United States        Office Of          EPA 205-R-99-001
                Environmental Protection    Chief Financial Officer     February 1999
                Agency           (2732)




r/EFW          Fiscal Year 2000
        Justification Appropriation

         Estimates For Committee

             On Appropriations
     Recycled/Recyclable • Printed wrth Vegetable Based Inks on Recycled Paper (20% Postconsumer)

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Resource Tables

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents
Introduction and Overview
        EPA's Mission and Purpose	i-1
        Goals	i-2
        Organization of the Annual Plan and Congressional Justification	i-4
        Annual Plan Overview	,	i-8

Resource Table
        Resources by Appropriation	  R.T-1
        Resources by Goal/Appropriation	„	RT-3
        Resources by Goal/Objective			  RT-10

Goal 1: Clean Air	1-1
        Attain NAAQS) for Ozone and PM			   1-13
        Reduce Emissions of Air Toxics				1-39
        Attain NAAQS for CO, SO2, NO2, Lead	..		1-57
        Acid Rain	1-65

Goal 2: Clean and Safe Water	 H-l
        Safe Drinking Water, Fish and Recreational Waters  	  H-13
        Conserve and Enhance Nation's Waters	  n-37
        Reduce Loadings and Air Deposition	,....,	»	  11-61

Goal 3: Safe Food		,	ffl-1
        Reduce Agricultural Pesticides Risk	ffl-9
        Reduce Use on Food of Pesticides Not Meeting Standards		UI-17

Goal 4: Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes,
               Workplaces and Ecosystems	,	IV-1
        Reduce Public and Ecosystem Exposure to Pesticides	,..	,	IV-15
        Reduce Lead Poisoning	IV-23
        Safe Handling and Use of Commercial Chemicals and Microorganisms	IV-29
        Healthier Indoor Air	IV-43
        Improve Pollution Prevention Strategies, Tools, Approaches	,		IV-53
        Decrease Quantity and Toxiciry of Waste	  IV-65
        Assess Conditions in Indian Country	IV-75


Goal 5: Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated Waste Sites,
        and Emergency Response	,	t	 V-l
        Reduce or Control Risks to Human Health	,	 V-9
        Prevent, Reduce and Respond to Releases, Spills, Accidents or Emergencies	  V-39

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Goal 6: Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks  	 VI-1
       Reduce Transboundary Threats: Shared North American Ecosystems	VI-7
       Climate Change	VI-19
       Stratospheric Ozone Depletion	,		VI-39
       Protect Public Health and Ecosystems From Persistent Toxics	 VI-45
       Achieve Cleaner and More Cost-Effective Practices	VI-55

Goal 7: Expansion of Americans' Right to Know About Their Environment	 VH-1
       Increase Quality/Quantity of Education, Outreach, Data Availability	VII-9
       Improve Public's Ability to Reduce Exposure	Vn-23
       Enhance Ability to Protect Public Health	  ' VH-35

Goal 8: Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental Risks,
               and Greater Innovation to Address Environmental Problems	  Vffl-1
       Research for Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration	,	  VIH-11
       Research for Human HealthRisk Assessment  			  vm-23
       Emerging Risk Issues	  Vm-35
       Pollution Prevention and New Technology  	,	   Vin-43
       Increase Use of Integrated, Holistic, Partnership Approaches	  Vffl-53
       Increase Opportunities for Sector Based Approaches	  Vffl-57
       Regional Enhancement of Ability to Quantify Environmental Outcomes	  Vffi-63
       Science Advisory Board Peer Review	  VHI-65
       Incorporate Innovative Approaches to Environmental Management	  Vffl-69

Goal 9: A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and Greater Compliance with the Law	IX-1
       Enforcement Tools to Reduce Non-Compliance		 DC-5
       Increase Use of Auditing, Self-Policing Policies   	K-25

Goal 10: Effective Management		X-l
       Executive Leadership	 X-7
       Management Services, Administrative, and Stewardship	X-ll
       Building Operations, Utilities and New Construction	 X-23
       Provide Audit and Investigative Products and Services. —	 X-29

Special Analysis
       Major Management Issues	SA-1
       EPA User Fee Program	,	 SA-9
       Working Capital Fund	  SA-12
       The Customer Service Program	  SA-13
       Costs and Benefits of Economically significant Rules in FY1999 or2000	  SA-15
       Non-Appropriated Funds	,	SA-27
       Program and Activity Highlights	  SA-28
       Key Programs by Appropriation	SA-29
       State and Tribal Assistance Grants	,	SA-45
       Object Classification	   SA-46

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Introduction/Overview

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents
Introduction and Overview
        EPA's Mission and Purpose	i-1
        Goals	,	  i-2
        Organization of the Annual Plan and Congressional Justification	i-4
        Annual Plan Overview	i-8

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                                 EPA's Mission and Purpose

The mission of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect human health and to
safeguard the natural environment — air, water, and land - upon which life depends. EPA's purpose
is to ensure that:

•      All Americans are protected from significant risks to human health and the environment where they
       live, learn, and work.

•      National efforts to reduce environmental risk are based on the best available scientific information.

•      Federal laws protecting human health and the environment are enforced fairly and effectively.

*      Environmental protection is an integral consideration in U.S. policies concerning natural resources,
       human health, economic growth, energy, transportation, agriculture, industry, and international
       trade, and these factors are similarly considered in establishing environmental policy.

•      All parts of society — communities, individuals, business, state and local governments, and tribal
       governments -- have access to accurate information sufficientto effectively participate in managing
       human health and environmental risks.

•      Environmental protection contributes  to making  our communities and ecosystems diverse,
       sustainable, and economically productive.

•      The United States  plays  a leadership role in working with other nations to protect the global
       environment.             -           '

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                                         EPA's Goals

       EPA has developed a series of ten strategic, long-term Goals in its Strategic Plan.  These goals,
together with the underlying principles that will be used to achieve them, define the Agency's planning,
budgeting, analysis, and accountability process.

•      Clean Air: The air in every American community will be safe and healthy to breathe. In particular,
       children, the elderly, and people with respiratory ailments will be protected from health risks of
       breathing polluted air. Reducing air pollution will also protect the environment, resulting in many
       benefits, such as restoring life in damaged ecosystems and reducing health risks to those whose
       subsistence depends directly on those ecosystems.

•      Clean and Safe Water:  All Americans will have drinking water that is clean and safe to drink.
       Effective protection of America's rivers, lakes, wetlands, aquifers, and coastal and ocean waters will
       sustain fish, plants, and wildlife, as well as recreational, subsistence, and economic activities.
       Watersheds and their aquatic ecosystems will be restored and protected to improve public health,
       enhance water quality, reduce flooding, and provide habitat for wildlife.

•      Safe Food:  The foods Americans eat will be free from unsafe  pesticide  residues. Children
       especially will be protected from the health threats posed by  pesticide residues, because they are
       among the most vulnerable groups in our society.

*      Preventing Pollution and  Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes,  Workplaces and
       Ecosystems:  Pollution prevention and risk management strategies aimed  at  cost-effectively
       eliminating, reducing, or minimizing emissions and contamination will result in cleaner and safer
       environments  in which all Americans can reside, work, and enjoy life. EPA will safeguard
       ecosystems and promote the health of natural communities that are integral to the quality of life in
       this nation.

•      Better Waste  Management, Restoration of Contaminated Waste Sites, and Emergency
       Response: America's wastes will be stored, treated, and disposed of in ways that prevent harm to
       people and to the natural environment.  EPA will work to  clean  up previously polluted sites,
       restoring them to uses appropriate for surrounding communities, and respond to and prevent waste-
       related or industrial accidents.

•      Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks: The United States will lead other
       nations in successful, multilateral efforts to reduce significant risks to human health and ecosystems
       from climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and other hazards of international concern.

•      Expansion of Americans' Right to Know About Their Environment: Easy access to a wealth
       of information about the state of their local environment will expand citizen involvement and give
       people tools to protect their families and their communities as they see fit.  Increased information
       exchange between  scientists, public  health  officials, businesses, citizens,  and  all levels of
       government will foster greater knowledge about the environment and what can be done to protect
       it.
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Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental Risk, and Greater Innovation to
Address Environmental Problems: EPA will develop and apply the best available science for
addressing current and future environmental hazards, as well as new approaches toward improving
environmental protection.

A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and Greater Compliance with the Law: EPA will ensure full
compliance with laws intended to protect human health and the environment.

Effective Management:  EPA will establish a management infrastructure that  will set and
implement the highest quality standards for effective internal management and fiscal responsibility.
                                      i-3

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                               Organization of the Annual Plan

       The organization of EPA's FY 2000 Annual Plan and Congressional Justification reflects the
Agency's continuing commitment to link planning and budgeting in a coherent, integrated process.  In the
spirit of reinventing government to better serve the  American people, the Agency for the second year
presents its budget as its Annual Plan, The FY 2000 Annual Plan builds on the successes and challenges of
the FY 1999 Annual Plan, which was the first budget the Agency presented in this new format.

       The Annual Plan presents the Agency's Goals and Objectives, and identifies the resource levels and
activities associated with them.  The Annual  Plan  sets forth the intermediate, measurable  levels of
performance for each Objective in the budget year;  as such, it is the linchpin to each of the Agency's
Objectives contained in the Agency's five-year Strategic Plan. As a result, the Annual Plan promotes fiscal
accountability through a direct connection between resources and outcomes.

Resource Tables

       The resource tables provide a broad overview of the resources that the Agency is requesting for FY
2000 by Goal, Objective, and Appropriation. (The dollar amounts in these and other tables may not add due
to independent rounding.)

Goal Chapters include:

•      Background and Contest: Sets the broad context for the  Goal and briefly explains why the Goal
       is of National importance.

•      Resource Summary: Provides a broad overview of the resources for FY 2000 by Goal, Objective,
       and Appropriation.

•      Means and Strategy: Broadly describes the  Agency's  approach to achieving the strategic Goal.

»      Highlights: Gives an overview of major activities  and programs which contribute to achieving the
       Goal.

*      Strategic Objectives and Annual Performance Goals: Includes all the Objectives under each Goal
       and links the Objectives with FY 2000 Annual Performance Goals.

•      External Factors: This section addresses the external-Agency factors such as participation in
       environmental programs by State and local governments and other stakeholders, or economic and
       technological factors, that may enhance or impede  progress toward achieving environmental goals.
       For some Goals, this section includes a discussion of legislative proposals for FY 2000 which, along
       with the requested resources, are required for the Agency  to meet Annual Performance Goals and
       achieve Objectives.
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Objective Sections Include:

•      Objective Statement: Objectives are a critical part of the planning and budgeting process, and they
       respond to the GPRA requirement to plan achievable Objectives. Each Objective supports the
       attainment of a specific Goal.

*      Resource Summary: Reports resources by Appropriation account for the Objective
            rograms: Reports resources for Key Programs, which are core Agency programs contributing
       to the Objective.  Resources listed under an Objective may not represent the total Key Program
       resources, as a Key Program may be involved in more than one Objective.

•      FY 2000 Request:  These narratives describe specific Agency functions and the operational
       processes, as well as the human,  capital  and technological  resources required to meet the
       performance goals.

•      FY 2000 Change from FY 1999 Enacted: Describes major changes, by appropriation account, in
       programmatic funding within the Objective.

*      Annual Performance Goals: Annual Performance Goals are central to measuring progress toward
       achieving Objectives.  They are quantifiable standards, values, or rates against which actual
       achievement can be compared. They establish the connection between longer-term objectives and
       the day-to-day activities in the Agency's programs and will be used by managers to determine how
       well a program or activity is doing in accomplishing its intended results.  This Annual Plan lists
       Annual Performance Goals for both 1999 and 2000, as well as a description of how achieving the
       Annual Performance Goals advance accomplishment of the Objectives.

•      Key Performance Measures: Key Performance Measures provide the means for determining the
       extent to which annual goals and multi-year objectives are being achieved.  As such, they are
       essential to program evaluations that help to  guide the Agency's strategic planning.

•      Verification and Validation of Performance Measures: This section describes how the values
       used in Performance Measures are verified and validated. This section includes a description of the
       source of performance measure data as well as procedures for quality assurance. This section may
       also include information on the methodology of data collection and review.

•      Coordination with Other Agencies: This section is new in the FY 2000 Annual Plan. It describes
       partnerships with other Federal and state agencies which are crucial to the success of our Nation's
       environmental programs.

•      Statutory Authority:  This section cites the public law that gives the Agency legal authority to
       carry out the Objective.

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Special Analyses

       The final section of the Annual Plan includes:

•      Major Management Issues: This section is new in the FY 2000 Annual Plan, It describes the nature
       of EPA's most pressing management problems, actions taken, and progress to date in addressing the
       major management challenges faced by the Agency.

•      Summary of Key Programs: Reports totals for Agency Key Programs, across Goals and Objectives.

•      User  Fees: This section  describes the Agency's user fee programs.  User fees are the
       Congressionally-authorized collection of fees charged to Agency customers which cover the cost of
       selected permitting, testing, registration, and approval actions.

•      Working Capital Fund: This section describes the Working Capital Fund, a revolving fund
       authorized by law to finance a cycle of operations, where the costs of goods and services provided
       are charged to the Agency users on a fee-for-service basis.

*      Customer Service Standards: This section describes the Agency's plan to improve its mission of
       protecting public health and the environment by more efficiently and effectively serving the public,
       industry, state and local agencies, and other customers.

•      External Costs and Benefits:  This section identifies regulatory actions that are likely to result in a
       rule that may have an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more.  This analysis is
       required by executive order and is reported in the Agency's annual "Regulatory Plan."

•      Non-Appropriated Funds: Describes non-appropriated funds for FY 2000, such as user fees.

•      Appropriation b_y Object  Class: Provides  information  on types  of obligations  within the
       appropriation..

•      State  and Tribal Assistance  Grants (STAG): Tables provide a breakdown of the entire STAG
       account (e.g. Clean Water State Revolving Fund), as well as resources requested for STAG
       categorical grants.

Use  of Non-Federal Parties In Preparing this Annual Plan

       The Annual Plan was prepared in conformance with section 22Q.6 of OMB Circular A-11,
concerning the role of non-Federal parties in preparing the Annual Plan.

Relationship  between the Annual Plan and the Strategic Plan

       The Annual Plan makes no substantive changes (not previously noted) to the Agency's Strategic Plan
which was submitted to Congress in September 1997.
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Relationship between Budgeted Resources and Annual Performance Goals and Measures

       Annual Performance Goals are related to the resource levels contained in each Objective. Annual
Performance Goals for FY 2000 in this Annual Performance Plan are based upon the resource levels in the
Agency's enacted F Y 2000 budget. However, resources may contribute not only to the budget year' s Annual
Performance Goals but also to the accomplishment of Goals in future years.  For example, a performance
goal to complete a number of Superfund site cleanups, or develop research methods and models, generally
requires a period longer than one year. Thus, FY 2000 activities will contribute to completion of work in
FY 2000 or beyond. Likewise, some FY 2000 Annual Performance Goals are achievable only with funding
provided in prior years.

       Given this multi-year characteristic of some of the resources requested, it is not always possible to
establish direct linkages between the budget requested for a particular year and the achievement of all
performance goals for that year.

Office of Research and Development: Operating Expenses/Working Capital Fund Allocation

       The FY 1999 Request, submitted  to Congress in February 1998, included Operating Expenses and
Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in Goal 8 and Objective 5. In
the FY 1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the FY 2000 Request, these resources are allocated across
Goals and Objectives to more properly reflect costs of the Agency's objectives. The FY 1999 Request
columns in this document have been modified from the original FY 1999 Request so that they reflect the
allocation of these ORD funds across Goals and Objectives.
                                             i-7

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                                    Annual Plan Overview

       For nearly three decades, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its partners have made
significant strides in  controlling  pollution  and other environmental  risks to human health and the
environment. The air, land, and water are now safer for all Americans due to our Nation's investment in
environmental protection.

       The FY 2000 Annual Plan and Congressional Justification requests $7.207 billion in discretionary
budget authority, and 18,406 FTE. In addition, Hie President's FY 2000 request includes $200 million in
mandatory budgetary authority for Superfund orphan shares, and $1.9 billion in bond authority for new
"Better America Bonds." The FY 2000 budget request will help  build strong, healthy communities for the
21st Century. This budget proposal is built on the principle that a healthy environment and a healthy
economy go hand hi hand.

Building Livable Communities through "Better America Bonds"

       EPA will play a key role in implementing the "Better America Bonds" program, which is a major
component of the Administration's Livability Initiative. These bonds will help State and local governments
take the initiative in safeguarding their land and water for future generations.  Since 1960, urban sprawl has
consumed 1.5 million acres of farmland yearly.  This initiative  will help state and local governments to
preserve open space, protect water quality, and clean up abandoned industrial sites.

       This initiative will provide $9.5 billion in bond authority over five years ($ 1.9 billion in FY 2000)
for investments by state and local communities, resulting in Federal tax credits of almost $700 million over
the next five years.  These bonds will help  communities preserve green space for  attractive, liveable
communities and promote sustainable economic development. This innovative financial tool will be a model
for future environmental protection by giving communities the flexibility they need to direct resources to
their most pressing environmental needs.

Clean Air Partnership Fund

       One of the Administration's most important public health commitments is to improve the air that
Americans breathe. Over one third of Americans still live in areas where the air does not meet the new air
quality standards. This budget includes $200 million in new funding for a Clean Air Partnership Fund. This
fund will provide new grant resources and opportunities for cities, states and tribes to partner with the private
sector, the federal government and each other to provide healthy clean air in the communities in which we
live.

       The Clean Air Partnership Fund will demonstrate locally managed programs that achieve early
integrated reductions in soot, smog, air toxics and greenhouse gases. The Fund will direct new resources to
state and local governments to find the most innovative, cost-effective and protective ways to reduce soot,
smog, air toxics and greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change.

       The Air Toxics program will develop tools and data that will allow the Agency to move the program
from an almost exclusively technology based program to a risk-based program with a significant focus on
urban air toxics. The Air Toxics program has been provided with approximately $ 18 million in new funding.
The recent Cumulative Exposure Project (CEP) indicates that concentrations of air toxics may be high in
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almost every area of the country, especially in and around urban areas. The air toxics program is geared to
reduce risks for people who live and work in urban areas, which include a disproportionate number of poor
and minority Americans. It will bring increased protection to a larger number of more sensitive populations,
such as children and the elderly.

Meeting the Climate Change Challenge

       Furthermore, this budget invests approximately $216 million for EPA's portion  of the Climate
Change Technology Initiative (CCTI). This multi-agency program continues the Administration's five-year
commitment to address the significant threat that global wanning poses to public health and the environment.
This is the second year of the Administration's commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through
partnerships with businesses, schools, state and local governments, other organizations, and investments in
energy efficient technologies and tax incentives for consumers who purchase energy efficient products.

Protecting Children's Health

       One of the Clinton-Gore Administration's highest priorities has been, and continues to be, protecting
the health of our children - giving them a healthier start in life. Children are among the most vulnerable
members of society.  EPA, as part of the government-wide interagency initiative on children's asthma, is
taking a  leadership role in reducing children's exposure to asthma-causing toxins in our environment.
President Clinton has provided an additional $17  million dollars for children's  asthma for education,
outreach, research, and air monitoring activities. An increase of $12  million dollars in funding is for science
activities that focuses on other chronic childhood afflictions and ailments, such as cancer and developmental
disorders.

Ensuring Clean and Safe Water

       This budget supports EPA's efforts to clean up and  restore our nation's rivers, lakes and coastal
waters, as well as its restoration of watersheds across the country,  with $630 million for the Clean Water
Action Plan, a multi-Agency initiative to protect the Nation's watersheds and promote clean water, and an
additional $21 million in related funding. A key focus of the Plan  is to reduce nonpoint source pollution,
for which this budget includes $200 million for nonpoint source grants.

       EPA's FY 2000 President's Budget also includes a proposal that will allow states greater flexibility
to address their most pressing water quality problems. The proposal will give states the option to set aside
up to 20 percent of their FY 2000 Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) allotment for making grants
for implementing non-point source pollution and estuary management projects.  Pollution from non-point
sources is now the leading cause of water pollution. These sources of pollution are harder to identify and
control than those associated with point sources.

       In addition, although the CWSRF showed a decrease from the previous year, the Administration is
still  on track to meet its goal for the CWSRF to provide an average of $2.0 billion in annual financial
assistance. A total of almost $16 billion has already been provided to capitalize the CWSRF, almost 90
percent more than originally authorized by Congress. (The program was scheduled to end in 1994.)

       The Administration is also on track to meet its goal for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund
(DWSRF) to provide an average of $500 million a year, and to has  proposed a.$50 million increase for the
DWSRF in FY 2000.
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       A $50 million increase is provided for water and wastewater projects along the U.S./Mexico Border.
With these resources, the Agency provides direct grant assistance to address the environmental and public
health problems associated with untreated industrial and municipal sewage on the border.

Empowering Citizens with Knowledge about their Environment

       The Agency is committed to enabling citizens to assess the risks posed by their local environments
and allow them to make better decisions on how to handle those risks in their lives. This budget includes an
investment  of $13.5 million additional dollars in the Chemical-Right-to-Know initiative.  This will ensure
that the public has basic health data for industrial chemicals released hi their communities due to an
unprecedented voluntary partnership with industry.  Through this and other Right-to-Know programs
supported by the Agency, Americans will have unprecedented access to information.  As a further step in
our commitment to improving and expanding access to information, we are pioneering a new Information
Office which will advocate the use and management of information as a strategic resource to enhance public
health and environmental protection.

Cleaning up Toxic Waste Sites

       The budget continues a commitment to clean up toxic waste sites with $1.5 billion for Superfund
cleanups, and $200 million in mandatory spending authority for Superfund orphan shares, to reduce the
effect of uncontrolled releases on local populations and sensitive environments. The Agency will continue
to address clean up efforts at over 89% of Superfund sites.  Combined with continuing administrative
reforms, these funds will help meet the  President's  pledge to complete the clean up of two thirds of
Superfund hazardous waste sites by 2002.

Revitalizing Communities through the Brownfields Initiative

       The FY 2000 budget continues the President's Brownfields initiative, which promotes local cleanup
and redevelopment of industrial sites, bringing jobs to blighted areas. This budget includes $91.7 million for
technical assistance and grants to communities for site assessment and redevelopment planning, as well as
revolving loan funds to finance clean up efforts at the local level. Through FY 2000, EPA will have funded
Brownfields site assessment pilots in 350 communities.

Strengthening Tribal Partnerships

       The Agency continues its commitment to tribal programs with a total request of $ 165.8 million. New
funding will provide tribes with program and technical assistance and will assure that tribes have adequate
information with which to make environmental decisions. In addition, the President's Budget proposes to
eliminate the current statutory ceiling  on grant funds  that may be awarded to tribes for non-point source
activities under the Clean Water Act. This is especially significant since there is increasing demand for the
limited pool of tribal grant funds.
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Summary

       The EPA's FY 2000 Annual Plan and Congressional Justification moves our Nation forward with
innovative, common sense, cost-effective programs to ensure strong and healthy communities in the 21"
Century by addressing environmental problems through innovative programs and focusing on high-risk areas.
The budget continues our commitment to partnerships, good stewardship and strong leadership in the
Nation's efforts for a clean, safe and healthy environment.

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents
Resource Table
       Resources by Appropriation	RT-1
       Resources by Goal/Appropriation  	,		RT-3
       Resources by Goal/Objective	  RT-10

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            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                  Appropriation Summary

                                     Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                    (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                        FY 1999
                                                        Request
              FY1999
              Enacted
            FY2000
             Request
Environmental Program & Management
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
$1,993,780.2   $1,848,000.0   $2,046,992.7
    11,471.9       11,471.4      11,561.4
Envir. Program & Mgmt - Reira
   Budget Authority
   FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)
       $0.0
       11.5
      $0.0
      11.5
      $0.0
       1.5
Science & Technology
   Budget Authority S&T Program
   Budget Authority Derived from Supeifund
   Budget Authority Appropriated in S&T
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Science and Tech. - Reim
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Building and Facilities
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

State and Tribal Assistance Grants
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Oil Spill Response
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Inspector General
   Budget Authority IG Program
   Budget Authority Derived from Supeifund
   Budget Authority Appropriated in IG
$673,660.8
($40,200.8)
$633,460.0
2,428.1
$0.0
24.9
$52,948.0
0.0
$700,000.0
($40,000.0)
$660,000.0
2,553.0
$0.0
24.9
$56,948.0
0.0
$679,754.4
($37,271.4)
$642,483.0
2,455.6
$0.0
35.9
$62,630.5
0.0
$2,902,657.0   $3,406,750.0   $2,837,957.0
        0.0           0.0           0.0
   $71,209.9
       85.8
   $17,321.3
       103.6
   $43,391.3
  ($12,237.3)
   $31,154.0
 $72,500.0      $71,556.0
      85.8          86.8
 $15,000.0
     103.6
 $43,391.0
($12,237.0)
 $31,154.0
 $15,618.1
     103.6
 $40,161.9
($10,753.2)
 $29,408.7
                                            RT-1

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            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                 Appropriation Summary

                                     Budget Authority
                               Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                      FY1999
                                                      Request
             FY 1999
             Enacted
       FY2000
        Request
t   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Rereg. & Exped. Proc. Rev Fund
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Hazardous Substance Superfund
   Budget Authority Superfund Program
   Budget Authority Transfer to S&T
   Budget Authority Transfer to IG
   Budget Authority Appropriated in SF
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Superfund Reimbursables
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Budget Amendment
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
      284.4
395.4
   275.0
$0.0
222.4
$2,040,306.9
$40,200.8
$12,237.3
$2,092,745.0
3,599.5
$0.0
143.0
($5,000.0)
$0.0
$0.0
222.4
$1,447,763.0
$40,000.0
$12,237.0
$1,500,000.0
3,373.6
$0.0
143.0
$0.0
$0.0
$0.0
222.4
$1,451,975.4
$37,271.4
$10,753.2
$1,500,000.0
3,520.5
$0.0
143.0
$0.0
$0.0
$7,790,275.4   $7,590,352.0   $7,206,646.0
   $18,375.1      $18,384.6      $18,405.7
 ** The Agency budget authority does not include Fees
      Fees
   $24,000.0
 $0.0
$20,000.0
                                          RT-2

-------
            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
                               Goal Appropriation Summary

                                      Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                    (Dollars in Thousands)

                                                        FY 1999
                              	Request
              FY1999
              Enacted
            FY2000
             Request
Clean Air
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Environmental Program & Management
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Science & Technology
     Budget Authority
     FuU-Time equivalents (FTE)

   State and Tribal Assistance Grants
     Budget Authority
     FuU-Time equivalents (FTE)
 $525,639.6    $536,368.0     $722,058.8
     1,777.1       1,762.3        1,802.6
$168,540.3
1,133.3
$155,840.5
643.8
$157,039.4
1,124.3
$172,726.8
638.0
$157,500.4
1,133.7
$154,799.6
668.9
 $201,258.8    $206,601.8     $409,758.8
        0.0           0.0           0.0
Clean and Safe Water
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Environmental Program & Management
     Budget Authority
     FuU-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Science & Technology
     Budget Authority
     FuU-Time equivalents (FTE)
$2,815,308.5   $3,418,339.7   $2,551,369.2
     2,465.9       2,495.1        2,522.0
  $364,723.8
     2,109.8
   $68,774.9
      356.1
$410,064.4
   2,133.8
 $77,715.5
     361.3
$372,252.4
   2,152.8
 $72,307.0
     369.2
   State and Tribal Assistance Grants
      Budget Authority
      FuU-Time equivalents (FTE)
$2,381,809.8   $2,930,559.8   $2,106,809.8
        0,0           0.0            0.0
                                            RT-3

-------
            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                               Goal Appropriation Summary

                                      Budget Authority
                                FuII-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                    (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                        FY1999
                                                        Request
            FY1999
            Enacted
            FY2000
             Request
Safe Food
   Budget Authority
   FuU-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Environmental Program & Management
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Science & Technology
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Rereg. & Exped, Proc. Rev Fund
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
  Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Environmental Program & Management
     Budget Authority
     FuU-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Science & Technology
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)
 $65,205.9
    692.0
$259,721.3
   1,122.8
$156,480.8
   1,001.9
 $18,592.0
     120.9
 $67,546.4
    702.4
$237,789.8
   1,124.9
$134,256.7
   1,008.6
 $16,890.5
     116.3
 $78,583.2
    712.2
 $60,755.9     $56,831.7      $68,713.1
     440.6         440.6          443.9
$4,450.0
29.0
$0.0
222.4
$10,714.7
39.4
$0.0
222.4
$9,870.1
45.9
$0.0
222.4
$277,166.0
   1,117.9
$176,412.0
   1,022.8
 $14,111.3
      95.1
   State and Tribal Assistance Giants
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)
 $84,648.5
       0.0
 $86,642.6
       0.0
 $86,642.7
       0.0
                                            RT-4

-------
            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                               Goal Appropriation Summary

                                     Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                    (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                        FY 1999
                                                        Request
             FY1999
              Enacted
FY2000
Request
Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated
  Waste Sites, and Emergency Response
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time equivaleats (FTE)

   Environmental Program & Management
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Envir. Program & Mgmt - Reim
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Scence & Technology
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Science and Tech. - Reim
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   State and Tribal Assistance Giants
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Oil Spill Response
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)
$2,256,934.3   $1,655,913.5   $1,656,719.5
    4,304.8        4,316.9       4,246.1
  $153,835.9     $136,267.9    $148,285.2
      994,4         985.9         995.9
$0.0
11,0
$15,990.6
84.9
$0.0
24.9
$64,527.2
0.0
$69,128.7
72.4
$16,780.2
103.6
$0.0
11.0
$58,607.0
203.3
$0.0
24.9
$62,847.2
0.0
$70,418.7
72.4
$14,458.9
103.6
$0.0
0.0
$17,824.2
84.1
$0.0
35.9
$64,247.2
0.0
$69,500.7
73.4
$15,076.9
103.6
                                           RT-5

-------
            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                               Goal Appropriation Summary

                                      Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialeney (FTE)
                                    (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                        FY1999
                                                        Request
              FY1999
              Enacted
            FY2000
             Request
   Hazardous Substance Superfund
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Superfund Reimbursables
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

Reduction of Global and Cross-border Environmental Risks
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Environmental Program & Management
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Science & Technology
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)
$1,936,671.7  $1,313,313.8   $1,341,785.3
     2,870.6       2,772.8        2,810.2
       $0.0
      143.0
  $228,563.5
      431.4
   $69,722.9
       98.8
      $0.0
     143.0
$125,745.9
     418.9
 $53,621.0
     103.5
      $0.0
     143.0
  $398,286.4    $229,366.9     $407,414.2
      530.2         522.4          519.9
$234,675.1
      415
 $72,739.1
     104.9
   State and Tribal Assistance Grants
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

Expansion of Americans' Right to Know About their
  Environment
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Environmental Program & Management
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)
  $100,000.0
        0.0
  $158,923.3
      736.2
  $135,887.7
      681.7
 $50,000.0
       0.0
$133,467.2
     720.8
$119,753.9
     669.9
$100,000.0
       0.0
$144,599.1
     754.3
$129,101.5
     705.4
                                            RT-6

-------
            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                               Goal Appropriation Summary

                                     Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                    (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                        FY1999
                                                        Request
            FY 1999
            Enacted
            FY2000
             Request
   Science & Technology
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Hazardous Substance Super-fund
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)
 $20,221.3
     38.7
  $2,814.3
      15.8
 $11,517.3
     39.9
  $2,196,0
      11.0
 $12,732.6
     36.5
  $2,765.0
      12.4
Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Env. Risk and
  Greater Innovation to Address Env. Problems
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Environmental Program & Management
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Science & Technology
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Hazardous Substance Superfund
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and Greater Compliance
  with the Law
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Environmental Program & Management
     Budget Authority
$322,661.8
1,212.1
$45,960.7
225.6
$346,996.2
1,1942
$54,566.0
220.6
$321,747.4
1,187.3
$45,952.0
205.7
$270,881.1    $289,297.3     $270,210.6
     977.2         972,6          972.3
  $5,820.0
       9.3
$332,733.8
   2,559.3
  $3,132.9
       1,0
$319,390.3
   2,554.4
  $5,584.8
       9.3
$331,335.0
   2,540.1
$236,470.8     $225,784.3    $236,694.8
                                            RT_7

-------
            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                               Goal Appropriation Summary

                                     Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                       FY1999
                                                       Request
           FY1999
           Enacted
           FY2000
           Request
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Science & Technology
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   State and Tribal Assistance Grants
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Hazardous Substance Superfund
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

Effective Management
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Environmental Program & Management
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Envir. Program & Mgmt - Reim
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Science & Technology
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

   Building and Facilities
     Budget Authority
  2,397.3
  2,396,4
2,382.3
 $8,760.7      $8,583.9      $8,892.9
    78.7         78.7          78.7
$70,412.7
0.0
$17,089.6
83.3
$659,860.5
2,974.7
$442,560.8
2,055.9
$0.0
0.5
$226.0
0.0
$70,098.6
0.0
$14,923.5
79.3
$645,174.0
2,991.2
$427,689.8
2,072.4
$0.0
0.5
$326.0
0.0
$70,498.5
0.0
$15,248.8
79.1
$715,653.6
3,003.3
$477,406.2
2,103.9
$0.0
1.5
$8,995.6
0.0
$52,948.0
$56,948.0     $62,630.5
                                           RT-8

-------
            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                              Goal Appropriation Summary

                                    Budget Authority
                               Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                      FY 1999
                                                      Request
             FY1999
             Enacted
      FY2000
       Request
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

  Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

  Oil Spill Response
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

  Inspector General
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

  Hazardous Substance Superfund
     Budget Authority
     Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
  Budget Authority
  Full-Time equivalents (FTE)

** The Agency budget authority does not include Fees
     Fees
        0.0
 0.0
0.0
$2,081,2
13.4
$541.1
0.0
$31,154.0
284.4
$130,349.4
620.5
$2,081.3
13.4
$541.1
0.0
$43,391.0
395.4
$114,196.8
509.5
$2,055.3
13.4
$541.2
0.0
$29,408.7
275.0
$134,616.1
609.5
$7,790,275.4   $7,590,352.0   $7,206,646.0
    18,375.1       18,384.6       18,405.7
  $24,000.0
$0.0      $20,000.0
                                          RT-9

-------
            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                 Goal Objective Summary

                                     Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)

Clean Air
Budget Authority
FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)
Attain NAAQS for Ozone and PM
Budget Authority
FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)
Reduce Emissions of Air Toxics
Budget Authority
FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)
Attain NAAQS for CO, SO2, NO2, Lead
Budget Authority
FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)
FY1999
Request
$525,639.6
1,777.1
$361,648.7
1,100.1
$97,546.9
395.1
$44,878.2
189.9
FY 1999
Enacted
$536,368.0
1,762.3
$384,863.2
1,086.2
$90,700.3
394.2
$42,184.1
189.9
FY2000
Request
$722,058.8
1,802.6
$489,618.4
1,135.3
$175,485.3
399.4
$36,523.5
175.9
Acid Rain
   Budget Authority
   FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Clean and Safe Water
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Safe Drinking Water, Fish and Recreational Waters
   Budget Authority
   FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Conserve and Enhance Nation's Waters
   Budget Authority
   FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)
  $21,565.8     $18,620.4      $20,431.6
       92.0          92.0          92.0
$2,815,308.5   $3,418,339.7   $2,551,369.2
    2,465.9       2,495.1        2,522.0
$1,026,835.1   $1,092,624.2   $1,079,342.0
      864.4         868.6         861.5
 $300,672.5     $339,236.8     $311,444.1
      714.2         727.5         770.3
                                          RT-10

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            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                  Goal Objective Summary

                                     Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                    (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                        FY 1999
                                                        Request
              FY1999
              Enacted
           FY2000
            Request
Reduce Loadings and Air Deposition
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
$1,487,800,9  $1,986,478.7   $1,160,583.1
      887.3         899.0         890.2
Safe Food
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Reduce Agricultural Pesticides Risk
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Reduce Use on Food of Pesticides Not Meeting Standards
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities,
  Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Reduce Public and Ecosystem Exposure to Pesticides
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Reduce Lead Poisoning
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Safe Handling and Use of Commercial Chemicals and
  Microorganisms
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
   $65,205,9     $67,546.4      $78,583.2
      692.0         702.4         712.2
   $26,477.5
      291.3
   $38,728.4
      400.7
$29,139.0
    291.3
$38,407.4
    411.1
$30,830.1
    294.4
$47,753.1
    417.8
$259,721.3
1,122.8
$48,998.9
231.6
$237,789.8
1,124.9
$43,178.2
231.6
$277,166.0
1,117.9
$51,050.8
241.7
   $30,844.6     $30,817.4     $29,213,5
       119.3         119.3         119.3
   $44,750.6     $42,443.2     $56,874.1
       349.1         344.5         347.1
                                           RT-11

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            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                 Goal Objective Summary

                                     Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)

Healthier Indoor Air
Budget Authority
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
Improve Pollution Prevention Strategies, Tools, Approaches
Budget Authority
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
Decrease Quantity and Toxicity of Waste
Budget Authority
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
Assess Conditions in Indian Country
Budget Authority
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
FY 1999
Request
$34,017.6
152.8
$26,829.8
79.9
$23,429.1
135.5
$50,850.7
54.6
FY 1999
Enacted
$29,629.4
150.3
$21,884.0
79.9
$18,852.5
132.0
$50,985.1
67.3
FY2000
Request
$40,778.6
130.0
$25,116.1
77.2
$21,026.0
131.0
$53,106.9
71.6
Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated
  Waste Sites, and Emergency Response
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Reduce or Control Risks to Human Health
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

prevent, Reduce and Respond to Releases, Spills, Accidents
  or Emergencies
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Reduction of Global and Cross-border Environmental Risks
   Budget Authority
$2,256,934.3   $1,655,913.5   $1,656,719.5
    4,304.8        4,316.9       4,246.1
$2,076,119.9  $1,491,141.1   $1,477,134.1
     3,435.7       3,455.5       3,367.4
  $180,814.4    $164,772.4    $179,585.4
      869.1         861.4         888.7
  $398,286.4    $229,366.9    $407,414.2
                                          RT-12

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            FY 2000 Annual Performance Flan and Congressional Justification

                                  Goal Objective Summary

                                     Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                    (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                        FY1999
                                                        Request
            FY1999
            Enacted
Climate Change
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
FY2000
Request
   FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)                                    530.2         522.4         519.9

Reduce Transboundary Threats: Shared North American
  Ecosystems
   Budget Authority                                        $120,392.3      $71,025.9    $119,987.5
   FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)                                     83.0          81.8          81.8
$232,960.4     $127,968.9    $242,765.0
     333.9         324.3         325.7
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
   Budget Authority                                         $26,914.3      $17,033.8     $27,046.5
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)                                     34.4          36.9          36.9

Protect Public Health and Ecosystems From Persistent Toxics
   Budget Authority                                          $6,883.2       $4,125.8      $6,943.1
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)                                     39.3          27.9          30.0

Achieve Cleaner and More Cost-Effective Practices
   Budget Authority                                         $11,136.2       $9,212.5     $10,672.1
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)                                     39.6          51.5          45.5

Expansion of Americans1 Right to Know About their
  Environment
   Budget Authority                                        $158,923.3     $133,467.2    $144,599.1
   FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)                                    736.2          720.8         754.3

Increase Quality/Quantity of Education, Outreach, Data
  Availability
   Budget Authority                                         $75,522.7      $67,818.5     $77,487.5
   FuU-Time Equivalents (FTE)                                    351.1          366.2         395.2
                                           RT-13

-------
            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                 Goal Objective Summary

                                     Budget Authority
                                Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                       FY1999
                                                       Request
           FY1999
           Enacted
           FY2000
           Request
Improve Public's Ability to Reduce Exposure
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Enhance Ability to Protect Public Health
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Env. Risk and
  Greater Innovation to Address Env. Problems
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FEE)

Research for Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Research for Human Health Risk Assessment
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Research to Detect Emerging Risk Issues
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Pollution Prevention and New Technology for Environmental
  Protections
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Enable Research on Innovative Approaches to Current &
  Future Env Problems - NOT IN USE
   Budget Authority
$49,959.0
   229.9
$42,247.7
   218.4
$41,230.8
   224.1
$33,441.6     $23,401.0     $25,880.8
    155.2         136.2         135.0
$322,661.8
1,212.1
$106,489.4
402.3
$57,063.6
235.6
$61,639.2
192.3
$54,246.4
197.4
$346,996.2
1,194.2
$111,978.7
400.8
$50,573.7
219.1
$56,648.8
211.8
$77,286.3
196.0
$321,747.4
1,187.3
$118,553.3
456.4
$56,229.1
261.6
$49,806.9
137.0
$55,801.7
185.7
     $0.0
     $0.0
     $0.0
                                          RT-14

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Goal 1: Clean Air

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents
Goal 1: Clean Air	,	,.	,,. 1-1
       Attain NAAQS) for Ozone and PM	  1-13
       Reduce Emissions of Air Toxics. >	,	1-39
       Attain NAAQS for CO, SO2, NO2, Lead	 1-57
       Acid Rain  		.......	1-65

-------
                           Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                       Clean Air
Strategic Goal: The air in every American community will be safe and healthy to breathe. IB.
particular, children, the elderly, and people with respiratory ailments will be protected from health
risks of breathing polluted air. Reducing air pollution will also protect the environment, resulting
in many benefits, such as restoring life in damaged ecosystems and reducing health risks to those
whose subsistence depends directly on those ecosystems.
                                  Resource Summary
                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Clean Air
Attain NAAQS for Ozone and PM
Reduce Emissions of Air Toxics
Attain NAAQS for CO, SO2, NO2, Lead
Acid Rain
Total Workyeais:
FY1999
Reauest
$525,639.6
$361,648.7
$97,546.9
$44,878.2
$21,565.8
1,777.1
FY1999
Enacted
$536,368.0
$384,863.2
$90,700.3
$42,184.1
$18,620.4
1,762.3
FY2000 FY2000Req.v.
Reauest FY 1999 Ena.
$722,058.8
$489,618.4
$175,485.3
$36,523.5
$20,431.6
1,802.6
$185,690.8
$104,755.2
$84,785.0
($5,660.6)
$1,811.2
40.3
Background and Context

       Despite concerted efforts to achieve cleaner, healthier air, air pollution continues to be a
widespread public health and environmental problem in the United States, contributing to illnesses
such as cancer, respiratory, developmental, and reproductive problems. In many cases, air pollutants
end up on the land or in rivers, lakes, and streams, harming the life in them. Air pollution also
makes soil and waterways more acidic, reduces visibility, and corrodes buildings.

