evaluate  the  effectiveness of  the
pilot protocols.  In addition,  1997 research will use the  comprehensive exposure
data to evaluate and  refine human  exposure  models.

   Exposure  research continuing in 1997 includes the  Pesticide Residential
Exposure Research Program.  Because of  the uncertainty associated with the  risk
posed by lawn care pesticides, the General Accounting Office recommended that the
EPA fully explore the health effects of  post-application  exposure to lawn  care
pesticides prior to re-registering pesticides for lawn  uses and that  the  EPA
place a high priority on developing the  post-application  exposure, testing  and
assessment guidelines.   Results  of ORD's Residential Exposure Research Program
will directly support the Office of Prevention,  Pesticides, and Toxic Substances'
 (OPPTS) needs  to revise  and expand its  guideline process  for Post-application
Exposure  and  Monitoring.  These guidelines standardize industry  collection of-
pesticide exposure  data  required under the  Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide,  and
Rodenticide Act  (FIFRA) .                                                    •

   In the area of health  eff.ec.ts. the Agency will  conduct research to determine
what studies are most useful to assess  effects  and how to evaluate the data  that
is obtained  from them.   This  research  looks  at the  effects of pollutants  on
different  biological systems  (e.g., neurotoxicity,  imtnunotoxicity,   etc.)   and
determines if, and to what extent, those effects are indicators  of human health
risks.   The results of this research will help  the scientific community identify
risks  to human  health  more  efficiently.   This  information  is  particularly
critical to OPPTS which requires chemical companies to provide information on the
effects of their chemicals.

   Continuation  of the research on health effects,  exposure to pollution and risk
factors  for  disease along  the U.S.-  Mexican  border has  been prompted  by  the
unusually high occurrence of serious birth defects in this region.  This research
is  being conducted  in  conjunction with the  Centers  for  Disease Control  and

                                     3-34

-------
Prevention  and  the Texas Department  of Health. The  research will attempt  to
identify other health problems that may  be occurring as well as possible causes.
This  research is  an  important component  of EPA's emphasis  on community-to-
regional .scale  environmental  investigations.    In the  areas in  which these
projects are located  {the Lower Rio Grande Valley,  TX, the U.S.  - Mexico Border
area  in  Arizona,  and the  States  in  SPA's Region 5)  community residents and
government officials .will be informed and involved in  understanding the results
of these exposure research studies.             '

   The Pesticides in Children Research Program (total  request  of $5,097,600 and
25 workyears)  was  established in response to a National Academy of Sciences  (HAS)
report, which highlighted the  critical  need  for health research on infants and
children exposed to pesticides. In 1997, this research will be expanded through
implementation of a survey of  children's exposure  to pesticides.   This survey,
complemented  by  enhanced  exposure related research  methods and models for
estimating and predicting exposure of  this sensitive subpopulation, is aimed  at
measurement of exposure via air, water, food and dust in homes,  schools, day care
facilities,  and  other  areas.    Researchers will  collect  time,  location and
activity  information related  to  children's .exposure,  using  fully evaluated
techniques.   Scientists will .prepare a manual  of  methods for quantifying the
track-in  of lawn-applied  pesticide  residues  into indoor residential  micro-
environments.   Scientists will also  prepare a report on research to develop
techniques for monitoring pesticide residues in the environment, and will publish
a manual of methods for characterizing  activity patterns  in children. • Methods
will  be  developed for  inclusion  in OPPTS test" guidelines and models will  be
developed to. evaluate data submitted  under these guidelines.

   As part of the Pesticides in Children initiative,  researchers are beginning
to address  toxic  effects as a function of  age 'to provide scientific data for
determining  whether  current  pesticide  tolerance   levels are   sufficiently
protective.  Toxicological research, which includes neurological, immunological,
developmental,  and  pharmacokinetic  studies,   is  targeted  to identify  and
characterize  qualitative exposure-effect  relationships for pesticides.   These
relationships include response as  a function of critical periods of  development.
Also included are quantitative exposure-effect relationships for pesticides, such
as evaluation of  toxicity equivalence factors.

   Research in the health risk assessment area  (a  total request of $16,929,000
and 74 total workyears)  complements and  builds upon research conducted under the
human exposure  and human effects  areas, and is applied  to research conducted
under other program components such as  Pollution Prevention.  The  goal of risk
assessment  research  is  to  understand  the  human health  risk associated with
••environmental exposures, the principal relationships between the various sources
of  a" pollutant,  and the pollutant's effects on  a  target 'population.   Risk
assessment turns collected research data into meaningful information that can  be
used by decision-makers, the public,  academia and  other institutions'.

   'New studies  related to risk assessment  will begin in  1997  'on  the role  of
individual  variation  in   human  susceptibility  to  cancer.     Humans  vary
substantially  in  their  inherent  susceptibility  to carcinogenesis.    This
variability affects  each step in the  carcinogenic process  (e.g.,  carcinogenic
uptake  and metabolism,  DNA damage,  etc.)   and  arises from  many  independent
factors, some inborn  and some  environmental.   EPA's research will  focus on the
identification  of genetic differences  that  can affect carcinogenic risk from
environmental agents, the 'quantitative relationship of these differences to the
risk  of  cancer,,  and  the  distribution  of these  genetic  differences  in the
population.

 '  The Agency is addressing the complex area of  risk assessment, in part, through
its Research  to Improve Health Risk Assessment  (RIHRA).   Little is known about
the extrapolation of  risk from high-  to low-dose or from  effects in animals  to
humans.  Research in the area of extrapolation methods  is critical because of the

                                      3-35       -

-------
large impact that the extrapolation .of data has on the validity of a prediction
model.  To better extrapolate from high- to low-dose, and from animals to humans,
ORD   researchers   are   examining   biologically-based   dose   response   and
pharmacokineties research and modeling approaches.  Biologically-based approaches
examine effects at doses much lower than those where gross clinical effects occur
and allows the  risk  assessor  to  make a better determination of effects at low
doses,    JPharmacokineties  research  will  allow  the risk  assessor to  better
extrapolate from high- to  low-dose  and from animals, to humans.  This research
will improve the accuracy of applying laboratory conducted test results (e.g.,
high-dose exposure  to animals),  to  other,  harder-to-test  exposure  scenarios
(chronic low-dose exposure to humans),

   Other  riskassessment  research   includes   chemical   and  site-specific
assessments, and  risk assessment  tools and  guidance.   Translating  the  risk
assessment information to  the decision maker  is  a critical  challenge 'in risk
assessment.  Research in the area of  chemical- and site-specific assessments will
provide information for program-related regulatory decisions.  Research work will
assess specific chemicals (e.g.  dioxin,  benzene,, chloroform)  and  specific sites
coordinated through  the  Superfund  Health  Risk Technical Support Center.  This
work supports  several- program offices and  regulations  (e.g.,  Office  of Solid
Waste and Emergency Response, Office of Air and Radiation, Resource Conservation
and  Recovery  Act,   Comprehensive   Environmental  Response,  Conservation  and
Liability Act).  Much of  the research conducted to develop risk assessment tools
and guidance  supports the Agency's Community-Based Environmental Initiative.
This research includes the development of risk assessment guidelines on a variety
of topics to aid the risk assessor,  risk assessment software (e.g.,  exposure
models'), and other risk assessment  information, such as  the Agency's Integrated
Risk Information System  (IRIS).   IRIS is  a database of chemical-specific risk
information on  the  relationship  between chemical exposure and estimated human
health effects.  IRIS is  currently accessed by the public and federal, state and
local agencies.  In  1997,. ORD will  develop additional risk information for use
with IRIS, including  less-than-lifetime exposure risk estimates, developmental
toxicity  (e.g., birth defects)  and other endppint.specific human health effects
risk assessment information.   In  addition,  efforts have begun  to  expand the
current system  to include risk information from across federal agencies.
                                     3-36

-------
                    SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS RESEARCH

OVERVIEW

   The Agency requests a total of $11,649,100 and 55-. 0 workyears for 1997 in the
Special Environmental Hazards Research program component.

   EPA  has  focused  its research  agenda through-  a risk-based  approach  that
involves identifying health or ecological hazards, assessing dose-response and
exposure,  characterizing  risk,  and defining and  implementing  risk management
options.  In 1997, based on this risk based approach, research in this program
component will focus primarily on endocrine disruptors.  A limited amount of lead
research  will also  be  conducted.   The  endocrine  disruptor  research  will
investigate the growing concern about the  health  risks to humans and wildlife
posed by the presence of chemicals  in the environment that mimic  the actions of
hormones.    In  addition,  lead research  will focus on the  removal of lead from
soils contaminated with lead-based paint using a chemical leaching prpcess.  This
research will form the basis for more cost-effective alternatives for reducing
risk from exposure to lead.

   Data, methods,  and models resulting from these efforts will support the Office
of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS)in setting standards and
regulations under the  Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (PIFRA)
and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) ,       '   •         •       •  •

PROGRAM and, ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

Endocrine Disruptors

   The Agency requests a total of $11,264,400 and 52.9 workyears for 1997 in the
Endocrine Disruptors Research program.

   Evidence has been accumulating that humans and various animal populations may
have experienced adverse health effects from exposure to  environmental chemicals
that  interact with  the  endocrine system.   These chemicals,  most  of  them
pesticides, have been found to upset-the workings of the hormonal or endocrine
system, and for  this  reason,  they are  known  as  endocrine  disruptors.   Some
scientists  warn  that these  chemicals  may be,  interfering with  the  action of
reproductive hormones and causing damage  to the fertility of various animals and
humans. The evidence  is not conclusive.   The critical issue is whether there are
sufficiently high levels of endocrine disrupting chemicals in the  environment to
exert effects in human or wildlife  populations.  If  these concerns  are found to
be  justified,  there  could  be significant  regulatory  impact  on a  number of
important industrial chemicals       •       '

   In response to -this growing public health and environmental  concern, EPA has
taken the  lead in an effort to collect and assess pertinent information.  Working
in  collaboration  with other federal and private  groups, EPA  scientists  have
organized a major effort to  obtain  all relevant existing  data,  evaluate the
sufficiency  of existing  data,  determine what additional  data  are  needed "to
formulate an appropriate response, evaluate options for obtaining-additional data
and coordinate research across and outside the federal government.

   In  an  effort  to  obtain  maximum input  into  the  planning,  sponsorship and
conduct of research on endocrine disruptors, EPA has begun working through the
Committee on the Environment and Natural Resources.   Federal  agencies that have
expressed   interest   in  participating   include   the  National  Institute  of
Environmental  Health Sciences,  National  Cancer  Institute, National  Science
Foundation,  Fish  and Wildlife Service,  Natural Oceanographic  and Atmospheric
Agency, and the Department of Agriculture.
                                     3-37

-------
   As   a   result  of  these  collaborations   and  application  of  the .  risk
assessment/risk management paradigm, the Office of Research and Development "(OKD)
will support research to characterize the effects of environmental exposure  to
•various chemicals,  focusing on  two  major research areas,  health effects and
exposure assessment, in two target populations,  humans and wildlife,.  In  1997,
the Agency will  focus  on learning more about' what  we  know about the sources,
chemical and physical properties, transport pathways, and ecological and  human
effects  of endocrine-disrupting  chemicals  (EDC),  and identifying  the  major
knowledge  gaps.  Reports will be produced on  research needs for health effects
and exposure assessment as related to EDCs.

   Effects research will focus on learning about the important chemical classes
for interaction with the endocrine system and  their range of potency, which will
produce models to identify  and prioritize  in vivo research  to' define  dose-
response effects.  Research on dose  response will increase our understanding  of
the comparative exposure levels associated with risks, which will lead to reduced
uncertainty  in   chemical-specific   risk   assessments   and  relative ' potency
comparisons. •Investigations of the health outcomes experienced by populations
receiving high-level exposure to EDCs will delineate the causes and effects that
can set the bounds on effects in less highly  exposed populations.

   Exposure  research will  focus  on several  important issues,  including the
pathways of exposure to EDCs.   Models  will be developed to assess, exposure  to
EDCs  from  specific  sources  through multimedia pathways.    Methods will  be
developed  to monitor exposure  to EDCs  and to characterize exposure half-life,
speciation,  uptake,  and phase  equilibrium,  which  should improve  source and
receptor models  and assessment of EDC  exposure.   Issues on  the adequacy and
reliability of exposure monitoring tools, environmental concentrations 'of EDCs
in all principal  media, and exposures experienced by populations affected  by EDCs
will also  be investigated.

   Data, methods, and models produced in these  efforts will be used to predict
the effects to  humans and wildlife from exposure to endocrine disruptors and will
provide the Agency the information it needs  to characterize  risks from  these
chemicals,  establish priorities for additional  study,  and support regulatory
decision-making.
                                     •3-38

-------
               NEW TECHNOLOGY AND POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH

OVERVIEW

     The Agency requests a, total of $48,568,600 and 85.8 total workyears for 1997
in the New Technology and Pollution Prevention Research component.

   EPA's Five-Year Strategic Plan identifies pollution prevention as the  first
strategy considered for all programs in the Agency, In support of this directive,
ORD's goal is to take the lead among Federal research organizations in developing
risk management strategies  to move from controlling and cleaning up pollution to
reducing it at the sourqp.   ORD's strategies are aimed at the various economic
sectors  (e.g.,  industrial,   Federal,  .agricultural,  transportation,  energy,
service) in order to identify appropriate research  topics that  can help achieve
pollution prevention in those sectors, 'At the present time, ORD*'s research is
focused on the industrial and Federal sectors.

   Small businesses, for example,  consistently provide the United States with
innovative  technologies and •approaches  to  solving difficult  environmental
problems. Funding  for  competitive contracts will be  provided  under the  Small
Business  Innovation  Research (SBIR) program,  mandated by  the Small Business
Innovation Development  Act of 1992.   These.contracts, based on a solicitation
prepared by EPA, will be awarded in a variety 'of areas including prevention of
NOK,   VOCs,  S02;   toxic   air  pollutants;•  indoor  radon mitigation;   and
environmentally benign metal plating and  finishing.

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

Environmental Technology Initiative  (-ETZ)

   The Agency requests a total of  $27,619,100  and 6.0  workyears for 1997 in the
ETI program.

   The Environmental Technology  Initiative program is designed to  facilitate the
development  and  use  of innovative,  cost  effective environmental technologies
through collaboration with private-sector companies, non-profits,  other Federal
agencies,  universities and  states.   In 1997, ETI  research  is focused  on
environmental technology verification, partnerships for the 3lst Century,  and
community-based  sustainable  technologies.   Under  environmental  technology
verification,  ORD's  efforts  will build  upon the-Agency's pilot program  of
.environmental  technology, verification  entities  (e.g.,  small drinking   water
treatment systems, environmental monitoring technologies, pollution prevention
and hazardous waste technologies) . Technology verification efforts are necessary
since companies are frequently wary of buying and installing new environmental
technologies until permit writers and enforcement officials accept that they meet
required environmental standards.  Such an approach is particularly important as
this country looks for  alternatives to command and control rules and regulations,
that are  frequently very difficult  and  costly to  implement at  the community
level.  One  important feature of this e'ffort will be  the development of a tool
or  methodology  to measure  the  actual   success  of  environmental  technology
verification in terms of both economic and environmental benefits.

   In' partnerships for the  21st  Century,  EPA scientists  and engineers will
initiate .development  and demonstration  activities  with, partners in  both the
public and private sectors.  These activities will encourage the practical and
field-scale evaluation of new methods and tooj.s,  and technologies and processes
that more effectively demonstrate the environmental and economic benefit of  using
less polluting technologies, processes, and products  in real-world situations.
Government participation in these demonstrations helps alleviate  the liability
concerns, lack of  safe  demonstration sites  and-permit flexibility issues that
often  prevent  private  testing  companies and investors from  performing this
function  on  their own.  Field-scale testing and  application  of research and

       -'                             3-39

-------
development aimed at the Common Sense  sector  industries  (i.e., metal finishing,
printing, oil refining,' automobile manufacture, electronics, and iron and steel)
will be a part of this  activity with emphasis on providing practical, technical
help to those involved In environmental decision making  at  a number of levels.

   Under community-based sustainable technologies,  EPA scientists and engineers
will focus at a pre-competitive .stage on the development,  testing, and evaluation
of  technologies  and processes  for   cleaner production  and  products.    ORD
researchers will work closely with OPPTS and other EPA Program Offices to address
high priority areas where  generic technologies  can have  a  major  impact on
reducing'or eliminating'pollution in sectors beyond the current ones of interest
-- industrial and Federal.  An area of particular emphasis is the development of
sustainable municipal  technologies that improve  the quality of life  in "'both
urban/suburban areas and small communities/rural areas.

Common Sense Approach

   The Agency requests  a total of $12,902,200 and 50.7 workyears for  1997 in the
Common Sense Approach Research program.

   The  Agency  is  endeavoring  to  use  more positive,  less  confrontational
approaches  to  assist  industry  in complying with the  nation's environmental
statutes.  As part of this  effort,  ORD's  scientists and engineers will continue
to provide  scientific  and  technical support  for  regulatory development to the
Agency's media programs under the Source  Reduction Review Project,(SRRP).  They
will also initiate new technical and support  efforts  in  support of Common Sense
sector industries.   ORD,  in support  of  the  Program  Offices  and Regions,  will
conduct in-house research on the design, development, and demonstration of 'new
and innovative technologies that prevent pollution from entering the air, water,
and soil-  This  research will encompass the development of knowledge methods and
tools,  and  technologies  and processes  for  product substitution or  redesign of
production processes.  Emphasis for methods and tools will focus on Life Cycle
Assessment development and refinement of  software programs and  modules to assist
in deciding on less polluting processes and products.   Emphasis for technologies
and processes  will -focus  on  new  and  innovative  process  changes and product
substitutions that minimize pollutants.

   When considering which of these innovations is most sensible to use, cost must
continue to be an important factor. Cost assessment,  benefit/cost analysis, and
related software development will become  an even more  important component of EPA
policy and .risk management decisions in  the  future.  As part of an Agency-wide
initiative', research will be initiated  on tools to  document  the costs associated
with new  technologies  and  pollution prevention.   This Benefit/Cost Initiative
(total of $4,476,700 and 12.0 total workyears) will significantly improve such
tools as they are applied to environmental protection and will enhance community-
based risk management options as well  as the quality of Agency regulations and
guidelines.  It  will focus  on  engineering  analysis   ('e.g..,  systems analysis,
operations research) , cost accounting and estimating (e.g.,  cost assessment, cost
estimating,  .cost   tracking),  and  daCa  standards  development  (e.g.,   data
comparability, ability to reproduce data).

   The Agency's Common Sense Initiative  (CSI) is an effort designed to achieve
greater environmental  protection at less cost by  addressing pollution with an
industry-by-industry,  rather  than .a pollutant-by-pollutant,  approach.   ORD's
share  of the  CSI  (total  of  $901,000 and  4.5 work  years)   will  support  the
research,  development,  validation,  and 'diffusion  of  pollution prevention and
innovative technology options  for achieving environmental compliance  for the six
target CSI  industries,  while  also maintaining their economic competitiveness.
A public-private  consortium will implement innovative technology and pollution
prevention  priorities.   The key to the  success  of this research will be the
outreach and dissemination of results  through pollution prevention information
networks and clearing houses,  national conferences, workshops  and seminars, and

                                     3-40

-------
other types  of  information transfer  techniques  such as  guides,  manuals,,  and
reports that are available both electronically and in hard copy.

Pollution Prevention

   The Agency requests a total of $2,275,400 and 4.0 workyears for 1997 in the
Pollution Prevention Research program.

     Pollution control is  less attractive as a means  for effective environmental
protection because:  (l) end-of-the-pipe treatment cannot solve all  of the United
States'  pollution problems,  (2) technical difficulties and costs to meet new and
more stringent environmental standards and limits make  pollution control much
less cost effective, and (3) continuing economic expansion and population growth
will lead  to an ever increasing  volume  of potential pollutants  that  must  be
effectively managed at the source.  New types of methods, tools, technologies,
and processes that provide alternatives to pollution  control,  and new approaches
to encouraging pollution prevention, are needed.

     For ORD's pollution prevention research to be successful, individuals and
organizations must be informed of the latest information and technology.   Such
an approach  ensures' that  decision makers  at all  levels  (e.g., federal,  State,
local)  are fully  informed of the  options  that  are available  to them.   To this
end, ORD has traditionally provided  information on pollution prevention at both
national  conventions  and more  customer-focused  seminars  and workshops.   In
addition, QRD plans  to develop and disseminate  technical information  through
state-of-the-art electronic and computer-based vehicles,

   Effective pollution prevention  must include a strategy that addresses ongoing
and anticipated environmental  problems across a broad range of community scales
(e.g.,  small town, large municipality, ecoregion).   Research in this area will
encompass the development of knowledge methods and tools, and technologies and
processes used for decision making at the point where such decisions will have
the greatest impact  -- locally.  Efforts under  the Pollution Prevention program
will be  focused  on  three areas:  chemistry; engineering;   and  measurement,
assessment, and feedback techniques.

   Chemistry for pollution prevention will develop safer commercial substances
and environmentally friendly chemical  synthesis routes to  reduce risks posed by
existing  practices.    Activities  will include the use  of  creative  reaction
conditions, such as using  solvents which have a reduced impact on health and the
environment,  or  increasing  reaction  selectivity  thus  reducing wastes  and
emissions.  Engineering for pollution  prevention  will develop novel engineering
approaches for preventing or  reducing pollution  from industrial manufacturing
activities.  Examples of  this approach include:  machining without  the use  of
cutting fluids that  currently  require  disposal  after they  are contaminated; in-
process techniques that minimize  generation of pollutants in industrial  waste
incineration processes; and improved  automobile  combustion process design for
reduced pollutant production.   Measurement, assessment and feedback techniques
for pollution prevention will lead to novel measurement and assessment techniques
for  pollution  prevention,  such  as  innovative,   .full  scale,  quantitative
methodologies for conducting life  cycle analysis which permit sound quantitative
comparisons of the impacts of different pollutants on different media.
                                     3-41

-------
3-42

-------
                  SCIENCE QUALITY .AND INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH

OVERVIEW

   The Agency requests a total of $185,375,500 and 572.0 total workyears for 1997
in the Science Quality and Infrastructure Research program component.

   The Science Quality and Infrastructure Research program component houses many
activities which cut across or lend support  to the more specific media  research
programs.  This program  component  supports  two areas of the Agency's  research
program:  cross-program research and resources supporting science and technology
operations.  Cross-program resources for research involves programs that address
research requirements that are not  specific  to a media or cut across two or more
distinct media.  Cross-program research activities include Exploratory grants,
fellowships/environmental education,  research centers,  and Regional programs.
'Whereas the infrastructure aspect of this.program component supports ORD  research
operations including operating expenses, the working capital fund,  all workforce
funding, and workyears that support the research program.

PROGRAMAMD ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS                    '

Exploratory Grants    '                                          ,       ,

   The Agency requests a total of $11,677,900 and 3.0 workyears for 1997 .in the
Exploratory Grants program.

   The Exploratory Grants program was  designed to generate new ideas and produce
new scientific information by encouraging creativity and innovation in scientific
research.  Through publication of  an annual general solicitation, the program
defines  general  areas in which there  exists significant gaps  in scientific
knowledge  and understanding,  and  allows  individual  investigators  from  the
academic research community to conceive, define,  and propose research projects.
Proposals  are  competitively reviewed by peer panels of  predominantly outside
Agency researchers,  with  only  the most scientifically sound proposals ultimately
receiving support.  The major program outputs are scientific articles published
in  the  peer  literature.    The scientific  information  shared  through  such,
publications  is  intended to  broaden  and  enhance  scientific knowledge  and
understanding  and to be  used  as  inputs  into  more  targeted,   more  applied
environmental research programs.

   In 1997, proposals will  be solicited in  the .general areas of environmental
biology/ecology, air chemistry/physics, water chemistry/physics, environmental
engineering, and socioeconomics.  In  addition, the Early Career Research Award
Program will award up to  10  grants in  the range of $75,000 to $100,000 per award
per year  for up to  five  years to promising  researchers who are building .their
careers.

Fellowships/Environmental Education

   The Agency requests a  total•of $16,982,200 and 1.0 workyear for 1997 in the
Fellowship program.

   A blue ribbon panel of the Science Advisory Board recommended that EPA enhance
its  environmental education  programs  for   training the  next generation  of
scientists and engineers. The graduate'fellowship program was initiated in 1995
for  that purpose.   This graduate  fellowship program,  competitive  and peer-
reviewed,  is designed to attract  some of   the  brightest' and  most  dedicated
students  in the Nation to take advanced training in  scientific and engineering
disciplines  relevant  to  protection of public health and the environment and,
ultimately to careers in  environmental science and engineering - - not  only for
EPA, but  for states,  localities, and industry.   Fellowships will bring fresh
ideas to bear on EPA science issues.  The work done under  the  fellowship program

                                      3-43

-------
will contribute to resolving uncertainties associated with particular environment
problems and focus graduate research on priority research areas. This investment
is critical if the government, industry,  and academia are to have the talent they
need to address  the environmental "challenges of the  future..   The fellowships
begin their payoff almost immediately: students generally must perform original
research to complete their degree requirements while located at their university
facilities.  In  1997,'the. Agency  expects  to support  about 300 new fellowships
across multiple  disciplines,  including  the biological  and physical  sciences,
mathematics' and computer science,  and engineering. -                       _

Centers              •                        .              "

   The Agency requests a total  of  $9,578,000  and 1.0 workyear for 199-7 in the
Centers program.

   ORD will continue to provide resources for the  Environmental Research Centers
(ERCs)  and the Hazardous Substances Research Centers  (HSRCs),  as well as to the
minority institutions supported within this program component.

   The four  ERCs and five HSRC university  consortia,  will  continue to support
fundamental  and  applied  research.  These Centers   provide  basic  research,
technology transfer, and training  activities that address the priority problems
of environmental management within their geographic areas of concern.

   The Minority  Centers program will  continue  to emphasize  participation of
minority  scientists and  students  in  environmental   research.    They  develop
curriculum and training materials,  provide mechanisms for developing students and
faculty in  environmental fields,  and' conduct basic  and applied  research and
development, technology transfer,  and outreach programs.

Regional•Programs

   The Agency requests a total of  $4,512,500 and  24.0'workyears for 1997 in the
Regional Programs.

   The Regional  programs  involve  research  support  to the Regions to assist on
high priority  science areas  and  reduce the  cost  and improve the quality of
research efforts.   This program-'includes  the Regional  Scientist  program, the
Regional Methods program, and the Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE).

   The  Regional  Scientist  program is  designed  to improve  communication and
understanding between the Office of  Research and" Development and the Regions .and
foster greater  consideration of science and  technology in Regional decision-
making.  Scientists are detailed frpm Headquarters to the Regions  as a liaison
to  provide  continuity on  research activities.    In  addition, they  use their
individual expertise and knowledge of ORD,  in combination With the knowledge they
acquire of Regional  technical needs to focus on high priority scientific concerns
specific to the EPA Regions.

   The RARE  program provides EPA  Regions  with  a rapid  response  mechanism to
address high priority current year  research needs critical to their ability to
implement various'EPA environmental regulations and target  fegional problems in
a  more cost-effective  and  scientifically-supportable  manner.    The  program
contributes to Regions research support that has included, for example, provision
of testing methods for West Coast  species  to develop scientifically supportable
biocriteria used in setting standards and permits, and the integration of remote
sensing and spatially-related data for determining priority watersheds for salmon
stream habitat restoration  in the Pacific  Northwest.

   The  Regional  Methods program  emphasizes the development  of  high priority
monitoring  methods  needed  by  EPA  Regions  and states  to  establish  permit
conditions  that  are better tailored to  site-specific situations  (i.e., reduce

                                     3-44

-------
both over  and under regulation)  as well as  to more cost  effectively assess
compliance with permit conditions. The ORD's Environmental Monitoring Management
Program (EMMP)  supports  the  efforts of the Agency to reduce  the cost and improve
the quality of environmental monitoring.  Specific initiatives being addressed
include: reducing barriers  to  the use  of innovative approaches  to monitoring;
reducing the development and promulgation of duplicative measurement methods; in
partnership with the states, development of  a national environmental laboratory
accreditation program to reduce the cost to the regulated community caused by the
current system of duplicative state accreditation programs,  and establishment of
uniform, Agency-wide method validation criteria speed up  the approval  of new
methodolbgy and to improve the quality of new methods.

High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC)

   The Agency requests a total of $5,632,900 and 6.3 workyears for 1997 in the
HPCC program.    .       •  •

   EPA's  "community-based"  approach toward environmental  management involves'
local industry, state and local government officials, special interest groups,
and individuals in the community whose health, living conditions, and jobs are
most affected by impacts to the quality of the environment.  The HPCC program,
which is  a cross-Agency coordinated .program, provides  these stakeholders the
capability to access data,  environmental  models,  and analytical tools to make
informed decisions involving risks to human health, ecosystems, and the economics
of local industry and the surrounding community.

   In 1997, the HPCC program will provide critical regulatory support efforts to
support program offices such as the Office of Air .and Radiation and the Office
of Water.   As such,  the HPCC  program will provide  flexible  environmental modeling
and decision  support tools to  states  for use  in  determining cost-effective,
mid-course  corrective  action for their state implementation plans  to ensure
attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone.  HPCC research
will develop prototype  cross-media  ecosystem  exposure assessment capabilities
involving both air and water for local communities and regional planners to test
when considering a range of  local control options and risk reduction, strategies.
The current exposure assessment  capabilities  pertain to only one media,  which
limits the knowledge and application of this knowledge in a situation involving
risks to human health,  ecosystems, and  the economics of the community and local
industry.  The prototype that will be developed  is across media enabling better
informed decisions  to be made  in the event of such situations'. The HPCC program
has become important to  the  Chesapeake Bay  Program,  which is  becoming more
dependent " on these  cross-media assessments  in their•  long term restoration
strategies.  Parallel computational capabilities will also be enhanced to enable
study of  multi-pollutant  and cross-media issues  involving ozone, particulate
matter, and nitrogen.  Information management, access, and analysis techniques
will . be   developed  to  facilitate  cross-discipline   information  exchange.
Additionally, the HPCC  program involves the academic community in innovative
research  to advance  the technology required  for  cross-media environmental
modeling, risk assessments,  and community decision-making.  Research leading to
a tight coupling of geospatial visualization/analysis and environmental models
will be generally applicable to a variety of assessment  applications.

Working Capital Fund (WCF)

   The Agency requests a total of $33,145,700 for 1997 in the WCF.

   The WCF contains funds formerly carried in the Office of Administration and
Resources Management and used  to support  ORD  needs.   With  the creation of the
WCF,  these  resources   have been  moved  into  ORD  to   fund these • services.
Specifically, this .request  provides for postage and data.processing services
previously funded under  the Agency-wide support account in 1996.   Postage dollars
will fund postage costs that provide  all  routine,  day-to-day O.S.  Postal Services

                                     3-45

-------
•and  includes  regular First,  Third,  and Fourth Class mail, Post Office  Express
Mail,  two-day priority  mail,  registered  and .certified mail  and pouch  mail;
Federal Express overnight mail and United Parcel Service shipments for management
and  support  programs.   The on-going  data  processing  and  telecommunication
services are  classified  into five cost  centers;  Enterprise Computing Services,
Network Services, Desktop Services, Technical Consulting Services, and Scientific
Computing Services.  Resources will provide the program's share of depreciation
of  .capital assets,  increased service  costs, additional  mainframe, capacity,
investments  in  .network services,   and investments  in  technical  consulting.
services.  , '                      '                          .

Operating Expenses

   The Agency requests a total of $58,027,700 for  1997 in Operating Expenses.

   These  resources  are  necessary to cover the  operating  costs of  a research
organization that includes  five National Centers and Laboratories and Headquarter
offices  with  "facilities and remote  site.s  located  in nine geographical  areas.-
These  operating expense resources are  for operational  expenses  pertaining  to
supplies,  materials,  scientific  and   technical  equipment,   automated  data
processing  support  and  services, ORD-wide data  systems, facilities operating
'expenses,  facilities repair and improvement  proj-ects '-under  $75,000,    human
.resources   development   training,   training  for  scientists  and  engineers,
administrative printing and reproduction, and various other miscellaneous  support
services.
                                      3-46

-------
               NATIONAL VEHICLES AND FUELS EMISSIONS LABORATORY

OVERVIEW

   The Agency requests a total of $65,195",300 and 28-6'.7 total  workyears for 1997
in the Science and Technology Appropriation account for the National Vehicles and
Fuels Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) (.  The NVFEL is a federal facility that houses
most of  the  employees and activities  of  the Office of Mobile  Sources  in the
Office of Air and Radiation.  The staff at the NVFEL carries out a broad range
of policy,  regulatory,  and compliance functions necessary to implement the Clean
Air Act and fuel economy statutes.

   The Clean Mr Act  (CAA) authorizes a nationwide program to  prevent and reduce
air  pollution  through air  quality  planning,   regulation,  enforcement,  and
research.   Enactment  of  amendments to  the  Act in 1990  created high  public
expectations for cleaner,  healthier air quality nationwide through cleaner cars,
fuels, factories,  and powerplants.  The 1990  CAA amendments require significant
changes in vehicle control technologies  and  fuel  types and expansion of state
clean air programs.  Under the  amendments, EPA must adopt about 60  new mobile
source rules  covering:  reformulated gasoline, leaded gasol-ine, clean alternative
fuels, vehicle fleet  requirements, vehicle emission standards, and state program
requirements.  In implementing the Act, the-Agency will use not only traditional
approaches for controlling air  pollution,  but  also will strive to harness the
power  of  the marketplace,  encourage  local  initiatives  and flexibility,  and
emphasize pollution prevention.

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS  '

   The results of programs carried  out at  the  NVFEL will play a major role in
achieving the national environmental goal for clean outdoor air.   The NVFEL will
implement this goal  through  clean vehicle  and  fuels programs that will make a
major contribution to  meeting national clean air standards and reducing toxic
pollutants.   Air  pollution  from mobile sources accounts  for over half  of the
nationwide emissions of  carbon monoxide  and pollutants  that create  ozone or
"smog."  Because mobile source  emissions  account  for such  a large percentage of
the  total  air pollution  problem, reducing these emissions holds the. greatest,
potential for cleaning our nation's air. The reformulated gasoline program alone
was reducing smog-forming  pollutants by about 160,000 tons per year by 1995; this
will increase to about 200,000  tons per year beginning in  2000.

   Priorities  of  the  mobile sources  program  in  1997 include:   controlling
nitrogen  oxides  (NOX) and  particulate  matter  (PM),  .focusing  on  heavy-duty
vehicles, engines 'and non-road  sources; implementing the CAA1s.vehicle,  engine
and  fuels  requirements;   reducing  in-use  emissions  through  a  transformed
inspection and maintenance (l/M) program;  developing inventory estimation tools
that serve user needs and are recognized as scientifically credible; reinventing
the  vehicle  compliance program  by focusing on  in-use emissions and leveraging
manufacturer investments in vehicle durability;  evaluating alternative long-term
strategies for fuels, including  alternative fuels; supporting development of new
technology approaches  to reducing in-use emissions and evaluating'technologies
from the  Partnership for  a New Generation  of  Vehicles  work  as  to  their
applicability to  in-use  emissions control of  NOX  and PM; implementing engine
control  and  NOX/PM  control  programs,  especially  non-road,  developing  and
enhancing models, and applying  sound science to their development;  working on
alternative fuels and advanced technologies; reengineering of  processes, such as
certification; and improving program infrastructure and maintenance,  including
replacement of obsolete equipment at NVFEL.

   In  1997  the NVFEL  will  continue testing programs  needed to provide sound
information on vehicle and fuel  emissions and vehicle fuel economy.  The testing
programs produce  information needed to ensure  compliance with federal vehicle
emission standards and enforce federal fuels  requirements'. The NVFEL also uses

                                     3-47

-------
vehicle testing information to develop tools used by states in preparing their
clean air plans.  Without such information, the .results from state plans may'not
provide necessary emission  reductions.  The fuel economy data are  by-products of
emissions control-related testing.  These data are used'to provide fuel economy
information to the public and to implement the "Gas Guzzler11'tax.

    EPA and the  states  will work together'in  1997  to  carry out mobile source
pollution abatement programs:  vehicle inspection and maintenance,  oxygenated and
reformulated  fuels;  'clean  fuel  fleets;  trip reduction  programs;  and  other
transportation control  measures.   The  NVFEL will  provide  guidance, support,
technical assistance, and policy clarification to states and EPA regions.

   To help meet the national environmental goal for clean outdoor air  the Agency
will, by the year 2005,  reduce toxic air emissions from all major sources to the
lowest technically-achievable levels.  By 2010 the  incidents  of cancer due to
exposure to pollution from vehicles will  be reduced  by  50 percent;  In 1997 the
Agency will continue  an  initiative to reduce health and environmental  risks from
air toxics emitted by numerous small urban "area"  sources.  The initiative will
allow EPA to focus on better control of vehicle fuels and additives, which, in
addition to stationary  s.ources,  are also sources  of urban health risk.   Under
rules Issued in 1994, manufacturers  conduct tests of  fuel additives to determine
health effects before registration by EPA,  In 1997  NVFEL will issue  additional
rules and protocols related .to fuels and  fuels additive health effects testing.

     The NVFEL is an active participant  in the Partnership for a New  Generation
of Vehicles, a combined effort with the Department of Energy, the Department of
Defense,  the  Department of  Transportation,  the  Department of  Commerce,  the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration,  the National -Science Foundation,
and the domestic  automobile manufacturers, to dramatically improve passenger car
and  light  truck  fuel economy and  reduce pollution.  In 1997  the Agency will
devote a  total of  $18,765,800 and 21.2  total  workyears to  this effort.   This
"clean car" program will develop new advanced vehicle technologies to improve air
quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.   Reducing  greenhouse gas emissions
contributes to meeting the national environmental goal for reducing environmental
risks.  Transportatipn sources are estimated to represent more than half of the
greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2000.  EPA will help demonstrate the
pollution prevention potential of automotive propulsion systems with  low carbon
emissions,  while  at  the  same  time preserving  current vehicle performance,
a.f fordability, utility, and safety.
   In 1997  the  Agency expects to collect over  $9,000,000  in fees through the
mobile  source  certification  program  to  cover  the  cos-ts related  to  the
certification, fuel economy, Selective Enforcement Audit, and recall programs.
These funds will cover the costs of operating federal programs for states that
do  not  submit  approvable programs  or do  not adequately  implement approved
programs.
                                     3-48

-------
                        NATIONAL RADIATION LABORATORIES

 OVERVIEW

    The  Agency requests a total of  $5,947,000 and 39.8 total workyears for 1997
 in the  Science  and Technology Appropriation account  for  the  two  national
 radiation and indoor environment laboratories operated by the Office of Radiation
 and Indoor  Air '(QRIA)  in the Office of Air and Radiation.

    The  EPA  program designed to protect public health  and  the environment from
 adverse effects of radiation exposure and to reduce human exposure to unhealthful
 levels  of indoor pollution, including radon,  is  derived from several statutes
 including:  the Indoor Radon Abatement Act; the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990;
 the Waste Isolation Pilot Project'Land Withdrawal Act of 1992; the Energy Policy
 Act of  1992;  the Atomic Energy Act; the Public Health Service Act;  the Uranium
 Mill  Tailings  Radiation Control  Act; the  Marine  Protection,  Research,  and
 Sanctuaries Act; and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization  Act.   These
 Acts  authorize  a wide range of regulatory, assessment, assistance, and technical
 activities. The Agency's two radiation and indoor environment laboratories, the
 National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory. (NAREL)  and  the  Las Vegas
 Laboratory  Facility  (LVF), provide the technical understanding to support Agency
 responsibilities.

    The  EPA's  two radiation  and indoor environment laboratories support the four
 following major objectives  to:  reduce adverse health effects and environmental
 impacts from radiation and indoor  air • pollutant  exposure  through a program of
 standards and guidelines; assess and quantify existing and emerging radiation and
 indoor  air  quality problems and their potential impacts on public health and the
 environment;  respond to radiation and indoor  air quality issues of serious public
 concern; and maintain  the capability to respond to radiological emergencies and
 to aid  development and testing of federal, state, and local plans for emergency
 response.  To accomplish these objectives,  EPA assesses and regulates sources of
 airborne radionuclides;  evaluates  and regulates radioactive waste  disposal;
 provides site assessments and radiochemical  analyses of  environmental samples;
 operates the  Radon Action Program;  operates  the Environmental Radiation Ambient
 Monitoring  System;  develops radiation clean-up and waste management standards;
 responds to radiological emergencies; and conducts indoor air quality technology
 and tech-trans-fer programs.

 PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

    In  1997  the Agency will  continue  to develop and  maintain  an  emergency
 preparedness program  designed to  avert excessive exposure to radiation from
 nuclear accidents; to  provide  field, laboratory, and technical support to EPA's
 radiation  regulatory  development   and implementation activities  through  the
 collection  and analysis of  environmental  samples;  to  monitor  environmental
 radiation levels and  assess  the effects  of radiation exposure to  the general
 public  from ambient radiation; to characterize and evaluate  special radiation and
 indoor  air  problems;  to  provide analytical  support to other parts of EPA for
 assessing radiation  risks;  and to provide training and support to other federal
 and state agencies and to Indian tribes.

    In  1997  the  Agency will  play a  significant  role  in preparing for  and
 responding  to accidental releases of radioactive material into the, environment.
 The ORIA laboratories  will  continue their lead responsibilities for EPA's field
 measurements  in  emergency  situations.  '   The  Agency  will  maintain  mobile
' radiological laboratories and support  vehicles as  well as an inventory of field
 instruments to carry out EPA's role.  EPA's Radiological Emergency Response Team
 includes" staff' from headquarters and regional 'offices, as'well as from the two
 laboratories.
                                      3-49

-------
     The Agency  will  continue to improve  the  Environmental Radiation Ambient
Monitoring System  (ERAMS).  A major  component  'of the overall nuclear accident
response capability, ERAMS includes 268 stations to sample air, precipitation,
surface  water,   drinking  water,  soil,  and  milk.    These  stations  have  the
capability to provide  near real-time information on  ambient radiation levels
resulting from nuclear accidents.

     In 1997  the ORIA laboratories will conduct field and laboratory measurements
and analyses'to support environmental radioactivity standards and to provide a
basis for evaluating environmental radiation sources.  In addition, the radiation
laboratories will provide extensive support to the Agency's radon and indoor air
programs. NAREL will continue to lead the Agency's Radon. Measurement proficiency
(RMP)  program.   The RMP  program will  evaluate  the  capability of  individuals
offering radon measurement and  mitigation  services and  make  the  information
available to the states and public.

   The radiat.ion  laboratories  also provide technical oversight in support of two
important federal radioactive waste programs.   In October  1992 Congress enacted
legislation for evaluating the Waste Isolatipn Pilot Plant  (WIPP), a radioactive
waste disposal site operated  by the  Department of  Energy  (DOE)  in  New Mexico.
The Act  gives  EPA oversight  and regulatory responsibility  for the DOE waste
disposal activities at WIPP.   In addition,  under the Energy Policy Act of 1992,
the Agency must set standards regulating the disposal of high level nuclear waste
at  the  proposed  repository at  Yucca Mountain, Nevada.   Final  standards will
•ensure that the Yucca 'Mountain disposal system adequately controls-releases of
radioactive material,  thereby protecting both individuals  and populations.  The
Yucc,a Mountain standard,  along  with the WIPP  responsibilities,  implement the
EPA's environmental goal  to ensure safe waste  management  protective of public
health.                     "         .