       EPA is responding to air pollution because the problem is national and international in scope.
The majority of the population lives in expanding urban areas, where air pollution crosses local and
state lines and, in some cases, crosses our borders with Canada and Mexico.  Federal assistance and
leadership are essential for developing cooperative state, local, tribal, regional, and international
programs to prevent and control air pollution and for ensuring that national standards are met.
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Means and Strategy

       Criteria pollutants. EPA develops standards to protect public health and the environment
that limit concentrations of the most widespread pollutants (known as criteria pollutants), which are
linked to many serious health and environmental problems:

       •     Ground-level ozone.  Causes respiratory  illness, especially in active children;
             aggravates respiratory illnesses such as asthma; and causes damage to vegetation and
             visibility problems.

       •     Carbon monoxide (CO).   Interferes with the delivery of oxygen to body tissues,
             affecting particularly people with cardiovascular diseases.

       •     Sulfur dioxide (SO2). Aggravates me symptoms of asthma and is a major contributor
             to acid rain.

       •     Nitrogen dioxide (NO^.  Irritates the lung  and  contributes to the formation of
             ground-level ozone, acidic deposition, and visibility problems.

       •     Lead.  Causes nervous system damage, especially in children, leading to reduced
             intelligence.

       •     Particulate matter (PM). Linked  to premature death in the elderly and people with
             cardiovascular disease and to respiratory illness in children; affects the environment
             through visibility impairment.

       Hazardous air pollutants. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), commonly referred to as air
toxics or toxic air pollutants, are pollutants  that cause, or may  cause, adverse health effects or
ecosystem damage. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 list 188 pollutants or chemical groups
as hazardous air pollutants and target sources emitting them for regulation. Examples of air toxics
include heavy metals such as mercury and chromium, dioxins, and pesticides such as chlordane and
toxaphene. HAPs are emitted from literally thousands of sources including stationary as well as
mobile sources. Adverse effects to human health and the environment due to HAPs can result from
exposure to air toxics from individual facilities, exposures to mixtures of pollutants found hi urban
settings, or exposure to pollutants emitted from distant sources that are transported through the
atmosphere over regional, national, or even global airsheds.

       Compared to information for the criteria pollutants, the information about the potential health
effects of HAPs (and their ambient concentrations) is relatively incomplete. Most of the information
on potential health effects of these pollutants is derived from experimental animal data. Of the 188
HAPs mentioned above, almost 60 percent are classified by EPA as known, probable, or possible
carcinogens. One of the more documented ecological concerns associated with toxic air pollutants
is the potential for some to damage aquatic ecosystems. Deposited air pollutants can be significant
contributors to overall pollutant loadings entering water bodies.
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       Acid rain. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established a program to control
emissions from electric power plants that cause acid rain and other environmental and public health
problems. Emissions of SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOJ react in the atmosphere and fall to earth as
acid rain, causing acidification of lakes and streams and contributing to the damage of trees at high
elevations. NOX emissions are a major precursor of ozone, which affects public health and damages
crops, forests, and materials. NOX deposition also contributes to eutrophication of coastal waters,
such as the Chesapeake and Tampa Bays. Additionally, before falling to earth, SO2 and NOX gases
form fine particles that affect public  health by contributing to premature mortality,  chronic
bronchitis, and other respiratory problems.  The fine particles also contribute to reduced visibility
in national parks and elsewhere. Acid deposition also accelerates the decay of building materials and
paints and contributes to degradation of irreplaceable cultural objects such as statues and sculptures.
      Percent Change in National Air Quality Concentrations and Emissions (1988-1997)

Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Lead
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO^
Ozone (Pre-existing NAAQS) (1-hour)
Ozone (Revised NAAQS) (8-hour)
PM10
Sulfur Dioxide (SOa)
Percent Decrease in
Concentration
1988-1997
38
67
14
19
16
26
39
Percent Decrease in
Emissions
1988-1997
25
44
ItNOJ
20 (VOC)

12
12
       The  table above summarizes the 10-year percent changes  in  national air quality
concentrations and emissions. It shows that air quality has continued to improve during the past 10
years for all six pollutants.  Nationally, air quality concentration data taken from thousands of
monitoring stations across the country have continued to show improvement since the 1980's for
ozone, PM, CO, N02, SO2, and lead.  In fact, all the years throughout the 1990s have shown better
air quality than any of the years in the 1980s. This steady trend of improvement resulted despite the
fact that weather conditions in the 1990s were generally more conducive to higher pollution levels,
such as ground-level ozone formation.

       The dramatic improvements  in emissions  and air quality occurred simultaneously with
significant increases in economic growth and population. The improvements are a result of effective
implementation of clean air laws and regulations, as well as improvements in the efficiency of
industrial technologies.
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                  Comparison of Growth Areas and Emissions Trends
               1970Baselhe 100—
                                                        VMT(*127%) „
                        1970
                                       1980
                                                     1990
                                                                1997
       While progress has been made, it is important not to lose sight of the magnitude of the air
pollution problem that still remains. Despite great progress in air quality improvement, in 1997 there
were still approximately 107 million people nationwide who lived in counties with monitored air
quality levels above the primary national air quality standards.
                      Number of People Living in Counties with Air Quality
                      Concentrations Above the Level of the NAAQS in 1997
                                                         HWOS)
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       To continue to reduce air pollution, the Clean Air Act sets specific targets for the mitigation
of each air pollution problem and identifies specific activities and a multi-year schedule for carrying
them out  The Act also requires the air quality monitoring that helps us measure progres$. In
addition, the Act lays out a specific roadmap for achieving those goals - what we the Agency and our
partners — states, tribes, and local governments ~ have to do to clean up the air.  One constant across
the titles in the Act is that the pollution control strategies and programs it contains are all designed
to get the most cost-effective reductions early on. The early reductions program in toxics, Phase 1
of the Acid Rain program, and the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) program
were all designed to achieve early reductions, making our air cleaner and safer to breathe.  The
problems that remain are some of the most difficult to solve.

       We have developed strategies to address this difficult increment and overcome the barriers
that have hindered progress in clean air in the past We will use the flexibility built into the Clean
Air Act, which is not wedded to hard and fast formulas or specific technological requirements.

       We will focus our efforts on:

*      Coupling ambitious goals with steady progress - The emphasis will be on near-term actions
       towards meeting the standards, while giving states, tribes, and local governments time to
       come up with more difficult measures. We recognize that it will be difficult for some areas
       of the country to attain the new National Ambient Air Quality  Standards (NAAQSs) for
       ozone and fine particles, and we believe it will take more than individual efforts to achieve
       the needed emission reductions.  We will work with states, tribes, and local governments to
       identify ways to achieve interim reductions, principally through regional strategies, national
       measures, and the air toxics and acid rain programs by building on cross-pollutant emission
       reductions.

       Using these strategies gets steady progress toward the goal and for many areas will achieve
       the goal. For those areas where additional measures are required, this work will allow steady
       progress toward the goal while providing the time to identify measures that will get that last
       increment to fully achieve the goal.

*      Mamtaining accountabilitYjwithflexibility -  Ensuring that there is no backsliding in the
       progress already made to meeting the Clean Air goal is critical. We will also use the Act's
       flexibility to develop innovative measures such as the NOX trading program, which builds on
       the acid rain program to help states, tribes, and local governments reduce emissions at the
       lowest cost

•      Fostering technical innovations where they provide clear environmental benefits - Market-
       based approaches provide  "niches" for many types of technologies; no one size will fit all.
       Sources can improvise, innovate, and otherwise be creative in reducing emissions. We will
       promote such technological innovation and then disseniinate it to others to show how they
       can get needed reductions.
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       Building partnerships - There are numerous forms of partnerships, all of which we have used
       at one point or another in implementing the Clean Air Act: using public outreach to educate
       people on the air problems and encourage them to work to solve them; involving groups,
       such as the multi-state Ozone Transport Assessment Group, to study a problem and provide
       recommendations to EPA on ways to solve it; working with organizations like the National
       Academy of Sciences (NAS) on both short-term and long-term research priorities; and
       engaging in regulatory negotiations to bring stakeholders to work on a problem and address
       a specific regulatory issue. We will continue to use these types of partnerships as appropriate
       to implement the Clean Air Act.
Research

       The Agency is seeking to understand further the root causes of the air toxics environmental
and human health problems in urban areas and, thereby improving the ability to weigh alternative
strategies for solving those problems. Research will be devoted to the development of currently
unavailable health effects and exposure information to determine risk and develop alternative
strategies for maximizing risk reductions.  We will be able to model and characterize not only the
current toxics risk and compare national program alternatives, but also identify regional and local
"hot spots" and model alternative strategies to assist states and localities in solving their air and
water toxics problems.

       Using these strategies, we will work with areas that have the worst problems to develop
strategies accounting for unique local conditions that may hinder them from reaching attainment.
We also will work with steles, tribes, and local governments to ensure mat work they are doing on
the PM and ozone standards effectively targets both pollutants, as well as regional haze, to maximize
the effectiveness of control strategies.  On the national level, we will continue to target source
characterization work, especially emission factors, that is essential for the states, tribes and localities
to develop strategies to meet the standards. We will look closely at urban areas to determine the
various sources of toxics that enter the air, water, and soil and determine the best manner to reduce
the total toxics risk in these urban areas.  We will also focus on research that would inform and
enhance our regulatory decisions as well as research that would explore emerging areas.


Strategic Objectives and FY 2000 Annual Performance Goals

Objective 01:  Attain NAAQS for Ozone and PM

By: 2000      Provide new information on the atmospheric concentrations, human exposure, and
              health effects of particulate matter (PM), including PM2.5, and incorporate it and
              other peer-reviewed research findings in the second External Review Draft of the PM
              AQCD for NAAQS review.

By: 2000      EPA  will certify that 5 of the estimated 30 remaining nonattainment areas have
              achieved the one-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone.


                                          1-6

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Objective 02:  Reduce Emissions of Air Toxics

By: 2000     Provide methods to estimate human exposure and health effects from high priority
             urban air toxics, and complete health assessments for the highest priority hazardous
             air pollutants (including fuel/fuel additives).

By: 2000     Air toxics emissions nationwide from stationary and mobile sources combined will
             be reduced by 5% from 1999 (for a cumulative reduction of 30% from the 1993 level
             of 1.3 million tons.

Objective 03:  Attain NAAQS for CO, SO2, NO2, Lead

By: 2000     Maintain healthful and improve substandard ambient air quality with respect to
             carbon monoxide,  sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead.

Objective 04:  Acid Rain

By: 2000     5 million tons of SO2 emissions from utility sources will be reduced from the 1980
             baseline. Reflects total reduction that will be maintained annually.

By: 2000     2 million tons of NOx from coal-fired utility sources will be reduced from levels
             before implementation of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments. Reflects total
             reduction that will be maintained annually.

Highlights

       This budget request includes a new $200 million Clean Air Partnership Fund to provide
through grants an opportunity  for cities,  states, and tribes to partner with the private sector, the
Federal government and each other to provide healthy clean air to local citizens. The Fund will
demonstrate smart multi-pollutant strategies that reduce air toxics, soot and smog as well as
greenhouse gas emissions to protect our health and climate. The Clean Air Partnership Fund will
bring the most creative ideas for cleaning the air we breathe to where they are needed most — local
communities. Innovative ideas for clean air — ideas that save money and reduce pollution — can be
demonstrated to create a cleaner, more efficient environment at the local level. The Clean Air
Partnership Fund will act as a magnet for local innovation and investment.

       As part of fulfilling the President's mandate for common-sense, flexible implementation of
the new PM NAAQS, OAR must provide Regions, states, and tribes with new information and tools
that they need to characterize the PM2 5 problem and develop cost-effective solutions. Because PM25
is a newly regulated pollutant,  only very  limited  source  and emissions  data are available.
Development of refined characterization and emission inventory tools that relate mass and speciated
monitoring data to potential emission sources will greatly enhance the information gained from the

                                         1-7

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PM2 5 monitoring network.  Also, emissions characterization will include information on the
chemical composition of directly emitted particles, which is essential for developing source
signatures used in relating ambient data to sources, as well as in conducting source-related health
risk assessments.  Initial results for this characterization effort will be used in the next periodic
review of the PM2 5 NAAQS. Emission characterization will focus primarily on fugitive emissions
from area sources, diesel emissions from mobile sources, and selected major point source categories.
The characterization and activity data work will be done in conjunction with states and tribes.

      EPA is also aware that in some cases individual states, tribes, and local governments cannot
solve their air pollution problems merely by analysis of problems and development of solutions
within their own jurisdictions. For a number of situations, upwind emissions from other jurisdictions
contribute significantly to nonattainment — or interfere with maintenance—of a NAAQS, or affect
visibility. In such cases, states, tribes,  and local governments will have to join together in multi-
jurisdictional efforts to gather and analyze data to document the degree of transport and recommend
and implement strategies to reduce the transported contributions. The Ozone Transport Assessment
Group, the Ozone Transport Commission, and the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission
are examples of such efforts. EPA has been actively involved in these efforts and intends to become
involved hi any similar future efforts that are needed.

      Moreover, as some of these programs move into the implementation stage, EPA will provide
the data system mfrastructure to operate emissions trading programs. For example, EPA will operate
the allowance and emissions tracking systems for the Ozone Transport Commission's NOX trading
program.

Ozone and PM Research

      EPA's Tropospheric Ozone and PM Research Programs are  devoted to the  mission of
providing an  unproved scientific basis for: 1) periodic review and revision of the NAAQS, as
needed; and 2) implementation and attainment of the NAAQSs.

      Under the Tropospheric Ozone Research Program, the Agency develops information,
methods, models, and assessments to support implementation of the current ozone NAAQS and the
required review of the standard every five years.  Implementation-related research is coordinated
through NARSTO (the North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone) to improve the
scientific basis for future ozone attainment strategies through the implementation and attainment of
NAAQS.  The NAAQS review efforts are closely coordinated within EPA to ensure  assessment
documents are produced hi time to support policy decisions.

      Under the PM Research Program, research focuses on areas recommended by NAS that
contribute to the NAAQS review and implementation and attainment of the NAAQS.  Such areas
include: outdoor measures versus actual human exposures; exposure of sensitive subpopulations to
PM; dosimetry; effects of PM and copollutants; susceptible subpopulations; mechanisms of injury;
assessment of hazardous  PM  components; source-receptor measurement tools; application of
methods and models; and analysis and measurement. Research will also aid in ensuring that the

                                         1-8

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sites, which were initially designed to support implementation, are sufficient to meet the health and
exposure research needs.

Targeting Air Toxics Risks in Urban Areas

       To  date, our air toxics program priority has  been to  reduce toxic emissions through
technology-based MACT standards. Since 1990, EPA has issued 27 air standards which, when fully
implemented, will reduce one million tons per year of toxic air emissions. The next step is to begin
to identify and reduce the remaining risk.  Our plan is to build on current technical capabilities and
develop inventories, modeling capability, and an air toxics monitoring network to determine risk and
measure risk reduction on a national and local scale.  In addition, we plan to measure risk and
determine if additional regulations are needed to address residual risk remaining after the MACT
standards are promulgated.

       In 2000, EPA will promote a new national regulatory strategy that targets the highest risk
toxics in the most populated areas. The Agency will target both stationary and mobile sources as
well as the interrelationships with the water and solid waste media.  EPA proposes to make a very
deliberate effort to use risk assessment tools to set an agenda that provides a new focus for the air
toxics program.  This includes setting an alternative cross-media agenda based on cumulative
environmental risk. The concept of making risk-based decisions is not new to the Agency, but the
technical difficulty of determining risk has restricted its use.  When risk assessment is used, it is
generally applied very narrowly — for example, in setting individual" standards — but has not been
used to set a broad multi-media program agenda.  We believe that the science of determining risk
has advanced sufficiently to enable the Agency to make much better cross-Agency decisions on how
to protect public health and the environment.

Air Toxics Research

       The Air Toxics Research Program will provide the effects information, as well as the
exposure, source characterization, and other data, to quantify existing emissions, key pollutants, and
strategies for cost effective risk management. The program will focus on the 30 most hazardous air
pollutants  found in  urban areas.   Research will focus on  these  areas: (1) health effects
characterization and methods; (2) exposure assessment methods and models; (3) assessments and
assessment methods; and (4) risk reduction and mobile emission models.

Acid Rain

       The Acid Rain program will begin Phase II in the emissions reduction program with calendar
year 2000. In Phase II, the allowance allocation for the Phase I plants is to be reduced and all the
remaining powerplants, with limited exceptions, are to be subjected to the allowance requirements.
There will be a cap on power plant S02 emissions. Regional reductions of nitrogen oxide pollution
from powerplants using an  emissions trading approach will get to clean air faster and cheaper
without imposing unfair burdens on local communities.


                                          1-9

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       EPA is responsible for operating the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (C ASTNet) dry
deposition network and for providing support for operations ofthe National Atmospheric Deposition
Program (NADP) wet deposition network and for a number of visibility monitoring sites.  These
monitoring efforts play a crucial role in the Acid Rain Program's ongoing assessment activities,
including reporting program results for GPRA and fulfilling assessment responsibilities under Title
IX of the Clean Air Act and the U.S.-Canada Air Quality Agreement.  In 2000, EPA will be
analyzing  the costs and benefits of the program for  inclusion in NAPAP's 2000 Integrated
Assessment Report to Congress. Assessment activities are critical to determine what environmental
and public health results are being achieved as emission reductions are realized.  Assessing the
results ofthe Acid Rain Program will involve analyses over various spatial scales as well as over
time to address the expected lag times  for seeing  ecological responses to large reductions in
emissions and deposition.

Other Highlights

       For all NAAQS pollutants, we will continue area redesignations as they meet the standard,
cany out the regular review ofthe NAAQS using the most current science, and ensure that areas mat
have clean air stay clean. For the CO, SO2, NO2 and lead programs, there are some states that have
areas that cannot meet attainment because of some particular, source-specific problem. These sources
are often high-profile and critical to the local economy. We will work cross-Agency to develop
strategies that help them to comply while being sensitive to the economic and other issues.

       EPA has established a permitting program, run by the states, for air emission sources to bring
all the regulatory requirements of a plant into one unified operating permit document. There are also
permit programs preconstruction facilities. EPA will continue to simplify and streamline the rules
and guidance  in implementing these programs to simplify their use by the  industrial sources.
External Factors

       Federal, state, tribal, and local governmental agencies; industry; and individuals must work
together to achieve the goal of healthy, clean air. Success is far from guaranteed. Much remains to
be done if the health and environmental improvement targets in the Clean Air goal are to be
achieved. Meeting the goal depends on strong partnerships among many stakeholders. States, in
particular, will play a pivotal role by enforcing, permitting, providing information and working with
EPA on standard setting.

       EPA's ability to achieve our long-term goals and objectives is also predicated on an adequate
level of resources for program implementation. The objectives in this plan are based on requested
funding levels. If appropriations are lower or different from requested, some objectives may be
difficult to achieve. Other factors that could delay or prevent the Agency's achievement of some
                                         I-10

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objectives include: lawsuits that delay or stop planned activities and new or amended legislation,
extreme natural conditions, and unanticipated economic growth.

       A variable that we have to consider in developing programs to achieve the Clean Air goal
is unforeseen climatic extremes.  In developing their clean air strategies, states, tribes, and local
governments  consider the  normal meteorological patterns.   However, a hot,  dry  summer, for
example, may prevent areas from gaining the three full years with clean air data needed to gain
attainment with air standards  despite the full  implementation of emission  control plans.
Additionally, clean air strategies attempt to predict changing demographics, transportation demands,
impacts of urban sprawl, and industrial growth. An increase or large shift in any of these factors can
significantly impact air quality.

      Accomplishing the Acid Rain objective's targets for a decrease in ambient concentration and
deposition of nitrates assumes that other sources of nitrogen oxides, such as mobile sources, do not
grow at a faster rate than currently projected. The Acid Rain program is also affected by demand
for electric power and the fuels used by electric utilities.

       The rate at which toxicity testing external to EPA on alternative Tier 2 and Tier 3 fuel/fuel
additives is completed will determine the number of risk assessments that can be completed in 2000
and in out years. This external testing is done by a variety of scientists who work for oil companies,
academia, pharmaceutical companies, and other Federal agencies, such as the National Institutes of
Health or the Food and Drug AdmMstration, as well as contractors who specialize in this work. The
information may be generated for reasons that have little to do with EPA's programs — such as a
result of some academic work or for some occupational exposure concern — or as a result of a direct
EPA requirement beyond mat of the fuels and fuels additives program — such as  for pesticide
tolerances. There is toxicity data generated for many reasons and the data generated may be relevant
to the work of the mobile source program. Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) testing through the HAP
Test Rule is also critical for development of cancer and non-cancer dose-response assessments as
part of the Urban Air Toxics Strategy which seeks to reduce risk  of the 33 HAPs presenting the
greatest threat to public health.   Without  this fundamental  data, toxic emission reduction and
subsequent risk reduction to the American population, could be significantly delayed.
Coordination with Other Agencies:

       Clean air is a national goal which requires the cooperation and efforts of many agencies,
organizations, industries and academic entities.  Beyond EPA, for example,  each state has a
department of natural resources, environment, or health that deals with air pollution issues. The
Agency coordinates with several other Federal agencies in achieving goals related to ozone and
particulate matter.   For example, EPA worked closely with the Department of Agriculture in
developing its agricultural burning policy.  EPA, the Department of Transportation, and the Army
Corp of Engineers, work with state and local agencies to help them manage growth and urban
sprawl. EPA worked with the Department of the Interior, National Park Service, hi developing its
regional haze program and deploying the IMPROVE visibility monitoring network.
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Research

       EPA's tropospheric ozone research program is coordinated with the research efforts of others.
As such, a significant portion of the tropospheric ozone research is coordinated through the efforts
of NARSTO. The remainder of the EPA tropospheric ozone research program focuses on needs
associated with the review of the tropospheric ozone NAAQS, which is also not being met by others.

       The science and policy communities have agreed that solving the PM issue will require
substantial, coordinated research efforts. EPA is taking steps to achieve public/private coordination
and cooperation by (1) initiating health and exposure research coordination among Federal  agencies
and with public/private research organizations; (2) completing an EPA Research Strategy for PM; and
(3) participating as a sponsoring member of NARSTO as it realigns its mission and research agenda
to include PM atmospheric sciences research.  An inventory of PM research in the public and private
sectors has been developed.

       The 1998 Appropriations Act identified an important role for NAS in developing and
monitoring implementation of a comprehensive, prioritized,  near- and long-term PM research plan,
working hi close consultation with representatives from many public and private sector organizations.
The PM research plan is intended to be the principal guideline for the Agency's PM research program
for the next several years. The plan also affects other agencies, with Congress expecting the EPA and
other Federal agencies to review their ongoing PM research activities and, where appropriate, re-focus
activities so as to be consistent with the NAS plan.

       EPA is the world leader hi several areas of PM research (e.g., causal mechanisms).
Opportunities exist to complement EPA capabilities through programs targeted toward the academic
community, such as in epidemiology research to evaluate the consequences of long-term exposure
to ambient PM. The Department of Health and Human Services  supported much of the current
epidemiological research on links between long-term exposure to ambient PM and life shortening and
other long-term health effects, thus the capacity to conduct large-scale epidemiological research on
PM is generally found outside EPA.  EPA is entering into an Interagency Agreement  with the
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to study, for the next several years, the role of
PM and co-pollutants on asthma in children.

       In a national air toxics strategy, EPA will address whether any control measures are needed
to address the urban toxics risk beyond other actions required nder the Clean Air Act Amendments.
EPA's toxic research supports the Agency's regulatory efforts, which aid state and local governments
in lowering major source and mobile source emissions.
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                          Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                     Clean Air


Objective #1: Attain NAAQS for Ozone and PM

      By 2010, improve air quality for Americans living in areas that do not meet the National
Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM).
                                Resource Summary
                               (Dollars in Thousands)

Attain NAAQS for Ozone and PM
Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Request
$361,648.7
$86,102.3
$128,926.6
$146,619.8
1,100.1
FY1999
Enacted
$384,863.2
$81,847.5
$147,060.1
$155,955.6
1,086,2
FY2000 FY2000Req.v.
Request FY 1999 Ena.
$489,618.4
$74,644.4
$126,164.0
$288,810.0
1,135.3
$104,755.2
($7,203.1)
($20,896.1)
$132,854.4
49.1
                                  Key Programs
                               (Dollars in Thousands)

Particulate Matter Monitoring Network (non-grant)
Particulate Matter Monitoring Network Grants
Air,State,Local and Tribal Assistance Grants: Other Air Grants
Mobile Sources
Tfopospheric Ozone Research
Particulate Matter Research
Sustainable Development Challenge Grants*
FY1999
Request
$25,000.0
$50,700.0
$95,919.8
$54,824,2
$19,762.7
$37,587.0
$7,686.8
FY1999
Enacted
$25,000.0
$50,700.0
$105,255.5
$45,975.0
$20,083.4
$55,656.8
$0.0
FY2000
Request
$14,613.0
$42,535.0
$112,975.0
$47,464.0
$7,217.9
$61,855.6
$0.0
                                       1-13

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Urban Environmental Quality and Human Health                       $440.0          $0.0         $0.0
EMPACT                                                 $3,537.3       $2,578.7      $2,273.6

Project XL                                                 $390.5          $0.0        $390.5

Common Sense Initiative                                       $135.6          $0.0        $635.6

Tribal Capacity                                             $3,812.7       $3,812.7      $3,894.9
Clean Air Partnership Fund                                        $0.0          $0.0     $133,300.0

* Effective in the FY 1999 Enacted Budget these resources were transferred to Goal 8.

FY 2000 Request

       Under the Clean Air Act, EPA must set NAAQSs for pollutants that are widespread, endanger
public health and  the environment, and originate from numerous and diverse sources.   For each
pollutant, EPA sets health-based or "primary" standards to protect human health, and welfare-based
or "secondary" standards to protect the environment (crops, vegetation, wildlife, buildings, and
national monuments, etc.). States and tribes then must develop and carry out strategies and measures
to attain the NAAQSs. These strategies and measures are included in state implementation plans
(SIPs) and tribal implementation plans (TUf-s). Die Clean Air Act also requires states with national
parks and wilderness areas to develop programs to protect and improve visibility. EPA works in
partnership with Federally recognized tribes to carry out Federal trust responsibilities and implement
those provisions of the Act that most effectively address air quality management concerns on tribal
lands.

       EPA's strategy for achieving the objective for ozone, PM, and regional haze builds on the
President's July 16,1997, letter "Implementation of Revised Air Quality Standards for Ozone and
Particulate Matter," to EPA's Administrator. In carrying out the strategy, EPA is committed to a
common sense, cost-effective approach that follows the principles outlined when the new standards
were announced. The strategy and implementation principles take into account the recommendations
and ideas of an interagency Administration group and of a broad-based committee established by
EPA under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA). This strategy also includes an interagency
research program, including a full scientific and technical review of the new fine participate (PM2.5)
standard by 2002,

       In 2000, EPA will provide research, tools, and data: (1) to support EPA's decisions on the
need to revise or reaffirm the NAAQS for PM hi 2002  and later years; and (2) to support state, tribal,
and local analyses of their ozone and PM problems and the need for additional air pollution controls.
EPA also will make a determination on whether to establish Federal standards and measures for key
stationary and mobile sources that contribute to unhealthy levels of ozone and PM2^ and that are best
regulated at the national level.   The proposal implements President Clinton's July 1997 plan for
enhancing scientific knowledge and filling critical information gaps before states, tribes, and local
governments identify areas not meeting the health-based NAAQSs and begin to develop programs

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to reduce health risks. The proposal also helps align EPA-funded research with PM research
recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS).

       EPA will focus extensively on public outreach and access to high quality information for
general and technical audiences to facilitate public understanding and smooth implementation of the
new NAAQSs.  Improved information quality and access will enable citizens and users to obtain
"real-time"  air quality information, and enable EPA to better track environmental indicators and
assess progress.

Ozone

       Ozone can impair normal functioning of the lungs in healthy people, as well as in those with
respiratory problems. Relatively low amounts of ozone can cause chest pain, shortness of breath, and
coughing.   Ozone also may worsen  asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema.  Repeated exposure to
elevated levels of ozone over months to years may damage lung tissue and reduce quality of life.
Repeated exposure to high levels of ozone for several months can also produce permanent structural
damage in the lungs. Adverse ecosystem effects are known to occur for various species of vegetation
and are likely to extend to entire ecosystems. Ozone damage to plants is extensive, with an estimated
impact exceeding $34 million in lost crops and timber products each year.

       More people are exposed to unhealthful levels of ozone than to any other air pollutant. Over
122 million people live in areas mat do not meet the new health standard for ozone, over 15 million
more than the previous standard.  Meeting the new ozone standard will protect 13 million more
children from exposure to unhealthful levels of smog than the previous standard.

       Unlike most other pollutants, ozone is not emitted directly into the air by specific sources, but
is created by sunlight acting on nitrogen oxides (NO*) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
Some common sources include: gasoline vapors, chemical solvents, combustion products of fuels,
and consumer products. Emissions ofNOx and VOCs from motor vehicles and stationary sources can
be carried hundreds of miles from their origins, and result in high ozone concentrations over very
large areas of the country.

       To address the persistent and  widespread problem of ozoae transport, EPA will continue to
work with affected states, local governments, and tribes using a regional approach. Two multi-state
groups — the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) and the Ozone Transport Assessment Group
(OTAG) - collaborated to recommend regional strategies to control ozone transport in the Northeast,
Southeast, and Midwest.  Relying on the recommendations of the OTAG, EPA proposed a NOX
emission control strategy to reduce transport of ozone and major ozone precursors that contribute to
downwind nonattainment and interfere with maintenance of the ozone NAAQS for 22 eastern states
and the District of Columbia. Building on the success of the market-based acid rain program, OTAG
proposed a large-scale, market-based NOX trading program. This trading program should result in
a cost-effective solution for attaining and maintaining the new NAAQS. To facilitate trading
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programs, EPA will continue to review and approve emissions trading protocols for nationally
significant source categories.

      To better assess the causes of the ozone problem, EPA will continue to collect ambient air
measurements for a target list of VOCs, (precursors to both ozone and PM) as well as for nitrogen,
ozone, and both surface and upper air meteorological measurements from  the photochemical
assessment monitoring station (PAMS) network. By 2000, most of the PAMS areas will have
monitoring sites with three to seven years of data. Continued national and local analyses of the
PAMS date will provide: 1) insight into how ozone precursors and toxic pollutants contribute to the
ozone problem; 2) a trends assessment of ozone, ozone precursors, and toxic pollutants; 3) an
evaluation of pollutant management programs: and, 4) a data base for developing control strategies.
EPA also will explore and implement improvements to emissions testing and monitoring approaches
for VOCs, including better and less expensive continuous monitors and more reliable techniques for
analysis of water-based coatings, inks, and other solvents.

      To address the need for further reductions in motor vehicle emissions to attain and maintain
the new NAAQS, the Agency will review current motor vehicle and fuel standards and develop new
programs. In 1996, light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and light-duty trucks (LDTs) contributed more than
22 percent of national NOX emissions and 25 percent of VOC emissions. In 1998 EPA submitted its
Tier II Report to Congress (EPA 420-R-98-008; July 31,1998) according to the requirements under
subsection 202(1) of the Clean Air Act. The Tier II report concluded that there is a need for further
reductions in emissions for LDVs and LDTs.  The Agency will complete heavy-duty gasoline
standards and Tier IILDV and LDT standards which will be effective not earlier than the 2004 model
year.  EPA will start working  on post 2004 NOX and PM standards for heavy-duty vehicles.

      Building on the emission standards for compression ignition (CI) engines promulgated in the
early  1990s, EPA recently promulgated a new emission control program for non-road engines.
Domestic and ocean-going CI marine engines account for approximately 4.5 percent of total mobile
source NOX emissions nationwide. However, because of the nature of their operation, the contribution
of these engines to NOX levels in certain port cities and coastal areas is much higher. To address these
emissions, this program contains stringent standards that will greatly reduce NOX emissions from
these marine engines at or above 37 kilowatts (50 horsepower). EPA will finalize marine diesel
engine standards and will publish the determination of significance for the large spark-ignition (SI)
non-road engines.  These standards set out a two-phase emission control strategy for marine diesel
engines that  are derived from, or use the same technologies as, land-based nonroad or locomotive
engines. The first phase would go into effect in 2004 or 2006, depending on engine size. The second
phase would go into effect in 2008 or 2010, but will be subject to a feasibility review in 2003. EPA
expects to see a 34 percent reduction in NOX emissions and a 14 percent reduction in PM emissions
in 2030 when the program is fully phased-in. Overall, the program would provide much-needed
assistance to states facing ozone and particulate air quality problems that are causing a range of
adverse health effects for their citizens, especially in terms of respiratory impairment and related
illnesses.
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       EPA will implement regulations for the control of exhaust emissions from new SI gasoline
marine engines, including outboard engines, personal watercraft engines, and jet boat engines. These
regulations will achieve 75 percent reduction in hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from new gasoline
marine engines by the year 2025. The emission standards, which will affect outboard and personal
watercraft engines, will be phased in over a nine-year period beginning in model year 1998. The 1990
emissions from marine vessels operating in the South Coast Air Basin have been estimated to be in
the range of 30 to 40 tons of NOX per day. EPA has been an active participant in the International
Maritime Organization's (IMO's) negotiations of a new Annex VI to the International Convention for
the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78), which will reduce NOX from marine diesel
engines. The MARPOL standards are expected to reduce NOX emissions by 30 percent per engine
compared to current engines and will apply to all engines installed on or after January 1,2000. These
standards will apply to the majority of foreign-flagged ocean-going vessels.

       EPA will implement the emission standards for locomotives that will result eventually in more
than 60 percent reduction in NOX, beginning in the year 2000, to help states comply with NAAQS for
ozone and PM.  Since locomotive emissions have not been regulated before, it was necessary for EPA
to create a comprehensive program, including not only emission standards, but also test procedures
and a full compliance program. There are three separate sets of locomotive emission standards, with
applicability of the standards dependent on the date a locomotive is first manufactured. The first set
of standards (Tier 0) apply to locomotives and locomotive engines originally manufactured from 1973
through 2001, any time they are remanufactured in calendar year 2000 or later. The second and third
sets of standards (Tier  1 and Tier 2) apply to locomotives and locomotive engines  originally
manufactured on or after January 1,2002 (Tier 2 standards will take effect on January 1,2005). The
Agency will establish a rigorous emission testing program to make sure that locomotives comply with
these standards for the life of the locomotive.