   In 1997 the  ORIA laboratories  will  continue efforts  to  identify critical
technology problems associated with mixed waste clean-ups and tests at Superfund
sites and evaluate specific technologies that focus on the radioactive component.
Development of an EPA national "reference laboratory" for Agency-wide  mixed waste
analysis will  continue including  establishment of field sampling,  screening
handling, and  shipping procedures.  In addition,  ORIA will provide training
assistance to EPA regions on radioactivity hazards, transport,  safety procedures,
field worker safety, and  health as they relate to  clean-up at Superfund sites
containing radioactive materials.

   Working toward its  environmental goal for the clean-up  of radioactively
contaminated federal facilities, during 1997 the Agency will continue development
of clean-up criteria for sites contaminated with radionuclides that will provide
clear and consistent ground rules for clean-up.  Radioactive  materials are used
at  over 20,000  sites  including  DOE facilities and  over  100 nuclear  power
reactors.

   In 1997 the ORIA laboratories will  continue efforts to evaluate technology and
guidance for improving air quality in homes, schools,  and  large buildings.  The
labs  will  conduct field  and  laboratory measurements  to  support guidance for
indoor air quality issues.

   Finally, the Agency will continue to monitor  the Nevada test site and other
sites to provide  the data needed by  policy-makers  to make decisions about' the
control of public exposure to radioactive materials.

FEES

   In 1997 EPA will  collect fees under the Radon Contractor Proficiency Program,
the RMP program,  and the radon training program.  The Agency  estimates that fees
collected for these programs  will total approximately  $1,307,000.


                                     3-50

-------
              ANALYTICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES

OVERVIEW

   The Agency requests a total of $2,981,600 and 34.7 total workyears for  1997
from the Science and Technology appropriation for the Pesticides Program.  The
activities in this program element support the Agency's  safe food environmental
goal.

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS.

   The Office of Pesticide  Programs  (OPP) laboratories have, unique programs  that
directly  support the  regulatory  program.  They are an integral part  of the
pe-sticide programs and are highly responsive to the program.  The laboratories
directly  support the  food tolerance,  exposure,  ecological effects  and  risk
assessment .programs  within OPP.   The OPP  laboratories maintain the Agency's
capacity to perform food, product or environmental chemistry method validations.
OPP also has  a  unique  internationally-recognized dioxin laboratory capable of
testing dioxin/furan methods.

     These capabilities are of vital  importance to the  scientific integrity of
the pesticide registration, reregistration, and special  review programs in  OPP.
The laboratories also support  the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
and the Office of General Counsel in  such  areas as sample  extraction analysis,
collaborating test methods, and specialized technical assistance.
   The  Analytical  Chemistry Laboratory   in  Beltsville,  Maryland  and  the
Environmental Chemistry Laboratory in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi,  perform testing
to assure that (1) validated methods are available to other enforcement agencies
like  PDA,  DSDA  and  the states,  and  (2)  methods  used  to generate exposure,
environmental fate, and ecological effects studies are reliable. The laboratories
also participate in special projects such as the National Pesticide  Survey, the
Office of  Prevention,  Pesticides  and Toxic Substances Dioxin/Furan Panel, and
analyzing  product  and  tissue  samples  for hearings   and  conformance   with
'established procedures.

   In  addition  to support   provided by  the  Beltsville  and  Bay St. ' Louis
facilities, a small microbiology laboratory is maintained  in Cincinnati, Ohio.
to  assure that  antimicrobial pesticides  are  efficacious.   The   individuals
involved  in  the Cincinnati  facility  compile  and  update  test methods  and
protocols, evaluate the performance of antimicrobial  pesticides  and  support the
registration process for antimicrobial pesticides of concern to the public.

   Resources  will  be  used for basic  facilities and operation  and maintenance
costs for  all three  Pesticide Program laboratories.   This includes utilities,
security, conmunications, warehousing, custodial services, building maintenance,
new laboratory equipment to replace equipment that  is obsolete or no longer cost-
effective to rep-air,  and maintenance for existing equipment. The resources  will
also provide  equipment for building analytical  capacity for biotechnology and
other  unique products  that  cannot be-validated with  traditional laboratory
instruments.
                                      3-51

-------
3-52

-------
                       DRINKING  WATER PROGRAM LABORATORY

OVERVIEW

   The Agency requests a total of $1,707,600 and 21.3 total workyears for 1997
to fund drinking water technical support for the implementation of drinking water
regulations and a wide range of laboratory implementation activities.

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

   The Agency requests a total of $1,707,600 and 21.3 total workyears for 1997
to fund drinking water technical support for the implementation of drinking water
regulations with particular emphasis on the development  and implementation of a
comprehensive procedure to  evaluate and correct performance problems at drinking
water treatment plants. EPA will also be working with drinking water treatment
plants in  the implementation  of  the  Information  Collection Rule  (ICR) ' that
requires the collection and analysis of large amounts of occurrence and treatment
data  for disinfectants,  disinfection  byproducts  (DBF), and microorganisms.
Laboratories that test and assess  drinking water samples also play an important
role  in  the  ICR.    In  1997,  EPA  will  work  with  about  400  laboratories,
particularly on microbial. and DBP analyses.   EPA plans to  monitor laboratory
performance  in  1997 and  will use  both the  Performance  Evaluations  studies,
including 360 microbial sample  sets  and 1,400  DBP  sample sets,  and laboratory
Quality  Assurance"/-  Quality. Control  (QA/QC)  to ensure  that ICR data quality
objectives are being met.
                                     3-53

-------
3-54

-------
                  NATIONAL ENFORCEMENT INVESTIGATIONS CENTER

OVERVIEW

   The Agency requests a total of $9,526,700 and 82.5 total workyears for 1997
to support the National Enforcement Investigations Center  (NEIC).

   NEIC is the primary source of multimedia technical expertise for criminal and
civil enforcement  in  the  Agency,  providing expertise to  EPA,Headquarters and
Regions, the Department of Justice, the Federal Bureau of  Investigations, ,a.nd the
states. '  Using science and  technology as  a  foundation,   NEIC  develops fully
defensible  evidence  that meets  all legal  requirements.   Areas  of expertise
include:  document control and chain-of-custody; technical  advice on compliance
assistance issues; fact and expert testimony in both criminal trials and civil
depositions; technical evaluation'of enforceability  of regulations; information
analysis and data reviews; support of civil investigations including financial
analysis  and  witness  and  asset  location;  pollution  control  and  process
evaluations;"comprehensive on-site facility inspections  and" pollution impact
evaluations; evidence audit support;  and expertise in negotiating the technical
aspects, of consent decrees and agreements.

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

   NEIC provides unique and highly technical support to the  nation's most complex
criminal and civil enforcement cases.  The  program has developed a longstanding
capability to approach each and every case with the express  intent of proving the
scientific and technical basis  of  the Agency's position.  This  focus begins with
an enforcement approach rather  than research or regulation, and is unique to the
Agency's  science  agenda.   As  the NEIC has followed the  Agency's  regulatory
framework, many recommendations have been made to strengthen these laws based on
the center's first hand knowledge of regulatory weaknesses found ^in-the-field.$
In addition, NEIC developed protocols have been documented and incorporated by
the Agency as standard operating procedures.

   The  center is   supported  by highly trained  engineers,  chemists  and other
environmental professionals who work together to identify the necessary sampling,
analytical,   evidentiary,  and  quality  assurance  needs   to '  support  each
investigation.  They perform these tasks with the scientific integrity necessary
to withstand technical scrutiny and cross-examination.

   Many businesses are using personal computers to maintain financial records,
operations, and inventories and to monitor environmental compliance.  In 1997,
skilled computer specialists will advance EPA's ability to access and evaluate
computerized  information,  in  order  to  identify material and  environmental
management activities, emissions and corporate financial relationships.  These
businesses  are also  declaring   bankruptcy or  an  inability  to  pay  at  an
unprecedented rate.  As the Agency strives  for the regulated community to be in
compliance, in 1997 the program will develop new techniques and define existing
capabilities to monitor compliance and re'commend solutions to pollution problems.
                                     3-55

-------
3-56

-------

-------
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
             FY 1997 PRESIDENTS BUDGET
            (dollars  in thousands)
PROGRAM ELEMENT
AIR QUALITY RESEARCH ' '
EMISS STD T A &CHAR
TEST, TECH&ADMI SUP
EMMISS & FUEL ECON
GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH
.' INDOOR AIR PROGRAM
AIR
WATER QUALITY RESEARCH
WATER QUALITY
DRINKING WATER RESEARCH
DRINKING WATER IMPLEM
DRINKING WATER
HAZARDOUS WASTE RESEARCH
HAZARDOUS WASTE
REGIS, SPEC REGIS, AND TO
PESTICIDES RESEARCH
GENERIC CHEM REV
PESTICIDES
RAD CRIT,STDS&GDLNS
WASTE ISOLATION PILOT
RAD ENV IMPACT ASM
RADIATION
• FIELDS EXPENSES
HEADQUARTERS EXPENSES
MULTIMEDIA RESEARCH
TECH SUPP-OE
MULTIMEDIA
, TOXIC SUBSTANCE RESEARCH
ENV PRO&EFF TOXICS
TOXIC SUBSTANCES
PROGRAM MGT - ORD
MISSION AND POLICY
LAB SUPPORT - OAR
LAB SUPPORT - OPTS
SUPPORT COSTS
HAZ SUB RESEARCH
SUPERFUND
DOLLARS
69,723.5
36,190.9
20,776.9
6,561.2
18,439.7
707.9
152,400.1
26,293 .8
26,293.8
26,593.7
1,707.6
28', 301.3
10,343.9
10,343.9
1,000.5
20,632.0
1,314.0
22,946.5
500.0
453.3
3,869.2
4,822.5
78,213.6
10,837.2
211,786.2
9,526.7
310,363.7
1.2,341.5
0.0
12,341.5
8,184.7
8,184.7
2,082.9
667.1
2,750.0
42,508.0
42,508.0
FTE-
380.7
96.0
136.2 •'
"54.5
49.1
0.0
716.5
192.3
192.3
186.2
21.3
207,5
56. '9 '
56.9
15.0
135.5
19.7 "
170.2
0.0
1.9
37.9
39.8
0.0
.0.0
614.4
82.5
696.9
89.4
0.0
89.4
93.4
93.4
0.0
0.0
0.0
129.2
129.2
                3-57

-------
         UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTS  PROTECTION AGENCY
                         FY  1997 PRESIDENTS BUDGET
                        {dollars in thousands)
PROGRAM ELEMENT
RADIATION
LAS VEGAS
DOLLARS • FTE
REIMS
OFFSITE REIMS
0,0.
0.0
11.0
58 .9
RADIATION
                                           o.o
                69.9
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
621,256.0
2,462.0
                            3-58

-------
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             AIR QUALITY RESEARCH

OFFICE:  Research and Development


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   The Air Quality Research program provides research to  support the provisions
of the Clean Mr Act  (CAA)and Amendments, Title IV of the Superfund Amendments
and Reauthorization Act of 1986  (SARA) with respect to indoor air pollution, and
other requirements to reduce air pollution.  The program supports the regulatory-
efforts of the Agency in this area, particularly the Office of Air and Radiation
(OAR) .                                                            .    •        -


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   The Air Quality Research program provides the scientific  information needed
to fulfill  the  requirements under the CAA,  Title  IV of  SARA,   and other air
pollution  requirements  and Administration  policies.  This  includes research
required to support the implementation of  the regulatory provisions.  The program
provides the scientific basis  for implementing an air pollution control program
that i.s  cost-effective,, market-oriented, and based  on  a reasonably complete
understanding of .the benefits  to be realized for costs imposed.  The Air Quality
Research Program conducts a wide variety of research activities to provide health
and ecological effects and exposure data, monitoring methods and support, models,
assessments,  emission   reduction   technologies  and  other  risk  management
approaches, • and quality assurance  in  support of the regulatory,  policy, and
public,  information  needs  of  EPA's  Air  Program.    These  activities  include
investigating and' assessing the  risks posed by toxic air .pollutants; research on
criteria air pollutants to develop the basis  for the national ambient air quality
standards and state implementation plans;  understanding mobile source emissions
.and air quality  effects under the rapid dynamics of changing fuel composition and
vehicular technologies;  and addressing the  human health  risks associated with
indoor air quality.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goals  of the  Air Quality Research program include providing the Agency
with the scientific data and analyses,  research support,  technical support, and
quality assurance needed to implement  the provisions of  the CAA and other air
pollution policies and address uncertainty associated with air pollution,  their
risks and potential risk management strategies. The  objective of ORD's efforts
is  to  support  OAR's  regulatory  activities  by  providing  the  Agency  with'
information  on  air  pollution  health  and  ecological  effects and  exposure,
monitoring methods,  models, assessments, control  technology development, and
other risk management approaches.  ORD will utilize  the best science available.
at EPA  laboratories, academic  institutions,  other  Federal  agencies,  and the
private sector  to achieve the goals and objectives of this program.
                                     3-59

-------
                 OTITSD STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                 EMISSION STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  Office of Air and Radiation


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   The  provisions  of  Title  I,  Nonattalnment,  and  Title III, . Hazardous Air
Pollutants, of the  Clean Air Act Amendments  (CAAA)  of 1990  provide the statutory
framework for  this  program element.   Title .III directed  the Administrator to
publish a  schedule for the  issuing  of maximum achievable  control technology
(MACT) standards for all sources categories of major sources listed under Section
112 of the CAA.  Title I directed the development of control technique guidelines
(CTGs)  for  volatile  organic  compounds  (VOC)  emissions ,for  at least  13 new
sources. Additionally,' the CAA Amendments of 1977  directed the Administrator to
publish a  list  of all  major  source  categories  not  covered  by new  source
performance standards  (NS.PSsj and to promulgate new HSP.Ss within five 'years. -


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   The major focus  of the air toxics program will  be the development of MACT
standards to'control emissions of 199 air toxics from 174 source categories as
required under  section 112  of CAAA and other  regulatory  authorities.   Within
eight years after the issuance of MACT standards,  additional standards must be
promulgated 'to  further reduce risk to  public  health and the  environment,  if
warranted.   The Agency's strategies for air pollution control incorporate a
strong regulatory role for 'State  and local agencies in implementing  the national
standards and for problems that are not of broad national concern.   This program
element supports several non-regulatory activities aimed at providing State and
local'agencies  the  technical  skills  and assistance  (risk/exposure assessment,
control technology)  needed to address local environmental problems for air toxics
and  criteria  pollutants and  the information needed  to provide technical and
compliance assistance  to  small .businesses.   Primary mechanisms for delivering
this  support  are the  Control Technology  Center  (CTC),  Air  Risk information
Support Center  (AirRISC), the MACT database,  and the RACT/BACT/LAER  Clear-
inghouse .


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goals and objectives  of this program are:   (!) developing policies and
regulations for  controlling air  toxics  under Section 112  of the Clean Air Act
(CAA) and other  regulatory authorities;  (2) setting and periodically reviewing
and revising new source performance standards  (NSPSs) under Section 111 of the
CAA for major air pollution sources;  (3)  setting and periodically reviewing and
revising CTGs for major sources -of VOC emissions,  oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and
particulate matter emissions;  (4) performing studies on specific air pollution
issues such as  the  deposition of air toxics into  selected U.S.  waters and VOC
emissions  from  the  use  of  consumer  products,   conducting  risk  analyses  to
determine whether,the residual risk remaining after the application of MACT is
sufficient to warrant regulation: and (5)  providing technical assistance.on air
pollution control technologies and specific sm^ll business compliance and control
requirements to  State and local  air pollution agencies, and performing studies
on specific  air pollution issues  such as  the  deposition of air  toxics into
selected U.S. waters and VQC emissions from "the use of consumer products.  The
program also responds to litigation of NSPSs-and National Emission Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants  (NBSHAPs) and to technical issues in implementing air
standards under  these and other  CAA programs.

                                     3-60

-------
                 ONIT1D  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                TESTING, TECHNICAL, AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / RSQCTLATORY FRAMEWORK

   The Clean Air Act Amendments  (CAAA)  of  1990 require that  EPA address the
significant  environmental problems, related  to  motor  -vehicle   emissions
ozone/carbon monoxide  (CO) non-attainment and' air toxics.   Other programs and
activities are carried out in accordance with the  mandates of the Motor Vehicle
Information and Cost Savings Act and the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988.

   In addition to these statutory-authorities, the program operates within the
framework of a number of  regulations  relating to motor vehicle certification,
light-duty and heavy-duty recall,  light-duty, and heavy-duty selective enforcement
audits,  a  full  array  of  regulations  governing the  quality  of  fuel,  and
requirements to develop emission factors for all mobile sources.

PROgRAM, DESCRIPTION

   This program element provides testing,  technical and administrative management •
support  to  the  operating  programs of  the  . Office of Mobile Sources  and EPA
National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions  Laboratory  (NVFEL).   Programs supported
include  Recall,   Tampering/Fuel   Switching,-  Standard   Setting,   Emissions
Characterization, Technology Assessment, Clean Fuels/Vehicles,  Fuel  Economy,
In-Use Vehicle Emissions Assessment, Certification, and Inspection/Maintenance,
described under program elements  HTA2B and HVA"2B.  The support provided includes
automated data processing (ADP) timesharing  services  (providing over 95 percent
of time-share services separately from the National Computing Center) , laboratory
data acquisition, and computer operations;  fuel sample analysis and testing of
motor  vehicles  to -measure emissions  and  fuel  economy;  quality control, and
correlation  services for EPA  and industry testing  programs;  maintenance and
engineering design of emis,sion testing equipment; personnel, procurement, general
administration,   safety,   facilities  support . services,   and  environmental
compliance; and management of the assurance activities.

   Testing activities supported at the NVFEL  range from performing standard, well
established. engineering tests  to the development and performance of  new test
procedures  to accommodate  new  program needs  or changing technology.   Testing
"supports the recall surveillance,  tamper ing/fuel switching programs, development
of emission factors, and the assessment  of  the effectiveness of new emissions
control technology in maintaining.the emission standards in use.   The facility
services function is fully administered by EPA since  the February  1991 purchase
of the NVFEL by the Federal government.  A high level  of occupational safety and
health is maintained, as well as full- compliance with EPA, State of  Michigan, and
City of Ann Arbor environmental compliance  requirements.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The mobile source support programs are  an integral  element  of the overall
programs aimed at implementing  the CAAA and  controlling and reducing ozone, CO,
and air toxics.  Vehicle emissions from  the tailpipe and fuel evaporation from
the  engine  and  fuel  tank  account  nationwide  for  50  percent  of all  (HC)
hydrocarbon  emissions-'the main  contributor  to ozone;  90  percent of  all  CQ
emissions; and 30 percent  of all (NQx)  nitrogen oxide emissions.   These toxic
emissions  from motor vehicles contribute to approximately  700  fatal  cancers
annually and are associated with respiratory  disease and birth defects.
                                     3-61

-------
                 UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     EMISSIONS  AND FUEL ECONOMY COMPLIANCE

NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  Office of Air and Radiation


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORYFRAMEWORK

   The  Clean  Air  Act   (CAA)   requires  that  EPA  address  the  significant
environmental  problems  related  to  motor vehicle  emissions  - -  ozone/carbon
monoxide (CO)  non-attainment and air toxics.  Fuel economy and other activities
are carried out in accordance with the mandates of the Motor Vehicle Information
and Cost Savings Act and the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988  (AMFA),

   This program functions  within a broad regulatory framework dealing with motor
vehicle emissions, including motor vehicle certification,  light-duty and heavy-
duty  recall,   light-duty  and  heavy-duty  selective enforcement  audits,  the
importation  of non-conforming. motor  vehicles,  a  full array  of regulations
governing the quality of fuel,  Tier I  standards adopted as a result of -the CAA
amendments  of  1990,  cold  temperature  CO  standards,  on-board  diagnostics,
durability,  and  inspection/maintenance   (I/M)   short test  procedures  -  with
increased emphasis on using innovative approaches and market-based  incentives to
achieve the goals.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION                                                   ' '

   This program element provides for mobile sources emissions and fuel economy
compliance activities.   The program assures that new motor vehicles offered for
sale in the U.S.  are in compliance with  the  emission  standards prescribed by
model  year and  class  of vehicle.   The  programs  also:  (1)  assure  that new
production vehicles meet emission standards  (through the Selective Enforcement
Audit  (SEA) program);  (2) assure  that  vehicles meet emission standards in-use
(the recall program is  directed at assuring that  manufacturers fulfill their
responsibility to produce vehicles which comply  with these standards) ;  (3) assure
that vehicles incapable of meeting emission standards are  not imported  into the
country; (4)  provide support to states  opting for California emission standards
under Section 177  and process California emissions waivers; (5) assure that fuels
and fuel additive requirements  are implemented  (e.g., through regulations); and
(6)  implement banking and  trading and  non-compliance  -penalty programs'.   In
addition,  the program works with  .the Department of Energy to provide accurate
fuel economy information to the consumer.  The program oversees Corporate Average
Fuel Economy  (CAFE)  activities and provides audit followup.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   Vehicle emissions from the tailpipe- and fuel evaporation  from the engine and
fuel tank account nationwide for 50 percent of  all  (HC) hydrogen emissions--the
main contributor to  ozone; 90 percent of all CO emissions;  and 30 percent of all
(NOx)  nitrogen oxide emissions.   Approximately half  of toxic  emissions are
related to mobile sources.   These emissions from motor vehicles contribute to
approximately  700 fatal cancers annually  and  are  associated with respiratory
disease and birth defects.

   Specific objectives include  the development and implementation of programs to'
ensure that current  mandated vehicle emissions  standards are met,  that  accurate
fuel economy  information is made  available to the  consumer  (through the MPG
values published in the Gas Mileage Guide),  and that EPA's responsibilities are
met under the CAFE compliance program,  including changes made by the AMFA.


                                   '  3-62

-------
                 UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                            GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH

OFFICE:  Research and Development


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   EPA's global  change  research  supports the comprehensive U.S. Global Change
Research Program (US'GCRP)  developed by the interagency  Committee on Environment
and Natural  Resources  (CENR).   The  Global .Change  Act  of 1990  provides the
legislative  framework  for  planning  and  implementing  the  USGCRP  and  for
development of coordinated national policy options on global climate change by
the EPA pursuant  to the Global Climate Protection Act  of 1987.  This program also
supports the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which provides phaseout deadlines
for Ozone Depleting Compounds '(ODCs) and requires EPA to establish  recycling and
disposal standards for ODCs, as well as develop procedures to evaluate the safety
of proposed  alternatives.   In addition, this  program supports  the  Montreal
Protocol and its  amendments,  which require a 50  percent reduction  in CFCs and a
freeze on halons, and periodic assessments of new scientific data for possible
accelerated phase-out schedules.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   EPA's Global Change Research Program (GCRP) prpv-ides the scientific basis to
assess, -evaluate, and predict  the ecological,  environmental,  and human-health
consequences of  global  change, including the  feedback these systems  have on
climate change.  The climate change research component of the program provides
the Agency with process-level understanding and modeling capabilities to predict
global change effects and feedbacks at continental,  regional,  and sub-regional
scales, the'reby improving the ability of. decision makers' to develop a balanced
and rational policy for responding to global change.  The stratospheric ozone
research component of the  program  is designed to quantify the UV-B  increases and
understand the effects and exposure issues for humans and sensitive ecological
systems.  The research supports the periodic effects assessments  required by the
Montreal Protocol and provides  data to the EPA media programs which will be used
to both inform  the public  about the implications of ozone depletion, and as well
to provide information to policy-makers considering  adaptation strategies. .


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The  central  goals of  global  change  research  are to develop  a  predictive
understanding of  how global climate change impacts the terrestrial biosphere, and
to provide the  information needed to address  the uncertainties  concerning global
change  and the  resulting potential  risks  to  human. health,  welfare  and the-
environment. This program also facilitates protection of the stratospheric ozone
layer  through  identification  of harmful  substances  and by  assessing  the
environmental consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion.  ORD will utilize
the best  science.available at EPA  laboratories,  academic  institutions,  other
Federal agencies, and the  private sector to  achieve the goals  and  objectives of
this program.
                                     3-63

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS PROGRAM


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  Office of Air and Radiation


STAggTORY AUTHORITIES/RBGDLATORY FRAMEWORK                     •      .  •

   The indoor  environments program  is  responsible for implementation of. the
policy and non-research components of Title IV of the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and the Indoor Radon Abatement Act  (IRAA),

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   This program element  supports the analysis, development,  and review of indoor
environments -programs and .activities necessary for coordination and oversight by
the National Program Manager.   The  Indoor Environments Program implements the
provisions of- the Indoor' Radon Abatement Act operation of the State indoor Radon
Grants Program, oversight  of  the  national radon proficiency programs,  work to
reduce  elevated  levels of  radon  in schools,  promotion  of model building
standards, and technical assistance to build capabilities at the state and local
level to identify and fix radon problems.  As authorized under  SARA, the program
will continue to  address  sources  and levels of other indoor air pollutants of
concern,  better understand the adverse health effects of poor indoor air quality,
refine guidance on issues such as building design, operation and maintenance, and
disseminate  new  knowledge   to  key audiences  including  state  and  local
environmental health officials and building facility managers.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The indoor environments program goals  and objectives are to reduce, to the
greatest extent practicable,  human exposure to the entire  range of indoor air
pollutants  including   radon,  VOCs,  biocontaminants  carbon  monoxide  and
environmental tobacco smoke that are known to cause significant excess mortality
and which range in their'effects from cancer to non cancer-endpoints including
mild irritation to acute toxicity and chronic organ damage.
                                     3-64

-------
                   UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                            PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                              WATER QUALITY RESEARCH

  OFFICE:'  .Research and Development

  STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

     The Water Quality Research program is authorized under the Clean Water Act
 • (CWAJ, the  Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act  (MPRSA),  and the
  Federal Water  Pollution Control Act  (FWPCA).   This research program  directly
  supports the regulatory efforts of the  Office of Water.


  PROGRAM .DESCRIPTION

     The water Quality Research program develops and analyzes scientific  data and
  risk management approaches to help protect  the designated  uses of our  nation's
  waters and related ecosystems.  It provides the data, technologies, scientific
  information necessary for criteria and standards issued by  the Office of Water,
  and  technical  assistance  to  other  EPA  regulatory  programs,  states-,  and
  municipalities to minimize the environmental and human health risks (effects and
  exposure) associated with pollutant discharges and other environmental stressors
  and disturbances to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters.   The program  conducts
  research  on coastal  and marine  waters,  large  lakes  and  rivers,  wetlands,
  contaminated     sediments,     aquatic    ecocriteria,    nonpoint     sources,
  habitat/biodiversity, wastewater and sludge,_and on improving analytical methods
  for quantifying pollutants.

     The Water Quality Research program contributes to the Agency's approach  to
  integrated ecosystem protection and restoration. This approach allows the Agency
  to develop the  scientific understanding and techniques required for effective
  integrated ecological  risk, assessment  and  ecosystem  protection by conducting
  research and monitoring and assessment  collectively at  multiple scales.

  GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

     The objectives of the Water Quality  Research program are to:

   o  provide the scientific base to assist the Office of Water and states develop
      water quality standards,  conduct use-attainability  analyses and implement the
      Agency's water quality based pollution control program;

   o  evaluate the  impact of pollutants  and other environmental  .stressors and
      disturbances on large ecosystems, (for example,  the  Great  Lakes, Chesapeake
      Bay,  South Florida, and the1 Pacific Northwest),   as well  as on other  large
      lakes,  rivers, wetlands,  and  estuarine and coastal waters,  including the
      impact of ocean disposal practices;

   o  provide the  technical information,  engineering and monitoring assistance
      needed by EPA., states, municipalities, and industry to develop and implement
      wastewater treatment regulations; and

   o  develop  risk  management  approaches  for  environmental  mitigation and
      restoration-such as constructed wetlands.

   ORD will  utilize the  best  science  available  at EPA  laboratories,   academic
institutions,  other Federal agencies,  and the private  sector  to  achieve•the  goals
and objectives of this program.
                                      3-65

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION         -
                             DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

OFFICE:  Research and Development


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   The Drinking Water Research program is authorized by the Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA)  which  mandates  that  the  EPA  identify  and  regulate   drinking  water
contaminants which may threaten human health.  .The  research program  supports the
regulatory efforts of the Office of Water.


PRpgRAM DESCRIPTION

   The Drinking Water Research program provides the scientific and technical  basis
for  improving  drinking water  quality and  supporting the Agency's  rule making
activities under the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments.  It provides  data,  risk
management approaches,  scientific  information necessary for criteria and standards
issued by the  Office of  Water,  and technical assistance to other EPA  regulatory
programs, states,  municipalities, and private suppliers of drinking water to assist
in prevention  or  removal of  contaminants  from drinking water supplies.   It also
provides information on the health effects,  exposure,  and associated  health  risks
of specific contaminants in drinking water, including the effects  of disinfectants
and related by-products {D/DBPs) used in water treatment and distribution systems.
The program conducts research on such areas that include drinking  water  pollutants
and disinfection and groundwater.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The objectives of the Drinking Water Research program are to:

   o  determine the health effects and associated health risks  of contaminants  in
      public  drinking  water,  including  comparative  assessments  of  the  risks
      associated with exposure  to  chemicals, microbes,  and disinfectants and  their
      by-products;

   o  develop  and evaluate analytical  procedures to detect and monitor  drinking
      water contaminants to better understand exposure implications,-

  "o  develop  and  evaluate  risk  management  approaches  including  innovative
      technologies and alternative treatments to remove contaminants from public
      drinking water systems or otherwise control and reduce contaminant risk;

   o  provide  technical support to the regions and  states in ascertaining causes
      of outbreaks from waterbome infectious diseases and determining  the hazard
      to humans from exposure to infectious agents through drinking water;

   o  provide the scientific basis for the  protection of underground drinking  water
      sources,  including  developing   improved  methods  for  the  detection and
      monitoring of groundwater contamination and for predicting the transport and
      transformation  of  pollutants   in   groundwater,   and  predicting  future
      concentrations of contaminants in groundwater;
                                      3-66

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

OFFICE:  Research and Development


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES (Cont'd)


   o  develop improved  methods  for controlling or preventing pollution of  water
      supplies  from numerous   nonpoint  sources,  including  contamination  from
      agricultural chemicals;

   o  develop and provide technical information to local water wellhead protection
      managers on methods  for  identifying,  assessing and managing the potential
      ri'sks from different' sources of contamination; and

 .  ORD will  utilize the  'best   science  available at  EPA laboratories,  academic
institutions, other Federal agencies, .and the private sector to achieve the  goals
and objectives of this program.
                                       3-67

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          DRINKING WATER IMPLEMENTATION

OFFICE:  OFFICE OF WATER •


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   Parts B and E  of  the Safe Drinking Water Act  (SDWA)» as amended, mandate  the
promulgation of National Primary Drinking Water Regulations  (HPDWR) and provide for
national implementation through approved State programs.  Part F of SDWA delineates
additional requirements to regulate lead  in drinking water coolers  and in  school
drinking water.  The specific program requirements are set forth  in 40 CFR Parts
141 through 143.   Various grant authorities which further the purposes of this  Act
are specified in Sections 1442 and 1444.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   This program  evaluates  engineering  and ^scientific  data  (including treatment
technologies, monitoring approaches and  analytical methods)  to develop regulations
that  ensure  the  safety of  drinking  water.   These regulations  guarantee  that
exposure to  contaminants  in finished drinking water is  reduced below the  level
established by human health risk assessments developed in drinking water criteria.
For each contaminant, EPA identifies either the Best Available Treatment (BAT)  for
Maximum Contaminant Levels  (MCL) "or a treatment technology to ensure the requisite
level of contaminant control.  Contaminants include .microbiological, organic  and
inorganic chemicals and radionuclides.

   In addition, the program provides national policy and direction for the  Public
Water  System Supervision  Program.   This program  includes  responsibility  for:
setting national  priorities and  developing national  guidance;  encouraging  and
.assisting in State  capacity building  efforts; providing technical  assistance to
States;  reviewing/approving  State   primacy  revisions  for  new   regulations;
maintaining  and  improving a  national   data  system;  monitoring State/Regional
adherence to programmatic requirements;  representing and advocating the program to
those outside of the Agency; promoting and transferring innovative approaches;  and
providing technical assistance and contract support for implementing SDWA.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES '

   The  goal  of  this program is  to reduce  health risks  from contamination  of
drinking water and underground sources of .drinking water by: 1)  setting NPDWRs  for
contaminants known or anticipated to occur in public water systems  that may have
any  adverse  effect  on  the  health  of  persons  and  2)   assuring  aggressive
implementation of the regulatory requirements by the States and EPA Regions.  The
objectives  are  to  develop  and  analyze , scientific  and  risk  data  to  ensure
regulation of the most significant  contaminants and to ensure that Regions,  States
and public water  system's have the training, expertise and capability to effectively
implement these requirements.
                                      3 - 6-8

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             HAZARDOUS WASTE RESEARCH

OFFICE: Research and Development     ••            •


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   The  Hazardous  waste  Research  program  provides  research  to  support  the
'implementation  of  the  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  (RCRA)  of 1976,  as
amended by the  Hazardous  and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA)of 1984,  which provide
the  legislative authorization for  this research.   This  program supports  the
regulatory  efforts of  the  Agency,  particularly  the Office  of  Solid  Waste  and
Emergency Response.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   The  Hazardous  Waste  Research  program  provides  scientific  and  technical
information for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response  (OSWER)  necessary
to develop and  implement  hazardous waste criteria and standards  for regulations,
and provide technical support  to EPA Regional offices,, states, local governments,
and  private  industry.    The  program  includes  research'  on  hazardous  wastes,.
bioremediation,  pollution   prevention,   ecorisk   assessment  methods/ecosystems
protection, groundwater,  surface cleanup, and health effects.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goal  of  this research  program is to provide OSWER  the science  needed to
ensure ade'cjuate and  safe treatment  of  hazardous  wastes  from generation through
disposal, to  ensure  safe management  and disposal capacity for  solid wastes,  to
prevent and detect leakage, and to assess contamination from existing underground
storage tanks.  ORD will  utilize the best science available at EPA laboratories,
academic institutions,  other Federal agencies,  and the private sector to achieve
the goals and objectives  of  this program.
                                       3-69

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
               REGISTRATION, SPECIAL REGISTRATION, AND TOLERANCES
OFFICE: OPPTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   The  activities of  Registration,  Special Registration,  and  Tolerances  are
authorized by the Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and Rodenticide  Act (FIFRA)  and
the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).   FIFRA governs the  licensing .or
registration of pesticide products while Sections 408 and 409 of FFDCA regulate the
level of pesticide residues in raw and processed food and-animal feed.

   Under FIFRA-, .all pesticides must  be registered with EPA before they may be sold
or distributed  in the United  States.  EPA operates  under an overall  risk/benefit
standard  for  pesticide  registration.    Pesticides  must perform  their  intended
function when used according to label directions, without posing unreasonable risks
of adverse  effects on human health  or the  environment.   In making pesticide
registration decisions, EPA is required  to take into account the economic,  social,
and environmental costs and benefits of  pesticide use.  This is a task of  enormous
scope and complexity.   OPP regulates approximately 800 active ingredients  included
in approximately 20,000 registered products, which account for  approximately three
billion pounds of pesticide active ingredient use each year.

   FIFRA section 5 regulates experimental use of pesticides.   Section 18  provides
the  Administrator with  authority  to   exempt  -Federal  and state  agencies  from
provisions of  the Act  if an emergency warrants it,  and  section 24 (c) grants  the
states authority to register additional uses for a Federally registered pesticide
for use  in  that state, provided registration has .not .been previously denied or
canceled by EPA.

   Under the  FFDCA, EPA  sets  tolerances,  or maximum legal limits, for pesticide
residues on food and animal feed marketed in the U.S.  Before  a pesticide can be
registered under FIFRA for use on a food or  feed crop, EPA must either establish
a tolerance or, if appropriate, grant an exemption from the tolerance  requirement.


   The  FIFRA  amendments  of 1988 require EPA to give expedited consideration to
applications for initial or amended  registrations of products which are similar to
pesticides already registered (i.e., certain Old Chemical and Amended  Registration
Reviews).

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   To prevent circumvention  of  section 3  registration requirements, stringent
criteria for  granting  section 18 Emergency Exemptions,  such as consideration of
progress  toward  permanent  registration , and  clarification of  "emergency"  and
"significant economic loss", will continue to be applied.  Headquarters continues
to work  closely with the Regions and states to monitor  Emergency  Exemptions  and
Special Local Needs registrations by states.

   EPA has worked with  FDA  on  the use of Maximum Legal Residues for enforcement of
import  commodities bearing  pesticide  residues.   Inerts  of  toxicological  concern
will be listed  on pesticide product labels and will undergo data call-ins.

   The Agency  will continue to implement the  1987 antimicrobial strategy.   Among
the objectives  identified in this strategy are the revision or update of  efficacy
test methodology and performance standards to assure reproducible  efficacy tests.
                                       3-70

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
               REGISTRATION, SPECIAL REGISTRATION, AND TOLERANCES
OFFICE; OPPTS
PROGRAM.DESCRIPTION Con't

   •Emphasis is ongoing with regard to consideration of the regulatory implications
of biological pesticides and,  where appropriate,  on accelerating the experimental
use and registration of these pesticides, which are. the fastest growing segment of
new  product registrations.    Special  emphasis  continues to  be placed  on  the
regulatory implications of  new biological pesticides.  There has been a significant
increase in notifications,  experimental use permit applications and registrations
related to microbial and biochemical pesticides.   These  biological  pesticides  are
generally  safer  than  chemical pesticides,  and  EPA will 'place  a priority  on
processing applications for them.

   Policies continue to ensure  that  tolerances reflect the most current regulatory
status of each active  ingredient.   The Agency continues  to cooperate  and  consult
with USDA  and FDA  by sharing information  and working  together to improve  the
monitoring of pesticide incidents and residues.   International activities  include
the  exchange of  information  between  the  U.S.  and  foreign  countries  and  the
harmonization of  U.S.  and  international standards.   Additionally, reduction  of
pesticide use is an emerging priority in the program.  Efforts will be escalated
in  this  area,  in coordination  with other  Federal  and state  agencies  and  in
cooperation with grower  organizations,  food processors  and food distributors  to
encourage voluntary use reduction programs, focusing in'the areas that present 'the
greatest opportunity for use reduction.

   Prevention of Ground-water contamination, including registrant monitoring, more
extensive use  of  environmental  fate test data,  geographical restrictions,  and
restricted use classifications will continue to  be  emphasized.   This will help
prevent future environmental clean-up problems. Information on product labels will
continue to be improved.

   Improvement in regional  liaison will be accomplished through close coordination
with the regional pesticide experts and other regional staff  to  improve regional
and state understanding of  national regulatory activities.  Regions will  be more
routinely  involved  in  consultations  on  policies  affecting  their mission,•
facilitating enforcement,  enhancing public understanding and  compliance with  EPA
policies, and improving oversight of section 18 and section 24(c) programs.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES                              .

   The goal of the Registration, Special Registration, and Tolerances program is
to protect public health and the environment from unwarranted  exposure to
pesticides while obtaining  the benefits of pesticide use.   This program  is a
major contributor to the Agency's pollution prevention program by emphasizing
source reduction,  and  actively supporting international  efforts to  ensure
sharing of pesticide risk and residue data-reviews.

   An ongoing objective of  the program is to conduct pre-market registrationof
human and environmental risks associated with the introduction or expanded use
of pesticides in the market place and to encourage safer pesticide  substitutes,
including biological and biotechnology products.   A second objective of this  .
program is to regulate the  special  registration of pesticides, including
experimental use,  emergency use, and state registration  of pesticides.  These
functions are required by sections  5, 18, 'and 24(c) of FIFRA.  A third objective
of the program is to protect the public health by establishing safe pesticide
residue levels (tolerances) on food and feed as required by the FFDCA.  This is
achieved by establishing tolerance  levels for residues of both active and inert
pesticide ingredients  (or exemptions from the requirements of- a tolerance) in or
on raw agricultural commodities and processed foods,
                                       3-71

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
               REGISTRATION, SPECIAL REGISTRATION, AND TOLERANCES

OFFICE: QPPTS

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES .Con't                     - '

establishing temporary tolerances for products marketed  following the application
of experimental use pesticides,  and ensuring, through the testing of analytical
methods, that established tolerances can be adequately enforced.

   The  Agency is  actively working to  reduce risks  to human health  and  the
environment by,expediting processing of  potentially safer new chemicals and  new
uses  which may  replace  hazardous  chemicals  that  remain  in  use because  no
alternatives exist.  Computer systems and processes have been changed to  expedite
the processing of these  applications.    Registration reviews  will  continue to
emphasize  the impact  on  food  safety,   ground water,   worker, protection,   and
endangered species,

   Continued special attention  is  being  given to biochemical and raicrobial pest
control agents.  For example,  the Agency  requires  notification  of intended small-
scale field testing of certain genetically engineered, microbial pesticides.   The
Agency  is revising the  section 5 experimental use permit regulations to reflect
this policy and to provide sufficient oversight of the early testing of genetically
altered microbial  pesticides,  while not  creating an. unnecessary  burden on  the
development of  these new, potentially safer pesticides.   For experimental  use
permits, emphasis is  being placed on the products of biotechnology.  These involve
special skills and expedited review not required of more conventional pesticides.
                                      3-72

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                               PESTICIDES RESEARCH

OFFICE:  Research and Development          '


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   The Pesticide Research program provides research to. support  the  implementation
of  the Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)  of 1988 and the
Federal Food, Drug  and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) of  1988. •  The program supports•the
regulatory  efforts  of  the Agency  in  this  area,  particularly  the  Office  of
Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   The Pesticides Research program provides scientific,and technical  support  to
EPA's  Office  of  Prevention,   Pesticides,   and  Toxic  Substances  (OPPTS)   for
implementing environmental protection legislation regarding pesticides.  Research
focuses on providing scientifically valid,  cost  effective methods  for  evaluating
risks associated with pesticide use, manufacture,  and release into the environment.
These research  efforts  include  studying the effects of. stressors  resulting  from
biotechnology products  in  plant  and   invertebrate communities,  measuring  the
exposure of children to pesticides, elucidating the mechanisms of neurotoxicity and
developmental toxicity,  and assessing the  immunotoxicity and.reproductive toxicity
risks presented  by pesticides.  The products of  these research efforts are intended
to support human and environmental risk assessments, which are  the basis  for  the
implementation  of these  laws.   Pesticide research  is  being carried out  in  such
areas that  include:    environmental releases  of biotechnology'products, - human
exposure, health effects, and environmental review of toxic chemicals.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goals  of  the  Pesticides  Research program  are  •to  improve  the Agency's
understanding of the  interaction of pesticides  with  human activities and  the
environment, and to minimize the  impact of pesticides  on the environment, while
maximizing  the  protection of  human health.   ORD will  utilize  the best  science
available at EPA laboratories,  academic  institutions,  other  Federal  agencies,  and
the private sector to achieve the goals and objectives  of this program.
                                      3-73

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             GENERIC CHEMICAL REVIEW
OFFICE: QPPTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   The 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and Rodenticide Act
{FIFRA '88) 'contain provisions for a greatly accelerated five-phase reregistration
program, expedited processing  of certain types  of registration applications,  a
complex new system for collecting and administering  fees, and significant revisions
to the indemnification and disposal program for pesticides  suspended and canceled
after FIFRA. '88,   Fees mandated by FIFRA '88 supplement appropriated funds to carry
out reregistration and expedited processing.

   The reregistration provisions of FIFRA '88 establish mandatory  timeframes and
duties for reregistration of pesticides.  The  law now requires EPA  to  complete,
ov6r approximately a nine-year period, the reregistration review'of each registered
product "containing any  active  ingredient registered  before  November  1,   1984.
Congress directed EPA to carry out reregistration in five phases.