       The Agency will continue to ensure implementation of vehicle inspection and maintenance
(I/M) programs and to review SIPs, In 2000 about 37 states will be implementing I/M programs.
EPA primarily will provide technical and programmatic guidance to states and local agencies for
implementing high technology-based I/M programs. The Agency will develop Onboard Diagnostics
(OBD) SIP credits and will finalize implementation guidance for I/M test methods. In preparation
for 2001 implementation of mandatory OBD inspection in I/M lanes, EPA will evaluate the adequacy
of the OBD technology in identifying high emitting vehicles, vehicle owner responsiveness to OBD
malfunction indicator lights,  and adequacy of the technology in replacing tailpipe testing for
OBD-equipped vehicles throughout their useful life.

       EPA will assist in the evaluation of the National Highway System Designation Act (NHSD A)
programs, facilitating actions across regions to ensure national consistency on the adequacy of
demonstrations. As  part of implementing  the  new ozone-regional haze  standards,  EPA's
Transportation Air Quality (TRAQ) Center will continue assistance to states and local governments
including implementation of the transitional transportation conformity rule and support for voluntary
mobile source programs. EPA will continue to develop partnerships that emphasize the development
of innovative transportation control strategies and voluntary mobile source programs.


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       The Agency mil implement Phase II of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, which will
result in additional VOC and NOX emission reductions involving approximately 30 billion gallons of
reformulated gasoline in 18 states and will provide technical and programmatic guidance to states
implementing clean fuel programs. EPA will continue efforts to enhance state flexibility to adopt
RFG programs, RFG is designed to reduce vehicle emissions of ozone-forming pollutants, and it is
estimated to reduce both VOC and toxic emissions by 25 percent. EPA will process approximately
100,000 fuel quality reports and review 156 fuel surveys with  17,000 samples.

       The National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) will continue to conduct tests
to support mobile source programs. In 2000, EPA will conduct testing activities for fuel economy,
LDV and heavy-duty engine (HDE) characterization, Tier II testing, Tier I tailpipe and cycle effects,
reformulated gasoline, future fleets, OBD evaluations, certification audits and recall programs. The
NVFEL will conduct testing on approximately 20 classes of LDVs and 30 HDVs for compliance with
standards.  The MOBILE6 model will be implemented by users;  the Agency will provide support.

       The certification program will oversee more than 100 original equipment manufacturers and
issue certificates of compliance with the latest emission standards  for criteria pollutants. The mobile
source fees program will collect approximately $10.87 million, offsetting costs of the certification,
recall, selective enforcement audit, and fuel economy programs.  The statutory fuel economy
information program will issue 1,000 fuel economy consumer labels and data for the Gas Mileage
Guide and "gas guzzler" tax collection. This program will issue  approximately 600 certificates for
LDVs, 400 certificates for CI ignition engines, 100 certificates for SI and marine engines, 1,500 test
audits for manufacturer compliance and 400  confirmatory tests.  The Agency will respond to
approximately 200 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests.

       EPA will continue implementing the new compliance assurance program (referred to as "CAP
2000") for LDVs and LDTs which  integrates the certification  and in-use programs, easing
manufacturers testing and reporting. CAP 2000 will simplify and streamline the current procedures
for pre-production certification of new motor vehicles. This certification program will provide the
same environmental benefits as the current procedures while significantly reducing the certification
cost for manufacturers giving manufacturers more control of production timing. Manufacturers will
be allowed to voluntarily opt-in to the CAP 2000 procedures beginning with the 2000 model year.
EPA estimates that, overall, manufacturers would save about $55 million dollars a year.

Particulate Matter

       PM is the term for solid or liquid particles found in the air. Some particles are large enough
to be seen as  soot or smoke.  Others are so small they can be detected only with an electron
microscope.   Because particles originate from a variety of mobile and stationary sources (diesel
trucks, woodstoves, power plants, etc.), their chemical and physical compositions vary widely. PM
can be directly emitted or can be formed in the atmosphere when gaseous pollutants, such as sulfur
dioxide (SO^), VOCs and NOX, react to form fine particles.
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       The health risks estimated from current fine particulate matter exposures represent tens of
thousands of premature deaths each year, placing fine PM at or near the top of environmental health
threats. EPA estimates that approximately 74 million people live in areas that may not meet the new
PM2 j standard. Meeting the new standard will save up to 15,000 lives per year, and protect an
additional 12 million children.

       EPA will better define the PM2 5 problem through assisting states and tribes in establishing
a nationwide monitoring network  and carrying out source characterization analyses.  Since
promulgating the new PM2 5 standards, EPA has been working with states and tribes to install fine PM
monitors and obtain data on fine particle emissions. This network is expected to be operational on
December 31, 1999. EPA has committed to provide 100 percent of the funding through state and
tribal grants under the authority of section 103 of the Clean Air Act. EPA also will promote the use
of continuous PM monitoring and improved fine PM test methods. States and tribes will also use the
air quality data and chemical speciation data to identify PM sources and "hot spots" and use this
information in developing SIPs and TIPs. EPA is discussing with the NAS and other scientists ways
to increase the usefulness of the resultant monitoring data to PM health effects and epidemiology
researchers.

       EPA, states, and tribes will continue to monitor PM10 and EPA will use the monitoring data
for PM10 to designate attainment/nonattainment areas, characterize emission sources, evaluate air
quality models, and contribute the regular scientific health review of the standard.

       EPA will assist states, local governments, and tribes in devising stationary source and mobile
source strategies to reduce PM. All on-going efforts to meet the pre-existing PM10 standards will help
to meet  the new standards  as well.   Accordingly,  EPA  will continue to  assist states,  local
governments, and tribes in maintaining existing control programs in this interim period between
having promulgated final particulate matter standards and developing new SIPs and TIPs that address
the revised PM standards.

       Levels of PM caused by mobile sources are expected to rise in the future due to the predicted
increase in the number of individual mobile sources and in motor vehicle travel. The Agency will
continue to address the need for further reductions in motor vehicle emissions to attain and maintain
the NAAQSs through the review of current motor vehicle and fuel standards and the development of
new programs. In 2000, the Agency will finalize the revised guidance on estimating PM,0 and PM2 $
emissions from mobile sources. EPA will implement the new diesel fuel standards and the 1999 rule
technology and will evaluate progress on the clean diesel initiative. The Agency will finalize heavy-
duty gasoline standards, the Tier n LDV and IDT standards, the new  diesel fuel sulfur controls and
the PM standards for the nonroad engines Tier HI NOx (2001 tech review).   The Agency will
develop new PM emission factors and will start working on PART6 (Particulate emission factor
model) for PM10 inventories  and analyses.   EPA will conduct studies on in-use performance of
advanced technology vehicles.
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       EPA will develop a series of guidance documents for the new particulate matter program to
provide infrastructure for implementing the new standards. EPA will continue public outreach
activities, especially to create materials for the general public on fine particulate matter.

       EPA will improve the characterization of mobile, stationary, and fugitive source particulate
matter contribution to PM25 nonattainment designations. Emission factors and inventories will be
developed along with air quality models (e.g., MODELS3). This is a critical need before SIP
planning can proceed for 2002. The highest priority for PM2J emission sources will be combustion
processes, condensibles, ammonia, and priority SO2 and NOX sources. Area sources of PM^5 are high
profile and high emitting point sources. For mobile sources, EPA will continue to highlight cycle
effects including development and testing of realistic light, medium, and heavy-duty vehicle cycles
as well as non-road cycles. This testing will involve a broad range of model years and an intensive
look at pre- and post-control nonroad engines.

Visibility

       Visibility impairment, caused by the  presence of tiny particles hi the air, is most simply
described as the haze that obscures the clarity, color, texture, and form of what we see. The Clean
Air Act gives special protection to natural areas that we want to preserve for future generations, such
as our national parks and wilderness areas.

       EPA proposed a regional haze program in conjunction with the new standards for ozone and
particulate matter and will promulgate a final rule in 1999. Because of regional variations in natural
conditions which combine with man-made pollution to produce regional haze, EPA believes that
regional haze  should be  addressed through a region-specific program that accounts  for these
variations.  This most likely  would result in a regional program for Western states that is different,
for example, from one for Northeastern states.

       Since 1987, EPA has supported the long-term visibility monitoring program known as the
Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. The IMPROVE
network collects data on visibility, including optical and photographic data, at 30 sites. To broaden
understanding of class I area visibility, EPA will add an additional 78 sites to the IMPROVE network
by the end of 1999. EPA will work with western states to determine the steps mat are needed to
preserve clear days and improve visibility in the 16 national parks and wilderness areas located in the
Colorado Plateau.  An  Eastern regional haze program will address visibility impairment in the
Appalachian Mountains. IMPROVE sites will also better characterize background PM2 5 levels.

       Regional emissions reductions to attain a fine particle NAAQS and meet requirements of other
programs (such as the acid rain program) are expected to  improve visibility in certain parks and
wilderness areas, particularly hi the East.  In parts of the West, visibility is expected to improve as
Western states implement  the  recommendations of the  Grand  Canyon  Visibility Transport
Commission.
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Implementation of NAAQSsand Visibility Requirements

       Ground-level ozone, fine PM, and regional haze have many similarities.  Both ozone and PM
(and the resulting regional haze) remain hi the atmosphere for days, leading to regional scale transport
that can affect broad areas of the country. Both pollutants are formed under certain atmospheric
conditions by gases, such as NOX and VOCs, emitted by the same types of sources. Moreover, there
are similar health effects associated with exposure to ozone and PM (e.g., increased respiratory
symptoms and increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits for respiratory causes). The
similarities between the pollutants and the regional haze problem provide opportunities for integrated
strategies for reducing pollutant emissions in the most cost-effective ways.

       EPA is developing guidance for implementing the revised ozone and PM NAAQS and the
regional haze rale. In that effort, EPA is  incorporating the results of the process EPA established
under the FAC A to obtain ideas on an integrated approach to implementing the standards.  In August
1998, EPA issued for public review and comment draft guidance on some implementation aspects,
including a possible nonattainment classification scheme, SIP submission and attainment dates,
reasonably  available control  measures and technology  (RACM/RACT) provisions,  and SIP
requirements for a new transitional classification for the new 8-hour ozone NAAQS. EPA issued for
public review and comment draft guidance covering additional implementation aspects in October
1998. After considering comments on these drafts, EPA intends to issue final guidance in mid-1999.

       The proposed regional NOX emission control strategy noted above is anticipated to bring many
areas into attainment of the 1-hour and  8-hour ozone standards earlier than would have otherwise
been possible, and will reduce the need  for other areas to develop local emission control measures
in order to  attain the NAAQS.  The regional NOX program will also  reduce particulate matter
emissions.

       The strategy for implementing the ozone, particulate matter, and regional haze standards will
be targeted at maintaining air quality protection efforts currently underway  and building on the
agreements and progress already  made  by communities and  businesses.   In carrying out the
implementation strategy, EPA will seek to reward state, tribal, and local governments and businesses
that take early action to reduce air  pollution levels through cost-effective approaches and address
pollution that travels across jurisdictional lines. EPA will work with states and tribes to develop
control programs that employ regulatory flexibility to minimize economic impacts on businesses to
the greatest possible degree consistent with public health protection.  EPA  also will attempt to
minimize regulatory burdens for states, tribes, local governments, and businesses and ensure that air
quality planning and related Federal, tribal, state and local planning are coordinated.
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      Research

Tropospheric Ozone

      The Tropospheric Ozone Research Program provides  the  scientific foundation for
understanding the potential risks and developing the necessary solutions in support of implementation
of the current ozone  NAAQS  and  the  required review of the standard every  five years.
Implementation-related research is coordinated through NARSTO (the Norm American Research
Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone partnership, chartered by the White House in February, 1995), which
seeks to improve the scientific basis for ozone attainment strategies in the United States, Canada, and
Mexico.

      As part of its NARSTO-related research, EPA will complete its ozone-focused research on
atmospheric chemistry and modeling to produce, evaluate, and apply a next generation atmospheric
model for ozone (Model s-3/CMAQ, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model). In 2000, the
ozone component of the Models-3/CMAQ will be evaluated against field data to ensure its reliability
in future attainment planning. EPA researchers will also conclude work on the model which will
correct some of the well-documented deficiencies in the chemistry mechanisms for biogenic and
aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Correcting these deficiencies will remove some of the
uncertainties that state, tribal and local air quality managers face in forecasting the benefits of
alternative ozone source controls.

      Another area of focus .in FY2000 will be to improve  methods for making physical
observations of ambient VOC and NOX chemistry which leads to ozone formation, and to test these
methods in regional field studies.  These methods hold the potential to manage precursor emissions
in order to reduce tropospheric ozone.  For NOX and its products, the EPA will produce a method by
which progress in emissions reductions and air quality benefits from controls placed on utilities and
automobiles under the  1998 state implementation plans (SBPs) required in the  Ozone Transport
Region of the Eastern U.S. can be measured by observation,

      EPA will continue to perform periodic, comprehensive scientific assessments of ozone.
Agency consultation and support in the area of ozone will permit risk assessments by state, regional,
and international air pollution control organizations with more certainty.  These efforts will provide
EPA's Office of Air and Radiation with the information needed to develop and implement ozone
policies based on sound science. In 2000, new information on the atmospheric concentrations, human
exposure, and health and environmental effects of tropospheric ozone will be incorporated into the
External  Review Draft  of the Ozone Air Quality Criteria Document (AQCD), which will be
completed and released for public comment and Clean Air Science Advisory Committee (CASAC)
review in 2000. Additional EPA research will focus on developing a NAAQS for carbon monoxide.
This involves creating a development plan, CASAC review of the plan, and development of an
External Review Draft of the AQCD, CASAC and public review of the External Review Draft, and
incorporation of review comments before a Carbon Monoxide AQCD can be finalized  in 2000.
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Particulate Matter

      The particulate matter (PM) research  program provides the scientific foundation  for
understanding the potential risks and developing the necessary solutions in support of implementation
of the current PM NAAQS and the statutorily required review of the standard every five years. EPA's
PM research will support this mandate through NAAQS review and implementation in keeping with
the PM NAAQS  implementation plan laid out in the July  16, 1997 Memorandum for  the
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency from President Clinton.

      One of the most significant steps in re-evaluating the PM NAAQS is the development of a
risk assessment based on an AQCD. To meet the re-evaluation schedule of PM NAAQS in 2002, an
External Review Draft of the PM AQCD must be completed and reviewed  (as per Clean Air Act
mandate) by the CASAC in 2000. To support this review, researchers will perform periodic,
comprehensive  scientific assessments to understand the differences in health effects between coarse
and fine particles and  interactions of PM with other pollutants and weather.  Researchers also will
conduct scientific assessments to determine the best health and exposure metrics to estimate health
outcomes and susceptibility of sensitive subgroups, such as children|These efforts will enable state,
regional, and international air pollution control organizations to perform risk assessments with greater
certainty.  In 2000, EPA will complete two key studies describing PM health effects in exposed
humans.  This study, along  with two others to be completed in 1999, will form the basis of the
AQCD.

      The Agency's  PM research efforts will focus on the reasearch areas recommended by the
National Academy of Sciences (NAS)  in its report "Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate
Matter I." These areas include:

•     Outdoor measures versus actual human exposures.
•     Exposure of susceptible subpopulations to PM.
•     Source-receptor measurement tools.
•     Application of methods and models.
•     Assessment of hazardous PM components.
•     Dosimetry.
•     Effects of PM and co-pollutants.
•     Susceptible subpopulations.
•     Mechanisms of injury.
•     Analysis and measurement.

       In 1997, EPA promulgated a new PM NAAQS that added PM2.5. This resulted in the need
for several new research activities to aid implementation and to make implementing the new PM 2.5
standard  more cost-effective.  Recognizing the similarities between these PM implementation
research needs-and those for tropospheric ozone, NARSTO has expanded its mission to include PM
research.  The EPA's part of the NARSTO agenda will seek to: (1) understand further and be able to
model the atmospheric chemistry of PM with respect to  fate and transport, and (2) develop and
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evaluate particle measurement methods to characterize atmospheric PM and evaluate attainment
progress. The results of this research program in 2000 will provide the preliminary evaluation of an
air quality model (the Models-3/CMAQ model for PM) that the States can use to predict which
reductions in emissions sources will likely achieve PM NAAQS attainment.  Models-3/CMAQ and
similar models require the best available understanding of air chemistry, in this ease the formation
of PM2.5.  Thus in 2000, EPA research will produce information on key chemical and physical
processes that determine the mass and chemical composition of PM. EPA will also improve receptor
models as an important means of identifying source categories contributing PM to a given geographic
area of concern, and determining the benefits of their control as they occur.  These research efforts
support the NAS research areas "outdoor measures versus actual human exposure," "source-receptor
measurement tools," and "assessment of hazardous PM components."

       The greatest uncertainties for PM risk assessment are in our knowledge of the mechanisms
of mortality and morbidity, characteristics of the particles responsible for the effects, quantitative
nature of the effects (e.g., the shape of the dose-response curve), and exposures (particularly of
susceptible subpopulations) to PM of ambient origin, EPA will continue to evaluate the relationship
between health effects and  PM exposures, using epidemiological techniques and significantly
unproved characterization of exposures. This work will enable researchers to both  characterize and
quantify the morbidity and mortality associated with "real world" short- and long-term exposures.
These activities support three research areas recommended by the NAS, i.e. "outdoor measures versus
actual human  exposure," "assessment of  hazardous  PM  components,"and   "susceptible
subpopulations."

       EPA will also continue a substantial effort in toxicological and clinical research to identify
and  evaluate  several hypotheses regarding the biological mechanisms for  respiratory  and
cardiovascular effects associated with PM.  Research will continue to focus on the potential role of
metals present in PM in producing effects, the effects of pre-existing disease on susceptibility and
dosimetry, cardiopulmonary mechanisms,  and identification of the characteristics  of PM (size,
composition) associated with effects. Research to identify and evaluate plausible mechanisms will
provide valuable information for future toxicological assessments and epidemiological studies. These
efforts support three additional research areas recommended by the NAS ("dosimetry," "susceptible
subpopulations," and "mechanisms of injury")  and further support the area  of "assessment of
hazardous PM components."

       In addition, the Agency will conduct research to characterize source emissions to clarify which
sources are significant contributors to ambient fine particles. Studies will be conducted to develop
particle size distribution data for a variety of sources, such as residual fuel oil and pulverized coal.
Continued research will also be conducted to evaluate and, where necessary, improve or develop
control technologies for a variety of industrial and commercial sources. The Agency will conduct PM
chemistry, atmospheric modeling, emissions modeling and source apportionment research to support
NAAQS implementation.   Major epidemiologic, exposure, and toxicologic research  studies
supporting upcoming NAAQS reviews will be carried through uninterrupted, consistent with NAS
plans on aerosols research needs.
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       In order to refine estimates of actual human exposure to PM, research will continue to
concentrate on measurement, characterization, and modeling. Studies will characterize population
exposures to ambient and indoor pollution. In 2000, new studies of the exposure of susceptible
subpopulations (i.e., people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and with cardiovascular
disease) will identity how much of the total exposure of these subpopulations to PM10 and PM2.5
comes from ambient air, either outdoor or indoor.
FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

Ozone

EPM

•      (-$6,500,000) Funding to support the National Alternative Fuels Training Center, National
       Center for Vehicle Emissions, Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy,
       Southern Appalachian Mountain Initiative, and the Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use
       Management has been eliminated.
S&I
       (+$706,000) The increased resources will support the implementation of the Tier II standards
       according to the requirements under subsection 202(1) of the Clean Air Act which determined
       the need for further reductions in emissions for LDVs and LDTs. EPA will complete heavy-
       duty gasoline standards and will make a regulatory determination on Tier IILDV and LDT
       standards which will be effective not earlier than the 2004 model year.

       (-$1,250,000) Funding to support the California Regional PM10 and PM2 5 Air Quality Study,
       a Congressional earmark, has been eliminated.

       Research

       (+$ 1,010,800 and +7.8 workyears) The Agency requires increased resources (resulting from
       a redirection from the One Atmosphere Research Program) to prepare external review draft
       of revised Ozone AQCD for CASAC review and to develop the Carbon Monoxide AQCD,
       to  meet  schedule  set  by  EPA  Administrator to  comply  with  non-discretionary
       Congressionally-mandated review/revision of criteria and NAAQS for ozone and carbon
       monoxide.

       (-$9,677,200 and -36.2 workyears) Given the need to  address the National Academy of
       Sciences (NAS) recommendations for an expanded Particulate Matter Research Program,
       resources will be redirected to support particulate matter research. As a result, the Agency
       will not continue to provide resources to a number of ozone programs. These include the


                                         1-25

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       following: 1.  Delivery of an extensively improved air quality model (Models-3/CMAQ-
       Ozone) for projecting the benefits of ozone precursor controls, staff will be redirected to the
       development, testing, and evaluation of a particulate matter/aerosols component of Models-3.
       2. Research conducted to develop and refine emission models and methodologies, ecosystem-
       related air quality research, and ozone-specific health  research will be terminated.  3.
       Tropospheric ozone atmospheric chemistry and modeling efforts which have been devoted
       to the development of ambient air measurement techniques and Observational Based Methods
       will be eliminated. Remaining funds will support the NARSTO efforts.

•      (-$4,680,000) Funding to support the following 1999 Congressional earmarks will not be
       continued in 2000: the University of California/Riverside CE-CERT  program and the
       Southern Oxidants Study.

NOTE: The FY1999 Request, submitted to Congress in February 1998, included Operating Expenses
       and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in Goal 8 and
       Objective 5. In the FY 1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the FY2000 Request, these
       resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives. The FY 1999 Request columns in this
       document have been modified from the  original FY 1999  Request so that they reflect the
       allocation of these ORD funds across Goals and Objectives.

Particulate Matter/Visibility

EPM

•      (-$500,000) EPA will reduce funding for the OTC NOX Budget Trading Program reflecting
       a shift from design and development of the program to its operation.  EPA will continue to
       partner with the 12 states of the OTC by  operating the OTC NOX Budget Trading Program,
       i.e., track emissions,  maintain allowance trading accounts, record allowance transfers and
       conduct annual compliance certification for the 1,000 sources in the Ozone Transport Region.

•      (+$3,400,000) EPA will increase funding for developing PMZ5 emission factors that states,
       tribes, and local agencies will need to develop and implement control strategies and for
       sources to write permits under the revised PMZ5 NAAQS.

•      (+$3,400,000) EPA will increase funding for developing guidance, models, outreach activities
       and analyze monitoring data and emission inventories to assist states in attaining the new
       NAAQS for particulate matter

•      (-$8,900,000)  Funding is reduced for two visibility-related programs: a study of the air
       pollution problems in the Big Bend National Park and regional approaches to haze. We will
       continue to work on regional approaches for defining reasonable progress  for improving
       visibility.
                                         1-26

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(+$2,100,000) Total payroll costs for this objective will increase by $2,100,000 to reflect
increased workforce.
(-$10,000,000)   EPA will reduce funding for characterizing the composition of PM25
particles using chemical speciation studies as many of the sites will be established. Funding
will continue for operations and maintenance and analyses.

(-$1,300,000) The Agency will reduce resources in the area of emissions characterization for
mobile sources modeling because most modeling data analysis and model programming will
be done in-house..  EPA is under a statutory requirement to review and update emission
factors periodically. Data on these sources is currently very limited, yet these sources are
known to be having a growing contribution to overall air pollution.

Research

(+$9,595,100, +65.3 workyears)  Increased resources in  FY 2000 reflect the Agency's
continuing commitment to address the recommendations by NAS for PM research and support
the five university-based research  centers focused on PM research. Additional PM research
will produce a better understanding of the causal agents of PM health effects and identify
susceptible populations,  enabling  more focused risk management approaches for reducing
PM-related health risks. This also includes new funding in F Y2000 to conduct PM chemistry,
atmospheric modeling, emissions modeling and source apportionment research to support
NAAQS implementation.  The additional funding will aid in an effort to ensure the PM
speciation sites (initially designed to support implementation) are sufficient to meet health
and exposure research needs.

(+$270,000, + 5.0 workyears) This request continues the second year  of the Agency's
Postdoctoral Initiative to enhance  our intramural research program, building  upon the
overwhehningly positive response by the academic community to EPA's announcement of
50 postdoctoral positions for 1999. These limited term appointments will provide a constant
stream of highly-trained postdoctoral candidates who can apply state-of-the-science training
to EPA research issues.
                                   1-27

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•      (-$3,656,300) Funding to support the following 1999 Congressional earmarks will not be
       continued in 2000: the Environmental Lung Center of the National Jewish Center and the
       Lovelace Respiratory Institute.

NOTE:TheFY 1999 Request, submitted to Congress in February 1998, included Operating Expenses
       and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in Goal 8 and
       Objective 5. In the F Y1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the FY 2000 Request, these
       resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives.  The FY 1999 Request columns in this
       document have been modified from the original FY 1999 Request so that they reflect the
       allocation of these ORD funds across Goals and Objectives.

All STAG

•      (+$133,300,000)CleanAirPartnershipFund. The Fund willprovide an opportunity for cities,
       states, and tribes to partner with the private sector, Federal government and each other to
       provide healthy clean air to local citizens. The fund will demonstrate smart multi-pollutant
       strategies that reduce greenhouse gases, air toxics, soot, and smog to protect our climate and
       our health.

       The Clean Air Partnership Fund will: be a catalyst for innovative local, state, private
       partnerships for air pollution  reductions; demonstrate locally managed, self-supporting
       programs that achieve early integrated reductions in soot, smog, air toxics, and greenhouse
       gases; be used to capitalize local  revolving funds  and other financial mechanisms that
       leverage the original federal investment and result in greater resources for air pollution
       reduction; and, stimulate technology innovation.

       The Clean Air  Partnership  will fund more optimal, multi-pollutant control strategies.
       Currently, businesses and municipalities often invest in short-term, single-pollutant control
       approaches. The Partnership will encourage many industries, such as electric utilities and the
       transportation sector, to pursue comprehensive criteria pollutant reductions while improving
       energy and operation efficiencies, thereby also reducing greenhouse gas emissions.   The
       Clean Air Fund will provide these needed resources through mechanisms that promise
       significant leveraging of non-Federal resources. It is expected that the Fund will support the
       development of local revolving funds which will provide low-interest  loans, matching funds,
       public-private partnerships, and other capitalization mechanisms.

       (-$8,200,000) In 2000, EPA will reduce Section 103 STAG funding for the nationwide PM2.5
       monitoring network. Through 1998 and 1999 funding, states and local agencies will be able
       to purchase and deploy PM2^ monitors for their individual networks. The 2000 STAG funds
       will provide state and local agencies with sufficient funds to operate and  maintain their
       networks and augment selected sites with meteorological equipment and continuous PM2.5
       monitors needed to characterize the PM2.5 problem.
                                          1-28

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        (-$3,500,000) Funding is decreased for a Congressional earmark for section 103 and 105 air
        quality grants.

        (+$11,200,000) Section 105  funding is increased to build and maintain state  and local
        capacity to carry out Federal requirements for ozone, PM2 5, and regional haze.  In 2000,
        activities to  be funded include: preparing emission inventories  and evaluating  control
        strategies for particulate matter; implementing the SIPs updated in response to theNOx SIP
        call. The increase in grant dollars for this objective includes funds to implement section 6102
        of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Achieve one-hour ozone NAAQS

In 2000     EPA will certify that 5 of the estimated 30 remaining nonattainment areas have achieved
            the one-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone.

In 1999     8 additional areas currently classified as nonattainment will have the 1-hour ozone standard
            revoked because they meet the old standard.

 Performance Measures                                       FY1999             FY 2000
 Areas Designated for the 8-hour Ozone Standard                                     100 Percent

 Reductions in National Highway Vehicle VOC Emissions                                 1,406 Tons

 Reductions in National Highway NOx Emissions                                      926,000 Tons

 Reductions to National Non-road Mobile Source VOC Emissions                         343,000 Tons

 Reductions in National Non-road Mobile Source NOx Emissions                          133,000 Tons

 Areas to Have The One Hour Ozone Standard Revoked                                   .5 Areas

 Publish Notice Revoking 1-Hour Standard                     8 Areas

 Consumer Product Rules                                    1 Rules

 National Guidance on Ozone SIP                             1 Issued

 States submit designations of areas for attainment of the ozone     50 States
 standard
  Baseline:    As a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,101 areas were designated non-attainment for the
             1-hour ozone standard. In 1996, as indicated in the most recent air quality trends report, 59 areas are in
             non-attainment  The trends data are updated each year with a one-year lag time (i.e. the 2000
             information will be available in 2002). Currrently, 38 areas are still In non-attainment The 1995
             baseline for national non-road mobile source emissions was 2,433,000 tons for VOCs and 4,675,000 tons

                                              1-29

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              for NOx. Mobile source data are validated by using speciated test data from the mobile source emission
              factor program, along with peer-reviewed models which estimate national tons for the relevant year of
              interest.

PM2.SNAAQS

 In 2000      Maintain progress and continue to implement measures to reduce paniculate emissions, and
             transition to and implement the PM2.5 NAAQS.

 In 1999      Deploy PM-2.5 ambient monitors including: mass, continuous, speciation, and visibility sites
             resulting in a total of 1500 monitoring sites.
 Performance Measures                                         FY1999             FY 2000
 Areas Designated for PM 10 Standard                                                   100 Percent

 Reductions in National Highway Vehicle PM 10 Emissions                                 55,000 Tons

 Reductions in National Highway Vehicle PM2.5 Emissions                                52,000 Tons

 National Guidance on PM-2.5 SIP and Attainment Demonstration    1 Issued
 Requirements

 Provide Draft Documents to CASAC for PM NAAQS Review       30-SEP-1999

 Baseline:     Performance Baseline: As a result of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990, 84 areas were
              designated as non-attainment of the PM10 standard. In 1996, as indicated in the most recent air
              quality trends report, 79 areas were in non-attainment Currently, 77 areas are still in
              non-attainment. The trends data are updated each year with a one-year lag time (i.e., the 2000
             information will be available in 2002).

Research

Ozone Measurement Research

In 2000      In FYOO, develop tropospheric ozone precursor measurement methods, emissions based air
             quality models, observations based modeling methods, and source emissions information to
             guide State Implementation Plan (SIP) development under the current ozone NAAQS

 In 2002     Develop Tropospheric Ozone Precursor Measurements, and observational Modeling to Guide
             Cost-Effective Control Options

 In 2001      Develop tropospheric ozone precursor measurements, modeling, source emissions, and control
             information to guide cost effective risk management options

 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999             FY2000
 Recommend method for measuring NOx (nitrogen oxides and their   09/30/2002
 reaction products).

 Recommend method for measuring NOx (nitrogen oxides and thier                          09/30/2000
 products)


                                                1-30

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 Complete development and begin evaluation of the "Morphecule"                           1 approach
 approach for including complex chemical reaction mechanisms in
 photochemical pollution models like Models-3/CMAQ to be used
 in SEP development.

 Complete evaluation of Models-3/CMAQ against field data to                             09/30/2000
 demonstrate reliability in ozone NAAQS attainment planning

 In 1999 report on quantifying the uncertainty in emissions,         30-SEP-1999
 chemical parameters and meteorological conditions for trajectory
 model.

Baseline:     Performance Baseline: A need exists to develop models, methods, and information to guide
             State Implementation Plan development under the current ozone NAAQS.  Development of
             "formal" baseline information for EPA research is currently underway.

Ozone Research

 In 2000      In FYOO, provide new information on the atmospheric concentrations, human exposure, and health
             and environmental effects of tropospheric ozone and incorporate it and other peer-reviewed research
             findings in an External Review Draft of the Ozone AQCD for NAAQS review; complete the
             final Carbon Monoxide AQCD.

 In 2000      Evaluate Models-3/Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAC) against Field Data to
             Demonstrate Reliability in Ozone NAAQS Attainment Planning

 Performance Measures                                        FY1999             FY 2000
 Final Carbon Monoxide Air Quality Criteria Document.                                   1 document

 External Review Draft of the Ozone Air Quality Criteria                                  I document
 Document will be completed and released for public comment and
 review by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC).

 Baseline:    Performance Baseline: A clear understanding of tropospheric ozone is needed in order to complete
             the Ozone AQCD External Review Draft. AQCDs are required to meet NAAQS review cycles.
             Development of "formal" baseline informtion for EPA research is currently underway.

PM Effects Research
 In 2000      In FYOO, provide new information on the atmospheric concentrations, human exposure, and
             health effects of particulate matter (PM), including PM2.5, and incorporate it and other
             peer-reviewed research findings in the second External Review Draft of the PM AQCD for
             NAAQS review.

 In 1999      Identify and evaluate at least two plausible biological mechanisms by which PM causes death
             and disease in humans

 In 2000      Describe PM Health Effects in Exposed Humans
                                               1-31

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 Performance Measures                                          FY1999             FY2000
 Reports (1) describing research designed to test a hypothesis        30-SEP-1999
 about mechanisms of PM-induced toxicity; 2) charcterize. factors
 affecting PM dosimetry in humans; 3) ID PM characteristics
 (composition)

 Hold CASAC review of draft PM Air Quality Criteria Document.                            09/30/2000

 Complete longitudinal panel study data collection & preliminary                              1 report
 report on exposure of susceptible subpopulations to total PM &
 co-occurring gases of ambient origin and identify key exposure
 parameters...

 Data generated from PM monitoring studies in Phoenix, Fresno,                              09/30/2000
 and Baltimore will be used to reduce uncertainties on atmospheric
 PM concentrations in support of Draft PM Air Quality Criteria
 Document

 Reports on (1) role of host susceptibility factors, such as                                    09/30/2000
 compromised cardiopulmonary systems, on responses to PM exposures
 and (2) data on regional deposited dose of inhaled ultrafine
 particles.

 Report on results from Baltimore study evaluating the cardio-         .                        1 report
 vascular and immunological responses of elderly individuals to
 PM.

 Delivery of computer model to assess the effect of spatial          30-SEP-1999
 variability on human exposure as manifested by health.

 Reports on (1) long-term exposures to PM and effects on mortality  30-SEP-1999
 and lung function.

 Baseline:     A clear understanding of PM is needed in order to complete the PM AQCD External Review Draft.
              The current baseline is the 1996 PM Criteria Document. By 2000, EPA's revised, draft Criteria
              Document will reflect scientific advances, in line with recommendations of the National Academy
              of Sciences, and reduce uncertainties concerning the scientific basis for the PM standard.

PM Measurement Research
 In 2000      In FYOO, develop paniculate matter (PM) measurements, methods, emissions-based air
             quality models, and source emissions and control information to guide State
             Implementation Plan (SIP) development under the current PM NAAQS.

 In 1999      By 1999, and beyond produce data, models, and technical information which can be used by
             Federal, State and Local air pollution regulatory officials to refine the accuracy (size
             distribution and chemical composition) of directly emitted fine particulate and fine paticulate
             (particulate less than 2.5
                                                 1-32

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In 2000      Preliminary Evaluation of Models-3/Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) for PM to
            Demonstrate Realiability in PM NAAQS Attainment Planning

In 2001      Provide measurements, modeling, source emissions, and control information for PM by
            species and size to guide risk assessment and PM risk management

Performance Measures                                     FY1999            FY2000
Produce data on the size distribution of particles emitted from      30-SEP-1999
residential wood combustion (fireplac

Produce improved receptor models (CMB8 and UNMIX) for                             2 models
measurement of source category emissions impacts on air quality.

Complete a preliminary evaluation of Models-3/Community                             09/30/2000
Multi'Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) for PM, demonstrating its
potential reliability for PM NAAQS attainment planning

In 1999 establish five airborne paniculate matter (PM) research     30-SEP-1999
centers to conduct integrated studies on PM exposure, dosimetry
and extrapolation modeling, toxicology and epidemiology.

 Baseline:   Performance Baseline: A need exists to develop models, methods, and information to guide
            SDP development under the current PM NAAQS. Development of "formal" baseline info for EPA
            research  is currently underway.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

Data sources:
       •      EPA Aerometric and Information Retrieval System (AIRS) Air Quality Subsystem;
       *      EPA National Emission Trends Database;
       •      EPA Findings and Required Elements Data System (FREDS);
       •      IMPROVE database.

       Data from the Aerometric Information and Retrieval System (AIRS) Air Quality Subsystem
are used to determine if nonattainment areas have their requisite three years of clean air data needed
for redesignation. The National Emission Trends database will be used to determine if the states have
reduced their VOC, PM2 5, and NOX emissions. The FREDS system tracks the progress of states and
Regions in reviewing and approving the required elements of the state implementation plans also
needed for redesignation to attainment.  The  IMPROVE  database provides data  on visibility
improvement from various sites nationally.

       The EPA's highway vehicle emission factor model, MOBILE, provides average in-use fleet
emission factors for VOC, CO and NOX for each category of vehicle under various conditions
affecting in-use emission levels (e.g., ambient temperatures, average traffic speeds, gasoline volatility)
as specified by the model user. It is used by EPA in evaluating control strategies for highway mobile


                                           1-33

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sources, by states and other local and regional planning agencies in the development of emission
inventories and control strategies for SIPs under the Clean Air Act. The model has been periodically
updated to reflect the collection and analysis of additional emission factor testing results over the
years, as well as changes in vehicle, engine, and emission control system technologies, changes hi
applicable regulations and emission standards and test procedures, and unproved understanding of
in-use emission levels and the factors that influence them.

       Program audits assess the effectiveness of I/M programs by evaluating their operations, ability
to identify pollutants, and success hi ensuring the repair of vehicles. EPA also tracks the number of
states implementing the I/M programs and completion of the National Highway System Designation
Act (NHSDA) evaluations. NHADA amended the Clean Air Act requirements for I/M programs.

       For the RFG program, the reporting system collects data on quality for RFG and conventional
gasoline to determine fuel program benefits. The system electronically processes approximately
100,000 fuel quality reports. The electronic data interchange was recognized in the President's report
on Reinventing Government as a dramatic new industry reporting initiative.

       For modeling, the verification system is the  MOBILE highway vehicle emission factors
model. The Agency will continue utilizing the testing results, number of labels and certificates issued
for the compliance programs and testing programs.

QA/OC Procedures

        The QA/QC of the national air monitoring program has several major components: the Data
Quality Objective (DQO) process, reference and equivalent methods program, the precision and
accuracy of the collected data, EPA's National Performance Audit Program (NPAP), systems audits,
and network reviews. To ensure quality data, the State and Local Air Monitoring Sites (SLAMS) are
required to meet the following: 1) each site must meet network design and siting criteria; 2) each site
must provide adequate QA assessment, control and corrective action functions according to minimum
program requirements; 3) all sampling methods and  equipment must meet EPA  reference  or
equivalent requirements; 4) acceptable data validation and record keeping procedures must be
followed; and 5) data from the SLAMS must be summarized and reported annually to EPA.