   During Phase I, the Agency developed four lists  (A,  B, C,  and D)  of chemicals,
focusing on  those chemicals with  the highest potential  for  exposure,  ' List  A
chemicals are  those  for  which  EPA  had  issued Registration  Standards prior  to
December  24,   1988.    These  are  primarily food  use  chemicals  and  represent
approximately  85-90  percent  of  the  total  volume  of  agricultural pesticides
currently used in the United States.  Because the  List A pesticides  are those  to
which people and  the environment  are most  exposed they are the Agency's highest
priority for reregistration review.

   List  B,  C,  and  D  chemicals   contain  a  mix  of  many  types  of pesticides
(insecticides,  fungicides, herbicides,  disinfectants,  wood preservatives,  etc.)
used  in a variety of  settings.    Each  list  consists  of pesticides" with less
potential for broad scale human exposure than those on the preceding list.  Most
of the registered microbial and biochemical pesticides are included on List D.

   The reregistration of  List B,  C»  and D chemicals proceeds  through additional
phases.  During Phase II, the registrants declared whether they intended to seek
reregistration of•their products.'  If so, they had to notify  the Agency<  identify
applicable data requirements and missing studies,  commit to submitting or replacing
inadequate studies and pay the first  installment of the reregistration fee.   Phase
II activities were completed in 1990.

   During Phase III, the registrants submitted, reformatted and summarized studies,
flagged studies that indicated adverse effects,  and paid the  final installment  of
the reregistration fee.  Phase III activities were completed in October, 1990. .

   During Phase IV, the  Agency  must review all Phase II and  III  submissions and
determine  independently whether all  applicable data  requirements 'are  actually
satisfied, and if not,  require  registrants to  complete any unfulfilled data
requirements.  Phase  IV was completed for all but two chemicals by September 1993.
In Phase  V,  the Agency  must  conduct a  comprehensive review  of all  the studies
submitted in support  of an active ingredient; decide whether  pesticide products
containing the active ingredient are eligible for reregistration and if so,  under
what conditions;  decide whether product studies-are needed, and if so obtain these
studies; and reregister products by issuing a Reregistration  Eligibility Document
(RED) or taking appropriate regulatory action.
                                      3-74

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION  '
                             GENERIC CHEMICAL REVIEW
OFFICE: OPPTS
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK Con't

   The Lab Support program provides analytical and environmental chemistry services
in order for the  Office  of Pesticide Programs to fulfill its mandated mission.   It
provides support to the registration and reregistration food  tolerance  programs,
the Office of the'General  Counsel,  and the Agency's  regional enforcement program.

   .The  Federal  Insecticide,   Fungicide,  Rodenticide  Act  (PIFRA)   also places
requirements on  OPP  to  maintain a pesticide  analytical  chemistry capability  in
order to validate food tolerance enforcement methods.  These methods are  tested  at
EPA's labs  and represent  a  large percentage of the work  performed at  our  labs.
This work Is important to the  Food and Drug Administration  (FDA) as  well because
these methods  are needed for  special food surveys when  existing multi-.residue
methods are not available for specific analytes.  Residue tolerances of pesticides
on food crops are set  by EPA, the analytical chemistry methodology is  evaluated  at
the Beltsville laboratory,  and the final approved method is given to the FPA for
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act enforcement.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   FIFRA '88 requires a  massive increase  in  the number of registrant  submissions.
The collection of maintenance  fees and reregistration fees to provide  staff and
contract support continues to'support this requirement.

   Activities associated with production of' REDs include identifying candidates,
reviewing databases, and writing REDs.  ' Identification of tier "requirements, review
of toxicology CORT studies and section 6(a)(2)  requirements will  continue to be a
priority in the study reviews.  Science reviews of  studies  and follow-up to Data
Call-ins will  be conducted and  summaries  will be  produced.   After  the RED  is
issued,  reregistration  reviews and decisions  will  continue at the product  level
within each reregistration case.

   Special  Reviews 'are  major risk reduction vehicles, and will be  increasingly
generated  from data  reviewed  during  the reregistration  process.   The program
reflects actual exposure and risk in its review criteria,  and emphasizes concern
for ground-water  protection, worker protection standards, and accelerated decision
making.

   The Agency has continuing disposal  responsibility for pesticides  suspended and
canceled prior to  1988.   Ethylene  dibromide  disposal  was  completed  in  1990.
Dinoseb disposal began  in  1990 and was completed in December 1992.   As of that
date, 99 percent  of dinoseb stocks had been disposed  of.  Disposal of any  remaining
stocks is now  the responsibility  of the  holder.  The disposal of 2,4,5-T/Silvex
stocks previously stored at Byers Warehouse  was completed  in February, 1992 .  The
disposal of the remaining stocks  of 2,4,5-T/Silvex was completed on May  27,  1994.

   Section 19 of  FIFRA .'88 mandates that the Agency promulgate  regulations for the
storage and disposal of  pesticides. Proposed  regulations  will be issued in  three
phases.   Phase I, procedural  rules for suspended/canceled/recalled pesticides was
proposed in  FY 1993  and will be finalized in  FY 1995.   Phase II, standards for
pesticide containers and containment,  was published  in February 1994.   Issuance  of
Phase III,  standards for storage, mixing/loading, transportation and disposal  of
pesticides, began in December 1993.
                                      3-75

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             GENERIC CHEMICAL,REVIEW
OFFICE: OPPTS
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Con'jb

   Section 6(a)(2) of FIFRA requires that  "if any time after the  registration of
a  pesticide   the   registrant   has  additional  factual  information   regarding
unreasonable adverse effects on the environment of  the pesticide,  he shall  submit
such information to the Administrator."  This requirement covers  a  wide range of
information and may  include  interim  test  results,  raw  test data,  and  other
information from on-going,  full or  incomplete studies as well as incident repo'rts.
This wide range of data makes it essential for the Agency to" screen the information
and quickly determine whether further review is warranted.  The  Pesticides program
has taken significant  steps to improve the handling of section 6(a) (2) information.
These include  improved  tracking, development of tools to analyze incident  data,
efforts in resolving policy and procedural issues, and clarification of guidance
to registrants.  A proposed rule has been developed and'was  published in FY 1993.
The final rule is undergoing review and is expected to be final in  FY 1995.

   An Indian strategy is under implementation to enable Indian" tribes  to  become
involved in all areas  of the pesticide program.  Currently tribes are eligible  for
funds for the initiation of worker protection, ground water, and endangered species
programs.   The Agency  is  .continuing  development  of  training materials  for
conducting  environmental  protection  awareness  training for  tribal personnel,
conducting needs surveys on Indian lands,  conducting Pilot  Pesticide Programs on
Indian lands and beginning a scholarship-work study program.

   Food safety remains a priority and reregistration is a vital component of this
initiative. This initiative  includes developing better" scientific data on special
tolerance and  residue issues,  conveying scientific  information  on  risks to  the
public in understandable terms, and using improved  risk information  in regulatory
decisions.  This initiative strengthens the Agency's  ability  to make  peeticide
decisions based on scientific  risk  assessments,  and educate  the public on  the
reasons for these decisions,            '                        .         •   •

   The Agency's  Endangered Species Protection  Program  (ESPP),  which features a
revised method of consultation  with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on  potential
endangered species which are  in jeopardy,  generic product  labeling coupled with
county bulletins and maps of endangered species habitats, and use limitations to
protect endangered species has been initiated on a voluntary basis.  The program
will be finalized in FY  1995  and begin implementation in FY 1996.   The nation-wide
ESPP may be supplemented by state endangered species protection plans suitable  for
local conditions.  Worker Protection Standards for Agricultural  Pesticides {40  CFR
170), governing pesticide-treated field reentry
intervals, protective clothing, and  label warnings  were published as a  final
regulation in  .August  1992.   Aggressive  implementation  of the worker protection
standards will continue,

   In response to the  Delaney court decision,  EPA will continue  collaborating with
USDA and FDA to develop legislation which will allow the  continued application of
"negligible- risk"  .to the  tolerance  setting  activities.    The Agency is also
reviewing its tolerance structure.

   The Agency will continue to implement the  recommendations made  by the National
Academy of .Science  "Kids Study" and continue expansion of  an  aggressive program
encouraging reduced use of  pesticides through  projects designed  to  reduce  or
eliminate urban  and agricultural pesticide use and to foster- risk  reduction  and
pollution prevention.
                                      3-76

-------
                   UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
                            PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                              GENERIC  CHEMICAL  REVIEW
 OFFICE:  OPPTS
 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Con't

    The Agency  will  continue efforts  in  international  coordination  to ensure
 consistency of decisions and science data with CODEX,  the  General Agreement on
 Tariff  and  'Trade,  and  import/export  policies.    This  initiative"  includes
 coordination with the European  Community  on  its  reregistration  efforts," and
 exp'anded technical assistance through the Food  and Agriculture Organization and the
 Peace Corps and supports Agency implementation  of the North American Free Trade
 Agreement (NAFTA)  and Rio/Agenda 21 initiatives.

    Resources are  also  required  for the laboratories  in  order to validate food,
•product and  environmental  chemistry  methods for new  and old  pesticides.  These
 methods  are  needed  by other  Federal  and  state agencies  for  enforcement  and
 monitoring activities.  The  workload associated with the reregistration process
 will increase as  the number of active  ingredients  requiring methods validation
 increases.   These  labs evaluate pesticide  products  for extremely dangerous
 impurities,  such as dioxins,  furans, .and PCBs.   They also determine  if registrants
 have complied with the Agency's section 3 (c) (2) (b)  dioxin  data call-in notice.  OPP
 labs provide the regional enforcement programs with highly specialized pesticide
 chemistry  services to  support  misuse  and other  kinds of  enforcement cases,
 especially for newly  registered  pesticides, or the more difficult to analyze older
 pesticides.   High priority lab services  are  provided to the  Office of General
 Counsel for hearings,  and to the Office of Research and Development  for the Dioxin
 Reassessment and  National  Exploratory  Studies.   They also provide  high level
 support  to -the  Office of  Prevention,  Pesticides and Toxic  Substances  (OPPTS)
 Dioxin/Furan Panel that  screens  new  dioxin  and  furan analytical  methods  for
 pesticides and toxic substances.

 GOALS ANDOBJECTIVES                  .                     :                  •

    Pesticide  risks  are  among  the  highest  overall  risks  regulated   by   EPA.
 Approximately 20,000  pesticide products  containing  approximately  800 active
 ingredients are  currently regulated by EPA.  Almost everyone uses or is exposed to
 the use of a pesticide product.   Pesticides  are  also contributors to ground-water
 pollution  and  agricultural  runoff  to  surface  water.   The  Agency's   priority
 objectives for pesticides are:   (1)  encourage safer pesticide.s, (2) ensure  food
 safety,   (3)  maximize productivity, (4) reduce exposure and environmental burden,
 and (5)  prevent  pollution.  In order to manage the risks pesticides  pose to public
 health and the environment,  EPA must expeditiously  review the effects of .previously
 registered pesticides, many  of  which were  registered before  the  full  range of
 scientific data now necessary to register new active ingredients was required.

    The registrations  of the majority of existing pesticide chemicals are supported
 by  data  bases which the Agency  has found insufficient by  today's scientific
 standards  to support  the  re.quired  determination  of "no  unreasonable  adverse
 effects.'1  The Generic Chemical  Review program is  designed to  remedy this problem
 by requiring the upgrading of the scientific data base supporting  registrations,
 reviewing available data about each chemical, and formulating scientifically based
 regulatory positions  to guide the modification, cancellation,  or reregistration of
 existing products  and the registration of new products.

    Ensuring the safety of the food supply is  one  of the primary purposes of the
 FIFRA '88 reregistration  program.   Special Reviews,  in which pesticides suspected
 of causing unreasonable adverse  effects undergo an intensive risk/benefit  analysis
 to further,regulate the terms and conditions of their use, are  closely linked to
 the reregistration.program  and'further guarantee food'safety.   Reregistration and
 special  reviews  also have  emphasized  reduced  human  exposure  and decreased
 environmental burdens -due to pesticides.
                                       3-77

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           .PROGRAM 1LEMENT DESCRIPTION
                             GENERIC CHEMICAL REVIEW

OFFICE: QPPTS

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Con't

   This program includes a number of other activities related  to  risk management
and  pollution prevention  for previously  registered pes'ticides,  including  the.
Endangered Species  Protection Program,  development and implementation vof worker
protection  standards,   and  addressing  ground-water  contamination  concerns  in
registration and reregistration actions.  Also, for pesticides emergency suspended
and canceled prior to the FIFRA '88 amendments/ EPA has a continuing responsibility
to bear the costs of accepting and disposing of the stocks.

   The program reduces pollution.in the  agricultural sector by  emphasizing source
reduction, 'such as restricting the uses' of hazardous  pesticides, Identifying
potential  problems  through   review  of   toxicity and  environmental  fate   data,
fostering  substitution of  safer  chemicals, regulating  container  design,  and
encouraging changes in disposal and recycling habits through technical assistance
and outreach  activities,   OPPTS is assuming a leadership role in  developing and
transferring  Integrated Pest Management  (IPM)  technologies.   IPM will further
pollution  prevention   efforts,  and  address  food  safety  as well  by  stressing
biologically based alternatives to conventional  chemical pesticides.' The program
also 'emphasizes reduced pesticide use through the development  of  a comprehensive
program to discourage  reliance on large volumes of synthetic organic chemicals and
pesticides for  pest control  and encourage safer alternatives.   To improve  the
Government's ability to evaluate risks posed through diet,  estimates of  the  types
and amounts of various  foods people are likely to eat must be made.  These exposure
evaluations  are  conducted  with the use of  the  Agency's Dietary  Risk Evaluation
System, a computer-based tool which estimates dietary exposure to a pesticide.

   In the international arena, the program is  increasing its focus on international
cooperation  to  reduce  environmental  risk and pollution prevention.  A  number of
projects are planned over the next two years to meet  these goals.  The program also
actively supports international  coordination on pesticide  issues  by sharing risk
and  residue  information through the World  Health Organization's  International
Program on Chemical  Safety.  Agency implementation of the NAFTA and Rio initiatives
will  result  in  increased  technical assistance,  information dissemination,  and
training activities to assist developing countries effectively  manage pesticides.

   The  program   also  provides  resources to the  Office  of  Pesticide Programs
laboratories  located  in Beltsville,  Maryland and'  Bay  St.  Louis, Mississippi  in
order to provide scientific support to the registration,  reregistration, and food
tolerance programs  by evaluating analytical methods  submitted by the  pesticide
registrants  to  determine  if they • meet the  requirements  of  the Agency's  food
residue, product  and  environmental chemistry guidelines.   The laboratories have
more  recently provided support to  the newly  emerging  environmental  chemistry
methods  (ECM) testing program.  This program  will evaluate ECMs sent to  the Agency
to support  exposure,  environmental fate and ecological  effects studies.    These
methods are used to generate data for exposure,  environmental fate and ecological
effects  studies  which are  used  to  determine  whether a pesticide  should  be
registered.  The laboratories also evaluate older pesticide analytical methods that
are  being   resubmitted by   registrants   to satisfy   the   reregistration   data
requirements. Both the environmental and product chemistry programs will increase
in importance and  workload  as  the  number  of  reregistration  actions  increase,
Laboratory chemists are also  involved in  screening new pesticide analytical methods
that are submitted  to  the  Agency as part of the expedited  registration program,
They also  support the Agency's  regional enforcement programs  and the  Office of
General Counsel by  analyzing and monitoring  pesticides found in  the environment.
                                       3-78

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                  RADIATION CRITERIA, STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  Office of Air and Radiation


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   The statutory authorities for this program are:  the Atomic Energy Act, the Clean
Air Act (CAA),  the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (DMTRCA)  and other
legislation.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   EPA develops,  promulgates,  and implements radiation environmental standards and
guidelines  under  this  subactivity.   These  standards  and guidelines protect  the
public health and the environment by minimizing risk 'of  radiation  exposures from
nuclear energy applications, naturally occurring radioactive materials, and medical
and occupational radiation exposures.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES '                                       •

   The goal of this program  is to provide protection from avoidable exposure  to
radiation1 through standards,  regulations and guidelines issued under,  the  Atomic
Energy Act,  CAA,  DMTRCA and other legislation.  The Agency is  a major participant
in the federal program  that  oversees  the disposal of radioactive wastes.   Under
Federal Guidance authority, EPA recommends  to  the  President guidance for federal
agencies limiting  exposure to radiation.   This  entire  regulatory framework  is
supported by the Office of Radiation Programs' internal risk assessment expertise.
                                      3-79

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                               WIPP IMPLEMENTATION


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORlTIBS/REGUIiATORY FRAMEWORK

   On October 30,  1992,  the  President  signed into law the Waste  Isolation  Pilot
Plant  (WIPP)  Land Withdrawal  Act  (Public  Law 102-579) .   The Act provides  an
extensive role for IPA in .overseeing DOE'S activities at the WIPP  and in ensuring
that such activities comply with environmental laws and regulations,

PROGRAMDESCRIPTION

   IPA will be responsible for overseeing many of DOE's activities  at  the  WIPP,
beginning  with  a  test  phase  and  continuing  throughout  its   operation  and
decommissioning,  if EPA determines that those phases  should  be allowed.   The  Act
requires EPA  to  issue  final  radioactive  waste disposal  standards and  develop
criteria for certifying DOE compliance  with  those standards.  EPA must also review
and approve DOE's plan for testing the WIPP's suitability as a permanent disposal
facility and for removing waste if necessary.  In addition,  EPA .must determine on
an ongoing basis whether DOE is complying with all environmental laws, regulations,*
and permit requirements that are applicable to WIPP.     •             .    •  •

GOALS. ..'.AMD OBJECTIVES

   The goal of this activity is to finalize radioactive  waste  disposal  standards
•and oversee DOE radioactive waste  disposal activities  at the WIPP in New Mexico to
ensure environmental compliance.  The ultimate goal of this activity is to provide
a safe disposal site for  radioactive wastes  generated by DOE's weapons development
activities.
                                       3-80

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                    RADIATION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

  . The statutory authorities for this program are:  the Atomic Energy Act, the Clean
Air Act (CAA),  the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control  Act  (UMTRGA)  and other
legislation.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION                 .                              '

   Activities in this program element provide the information necessary to identify
and analyze radiological'problems  having potential public health impacts.  This
includes  support of  the  development  of standards and guidelines,  as well  as
monitoring  of  environmental  radiation, .  conduct  of   laboratory  analysis  and
technology assessments, and maintenance of an emergency preparedness capability.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVKg

   The major objectives of this program are: to develop and maintain an emergency
preparedness program which will avert excessive exposure to radiation from nuclear
accidents; to provide field, laboratory, and technical  support  to EPA's radiation
regulatory development  and implementation  activities  through the collection  and
analysis of environmental  samples; to monitor  environmental radiation  levels  and
assess  the  effects  of radiation  exposure to  the general public  from  ambient,
radiation; to  characterize and evaluate special  radiation problems;  to  provide
analytical support  to  other parts of EPA  for  assessing radiation risks;  and to
provide training  and  support to other  federal and state 'agencies and  to  Indian
nations.
                                      3-81

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                                 FIELD EXPENSES

OFFICE:   Research and Development


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   Support related to environmental research and development is authorized by  the
Environmental Research,  Development, and Demonstration Act (ERDDA) of 1981, and  the
specific statutory authorities that are the basis for EPA research programs.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   This Program Element provides expense resources necessary to support the skilled
scientists and administrators which perform and administer the  Office.of  Research
and Development's  (ORD's)  environmental  research  programs.   Adequately funded
operating expenses are critical to ORD's success in conducting the quality science
needed to assure that the Agency's decisions are .scientifically sound,

   An adequate laboratory infrastructure is essential to the.scientific integrity
of the  Agency's  research program.   This Program Element provides,  among  other
things,  resources for the  purchase' of mission-essential scientific equipment  in
support of the Agency.  This Program Element provides resources  for,  among  other
things,   supplies  and1  materials,   printing  and reproduction,  management  and
administrative  automated  data processing   (ADP) .  support  including management
information services and videocpnferencing capability, certain facility operations,
specialized laboratory supplies, facility repairs under  $75,000, and  training.
GOALSAMD OBJECTIVES

   The goals and objectives of this Program Element are  to provide the equipment,
supplies, facilities-and other support required to  successfully conduct requisite
scientific  research and  to recruit,  train and  retain skilled  scientists and
engineers.                     •                              •
                                      3-82

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                              HEADQUARTERS EXPENSES

OFFICE:  Research and. Development


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   Support related to. environmental research and development is authorized by the
Environmental Research,  Development,  arid Demonstration Act  (ERDDA) of 1981,  Budget
and. Accounting. Act of 1921  and the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1955,  Budget
and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950,  Chief Financial Officers  Act  of  1990,  the
Congressional • Budget and  Impoundment  Control  Act  of  1974,  Federal  Managers'
Financial Integrity  Act of 1982,  Prompt  Payment  Act of  1982, Public Law  83-633
(Supplemental Appropriations Act of .1955) , Government Performance Results Act,  and
by other environmental statutes authorizing EPA research activities.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   This program element  funds operating expenses in ORD's  headquarters offices,
including among other things,  supplies, materials,  equipment and automated  data
processing services.   It also  funds  ORD-wide  data systems  including management
information systems, -administrative printing and  reproduction,  and miscellaneous
support services.                  .


gQAIiS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goals and objectives of  this Program Element  are  to provide the  requisite
operating expenses needed to plan, budget and account  for resources and to maximize
the use of scientific findings  in Agency  policy development and  decision making.
                                      3-83

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           5ROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                               MULTIMEDIA RESEARCH

OFFICE: Research and Development


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   Multimedia  and  interdisciplinary  research,   development  and  demonstration
activities are authorized by a variety of environmental protection laws including
the  Clean  Air  Act,   the  Clean. Water  Act,  and  the  Environmental  Research,
Development, and Demonstration Act .of 1981.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   The Multimedia Research program consists  of activities  that  cross  program and
media research boundaries and support cross-media activities of EPA, including the
Air, Water,  Pesticides,  Toxic Substances, and Hazardous Waste programs.   These
activities are:  (l) the Ecosystems Protection program which is designed to develop
the  scientific understanding and  techniques required  for effective  integrated
ecological risk assessment and ecosystem protection at  multiple scales,  and which
includes the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) as one of its
major components; (2) the development of  methods for measuring  human  exposure to
environmental pollutants, studies that measure actual human exposures, and models
that predict human exposures;  (.3) the development,  application  and assessment of
tools designed to prevent the generation of pollution;  (4)  exploratory grants and
centers program?  (5)  the  development  of  the biological  basis  and methods  for
improved  health risk  assessment;   (6.)  the  conduct of  research  and • assessment
activities  on  lead  and other heavy metals,-  (7)  technology transfer  to Regions,
states,  local, governments  and -the   international community;  (8)   innovative
technologies  program  that   includes  the  President's   Environmental   Technology
Initiative and the Agency's  Small Business Innovation  Research  program,  designed
to  stimulate and facilitate the commercialization of environmentally  relevant
technology  innovation among small businesses as  well  as  private  and  public
institutions;  (9)  programs  and  systems to  assure  the  quality of the  Agency's
scientific  information;  and (10)   the  development  of models  that  incorporate
advances  in computing and communications  technologies into EPA1s  environmental
assessment applications.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goals and objectives of the Multimedia Research  program are to  provide (l)
the information and tools to  understand, assess and address the,diverse threats to
the environment  (2) the methods to assure  the quality  of the Agency's scientific
data, and (3) the mechanisms to disseminate information to relevant decision-makers
and the public.  ORD will utilize the  best science  available at EPA laboratories,
academic institutions, and other Federal agencies,  to  support   mandates that cut
across the media boundaries  and to support the program offices.
                                      3-84

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         TECHNICAL SUPPORT - ENFORCEMENT

         PROGRAM MANAGER:  OECA           •                '

STATtJTORY AOTHORITIES/RBqUIiATORY FRAMEWORK                    '

   The Technical  Support  -  Enforcement program  provides specialized  technical
assistance for  EPA's  criminal and  civil  enforcement programs.   The program  is
authorized  and .mandated by  the  following major' environmental  statutes;  the
Pollution Prosecution Act (PPA) ; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ;
the Clean Water Act (CWA);  the Clean Air  Act (CAA); the  Safe Drinking  Water Act
(SDWA);   the  Toxic Substances Control  Act  (TSCA);  the  Federal  Insecticide,
Fungicide, and. Rod'enticide Act  (FIFRA) ;  the Oil Pollution  Act;  the  Emergency
Planning  and  Community  Right-to-Know Act  (EPCRA);  and  the  Federal Facilities
Compliance Act  (FFCA).