       There  are additional quality assurance/quality control measures specified for the collection
of participate data, such as Federal Reference Method Performance Evaluation Program, collocated
samples, and field and laboratory blanks. Finally, there are systems audits that regularly review the
overall air quality data collection activity for any needed changes or corrections.

Plans to Improve Data

       The emissions  data are difficult to quality  assure  because of the  varying methods  of
determining the total emissions in a given area. In the future, EPA will post all state, tribal, and local
agency emissions data in a compiled data base so that  all stakeholders can provide a much more


                                         1-34

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intense review of the inventory. Also, the Emissions Inventory Improvement Project (EIIP), which
has provided consistent methods of estimating emissions data and has developed consistent quality
assurance methods for use by the states, will substantially improve state emissions data.  Emissions
data for the EIIP are subject to enhanced quality assurance before they are entered into an air quality
model. In addition, preliminary air quality model results identify specific weaknesses in the emissions
inputs.

       The IMPROVE network will be enhanced by the upgrade of 30 existing IMPROVE samplers
and the establishment of 78 new sites in 1998 and 1999. In 2000, new aerosol measurements will be
collected from the upgraded IMPROVE samplers, which will facilitate more frequent data collection
while maintaining consistency with the historical measurements. The new sites established in 1998
and 1999 will provide additional information on class 1  areas previously not covered in the
IMPROVE monitoring network.

Research

       EPA has several  strategies to validate  and verify performance measures hi the  area of
environmental science and technology research. Because the major output of research is technical
information, primarily hi the form of reports, software, protocols, etc., key to these strategies is the
performance of both peer reviews and quality reviews to ensure that requirements are met.

       Peer  reviews  provide assurance  during the  pre-planning,  planning, and reporting of
environmental science and research activities that the work meets peer expectations. Only those
science activities and resulting information products that pass Agency peer review are addressed and
published. This applies to program-level, project-level, and research outputs. The quality of the peer
review activity is monitored by EPA to ensure that peer reviews are performed consistently, according
to Agency policy, and that any identified areas of concern are  resolved through discussion or the
implementation of corrective action.

       The Agency's expanded focus on peer review helps ensure that the performance measures
listed here are verified and validated by an external organization. This is accomplished through the
use of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) and the Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC).  The
BOSC, established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, provides an added measure of
assurance by examining  the  way the Agency uses peer review, as well as the management of its
research and development laboratories.

       In 1998, the Agency presented a new Agency-wide  quality system in Agency Order
5360.1/chg 1. This system provided policy to ensure that all environmental programs performed by
or for the Agency be supported by individual quality systems that comply fully with the American
National  Standard, Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data
Collection and Environmental Technology Programs (ANSI/ASQC E4-1994).
                                          1-35

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       The order expanded the applicability of quality assurance and quality control to the design,
construction, and operation by EPA organizations of environmental technology such as pollution
control and abatement systems; treatment, storage, and disposal systems; and remediation systems.
This rededieation to quality provides the needed management and technical practices to assure that
environmental data developed in research and used to support Agency decisions are of adequate
quality and usability for their intended purpose,

       A quality assurance system is implemented at all levels in the EPA research organization. The
Agency-wide quality assurance system is a management system that provides the necessary elements
to plan, implement, document, and assess the effectiveness of quality assurance and quality control
activities applied to environmental programs conducted by or  for EPA. This quality management
system provides for identification of environmental programs for which Quality Assurance/Quality
Control (QA/QC) is needed, specification of the quality of the data required from environmental
programs,  and provision of sufficient resources to assure that an adequate level of QA/QC is
performed.

       Agency measurements are based on the application of standard EPA and ASTM methodology
as well as performance-based measurement systems. Non-standard methods are validated at the
project level. Internal  and external management system assessments report the efficacy of the
management system for quality of the data and the final research results. The quality assurance annual
report and work plan submitted by each organizational unit provides an accountable mechanism for
quality activities. Continuous improvement in the quality system is accomplished through discussion
and review of assessment results.
Coordination with Other Agencies

H'L^ilJTh6 Agency continues to coordinate with other Agencies as appropriate in the formulation and
implementation of its regulatory mission. For example, EPA has worked closely with the Department
of Agriculture hi developing its agricultural  burning policy.   EPA has also worked with the
Department of the Interior, National Park Service,  in developing its regional haze program and
deploying the IMPROVE visibility monitoring network.

Research

       EPA's tropospheric ozone research program is coordinated with the research efforts of others.
As such, a significant portion of the tropospheric ozone research is coordinated through the efforts
of NARSTO. The remainder of the EPA tropospheric ozone research program focuses on needs
associated with the review of the tropospheric ozone NAAQS, which is also not being met my others.

       The science and policy communities have agreed that solving the PM issue will require
substantial, coordinated research efforts. EPA is taking steps to achieve public/private coordination
and cooperation by (1) initiating health and exposure research coordination.among Federal agencies


                                          1-36

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and with public/private research organizations; (2) completing an EPA Research Strategy for PM; and
(3) participating as a sponsoring member of NARSTO as it realigns its mission and research agenda
to include PM atmospheric sciences research. An inventory of PM research in the public and private
sectors has been developed.

       The 1998 Appropriations identified an important role for NAS in developing and monitoring
implementation of a comprehensive, prioritized, near- and long-term PM research plan, working in
close consultation with representatives from many public and private sector organizations. The PM
research plan is intended to be the principal guideline for the Agency's PM research program for the
next several years. The plan also affects other agencies, with Congress expecting the EPA and other
Federal agencies to review then1 ongoing PM research activities and, where appropriate, re-focus
activities so as to be consistent with the NAS plan.

       EPA is the world  leader in several areas  of PM  research (e.g., causal mechanisms).
Opportunities exist to complement EPA capabilities through programs targeted toward the academic
community, such as in epidemiology research to evaluate the consequences of long-term exposure
to ambient  PM. The Department of Health and Human Services supported much of the current
epidemiological research on links between long-term exposure to ambient PM and life shortening and
other long-term health effects, thus the capacity to conduct large-scale epidemiological research on
PM is  generally found  outside  EPA.  EPA is entering into an Interagency Agreement with the
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to study, for the next several years, the role of
PM and copollutants on asthma in children.
Statutory Authorities

Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q)
                                         1-37

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Preceeding Page Blank
                                 Environmental Protection Agency

                 FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                            Clean Air


      Objective # 2:  Reduce Emissions of Air Toxics

            By 2010, reduce air toxic emissions by 75 percent from 1993 levels to significantly reduce the
      risk to Americans of cancer and other serious adverse health effects caused by airborne toxics.
                                       Resource Summary
                                       (Dollars in thousands)

Reduce Emissions of Air Toxics
Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Total Workyears:


FY 1999 FY 1999
Reauest Enacted
$97,546.9 $90,700.3
$52,651.7 $46,904.8
$22,800.7 $21,551.4
$22,094.5 $22,244.1
395.1 394.2
Key Programs
(Dollars in thousands)
FY1999
Reauest
Air,State,Local and Tribal Assistance Grants: Other Ak Grants $22,094,5
Federal Air Toxics Standards
Mobile Sources
Air Toxics Research
EMPAGT
Clean Air Partnership Fund
$26,862.9
$1,768.0
$21,014.9
$204.8
$0.0
FY2000 FY2000Req.v.
Reauest FY 1999 Ena.
$175,4853
$53,421.4
$24,518.0
$97,545.9
399.4

FY1999
Enacted
$22,244.0
$17,620.3
$1,736.3
$19,681.7
$171.7
$0.0
$84,785.0
$6,516.6
$2,966.6
$75^01-8
5.2

FY2000
Reauest
$30,845.9
$14,902.9
$3,940.0
$20,561.6
$212.9
$66,700.0
                                               1-39

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FY 2000 Request

       Toxic air pollutants pose significant risks to public health by causing cancer and other serious
health problems such as reproductive disorders, birth defects, and damage to the nervous system.
Available data from U.S. cities indicate predicted increased lifetime cancer risks from air toxics may
be on the order of 1 in 10,000. People who live near certain major industrial plants may face even
higher cancer risks from air toxics.

       Titles II and HI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require EPA to regulate ah- toxics.
Under Title II, EPA must develop standards for air toxics emitted from cars, trucks and fuels. Air
pollution from these mobile sources accounts for close to one third of the nationwide emissions of
air toxics. Title III lists 188 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and requires EPA to develop and ensure
implementation of technology-based standards for major stationary sources of these pollutants. Eight
years after promulgating these Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards, EPA
must evaluate the residual risk and revise the standards if needed to provide an ample margin of safety
to protect public health or protect the environment from adverse effects.

       Title III also requires EPA to develop a national urban air toxics strategy, and to identify and
control at least 30 of the most hazardous air pollutants found in urban areas. In addition, the Act
requires that EPA study the effect of air toxic emissions on ecosystems, particularly on important
water bodies. Finally, Title III mandates control of air toxics from combustion sources with emphasis
on mercury and analysis of emissions from steam powered utility plants.

       To carry out Clean Air Act requirements, EPA developed an air toxics program comprised
of four key areas:   (1) characterization of air toxics from stationary and mobile sources; (2)
development of Federal technology-based and risk-based standards; (3) assistance to states, tribes,
and local agencies  to  implement air toxics programs; and (4) research to support the air toxics
program. In continuing to carry out this program, EPA is now beginning the transition from the first
phase of the program — developing technology based standards -- to the second phase, which will use
a risk-based, multi-media approach that focuses on urban areas and large water bodies to address the
risk that remains after the first-phase controls are hi place. In this second phase, the Agency will:

•      Extensively monitor and characterize the air toxics problem and identify the sources of the
       most toxic chemicals that are transported through the air and that affect cumulative exposure
       hi urban areas and major water bodies.

•      Look cross-media at air discharges from water and waste sources and at ah" deposition impacts
       on water and soil, as well as releases from traditional air toxics sources.

•      Implement a strategy that will obtain the greatest cumulative reduction in health risks due to
       air toxics, regardless of media, targeting urban areas and major water bodies where exposure
       to ak toxics is the greatest.
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       EPA proposes to use existing regulatory authorities (e.g., the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water
Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) or negotiated agreements to address sources
identified through risk assessment. By 2000, the Agency will produce recommendations that will
maximize reduction in risk to the public. EPA also will inform urban communities through published
reports and other means (e.g., the Internet) about the toxics risk posed to them.

Air Toxics Characterization

       In the ongoing first phase of the program, EPA's focus remains primarily on reducing air
toxics emissions through Federal technology-based standards, as required by the Clean Air Act. For
the second, risk-based phase, EPA will use an approach that more directly identifies and addresses
the risk remaining after first-phase controls are in place.  EPA currently lacks the information and
tools to fully characterize the air toxics problem and measure progress in improving public health and
reducing environmental impacts. For 2000, EPA will invest hi improved and innovative monitoring
and modeling, emissions inventories, environmental indicators, and risk assessment tools.  This
investment will allow the Agency to better characterize the risks from air toxics and to establish a
baseline for measuring risk in carrying out the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA).

       EPA will build on existing state, tribal, and local efforts to create a national monitoring and
inventory program that better characterizes public exposures to hazardous air pollution. Monitoring
for some air toxics is currently underway, but the monitors measure concentrations only for a limited
number of toxic compounds  and only at  limited locations.  In addition, there is incomplete
information on the full range of health effects associated with air toxics. Relatively little is known
about the range of health effects, and the scope and level of concentrations of air toxics in the
atmosphere.

       EPA will expand the air toxics monitoring program in urban areas and around major water
bodies in order to better characterize air toxics (building on efforts begun in 1999); establish a
centralized database on toxic compounds in urban areas including air, water, and solid waste; expand
the toxics emission inventories;  refine deposition models to estimate the amount of air toxics
deposited hi various media (i.e., water, food, etc); develop the capability to estimate how various
control strategies alter the deposition patterns; and refine ongoing work with urban risk models to
better estimate the exposure to air toxics through various media, and the risk to the public resulting
from this exposure.

       EPA also plans to expand upon the Cumulative Exposure Project (CEP), as part of its efforts
to better characterize the air toxics problem. The CEP estimated 1990 outdoor concentrations of toxic
air pollutants across the entire country for all source categories (e.g., cars, large stationary sources,
and smaller sources). EPA will refine the CEP model by using a more updated and detailed emission
inventory, verifying the model with expanded ambient monitoring, and integrating updated exposure
models  to assess the public health effects.  This refined CEP model, CEP-II, as well as updated
exposure models will provide a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of alternative control options
and measuring progress for meeting an air toxics risk-based GPRA goal.

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       By the end of 2000, EPA will make progress in determining links between release and
exposure information from the various media programs to determine multi-media toxics exposure and
use this information to develop cross-media strategies to more effectively reduce urban exposures to
toxic emissions.  Offices will begin to identify patterns in exposure to toxics to generate proposals
as to the kind of coordinated approach that will most efficiently reduce exposure to air toxics. EPA
will begin evaluating how to link available health information with exposure to estimate risk in urban
areas.

       In  2000,  the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) will work with the Office of Solid Waste
(OSW) to: (1) further evaluate the information and analysis from OSW's study of the potential for
an "air toxics" characteristic that would make certain wastes "hazardous wastes" based on concerns
about air emissions; and, (2) assess the potential impacts of broadly or selectively removing the
current "waste water treatment unit" exemption that shields many waste water tanks from existing
RCRA requirements that would otherwise reduce air emissions.

Air Toxics Rules and Standards Development

       In carrying out Title II of the Clean Air Act, EPA will continue to assess the need for and the
feasibility of controlling emissions of unregulated toxic air pollutants associated with motor vehicles
and fuels and evaluate industry health testing results and protocols to increase information on public
health risks.  The Fuels and Fuel Additives Registration (FFAR) program will provide for the review
and screening of potential toxic substances prior to introduction into motor vehicle fuel supplies. The
FFAR registration program will continue involving approximately 100 fuel manufacturers and 1.300
additive manufacturers, 1,000 gasoline and diesel fuels registrations and 6,000 additive registrations.
Approximately 10,000 registration requests will be submitted.

       Under Title III of the Clean Air Act, EPA has completed all of the two-year and four-year
MACT standards.  Through December 1998, EPA has proposed 21  seven-year MACT standards
(covering 31 source categories) and promulgated six standards (covering six source categories). In
addition, we have proposed one 10-year standard. In 1999, EPA will examine the entire slate of 10-
year MACT standards and reevaluate the schedule for each standard based on its effectiveness in
reducing toxics exposure. EPA also will review the process for setting residual risk standards based
on the Report to Congress. The  current approach for setting those  standards involves extensive
analysis of the sources for which MACT standards have been set. EPA will evaluate alternative
approaches that would require sources to reduce emissions such that risk reduction targets are met.
EPA also is developing a strategy for identifying and dealing with residual risk through studies
related to mercury emissions from electric utilities.

       In  2000, EPA will focus its efforts on those 10-year MACT standards that will provide
significant risk reductions. Where data are available to support an assessment, EPA will include
residual risk as part of initial MACT standards, resulting hi a higher "floor" that could be applicable
nationwide, for urban areas as a class, or for specific urban areas. In developing the priority 10-year
MACT standards, EPA will continue to streamline the air toxics program by building on experience

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from earlier standards and by providing greater flexibility for states that want to achieve the emission
reductions, but in ways that are different from those proposed  by EPA.   EPA will continue
reinvention approaches such as consolidated rules, partnerships with states in making presumptive
MACT determinations, and the generic MACT approach where rulemakings for source categories
with four or fewer major facilities would be developed as a broad-based rale.

      Also as part of its reinvention efforts, the Agency will initiate as many as three MACT multi-
media rules that address releases of toxics to air, water, and land and that consider pollution
prevention approaches. To develop models for these analyses, EPA will bring  together multiple
ongoing efforts such as: (1) the Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PET) program to identify priority
toxics; (2) the Cumulative Risk program to provide a multi-media modeling framework for setting
priorities; (3) the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program in water to identify the targets for
reduction of toxic loadings by media; and, (4) the Urban Initiative to provide a place-based approach
for risk assessment and management

      Section 129 of the Clean Air Act requires the establishment of performance standards for four
categories of waste incinerators. These categories are: municipal waste combustors, medical waste
incinerators, industrial  and commercial waste incinerators, and other solid waste incinerators.  EPA
will  provide guidance for implementing the rules promulgated for municipal and medical waste
incinerators. The rules for industrial and commercial and other waste incinerators are being
developed. EPA will  develop regulatory options for the  various categories and subcategories of
incinerators and develop a final package in 2000.

Air Toxics Implementation

      EPA believes that Federal standards for controlling emissions of hazardous air pollutants can
be most  effectively implemented by states, tribes,  and local  agencies.   EPA delegates  its
implementation authority and  provides tools and guidance  to  ensure smooth and consistent
implementation. EPA will publish guidance, provide support in issue resolution,  and conduct
outreach  activities to help sources comply. EPA will use emissions testing and, where feasible,
continuous emission monitoring or emission inventories to monitor compliance with MACT and
other air toxics standards. EPA also will develop capabilities for greater community right-to-know
access (e.g., using the Internet) to data that will show the level of toxic compounds in urban areas.

      EPA will perform studies related to: (1) air toxic deposition into selected bodies of water; (2)
air toxic emissions from electric utilities; (3) the urban air toxics problem; and, (4) municipal waste
combustors. OAR will rely on research from the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in
these areas, and will work cooperatively  with the Office of Water (OW)  in the Great Waters
Atmospheric Acid Deposition Study.  EPA will continue its work to assess and reduce threats posed
by air toxic deposition to water bodies and to develop and implement progress to reduce risk in urban
areas.
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       EPA will examine exposure of urban populations to toxic releases from all media and develop
media-specific strategies to reduce emissions and exposures. The Agency will use existing program
authorities with available source characterization information.  For example, the air mobile sources
program will propose a mobile source air toxics rule in late 1999 under section 2020] [2] of the Clean
Air Act and will assess the authority for setting these technology standards to achieve the greatest
cancer risk reduction in urban areas. EPA will evaluate progress on the fuel and fuel additives testing
under section 211 (b) of the Clean Air Act EPA also will begin developing an approach to mesh each
office's media information to develop a multimedia toxics exposure model, allowing comparisons
of effectiveness of varying authorities.

       Subsequent to the release of the updated Great Waters report in June 1997, EPA issued its
determination that section 112 of the Clean Air Act provides adequate authority to regulate air
pollutants to prevent adverse effects due to deposition in Great Waters. In 1999, the Agency will:
continue  multi-media modeling and deposition studies; facilitate state and Regional deposition
reduction strategies; and will consider cross-media regulations to support state, local, and  tribal
actions to reduce air deposition.  The results of these efforts will be described in the Third Great
Waters report to Congress in 1999. In 2000, EPA will work with the Office of Water toward the
development of multi-media regulatory approaches to reduce risks, including enhancing technical
tools to assess cross-media transport of pollutants, and conducting analyses of areas at greatest risk
of contamination related to atmospheric deposition of toxic pollutants.

       In 1999, EPA will publish the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, which will identify the
hazardous air pollutants mat pose the greatest threat in urban areas and the area source categories that
emit these pollutants. The strategy will assure that 90 percent of these urban area sources are subject
to regulation.  It will also contain a schedule of activities to ensure a substantial reduction in health
risk in the urban areas, including a 75 percent reduction in cancer incidence, as well as activities to
address mobile source emissions and to encourage state, local, and tribal programs  to develop
strategies for their communities. In 2000, EPA will begin to improve our national characterizations
of risk from air toxics in urban areas and work closely with states, local, and tribal governments to
develop or strengthen programs to reduce risk on a city-specific basis.

       In addition to these studies being performed under the Clean Air Act, EPA will work to reduce
the emissions and lower the risk associated with persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs), The air
program will work to achieve these reductions through regulatory and prevention-based measures.
OAR will develop tools to evaluate the impact of PBTs and the impact of reductions in PBTs on
human health and the environment. This effort will be coordinated across the Agency with the Office
of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances; OAR; OW; and ORD.

       Research

       The Air Toxics Research Program supports the objective of reducing emissions of air toxics
by providing the effects and exposure information, as well as the source characterization and other
data to quantify key pollutants  and strategies for cost effective risk management.  EPA's Air Toxics


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Research Program defines the magnitude of the urban air toxics problem through effects and exposure
research and determines the most cost-effective ways to manage the risks by the development of
modeling tools and the evaluation of control options. The program characterizes and measures
emissions from vehicles as well as from stationary sources.

       The Clean Air Act requires substantial assessment of risks posed by air toxics in urban areas
within the decade. However, data and methods to assess and manage non-cancer health risks of air
toxics are limited. Uncertainties in exposure assessment and dose-response assessment often prevent
adequate evaluation of risks, and may lead to either unnecessary controls if assumptions are overly
conservative, or to inadequate protection of public health if assumptions are not protective enough.
Moreover, states, tribes, and local communities need guidance on how to reduce emissions in a cost-
effective manner.   The  array of scientific methods, models, and  data currently developed are
frequently difficult to use and interpret, particularly for communities  faced with evaluating their
specific situations.

       In 2000, EPA's research will focus on these uncertainties by addressing health effects
characterization, exposure assessment methods and models, risk reduction and mobile emission
models. In addition, the Agency will begin an initiative in air toxics in order to reduce the cost of
implementing air, water and solid waste programs by addressing urban pollution problems as a whole,
looking across all media. For example, reducing air toxics emissions and deposition of mercury or
PCBs over an urban watershed may be more cost-effective in reducing concentrations of these toxics
in the food  chain than controlling mercury in effluent discharges or undertaking contaminated soil
clean-ups.

       Researchers will  continue to evaluate cancer and non-cancer health effects of air toxics
exposures,  concentrating  on acute and  recurrent  acute exposures,   impacts on  sensitive
subpopulations, and developing methods to assess effects from exposure to common urban air
pollutant mixtures.  The Agency also will continue to improve methods for extrapolating health data
from animals to humans to improve our understanding of health effects and risk assessment methods.
EPA's ongoing research on clinical and animal studies to determine the health effects of exposure to
combinations of pollutants (e.g. particulate matter exposure simultaneously with ozone, volatile
organic compounds simultaneously with particulate and ozone), will help risk assessors to better
understand effects observed in epidemiological studies.  The results from this research will be very
helpful in providing an understanding of the mechanisms by which mixtures of priority air pollutants
produce adverse health effects.

       EPA will  continue  research vital to completing residual  risks and urban toxics  risk
assessments as the country's air toxics program moves from a technology to a risk-based program.
This research will develop and evaluate an urban scale  air quality model that can be used for
community-based human exposure assessment for some important air toxics, including mercury and
semi-volatile organic compounds. It will also determine factors associated with micro-environmental
exposures to air toxics (e.g., associated with traveling in an automobile) which are important to
modeling and assessing personal scale exposures. In addition, researchers will characterize toxics
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emissions from mobile source combustion of alternative fuels under both real-world and test chamber
conditions.

       Ongoing research will continue to develop and demonstrate new methods to assess risks from
urban toxics. The goal is to take information developed in a research context and communicate the
information more effectively to regional and local government risk  assessors/managers through
technology transfer centers. EPA risk assessors/managers will use the new risk assessment methods
for chronic and acute non-cancer assessments. The new guidance will be used for cancer risk
assessment to determine with greater certainty the risks associated with the hazardous air pollutants
(HAPs) arising from area sources. EPA will continue to enhance the development of health effects
assessments from chronic (life-time) and acute (short-term) exposures and cancer risk determinations
for the urban toxics program. In addition, the Agency will staff the Air Risk Information Support
Center (Air RISC) Hotline to  communicate risk  assessment methodologies and respond to air
pollution questions from regional, state, and community air pollution control offices. Air RISC staff
also will  provide consultation to program, state, regional, and community offices on urban toxics.
These efforts will enable EPA to more effectively manage program coordination and meet program
goals of supporting and transferring information to communities.

       Integrated control and pollution prevention approaches will continue to be developed for
source categories (e.g. utilities, chemical manufacturing facilities, various industrial  production
processes, waste combustors and industrial boilers) which are having the greatest impact on urban
air quality. Examples of technologies include new coating systems which reduce toxic air emissions
and at the same time reduce ozone precursors. The ultimate goal of this research is to ensure future
urban air pollution emission reduction provide maximumrisk reduction while minimizing compliance
costs and multi-media impacts. Outputs from this research will support EPA efforts  to develop
strategies which reduce the risks posed by the multitude of HAPs present in many urban areas across
theU.S.

       To further meet the objective, EPA will hi 2000 develop an air quality model to guide cost
effective  risk management options. As local and state air quality officials seek to understand and
reduce exposures to air toxics, they need models that  link source emissions to air quality and
exposure. In 2000, EPA will begin evaluating a recently developed urban scale Models-3/Toxics
Model for Community-Based Human Exposure Assessment for air toxics, to be used for community-
based human exposure  assessment for air toxics.   EPA will also initiate research under a peer
reviewed plan to develop a first-generation human exposure model for air toxics. Understanding the
transformation and fate of air toxics is crucial to assess the multi-media health and ecological impacts
of air toxics, to assess the health impacts of individual compounds down-wind once emitted, and to
be sure air quality and exposure models contain the correct atmospheric chemistry for all important
classes of HAPs. In 2000, EPA will develop a chemical process mechanism for several important
classes of air toxics suitable for incorporation into Models-3,
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FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

       EPA's investments for 2000 will allow improved assessments of air toxics sources, exposure,
and risks and provide additional health effects information.  The investments will enhance the
Agency's ability to communicate health and environmental risks to communities and to explain how
EPA, state, tribal, and local programs reduce that risk.  In addition, the proposal will increase the
Agency's understanding of the causes of health and environmental problems from air toxics in urban
areas, allowing the Agency to develop more targeted and cost-effective strategies for addressing the
problems. Uncertainty in assessing the air toxics will be reduced by understanding the sources and
the direct and indirect pathways of exposure from air toxics through all media.

EPM
•      (+6,600,000) The Agency proposes to retarget resources from setting MACT and residual risk
       standards to better characterizing the total environmental toxic risk, particularly in urban
       areas. The goal of this shift is to provide better information to communities on how individual
       factors in urban areas cumulatively affect public health and to make cross-media decisions to
       target the worst factors first. Thus, both nationally and locally, we would be moving toward
       programs and policies that are focused primarily on human and ecological risk reductions, as
       opposed to solely emission reductions. To do this, the Agency  will propose more investment
       in air toxics characterization tools and methods. Funding is being reprogrammed from air
       toxics rule development to efforts to better characterize the urban air toxics problem.  This
       includes designing and deploying an expanded monitoring network, enhancing and ninning
       risk models, compiling and analyzing emission inventories, and developing national and urban
       risk assessments and profiles.  As part of this strategy, EPA has decreased resources for
       developing ten-year MACT and residual risk standards, however, the Agency will also use
       many existing statutory authorities to develop MACT standards in a manner that addresses
       cumulative risk in urban areas. The Agency will examine the MACT standards scheduled for
       promulgation in November 2000 and revise the schedule based on effectiveness of standards
       in reducing toxics risk. EPA will assess alternative approaches that will require sources to
       reduce emissions such that national and urban risk reduction targets are met by issuing both
       MACT and air/water cluster technology-based standards.  The Agency will use a multi-
       media, multi-pollutant approach to reducing risk. The Agency believes such an approach will
       produce greater, less costly risk  reductions than would otherwise occur from following a
       media-by-media, pollutant-by-pollutant statutory agenda for air toxics. EPA will also increase
       resources for developing tools and guidance for the smooth and effective implementation of
       the 2, 4, and 7-year MACT standards. These tools will  include published guidance and
       support in resolving rale implementation issues. EPA will also expand outreach activities to
       help sources comply.

•      (-$ 1,000,000) Funding is being reprogrammed from air toxics rule development to efforts to
       better characterize the urban air toxics problem.
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S&T
       (-$1,000,000) Funding is reduced for the NAS study on mercury which is scheduled to be
       completed in mid-2000.

       (+$1,400,000) Total payroll costs for this objective will increase by $1,400,000 to reflect
       increased workforce costs.
•      (+$2,100,000) The mobile sources work will be in the areas of exposure and risk assessment
       The exposure work will consist of chemical characterization of vehicle emissions and
       measuring "real world" emissions from in-use vehicles. Date collection, risk assessments, and
       health-related regulatory decisions for fuels and fuel additives will support the control of
       hazardous air pollutants from motor vehicles.

Research

•      (+$2,853,600) The Agency is expanding its efforts in the Air Toxics Research Program to
       reduce the cost of implementing programs by addressing urban pollution problems as a whole
       looking across all media. These efforts will expand research to develop health  effects
       information and dose-response relationships for hazardous pollutants. In addition, exposure
       assessment methods, models and risk assessment methods, emissions information, and risk
       reduction options for dispersed sources of toxics in urban environments will be developed.

•      (+$54,000 and 1 workyear) This  request continues the second year  of the Agency's
       Postdoctoral  Initiative to enhance  our intramural research program, building upon the
       overwhelmingly positive response by the academic community to EPA's announcement of
       50 postdoctoral positions for 1999. These limited term appointments will provide a constant
       stream of highly-trained postdoctoral candidates who can apply state-of-the-science training
       to EPA research issues,

-•      (-$3,168,700) Funding to support the following 1999 Congressional earmarks will not be
       continued in 2000: the Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center and the
       Center for Air Toxics Metals.

NOTE: The F Y1999 Request, submitted to Congress hi February 1998, included Operating Expenses
       and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in Goal 8 and
       Objective 5. In the FY1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the F Y 2000 Request, these
       resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives. The FY 1999 Request columns in this
       document have been modified from the original FY 1999 Request so that they reflect the
       allocation of these ORD funds across Goals and Objectives.
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STAG
       (+$66,700,000) Clean Air Partnership Fund. The Fund will provide an opportunity for cities,
       states and tribes to partner with the private sector, federal government and each other to
       provide healthy clean air to local citizens. The fund will demonstrate smart multi-pollutant
       strategies that reduce greenhouse gases, air toxics, soot and smog to protect our climate and
       our health.

       The Clean Air Partnership Fund will:  be a catalyst for innovative local, state, private
       partnerships  for air pollution reductions; demonstrate locally managed, self-supporting
       programs that achieve early integrated reductions hi soot, smog, air toxics and greenhouse
       gases; be used to capitalize local revolving funds  and other financial mechanisms that
       leverage the original Federal investment and result in greater resources for air pollution
       reduction; and, stimulate technology innovation.

       The Clean Air Partnership will fund more optimal, multi-pollutant control strategies.
       Currently, businesses and municipalities often invest in short-term, single-pollutant control
       approaches. The Partnership will encourage many industries, such as electric utilities and the
       transportation sector, to pursue comprehensive criteria and toxic pollutant reductions while
       improving energy and operation efficiencies, thereby also reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
       The Clean Air Fund will provide these needed resources through mechanisms that promise
       significant leveraging of non-Federal resources. EPA expects that the Fund will support the
       development  of local revolving funds  which will provide low-interest loan programs,
       matching funds, public-private partnerships, and other capitalization mechanisms.

       (+$10,300,000) EPA will increase the section 105 STAG funds available to state and local
       agencies for characterizing air toxics problems. The characterization will include additional
       ambient monitoring of air toxics in urban areas. The increase hi grant dollars for air toxics
       includes funds to implement section 6102 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st
       Century.

       (-$1,700,000) Funding is discontinued for a Congressional earmark for section 103 and 105
       air quality grants.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Reduce Air Toxics Emissions

 In 2000     Air toxics emissions nationwide from stationary and mobile sources combined will be reduced
           by 5% from 1999 (for a cumulative reduction of 30% from the 1993 level of 1.3 million tons.

 In 1999     Reduce air toxic emissions by 12% in FY 1999, resulting in a cumulative reduction of 25%
           from 1993 levels.
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 Performance Measures                                         FY199?             FY 2000
 Combined Stationary and Mobile Source Reductions in Air Toxics                           5 Percent
 Emissions

 Reductions in National Highway Vehicle Benzene Emissions                               21,871 Tons

 Reductions in National Highway Vehicle 1.3 Butadiene Emissions                          3,498 Tons

 Reductions in National Highway Vehicle Formaldehyde Emissions                          14,400 Tons

 Obtain Data for Building the 1999 National Toxics Inventory        1 Inventory

 Air Toxics Emissions Reduced from 1993                         25 Percent

 Baseline:    Performance Baseline: In 1993, the last year before MACT standards and mobile source regulations
              developed under the Clean Air Act were implemented, stationary and mobile sources emitted 3.7 million
              tons of air toxics. In 1996, implementation of MACT standards decreased air toxic emissions by 0.7
              million tons (20%)  from  1993 emissions.  Implementation of mobile source regulations (e.g.,
              reformulated fuels) also decreased air toxics emissions. Estimates of 1996 air toxic emissions reductions
              attributable to mobile source measures will be available in late 1998. We revise air toxics emission data
              every three years to generate inventories for 1993,1996,1999, etc, with a lag time of two years (i.e., the
              1999 inventory will be available in 2001).


State Implementation of MACT Standards

 In 2000      Ensure state implementation of 100% of promulgated MACT standards for major sources.

 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999             FY 2000
 Ensure State Implementation of Promulgated MACTs for Major                            100 Percent
 Sources

 Baseline:    Performance Baseline: Following passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, EPA
              identified 174 source categories for which MACT standards should be promulgated.  As MACT
              standards are promulgated each year, the number becomes the baseline for the percentage of
              MACT standards to be implemented.


Promulgate Technology Based Standards

 In 2000      Promulgate technology based standards for source categories of industrial facilities posing the
             greatest risks.
 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999             FY 2000
 Number of MACT Standards Promulgated                                                5 Sources
 Baseline:     Performance Baseline: Following passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments, EPA identified 174
              source categories for which MACT standards were to be promulgated. This became the baseline
               for MACT standards.


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Research

Human Exposure and Health Effects Methods

In 2000      Provide methods to estimate human exposure and health effects from high priority
             urban air toxics, and complete health assessments for the highest priority hazardous air
             pollutants (including fuel/fuel additives).

 In 1999      Provide models and methods needed to estimate health risks from 30 highest priority air
             toxics

 In 1999      Complete Health Assessments for five air toxics to be indicated as high priority by the EPA
             and regional offices.
                                                                                     FY2000
In 1999     Complete Oral and Inhalation NonCancer Assessments for Benzene

Performance Measures                                          FY1999
Complete four toxicological reviews and assessments (RfC, RfD,    5 Assessment
cancer unit risks) of high priority to the Air Program

Benchmark dose software available for public use,                30-SEP-l 999

Benzene RfD and RfC, Diesel, 1-3 Butadine Mobile Source        30-SEP-1999
Assessments

Produce process and framework for incorporating Acute
Reference Exposure (ARE) values into IRIS

Submit for Agency consensus review five toxicological reviews and
assessments (RfC, RfD, cancer unit risks) of high priority to the
Air Program.

Report on extrapolation across concentration and time to support    30-SEP-1999
health risk assessment for acute ex

 Baseline:    A need exists to develop methods and models to estimate human exposure and health effects of urban
             air toxics, as well as health assessments       for regulatory purposes. Currently (end of FY98), only
             one of the 33 (3%) proposed urban hazardous air pollutants (HAlPs) that present the greatest threat to
             public health have all the dose-response assessment data on the integrated risk information system (IRIS)
             that is needed for risk assessment of urban air toxics. By the end of FYOO, cancer and/or non-cancer
             dose-response assessments will be completed for 9 of the 33 (27%) proposed urban HAPs,
                                                                                09/30/2000 framework
                                                                                    5 assessments
Air Quality Model Incorporating Air Toxics

 In 2000     Develop an air quality model incorporating air toxics as their air chemistry and
             emissions become known, and source emissions and control information for both mobile and
             stationary sources to guide cost-effective risk management options.

 In 2000     Preliminary Urban Scale Models-3/Toxics Model for community-based human exposure
             assessment for air toxics having known emissions and air chemistry.

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 Performance Measures                                     FY1999           FY 2000
 Complete four lexicological reviews and assessments (RfC, RfD,   5 Assessment
 cancer unit risks) of high priority to the Air Program

 Begin evaluation of the rcntly dev. urban scale Models-3/Toxics                      09/30/2000 evaluation
 Model, to be used for community-based human exposure assessment
 for air toxics, using data sets for mercury and semi-volatile
 compounds.

 Baseline:    Performance Baseline: A need exists to develop an air uality model for mobile and stationary
            sources to allow for cost effective risk management options. Development of "formal" baseline
            info for EPA research is currently underway.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

Data sources include:

              EPA's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI);
       •      National Toxic Inventory (NTI);
       •      Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS)
              MACTRAX
              EVENTS

       The NTI houses emissions estimates for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Currently, we have
completed a 1993 base-year NTI and are developing estimates for the 1996 NTI,  Both contain
emissions estimates for major area and mobile source categories, but at different levels of detail. The
main improvement in the 1996 version will be the addition of facility-specific parameters that will
make the inventory useful for dispersion modeling. To date, we have collected emission inventory
data to update the NTI  from:

       (1)  emissions data gathered to support development of MACT standards for  source
       categories, which are required to be promulgated within two, four, seven, and 10 years of
       enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

       (2) the externally and internally peer-reviewed national inventories undertaken to support
       regulation of seven specific HAPs requiring standards under section 112(c)(6) and 40 HAPs
       pursuant to section 112(k)

•jl.^cj;3 (3) state and local inventories (34 states)

 ;  !„ * (4) TRI, which consists  of data submitted by facilities and required under Right-To-Know
       legislation.
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       All of the above data sources rely on estimation techniques since emission testing at every
facility would be resource intensive. Often data from source tests are extrapolated to other similar
sources. In addition to source testing, other estimation techiniques include material balances, and
emission factors (e .§., pounds HAP emitted per pound of throughput) combined with industry-specific
activity data (e.g., pounds throughput per year). For source categories for which we have no data, we
generally develop emissions data using emission factors and activity level.

       An update of the 1993 NTI was completed in October 1998, including a complete compilation
of MACT baseline emissions data for two-year, four-year, seven-year, and the majority of 10-year
source categories. We also plan to complete the compilation of 1996 NTI draft major and mobile
source data. The 1996 NTI, including internal and external review, will be completed by September
30,1999.

       MACTRAX provides a mechanism to track the air implementation activities by each state to
insure that the emission reductions expected from the development of MACT standards can be
realized through full implementation of the standards.  The EVENTS tracking system provides a
means to track the proposal and promulgation of air toxics MACT and other regulations.