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   The Technical  Support Program,  as administered by  the National  Enforcement
Investigations Center  (NEIC)  in Denver, CO, provides specialized field, technical,
laboratory, and  litigation  support, and   information  services  for  enforcement
investigations, case preparations,  and settlement negotiations at both private  and
Federal facilities that:  a) involve precedent-setting cases; b) involve violations
of the criminal,  civil,  .and administrative provisions of environmental  laws,-  c)
have multi-Regional or multimedia impacts;  d) require the innovative application
of  engineering . and scientific  technology to  resolve  complex'  pollution  and
enforcement issues; or  e)  address  a specific Regional enforcement priority that
exceeds Regional resources or capabilities.  The NEIC  also provides technical  and
administrative  support   and  instructors  to the  National  Enforcement   Training
Institute (NETI), for  training Federal, state, and local  enforcement personnel  on
the technical  aspects  of environmental enforcement.

GOALS AND 'OBJECTIVES

   The NEIC serves as EPA's.principal  source of expertise involving  criminal  and
civil  litigation  support  for  complex  investigations   and   other  enforcement
activities  having national  .and significant  Regional,impact  on  EPA and  state
regulatory programs.  The NEIC promotes multimedia, comprehensive approaches  to
environmental  enforcement  and  pollution abatement problems, seeks to strengthen
Regional enforcement support programs, and  trains  Federal and  state  personnel  on
innovative approaches  and methods for environmental enforcement.
                                      3-85

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM IXiEMENT* DESCRIPTION
                            TOXIC SUBSTANCES RESEARCH

OFFICE.:  Research and Development


STATUTORY ACTTHbRITIES/REGUIiATORY FRAMEWORK

   The  Toxic  Substances  Research program provides  research  to  support  the
implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act  (TSCA) of 1976,  the  Asbestos
Hazard Emergency Response Act  (AHERA) of 1986, the Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act (EPCR&) of 1986,  and  the Pollution Prevention Act (PPA)  of 1990.
The program supports the regulatory efforts  of the. Agency, particularly the Office
of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   The. Toxic Substances  Research program is focused on development, validation,  and
refinement of test methods  to be incorporated into protocols and guidelines for use
by  industry to support  the  pollution  prevention and  regulatory needs  of  EPA1 s
Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS).  .Research  provides
an understanding of basic  mechanisms and processes that  are useful  to regulatory
program analysts in the  interpretation of data  submitted by industry in  response
to  the Toxic  Substances  Control  Act  (TSCA) • regarding risks' arising  from  the
manufacture,  processing,  distribution, and use or disposal  of  new  or  existing
chemical  substances.    The products of these  research, efforts  are  intended  to
support human and environmental risk  assessments,  which are  the basis  for  the
implementation of these  laws.. . Toxic substances research is being carried out  in'
such areas  that  include:   environmental releases of biotechnology products;  air'
toxic,-  human  exposure;  health   effects;   health   risk  assessment   methods ;
environmental review of toxic chemicals; and lead and other heavy metals.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goals of the Toxic Substances. Research program are to  improve the  Agency's
understanding of the interaction of toxic substances with human activities and the
environment,  and  to  minimize  the impact of toxic substances on  the  environment,
while maximizing the protection of human health. ORD will utilize the best science
available at EPA laboratories, academic institutions,  other Federal  agencies,  and
the private sector to achieve the goals and objectives of this program.
                                       3-86

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                         •MISSION AND POLICY MANAGEMENT

OFFICE:  Research and Development


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   Program management and support related to environmental research and development
is authorized by the  Environmental Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of
1981, Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 and the Supplemental Appropriations Act of
1955,.Budget and Accounting Procedures Act  of  1950,  Chief  Financial  Officers  Act
of 1990,  the  Congressional Budget and Impoundment  Control Act of 1974,• Federal
Managers' Financial Integrity Act of 1982, Prompt Payment Act of 1982,  Public  Law
83-633  (Supplemental Appropriations Act  of  1955), Government  Performance Results
Act,  .and by. other environmental statutes authorizing EPA research activities,


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   This  Program  Element  provides  resources  for  overall  direction,   central
management services,  scientific and technical  policy guidance, and  operational
support t.o a diversified research program which  is  conducted  in Headquarters,  12
major laboratories, and in  5 field sites for the Office of Research and Development
(ORD) .   These  activities  include, the  planning management, budgeting,  financial
management, personnel and operational services to the ORD.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goals and objectives of  this Program Element  are  to provide the  requisite
direction, management, guidance, operational .support, and program planning within
the ORD.  These resources contribute to the overall  program management,  personnel
and operational services, budget formulation and execution,  financial management,
funds  control,  information  management,  and  support  functions for  all   ORD
components.  The overall objective is to place and direct research to support  the
scientific needs of the Agency's media programs  which provide  for  the protection
of human  health and  the environment,  while considering regulatory and  resource
constraints,
                                      3-87

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                            PROGRAM ELEMENT ANALYSIS
                         LAB SUPPORT -  AIR AND RADIATION

NATIQANAL PROGRAM MANAGER: Office of Air and Radiation

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   The statutory  authorities ' under this 'program element are  the Clean Air  Act
Amendments of 1990;  the Indoor Radon Abatement Act;  the Resource  Conservation  and
Recovery Act; the Atomic Energy Act; the Uranium Mill  Tailings Radiation Control
Act and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   This program element provides for required laboratory program support for  the
Motor Vehicle  Emissions Laboratory {MVEL)  located in  Ann  Arbor, Michigan;  the
National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory  (NAREL) in Montgomery,  Alabama,-
and the Las Vegas Facility (LVF)  in Nevada. 'The activities  include contracts  for
janitorial  services,  security and related  services,   and  grounds maintenance;
utility costs; GSA vehicles; supplies and materials; and other needs.

   With  the purchase  of the  MVEL in  Ann Arbor,  Michigan,  EPA  takes on  the
responsibility for providing for the operations  and maintenance  of the 'facility.
The major-operating expense requiring  funding is the contract for the maintenance
of the boilers and air conditioning units, building maintenance  to ensure proper
working conditions  and  round-the-clock service.   in  addition, -there are higher
costs associated with the operation of the larger NAREL in Montgomery,  Alabama.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goal of  this program  element  is to  provide  full funding  for office
maintenance, utilities,  and similar support services for the  MVEL,  NftREL, and LVF.
                                      3-88

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                                   LAB SUPPORT

OFFICE: OPPTS                                                         .

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK   .                  .     .     .

 •'  The Lab Support program provides analytical and environmental chemistry services
in  order for  the Office  of Pesticide-  Programs (OPP)  to  fulfill  its  mandated
mission.  It provides support to the registration and xeregistration food tolerance
programs, the Office of the General Counsel,  and  the Agency's regional enforcement
program.

   The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,  Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) places requirements
on OPP to maintain a pesticide'analytical chemistry capability in order to validate
food  tolerance  enforcement methods.  These methods are tested at  EPA's  labs and
represent  a large percentage of the work performed at our labs.    This work is
important to the  Food and Drug Administration (FDA)  as well because these methods
are needed  for special food surveys when existing multi-residue methods  are not
available for  specific  analytes.   Residue  tolerances  of pesticides on food crops
are set by EPA,  the analytical chemistry methodology is evaluated at the Belteville
laboratory,  and the  final  approved method is given to the  FDA for Federal Food,
Drug  and Cosmetic Act enforcement.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   Funds  are used to purchase  needed reagents, solvents,  chemicals,1 glassware,
equipment parts,  and other kinds of essential supplies, and  to maintain and repair
older equipment, or to purchase service contracts for this equipment. Additionally,
this  program  provides  for  purchase  of  long-lead items   required  for  the  new
consolidated facility in Fort  Meade, Maryland.   The  laboratories  validate food,
product  and environmental  chemistry methods  for new  and old pesticides.   These
'methods . are needed   by  other  Federal  and  state  agencies  for  enforcement  and
monitoring  activities.   The workload  associated with the  re-registration process
will  -increase  as the number of  active ingredients requiring methods validation
.increases.    These  labs  evaluate  pesticide products  for extremely  dangerous
impurities,  such  as dioxins, furans, and PCBs.  They also determine if registrants
have  complied with the Agency's section 3 (c) (2) (b) dibxin data call-in notice.  OPP
labs  provide the  regional  enforcement  programs  with highly specialized pesticide
chemistry  services  to  support  misuse  and other  kinds   of enforcement  cases,
especially for newly registered pesticides,  or the more difficult to analyze older
pesticides.   High priority* lab  services are provided to  the Office of  General
Counsel for hearings, and to the Office of Research and Development for the Dioxin
Reassessment and National  Exploratory Studies.   They also provide high level
support to the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic  Substances Dioxin/Furan
Panel that screens new dioxin and furan analytical methods for pesticides and toxic
substances.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The purpose of this program is to provide funding to the Office of  Pesticide
Programs  laboratories   located  in  Beltsville,  Maryland  and  Bay  St.  Louis,
Mississippi  in order to maintain  daily operations and to replace  worn-out or
technologically obsolete equipment.  The labs provide scientific  support  to the
registration, reregistration,, and food tolerance programs by evaluating analytical
methods  submitted by the  pesticide registrants to determine if  they meet the
requirements of  the  Agency's food residue, product and environmental  chemistry
guidelines,   The laboratories have  more recently provided  support  to  the newly
emerging environmental chemistry methods (ECM) testing program.  This program will
evaluate  ECMs  sent  to the  Agency to support  exposure,  environmental  fate and
ecological  effects studies.  These methods  are  used to generate data for
                                       3-89

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                                   LAB SUPPORT

OFFICE: OPPTS

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES continued

exposure, environmental  fate and  ecological  effects studies  which  are used  to
determine whether a pesticide should be registered.  The laboratories also evaluate
older pesticide  analytical methods that  are being resubmitted by registrants  to
satisfy the reregistration data requirements.   Both the  environmental and product
chemistry programs will increase  in importance and workload as  the  number  of
reregistration  actions  increase.    Laboratory-  chemists are  also,  involved  in
screening new pesticide analytical methods that are  submitted to the Agency as part
of the expedited registration  program.   They also support the Agency's regional
enforcement programs and the  Office of General Counsel by analyzing and monitoring
pesticides found in the environment.
                                       3-90

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RESEARCH

OFFICE;  Research and Development


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

   The Hazardous Waste Research program provides research to support the activities
mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response,  Compensation,  and Liability
Act of 1980 (CERCLA),  as modified by the Superfund Amendments and' Reauthorization
Act of 1986 (SARA).  This program  supports  the  regulatory efforts of  the  Agency,
particularly the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION                 .                       '       .               -

   The Hazardous Substance Research program provides a core of scientific  and
technical  information   to  the  Agency's  media  programs necessary  to  implement
requirements of  CERCLA  and the enforcement actions- undertaken to ensure  cleanup
and to recover costs.   The  largest portion of this program  addresses  technical
assessment for remedy selection,  site assessment, and technc-logy field .evaluation,
each of  which is integral to direct site cleanup.  Another key element' is the high
level of technical support  and assistance provided to EPA's  media  programs,  the
Regions and states in site characterization and remedy assessment and selection.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goal of the Hazardous  Substance Research program is to provide the strong
scientific and technical  foundation  for the Office of Solid  Waste  and  Emergency
Response (OSWER)  to investigate and mitigate health and environmental  problems at
the priority cleanup sites.   A key element  of  the  program is  the  priority placed
on methods, techniques  and new technologies that  facilitate  the  cleanup  process
because they are faster, less expensive, or allow  "in  the -field"  decision making
as a result of  the generation  of real-time data. ORD will utilize the best science
available at EPA laboratories, academic institutions,  other Federal  agencies,  and'
the private sector to achieve the  goals and objectives of this program.
                                       3-91

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM I1EM1NT DESCRIPTION
                   FEDERAL  FACILITIES  - RADIATION REIMBURSABLES


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER:  Office of Air and Radiation


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES / RBGOTiATORY FRAMEWORK

   Responsibilities concerning contamination at  Federal Facilities falls- under the
statutory mandate  of  the Comprehensive Environmental Response,  Compensation and
Liability Act (CERCLA) ,  as  amended by the Superfund .Amendments and Reauthorization
Act -of  1986  (SARA).   In addition the Presidential Executive Order  {E.O.)  12580
delegates authorities contained in SARA to  Federal  agencies.    SARA  section 104
response authority is delegated to DOE and DoD for releases of hazardous substances
on their facilities or originating from their facilities.  The E.O. 12580 requires
that Federal agencies exercise their response authority in accordance with CERCLA
section 120.  The E.O.  12580 also delegates the  authority for agencies to conduct
-response  actions  at their non-NPL  facilities.    For Federal  Facilities on the
National Priority  List  (NPL),  CERCLA  section 120 {e}  (1)  directs the  agency that
owns  or operates  the  facility  to  perform  an  RI/FS in  consultation with  EPA,-
thereafter  the  agency  must enter  into an  IAG  with  EPA  "for the  expeditious
completion by such agency  of all necessary remedial actions at  such facility."

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   The goal of the EPA Federal  Facility Program  is to -respond to threats to public
health and the environment posed by uncontrolled releases of hazardous .substances
from  facilities owned or operated by  Federal agencies.   The Agency's radiation
program  supports  existing  planned  Federal  Facility Agreements  to insure  that
radioactive  waste problems  are appropriately  addressed in  the Agreements  and
treated in a consistent and technically sound manner.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

   The goal of this program is to support the  national clean-up program for Federal
Facilities by insuring that federal sites contaminated with radioactive and mixed
waste are treated in a consistent and  technically sound manner.  To carry out this
goal, technical  support  will be provided for:  evaluation of remediation technology,
document review(s), site specific evaluation(s),  laboratory analysis  support and
training. The program is  composed  of  three primary elements:   enhanced  regional
support for site specific problems, development  of overall guidance and laboratory
support -which is  applicable to all  Federal Facilities sites, and  development of
operational  controls  for  site characterization,  sampling,  handling,  analysis,
treatment and disposal  of  mixed waste (waste composed of both  radioactivity and
hazardous substances).  The extensive  volume of mixed waste at  numerous  sites is
of particular concern to the Department of Energy ,(DOE) .
                                       3-92

-------
                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                               RADIATION RESEARCH

OFFICE.:  Research and Development        '


STATUTORY AUTHORITY

   The Radiation Research program supports the Agency's mandate under a combination
of  authorizations   including   the  Environmental  Research,•  Development,   and
Demonstration Act  (ERDDA) , .the  Public  Health Service Act,  as well as  the  annual
enacted appropriations provided to the Agency by Congress.   This  research program
is carried out and funded  under a reimbursable agreement with the Department  of
Energy,                  •

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

   The Off-Site Monitoring program provides the data needed by policy-makers  to
make decisions regarding the control of public  exposure  to 'radioactive materials
resulting from nuclear testing  activities.   Since the creation of the EPA in 1970,
the Agency has conducted off-site monitoring support for the United States Nuclear
Weapons Testing program .and the Department of Energy  (DOI) at the Nevada 'Test Site
and other test locations.  This support consists of a radiation safety monitoring
program, operation of environmental sampling networks, interaction with the general
public to maintain public confidence and support,  laboratory analyses  sufficient
to  immediately assess  the  impact of  an inadvertent  release  of  radioactivity,
determination  of radionuclide  body  burdens in off-site  residents,  'veterinary
investigation of claims  of alleged radiation injury,  and the maintenance  of  all
data in computerized data bases,

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES       '

   The goal of  the Radiation Research program  is  to provide the data needed  by
policy-makers  to make  decisions regarding the control  of public  exposure  to
radioactive materials resulting from nuclear testing activities.
                                      3-93

-------

-------
Inspector General
       SECTION TAB

-------
                       ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1997 BUDGET ESTIMATE     '            "

                              TABLE OF  CONTENTS

INSPECTOR GENERAL	4-1
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION	,	.„.„„..  4-7

-------

-------
                        OFFICE  OF THE  INSPECTOR GENERAL


      The Agency requests a total of $42,771,300 and 408.4 total workyears for
1997 to support activities in the Office - of the Inspector General  (OIG) .  This
request includes '$11,450,500 to be transferred from the Superfund appropriation
and $577,100 to  be  transferred from the LUST appropriation,  leaving a direct
appropriation of  $30,743,700 from the OIG appropriation account.  Included within
the request totals are funds to provide support services to the OIG.

      The OIG's goal is to ensure that the Agency's environmental programs are
delivered as economically, efficiently, and effectively as possible, and that the
risk of financial loss in its operations is Hiininii-zed»  The OIG will accomplish
this through audits,  investigations,   and  management activities  that provide
objective evaluations, constructive  advice  and recommendations, 'and a strong law
enforcement presence.  The following  describes  the specific audit, investigation,
and management activities and  priorities that the  OIG  will perform with these
resources to fulfill its mission.

OPERATING' PROGRAMS

      Audits:   OIG audit priorities for 1997 include cross-media issues such as:
1) management of extramural resources;  2) financial and management integrity; and
3) data/information management.  The  OIG's work in  compliance  with the. .Chief
Financial Officers  (CFO)  Act  and helping  the Agency to  improve its  financial
management will continue as the Agency prepares financial statements covering all
of its activities.  'Our performance  audits  will  determine whether provisions of
reauthorized legislation have been effectively implemented, and we will  work with
the Agency to  develop performance measures  as required  by  the Government
Performance  and  Results Act.    Further,  the  OIG will  conduct audits  of
construction grants to assist the Agency in meeting  its goal of closing out the
Construction Grant program during 1997.

      Invest Iqa't.i.Qns:  Construction activities  relate  to  investigations  of
contractors participating in Agency  funded construction projects to detect bid-
rigging, false  claims and statements,  substandard materials, and other types of
fraud.  The OIG will continue to direct its investigative resources in 1997 to
long-term, high-impact investigations.  We  will place particular priority on the
Agency1 s contract and procurement practices, and acquisition management  including
emphasis on grants and cooperative agreements.

      Management Activities:  The highest priority for 1997 will be continuing-
to  provide program management,  information  management,  personnel   security
activities, and mission and policy management at a high level  of leadership and
support which promotes the most economical,  efficient, and effective application
and administration  of OIG resources.    Priorities  include  strategic planning;
budget  formulation  and execution;  management information  system development;
human  resources  initiatives;   coordination   of government   streamlining  and
performance measurement activities; and preparation of the  OIG's semiannual
reports to Congress  in accordance with  requirements of the Inspector General Act.

SUPERFDND

      Audits:  In 1997,  the OIG will conduct  audits and reviews required by the
Superfund Amendments  and  Reauthorization Act in five major  areas: policy and
program management;  remedial cleanup activities; removal responses; enforcement,-
and program support initiatives.  To  help  the Agency revitalize the  Superfund
program, the OIG will  continue  its implementation of an  audit strategy  to review
various stages of the Superfund cleanup process from site listing, through the
remedial investigation/feasibility study phase, to construction of the remedy,
with emphasis on the accelerated cleanup pilot  initiatives;


                                      4-1

-------
      I n ves t i gat i on s:    OIG  investigative  resources will  be directed  to the
Agency's contract' and procurement practices, and  acquisition management with
particular emphasis on grants and cooperative agreements.  The OIG will conduct
investigations  of contract  resources  to  identify and  seek prosecution  of
contractors who engage in fraudulent practices.  Investigations of procurement
and acquisition activities have resulted in a significant number of indictments,
convictions, suspensions,  and debarments, and have generated millions of dollars
in fines and civil recoveries,

      Management Activities:   During 1997,  the OIG will continue  to provide
program management, information .resources  management," personnel security, and
mission and policy management in support of the Superfund program at a high level
of leadership 'and support which promotes  the most economical,  efficient, and
effective application and administration of-its resources.  Priorities include
strategic planning; budget  formulation and execution;  management information
system  development;  human resources  initiatives;   coordination  of  government
Streamlining and performance measurement activities; and preparation of  the OIG's
semiannual reports to  Congress in accordance with requirements of the  Inspector
General Act.      '

LUST   '                                        '

      Audits:  In  1997, the OIG's basic work will continue'to  include performance
audits, contract and grant audits (covering financial and performance  aspects),
and financial audits.  More specifically, the OIG will conduct performance audits
of the Agency's process for awarding LUST  cooperative agreements and  grants to
identify systemic  problems  with the Agency's management  of the LUST program,
develop the causes of those problems, and recommend actions to save resources and
improve program and operational performance.