       We plan to deploy Phase 1 of the national air toxics network by March 1999. At a minimum
there  will be 17 monitors in  1999, increasing to 40  monitors in 2000.  Depending on how the
resources are distributed (sites chosen, pollutants monitored, etc.), the number of monitors reporting
as part of the national air toxics network could be substantially more than the numbers above.

       Procedures for QA/QC of emission and ambient air toxics data are not as institutionalized as
those  used for the criteria pollutant program. Air toxics data are not currently required of states, but
are  submitted voluntarily. EPA does review the data to assure data quality and consistency, but no
formal procedures are in place for quality assurance. Regional offices review all MACTRAX data
before it is placed in the system. EPA sends the NTI data to states for their review and incorporates
state comments and data into the system. Procedures are now being finalized to assure the quality
of emissions inventory data collected from industry, which is used for the development of technology-
based emission standards.

       At present, we are developing Data Quality Objectives (DQOs), Quality Assurance Plans
(QAPs), and a network design document for the national ambient air toxics network, which will be
transmitted to the states and Regions to help design and deploy the network. When completed, these
documents will help answer questions on the interpretations and limitations of the data collected from
this network.

       Mobile source data are validated by using speciated test data from the mobile source emission
factor program, along with peer reviewed models which estimate national tons for the relevant year
of interest.
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Data limitations

       The 1996 NTI will be the first EPA effort to estimate not only HAP emissions on a national
scale, but also to associate source-specific parameters necessary for modeling such as location and
facility characteristics (stack height, exit velocity, temperature, etc.) to emissions. The compilation
of this huge amount of data presents a significant challenge to the EPA.  Since HAP estimates have
not previously been required, current  data are limited and new methodologies for  estimating
emissions are necessary.

       A total of 34 states voluntarily compiled and delivered HAP 1996 emissions inventories to
EPA. Because states are not subject to reporting requirements, these state data vary in completeness,
format, and quality. The majority of state data is likely to be based on emissions estimation as
opposed to direct measurement.  The EPA is evaluating and supplementing the state data with
emissions data gathered during the development of MACT standards and with TRI data. Estimates
obtained from regulatory development programs such as MACT are accepted as the best available
data for the inventory because they are based on recent test data, control information, representative
modeling scenarios, and input from industry and EPA experts. The TRI data used to supplement the
NTI is likely also to be based on estimations and is limited in that data is submitted by thousands of
individual facilities whose submissions are not quality assured and who may have differing estimation
methods and interpretations of TRI reporting requirements. For sources not included in the state
inventories, MACT data, or TRI, and for states with no data submittals, EPA estimates air toxic
emissions by using emission factors and corresponding activity data.

       Although emission factors are not intended for estimations of emissions on a source specific
basis, EPA believes it is appropriate to use such factors in a national inventory covering a large
number of sources. However, this does not provide a complete solution because there are not
emissions factors developed for all source categories that emit HAPs.

Plans to Improve Data

       The emissions data are hard to quality assure because of the varying methods of determining
the total emissions hi a given area. In the future, we will post all state emissions data in a compiled
data base so that states and other interested parties can provide a much more intense review of the
inventory. The Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) provides consistent methods of
estimating emissions and is another method for developing better state emissions data. We prepared
air toxics emissions inventory guidance for state and local agencies in 1998. We document all
emission estimates in the 1996 NTI so users of the data can determine how each estimate  was
developed. In order to improve the 1996 NTI data, we plan to provide the data to states and other
interested parties for external review, incorporate additional state and MACT data, and continue to
develop estimates for missing sources.  In 1999, we will conduct internal quality assurance steps to
improve the data. Specific internal activities will include evaluation of state data, MACT data and
TRI data for individual feeilities and a comparison of air toxics data to data collected under the
EPA's criteria pollutant programs.

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Research

       EPA has several strategies to validate and verify performance measures in the area of
environmental science and technology research. Because the major output of research is technical
information, primarily in the form of reports, software, protocols, etc., key to these strategies is the
performance of both peer reviews and quality reviews to ensure that requirements are met.

       Peer reviews  provide assurance during  the pre-planning, planning,  and reporting  of
environmental science and research activities that the work meets peer expectations. Only those
science activities and resulting information products that pass Agency peer review are addressed and
published. This applies to program-level, project-level, and research outputs. The quality of the peer
review activity is monitored by EPA to ensure that peer reviews are performed consistently, according
to Agency policy, and that any identified areas of concern are resolved through discussion or the
implementation of corrective action.

       The Agency's expanded focus on peer review helps ensure that the performance measures
listed here are verified and validated by an external organization. This is accomplished through the
use of the Science Advisory Board (SAB)  and the Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC). The
BOSC, established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, provides an added measure of
assurance by examining the way the Agency uses peer review, as well as the management of its
research and development laboratories.

       In  1998,  the  Agency presented a  new Agency-wide quality system in Agency Order
5360.1/chg 1. This system provided policy to ensure that all environmental programs performed by
or for the Agency be supported by individual quality systems that comply fully with the American
National Standard, Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data
Collection and Environmental Technology Programs (ANSI/ASQC E4-1994),

       The order expanded the applicability of quality assurance and quality control to the  design,
construction, and operation by EPA organizations of environmental technology such as pollution
control and abatement systems; treatment, storage, and disposal systems; and remediation systems.
This rededication to quality provides the needed management and technical practices to assure that
environmental data developed in research and used to support Agency decisions are of adequate
quality and usability for their intended purpose.

       A quality assurance system is implemented at all levels in-the EPA research organization. The
Agency-wide quality assurance system is a management system that provides the necessary elements
to plan, implement, document, and assess the effectiveness of quality assurance and quality  control
activities applied to environmental programs conducted by or for EPA. This quality management
system provides for identification of environmental programs for which Quality Assurance/Quality
Control (QA/QC) is needed, specification of the quality of the data required from environmental
                                          1-55

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programs, and provision of sufficient resources to assure that an adequate level of QA/QC is
performed.

       Agency measurements are based on the application of standard EPA and ASTM methodology
as well as performance-based measurement systems. Non-standard methods are validated at the
project level. Internal and external management system  assessments report the efficacy of the
management system for quality of the data and the final research results. The quality assurance annual
report and work plan submitted by each organizational unit provides an accountable mechanism for
quality activities. Continuous improvement in the quality system is accomplished through discussion
and review of assessment results.
Coordination with Other Agencies

       As with the Criteria Pollutant Program, EPA coordinates with many organizations and other
agencies to achieve reductions of risk from air toxics.  EPA works with the Department of Energy
on several fuels programs. Other programs targeted towards the reduction of air toxics from mobile
source are coordinated with the Department of Transportation. These partnerships can involve policy
assessments and toxic emission reduction strategies in different regions of the country. Other federal
agency partnerships have been created to share costs for researching health effects and collecting
monitoring air toxic monitoring data.

       Research

       In a national air toxics strategy, EPA will address whether any control measures are needed
to address the urban toxics risk beyond other actions required under the Clean Air Act Amendments.
The Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Research Center was established in the law to carry
out sound research to help assess the needs of the national urban air toxics strategy and to develop
air toxics health research information that would contribute to unproved risk assessment.

       EPA's air toxics research supports the Agency's regulatory efforts on air toxics, which aid
state and local governments in lowering major source and mobile source emissions.
Statutory Authorities:

Clean Air Act Title I, Part A and Part D, Subparts 3 and 5 (42 U.S.C. 7401-7431,7512-7512a, 7514-
7514a)(15U.S.C.2605)
Clean Air Act Title IV (42. U.S.C. 7641-7642)
Clean Air Act, Title II, Section 202 (1)(2)
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                          Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                      Clean Air


Objective # 3:  Attain NAAQS for CO, SO2, NO2, Lead

      By 2005, improve air quality for Americans living in areas that do not meet the NAAQS for
carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and nitrogen dioxide.

                                 Resource Summary
                                (Dollars in Thousands)


Attain NAAQS for CO, SO2, NO2, Lead
Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Request
$44,878.2
$16,750.5
$113.2
$28,014.5
189.9
FY1999
Enacted
$42,184.1
$17,276.4
$113.2
$24,794.5
189.9
FY 2000 FY 2000 Req. v.
Request FY1999Ena.
$36,523.5
$16,610.6
$117.6
$19,795.3
175.9
($5,660.6)
($665.8)
$4.4
($4,999.2)
(14.0)
Key Programs
(Dollars in Thousands)



Air,State,Local and Tribal Assistance Grants: Other Air Grants
Mobile Sources


FY1999
Request
$28,014.5
$113.2
FY1999
Enacted
$24,794.6
$113.2
FY2000
Request
$19,793.5
$117.6
FY 2000 Request

      Under the Clean Air Act, EPA must set NAAQSs for pollutants that endanger public health
and the environment. These pollutants include CO, SO2, N02, and lead,  States, tribes, and local
agencies must develop clean air plans to meet the standards.  These plans take into account the results
of Federal pollution control measures (e.g., motor vehicle emission standards). Each pollutant and

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the programs that reduce it are described separately below.  This objective also includes cross-
pollutant preconstruetion and operating permit programs.

Carbon Monoxide

       CO is a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas that enters the bloodstream and interferes with the
delivery of oxygen to the body's organs and tissues. The health threat from exposure to CO is most
serious for those who suffer from cardiovascular disease. Healthy individuals are also affected, but
only at higher levels of exposure.  Exposure to elevated CO levels is associated with visual
impairment, reduced work capacity, reduced manual  dexterity, decreased learning ability, and
difficulty hi performing complex tasks.

       CO is formed when carbon hi fuels is not burned completely. It is a byproduct of highway
vehicle exhaust, which accounts for 60 percent of all CO emissions nationwide. In cities, automobile
exhaust can cause as much as 95 percent of all CO emissions. As vehicle miles traveled continue to
increase each year, these emissions can result in high concentrations of CO, particularly hi local areas
with heavy traffic congestion. Other sources of CO emissions include industrial processes and fuel
combustion hi sources such as boilers and incinerators.

       EPA has set standards for  CO and currently assists states, tribes, and local agencies hi
implementing strategies to reduce CO pollution and maintain compliance with the standard. CO
tends to be a local pollution problem and is not transported from one area to another. Clean air plans
for CO include many mobile-source related programs such as reformulated gasoline. Despite an
overall downward trend in concentrations and emissions of CO, some metropolitan areas still
experience high levels of CO. Approximately 20 areas are still classified as non-attainment for the
CO air quality standard.

       In  2000 EPA will  continue to assist states, tribes, and local agencies in implementing
strategies to reduce CO pollution and maintain compliance with CO standards. The Agency will carry
out mobile source programs (such as oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline) and assist in
implementing attainment and maintenance plans. The Federal emission standards program and state
vehicle inspection/maintenance programs will continue to assure CO control.  EPA will continue
providing technical and programmatic guidance for implementing oxygenated fuels programs and will
provide informationto the scientific community and stakeholders on the environmental aspects of the
use of oxygenated fuels, and make recommendations to improve the program.

       EPA has initiated the five-year review of the CO standard required by the Clean Air Act and
has targeted proposed and final decisions for mid-2000  and mid-2001, respectively.

Sulfur Dioxide

       SO2 belongs to the family of gases called sulfur oxides (SOJ. These gases are formed when
fuels (mainly coal and oil) containing sulfur are burned,  and  during metal smelting  and other
                                          1-58

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industrial processes. The major health concerns associated with exposure to high concentrations of
SO2 include  effects on breathing, respiratory illness, alterations  in pulmonary defenses, and
aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. Children, the elderly, and people with asthma,
cardiovascular disease or chronic lung disease (such as  bronchitis or emphysema), are most
susceptible to adverse health effects associated with exposure to SO2. In the atmosphere SO2 can
react to form fine particles which may aggravate respiratory disease and lead to premature death. SO2
is also a precursor to sulfates, which are associated with acidification of lakes and streams,
accelerated corrosion of buildings and monuments and reduced visibility.  Approximately 33 areas
are still classified as non-attainment areas for the air quality standard for SO2.

       EPA will continue to ensure that all areas are in compliance with the standard and will review
the standard, as the Clean Air Act mandates, to ensure that it adequately protects human health. The
courts have remanded the most recent review of the SO2 standard for further explanation of the
decision  to reaffirm. Final notice  on the standard and the associated guidance is scheduled to be
completed no later than the end of 2000. The final intervention level policy is intended to give states
guidance on identifying and addressing high, short-term peaks that occur for short durations (five
minutes) but that can cause bronchial  constriction in asthmatics, a serious health concern.

       EPA will increase efforts to reduce the more pervasive sulfur oxides through the acid rain,
particulate matter, and Regional haze programs that are described under those objectives,

Lead

       Exposure to lead mainly occurs through inhalation of air and ingestion of lead in food, paint,
water, soil, or dust. Lead accumulates in the body hi blood, bone, and soft tissue.  Because it is not
readily excreted, lead also can affect the kidneys, liver, nervous system and other organs. Excessive
exposure to lead may cause kidney disease, reproductive disorders, and neurological impairments
such as seizures, mental retardation, and/or behavioral disorders. Fetuses and children are especially
susceptible to low doses of lead, often suffering central nervous system damage or slowed growth.

       Thanks largely to reduced use of leaded gasoline, human exposure to lead is currently less of
a problem. Today, smelters and battery plants are the major sources of lead in the air. Approximately
10 areas  are still classified as non-attainment for the lead air quality standard.

       EPA will continue a relatively low level of existing work, emphasizing the few nonattainment
areas near smelters. Mandating the use of unleaded gasoline will continue to be the most effective
way to prevent airborne lead.

Nitrogen Dioxide

       NO2 belongs to a family of highly reactive gases called nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides form
when fuel is burned at high temperatures, and are derived primarily from motor vehicle exhaust and
stationary sources such as electric utilities and industrial boilers. Nitrogen dioxide can effect human
                                           1-59

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health and ecosystems, but also serve as precursors to ozone and paniculate matter. Nitrogen dioxide
reacts with volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight to form smog. Nitrogen dioxide
can be converted into fine nitrate aerosols, a constituent of fine particles (PM2 5). In addition, it is a
strong oxidizing agent and reacts in the air to form corrosive nitric acid, as well as toxic organic
nitrates. Nitrogen dioxide irritates the lungs and lower resistance to respiratory infections such as
influenza. They can also have adverse effects on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, contributing
to acid rain and eutrophication in coastal waters.

      EPA has made progress toward reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides and achieved the
goal of having all areas in attainment for NO2 by 2005.  Over the next several years we will continue
to work to maintain air at safe levels of NO2. We will also  review the standard to assure that it
continues to protect public health.

      Because NO2 is an ozone precursor, control of NO2 is a way to reduce ozone. The narrative
for the ozone objective describes efforts to reduce the more pervasive nitrogen oxides in the acid rain
and mobile source programs, encouraging market-based, low-cost pollutant trading. These programs
will simultaneously address nitrogen oxides, ozone, and fine particulate matter.

Permits/New Source Review

      EPA will make revisions to Part 70 operating permit rules to streamline permit revision
procedures and will provide technical support to Regions, states, tribes and local agencies on permit
program revisions. In 2000, EPA will promulgate the new source review reform rules which simplify
the new source permitting process. In 2000, EPA also will enter an intensive period of training and
technical support activities to ensure smooth implementation of this major regulatory reinvention
effort.  The Agency will continue to be involved in and expand, as needed, efforts to reform and
streamline permitting programs.
FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

STAG

•      (-$5,000,000) STAG resources were reprogrammed from CO stationary source programs and
       NOX and lead programs (-$9,000,000) to support minor source permit activities (+$4,000,000)
       and regional haze programs. Following the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments
       in 1990,48 areas were designated as being in nonattainment for CO. Currently, only 20 areas
       remain in nonattainment with 14 of those areas measuring CO levels at or below the NAAQS.
       The areas that still have CO violations will typically be addressed by additional reductions
       in  mobile sources emissions, particularly  reductions from implementation of Federal
       standards.
                                          1-60

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       The STAG resources reprogrammed to minor source permit activities will address the
       expanded universe of synthetic minor sources that have resulted from the implementation of
       the Title V permit program.  To avoid the requirements of the Title V program, sources can
       artificially limit their production schedules and/or capacity to keep their emissions below the
       100 tons per year cutoff thereby becoming "synthetic" minor sources. While this avoids the
       stringencies of the Title V program it still requires that the state, tribal, and local agencies
       review and permit (without applicable Title V fees) these sources.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

CO, SO2, NO2, LeadNAAQS

 In 2000     Maintain healthful and improve substandard ambient air quality with respect to carbon
            monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead.

 In 1999     Certify that 14 of the 58 estimated remaining nonattainment areas have achieved the NAAQS
            for carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, or lead.

 Performance Measures                                      FY1999            FY 2000

 Regions take Final Action on CO Redesignation                 7 Final actions

 Regions take Final Action on S02 Redesignation                5 Final actions

 Regions take Final Action on Pb Redesignation                  2 Final actions

 Areas Redesignated to Attainment for Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur    14 Areas
 Dioxide, Lead, and Nitrogen Dioxide

 Areas maintaining healthful standards for CO, SO2, NO2 and Lead                         100 Percent


Baseline: In 1996, as indicated in the most recent air trends report, 29 areas were in non-attainment. Six areas have been
redesignated during 1997-98.  The air quality trends data is updated each year with one-year lag time (i.e., the 2000
information will be available in 2002). The 1995 baseline for national highway vehicle emission for CO was 54,106,000
tons.


Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

Data Sources

 »     EPA Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) Air Quality Subsystem;
 •     EPA National Emission Trends Database;
 •     EPA Findings and Required Elements Data (FRED) System.


                                             1-61

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       Data from the AIRS Air Quality Subsystem (AIRS-QS) and the National Emission Trends
Database are used to determine if nonattainment areas have the requisite three years of clean air data
needed for redesignation. A national network of State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS)
collects data which are stored in AlRS-AQS. The AIRS-AQS data, after it is quality assured by EPA,
is the basis for determining attainment/nonattainment. The AIRS-AFS data compiles some emissions
data from state and local agencies; this information is combined with data from other sources into the
National Emission Trends (NET) Emission Inventory. The FRED system tracks the progress of stales
and Regions in reviewing and approving the required elements of the state implementation plans also
needed for redesignation to attainment.

OA/OC Procedures

       The  QA/QC of the national air monitoring program has several major components: the Data
Quality Objective process, reference and equivalent methods program, EPA's NPAP, systems audits,
and network reviews.|To ensure quality data, the SLAMS are required to meet the following: 1) each
site must meet network design and siting criteria; 2) each site must provide adequate QA assessment,
control and corrective action functions according to minimum program requirements; 3) all sampling
methods and equipment must meet EPA reference or equivalent requirements; 4) acceptable data
validation and record keeping procedures must be followed; and 5) data from the SLAMS must be
summarized and reported annually to EPA.

Limitations of Data

       Because quality assurance of ambient monitoring data from the states is sometimes a time
consuming process, there is a gap between data collection and EPA's ability to use it for designation
/redesignation. This period is usually around 90 days but can be extended if continuous issues arise.

Plans to Improve Data

       The  emissions data is hard to quality assure because of the varying methods of determining
the total emissions in a given area. In the future, we will post all state emissions data in a compiled
data base so that stales and other interested parties can provide a much more intense review of the
inventory. The Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP), which  has provided consistent
methods of estimating emissions data and has also developed consistent quality assurance methods
for use by the states, will improve the quality of state emissions data. The ambient monitoring data
and source testing results will maintain their high quality through implementation  of the QA/QC
procedures discussed above. Since the dominant source of CO emissions is on-road mobile sources,
the best means of improving the quality of the emission estimates is to provide precise inputs to the
MOBILE model (used to calculate mobile source emission factors) and develop more precise
estimates of Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT).  These two inputs (emission  factors  and VMT)
determine the emissions from on-road mobile sources.
                                         1-62

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)bjeetive#4:
              \
      By 2010
evels due to re
mbient nitrates
o reduced emisj
Icid Rain
      Environing

      Science &

      State and 1

      Total Wort
Coordination with Other Agencies
jT< *.l^$*l #"« ,?£**
'*~L 1>:LClean air is a national goal which requires the cooperation and efforts of many agei
organizations, industries and academic entities. Beyond EPA, each state has a department of nz
resources, environment, or health which deals with air pollution issues in their area. The Ag
coordinates with several other Agencies in achieving goals related to ozone and particulate m
For example,  EPA has worked closely with the Department of Agriculture in developin
agricultural burning policy.  EPA and the Department of Transportation, Army Corp of Engi
and state and local agencies work together to manage growth and urban sprawl. EPA has also we
with the Department of the Interior, National Park Service, in developing its regional haze pro]
and deploying the IMPROVE visibility monitoring network.
Statutory Authorities

Carbon Monoxide Clean Air Act, Title I; Clean Air Act, Title II; Motor Vehicle Information
  Cost Savings Act and the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 (AMFA)

Sulfur Dioxide and Permitting      , Clean Air Act, Title 1; Clean Air Act, Title V

Nitrogen Dioxide, Clean Air Act, Title 1

Lead, Clean Air Act, Title I
Ur,State,Local and 1

U;id Rain -Program•

Icid Rain -CASTNe
                                                                       1-63

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FY 2000 Request

       Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2, mostly from power plants and other industrial sources
nitrogen oxides (NOX, mostly from power plants and motor vehicles) react in the atmosphere ant
to earth as acid rain, causing acidification of lakes and streams and contributing to the damage of
at high elevations.  NOX emissions are a major precursor of ozone, which affects public healtt
damages crops, forests, and materials. NOX deposition also contributes to eutrophication of co
waters, such as the Chesapeake and Tampa Bays. Additionally, before falling to earth, SO2 and
gases form fine particles that affect public health by contributing to premature mortality, chi
bronchitis, and other respiratory problems. The fine particles also contribute to reduced visibili
national parks and elsewhere.  Acid rain also accelerates the decay of building materials and p;
and contributes to degradation of irreplaceable cultural objects such as statues and sculptures.

       The Acid Rain program is authorized under Title IV of the Clean Air Act and has nume
statutory deadlines. In addition, the U.S. is committed to reductions in SO2 and NOX under the I
Canada Air Quality Agreement of 1991. EPA's Acid Rain program uses market-based approa
to achieve SO2 and NOX emission reductions. The program provides affected sources with flexib
to meet required emission reductions at least cost (both to industry and government).  The
program features tradeable units called allowances (1 allowance =  1 ton of SO^, accurate
verifiable measurement of emissions, and a cap on total emissions. The acid rain program is see
a model for flexible and effective regulation both here and abroad.

       Major program activities include measurement, quality assurance, and tracking of SO2,1
and CO2 emissions, as recorded by continuous emissions monitors at more than 2000 electric ut
units; conducting field audits  and certifying emissions monitors; operation of an SO2 allows
tracking system to record transfers of emission allowances between different parties; reconcilia
of emissions and allowances at each unit to ensure compliance; and processing of permit actior

       Phase I of the Program began in 1995 for 450 electric utility units. In the year 2000, PI
II of the program begins and approximately 2,000 utility and industrial units will be affected. Des
this increase in the number of affected units, the number of quarterly emission reports proces
(8,000 per year) will remain unchanged because Phase II electric utility units are already require
report their emissions. However, there will be more than a four-fold increase hi the number of ui
for which EPA will conduct an annual reconciliation of allowances with measured emissions.
addition, there is likely to be a significant increase hi allowance trading activity in Phase II of
program. (More than 1,000 private allowance transfers per year are currently processed and 1
number is expected to triple in Phase n of the program.)  This increased workload will be hand
through improved  information resource management and by improving program operation i
efficiency through rule revisions.

       The Acid Rain Program will be developing and operating the Emissions and NOX Allowai
Tracking Systems for 12 States of the Ozone Transport Region (OTR), in addition to administer
the  SO2 and NOX provisions of Title TV. The first year of compliance for this program is 1999 (\*

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the first compliance certification process being conducted by EPA for the OTR States in the first
quarter of 2000). Over 500 additional facilities will require certification of emissions monitors and
will report quarterly emissions to EPA beginning in 1999. The OTR program is expected to increase
EPA's allowance trading activities by 50 percent over the Acid Rain Program.

       In addition to program operations, the program is responsible for operating the Clean Air
Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) dry deposition network and to provide critical support for
operations of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) wet deposition network and for
a number of visibility monitoring sites. These monitoring efforts play a crucial role in the program's
ongoing assessment activities, including reporting program results for the Government Performance
and Results Act (GPRA) and ralfilluig assessment responsibilities under Title DC of the Clean Air Act
and the U.S.-Canada Air Quality Agreement. In 2000, the Acid Rain Division will be analyzing the
costs and benefits of the program for inclusion in NAPAP's 2000 Integrated Assessment Report to
Congress.

       States also carry out activities to implement the S02 and NOX portions of the Acid Rain
Program including certification and recertification of continuous emissions monitors (CEMs), field
audits of CEMs, and permitting activities.  Some states may use acid rain state grant funds for
monitoring programs to help assess the success of the program in reducing environmental risks.

       Acid Rain control will also produce significant benefits hi terms of lowered surface water
acidity and less damage  to high elevation forests  and materials.   Nevertheless, after full
implementation of the program, significant residual risks will remain to human health, ecological
systems and quality of life.
FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

EPM

•      (+$600,000) Funds will be used for program evaluation and development.

•      (+$762,000) will be used to implement system modernization and enhancements to the Acid
       Rain Data System.

•      (+$419,700) Total payroll costs for this objective will increase to reflect increased workforce
       costs.
                                          1-67

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Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Reduce SO2 and NOx Emissions

 In 2000     5 million tons of SO2 emissions from utility sources will be reduced from the 1980 baseline.
            Reflects total reduction that will be maintained annually. 2 million tons of NOx from coal-fired utility
            sources will be reduced from levels before implementation of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments.
            Reflects total reduction that  will be maintained annually.
 In 1999     Maintain 4 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reductions from utility sources,
            and maintain 300,000 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) reductions from coal-fired utility
            sources.
 Performance Measures                                      FY1999             FY 2000
 SO2 Emissions                                            4,000,000 Tons Red   5,000,000 Tons Red

 NOx Reductions                                           300,000 Tons Red    2,000,000 Tons Red

 Baseline:    Performance Baseline for SO2:  The base of comparison for assessing progress on the 2000 annual
             performance goal is the 1980 emissions baseline. The 1980 SO2 emissions inventory totals 25.9 million
             tons, and includes estimates for, electric utilities, industrial facilities, other fuel combustion sources,
             metals processing, petroleum and related industries, other industrial processes, on-road and non-road
             vehicle emissions, and other miscellaneous sources. This inventory was developed by National Acid
             Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) and used as the basis for reductions in Title IV of the Clean
             Air Act Amendments. These data are also contained in EPA's National Air Pollutant Emissions Trends,
             1990-1996 report.  Performance Baseline for NOx: The base of comparison for assessing progress on
             the 2000 annual performance goal is emissions levels before implementation of Title IV of the Clean Air
             Act Amendments (CAAA), Emissions levels that would have resulted without implementation of Title
             IV of the CAAA were based on projection inventories of NOx emissions assuming growth without
             controls.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

       The Acid Rain program performance data are some of the most accurate data collected by the
EPA because the data for most sources (all coal-fired sources) consists of actual monitored, instead
of estimated, emissions.  The emissions data is collected through continuous emissions monitors
(CEMS) and electronically transferred directly into EPA's Emissions Tracking System (ETS).
Actual emissions of SO2, NOX and CO2 are measured for each unit/boiler within a plant. The ETS
allows EPA to track actual reductions for each unit, as well as aggregate emissions by all power plants
and affected industrial facilities. A principal output of the ETS is the publication of quarterly and
annual emission reports based on emissions monitoring data. The ETS quarterly and annual reports
include summary statistics for SO2, NOX CO2 and emissions.

       The Acid Rain program also tracks indicators which validate the quality of the emissions data,
such as the accuracy of the monitors achieved during certification testing. There are four validation

                                             1-68

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measures that help to demonstrate the high quality of the data collected: the number of CEMS
certified; the percentage of CEMS that meet the 10% relative accuracy standard; the percentage of
CEMS that exceed the 7.5% relative accuracy target; and, the number of quarterly reports processed*
Coordination with Other Agencies

       EPA's Acid Rain Division has recently embarked upon an innovative implementation
partnership with northeastern states located in the Ozone Transport Region by working jointly on
implementing the NOX Budget Program. The OTC states set emission reduction goals and perform
enforcement activities. EPA's Acid Rain Division collects the relevant emissions monitoring data,
manages the emissions and allocation tracking systems and provides technical support to states as
needed.

       The NAPAP coordinates Federal acid rain research and monitoring under the auspices of the
National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment and Natural Resources.
Federal agencies participating in NAPAP include;  EPA, Department of Energy, Department of
Agriculture, Department of the Interior, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. EPA's Acid Rain Division participates fully in
the NAPAP process and contributes funding, data, and analyses to NAPAP's Reports to Congress.
Statutory Authorities

Clean Air Act (CAA) Titles I and IV (42. U.S.C. 7641-7642)1
                                         1-69

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Goal 2: Clean and Safe Water

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents
Goal 2: Clean and Safe Water	,	,	 H-.1
       Safe Drinking Water, Fish and Recreational Waters	 0-13
       Conserve and Enhance Nation's Waters	,	 n-37
       Reduce Loadings and Air Deposition	 11-61

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                            Environmental Protection Agency

            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                 Clean and Safe Water
Strategic Goal:  All Americans will have drinking water that is clean and safe to drink. Effective
protection of America's rivers, lakes, wetlands, aquifers, and coastal and ocean waters will sustain
fish, plants, and wildlife, as well as recreational, subsistence, and economic activities. Watersheds and
their aquatic ecosystems will be restored and protected to improve public health,  enhance water
quality, reduce flooding, and provide habitat for wildlife.
                                   Resource Summary
                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Clean and Safe Water
Safe Drinking Water, Fish and Recreational
Conserve and Enhance Nation's Waters
Reduce Loadings and Air Deposition
Total Workyears:
FY 1999
Reauest
$2,815,308.5
$1,026,835.1
$300,672.5
$1,487,800.9
2,465.9
FY1999
Enacted
$3,418,339.7
$1,092,624.2
$339,236.8
$1,986,478.7
2,495.1
FY2000 FY2000Req. v.
Reauest FY 1999 Ena.
$2,551,369.2
$1,079,342.0
$311,444.1
$1,160,583.1
2,522.0
($866,970.5)
($13,282.2)
($27,792.7)
($825,895.6)
26.9
Background and Context

       Safe and clean water is needed for drinking, recreation, fishing, maintaining ecosystem
integrity, and commercial uses such as agricultural and industrial production. Our health, economy,
and quality of life depend on reliable sources of clean and safe water. Waterfowl, fish, and other
aquatic life that live in and on the water, as well as plants, animals, and other life forms in terrestrial
ecosystems are dependent on clean water.

       While the nation has made considerable progress over the past 25 years, some waters still do
not meet current Clean Water Act standards. The National Water Quality Inventory 1996 Report to
Congress indicates that 16 percent of assessed rivers and streams and 35 percent  of assessed lake
acres are not safe for fish consumption; 20 percent of assessed rivers and streams and 25 percent of
lake acres are not safe for recreational activities (e.g, swimming); and 16 percent of assessed rivers
and streams and 8 percent of lake acres are not meeting drinking water uses. Many  of the remaining
challenges require a different approach to environmental protection because they are not amenable
to traditional end-of-pipe pollution controls.  These problems derive from the activities of people in

                                           H-l

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general. EPA must motivate people to be responsible in their day-to-day decisions that can affect the
quality of their rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands, and estuaries.
Means and Strategy

       To help achieve the nation's clean and safe water goals, EPA will expand implementation of
the watershed approach in carrying out its statutory authorities under the Safe Drinking Water
Amendments of 1996 and the Clean Water Act.  Protecting watersheds involves participation by a
wide variety of stakeholders, a comprehensive assessment of the condition of the watershed, and
implementation of solutions based on the assessment of conditions and stakeholder input.  Full
involvement of stakeholders at all levels of government, the regulated community, and the public are
fundamental to the watershed approach. The watershed approach helps EPA, its federal partners,
states, tribes, local governments, and other stakeholders to implement tailored solutions and maximize
the benefits gained from the use of increasingly scarce resources.

       EPA wilt continue to implement the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 which
charted a new and challenging course for EPA, states, tribes, and water suppliers.  One of the central
provisions of the Amendments that remains an EPA priority is significantly strengthening the source
water protection program, which builds directly on the watershed approach. Other provisions that
EPA will continue to  support include establishing drinking water safety standards, which place
emphasis on microbiological contaminants, disinfectant and disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and
other pollutants identified as posing potentially high risks; capitalizing and managing the drinking
water state revolving fund (DWSRF) program to assist public water systems in meeting drinking
water standards; providing assistance to small systems to build or strengthen technical, managerial,
and financial capacity; establishing an operator certification program; and providing "right-to-know"
reports for all customers of public water systems.

       EPA has increased its efforts to provide states and tribes tools and information to assist them
in protecting their residents from health risks associated with contaminated recreational waters and
noncommercially-caught fish.  These tools will help reduce health risks, including risks to sensitive
populations such  as children  and subsistence and recreational anglers.  EPA activities include
development of criteria, enhanced fish tissue monitoring, risk assessment, and development offish
and shellfish consumption advisories.  EPA will  also establish improved safety  guidelines and
pollution indicators so that local authorities can monitor their recreational waters in a cost-effective
way and close them to public use when necessary to protect human health. For beaches, EPA's three-
part strategy is to strengthen beach standards and testing, improve the scientific basis for beach
assessment, and develop methods to inform the public about beach conditions.
                                          n-2

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       Under the Clean Water Act, EPA will continue to develop scientifically-based water quality
standards and criteria and work with its partners to apply them on a watershed basis.  EPA will work
with states and tribes to improve implementation of total maximum daily load (TMDL) programs that
establish the analytical basis for watershed-based decisions on the need for additional pollution
reductions where standards are not being met. EPA will continue to develop and revise national
effluent guideline limitations and standards, capitalize and manage the Clean Water State Revolving
Fund (CWSRF) program and other funding mechanisms, and streamline the National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program.  The Agency will continue implementing
its strategy for reducing the NPDES permit backlog. The Agency, in partnership with States, will
develop strategies that target permitting activities toward those facilities posing the greatest risk to
the environment. This is particularly important because the NPDES program will be expanded with
the completion of the phase n storm water rule,  new strategy for animal feeding operations and
coverage of additional wet-weather sources contributing to pollution problems.  EPA will also
continue reorienting all its point source programs to focus and coordinate efforts on a watershed
basis.

       The CWSRF is a significant financial tool for achieving clean and safe water and for helping
to meet the significant needs for wastewater  infrastructure  over the next 20 years.  With
approximately $16 billion worth of capitalization  grants (which is almost 90%, which is more than
originally authorized by Congress) all 50 states and U.S. territories  have benefitted from this and
other wastewater funding.  To further support the objectives of the Clean Water Action Plan, the
Agency proposes for FY 2000 to allow states to reserve up to an amount equal to 20% of their
CWSRF capitalization grants to provide grants of no more than 60% of the costs of implementing
nonpoint source and estuary management projects.  Such grant funds may not be used for publicly-
owned treatment works projects. Projects receiving grant assistance must, to the maximum extent
practicable, rank highest on the State's list used to prioritize projects eligible for assistance. States
may make these grants using either a portion of their capitalization grant itself, or using other funds
                                                             in their state revolving fund
       U.S. POPULATION SERVED BY SECONDARY
                 TREATMENT OR  BETTER
   200
 in
 O
    50
(e.g,    state   match,
repayments, bond proceeds).
Grants may also be used with
loans for eligible projects for
communities  which  might
otherwise   find   loans
unaffordable.

      EPA has stepped up
efforts to engage a variety of
stakeholders  to   reduce
nutrients, pathogens,  and
other   pollutants   from
nontraditional categories of
point  sources,   including
         (972  1977  1982  1987   1992   1998   1999  2000
                              Year
                                         H-3

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animal feeding  operations, storm water drains, sanitary sewer overflows, and combined sewer
overflows.

       EPA is assisting states and tribes to characterize risks, rank priorities, and implement a mix
of voluntary and regulatory approaches through state nonpoint source management programs. State
and tribal nonpoint source programs are being strengthened to ensure that beneficial uses of water
are achieved and maintained.  States will continue to implement coastal nonpoint source programs
approved by EPA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under the Coastal Zone
Act Reauthorization Amendments, and to work with the U.S. Department of Agriculture to promote
implementation  of Farm Bill programs consistent with state nonpoint source management needs and
priorities.  EPA will also provide tools to states to assess and strengthen controls on air deposition
sources of nitrogen, mercury, and other toxics.

       With respect to wetlands, EPA will work with federal, state, tribal, local, and private sector
partners on protection and community-based restoration of wetlands, and with its federal partners to
avoid, minimize, and compensate for wetland losses through the Clean Water Act Section 404 and
Farm Bill programs.

       The President's Clean Water Action Plan, announced in February 1998, calls for more than
100 specific key actions by EPA and  by many other federal  agencies with either water quality
responsibilities or activities that have an impact on water quality.  These key actions cover most
aspects of the water program at EPA. The Action Plan mobilizes federal, state, and local agencies
to achieve the nation's clean water goals through the watershed approach, brings a sharp focus to the
critical actions that are required, and establishes deadlines for meeting these commitments over the
next several years.

       Under the Clean Water Action Plan in 2000, watershed restoration action strategies will be
completed in high  priority watersheds  across the nation that  will enable local leaders to take a
stronger role in  setting priorities and solving water quality problems that affect the quality of life in
their communities,  States will finish upgrading their nonpoint source management programs to fully
incorporate all nine key elements of a comprehensive solution to polluted runoffproblems and coastal
states will submit final plans with policies and mechanisms to reduce polluted runoff in coastal areas.
EPA will work  with states, tribes, municipalities, and the regulated community to ensure that the
Phase n rules for the stormwater program are implemented to solve problems caused by sediment
and other pollutants in our waters. EPA will also establish criteria for nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and
phosphorus) so that states can start developing water quality standards for nutrients to protect waters
from harmful algal blooms, dead zones, and fish kills.