      Investigations:    OIG  investigative  resources will  be directed  to the
Agency's contract  and'procurement practices, and  acquisition management with
particular  emphasis on  LUST grants -and cooperative agreements.   The  OIG will
conduct investigations of  contract resources to identify and seek prosecution of
contractors who engage in fraudulent practices.
                                      4-2

-------
                        OFFICE OP THE INSPECTOR GENERAL


OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total of $42,771,300 and 408.4 total workyears for
1997  to  support activities  in  the  OIG,   This request  includes  a  total of
$4,479,600 to provide support  services  to the OIG,  These resources will be used
by the OIG to fulfill its statutory mandate to assist the .Agency deliver better,
cheaper,  and smarter environmental protection by:  (1) conducting,  supervising,
and  coordinating  independent  and objective  audits and  investigations  of EPA
programs and operations; (2) providing leadership and recommending policies to
promote economy; -efficiency, and effectiveness in the administration of Agency
programs;  (3) preventing and  detecting fraud,  waste,  and mismanagement in EPA
programs and operations;  (4)  keeping the Administrator and Congress fully and
currently  informed  of problems and deficiencies in the Agency's programs and
operations; and (5)  reviewing  legislation and regulations concerning the Agency.

      The OIG.provides independent and objective coverage of Agency programs and
operations by conducting!  (l)  performance audits which determine the extent that
desired results or benefits established  by Congress and the Administration are
being  achieved,  and identify which  weaknesses in  EPA  management  systems and
recommend  corrective actions;  {25"  pre-award,  interim,  and  final  audits of
contracts;  (3)  audits of wastewater treatment construction  grants and other
.grants and cooperative agreements  awarded by the  Agency; (4)  audits  of the
Agency's financial  systems and  statements  in compliance with the  CFO Act;  (5)
investigations of illegal activities and misconduct, of EPA employees, grantees,
and contractors which result in criminal,  civil, and other administrative actions
including   suspensions,   debarments,   and  settlements;   (6)   regional  and
intergovernmental  liaison  and  activities,  including  those  related to  the
President's Council  on Integrity and Efficiency;  (7)  reviews of proposed and
existing .legislation  and  regulations;  and  (8)  management  of  the  Agency's
personnel security program.

PROGRAM andACTIVITYHIGHLIGHTS

OPERATING PROGRAMS

      The Agency requests a total of $30,743,700 and 296,6 total workyears for
1997  for  the OZG's  audits,  investigations,  and management' activities  of the
Agency's operating  programs.   This request  includes a  total  of $2,922,700 to
provide support services for the OIG.  The OIG will use  $2,400,000 to obtain the
services of  CPA firm's,  the  Defense Contract  Audit Agency  (DCAA) , and other •
Federal agencies to conduct audits of EPA contracts and construction grants to
support the closeout of that program.  In 1997, the OIG  will continue to provide
wide-ranging  audit  and  investigative  coverage  to .ensure that  the Agency's
programs are delivered in an effective,  efficient,  and  economical manner and in
compliance with" applicable laws and regulations.  OIG audits and investigations
will prevent the loss of millions of Agency dollars, identify ways of correcting
operational weaknesses, assist the Agency in determining the extent that desired
results or benefits  of environmental programs are being  achieved, identify basic
causes of problems,  and make recommendations for significantly  improving program
and operational effectiveness. These audits and investigations will also improve
the Agency's procurement process and provide financial and management advisory
assistance services to Agency managers and other customers.

      Audits;   The  OIG will  focus its audit efforts  on. the management of
extramural resources,  financial and management integrity,  and data/information
management since these areas  represent the very underpinnings  of  the Agency's
management, environmental policies, and regulatory enforcement. We will continue
to provide audits of  contract management to  include subcontractors and some of
the Agency's small  contractors where the Agency is 'highly vulnerable to fraud,

                                     ' 4-3

-------
 waste,  and  abuse.    'Our  audit  work  on grants,  cooperative agreements,  and
 interagency agreements will continue and we will assist the Agency in correcting
 systemic  vulnerabilities in the  management and use of its extramural funds.

       We  will  continue to  perform audits of Agency management and environmental
 programs  that  are 'designed to determine the extent to which desired results  or
 benefits  established by the Administration  and Congress are being achieved,
 identify  systemic problems in 'program implementation, and recommend actions  to
 save resources and  improve program and operational performance.   For example a
 recent OIG  audit  found that EPA  could  save millions of dollars through improved
 subcontractor  competition and  oversight.   An  audit also  found that  better
 drinking  water data is needed to reduce the  risk  of  diseases and illness,  and
 another audit found that  a  university misused millions  of dollars congressionally
 earmarked for  a research facility.  Further,  an audit  recommended the Agency can
 save hundreds  of thousands  of  dollars  through  the  use of  bankcards,    OIG
 recommended efficiencies in 1995 totaled more than $330,000,000 and 896 reports
 were issued.

       The OIG  will  support  audits  of grants  made  for  the construction  of
 wastewater  treatment plants under the Construction Grant Program to assist the
 Agency .meet its goal of substantially  closing out  the program in 1997.   Since
 1968,  EPA has awarded grants totaling $55 billion.  As  of  September 1995, the OIG
 had not considered  for audit or  audited 371 projects  with grants totaling $6,2
 billion.    We  will  also  continue  interim and  final audits  of contracts  to
 determine the  eligibility, allocability, and reasonableness of costs claimed by
 contractors. Additionally, the OIG will conduct audits of State Revolving Funds,
 and other grants  awarded by the  Agency.  We will continue to perform financial
 audits which produce high payoffs for each dollar invested.   For 1995, the OIG
 questioned  $72 of costs  as ineligible for each dollar spent on external audits
 of grants and  contracts.   Total  questioned costs for 1995 were $167,200,000 and
 the Agency  recovered $89,900,000 from audit resolutions.

       Further,  the  OIG will review internal controls  in  the Agency's programs,
 functions,   operations,  and  activities and  will  continue  to  implement  its
_responsibilities  under the CFO  Act,'  including  auditing  the  Agency's financial
 statements  and carrying  out its  responsibilities as prescribed in OMB Circular
 A-128 for single  audits.   We will'monitor the  performance of audits of contracts
 by CPA contractors  and other Federal  agencies  under  contracts and interagency
 agreements.   ADP, engineering,  and scientific  support will  be .provided to our
 auditors  and investigators and reviews conducted of the Agency's major computer
 systems that continue to grow in number and complexity.   We will also continue
 to monitor  the Agency's efforts  to improve the effectiveness of its audit follow
 up responsibilities.

       Investigations:   OIG investigative  resources  will be directed to  the
 Agency's  contract and procurement  practices, and  acquisition management with
 particular   emphasis  on  grants  and cooperative agreements.   We will conduct
 investigations of  contract  resources  to identify  and  seek prosecution  of
 contractors who engage in fraudulent practices,.  Investigations of procurement
 and acquisition activities have  resulted in a significant number of indictments,
 convictions, suspensions and-debarments, and have generated millions of dollars
 in fines  and civil  recoveries.   Specifically, the OIG closed 153 investigative
 cases in 1995  resulting in 16  indictments,  13  convictions,  17  administrative
 actions,  and  44  suspensions' and  debarments.   Fines  and  recoveries totaled
 $5,100,000.   Investigations will also be  focused  on  construction grant fraud,
 program and employee integrity matters, and background investigation  issues.  In
 addition, we will  investigate  allegations of  illegal activities  and initiate
 proactive investigations where situations  could create an opportunity  for fraud
 or abuse  by  EPA employees, grantees, and contractors.  At the end of 1995, we had
 181 open  investigations.  Further,  the OIG will.continue  to, provide training to
 Agency staff on the prevention and detection.of fraud, waste, and mismanagement,


                                       4-4

-------
      Management Activities:   During  1997,  the OIG will  continue to provide
program management,  information resource management,  personnel security,  and
mission and policy management at  a  high level of leadership and support which
promotes  the  most  economical,  efficient,  and  effective  application  and
administration of our resources.  Priorities include':  strategic planning;, budget
formulation  and execution; management information  system  development;  human
resources -initiatives; coordination of government streamlining and performance
measurement  activities;  and preparation of  the  OIG's semiannual  reports to
Congress in accordance with requirements of-the Inspector General Act.

SOPERFUND            •

      The Agency requests a total•of $11,450,500 and 106,0 total woirkyears far
1997 to be transferred from the Hazardous Substance Trust Fund to the (DIG for the
OIG's audit, investigation, and management  activities of the Superfund program.
This request includes a total of $1,484,200 to provide support services to the
OIG. . These resources will be' used by the OIG to fulfill its statutory mandate
and assist the 'Agency deliver-better, cheaper, smarter-environmental protection
by:  (1)  conducting,, supervising, and  coordinating  independent  and objective
audits  and  investigations of  EPA  programs  and operations;   (2)  providing1
leadership  and  recommending  policies  to  promote  economy,  efficiency,  and
effectiveness  in the administration  of Agency  programs;   (3)  preventing  and
detecting fraud, waste, and mismanagement  in EPA programs  and operations;  (4)
keeping the Administrator and  Congress  fully and currently informed of problems
and  deficiencies  in the Agency's programs and operations; and (5)  reviewing
legislation and regulations concerning the Agency.

      The DIG will continue to conduct  a wide range of Superfund work including
performance audits, contract and grant "audits (covering financial  and performance
aspects), and financial audits.   Performance  audits  identify  and recommend
actions to save resources and  improve program and  operational performance.  For
example, a recent OIG audit found that the Agency gave low priority to five-year
reviews  of  Superfund  site remedial actions needed to  assure  the continued
environmental protection of the remedy or additional timely corrective action.
An audit also found that millions of dollars in Superfund site  data was rejected
because of its poor quality, delaying cleanup for up to two and one-half years
at Department  of Defense sites,  and  another audit  found  that  pilot projects
integrating Superfund site  assessments significantly improved the timeliness and
cost effectiveness of the site assessment process. In addition, an audit found
that EPA used outdated cost factors  which may have substantially underestimated
response costs and budgets for Superfund sites.

      The OIG will request a total of $800,000 to obtain audit services from DCAA
and other Federal agencies for audits of 1PA Superfund grants and contracts.  We
will continue interim and final audits of contracts to determine the eligibility,
allocability, and .reasonableness of  costs claimed by  contractors.  In addition,
we will  perform financial audits which produce high payoffs for  each dollar
invested.   For 1995, the OIG questioned $72 .of  costs as  ineligible .for each
dollar spent on external audits of grants and contracts.  Total questioned costs
for  1995  were  $167,200,000 and the Agency recovered $89,900,000  from  audit
resolutions.

      Audits:   The  OIG  will use scientific  and" engineering  specialists in
hazardous  waste remediation  to assist  in independently  reviewing technical
aspects of the program, including remedial investigation and feasibility studies,
as well  as  key technical decisions in the  remedial,  removal,  and enforcement
programs.  The OIG will review the Agency's accounting systems to assure  that the
accounting  and financial  management information  and reports  are reliable  and
useful to the Agency.  We will also review  the Agency's major computer systems
to .assist the Agency in improving the  consistency and reliability of Superfund
data.  As required by the CFO Act, we will conduct audits of  the Agency's fiscal
1996/1997 financial statements for the Superfund.

                                      4-5

-------
      Investigations:   OIG investigations  will  also be focused on potentially
responsible parties,  program and  employee integrity  matters,  and background
investigation issues.   In addition, we will investigate allegations of illegal
activities and initiate proactive investigations where situations could create
an opportunity for fraud or abuse by EPA employees, grantees|  and contractors.
At the end, of  1995, we had 56 active Superfund investigations which represent 31
percent of all  active OIG investigations.   Further,  the  OIG  will  continue to
provide training to Agency staff on the prevention and detection  of fraud, waste
and mismanagement.   In 1995  Superfund investigative  efforts resulted  in two
indictments, four convictions, six administrative actions, and approximately $4 .8
million in fines and recoveries.    The  OIG  will  continue -a major proactive
investigative effort involving focus  on all stages of the Superfund program with
special emphasis on  contracting  activities  as they  relate  to removals  and
remediation.

      Management Activities:  ' We will also continue  to  operate  the Agency's
personnel security program, the OIG hotline, and information resources management
functions.   In  1995,   we  closed 50  hotline cases,  adjudicated 696 personnel
security investigations, and  responded to  125 FQIA requests.   In addition, we
will.evaluate OIG  field division operations,  and review proposed and existing
legislation and  regulations.

LUST        '                .

      The Agency requests a total of $577,100 and 5.8  total workyears for 1997
to be transferred from the LUST Trust  Fund to the OIG for the OIG's audit and
investigation of the LUST program.  This  request includes  a total of $72,700 to
provide support  services to the  OIG.   In  1997,  the  OIG will continue to provide
wide-ranging audit and investigative coverage to ensure that the Agency's LUST
program is delivered  in an effective,  efficient,  and economical manner and in
compliance with applicable laws  and regulations. OIG audits and investigations
will prevent the loss  of millions of Agency dollars, identify ways of correcting
operational weaknesses, assist the Agency in determining the extent that desired
results or benefits of the LUST program are being achieved,  i,dentify basic causes
of problems,  and make .recommendations  for  significantly improving program and
operational effectiveness. These audits and investigations will also  improve the
Agency's  procurement  process and  provide  financial  and  management  advisory
assistance services to Agency managers and other' customers.

      Audits:   'Financial audits  will  be conducted to determine the eligibility,
allocability,  and reasonableness of the .costs claimed by recipients.   Our funding
will also be used to provide assistance to OIG auditors -in  conducting audits and'
to the Agency and others as necessary to track implementation of  audit findings.
Pursuant to its responsibilities .under the  CFO Act,  the OIG- will also focus its
resources  on  financial and  internal  control areas  and audit the Agency's LUST
Trust Fund financial  statements.  For example,  a recent OIG audit found that a
state  bureau  of underground  storage regulation  had  an  inadequate financial
management system and could not support costs claimed  under a LUST cooperative
agreement.  Another audit found that EPA! had not implemented a program to clean
up leaking underground storage tanks  on American Indian lands,  some of which are
contaminating drinking water.

      Investigations:  Investigations conducted in this program contribute to the
quality of data  submitted by  laboratories and the removal of corrupt officials
and corporations from participation  in LUST cleanup activities.  We will also
review  grants  to  identify   questionable  costs  charged  by  states,  develop
additional LUST  program initiatives, and conduct investigations as a result of
audit referrals.
                                      4-6

-------

-------
               UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION .AGENCY
                          FY. 1997 PRESIDENTS BUDGET
                            (dollars in thousands)
PROGRAM ELEMENT
MISSION '& POL MGT
'MISSION AND POLICY
' OFF OF INSPECTOR GEN
AGENCY MANAGEMENT
LDSf SUPPORT SERVICES -HQ
DIG - LUST
LEAKING UNDERGRND STORAGE TANK
NATIONWIDE SUPP SERV
HDQRS SUPPORT SERV
REG SUPPORT SERVIC
ADP SUPPORT COSTS
SUPPORT COSTS
MISSION & POL - SF '
SUPPORT SERVICES - OIG
OIQ - HAZ. SUB.
DOLLARS
1
1
26
26



1



2

1
9

,742
,742
,078
,078
72
504
577
,420
750
622
,130
,922
328
,484
,638

.5
.5
.5
.5
.7
.4
.1
.1
.4
.2
.0
.7
.0
.2
.3
FTE
16
16
280
280
0
•5
5
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
105

'. 0
.0
.6
.6
.0
.8
.8
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
     SUPERFUND
11,450.5
106.0
APPROP: N   OFC OF INSPECTOR GENERAL
42,771.3
408.4
                                  4-7

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                     MISSION AND POLICY  MANAGEMENT  - OIG

OFFICE: OIG


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

      The Inspector General Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-452),  as amended, created
Offices  of  Inspector  General   (OIG)   to  consolidate  existing  audit  and
investigative  resources into  independent organizations headed  by Inspectors
General.   The Inspector  General is appointed by, and can be removed only by, the
President.   This  independence protects  the  OIG  from  interference  by  Agency
management.    The  Administrator,   Environmental  Protection  Agency   (EPA),
established EPA's OIG in January 1980.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

      The OIG provides independent and objective audit'and investigative coverage
of Agency programs and operations.  This program includes the immediate office
of  the Office  of  Inspector   General  and  management  support  for  the  OIG's
Headquarters and field components.  The support includes budget formulation and
execution,  preparation  of the OIG's  semiannual  reports to the  Congress  in
accordance with requirements of  the Inspector General Act,  administrative and
personnel services, training,  coordination of government streamlining activities/
strategic  planning,  and'  performance 'evaluation  measurement, comrnunications,
space,  acquisition  and  administrative  policy,   responding  to  Freedom  of
Information Act and Privacy Act requests,  property  management,  implementation of
the affirmative action program, and files management, and work method.


GOALSAND OBJECTIVES

      The  mission  and policy  management goal is to provide a  high  level  of
leadership  and support, which promotes  the  most  economical,  efficient,  and
effective application and administration of OIG resources.  This program .seeks
ways of promoting greater workforce  diversity and  development  and improving OIG
value to the Agency and  Congress through more effective communications, and work
methods.
                                      4-8

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL

 OFFICE:  OIG  '


 STATUTORY AUTBORITIES/REgULATORY FRAMEWORK

       The Inspector General Act of  1978 (Public Law 95-452), as amended, created
 Offices  of   Inspector  General  (DIG)  to  consolidate   existing   'audit  and
 investigative  resources  into  independent organizations  headed by  Inspectors
 General.  The Inspector General is  appointed by,  and can be removed only .by,  the
 President.   This  independence protects  the OIG from  interference by Agency
 management.     The  Administrator,  Environmental  Protection   Agency- (EPA),
 established  EPA's  OIG in  January'1980.


 PROGRAM  DESCRIPTION

       The  OIG  provides  independent  and  objective  audit  coverage  of  Agency
 programs and operations  through:  (i)  performance audits which determine  the
 extent  that  desired  result  or  benefits  established  by  Congress  and  the
 Administration  are being  achieved uncover systemic problems  in  EPA  management
 systems  and  recommend ways  to  improve  EPA programs;  (2) pre-award,  interim  and
 final  audits of contracts; and  (3)  audits of waste water treatment  construction
,grants and other grants awarded by  the Agency.  OIG recommendations to top-level
 management are designed to promote-economy, effectiveness, and efficiency in the
 administration  of  Agency  programs and'.operations.  The OIG follows up to ensure
 that corrective actions taken by the Agency on'its recommendations are adequate.
 The OIG  investigates  allegations of illegal  activities  and initiates proactive
 investigations where  situation's  could create the opportunity for fraud or abuse
 by EPA employees,  grantees,  and contractors.  OIG investigations.contribute to
 suspensions,  debarments,  and  settlements.    OIG  audits  and  investigations
 contribute to better  Agency management and have  a significant deterrent effect
 on waste and mismanagement.

       The  OIG  also manages: the Agency's personnel  security program;  reviews
 proposed- and existing  legislation and regulations;  and conducts regional  and
 intergovernmental  liaison activities,  including those related to the President's
 Council  on Integrity  and  Efficiency.


 GOALS  AND OBJECTIVES

       •The  OIG's  goal  is  to  'maintain  a balanced  and  sustained  audit  and
 investigative  presence in  all of EPA's  major  programs  to help EPA  managers
 achieve  the Agency Environmental Goals,   ensure  a strong  enforcement presence,
 and  minimize the  Agency's  risk of financial  loss.    The OIG  seeks  to work
 cooperatively with the Agency  and provide leadership and  recommend policies to
 promote  economy,  efficiency,  and  effectiveness   in the  administration  of  EPA,
 programs,  and  make sure  that  those .programs are delivered in compliance with
 applicable  laws and  regulations.   The OIG  also seeks to  adjust  its  work as
 necessary  to address Agency  program  changes and  newly  identified areas  of
 vulnerability.
                                      4-9

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          HEADQUARTERS SUPPORT - LUST

OFFICE:  OARM        ,                                             .