Research

       EPA's research efforts will continue to strengthen the scientific basis for drinking water
standards through the use of improved methods and new data to better evaluate the risks associated
with exposure to chemical and microbial contaminants in drinking water.  To support the Safe
                                          H-4

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            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                 Goal Objective Summary

                                    Budget Authority
                               Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                   (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                       FY1999
                                                       Request
     FY1999
      Enacted
      FY2000
      Request
  Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Increase Use of Integrated, Holistic, Partnership Approaches
  Budget Authority
  Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Increase Opportunities for Sector Based Approaches
  Budget Authority
  Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Regional Enhancement of Ability to Quantify Environmental
  Outcomes
  Budget Authority
  Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Science Advisory Board Peer Review
  Budget Authority
  Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Incorporate Innovative Approaches to Environmental
  Management
  Budget Authority
  Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

A Credible Deterrent to Pollution and Greater Compliance
  with the Law
  Budget Authority
  Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

Enforcement Tools to Reduce Non-Compliance
  Budget Authority
  Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
0.0
0.0
0.0
$16,810.5
36.7
$11,496.8
100.7
$7,995.1
4.6
$2,586.7
22.5
$4,334.1
20.0
$332,733,8
2,559.3
283,209.4
2,074.70
$16,390.5
18.7
$21,091.9
100.7
$6,505.5
4.6
$2,486.7
22.5
$4,034.1
20.0
$319,390.3
2,554.4
272,965.9
2,078.00
$16,663.8
9.7
$10,018.5
89.8
$7,659.8
4.6
$2,636.2
22.5
$4,378.1
20.0
$331,335.0
2,540.1
292,917.6
2,192.10
                                          RT-15

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           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                Goal Objective Summary

                                   Budget Authority
                              Full-Time Equialency (FTE)
                                  (Dollars in Thousands)

                                                     FY1999     FY1999      FY2000
                                                     Request      Enacted	Request
Increase Use of Auditing, Self-Policing Policies
Budget Authority
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
Effective Management
Budget Authority
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
Executive Leadership
Budget Authority
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
Management Services, Administrative, and Stewardship
Budget Authority
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
Building Operations, Utilities and New Construction
Budget Authority
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
$49,524.4
484.6
$659,860.5
2,974.7
$30,895.9
265.0
$234,293.9
2,305.1
$354,753.9
3,4
$46,424.4
476.4
$645,174.0
2,991.2
$31,112.6
276.5
$220,806.1
2,310.1
$353,366.1
3.4
$38,417.4
348.0
$715,653.6
3,003.3
$32,155.4
274.0
$245,211.1
2,345.1
$397,485.1
3.4
Provide Audit and Investigative Products and Services
  Budget Authority
  Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)
  $39,916.8     $39,889.2     $40,802.0
      401.2         401.2         380.8
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (NET)
   Budget Authority
   Full-Time Equivalents (FTE)

** The Agency budget authority does not include Fees
     Fees
$7,790,275.4   $7,590,352.0   $7,206,646.0
    18,375.1      18,384.6      18,405.7
  $24,000.0
$0.0      $20,000.0
                                        RT-16

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Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and its 1996 Amendments, the Agency's drinking water research will
develop dose-response information on DBFs, waterborne pathogens, arsenic and other drinking water
contaminants for characterization of potential exposure risks from consuming tap water, including
an increased focus on filling key data gaps and developing methods for chemicals and microbial
pathogens on the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). The Agency will develop and evaluate cost-
effective treatment technologies for removing pathogens from water supplies while minimizing DBF
formation, and for maintaining the quality of treated water in the distribution system and preventing
the intrusion of microbial contamination.

       Research to support the development of ecological criteria will improve our understanding
of the structure, function and characteristics of aquatic systems, and will evaluate exposures to
stressors and their effects on those systems. This research can then be used to improve risk
assessment methods to develop aquatic life, habitat, and wildlife criteria.  The Agency also will
develop cost effective technologies for managing contaminated sediments with an emphasis on
identifying innovative in situ solutions. EPA will continue to develop diagnostic tools to evaluate the
exposures to toxic constituents of wet weather flows, and develop and validate effective watershed
management strategies for controlling wet weather flows, especially when they are high volume and
toxic. This research will also develop effective beach evaluation tools necessary to make timely and
informed decisions on beach advisories and closures.
Strategic Objectives and FY 2000 Annual Performance Goals

Objective 01: Safe Drinking Water, Fish and Recreational Waters

By: 2000     Reduce uncertainties and improve methods associated with the evaluation and control
             of risks posed by exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water

By: 2000     Reduce uncertainties and improve methodsassociated withthe evaluation and control
             of risks posed by exposure to microbial contaminants in drinking water.

By: 2000     91% of the population served by community drinking water systems will receive
             drinking water meeting all health-based standards that were in effect as of 1994, up
             from 83% in 1994.

By: 2000     Reduce consumption of contaminated fish and exposure to contaminated recreational
             waters by increasing the information available to the public and decision-makers.
             (Supports CWAP)

Objective 02: Conserve and Enhance Nation's Waters

By: 2000     Identify the primary life support functions of surface waters that contribute to the
             management of sustainability of watersheds.
                                          H-5

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By: 2000      Assure that States and Tribes have effective, up-to-date water quality standards
              programs adopted in accordance with the Water Quality Standards regulation and the
              Water Quality Standards program priorities.

By: 2000      Environmental improvement projects will be  underway  in  350 high priority
              watersheds as a result of implementing activities under the CWAP.

By: 2000      Working through the Five Star Program, EPA will have cooperated on and supported
              wetland and river corridor projects in 210 watersheds. (Supports CWAP)

Objective 03: Reduce Loadings and Air Deposition

By: 2000      Another two million people will receive the benefits of secondary treatment of
              wastewater, for a total of 181 million people.

By: 2000      Develop modeling, monitoring and risk management methodsthat enahleplanners and
              regulatory officials to more accurately characterize receiving and recreational water
              quality and to select appropriate control technologies.

By: 2000      Industrial discharges of toxic pollutants will be reduced by 4 million pounds per year
              (a 14% reduction) and conventional pollutants will be reduced by 388 million pounds
              per year (a 9% reduction) as compared to  1992 discharges when considerations for
              growth are considered.

By: 2000      Industrial discharges of non-conventional  pollutants will be reduced by 1.5 billion
              pounds per  year (a 7%  reduction) as  compared to 1992  discharges  when
              considerations for growth are considered.
Highlights

       Contaminated water can cause illness and even death, and exposure to contaminated drinking
water poses a special risk to such populations as children, the elderly, and people with compromised
immune systems.  In 1994, 17 percent of those served by community water systems were supplied
drinking water that violated health standards at least once during the year. In an effort to ensure that
all Americans have water that is safe to drink, EPA will meet a vital milestone in 2000, by ensuring
that 91 percent of the population served by community water systems will receive drinking water
meeting all health-based standards in effect as of 1994.  In establishing new contaminant protective
levels, increased resources will assist states in implementing the requirements of two new health-based
rules - the Stage 1 D/DBP and Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. EPA will also
                                          H-6

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increase   resources  for
drinking water rule-making
and   data   collection
priorities,  including risk
assessment and improved
analytical   methods,  on
potential   contaminants
identified  in  the  1998
Contaminant Candidate List
(CCL).  EPA is also using
the   1998   CCL   for
determining drinking water
research   priorities   in
addition   to   establishing
rule-making   and   data
collection  priorities.
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                          In 2000,91 % of population served by community water systems wiU receive
                            drinking water meeting all health-based standards in effect as of1994.
       In February  1998,
the Administration unveiled
its Clean Water Action Plan
providing a comprehensive
strategy for assessing and
restoring the Nation's most
impaired   watersheds.
Fundamental   to   the
Agency's efforts to conserve and enhance the nation's waters is the management of water quality
resources on a watershed basis, with the full involvement of all stakeholders including communities,
individuals, businesses, state and local governments, and tribes. A key performance goal for 2000,
and part of EPA's commitments under the Clean Water Action Plan, is for EPA, in conjunction with
other Federal agencies, to prepare a Watershed Restoration Progress Report. In this report, which
will be presented to the President, the nation's governors, tribal leaders, and the public will evaluate
progress in implementing restoration actions and recommend any actions needed to improve progress
towards meeting clean water goals.  Also in 2000, through EPA's Five Star Program, the Agency
commits to cooperate and support wetland and river corridor projects hi 210 watersheds, with the
ultimate goal of supporting 500 watersheds by 2005.

       A key element of the Agency's effort to achieve its overarching goal of clean and safe water
is the reduction of pollutant discharges from point sources and nonpoint sources. The National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program (which includes NPDES permits, urban
wet weather, large  animal  feeding operation, mining,  pretreatment program  for non-domestic
wastewater discharges into municipal sanitary sewers, and biosolids management controls) establishes
controls on pollutants discharged from point sources into waters of the United States. Key annual
performance goals for FY 2000 are to reduce industrial discharges of toxjc pollutants by 4 million
                                          II-7

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pounds per year, nonconventional pollutants by 1,551 million pounds per year, and conventional
pollutants by 388 million pounds per year as compared to 1992 reduction levels.

       States report that pollution from nonpoint sources is the largest cause of water pollution, with
agriculture as a leading cause of impairment in 25 percent of the river miles surveyed.  In order to
restore and maintain water quality, significant loading reductions from nonpoint sources (NFS) must
be achieved. Because EPA has limited direct NFS authority under the Clean Water Act, state NFS
programs are critical to our overall success.  To achieve reductions in loadings, it is essential to work
with states to adopt and expeditiously implement the nine key program elements  in their existing
nonpoint source programs. To provide an incentive for states to upgrade their NFS programs, EPA
committed in the CWAP that all states must have incorporated all nine key elements into an approved
Section 319 Nonpoint Source Management program to receive any Section 319 funding exceeding
$100,000 beginning in FY 2000.  In addition, EPA will encourage states to make use of Clean Water
State Revolving Funds (CWSRF) and other Federal resources to finance projects that address
polluted runoff.

Research

       In 2000, EPA's drinking water research will include an increased focus on filling key data
gaps and developing methods for contaminants on the CCL. Research will also continue supporting
the 1996 Amendments to SDWA priorities, emphasizing research on sensitive  subpopulations,
adverse reproductive effects of drinking water contaminants, and disinfection by-products (DBPs).
Research efforts in 2000 will work towards improving methods associated with the evaluation and
control of risks posed by exposure to drinking water contaminants, such as disinfection by-products,
microbial contaminants, and arsenic.

       Research in support of conserving and enhancing the nation's waters wiH work to increase
understanding of landscape characteristics and ecosystem structure and function and will also reduce
uncertainty surrounding the effects  of chemical, biological  and physical  stressors  on aquatic
ecosystems. This work includes developing stressor-response models for chemical contaminants,
improving the ability to identify critical stressors, and predicting impacts from increased nutrient run-
off that include an increase in harmful algal blooms. Under the Clean Water Act, states are required
to develop  designated uses for their waters.   Some of this research will provide an unproved
biological basis for these designated uses, a longer-term direction identified by the Office of Water
for improving  existing water quality  across the country.  Some  of the modeling research in this
objective is related to activities in the Clean Water Action Plan.

       In 2000, research efforts supporting the reduction of pollutant loadings will primarily focus
on Wet Weather Flows. EPA's March 1995 Report to Congress on stormwater discharges, cited
pollution from Wet Weather Flows (WWFs) as the leading cause of water-quality impairment. This
degradation of water quality poses significant risks to human  and ecological health through the
uncontrolled release of pathogenic bacteria, protozoans and viruses as well as a number of potentially
toxic, bioaccumulative contaminants. WWF research will continue to develop diagnostic tools to
                                          H-8

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evaluate the exposures to toxic constituents of WWFs, and develop and validate effective watershed
management strategies for controlling WWFs, especially during high volume and toxic WWFs. This
research will also develop and provide effective beach evaluation tools necessary to make timely and
informed decisions on beach advisories and closures.
External Factors

Drinking Water and Source Water

       The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996 comprise one of the first
environmentally-focused statutes to establish not only regulatory, programmatic, enforcement, and
management/administration provisions to ensure that safe drinking water is available nationwide, but
also an outreach process to involve all stakeholders in the development and implementation of the
statutory provisions. To date, this extensive stakeholder involvement has had major benefits on the
Agency's efforts in implementing the 1996 SDWA amendments.  To listen to the comments and
reactions of our stakeholders, to incorporate their views, to keep the process moving and to focus
on the fact that our mutual goal is public health protection has taken the meaning of partnership to
a new level in the drinking water and ground water program.   The complexity of upcoming
regulations and the time-consuming process of gaining consensus with stakeholders pose challenges
in implementing the 1996 SDWA amendments.

       The adoption of health-based and other programmatic regulations by the states is another
area of concern.  Since states have primary enforcement authority (primacy) for drinking water
regulations, it is critical that the states have sufficient staff and resources to work with public water
systems to ensure that they are implementing and complying with the new regulations. To help them
with these efforts, EPA has increased PWSS grant funding by approximately 60% since FY 1993.
EPA is investing substantially in areas to provide technical assistance and training to the states on the
small systems variances and exemptions and the consumer confidence report rules promulgated in
1998 as well as the health-based, microbial regulations that will be promulgated early in 1999.

       The Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP) provides a blueprint for a cooperative approach to
restoring and protecting water quality in which Federal, state, tribal, and local governments work
collaboratively to focus resources and implement effective strategies. A key element of the CWAP
is the integration of public health goals with aquatic ecosystem goals when identifying watershed
priorities. To help facilitate a comprehensive framework, Federal agencies involved in water quality
initiatives are  asked to direct "program authorities, technical assistance, data and enforcement
resources to help states, tribes, and local communities design and implement their drinking water
source water assessment  and protection programs within the unified watershed protection and
restoration efforts..." (Clean Water Action Plan, page 29). Although EPA expects participating
Federal agencies to sign a Federal Agency Agreement that has been developed for this aspect of the
CWAP, the Agency has minimal ability to ensure that these agencies work aggressively to promote
source water assessment and protection activities. EPA staff will devote substantial "front-end" time
                                          H-9

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in the negotiation of this agreement with pertinent Federal agencies early in 1999 so as to maximize
the expected benefits that are reflected in the year 2000 drinking water and ground water annual
performance goals.

Fish and Recreational Waters

       The Agency's success in protecting human health from consumption of contaminated fish or
exposure to contaminated recreational waters could be compromised by several major constraints,
including lack of regulatory authority, inability to measure behavior, and lack of state and local
resources.

       The Clean Water Act does not require that states or tribes operate fish advisory or beach
protection programs. The Agency's role is primarily to support them through guidance, scientific
information, and technical assistance. EPA can not take regulatory action to assure that states and
tribes conform to guidance; therefore, success depends on state/tribal/local commitment to achieving
these  goals.
             STATE FISH ADVISORY PROGRAMS
            METHODS AND MONITORING EFFORT
SOURCE: State Responses to USEPA1997 National Listing of Advisories Questionaire
                                                                Conducts Routine
                                                                Monitoring

                                                                None or Very Limited
                                                                Monitoring

                                                                Uses FDA Action Levels to
                                                                Issue Advisories; Conducts
                                                                Routine Monitoring

                                                                I Uses FDA Action Levels to
                                                                I Issue Advisories; Conducts
                                                                No Routine Monitoring
NOTE: Many States have active
advisories based on previous
assessments using FDA Action Levels
                                        n-io

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       One way of determining whether we have reduced the consumption of contaminated fish and
shellfish is to find out if people eat the fish they catch from waters where fish advisories have been
issued.  In order to determine whether we have reduced  exposure to contaminated recreational
waters, we also need to know if people comply with beach closure notices when they are issued.
Acquiring statistical evidence for such determinations is difficult.

       Without comprehensive, consistent monitoring of all the Nation's waters, we do not know
how many waters should be under advisory or how many beaches should be closed. This expensive
and time-consuming task is beyond the resources of most states.

Watersheds and Wetlands

       EPA's efforts to meet our watershed protection objective are predicated on the continuation
and improvement of relationships with our Federal, state, tribal, and local partners.  Because of the
vast geographic scope of water quality and wetlands impairments and the large number of partners
upon whose efforts we depend, we must continue to build  strong and lasting relationships with all
levels of government, the private sector, research community, and interest groups.  Success in
meeting our wetlands objectives is particularly dependent on the continuing and enhanced cooperation
with the Army Corps of Engineers, Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, and
the Natural Resources Conservation Service.

       The Clean Water Action Plan development process underscored the interrelations of the
Federal government's environmental protection and stewardship agencies and programs, and the
critical importance of working together to maximize achievements. Without continued government-
wide coordination and financial commitment to the Plan's implementation, we may not meet our
water quality objectives.  This is  particularly true for successful enhancement of state nonpoint
source management programs. The states will also need to continue efforts to overcome historical
institutional  barriers to achieve full  implementation of their coastal nonpoint pollution control
programs as required under the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA).

       Fundamental to all of the Agency's efforts to meet this objective is managing water quality
resources on a watershed basis, with full involvement of all stakeholders including communities,
individuals, business, state and local governments and tribes. EPA's ability to meet this objective will
depend on the success of regulatory and non-regulatory programs and nationwide efforts to provide
and use a broad range of policy, planning, and scientific tools to establish local goals and assess
progress.

       In addition, we must continue to improve our understanding of the environmental baseline and
our ability to track progress against goals, which also depends on external parties. While the Index
of Watershed Indicators and state 305(b) reporting provide reasonable and defensible assessments
of water quality, we will  continue to depend upon and provide support to our partners and
stakeholders in their efforts to improve measurement tools and capabilities.  EPA recognizes that
                                          n-n

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better performance goals are needed to measure nonpoint source loadings. In 1999, EPA will work
with Federal and state agencies to develop both near term and long term environmental outcome
measures for nonpoint source loadings reductions.

Point and Nonpoint Sources

       States and localities are  assumed to be able to continue to raise sufficient funds for
construction of necessary wastewater treatment and control facilities. This is especially critical for
new regulated sources like storm water and CSQs.  In addition they must be able to maintain
sufficient programmatic funds to continue to effectively manage point source programs.

       It is assumed that states will effectively strengthen and implement improved nonpoint source
programs consistent with their commitments in this area. Federal agencies must work together and
fulfill then- mutual commitments undertheir Strategic Plans and the Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP)
if we are to succeed in addressing nonpoint source (NFS) needs. No one Agency can succeed in NFS
management without the partnership efforts of a wide range of Federal, state, local and private sector
interests.

       In support of the objectives of the Clean  Water Action Plan, the Agency is proposing
language to allow states to reserve up to an amount equal to 20% of their Clean Water State
Revolving Fund capitalization grants to provide grants of no more than 60% of the costs of nonpoint
source and estuary management projects.  Projects receiving grant assistance must, to the maximum
extent practicable, rank highest on the Stale's list used to prioritize projects eligible for assistance.
States may make these grants using either a portion of their capitalization grant itself, or using other
funds in their state revolving fund (e.g, state match, repayments, bond proceeds). Grants may also
be used with loans for eligible projects  for communities  which might otherwise find  loans
unaffordable.

       To assist tribes in addressing polluted runoff, EPA proposes in 2000 to eliminate the current
statutory ceiling on the percentage of Section 319 grant funds that may be awarded to tribes/tribal
consortia.
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                             Environmental Protection Agency

            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                   Clean and Safe Water


Objective # 1:  Safe Drinking Water, Fish and Recreational Waters

       By 2005, protect public health so that 95% of the population served by  community water
systems will receive water that meets drinking water  standards, consumption of contaminated fish
and shellfish will be reduced, and exposure to microbial and other forms of contamination in waters
used for recreation will be reduced.
                                     Resource Summary
                                    (Dollars in thousands)
                                          FY1999
                                          Request
              FY1999
              Enacted
FY2000
Request
FY2000Req. v.
 FY 1999 Ena.
Safe Drinking Water, Fish and Recreational
Waters
    Environmental Program & Management

    Science & Technology

    State and Tribal Assistance Grants

        Total Workyears:
$1,026,835.1   $1,092,624.2    $1,079,342.0
               ($13,282.2)
$101,726.1
$45,828.5
$879,280.5
864.4
$110,067.7
$49,847.0
$932,709.5
868.6
$106,421.3
$43,640.2
$929,280.5
861.5
($3,646.4)
($6,206.8)
($3,429.0)
(7-1)
                                       Key Programs
                                    (Dollars in thousands)
                                                        FY1999
                                                        Request
                           FY1999
                           Enacted
              FY2000
              Request
Drinking Water Regulations

Drinking Water Implementation

UIC Program

Rural Water Technical Assistance
                $38,860.0      $33,886.2      $43,484.9

                $30,917.1      $31,688.0      $31,803.8

                $11,268.6      $11,744.7      $11,815.9

                  $232.0       $9,955.0        $232.0
                                            n-B

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Key Programs (continued)
State PWSS Giants
State Underground Injection Control Grants
Source Water Protection (CWAP-Related)
Water InfrastraeturerPrinking Water State Revolving Fund (DW-SRF)
Safe Drinking Water Research
EMPACT
Project XL
FY1999
Reauest
$93,780.5
$10,500.0
$13,000.7
$775,000.0
$43,702.2
$769.1
$0.0
FY 1999
Enacted
$93,780.5
$10,500.0
$11,685.8
$775,000.0
$47,728.1
$1,290.7
$390.5
FY2900
Request
$93,780.5
$10,500.0
$11,501,9
$825,000.0
$41,468.2
$476.4
$OJO
FY 2000 Request

       The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is one of the key environmental statutes that protects
public health for all Americans.  Calendar year 1999 is the 25th anniversary of this important law.
Activities associated with the 25* anniversary will culminate in December 1999 with a forum on the
future challenges of drinking water protection.  The theme for this anniversary — Protecting Our
Health from Source to Tap — also reflects the four major areas of emphasis in the 1996  SDWA
Amendments that EPA is currently implementing.  These four areas are: 1) improving the way that
EPA sets drinking water safety standards and develops regulations based on good science and data,
prioritization of effort, sound risk assessment, and effective risk management; 2) establishing new
prevention approaches, including provisions for operator  certification, capacity development, and
source water  protection;  3)  providing better information to consumers,  including consumer
confidence/"right-to-know" reports (see Goal 7); and, 4) expanding  funding  for  states and
communities through the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF), In addition, the 1996
Amendments increase the states' flexibility to focus on public health-based priorities and to make
better use of resources; recognize the problems facing small systems and establish appropriate cost-
effective approaches for such systems; and emphasize the role of stakeholders and partnerships as a
key aspect of an effective national drinking water program.

       In 2000, EPA, states/tribes and water suppliers will continue to implement the 1996 SDWA
Amendments with the principal purpose of improving and maintaining  drinking  water  safety and,
thereby, health protection for the 240 million Americans who get their drinking water from public
water systems. Under SDWA, EPA and the states/tribes are charged with ensuring that consistently
safe drinking water is provided to  all persons served by  public water  systems.  EPA  meets that
responsibility by setting drinking water safety standards and providing technical assistance and other
support to states that have primary enforcement authority (primacy) of the drinking water program.

       In 2000, the Agency plans increased support to, or reorientation of, a number of key drinking
water activities in both standards  setting/regulatory  development and rule implementation and
assistance. Under standards/regulatory development activities,  investments will be directed to

                                          H-14

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increased support for work to meet statutory deadlines on the development of safety standards and
regulations for high-risk chemicals such as — arsenic, radon, and radionuclides (other than radon).
At the same time,  the Agency will be working closely with stakeholders to address microbial
contaminants and contaminants from the processes used to treat drinking water through the
development of the remaining  three (of six) rules  that comprise  the  statutorily-mandated
Microbial/Disinfection Byproducts (M/DBP) rule cluster.  In anticipation of the August 2001 deadline
in SDWA, which requires EPA to make determinations of whether or not to regulate at least five
contaminants from  the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL), the Agency will expand work on the
analysis and collection of occurrence data on health effects, exposure, analytical methods and
treatment on potential priority contaminants. Potential priority contaminants were identified in the
CCL which  was required by the 1996 SDWA Amendments and issued in 1998.  Under rule
implementation and assistance activities,  support to states/tribes will be expanded for continued
implementation of the Stage I Disinfection/Disinfection Byproducts and Interim Enhanced Surface
Water Treatment rules which were promulgated in November of 1998.

       The  Agency is continuing  and  expanding efforts to  meet  statutory deadlines on the
development of drinking water regulations for radon, arsenic, and radionuclides (other than radon).
With respect to radon, the National Academy of Sciences issued its risk assessment in September
1998, as required by the 1996 SDWA Amendments. EPA is using this assessment as the basis for
the health risk reduction and cost analyses for various possible maximum contaminant levels of radon
in drinking water. The deadline for the proposed rule is August 1999 and the final radon rule will be
promulgated in August of 2000.  One of the more challenging aspects of the radon regulation will be
publication of multi-media mitigation guidelines that are  due at the time of the rule proposal. This
will be a truly cross-media rulemaking and is expected to  involve extensive consultation and analysis
— both in the development and the implementation of these requirements.

       EPA is also continuing its rule development activities on arsenic and will issue a Notice of
Proposed Rulemaking in January of 2000. A particular emphasis will be placed on efforts to resolve
health effects issues associated with arsenic in drinking water, since there are a host of national and
international reports on the various health effects attributable to arsenic.  In addition, EPA risk
managers will be performing analyses and conducting consultations to help determine small system
treatment  options  because arsenic removal  is  likely  to be relatively expensive and have a
disproportionate impact on small systems.

       The Agency is also charged (in accordance with a court stipulation) with making final
decisions on regulatory levels for all of the non-radon radionuclides (alpha emitters, beta emitters,
radium, and uranium). These final decisions will be based upon a Notice of Data Availability which
will be published in early 1999. A host of complicated risk management and implementation issues
will be associated with these regulatory actions.

       In addition, work will continue on the final three rules that comprise the M/DBP rule cluster.
They are the Ground Water Disinfection, Stage II Disinfection/Disinfection Byproducts (D/DBP),
and the Long-Term Enhanced Surface Water Treatment (LTESWT) rules. Work on these rules is
                                          H-15

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proceeding according to the plans and milestones established in order to meet statutory deadlines.
The LTESWT rule is being developed in two parts: the first one will apply to systems serving less
than 10,000 people, i.e., small systems, and the second will be directed to medium and large systems.
The first part of the LTESWT, for small systems, will be issued in 2000, as required by the 1996
SDWA Amendments. The Agency's work on these two rules will include an expanded focus on risk
analysis to determine what are the most significant risks and the acceptable balance among competing
risks.  For instance, while disinfectants are effective in reducing microbial risk, they react with natural
organic matter in the water to form DBFs. Several of the DBFs have been shown to cause adverse
health effects  in laboratory animals.  The optimal balance  will adequately  control risks from
pathogens, simultaneously control  DBFs to acceptable levels, and ensure that costs of water
treatment are commensurate with public health benefits.

       Also,  continued and expanded data collection  activities for "new" contaminants will
emphasize: 1) source water occurrence of chemical and microbiological contaminants; 2) outbreaks
of disease/illnesses for microbiological occurrence; 3) dose-response relationships for contaminants
of concern, including projected impacts on sensitive subpopulations; 4) water consumption to predict
risks and to improve comparative risk modeling;  5) efficacy of various treatment technologies for
removing contaminants of concern; and 6) analytical methods to ascertain the presence (at levels of
interest) of these contaminants. This research and data collection is critical for the next round of
contaminants to be selected from the Contaminant Candidate List  (CCL), for which standards and
regulations are to be developed, as required by the 1996 SDWA Amendments. The Agency must
make decisions on whether or not to regulate at least five contaminants from the CCL by August 6,
2001.  In addition, these activities will help provide the basis for determining which contaminants to
place on the next CCL (required to be published by February 2003).

       In  addition to risk assessment, the Agency will pursue continuing improvements hi risk
management, e.g., economics, industry characterization, and areas of special emphases. The 1996
Amendments required a more comprehensive analysis of the costs and benefits of drinking water
regulations than was done in the past. These new approaches will take several years to complete,
particularly in the area of benefits analyses, where groundbreaking research and analysis have begun
and will be ongoing. Efforts to update the Community Water System survey (the Agency's baseline
information about the numbers and characteristics of systems in various size categories) will also
begin in FY 2000. In addition, the Agency will continue to explore treatment approaches for various
contaminants of interest that are particularly appropriate for small  public water systems.  One area
of emphasis in the risk management context will be special populations such  as children and the
elderly, while another will focus on vulnerable public water systems, particularly small systems serving
less than 10,000 people.

       One of the primary goals articulated in the drinking water and ground water strategic
objective is the reduction of risk and the resulting increase in human health protection. A wide range
of activities — both the existing foundation of the drinking water and ground water program as well
as new building blocks authorized in the 1996 SDWA Amendments — contribute  to risk reduction.
In 2000, two regulations (Stage I Disinfection/ Disinfection Byproducts [D/DBP] and Interim
                                          H-16

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Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule [ffiSWTR]) that are part of the M/DBP rule cluster will be
in the process of implementation. Congress, the Science Advisory Board, EPA, and stakeholders are
in agreement that the greatest risk reduction efforts for drinking water protection are through the
regulation of microbiological contaminants, such as cryptosporidiwn and disinfectant byproducts.
Thus, it is important that states/tribes adopt these important rules expeditiously. An increase in
resources, therefore, will be targeted to assist states in adopting and implementing these important
rules. During 2000, the Agency expects to provide training and technical assistance  on these rules
to all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. The Agency will directly implement these
rules in those states and on Indian lands that do not have primacy for the drinking water program.

     In  addition,  states will be  implementing the guidelines  for operator  certification and
recertification to assure that owners and operators of public water systems are fully implementing
existing and new SDWA requirements. During 2000, there will be significant activity related to
implementation of the capacity development provisions of the SDWA. States' focus will be on both
new and existing public systems. States will be actually implementing their programs for new systems
to ensure that they demonstrate technical, managerial, and financial capacity.  Also, States will be
engaged  fully in development of their capacity development strategies for existing systems.  This
capacity  development strategy will address how the state will  assist existing water systems in
acquiring and maintaining the technical, financial, and managerial capacity needed for compliance with
the SDWA.  The Agency estimates that in 1999 all states will have obtained the legal authority or
other means for ensuring that new systems, especially small systems, demonstrate adequate capacity.
Another  important activity to help small systems is the implementation  of the Small Systems
Variances and  Exemptions rule that was promulgated in 1998.  EPA support for the  states'
implementation efforts will directly affect public  health outcomes as these activities provide a
framework to help small systems comply with drinking water standards.

       As systems begin to implement all these regulations, they will be submitting data on their
implementation efforts via the Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS), which tracks
compliance with all SDWA requirements.  SDWIS is the nation's best source of national compliance
information. Data from SDWIS are used for Annual Compliance Reports, Drinking Water Consumer
Confidence Reports,  development of regulations, trend analysis, and public information. la 1999,
EPA directed a higher level of resources to SDWIS to accelerate implementation of the state-based
versions of SDWIS and develop, with stakeholders, the data reliability action plan to improve overall
data quality. The 2000 resource request reflects a reduction to the Safe Drinking Water Information
System. However, this reduction does not mean decreased emphasis on SDWIS, but rather a return
to a level that will ensure its continued operation and maintenance while  implementing the data
reliability action plan. EPA will continue to both enhance the functionality of SDWIS and work with
the states to implement state-based versions of this database.

       Another of the Agency's major priorities is preventing contamination of our Nation's drinking
water sources. This is a vital aspect of comprehensive protection of public health and a high priority
activity authorized and enhanced in the 1996 SDWA Amendments. States are required to conduct
source water assessments that help  determine the vulnerability of each state's sources of drinking
                                          H-17

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water to contamination and their consequent risk to human health.  In 2000, the Agency expects that
a majority of the states will be implementing their EPA-approved source water assessment program.

       In 2000, source water protection efforts will continue to be integrated with activities under
the Clean Water ActionPlan (CWAP) to expand the parameters of drinking water protection efforts.
This integration is an example of how two water-related statutes — the Safe Drinking Water Act
(SDWA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA) -- can be implemented to bring together source water
protection efforts with watershed restoration efforts.  Sources of drinking water that are identified
through unified watershed assessments as high priority watersheds will receive expedited assistance
in coordinating source water protection activities with watershed restoration action strategies.  To
emphasize the importance of this effort, EPA has directed resources to expand EPA's Regional staff
who will work in collaboration with states, tribes, and the Regional and field offices of other Federal
agencies to implement source water protection programs and activities in high priority watersheds.

       Increasing protective measures for source water is the principal focus of the rule on Class V
underground injection wells that will be promulgated  in 1999.  The Class V rule will apply to
industrial disposal wells, automotive service station wells, and large capacity cesspools that exist
nationwide.  Through a multi-partner effort, EPA will work with local government managers of
source water protection programs to prepare for implementation of the Class V rule. Furthermore,
EPA will work directly with the states to implement the changes necessary for maintaining primacy
for the Class V program.  The Agency will directly implement the Class V program in those states
and on Indian lands that do not have primary enforcement authority.

       The Agency will also expand support for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF)
by increasing capitalization by $50 million.  The DWSRF was established to provide assistance to
public water systems in order to 1) finance the cost of infrastructure improvements as well enhance
water system management, 2) implement source water assessments, and 3) encourage comprehensive
source water protection.  All states will continue to administer their DWSRF in 2000.  At least 400
community drinking water systems will have received DWSRF loans. As many as 100 drinking water
systems will actually be using funds to improve and upgrade their pipes, treatment plants, and other
components of their drinking water infrastructure.

       Through base program activities, new activities authorized in 1996, increased funds targeted
to standard setting/regulatory development for high-risk drinking water contaminants  and rule
implementation efforts, and cooperation between the CWAP and source water protection program,
EPA expects to meet its 2000 interim goal that 91 percent of the population will receive drinking
water meeting all health-based standards, up from 83 percent in 1994.

       Also, through partnerships with the American Metropolitan Water Agencies and the American
Water  Work Association, EPA will work with water utilities undertaking measures to safeguard
water supplies from terrorist and seditious acts. This is part of a coordinated government-wide effort
to combat terrorism.
                                          H-18

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       Reducing exposure to contaminants in fish and shellfish and through contact in recreational
waters is a top priority for the National Water Program. In 2000, the Agency will continue to work
with its state partners to ensure that they adopt into their standards a suite of criteria to protect
recreational, fish consumption, drinking water, human health, and aquatic life uses.

       Approximately 75% of the Nation's population lives, works, or plays on or near our coastal
waters. Use of water for recreation is divided into primary contact recreation (swimming) and
secondary contact recreation (activities such as boating).  Studies indicate that some recreational
waters (inland rivers, lakes, and coastal waters) expose swimmers to unacceptable levels of infectious
disease. Susceptible populations (e.g., children) are the most likely to develop illnesses or infections
after swimming in polluted water. The Agency strives to establish improved safety guidelines and
pollution indicators so that local authorities can monitor their recreational waters in a cost-effective
way and close them to public use when necessary to protect human health. For beaches, our three-
part goal is to strengthen beach standards and testing,  improve the scientific basis for beach
assessment, and develop methods to inform the public about beach conditions.

       Monitoring and risk assessment procedures used by states in their fish and shellfish and beach
contamination advisory programs vary widely. By 2000, the Agency will publish guidance documents
and provide training that addresses sampling and risk assessment methods to provide a more uniform
nationwide standard of protection. In support of this effort, the Agency will continue a nationwide
survey of toxic residues hi fish and complete  epidemiologjcal  studies hi the Great Lakes,  in
cooperation with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), on health effects
of exposure to selected bioaccumulative toxics.  In addition, the Agency will  continue to support
monitoring/modeUng pilot programs to improve states' ability to predict and address contamination
events at beaches.  In 2000, we will work with states, tribes, and other stakeholders to develop a
stratified monitoring  strategy to enable  states to use statistical sampling methods to assess fish
contamination and recreational  waters. The Agency will also evaluate the health risks in seafood
harvested from the Gulf of Mexico and begin development of alternative risk-based indicators and
methods for skin, respiratory, eye, ear, throat, and gastrointestinal diseases most commonly resulting
from exposure to contaminants  at beaches.

       The Agency will continue to develop and expand an Internet-based Federal database on beach
advisories and closings across the United States as well as on beaches that are and are not monitored.
Working with states, tribes, and local governments, EPA will expand the  database to include
information on high-use fresh water beaches and on the location of combined sewer overflow (CSO)
outfalls near beaches.  We will also begin to add digitized maps of coastal and inland high-use beaches
to the Internet database. The Agency will begin to develop model water quality standards for beaches
that states and tribes can incorporate into their own water quality standards programs and will
conduct workshops on monitoring techniques for states and tribes.

       In addition, the Agency will continue to work with stakeholders, encouraging full involvement
at all levels of government, to expand the total proportion of surface waters assessed for possible fish
and beach contamination and to implement  fish consumption and beach contamination advisory


                                         11-19

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programs that are consistent with published national guidance. The Agency will also strive to develop
and provide improved tools,  such as scientifically-based models and methods, that will enable
environmental managers to better predict, assess, and take appropriate actions to protect the public.
The Agency will  work with  its state and local partners to assess and document beach health
conditions, identify major priorities and scientific concerns, and improve public notification practices.
These efforts will be supported by the Agency's Beaches Environmental Assessment, Closure and
Health (BEACH) research program which is developing better tools for determining when beach
closures and  advisories are warranted and  is developing better mechanisms for detecting and
measuring microbial contamination.

Research

       The continued occurrence of waterborne disease outbreaks demonstrates that contamination
of drinking water with pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites still poses a serious health risk when
treatment  is inadequate or when contamination occurs in the  distribution system.  Microbial
contaminants may cause infection, acute disease, and mortality in susceptible populations. To combat
waterborne microbial diseases, public water systems disinfect drinking water with chlorine or
alternative disinfectants such as ozone.  However, unwanted chemical by-products are produced
during the disinfection process when the disinfectants react with organic precursors in the source
water.  After long-term ingestion, these disinfection by-products (DBFs) have been  shown to cause
harmful health  effects, including  cancer, renal  failure  and adverse reproductive outcomes in
experimental  animals.  In addition, some human studies have  suggested that consumption of
chlorinated DBFs may be associated with elevated cancer rates and adverse reproductive outcomes.
The magnitude and severity of the risks from known contaminants are of current concern. However,
less is known about the risks from emerging pathogens, unidentified or poorly characterized DBFs,
and other emerging chemical contaminants. High uncertainty and potential adverse risk exist because
of the tens of millions of people who  potentially will be exposed to these unknown and/or
understudied contaminants.

       In 2000, EPA's drinking water research will include an increased focus on filling key data
gaps and developing methods for contaminants on the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).  Research
will also continue to support the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWAA) priorities,
emphasizing research and assessment on sensitive subpopulations, adverse reproductive effects of
drinking water contaminants, research  on selected DBFs and arsenic, and waterborne  disease
occurrence studies, as well as treatment and maintenance  of water quality in the distribution system.

       Many uncertainties exist with respect to our ability to adequately assess the health effects
associated with exposure to pathogenic bacteria, viruses  and parasites in drinking water. In 2000,
microbial research will continue to emphasize field studies to evaluate the nature and magnitude of
waterborne diseases (particularly emerging pathogens on  the CCL) in communities as a function of
quality, treatment process, and demographic characteristics. We will continue to develop and  apply
improved tools for conducting epidemiology studies of waterborne diseases. In 2000, the results of
a waterborne disease occurrence study will be complete, and a report will be issued that describes
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waterborne disease outbreaks in the U.S., including the demographics of the affected populations,
the types of pathogens responsible for the outbreaks, and the types of water sources and treatment
deficiencies involved.

       Health effects research on chemicals in 2000 will continue to focus on laboratory and field
studies of selected high priority DBFs, arsenic and contaminants on the CCL. Epidemiology research
will include studies to evaluate the extent to which subpopulations, such as infants and pregnant
women, may experience elevated health risks from contaminants in drinking water.  Hazard
identification and dose-response data to characterize the cancer and noneancer effects of selected
priority contaminants will address key uncertainties in drinking water risk assessments.

          The ability to detect and measure contaminants, particularly microbes, in drinking water
is hampered by the lack of available methods. Many existing methods are too complex, costly and
time consuming to be useful in conducting nationwide occurrence surveys or compliance monitoring
programs.  In 2000, EPA's drinking water research will include developing analytical detection
methods for chemical and microbial contaminants, including those on the CCL.  Information on
contaminant occurrence in drinking water and potential human exposure is needed for setting research
priorities.  Also, measurement methods are needed to conduct well-designed toxicity, assessment and
treatability studies. EPA's research will apply and evaluate newly developed measurement methods
in occurrence and exposure studies for viruses, bacteria and parasites in potential sources of drinking
water.  In 2000, EPA will issue a report on the identification of new DBPs in drinking water resulting
from alternative  disinfectants  used to combat waterborne disease.  The development of a multi-
pathway exposure model for a priority DBF will further reduce uncertainty in drinking water risk
assessments.

       Drinking water research will continue to characterize the magnitude and severity of adverse
health effects associated with exposures to DBFs as complex mixtures, as well as to individual CCL
contaminants. This work in 2000 will include the screening and prioritization of untested  CCL
contaminants and preliminary assessments of chemicals with limited or incomplete information in
order to identify data gaps and research needs. Interpretation and use of epidemiologic data remains
a major uncertainty for understanding  both reproductive and cancer risks from contaminants.
Through the development and application of newer risk science methods and tools for integrating and
interpreting the scientific  data, risk assessment studies can provide the framework for comparing
chemical  and microbiological risks and identify critical research needs and uncertainties.

       One of the challenges in providing safe drinking water lies in minimizing the risks associated
with DBPs while controlling microbial pathogenic risks.  Researchers will continue to focus on
developing and evaluating cost-effective treatment and management approaches that simultaneously
reduce the risk  of waterborne diseases  and exposure to DBPs.  In 2000, EPA will  issue  a
comprehensive summary of the most current understanding of how to control DBFs and microbial
contaminants. As progress is made in the area of controlling Cryptosporidivm, work will shift in
2000 to emerging pathogens and chemicals on the CCL, with an initial focus on microsporidia, methyl
tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and perchlorate.
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       In order to effectively protect the health of the consumer there must be assurance that the
transmission and delivery of water to the tap is done in a way that assures pathogens do not
contaminate the water in this phase of the operation. There is substantial evidence that many factors
can cause the quality of water to deteriorate after treatment. Greater attention will be given to the
design, operation, and maintenance of distribution systems to ensure water quality as well as hydraulic
reliability. In 2000, EPA scientists will continue to develop a better understanding of the risk due to
microbial intrusion into the distribution system, understand how this intrusion occurs, determine the
types of approaches needed to detect pathogens in the distribution system, determine operating
procedures needed to minimize exposure, and identify how intrusion can best be prevented.  This
effort will  include developing guidance on  rehabilitating, designing, replacing, operating and
maintaining distribution systems.  In addition,  efforts to evaluate and protect source waters will be
expanded.

       Research will continue on the evaluation of technologies and the development of techniques
for controlling the formation of corrosion by-products in household plumbing and drinking water
distribution systems and  controlling inorganics, such  as arsenic.   As required by  SDWA, the
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic (50 ng/liter) is being reevaluated by EPA. This
research will focus on the identification and evaluation of more cost effective treatment systems for
small communities. Continuing in 2000, EPA will provide important data on the performance of two
arsenic treatment methods relative to the new  standard that is being developed. Corrosion research
will assist community water systems in achieving lead and copper levels established under SDWA.
FY 2000 Change from FY 1999 Enacted

EPM

•      (+$2,958,400) To assist states/Indian tribes (including the District of Columbia and Puerto
       Rico, and U.S. territories) in implementing the requirements of the two new health-based
       rules — Stage 1D/DBP and Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule — as well as the
       Small Systems Variances and Exemptions rule and capacity development guidances, the
       Consumer Confidence Report regulation,  primacy revisions and operator certification
       guidelines.  These funds will also be targeted to direct implementation activities carried out
       by EPA Regional offices while states are in the process of adopting these rules and for Indian
       tribes - none of whom has attained primacy for any drinking water regulation.

•      (+$3,089,000) To fund analysis and collect occurrence data on health effects, exposure,
       analytical methods and treatment  on potential,  priority contaminants identified in the
       Contaminant Candidate List required by the 1996 SDWA Amendments and issued in 1998.

•      (+$5,826,200) To increase the infrastructure that supports all rule-making activities.  Cross-
       cutting regulatory infrastructure includes:  1) developing new methods and models for health
       risk assessment (i.e., sensitive population considerations), 2) analytical-methods improvements


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and laboratory certification, 3) new economic and cost/benefit methods and data, 4) small
system treatment technologies, and 5) continued emphasis on treatment plant optimization
approaches.  Improved analytical methods for emerging contaminants on the Contaminants
Candidate List will be particularly important, since any further research on these contaminant s
depends upon the availability of reliable analytical methods.

(+$335,200) Source water protection activities will focus support on the implementation of
source water assessment programs mandated by the 1996 Amendments to SDWA,

(+$2,350,000 and +31.4 total workyears) of which 30.0 workyears are directed to the
integration of SDWA and CWA efforts to ensure safe and clean water.  Specifically, this
increase in workyears will provide the staff necessary to help states implement source water
protection efforts in high priority watersheds as part of watershed restoration action strategies
under the Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP) and a  1.4 workyear increase will focus on
assisting the states in expanding their CWA section 305(b) reports to include rivers, streams,
and lakes that are designated for drinking water use.

(+$903,800) to expand the national survey of contamination in fish tissue that was started in
1999 by increasing the number of samples to assure  greater statistical applicability of the
resulting information.

(+$640,800) To reflect a payroll cost  of living adjustment and regional travel increase in
support of drinking water implementation and source  water protection.

(-$944,700) Reflects a shift from the Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) to
establish a permanent Agency system modernization fund to improve management of system
modernization needs to meet the Reinventing Environmental Information (REI) commitment
and other mission  needs on a multi-year basis.  Reductions will  come from  the near
completion of the Data Reliability Action Plan. This Action Plan was initiated at the end of
1998 as the reliability of some SDWIS  data was being questioned.  Most of the activities to
develop the Action Plan are scheduled  for completion in 1999.

(-$520,100) Reflects an overall reduction in the Environmental Monitoring for Public Assess
and Community Tracking (EMPACT)  program. The Agency will continue its commitment
to the program by awarding new grants for metropolitan areas and mamtaining the Agency's
efforts to develop time-relevant communication methods.

(-$2,700,000 and -35.9 total workyears) Of this total, -34.9 workyears are being reoriented
from ground water protection activities (e.g., Comprehensive State Ground Water Protection
and Wellhead Protection programs) to help states implement source water protection and
other efforts in high priority watersheds as part of watershed restoration action strategies
under the Clean Water Action Plan and -1.0 workyear is being reduced from underground
injection control resources to reflect the completion of the Class V study.
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      The 2000 Request is $16,373,000 below the 1999 Enacted budget level due to Congressional
      earmarks received during the appropriations process but not part of the 2000 President's
      Request.
STAG
       (+$50,000,000)  for  the Drinking Water State Revolving  Fund in  support  of the
       Administration's long-term goal to provide about  $500,000,000 for  annual financial
       assistance, once federal capitalization ends.

       The 2000 Request is $53,679,000 below the 1999 Enacted budget level due to Congressional
       earmarks received  during the appropriations process but not part of the 2000 President's
       Request.
      Research

S&T
       (+$5,998,280 and +17.2 workyears) Beginning in 2000, resources are being redirected within
       this objective from selected research on DBFs and microbial pathogens to address research
       on contaminants listed on the CCL, as required by the 1996 Amendments to SDWA.  These
       resources will enable EPA to initiate risk assessment research and assessments for individual
       CCL contaminants; conduct research to investigate technologies for the control of chemicals
       and emerging pathogens on the CCL; initiate a program to obtain human exposure data for
       emerging pathogens on the CCL;  and  address health research needs for new  CCL
       contaminants.  Resources to support this shift to CCL-related research will come out of a
       portion of the ongoing disinfectant by-products and microbial research program, including;
       Disinfection and control technologies which have been sufficiently developed; and specific
       DBF and microbial work which is coming to completion.  Other on-going priority research
       on DBFs and microbial pathogens will continue in 2000 and beyond.

       (+$540,000 and +10 workyears)  This request continues the second year of the Agency's
       Postdoctoral Initiative to enhance our intramural research program, building upon the
       overwhehningly positive response by the academic community to EPA's announcement of 50
       postdoctoral positions for 1999. These positions will provide a constant stream of highly-
       trained postdoctoral candidates who can apply state-of-the-science training to EPA research
       issues.

       (-$7,605,000) Funding to support the following 1999 Congressional earmarks will not be
       continued hi 2000: the American Water Works Association Research Foundation and the
       NationalDecemtalized Water Resources Capacity Development project of the Electric Power
       Research Institute.
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NOTE:The FY  1999 Request, submitted  to Congress in February 1998, included Operating
       Expenses and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in
       Goal 8 and Objective 5.  In the FY 1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the FY 2000
       Request, these resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives. The FY 1999 Request
       columns in this document have been modified from the original FY 1999 Request so that they
       reflect the allocation of these ORD funds across Goals and Objectives.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Drinking Water Systems Operations

 In 2000     At least 100 eligible drinking water systems will have initiated operations that will
            protect human health and ensure compliance with health-based drinking water standards
            through use of the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF).

 In 1999     At least 400 community drinking water systems will receive DWSRF funds that will help ensure
            that these systems provide drinking water that meets all health-based standards.
 Performance Measures                                       FY 1999            FY 2000
 CWSs receiving DW SRF funds to help ensure that they provide      400 CWSs
 drinking water that meets all health-based standards

 Community and nonprofit, noncommunity water systems that have                     100 Water systems
 initiated operations as a result of receiving DWSRF funds.
 Baseline:    All states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico received their complete Drinking Water
             State Revolving Fund capitalization grant awards by the end of 1998. As of December 1998, 350
             drinking water systems nationwide had received DW SRF loans.  Many of these systems are
             expected to use these funds to initiate operations that ensure compliance with drinking water
             health-based standards in FY99.
Drinking Water Health Standards

 In 2000     91 % of the population served by community drinking water systems will receive drinking water
            meeting all health-based standards that were in effect as of 1994, up from 83% in 1994.

 In 1999     89% (an increase of 1% over 1998) of the population served by community water systems will
            receive drinking water meeting all health-based standards in effect as of 1994, up from 83%
            in 1994.
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 Performance Measures                                          FY1999             FY 2000
 Population served by CWSs that will receive drinking water for    89 % Population       91 % Population
 which there have been no violations during the year of any
 federally-enforceable health-based standards that were in place by
 1994.
 Baseline:    In 1994,83% of the population that was served by community water systems received drinking water
              meeting all health-based standards.  Note that a recent recalculation of the baseline for 1994, has
              resulted in a baseline that is 2% higher than that reported in the FY99 Presidential Budget


Rules for High-Rlsk Contaminants

 In 2000      2 regulations - radon & arsenic - will be promulgated/proposed respectively, & 5 rules
             (Stage 1 Disinfection Byproduct, Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment, Variances &
             Exemptions, Consumer Confidence Reports & primacy revisions) will be implemented to ensure
             protection from high-risk contaminants

 In 1999      EPA will develop major risk analyses for microbial and chemical contaminants to support
             selection of contaminants to be regulated.

 In 1999      EPA will issue and begin implementing two protective drinking water standards for high-
             risk contaminants, including disease-causing micro-organisms (Stage I
             Disinfection/Disinfection Byproducts and Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rules).

 In 1999      EPA promulgates monitoring of unregulated contaminants rule to ensure that the highest risk
             contaminants are identified and managed.


 Performance Measures                                         FY1999             FY2000
 States, including DC and PR, that have received training and                            50 States, DC, PR
 technical assistance on 4 of the rules that are being implemented.

 States submitting primacy revisions and number with signed                               30/20 States
 extension agreements for primacy.

 Risk analyses for microbial/chemical contaminants                1 List

 Regulations promulgated that establish protective levels for        2 Rules
 high-risk contaminants

 Availability of monitoring of unregulated contaminants rule.       1 Regulation

 Regulations promulgated/proposed.                                                     2 Regulations


 Baseline:    Since these are new regulations, no baseline is available.
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Protecting Source Water

 In 2000      States and community water systems increase efforts and programs to protect their source
             water resources including ground water.

 In 1999      4,400 community water systems will be implementing programs to protect their source water
             (an increase of 1,650 systems over 1998).
 Performance Measures                                         FY1999              FY 2000
 CWSs with ground or surface water protection programs in place    4,400 CWSs

 States that are implementing their EPA-approved source water                               40 States
 protection assessment programs.

 CWSs implementing efforts to protect their source water resources,                          7000 CWSs
 such as wellhead protection, sole source aquifer, and watershed
 protection.

 Estimated # of CWSs (& estimated % of population served)                                  No Target
 implementing a multiple barrier approach to prevent DW
 contamination

 Population served by CWSs implementing efforts to protect their                         28 Million People
 source water resources, such as wellhead protection, sole source
 aquifer, and watershed protection.


 Baseline:    In 1998, 2,750 community water systems (serving 12 million people) implemented programs to
              protect their source water resources.  By September 1998,1 state was implementing its EPA-approved
              source water protection assessment program. EPA is currently working with its state partners to define
              multiple barrier approach and to identify the programs to be included in this approach. Once this
              definition is final a baseline can be set for the current number of CWSs implementing a multiple
              barrier approach to prevent drinking water contamination. This definition should be final and the
              baseline set by September 1999.

 Underground Injection Well Management

 In 2000      Increase protection of ground water resources by managing underground injection wells.

 In 1999      EPA will ensure protection of groundwater sources of drinking water from potential
              endangerment by promulgating the regulation of UIC Class V wells.

 In 1999     Ensure that 95% of injection wells requiring mechanical integrity testing in a designated high
             priority protection area pass the test on schedule.
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 Performance Measures
 Availability of UIC Class V Regulation

 Underground Injection wells tested and passed for mechanical
 integrity

 States, including DC and PR, that have received training and
 technical assistance on the Class VRule.

 Abandoned or other wells plugged as a direct action by the UIC
 program or indirectly by another program working in partnership
 with UIC to protect ground water sources of drinking water.
   FY1999
1 Final Reg

95 % Wells
FY2000
                     50 States, DC, PR
                         725 Wells
Baseline:     As of September 1998, no states nor PR nor DC had received training and technical assistance on
              the Class V Rule as it has not yet been promulgated. The rule is scheduled to be promulgated in
              the summer of 1999,  As of 1996, 600 injection wells were closed by states.
River/Lake Assessments for Fish Consumption

 In 2000     30% of the nation's rivers and lakes will have been assessed to determine if they contain fish
             and shellfish that should not be eaten or should be eaten in only limited quantities.
             (supports CWAP)

 In 1999     25% of the nation's rivers and lakes will have been assessed to determine if they contain fish
             that should not be eaten or should be eaten in only limited quantities.
 Performance Measures                                         FY1999
 States/Tribes monitoring and conducting assessments based on the  25 States
 national guidance to establish nationally consistent fish advisories.
                        FY2000
                          40 States
 River miles and lake acres assessed for the need for fish
 advisories & compilation of state-issued fish consumption
 advisory approaches

 States for which data is entered into the public right-to-know
 database on beach monitoring and closures.
25 % Rivers/Lakes    30 % Rivers/Lakes
42 States
Baseline:     In 1998, 20% of the nation's waters were assessed to determine if they contained fish that should
              not be eaten or should be eaten in only limited quantities. As of September 1998,16
              states/tribes are monitoring and conducting assessments based on the national guidance to
              establish nationally consistent fish advisories.

Increase Information on Fish and Beaches

 In 2000     Reduce consumption of contaminated fish and exposure to contaminated recreational waters
             by increasing the information available to the public and decision-makers. (Supports CWAP)
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Performance Measures                                          FY1999             FY 2000
 Fish tissue samples collected.                                                          500 Samples

 High-use coastal beaches for which data is entered into the public                          500 Beaches
 right-to-know database on beach monitoring and closures.

 Number of digitized maps entered into the public right-to-know                              150 Maps
 database on beach monitoring and closures.


 Baseline:    EPA data is not currently available on beach monitoring and closures, however, the Agency is
              beginning to compile data on beach monitoring and actions taken to protect the public from
              contamination in these recreational waters. The state/local government survey, which wUl be the key
              piece of information used to report progress, will be phased in to obtain data on all beaches.  The
              baseline is 250 fish tissue samples will be collected by September 1999. By September 2000, the
              cumulative total will be 750 samples.


Drinking Water Designated Use

 In 2000      Increase by 10% (over the 1996 baseline of 36 states) the number of states reporting in their
             Clean Water Act Section 305(b) submittals, the river and stream miles and the acres of lakes
             that are designated for drinking water use.


 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999             FY 2000
 States reporting assessment of river and stream miles and lake acres                          4 States
 for drinking water use in their 305(b) submittals,


 Baseline:    In 1996, 36 states reported in their CWA Section 305(b) submission, the river and stream miles
              that are designated for drinking water use.

Research

Safe Drinking Water Research (DSPs)

 In 2000      Reduce uncertainties and improve methods associated with the evaluation and control of risks
             posed by exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water.

 In 1999      EPA will develop critical dose-response data for disinfectant by-products (DBPs), waterborne
             pathogens, and arsenic for addressing key uncertainties in the risk assessment of municipal
             water supplies.

 In 1999      Evaluating and Comparing the Health Risks and Benefits

 In 2003       Control Contaminants in Drinking Water

 In 2000       Vulnerability of Ground Water Supplies to Viral Contamination
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Performance Measures                                         FY1999                FY 2000
Data on first city study on microbial enteric disease.                 30-SEP-1999

Complete hazard i.d./screening studies on                          30-SEP-l 999
reproductive/developmental effects of selected DBFs.

Report assessing the feasibility of attaining/constructing refined                               1 report
DBF exposure information for extant epidemiologic drinking water
studies.

Report on the identification of new DBFs in drinking water formed                             1 report
by alternative disinfectants.

Complete a peer-reviewed report on the impacts of mixtures of                                1 report
selected DBFs on cancer and various noncancer endpoints,
including reproduction and developmental effects, from animal
studies.

Provide OGWD W with a report describing the use of ozone as a       1 Report
pretreatment technique, Unking the amount of naturally occurring
organic material to the composition and concentration of DBFs.


 Baseline:    It has been recently discovered that minute  concentrations of halogenated disinfection by-products
              (DBFs) are produced with chlorine disinfection reactions. These DBF compounds might have long
              term health effects. Alternative disinfection technologies like ozone and chlorine dioxide produce
              fewer or no chlorinated DBFs and  have been proposed as chlorine alternatives. However, these
              alternatives will also produce potentially, undesirable chemical by-products that need characterization
              and identification so that informed risk management decisions are made. For example, disinfection
              with ozone produces various aldehydes, ketones, and most notably an increase in brominated by-
              product compounds. The bromated compounds are currently suspected of having carcinogenic and
              reproductive health risks. The numbers and variety of aldehydes and ketones are largely unidentified
              and therefore risks are also unknown.

Safe Drinking Water Research (Microbials)

 In 2000     Reduce uncertainties and improve methods associated with the evaluation and control of
             risks posed by  exposure to microbial contaminants in drinking water
 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999              FY 2000

 Interim report on modeling methods for estimating the             09/30/2000
 vulnerability of ground water to viral contamination.

 Report on waterborne disease outbreaks in the U.S.                                          1 Report

 Evaluation of Method 1622 for Cryptosporidium for use in the                              1 Evaluation
 Information Collection Rule.
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Performance Measures (continued)                                    FY1999        FY 2000

Describe different technologies for cost/effective control of                                 09/30/2000
Cryptosporidium oocysts and DBFs.

Add comparative Risk Framework Report                       09/30/1999


Baseline:     There are many small drinking water systems that do not have adequate treatment to control
             microorganisms, especially Cryptosporidium oocysts, and disinfection byproducts placing thousands
             of people at risk (i.e., Cryptosporidium waterborne outbreaks, exposure to suspected carcinogenic
             trihalomethanes [e.g., chloroform]). Research is being conducted at bench and pilot-scale to evaluate
             various treatment technologies such as membranes, bag filtration, slow package slow sand filtration,
             and package disinfection. Previously unknown operating capital costs and performance data will be
             provided to utilities for assisting the selection of cost-effective control technologies for small and
             medium sized plants.

Safe Drinking Water Research (Arsenic)

 In 2000     Reduce uncertainties and improve methods associated with the evaluation and control of risks
            posed by exposure to arsenic in drinking water


 Performance Measures                                       FY 1999              FY 2000
 Report summarizing the results of two additional treatment                                1 Report
 evaluations for arsenic control.

 Provide OGWDW with a report summarizing the results of two      1 Report
 technology evaluations that provide data on the performance of
 arsenic treatment relative to the proposed new standard for arsenic
 control.

 Baseline:    Performance Baseline: Uncertainties exist concerning the nature and magnitude of risks posed by
             exposure to arsenic in drinking water and the effectiveness of alternative control technologies.
             Development of "formal" baseline info for EPA research  is currently underway.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

        The  Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) is the primary data source for
verifying and validating the performance measures related to the objective of enhancing public health
through safe drinking water. There are two components to SDWIS.  SDWIS/FED is a national data
base (housed on a mainframe computer) that includes the core information needed by EPA to assure
that public water systems are  in compliance with all of the statutory requirements in SDWA.  This
core  information includes:  inventory data on  over  170,000 public water systems1 nationwide,
Public Water Systems (PWSs) provide piped water for human consumption to at least 15 service
connections (such as households, businesses or schools), or serve an average of at least 25 people at

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violations of both health-based standards and monitoring requirements by these systems, enforcement
actions taken against systems by the state or EPA, and sampling results for both regulated and
unregulated contaminants in these public water systems.  SDWIS/ STATE is a PC-based system at
the state level that has been designed to address the specific drinking water information needs of the
state. It includes not only the data that the state must report to SDWIS/FED but also data the state
determines to be critical to carry out its primary enforcement authority.

      Formal quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures have been implemented for
both data entry and data retrieval. The Agency has a laboratory certification program to ensure that
there is a consistent approach and method for collecting and analyzing public water supplies' samples
for regulated/unregulated contaminants. In addition, the Agency itself conducts or supports sanitary
survey studies of public water utilities, performs data verification (audits) and management reviews,
and provides extensive technical assistance and training on QA/QC measures.  The SDWIS Executive
Board reviews QA/QC approaches regularly and a peer review process is in place to test any new
modules or revisions to existing modules of SDWIS. The Agency is continually working to improve
data quality and has initiated action in this area through the implementation of a Data Reliability
Action Plan. The focus of this Action Plan is to analyze the overall reliability of the data in SDWIS
and initiate actions to address any problems that may found. This Action Plan and the Agency's
ongoing stakeholder process for review of data quality are fundamental to the drinking water program
as data collection, verification, quality and control are very important aspects for measuring how well
EPA is achieving its annual as well  as longer-term strategic objectives.

      Data will also be compiled on efforts to implement the underground injection control
program, including performance data on mechanical integrity testing of UIC wells and permitting and
closure efforts targeted at Class IV and V wells.  EPA will collect this data from the UIC Federal
Reporting System (7520 forms), which includes information submitted annually by EPA and state
UIC Program Directors to Headquarters. A national workgroup, composed of EPA Headquarters
and Regional staff and state officials, is reviewing the current UIC approach to collecting data, which
uses outmoded methods as completing forms and  submitting them in hard copy to Headquarters or
incompatible PC programs such as Professional File and D-base.  This workgroup is charged with
the design of a new user-friendly PC-based system that will be used by the  UIC community
(Headquarters,  Regions, states) and will focus on the collection  and analysis  of data that are
environmental and performance components of the UIC  programs.  The new data system will have
QA/QC procedures built into its  collection,  maintenance,  processing, and reporting. Both the
implementation of the Government Performance and Results Act and the expected promulgation and
implementation of Class V rule are the catalysts for the development of a new and improved UIC data
system.
least 60 days per year.  PWSs can be community (water is provided to the same population year
round), non-transient non-community (serves at least 25 of the same people at least six months of the
year, e.g., schools, factories, hospitals) and transient (caters to transitory customers in non-residences
such as campgrounds, motels and gas stations).
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       The National Listing of Fish and Wildlife Advisories database is the primary data source for
the performance measures related to safe consumption offish and wildlife.  Each year, states and
tribes submit information that the  Agency enters into the database and validates.  The database
contains information on the water bodies under advisory, the types of advisories and bans in place,
the special category and size ranges offish and/or wildlife involved, chemical contaminants identified
in the advisories, lake acreage or river miles under advisory, the  date advisories were issued, and
the proportion of assessed waters that are under advisory in a given year. Data submitted by states
and tribes on the proportion of assessed waters under advisory will be used to help EPA calculate the
performance measure. Additional data will help the Agency assess program performance in more
detailed areas such as specific types of waters under advisory and/or assessed or specific pollutants.
While states and tribes are assuring that the information they submit is accurate, the Agency provides
detailed guidance  on how to assure that monitoring and sampling procedures are consistent and
accurate. It is important to note that the FY 2000 measure does not directly address the Agency's
goal  of reducing  consumption of contaminated fish. It represents an interim program goal of
increasing the overall proportion of waters that are assessed to see if fish consumption advisories are
necessary.  In the short-term, then, we would expect that the number and area covered by fish
advisories would increase.  In the long-term, as our understanding of the  scope of the problem
increases, the Agency will strive to assist states and tribes in reducing consumption of contaminated
fish through both advisories and remedial efforts.

       EPA data are not currently available on beach monitoring and closures. However, the Agency
issued an Information Collection Request (ICR) to solicit data on beach monitoring and actions taken
to protect the public from contamination in these recreational waters. The state/local government
survey that has been developed as a result of the ICR is the key piece of information used to report
progress.  Information gathered through the EPA survey will be phased in to obtain data on all
beaches.  The survey will be designed to report all information necessary to measure progress against
the annual performance measure goal. The survey instrument was developed through extensive
external consultations,  although it did not undergo a formal peer review.  The database being
developed to store the  information is consistent with all EPA standard operating procedures and
requirements. The database will not contain detailed monitoring or water quality data. Rather, it will
contain information on specific beach advisory and closure activities performed by states, tribes, and
local governments. The Agency's beach monitoring program is undergoing the scientific peer review
process.

Research

       EPA has several  strategies to validate and verify performance measures in the  area of
environmental science and technology research. Because the major output of research is technical
information, primarily in the form of reports, software, protocols, etc., key to these strategies is the
performance of both peer reviews and quality reviews to ensure that requirements are met.

       Peer reviews provide  assurance  during the pre-planning, planning, and reporting of
environmental science and research activities that the work meets peer expectations. Only those
science activities that pass agency peer review are addressed. This applies to program-level, project-

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level, and research outputs. The quality of the peer review activity is monitored by EPA to ensure that
peer reviews are performed consistently, according to Agency policy, and that any identified areas
of concern are resolved through discussion or the implementation of corrective action.

       The Agency's expanded focus on peer review helps ensure that the performance measures
listed here are verified and validated by an external organization. This is accomplished through the
use of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) and the Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC). The
BOSC, established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, provides an added measure of
assurance by  examining the way the Agency uses peer review, as well as the management of its
research and development laboratories.

       In 1998, the Agency presented a new Agency-wide  quality system in Agency Order
5360.1/chg 1. This system provided policy to ensure that all environmental programs performed by
or for the Agency be supported by individual quality systems that comply fully with the American
National Standard, Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data
Collection and Environmental Technology Programs (ANSI/ASQC E4-1994).

       The order expanded the applicability of quality assurance and quality control -to the design,
construction, and operation by EPA organizations of environmental technology such as pollution
control and abatement systems; treatment, storage, and disposal systems; and remediation systems.
This rededication to quality provides the needed management and technical practices to assure that
environmental data developed in research and used to support Agency decisions are of adequate
quality and usability for their intended purpose.

       A quality assurance system is implemented at all levels in the EPA research organization. The
Agency-wide quality assurance system is a management system that provides the necessary elements
to plan, implement, document, and assess the effectiveness of quality assurance and quality control
activities applied to  environmental programs conducted by or for EPA. This quality management
system provides for identification of environmental programs for which  QA/QC  is  needed,
specification of the quality of the data required from environmental programs, and provision of
sufficient resources to assure that an adequate level of QA/QC is performed.

       Agency measurements are based on the application of standard EPA and ASTM methodology
as well as performance-based measurement systems. Non-standard methods are validated at the
project level. Internal and external management system assessments report the efficacy of the
management system for quality of the data and the final research results. The quality assurance annual
report and work plan submitted by each organizational unit provides an accountable mechanism for
quality activities. Continuous improvement in the quality system is accomplished through discussion
and review of assessment results.
Coordination with Other Agencies

       EPA has in place a Memorandum of Understanding and Interagency Agreement with the

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services
CDHHS). The 1996 SDWA amendments include a provision that mandates a joint EPA/CDC study
of waterborne diseases and occurrence studies in public water supplies.  CDC is involved in assisting
EPA in training health care providers (doctors, nurses, public health officials, etc.) on public health
issues related to drinking water contamination and there is close CDC/EPA coordination on research
on microbial contaminants in drinking water.

       In implementing its source water assessment and protection efforts, the Agency coordinates
many of its activities with other Federal agencies. There are three major areas of relationships with
other agencies concerning source water assessments and protection.

*      Land management involves coordinating with the Department of Agriculture's (USDA's)
       Forest Service; the Department of Interior's (DOI) National Park Service, and Bureaus of
       Land Management  and Reclamation;  the Department of Defense's  (DOD's) facilities
       management and operations units; and the U.S. Postal Service to address unified policy on
       Federal land management within source water areas.

•      Public Water Systems fPWSs). Some Federal agencies, i.e., USDA (Forest Service), DOD,
       Department of Energy, DOI (National Park Service), and the U.S. Postal Service, own and
       operate public water systems. EPA's coordination with these agencies focuses primarily on
       ensuring that they cooperate with the states in which their systems are located, and that they
       are accounted for in the states' source water assessment programs as mandated in the 1996
       amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act.

•      Data Availability.. Outreach and Technic§l Assistance. EPA's coordinates with US GS, USDA
       (Forest Service, National Resource Conservation Service, Cooperative State Research,
       Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), Rural Utilities Service); DOT, DOD, DOE,
       DOI (National Park  Service,  and Bureaus of Indian Affairs, Land  Management,  and
       Reclamation); DHHS (Indian Health Service) and the Tennessee Valley Authority.

       EPA is also working closely with the Office ofPipeline Safety in DOT to coordinate language
in the Department's regulations pertaining to its unusually sensitive areas initiative.

       The Agency has in place an "umbrella" Interagency Agreement  that serves as the framework
for coordinating the all the various source water- related activities in these many Federal departments
and agencies.

       The Agency works closely with other federal and state agencies to assure the protection of
hurnanhealth from contaminated fish and shellfish and contaminated recreational waters. EPA works
with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and Centers for Disease
Control (CDC) to learn more about health effects of these types of exposure.  The Agency works
with  ATSDR, National Academy  of Sciences (NAS),  National  Oceanic and  Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA), and Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee
(EDSTAC) to identify and characterize hazardous pollutants, including endocrine disrupters, and

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develop criteria for states to use in establishing water quality standards and developing Total
Maximum Daily Loads. EPA cooperates with the Departments of the Army, Interior, Agriculture
and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to manage the risks associated with
contaminated sediments, which are the major sources of contamination offish.

Research

       While EPA is the only Federal Agency with the direct mandate to protect and provide safe
drinking water, health effects and exposure research is also being conducted at the Center for Disease
Control and  Prevention  (CDC), National Cancer Institute (NCI)  and National Institute for
Environmental Health Sciences (NJEHS). Research related to children's risk and assessing exposures
to children is also being conducted in EPA's Pesticides and Toxics research program and in the Food
and Drug Administration (FDA). Efforts in other Agencies are being carried out either in conjunction
with EPA or are being done as a complement to EPA's research program.  The  private sector,
particularly the water treatment industry, is also conducting research in support of EPA's drinking
water program.

       In March of 1998, EPA published a list of potential contaminants for future regulation, the
Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).  Research to identify data gaps and priority needs in health
effects, exposure and analytical methods are being conducted in conjunction with research efforts in
CDC, NDBHS, Department of Defense (DOD), and FDA.  Interactions with external Stakeholder
groups have also been  initiated, and will help determine EPA's priorities and future drinking water
contaminant research  needs.  Interactions  with the Science Advisory Board's Drinking Water
Committee and the National Drinking Water Advisory Committee will also help EPA to formulate
its drinking water research agenda for the contaminants found on the CCL.

       Arsenic issues  have evoked both national and international  interest and views concerning
possible research that is needed or is useful for assessing arsenic exposure risks, analytical capabilities
and treatment technologies. Arsenic research and assessments are being conducted by the National
Academy of Sciences (NAS), and health effects and exposure research is being carried out by NIEHS.
Statutory Authorities

Safe Drinking Water Act
Clean Water Act
Toxic Substances Control Act
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                           Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                Clean and Safe Water


Objective # 2: Conserve and Enhance Nation's Waters

       By 2005, conserve and enhance the ecological health of the nation's (state, interstate, and
tribal) waters and aquatic ecosystems — rivers and streams, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, coastal areas,
oceans, and ground waters— so that 75 % of waters will support healthy aquatic communities.
                                  Resource Summary
                                 (Dollars in thousands)

Conserve and Enhance Nation's Waters
Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Request
$300,672.5
$135,543,9
$15,5993
$149,529.3
714.2
FY 1999
Enacted
5339,236.8
$166,215.1
$19,492.4
$153,529.3
727.5
FY 2000 FY 2000 Req. v.
Request FY 1999 Ena.
$311,444.1
$141,940.0
$19,974.8
$149,529,3
770.3
($27,792.7)
($24,275.1)
$482.4
($4,000.0)
42.8
                                    Key Programs
                                 (Dollars in thousands)

Water Quality Criteria and Standards (CWAP)
Wetlands (CWAP)
National Estuaries Program/Coastal Watersheds (CWAP)
South Florida/Everglades (CWAP)
Chesapeake Bay (CWAP)
Great Lakes (CWAP)
Gulf of Mexico (CWAP)
FY1999
Request
$19,670.4
$17,489.4
$16,398.5
$3,075.8
$18,880.1
$6,354.8
$4,283.6
FY1999
Enacted
$17,842.5
$16,110.6
$16,544.3
$3,099.3
$19,630.1
$5,381.6
$3,798.9
FY2000
Request
$22,280.7
$18,124.5
$17,048.8
$3,084.6
$18,899.3
$4,366.3
$4,290.6
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Key Programs (continued)
Long Island Sound (CWAP)
Pfiesteria (CWAP)
Pacific Northwest (CWAP)
Lake Champlain (CWAP)
State Pollution Control Grants (Section 106) (CWAP)
State Water Quality Cooperative Agreements (CWAP)
State Wetlands Program Grants (CWAP)
Clean Water Action Plan-Related Research
EMPACT
FY 1999
Request
$500.0
$500.0
$820.7
$1,000.0
$115,529.3
$19,000.0
$15,000.0
$0.0
$0.0
FY1999
Enacted
$900.0
$2,500.0
$713.6
$2,000.0
$115,529.3
$19,000.0
$15,000.0
$0.0
$649.2
FY2000
Request
$500.0
$500.0
$823.9
$1,000.0
$115,529.3
$19,000.0
$15,000.0
$1,855.1
$0.0
FY 2000 Request

       In 1998, the Administration  unveiled its  Clean Water Action Plan that provided a
comprehensive strategy for assessing and restoring the Nation's most impaired watersheds to achieve
healthy aquatic communities and attain clean water and public health goals.  Fundamental to the
Agency's efforts to meet this objective is the management of water quality resources on a watershed
basis, with the full involvement of all stakeholders including communities, individuals, businesses,
state and local governments, and tribes. EPA's ability to meet this objective depends on the success
of regulatory and non-regulatory programs and nationwide efforts to implement a broad range of
policy, planning, and scientific tools to establish local goals and assess progress.  Towards that end,
the  Agency will continue to work with states and tribes to implement Total Maximum Daily Load
(TMDL) programs to establish the analytic underpinning for watershed decisions. EPA will also
provide up-to-date scientific tools (such as easy-to-use, geographically-based models), training, and
technical assistance to support state and tribal TMDL programs. These TMDLs will meet the
requirements of Clean Water Act Section 303 (d), including timely submission of approvable lists of
impaired waters and development of TMDLs at an appropriate pace.

       The Agency will continue to support comprehensive water quality assessments that will
establish baselines against which to gauge progress toward objectives and goals and support decision-
making necessary to  implement  watershed enhancements on a priority basis.  The Agency will
continue to work  with its state and tribal partners to establish water quality  monitoring and
assessment programs appropriate to their identified goals and needs,  including addressing the
elements outlined in EPA's monitoring guidance and Clean Water Act Section 303(d) requirements.
EPA will assemble and report state water quality assessments under Clean Water Act Section 305(b).
EPA ensures that states and tribes are entering relevant water quality and related data into EPA's
modernized national data system (STORET).  An  important use of state  comprehensive quality
assessment programs and other data is the Index of Watershed Indicators (IWT), a collaborative
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exercise with EPA stakeholders to clearly characterize the condition and vulnerability of all of the
Nation's watersheds and coastal waters.  IWI data will be updated on a continuous  basis and
additional data layers developed to refine the system.  The IWI will be critical to understanding and
communicating progress toward the Agency's goals. The IWI program is also in Goal 7,  Objective
1.