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

      The statutory mandate  for  this  program is included in Subtitle 1 of  the
Hazardous and Solid  Waste  Amendments  of 1984,  as  amended by  the  Superfund
Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, which established the Trust Fund.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

      The principle  functions include  awarding LUST  contracts  and  providing
information-related services, designing automated responses to such requirements,
assisting the Office  in  developing  a  long  range,  mission-based  information
resources management plan, and working with the states,  Regions and Headquarters
to determine common approaches to information management that will  ensure that
the LUST information needs at all government  levels are met.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

     .'The goal  of  this activity is to  provide  timely information  support  .and
other support services to the Agency's  Office of Underground Storage  Tanks.
                                     4-10

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                      LUST—OFFICE  OF INSPECTOR GENERAL
OFFICE: O±G
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

      The Inspector General Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-452) ,  as amended, created
Offices  of  Inspector  General   (OIG)'   to  consolidate  existing  audit  and
investigative  resources  into independent  organizations headed  by Inspectors
General.  The Administrator,  Environmental  Protection Agency (EPA), established
EPA's OIG in January 1980.  The Su'perfund Amendments and Reauthorizaition Act • of
1986 established the Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST) program, adding to
the activities for which the OIG must provide audit coverage.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

      The OIG conducts and supervises independent and objective audits of LUST
programs and operations through (!) performance audits which determine the extent
that desired result or benefits established by Congress and the Administration
are being achieved and uncover systemic problems and recommend improvements and
(2) audits of contracts and grants awarded by the Agency.  OIG recommendations
to  top-level management  are  designed  to promote  economy,  effectiveness,  and
efficiency  in  the administration of  LUST programs  and operations.   The OIG
follows  up to  ensure that  corrective  actions  taken  by  the  Agency on  its
recommendations  are  adequate.  The OIG  investigates  allegations  of  illegal
activities and initiates proactive investigations where  situations  could create
the opportunity for fraud  or  abuse by EPA employees, grantees, and  contractors.
In  addition,  OIG  investigations  contribute  to  suspensions,  debarments,  and
settlements.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

      The OIGVs-goal is to maintain a sustained audit and investigative presence
in  EPA's  LUST program  to  help  EPA  managers  achieve  the Agency  National
Environmental  Goals,  ensure  a strong  enforcement  presence, and  minimize the
Agency's risk of financial loss.   The OIG seeks to work cooperatively with the
Agency and recommend policies to promote  economy, efficiency, and effectiveness
in  the  administration of  the LUST program and make sure that  the program is
delivered in compliance with applicable laws and regulations.  The OIG also seeks
to  adjust  its  work as necessary to .address Agency program changes and newly
identified areas of vulnerability.
                                     4-11

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                          NATIONWIDE  SUPPORT SERVICES

OFFICE:  OARM

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

      The authorizing  statute  for activities  in this program  element  is the
annual Appropriation Bill.  Activities are also governed by the Chief Financial
Officers'Act, and the Government Performance and Results Act.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

      This program element provides the following services to all Agency programs
regardless of location:  Agency-wide costs for facility rentals  (including GSA
and direct lease payments); Nationwide Services; Agency's Integrated Financial
Management Systems; the Agency's Integrated Contracts Management System; National
Security;  National  Agency  Check  Investigations   (NACI);  Code  of  Federal
Regulations  Typesetting;  Unemployment . Compensation,-  Workers  Compensation;
payments to the Public Health Service  (PHS) for payroll services for commissioned
officers .assigned to  EPA;  and contracts and interagency agreements which support
the Agency's health and safety program.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

      The  goal  of this  program  is  to  provide  timely, responsive,  and cost
effective services in the areas mentioned above.
                                     4-12

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT,DESCRIPTION
                              HEADQUARTERS SUPPORT
OFFICE:  OARM
 STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY  FRAMEWORK

      The  authorizing -statute  for  activities in  this  program element  is  the
 annual Appropriation Bill.,


 PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

      This  program element supports the following services  in Washington,  DC,
.Research Triangle  Park,  NC, ' and Cincinnati,  Ohio-.

      Office  Services  - - Includes costs for  common  supplies,  common equipment
 maintenance,   motorpool,   printing/copying   services   and-  supplies,   and
 transportation of  things.

      Building Services  --  Provides  funds  for utilities,  office relocation  and
 labor  services,  security  services,  common rental  and  purchase of  equipment,
 employee health units,  facilities  operation and'maintenance, mail operations,  and
 miscellaneous.

      Information Management - - Provides most  central IKM stewardship activities
 (policy,  security,  records management,   oversight),  management  of  Agency
 administrative  systems,  library and  public  information  services,  systems
 development services,  and  data  management  and administration.


 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

      The principal goals  for this program are to  provide quality office,
 building, and information management services in a cost effective manner.
                                      4-13

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
        • "                 PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                               REGIONAL SUPPORT

OFFICE:  OARM                                      .


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

      The authorizing statute for activities in this program element is the
annual Appropriation Bill.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

      This program element supports the following 'services for Agency programs
in 10 Regional Offices,  Regional laboratories, and other facilities around the
country:

      Office Services --  Includes  costs  for common supplies,  common equipment
maintenance, motorpool,  printing/copying  services and  supplies,  audiovisual
services, common  rental  and purchase of  equipment,  facility,  employee health
units, facilities operation and maintenance,  mail operations, and miscellaneous
contracts.                                                             •

      Building Services  --  Provides funds  for telecommunications,  utilities,
office  relocation and  labor  services,   security  services,  common  rental and
purchase of equipment,' alterations,  employee health'units, facilities operation
and maintenance,  mail operations, and'miscellaneous contracts.

      Information Management -- Provides support dollars for supplies, library
services,  information  retrieval  services,  and  automated  data  processing
technical support.

     • Laboratories and Field Operations -- Building services for laboratories and
field locations,  plus all scientific and technical equipment and supplies.

      Health and Safety/Environmental Compliance - Provides funds for employee
health units, health and wellness services, environmental compliance programs in
labs and Regional Offices.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

      The principal goals  for this. program are  to provide quality office,
building, laboratory, field, and information management services  to the Regional
Offices in a cost effective manner.
                                     4-14

-------
                UNITED  STATES  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                                 ADP  SUPPORT
OFFICE:   OARM
STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

      The authorizing  statute for activities  in this program  element  is the
annual Appropriation Bill.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

      This account funds  the  design,  acquisition and maintenance of computing
equipment for  the  National Computer  Center at Research Triangle  Park,  North
Carolina, and the compatible distributed processors at EPA Headquarters, Regional
Offices and other major administrative centers;  telecommunications equipment and
services  required  to   link  these  sites  with  one 'another and  with  state
environmental  agencies;  commercial software  acquisition and maintenance for
central and distributive processors that comprise EPA's general purpose computing
and telecommunications .network; ai^d contractor support to manage the operation
of  the  computing  and  telecommunications  network,  to  conduct  technology
assessments,  and to plan and deliver training and other support to users of this
network.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

      The goal of this program element is to provide timely and efficient ADP
services to the Agency.
                                     4-15

-------
                 UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
          MISSION AND POLICY MANAGEMENT - HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE -OIG

OFFICE: OIG


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

      The Inspector General Act of 1978  (Public Law 95-452) ,  as amended, created
Offices  of  .inspector  General  (OIG)   to  consolidate  existing  .audit  and
investigative  resources into  independent organizations, headed  by Inspectors
General.  The Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),.established
EPA's OIG in January 1980.


PROGRAM DE SCRIPTION
   A
      The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 authorizes
a complex program for which the OIG needs  to  provide  audit and  investigative
coverage.  The mission and policy program will continue management support for
the  OIG's  Headquarters and field  components.    The support  includes budget
formulation and  execution,  preparation  of the  OIG''s' semiannual reports to the
Congress' in  accordance  with  requirements' of   the  Inspector   General  Act,
administrative and personnel  services,  training,  coordination  of government
streamlining  and  Total Quality  Management activities,  strategic  planning,
communications,,  space,  acquisition and administrative policy,  responding to
Freedom  of  Information Act  and  Privacy Act  requests, property management,,
implementation of the affirmative action program, and files management.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

      The mission and policy  management  goal  is  to provide a  high  level of
leadership  and  support which  promotes the most economical, efficient,  and
effective-'application and administration of OIG resources.  This program seeks
ways of promoting greater  workforce  diversity and development  and improving OIG
value to the Agency and Congress, through more effective communications.
                                     4-16

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION A<3ENC¥
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE HEADQUARTERS  SUPPORT -  OIG


OFFICE:     OARM

STATUTORY AUTOORMIES/REgOLATORY FRAMEWORK

      The statutory mandate  for this  program is included in Subtitle  1  of-the'
Hazardous  and Solid  Waste  .amendments  of 1984,  as amended  by the  Superfund
Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986,  which established  the  Trust Fund.
Activities are governed by the  Chief  Financial  Officers  Act and the Government
Performance and Results Act.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

 .  ,   This program element funds the 016's Superfund portion' of Headquarters and
Nationwide Support costs.  These costs include  rent, utilities,  security,  mail
operations, telecommunications, 'and other support  costs.

GOALSAND OBJECTIVES

      The  goal  of this  activity is  'to  provide effective,  and timely  support
services to the OIG's Superfund program...
                                     4-17

-------
                UNITED  STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
               HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE—OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL

OFFICE:OIG


STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

      The Inspector General Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-452),  as amended, created
Offices  of • Inspector  General  '(OIG)   to  consolidate  existing ' audit  and
investigative  resources into  independent organizations headed  by Inspectors
General.  The Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), established
EPA's OIG in January 1980.


PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

      The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986 authorizes
a complex program  for  which the OIG needs  to provide  audit and investigative
coverage.  SARA requires the OIG  to:  (1) audit uses of the Trust Fund;  (2) audit
claims;  (3)  examine  a  sample of agreements  with  States;  (4)  examine remedial
investigations and feasibility studies; (5)  submit to Congress an annual report
on the above activities; and  (6)  review the Agency's annual progress report to
Congress on its progress in implementing the program. The OIG also conducts and
supervises independent  and objective:  (1)  performance audits which determine the
exte'nt  that desired result  or benefits  established by  Congress  and  the
Administration are being  achieved and uncover  systemic problems and recommend
improvements in the Superfund programs and operations;   (2)   audits of contracts
and  grants  awarded by  the Agency;  and  (3)  financial   and  management systems
reviews of contractors.and states.   OIG recommendations  to top-level management
are  designed  to  promote  economy,  effectiveness,  and   efficiency  in  the
administration of  Superfund programs and  operations.   The OIG  follows  up to
ensure that  corrective  actions taken  by  the Agency on  its  recommendations are
adequate.

      The  OIG  investigates  allegations  of  illegal activities  and  initiates
proactive investigations where situations  could create the opportunity for fraud
or  abuse by EPA  employees,  grantees,  and contractors.    In  addition,  OIG
investigations contribute to suspensions, debarments, and settlements•.


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

      The  OIG's goal   is  to  maintain  a balanced  and sustained audit  and
investigative presence  in EPA's  Superfund program to help EPA managers achieve
the Agency National Environmental Goals,  ensure a strong enforcement presence,
and  minimize the  Agency's risk of financial  loss.    The  OIG seeks  to  work
cooperatively  with  the Agency  and  recommend  policies  to  promote  economy,
efficiency, and effectiveness in  the administration of the Superfund program and
make sure that the program is delivered in compliance with  applicable laws and
regulations.   The  OIG  also  seeks^ to  adjust its work as necessary to address
Agency program changes and newly identified areas of vulnerability.
                                     4-18

-------
Buildings and
   Facilities
     SECTION TAB

-------
                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1997 BUDGET ESTIMATE

                               TABLE  OF  CONTENTS

BUILDINGS & FACILITIES  .  .	5-1
      REPAIRS & IMPROVEMENT	•	5-3
      NEW FACILITIES	5-3
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION	  5-5

-------

-------
                           BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES


      The Agency requests a total of $209,220,000 for 1997 in the Buildings
and Facilities Appropriation account.  This account funds the design,
construction, repair, and improvement of buildings occupied by EPA.  The
Agency has ten Regional offices with associated Regional laboratories, several
large research and development laboratories, program laboratories, a number of
field stations with laboratory facilities and a Headquarters operation in nine
locations in the Washington, DC area.

      This program provides a safe and healthy work environment for EPA
employees by providing for renovation and repair or replacement of our
facilities.  Through our facilities masterplan, we continue to implement
intermediate and long-range plans that assess alternative housing options for
EPA operations and also continue a repair program that protects the Agency's
investment in EPA real property holdings.  We are modifying current facilities
to more adequately and efficiently address the Agency's changing programs as
well as implementing cost-effective energy and water conservation measures at
EPA-occupied, federally-owned buildings.  We will continue to emphasize
environmental compliance and health and safety efforts in EPA facilities by
removing asbestos and PCBs, upgrading fire and life safety systems, and
upgrading heating,  ventilation and air conditioning systems to meet the 'most
current ventilation and CPC removal standards.

      Ongoing new construction will be managed through the design and
construction phases.  Major construction in the Research Triangle Park
facility includes the main research and administrative building, the computer
building, and the High Bay research building.

      The New Headquarters requires Buildings and Facilities resources to
ensure that the facilities are functionally responsive, reflective of EPA's
mission, and built in accordance with the quality standards of a national
headquarters.  Indoor air quality, adequate power and lighting, and
flexibility of configuration are among the project priority issues'.
                                      5-1

-------
5-2

-------
                           BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

OVERVIEW

      The Agency requests a total of $209,220,000  for  1997  in the Buildings and
Facilities Appropriation  account.   The 1997 Buildings  and Facilities program
continues  initiatives  to correct  deficiencies  in  the   Agency's  facilities
infrastructure.  Ongoing and proposed new construction will be managed through
the design and construction phases.  Included in the construction plan is the new
Consolidated laboratory at Research Triangle Park,  North  Carolina.   Work will
continue on the buildout of a new government - owned Headquarters facility, as well
as construction of the new Environmental Science Center in Fort Meade, Maryland.
We  will  continue  to address  repair and  improvement projects  in  EPA  space
nationwide.

      Technical assistance  will  be  provided to the Headquarters  and Regional
offices for  planning layouts and more  efficiently using  space.   Agency-wide
facilities   standards   and   masterplanning  will  be  used  in  implementing
repair/replacement  of our  laboratory infrastructure.   Critical fire  safety
abatement activities will continue and all EPA-owned facilities with CFC'chillers
will be converted to high-efficiency,  non-CFC systems.  We  will continue energy
audits and take'corrective  action to achieve compliance with  the President's
Executive Order regarding upgrading security at federal facilities.

      Buildings and Facilities resources will ensure that the New Headquarters
Facility is functionally responsive,  reflective .of our .mission,  and built to the
quality standards of a national Headquarters facility.  The  buildings comprising
the new Headquarters complex include the Ariel Rios Building, Federal Triangle,
Customs Building, Interstate Commerce Commission building and connecting wing.
These buildings are being rehabilitated to provide improved indoor air quality;
adequate power and lighting consistent with EPA's  energy efficiency initiative;
raised floors  to ensure  flexibility in layout  of  space;   and,  finishes  that
provide high wear resistance and save maintenance costs.

PROGRAM and ACTIVITY HIGHLIGHTS

REPAIRS AND IMPROVEMENTS

      The Agency  requests a total  of  $14,424,000 for 1997 . in  the  Repair and
Improvement program element.  These funds will provide engineering,  design and
construction support related to the repair and improvement of buildings occupied
by EPA. More specifically, these funds will be used to  address: critical repairs
related to employee health and safety (fire protection systems installations);
ensure  environmental  compliance  efforts   in   EPA  facilities  (asbestos  and
underground  storage tank removal and hazardous  materials storage) ,-, continue
energy conservation^ green lights and CFC removal programs; provide for a minimum
of  critical  program  alterations and  repairs   {electrical  distribution,  air-
conditioning,  and -roof repairs) for laboratory facilities; and provide funding
for some buildout costs associated with1 regional moves.

NEW FACILITIES

      The Agency requests a total of $194,796,000  for  1997  in the Buildings and
Facilities  Appropriation  .New   Facilities   program  element.     Ongoing  new
construction will be managed through the design and construction phases.

      Of the total requested,  $182,000,000  will  fund the Research Triangle Park
office and laboratory facility in North Carolina.  This provides the balance of
the $232,000,000 needed to complete  construction of  the project.  The remaining
balance of $50,000,000 was requested prior to FY  1997.

      Of the  total requested, ,$12, 796, 000 will fund the New Headquarters project.

                                      5-3

-------
The New  Headquarters Project requires  Buildings and Facilities  resources to
ensure that the facility is functionally responsive, reflective of EPA's mission,
and built in accordance with the quality standards of a national headquarters.
Indoor air quality, adequate power and lighting, and flexibility of configuration
are among the project priority issues.
                                      5-4

-------

-------
            UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                    FY 1997 PRESIDENTS BUDGET
                      (dollars in thousands)
PROGRAM ELEMENT                                     DOLLARS           FTE

        .REPAIRS ,& IMPROVEMENTS                        14,424.0       '  Q.O

        REPAIRS & IMPROVEMENTS                        14,424.0         0.0


        NEW FACILITIES           .                    194,796.0         0.0

        NEW FACILITIES                               194,796.0         0.0



         BUILDING AND FACILITIES                     209,220.0         0.0
                                      5-5

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                           REPAIRS AND IMPROVEMENTS


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: OARM

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

The authorizing statutes for activities in  this program element is the annual
-Appropriation- Bill.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program element funds the repair and improvement of buildings occupied
by EPA, whether Federally owned or leased.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVEa

Our goals for this program include: providing a safe and healthful working
environment for EPA employees; ensuring that all EPA facilities meet pollution
abatement standards; providing facilities modifications that are essential to
conduct legislatively mandated program operations, preventing and halting
deterioration of EPA's aging facilities, and providing critical preventive
maintenance; reducing energy consumption through practical conservation
measures; improving capabilities at research, program, and regional
laboratories; and addressing Agency requirements of toxic and hazardous
material handling facilities.
                                      5-6

-------
                 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          PROGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION
                                MEW FACILITIES


NATIONAL PROGRAM MANAGER: OABM

STATUTORY AUTHORITIES/REgPIATORY FRAMEWORK

The authorising statutes  for activities  in  this program element is  the annual
Appropriation Bill..

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

This program element funds the design and construction  of  buildings occupied
by EPA,

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this activity is to provide  state-of-the-art facilities in which
to conduct research and to provide a safe work environment in which to house
EPA employees.
                                      5-7

-------

-------
Superfund
   SECTION TAB

-------
                       .ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                              1997 BUDGET ESTIMATE

                               TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUPERFUND	...,...•	6-1
      RESPONSE	.....'....  6-3
      ENFORCEMENT	  6-9
      MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT   ...'.,..'...,..'	', ... 6-11
      OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES	.'..-.	6-IS,
      PROGRAM ELEMENT INFORMATION  	  	  .6-1?

-------

-------
                         HAZARDOUS  SUBSTANCE  SUPERFOHD

      'The Agency requests a total of $1,394,245,200 and 3,730.7 workyears to meet
the environmental goals of this program.  Of  this amount, $42,508,000 and 131.8
workyears are transferred to the Science and Technology'account for research and
development efforts,  and $11,450,500.  and 106.0 workyears are transferred to the
Inspector General  account for audit activities.  The remaining $1,340,286,700 and
3,492.9 workyears are provided  to meet•the response and enforcement needs of the
Superfund program.

      Improper disposal  of hazardous, waste at  some  sites  has resulted .in soil
that is unsafe to live,  work and play on, water that is unfit  to drink,  and air
that  is  dangerous  to  breath.  Contamination  from  sites often migrates  to
groundwater and nearby lakes and streams, further damaging valuable public and
private resources. These hazardous waste sites put public health and sensitive
ecosystems at risk.

      In response to  public concerns  about health and environmental risks posed
by abandoned and  uncontrolled  hazardous,  waste  sites,  Congress established the
Superfund program in 1980.   Since then, over 40,000  hazardous waste sites of
potential concern have been reported to the Agency.  Over 35,000 sites  in this
inventory have been assessed to determine the need for further cleanup action.
The -Agency recently removed from the list more than 24,000 sites that had been.
assessed and found not to require any further action.   Of the remaining sites,
over 1,300 have been placed on the National Priorities List (NPL).  Today, one
in four Americans lives  within four miles of a NPL site  --  the Nation's worst
sites. .

      Since the problem of contaminated sites in the United States is so large
and varied,  no one  solution  can be applied everywhere,  and decisions about
cleanup must be made with community,  public health, and environmental concerns
in mind.  In determining  the appropriate remedy, the Agency considers protection
of public health and environment to be the paramount concern, then accounts for,
among other things, future land-use plans and cost of cleanup.

      The Superfund program also responds  to emergency releases,  such as the
recent  Wisconsin  trail derailment where several  cars containing  propane and
liquid petroleum  gas and a nearby building holding ammonia  caught-fire.   The
burning cars  and  building exposed nearby  residents to toxic  emissions and a
threat of explosion,  requiring an evacuation  of the  town and over 200 residents
to  seek  medical  attention,    In  incidents  such  as  these,   Agency on-scene
coordinators are  on  the site  immediately  to work with and  provide technical
assitance to the  responsible parties and state and local officials.

      In  cases  of long-term  cleanup  .and early actions, the  Agency works with
those responsible for  the contamination to  ensure that they conduct  or fund
appropriate cleanup action.  If no responsible party can be found,  or they cannot
perform or pay  for the cleanup work, the Agency cleans up the site using the
Superfund Trust Fund.  Responsible parties are then pursued to  reimburse  the fund
if  they can  be identified and are financially viaiale^  This "polluter pays"
approach  ensures  that  limited  trust  fund dollars  are  used for emergencies and
abandoned sites.

      The Agency's Superfund program endeavors to protect human health  and the
environment through timely and cost-effective cleanup  of contaminated sites, to
respond  quickly  to   emergency  hazardous  waste  release's,   and  to  maximize
responsible party and community group  participation  in cleanup  efforts.   In
meeting this purpose,  the Agency has established  several measures  of program
progress.  With funding  at the levels requested in the 1997 Budget, the Agency
will complete cleanup  of 650  NPL sites by the year 2000, _thereby reducing or
eliminating public health risks posed by these  sites.   The Agency will complete
early cleanup actions,  which are designed to prevent further contamination.  And

                                    . 6-1

-------
finally, the Agency will continue to support the cleanup  of contaminated Federal
installations currently on the NPL, which tend to be more complicated cleanups
with some containing radioactive wastes.

      The President's Budget  addresses  several  high priorities for ,1997,   The
Agency will expand the  program to redevelop contaminated urban and industrial
properties,  thereby providing communities with increased tax  bases/  jobs and
improved urban environments.   The Agency will support state and  tribal hazardous
waste response programs and strengthen their roles,  along with community groups,
at Superfund sites. The  President's Budget  also includes 148 workyears, funded
by the  Department of Defense,  for environmental  assistance to  expedite  base
closures as part of the Base Realignment and  Closure Act  (BRAG) .  The Agency will
continue to strengthen Superfund enforcement  fairness initiatives by implementing
various Superfund