       As part of the Clean Water Action Plan, EPA,  in concert with the U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USD A), Department of Interior (DOI) and other Federal agencies, will work with the
states, tribes and territories to implement watershed restoration projects.  The Agency will continue
the development of a tracking system to document the success of programs to reduce nutrient runoff
to America's waters. Working through the National Water Quality Monitoring Council, EPA is
"cooperating on a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of nutrient reduction programs (to
be completed in 2001).

       Critical to improving water quality is our refinement of water quality standards and sediment
quality standards.  The Agency will continue to support states and  tribes in incorporating risk
characterization analyses, priority setting, risk management decisions, and state/tribal adoption and
implementation of water quality standards based on revised criteria. In support of these efforts, the
Agency will move toward  enhancing the BASINS modeling  package, a powerful geographic
information system which links projected  nonpoint source runoff with point source discharges.
BASINS enhancements will include the use  of USD A field scale models to expand the type and scale
of Best Management Practice (BMP) evaluations, and the incorporation of mixing zone models and
AQUATOX, an ecosystem function model.  EPA will continue to provide training to states and
tribes in using the model to simulate complex and local environmental conditions and to support the
development of TMDLs.

       EPA will work with its state partners to ensure that they adopt into their standards a suite of
criteria to protect designated uses. In 2000, the Agency will  develop and publish scientifically
defensible criteria for a broad range of stressors and assist states and tribes in adopting these criteria
to protect public health, attain and maintain aquatic life and other designated uses, and improve the
chemical,  physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters.  EPA will develop guidance
materials for biological criteria and expand the number of Regional Office centers of expertise. The
Agency will also develop and enhance PC-based modeling software to support site-specific metals
criteria. By providing training and workshops, EPA will expand its work with tribes to implement
"Treatment in a Similar Manner as a State"  provisions and establish final  water quality standards
approved by EPA for waters under tribal jurisdiction.  In July 1997, the U.S. District Court issued
a ruling whereby state water quality standards do not go into effect under the Clean Water Act
(CWA) until approved by EPA. The Agency is devoting significant effort into reducing the backlog
of approval actions taken on states' proposed water quality standards. In 2000, EPA will establish
procedures to ensure that future actions are taken within the statutory deadlines. The Agency will
expand its efforts to implement a comprehensive database on state water quality standards that will
help ensure nationwide consistency in state programs and timely action on states' proposed water
quality standards.
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       In watersheds where sediment contamination is determined to be widespread, the Agency will
assist states and tribes in addressing sediment contamination by offering assistance in applying the
Sediment Quality Criteria users guide and training in the use of a sediment quality criteria modeling
package. EPA will complete work on toxicity testing. Toxicity testing is needed for states to evaluate
sediment quality and make  decisions about appropriate  control measures.   EPA  will finish
methodologies to allow states to address a wider range of pollutants. The Agency, in cooperation
with the Departments of Interior and Agriculture, will conduct a place-based contaminated sediment
recovery demonstration project.  EPA will also publish the second National Sediment Quality
Inventory Report to Congress which will include the first Nonpoint Source Inventory.

       The Agency will continue to implement its Nutrient Strategy, employ states and tribes in filling
data gaps, and address implementation issues related to controlling eutrophication, including such
harmful algal blooms aspfiesteria. Since the process for assessing and controlling eutrophication is
considered  site-specific in nature, the best assistance will allow state and tribes to choose the tools
that best fit their conditions (waterbody-specific guidance).  Consistent with this approach and the
Clean Water Action Plan, the Agency will establish numeric criteria for nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and
phosphorus) that are tailored to reflect different waterbody types and different geographical regions
and provide guidance and technical assistance for specific waterbody types (e.g., lakes, rivers, and
estuaries).

       The Agency will participate in a multi-media effort to identify contaminants that may disrupt
endocrine functions in fish, wildlife, and humans.  Because the endocrine system plays an essential
role in human differentiation and growth, the developing fetus and children may be the most sensitive
populations at risk for endocrine  disruption.  The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA),  Safe
Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and other environmental legislation (the Toxic Substances Control Act
(TSCA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FTFRA), and CWA authorize
screening and testing of pesticides, commodity chemicals, and drinking water source contaminants
for endocrine disrupting potential.  The Office of Water will work on this multi-media problem and
support the Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) to advise
the Agency on developing a screening and testing strategy.

       In support of the Agency's Tribal Partnership initiative, the Agency will continue to support
the development, modification, and delivery of EPA training materials and workshops for tribes on
nonpoint source, watershed  management, water quality monitoring, quality assurance and water
quality standards and criteria. EPA expects to approve water quality standards programs for five
additional tribes in 2000.  The Agency will also support  the  distribution of a  National Tribal
Watershed Assessment Framework to support defensible, reproducible Tribal  assessments of the
conditions of their watersheds and the sources of watershed impairments.

       As part of the Clean Water Action Plan, EPA will continue to direct technical and program
assistance to states to help them integrate their new Unified Watershed Assessments and Restoration
Action Strategies with  their  ongoing development and implementation of the TMDL program.
Unified Watershed Assessments are state-led efforts that integrate a variety of assessment tools to
identify those watersheds where aquatic systems do not meet clean water and other natural resource

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goals.  Restoration Action Strategies will provide a comprehensive plan for actions necessary to
restore the health of the most impaired watersheds. With EPA assistance, states will accelerate the
pace of development and implementation of TMDLs for nonpoint source-impaired waters in high
priority watersheds identified through Unified Watershed Assessments under the Clean Water Action
Plan.  EPA will continue to support the Watershed Academy and its course offerings and technical
transfer efforts to better train state, tribal and local agencies in addressing these watersheds.

       The Agency  will continue to build on successes  and improvements achieved through
watershed and ecological restoration projects undertaken in 1999. Based on these experiences,
additional tools and technical information will be provided to states, tribes, local governments, and
local watershed organizations in  2000 to address  their priority water pollution and resource
degradation problems. These techniques will assist in determining the actions needed to solve these
problems and assist in setting milestones for evaluating progress toward environmental improvement.
This approach will contribute toward integrating EPA's various programs and activities into the
watershed management approach.  These programs include: TMDLs, water quality standards and
criteria, nonpoint source controls, permitting, enforcement, wetlands, coastal and marine, source
water protection, and management of contaminated sediments.  The Agency will continue to work
closely with  other Federal agencies  and partners  to integrate  relevant programs to ensure a
comprehensive approach to the protection and restoration of rivers, lakes, and coastal waters.

       EPA will continue its targeted efforts through the National Estuary Program and other efforts
to work with states and other stakeholders to develop and implement watershed management plans
for coastal ecosystems that restore and maintain the health of degraded and threatened coastal aquatic
communities and recreational waters. Components of an enhanced effort on the coasts include:
increased emphasis on coastal partnerships to assist local decision makers  in developing and
implementing protection programs for coastal  watersheds,  application of biological criteria,
development of research plans and monitoring programs, implementation of such plans pertaining to
harmful algal blooms and other coastal and marine problems, and management and remediation of
contaminated sediments.

       For coastal ports, EPA will work with Federal and state partners and other stakeholders to
help ensure that comprehensive dredged material management plans, including provisions for the
beneficial re-use of dredged material, are developed to maintain, restore, and improve the health of
coastal ecosystems. The Agency will also manage pollution sources subject to the Marine Protection,
Research, and Sanctuaries Act; Clean Water Act; Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act;
and other related programs in such a way as to further protect and enhance our Nation's coastal and
ocean waters. Progress in these areas will depend on sound science derived from improved research
and monitoring efforts in coastal and marine waters.

       As part of the  Clean Water Action Plan, EPA  will  continue providing  small grants to
non-profit organizations to support development of watershed partnerships and to advance watershed
restoration efforts. Priority in allocation of grant assistance will be given to organizations that have
the capacity to bring diverse interests together to find creative ways to restore and sustain the health
of aquatic systems on a watershed basis. EPA, in concert  with the United States Department of

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Agriculture (USD A) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NQAA), will
also work with other Federal agencies and states to dramatically increase the number of people
involved in local organizations that have "adopted" their watersheds and to encourage new efforts
where none currently exist. A major focus will be to engage students, seniors, business owners and
employees and others not traditionally involved in water resource issues to participate in ongoing
community watershed efforts.

       Section 106 grants to states, tribes, and interstate agencies are a primary funding source for
the prevention, reduction, and elimination of surface and ground water pollution from point and
nonpoint sources and for enhancing the ecological health of the Nation's waters.  Within this
objective, $115,529,300 is requested for this grant program.  Activities within the section 106
program include permitting, water quality planning and standard setting, pollution control studies,
assessment and monitoring, and training and public information. State efforts will include developing
Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), implementing  an integrated wet weather strategy in
coordination with nonpoint source programs, and developing source water protection programs.
Tribes will continue to conduct watershed assessments and will maintain and improve then" capacity
to implement water quality programs through monitoring, assessments, planning, and standards
development.

       Water Quality Cooperative Agreements (WQCA) will support the creation of unique and
innovative approaches to address requirements of theNPDES program, with special emphasis on wet
weather activities, i.e., storm water, combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows and animal
feeding operations.   In the  wet weather area, these grants have been invaluable in  enabling
demonstrations of unique technical, as well as managerial and funding techniques for addressing wet
weather problems. Specifically these fonds will be used to conduct special studies, demonstrations,
outreach and training efforts which will enhance the ability of the regulated community to deal with
non-traditional pollution problems in priority watersheds.  Within this objective, $19,000,000 is
requested for this program.

Geographic Initiatives

       EPA will continue to support targeted geographic initiatives of national importance, including
the National Estuary Program, the Chesapeake Bay Program, Gulf of Mexico Program, South
Florida/Everglades, the Pacific Northwest Forest Plan, and the Great Lakes, including research,
analysis, and outreach needed to complete the Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs) for Lake Erie,
Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior. Activities will be conducted in conjunction with the efforts of
the Great Lakes National Program Office as described in Goal 6.  Special emphasis in these varied
regions provides the opportunity not only to have necessary heightened Federal involvement in critical
watersheds, but to develop and implement water quality control practices and other management
tools whose successes can be transferred to other watersheds nationwide. EPA is also committed to
supporting the implementation of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project, the
Long Island Sound Office, and the Lake Champlain Management Conference,
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       The Gulf of Mexico Program activities support three environmental goals: (1) protecting
human health and the food supply; (2) maintaining and improving Gulf habitats that support living
resources; and  (3) maintaining and enhancing the sustainability of Gulf living resources.  To
accomplish these gods, the Gulf of Mexico Program has focused on  four high-priority areas for
program implementation: reducing/preventing excessive nutrient enrichment; protecting public health
by preventing disease and reducing pollution sources; protecting and restoring important habitat; and
reducing environmental risks associated with the introduction of harmful nonindigenous species.
Annual performance goals for 2000 will support Gulf State efforts to reduce nutrient loads and
minimize health effects from consumption of seafood or from contact with coastal waters. Additional
areas of emphasis will include achievement of measurable habitat protection/restoration goals and
establishment of ballast water monitoring and management programs in Gulf ports.

       The Chesapeake Bay Program's overall goal is to restore and protect living resources and
their habitats. To accomplish this goal, the Chesapeake Bay Program has focused on reducing the
levels of nutrients by 40  percent by the year 2000 and maintaining that level thereafter, and on
reducing toxics and restoring habitats important to fish and shellfish in the Bay.  A good indicator of
the Bay's health is the abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). By 2000, EPA expects
the Chesapeake Bay to contain 71,500 acres, up from 37,000 acres in 1984.
                    htsrflm &M! «tt MB Mm9
Wetlands

       This objective also encompasses the Agency's efforts to protect and restore the Nation's
wetlands through a combination of regulatory  approaches and assistance and incentive-based
programs. A total of $15,000,000 is requested from the STAG appropriation for the wetlands grants
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program.   EPA will work with other Federal agencies and non-Federal partners to continue
implementation of the Clean Water Action Plan in an effort to achieve a net gain of 100,000 acres of
wetlands per year by 2005.  Information on watersheds will be reviewed to identify where the
continuing loss of wetlands is a significant factor contributing to problems of water quality and loss
of species. Working with Federal agencies through the White House Interagency Wetlands Working
Group, and with state and tribal agencies, the Agency will develop a program to reduce wetland
losses in those watersheds in a manner that will yield the most water quality and habitat benefits.
EPA will continue to work with other Federal agencies to implement the provisions of the Clean
Water Act (CWA) Section 404 program to protect wetlands, free-flowing streams, and shallow
waters in a fair, flexible, and effective manner.  EPA will support community-based partnerships to
restore river corridors and wetlands to remediate significant ongoing adverse impacts of past policies
and practices.  Working with its state and tribal partners, EPA will  develop biological indicators,
criteria  and  assessment methods to relate  net  changes  in  wetland acreage to  its  effect  on
environmental functions.  EPA will provide training to its partners and sponsor demonstration
projects to improve the quality of decisions affecting wetlands and associated resources. EPA will
work with economic sectors that impact wetlands to improve communication and to engage them in
dialogue with environmental interests.

       Through its Five Star Projects to demonstrate restoration of river corridors and wetlands and
other new and established partnerships, EPA is uniquely positioned to direct resources to community-
based restoration projects and to attract matching resources from many partners, including corporate,
state, tribal, local, non-profit, volunteer, and Service/Conservation Corps groups. EPA will help its
partners to identify new opportunities for collaboration so that they can undertake future restoration
actions independent of ongoing Federal assistance. The program will also enable EPA to provide
additional guidance, training,  methods and  technical  assistance to support restoration efforts
nationwide.

Research

       The loss of ecosystems goes hand in hand with the loss of valuable renewable resources and
services such as wood for construction, water storage and flood control, biodegradation and removal
of contaminants from air and water, and pest and disease control.  Thus, it is critical that  we
understand the health of our ecosystems and identify stressors that are contributing to forest decline,
widespread epidemics of toxic microorganisms in estuaries, reproductive failure of wildlife, and the
destruction of critical habitat.  Many of the problems of concern at the regional scale are either a
result of regionally distributed stressors such as acidic deposition or a cumulative result of many small
local problems such as local habitat alteration or nutrient enrichment.

       Research in  this objective will increase understanding of landscape characteristics and
ecosystem structure and function, as well as reduce uncertainty surrounding the effects of chemical,
biological and physical stressors on aquatic ecosystems. This work includes developing stressor-
response models for chemical contaminants, improving the ability to identify critical  stressors, and
predicting impacts from increased nutrient run-off that include an increase in harmful algal blooms.
Under the Clean Water Act, states are required to develop designated uses for their waters. This

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research will provide an improved biological basis for these designated uses, necessary for improving
existing water quality across the country. Some of the modeling research in this objective relates to
the Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP).

       Modeling  and landscape characterization research will improve the development of Total
Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and permits for point and non-point source discharges. Efficient
methods for developing TMDLs are greatly needed, because of the increasing number of lawsuits that
require timely  TMDL  development.  Modeling  research will develop advanced predictive
mathematical models to more accurately characterize stressor sources, such as temperature, oxygen-
demanding wastes, pathogens, sediments, nutrients, metals, pesticides and other hazardous chemicals,
particularly those  associated with sediment loads and aerial transport and deposition.  Landscape
characterization research investigates methods for characterizing aquatic stressors at multiple scales.
Impairments (e.g., sediment loading) identified in one watershed can be inferred to potentially exist
in another watershed with similar landscape characteristics (e.g., agriculture  on steep slopes). This
approach provides a more efficient method for setting TMDLs, compared  to using conventional
monitoring and modeling.

       Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of chemical contaminants will also be addressed in this
research.  Chemicals that  bioaecumulate are frequently deposited in sediments, where  they can
adversely affect sediment biota and the organisms dependent upon the benthic communities. They
can also move into the food chain where they may impact both human health and wildlife. Sediment
contamination can result from point and nonpoint sources of pollution such as industrial discharges
and stormwater runoff, respectively,  and increased loadings of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus).
Research will be  conducted to  evaluate exposure to contaminated sediments at the population,
community, and  ecosystem  scale.  EPA will also  develop and  evaluate more cost  effective
technologies and approaches for managing contaminated sediments, emphasizing the identification
of innovative in situ solutions.

       In addition to these areas, research  will be conducted  to understand the dynamics of
ecosystem response to eutrophication (the rapid growth of plant life in a water body resulting from
high nutrient levels) that frequently includes hypoxia (a  low-oxygen condition), and increases in
harmful algal blooms.  An area of approximately 7000 square miles in the Gulf of Mexico is hypoxic,
and the incidence  of algal blooms is increasing in coastal waters world-wide.  These stresses may be
related to increased nutrient  loadings  and eutrophication.   They threaten ecosystem  integrity,
sustained use, and productivity. Stressor response models will be developed to understand and predict
the relationship between  stressors such as  nutrients,  eutrophication  and hypoxia  on aquatic
ecosystems including wetlands, riparian  zones, sediments, and freshwater and marine ecosystems.

        The research in this^objective will provide an integrated approach to developing stressor-
response profiles  for chemical, biological and physical  stressors and development of watershed
diagnostics to identify critical stressors in an aquatic ecosystem. This work will be useful in deriving
protective criteria, strengthening the biological basis for  designated uses in state and Tribal water
quality standards, improving the scientific foundation for point and non-point source TMDLs, and
detennining appropriate and effective watershed management alternatives.

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FY 2000 Change from FY 1999 Enacted

EPM

       (+$8,953,400, +16.2 total workyears)  This increase will enable the Agency to increase
       technical and programmatic support for state and tribal compliance with Clean Water Act
       section 3 03 (d) requirements, including the development and implementation of state and tribal
       TMDL programs. It will provide increased support for the development of improved tools
       and techniques for watershed management through vehicles such as the Watershed Forum.
       Within this amount, $1,000,000 is requested to increase funding for community-based
       watershed assistance grants, which support local watershed organizations in their planning
       and stakeholder involvement activities.

•      (+$1,162,500, +8.3 total workyears) Coastal problems such as habitat deterioration and loss,
       toxics, toxic Pfiesteria and harmful algal blooms, marine biotoxins/pathogens and other
       coastal problems will be addressed in expanded coastal partnerships,  in a coastal monitoring
       plan, a research strategy, and in implementation of the Harmful Algal Bloom Research and
       Monitoring Strategy. A comprehensive assessment of the quality of coastal waters will be
       initiated.

•      (+$1,368,700, +6.0 total workyears) Resources will support the Agency's effort to enhance
       water quality monitoring and assessment activities.

•      (+$474,300)  Resources will be used to reduce the backlog of approvals/disapprovals of
       state water quality standards and to develop an improved review process to ensure that EPA
       actions are taken within the statutory deadlines.

•      (+$250,000) Funds will allow EPA to conduct a place-based contaminated sediment recovery
       demonstration project.

•      (+$1,000,000)  Resources will be used to examine potential endocrine disrupters. In 2000,
       EPA will monitor drinking water sources to identify contaminants to be screened and tested.
       The initial effort will include studies to determine the extent of source water contamination
       with excreted human and animal reproductive hormones including not only natural hormones,
       but also those used in birth control, hormone replacement therapy and, for animals, growth
       and lactation enhancement.  This cross-office effort will  address concerns raised for both
       human and ecological effects with the results to support the development of water quality
       criteria.

       (+$868,100) to enhance states' ability to collect the necessary data and support development
       of ecoregion-based, site-specific nutrient criteria. The Clean Water Action Plan directs EPA
       to establish numeric nutrient criteria so  that state nutrient criteria can be in place  by 2003.
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(+$409,700, +3.0 total workyears) Funds will be used to expand Agency support to Indian
tribes and assist more tribes in adopting and implementing effective water quality standards
programs.

(+$2,013,800, +6.0 total workyears) Additional workyears for the wetlands program will
enable EPA to increase its abilities to work with Federal, state and local partners to meet our
national objective of a net increase of 100,000 acres of wetlands per year by 2005. EPA will
emphasize avoiding wetlands losses and increasing restoration efforts; for unavoidable losses,
the Agency will increase mitigation accountability and improve the reliability of restoration.
The workyear increase will allow EPA to better support states and tribes to assume lead
implementation roles in wetlands protection and restoration. States are well positioned to use
locally-tailored approaches to avoid wetlands losses and to  restore wetlands through
voluntary initiatives. Within these amounts, $1,000,000 is included to increase funding for
the Five-Star Restoration Program, supporting locally-led river corridor and wetlands
restoration demonstrations.

(+$800,000) to support basic and essential aspects of successful state water quality standards
programs. EPA will begin to develop an additional five aquatic life criteria as well as key
technical guidance on implementing biocriteria as planned under the Clean Water Action Plan.
The Agency will provide training to state permit writers through grants with universities in
developing TMDLs, many of which are subject to court-ordered deadlines. To support the
Clean Water Action Plan goal of achieving consistent application of designated uses
nationwide and to address the backlog in EPA's decisions on proposed state water quality
standards decisions, the Agency will increase its efforts to implement a comprehensive water
quality standards database.

(+$491,800) to increase  efforts in  the Gulf of Mexico Program, including reducing/
preventing excessive nutrients and other pollutants, protecting and restoring habitat, and
reducing environmental risks associated with the introduction of nonindigenous species.

(+$600,000)  to  promote successful  implementation of  state  contaminated sediment
management programs, EPA will provide important tools needed to evaluate sediment quality
and make decisions about control measures like permitting or remediation.  EPA will verify
that sediment quality guidelines are protective of aquatic organisms, perform field validation
studies for freshwater toxicity tests, and complete chronic test manuals. The Agency will also
finish the methodologies for metal and PAH mixtures and nonionic organics and issue the first
two sediment quality guidelines.

(-$1,000,000) Reflects reduced funding for certain targeted planning and implementation
efforts in the Great Lakes Basin.  These efforts will be integrated into Great Lakes area
comprehensive watershed restoration action strategies as detailed in the Clean Water Action
Plan.
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       The 2000 Request is $40,575,000 below the 1999 Enacted budget level due to Congressional
       earmarks received during the appropriations process but not part of the 2000 President's
       Request.
•      The 2000 Request is $4,000,000 below the 1999 Enacted budget level due to Congressional
       earmarks received during the appropriations process but not part of the 2000 President's
       Request.

       Research

S&T

•      (+$216,000 and +4 workyears)  This request continues the second year of the Agency's
       Postdoctoral Initiative to  enhance our intramural research program,  building upon the
       overwhelmingly positive response by the academic community to EPA's announcement of 50
       postdoctoral positions for 1999.  These positions will provide a constant stream of highly-
       trained postdoctoral candidates who can apply state-of-the-science training to EPA research
       issues.

NOTE:  The FY 1999 Request,  submitted  to Congress in February 1998, included Operating
Expenses and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in Goal 8
and Objective 5. In the FY 1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the FY 2000 Request, these
resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives. The FY 1999 Request columns in this document
have been modified from the original FY 1999 Request so that they reflect the allocation of these
ORD funds across Goals and Objectives.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Assessments of Designated Uses

 In 2000     Improve assessments of progress toward attainment of designated uses.

 In 1999     21 States will electronically update their 1998 305(b) information reflecting adequate
            monitoring and assessment programs (Base of 0).


 Performance Measures                                     FY 1999            FY2000
 Assess, river miles, lake acres, and estuary sq. miles that have wq                        No Target
 support, desig. ben. uses, where applic., for: a) fish and shellfish
 consump., b) recreation, c) aquatic life support; d) dw supply

 States electronically submit updated 305(b)                    21 States


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Performance Measures
 States, Tribes, and Territories electronically submit updated
 305(b).
    FY 1999
  FY 2000
 40 States, etc.
Baseline:      21 states electronically submitted updated 305(b) information in FY  1998.  As reported in the
              "National Water Quality Inventory 1996 Report to Congress," 85% of the river miles, 65% of the lake
              acres, and 73% of the estuary square miles assessed for meeting the fish consumption designated use
              met this use; 79% of the river miles, 75% of the lake acres, and 76% of the estuary square miles
              assessed for meeting the recreation designated use met this use; 68% of the river miles, 69% of the lake
              acres, and 69% of the estuary square miles assessed for meeting the aquatic life support designated use
              met this use; and 84% of the river miles and 91% of the lake acres assessed for meeting the drinking
              water supply designated use met this use. Due to the manner by which data are currently collected,
              305(b) data cannot be used to establish trends.

Clean Water Action Plan Implementation

In 2000       Restore and protect watersheds through implementation of CWAP strategies.

In 1999       As part of the Clean Water Action Plan, all states will be conducting or have completed
              unified watershed assessments, with support from  EPA, to identify aquatic resources in greatest
              need of restoration or prevention activities.

In 1999       26 States submit implementation plans to EPA (either as separate plans of as part of water
              quality management plans or other watershed planning process) that describe the processes
              for implementing TMDLs developed for waters impaired solely or primarily by nonpoint
              sources.
Performance Measures
States that submit 303(d) lists with schedules for establishing
TMDLs.

States submitting implementation plans for TMDLs for waters
impaired solely or primarily by NFS

TMDLs sched. to be completed; TMDLs under est. by EPA &. the
states; TMDLs submitted by the state; state-est. TMDLs approved;
& TMDLs est. by EPA.

Assessed river miles, lake acres, & estuary square miles that a)
are covered under Watershed Restoration Action Strategies and b)
were restored to their designated uses during the reporting period.

States that are conducting or have completed unified watershed
assessments

Submission, with Nat'l Watershed Forum, of a Watershed Rest
Progress Report to the President, etc. eval. progress &
recommend, any actions needed to improve progress toward
meeting clean water goals.
  FY1999
  26 States
50 States
FY2000
50 States
                  no target
                  no target
                  1 Report
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Baseline:     FY 2000 will be the first time that a Watershed Restoration Progress Report is submitted to the
              President, therefore, there is no baseline. States submit 303(d) lists every 2 years; as of January
              1999,47 states had submitted their 1998 lists.  The 1998 303(d) list submissions from the states
              are under review to determine the national total of TMDLs scheduled to be developed and the
              number currently under establishment. Of those TMDLs scheduled to be developed on the 1998
              303(d) lists, none have been submitted, established, nor approved. The States and Tribes are still
              in the process of submitting the first round of Watershed Restoration Action Strategies.  Once
              these strategies     are submitted, they will be analyzed to determine the number of assessed river
              miles, lake acres, and estuary square miles that are covered by the strategies. For any given
              reporting period the baseline for waters restored to their       designated uses during the
              reporting period starts at zero.  Once implementation of the Watershed   Restoration Action
              Strategies starts to result in waters restored to their designated uses, a baseline can be established to
              compare one reporting period to another. FY2000 will be the first time that this measure will be
              applied.

Chesapeake Bay Habitat

 In 2000      Improve habitat in the Chesapeake Bay.

 In 1999      Improve habitat in the Chesapeake Bay.
 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999              FY 2000
 Wastewater flow to the Chesapeake Bay treated by Biological       25 % WW flow         40 % WW flow
 Nutrient Removal.

 Acres of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) present in the        65,000 Acres            71,500 Acres
 Chesapeake Bay.

 Acres of aquatic reef habitat designated, with construction and      11,000 Acres            11,000 Acres
 restoration of oyster reef habitat to occur within those areas.

 Agricultural, recreational and public lands that have voluntary      60 % lands               70 % lands
 integrated pest management (IPM) practice established in the
 Chesapeake Bay watershed.

 Stream miles of migratory fish habitat reopened through provision  400 Miles                877 Mies
 offish passages.

 Baseline:    In 1985,0% of wastewater flow had been treated by Biological Nutrient Removal. In 1994, 0 acres
              of aquatic reef habitat was designated, restored or constructed.  In 1989,49 miles of migratory
              fish habitat was reopened. In 1984, there were 37,000 acres of submerged aquatic vegetation in
              the Chesapeake Bay. In 1988, voluntary IPM practices had been established on 2% of the lands
              in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

Protecting and Enhancing Estuaries

 In 2000     All Tier I-V National Estuary Programs have completed Comprehensive Conservation and
             Management Plans (CCMPs) - blueprints for protecting and enhancing the estuaries.
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 In 1999     Complete 21 of 28 Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans (CCMPs) in the
             National Estuary Program.  (Base of 17)
 Performance Measures                                          FY1999             FY 2000
 Completed CCMPs                                           21 CCMPs               28 CCMPs

 Baseline:     In My 1998,17 NEPs had approved CCMPs.

Marine Debris Monitoring

 In 2000       100% of marine coastal states, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and territories are monitoring their
             coastlines for sources and types of marine debris.
 Performance Measures                                          FY 1999             FY2000
 Marine coastal states, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and territories                        100 % States, etc.
 monitoring their coastlines for sources and types of marine debris.
 Baseline:     As of 1998,75% of coastal states and territories were monitoring their coastlines for sources and
              types of marine debris.

State/Tribal Water Quality Standards

 In 2000     Assure that States and Tribes have effective, up-to-date water quality standards programs
             adopted in accordance with the Water Quality Standards regulation and the Water Quality
             Standards program priorities.

 In 1999     Provide to States and Tribes tools for risk characterization of and decision making regarding
             surface water contaminants, including PBTs and nutrients, that allow them to set and meet
             their own water quality standards.

 In 1999     EPA will review and approve or disapprove new or revised water quality standards for 15 states
             that reflect current guidance, regulation, and public input (Base of 10).

 In 1999     17 Tribes will have established effective water quality standards programs.
 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999              FY 2000
 States with new or revised water quality standards that EPA has     15 States                 15 States
 reviewed and approved or disapproved.

 Models, methods, criteria developed/available for risk              1 List
 characterization of surface water contaminants.

 Tribes with water quality standards adopted and approved          17 Tribes                 22 Tribes

 Baseline:    State water quality standards program reviews are under a 3-year cycle as mandated by the Clean
              Water Act under which all states maintain updated water quality programs; therefore, the Agency
              will review approximately one-third of all state/tribal programs each year.  At the end of FY
              1998,14 tribes had adopted and approved water quality standards.


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Gulf of Mexico: Nutrient Reduction

In 2000      Provide technical and financial assistance to the Gulf State efforts to reduce excessive
             nutrient loads into priority watersheds, estuaries, and Gulf coastal waters, including point
             sources, storm water, agricultural runoff, and atmospheric deposition.
 Performance Measures                                          FY1999              FY2000
 Gulf States with identified priority watersheds for nutrient                                    5 States
 reduction provided project support by EPA.

 Gulf States, working with local governments, to select point and                              3 States
 nonpoint source controls to be implemented in each priority
 watershed with EPA assistance.

 Priority coastal waters supported by the monitoring programs for                           2 Coast, waters
 nutrients and pathogens with EPA assistance.
 Baseline:     Providing assistance to states and coastal waters for identifying priority watersheds for nutrient
              reduction, selecting point and nonpoint source controls to be implemented in priority watersheds,
              and supporting monitoring programs for nutrients and pathogens are all new initiatives for
              FY2000; thus as of September 1998, no states nor coastal waters had been provided such
              assistance. There are 5 Gulf states.
Gulf of Mexico: Nonpoint Sources

 In 2000      Reduce the number of nonpoint sources contributing to the total load of fecal contamination
             and nutrients in 2 targeted Gulf watersheds.

 In 1999      Reduce the number of nonpoint sources contributing to the total load of fecal contamination
             and nutrients in Gulf waters, in two priority Gulf coastal watersheds.
 Performance Measures                                           FY 1999             FY 2000
 Priority watersheds that EPA assisted Gulf States in actions                                2 Watersheds
 completing watershed assessments and supporting TMDLs.

 Gulf watersheds with State actions to reduce NFS loads to Gulf     2 Watersheds
 growing waters.


 Baseline:    As of September 1998, EPA provided assistance to Gulf States to complete assessments of 2
              watersheds.

Gulf of Mexico: Seagrass Restoration

 In 2000     Assist in implementing seagrass restoration efforts in Gulf coastal estuaries.

 In 1999     Initiate the development of marine conservation plans for Gulf Coast seagrasses in all 5 Gulf
             States.

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Performance Measures                                          FY1999             FY 2000
Gulf states with marine conservation plans for seagrasses.             5 States

Coastal estuaries that EPA assisted in implementing seagrass                                5 Estuaries
restoration projects.
Baseline:     Assisting in implementing seagrass restoration efforts in Gulf coastal estuaries is a new
              initiative for FY2000; thus, as of September 1998, no estuaries had been provided assistance.

Dredged Material/Ocean Disposal

 In 2000      Appropriate action taken with regard to dredeged material ocean disposal site designation in
             one additional case.

 In 1999      Appropriate action with regard to dredged material ocean disposal site designation in one
             additional case. (Base of 77)
 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999              FY 2000
 Appropriate actions taken re: dredged material ocean disposal       1 Action

 Additional appropriate actions taken (e.g., site designation,                                  1 Actions
 designations, or Site Management and Monitoring Plan
 development).
 Baseline:    Appropriate actions have been taken with regard to dredged material ocean disposal designation
              sites in 77 cases as of September 1998.

Clean Water Action Plan: Priority Watersheds

 In 2000     Environmental improvement projects will be underway in 350 high priority watersheds as a
             result of implementing activities under the CWAP.
 Performance Measures                                         FY1999              FY 2000
 High priority watersheds in which environmental improvement                           350 Watersheds
 projects are underway as a result of implementing activities
 under the CWAP.

 Baseline:    Through their Unified Watershed Assessments, states have identified 815 high priority watersheds.
              One major facet of restoration and protection work will be nonpoint source efforts.  To measure
              progress against this goal, EPA will track the number of watersheds receiving the additional CWA
              Section 319 grant funds provided under the CWAP. The first of these funds are being awarded in
              FY99 so the current baseline for this goal is zero.

Assess, Monitor, and Restore Wetlands

 In 2000     EPA will provide financial/technical support to States & Tribes to develop/implement
             statewide/tribal-nationwide programs to assess and monitor overall wetland health & for
             projects that restore wetlands within the development or implementation of watershed-based
             restoration/improvement plans.

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In 1999      16 (cumulative number) States/Tribes developing assessment/monitoring tools and making
             significant progress towards establishing statewide/tribal-nationwide programs to assess and
             monitor overall wetland improvements/deterioration (Base of 11).


Performance Measures                                          FY1999              FY 2000
States/tribes develop, wetlands assess./monitoring tools & making                         21 States/tribes
significant progress towards est. formal programs to assess and
monitor overall wetland cond., improve., deterior., & restor..

Within the devel. or implem. of watershed-based rest/improve.                              65 Projects
plans, the # of wetland rest. proj. to which EPA has prov. finan.
support (other than Five-Star Projects)/contrib. sig. tech. assist.

States/Tribes developing assess./monitoring tools and making sig.   16 States/Tribes
progress towards estab. statewide/tribal-nationwide programs to
assess wetland improvement/deterioration.


 Baseline:    As of September 1998, EPA provided technical and financial support to 11 states/tribes to develop
              the technical bases and programs to assess and monitor overall wetland health. Providing funding
              for wetland restoration projects that are implemented under watershed-based
              restoration/improvement projects is a new initiative; thus as of September 1998, other than Five
              Star Projects, EPA has provided financial support for 0 such projects.


Wetland and River Corridor Projects

In 2000      Working through the Five Star Program, EPA will have cooperated on and supported wetland
             and river corridor projects in a total of 210 watersheds (Supports CWAP).

In 1999      EPA will provide funding to restore wetlands and river corridors in 30 watersheds that meet
             specific "Five Star Project" criteria relating to diverse community partnerships (for a
             cumulative total of 44 watersheds).
 Performance Measures                                          FY 1999             FY 2000
 Watershed-/community-based wetlands/river corridor restoration   44 Projects              210 Projects
 projects funded by EPA's Five Star Program. (Cumulative total)
 Baseline:    As of September 1998, EPA cooperated on and supported 14 wetland and river corridor projects
                through the Five Star Program.  The Five-Star Restoration Challenge Grant Program is an
                outgrowth of the President's Clean Water Action Plan. The program is open to any public or
                private entity and provides modest financial assistance to support community-based
                wetlands/riparian restoration projects and locally-based, natural resource stewardship.

Research

Scientific Rationale for Surface Water Criteria
 In 2000     Develop the scientific rationale for numerical criteria for surface waters.


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 Performance Measures                                         FY1999              FY 2000
 Develop a research strategy for development of numerical criteria                           09/30/2000
 for surface waters.
 Baseline:    Performance Baseline: It is important to understand the nutrient requirements of harmful algal
              species in order to address the problem of algal blooms.  Development of "formal" baseline
              information for EPA research is currently underway.

Peer Review for Water Quality Criteria

 In 2000      Peer review the concept of risk-based criteria for water quality criteria.

 In 1999      Risk Management of Contaminated Sediments
 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999             FY 2000
 Report for external peer review associating tissue levels and                                  1 report
 effects of dioxin-like compounds in wildlife.

 Development of a framework for deriving water quality criteria for                          09/30/2000
 protection of wildlife

 Completion of methods to determine toxicity of contaminated                          09/30/2000 methods
 sediments to aquatic animals and vascular plants.
 Baseline:    Performance Baseline: There is a need to develop a scientifically defensible risk-based
              methodology for deriving water quality criteria. Development of "formal" baseline information
              for EPA research is currently underway.

Surface Water Life Support Function Identification

 In 2000      Identify the primary life support functions of surface waters that contribute to the management
             of sustainability of watersheds.

 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999             FY 2000
 Research strategy document to determine the impact of landscape                            1 strategy
 changes on wetland structure and function.
  Baseline:    Performance Baseline: Research is needed to improve our understanding of the factors that
              affect ecosystem sustainability. Development of "formal" baseline information for EPA research
              is currently underway.

Conceptual Framework for Water Quality Impairment

 In 2000     Develop a conceptual framework for the diagnosis and assessment of water quality
             impairment in U.S. watersheds.

 In 1999     EPA will provide data and information for use by states and regions in assessing and managing
             aquatic stressors in the watershed, to reduce toxic loadings and improve ecological risk
             assessment.

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 In 1999     Methods for Screening Aquatic Systems
 Performance Measures                                      FY1999            FY 2000
 Report on the requirements of submerged aquatic vegetation in     30-SEP-1999
 coastal environments.

 Develop and provide a research strategy for integrating economic   30-SEP-l 999
 assessment with ecological risk assessment of multiple aquatic
 stressors applied at two locations.

 Complete Big Darby Watershed Risk Assessment.                                    1 assessment

 Complete guidance document on acquiring data for conducting                          1
 watershed analyses for multiple stressors and receptors.

 Complete report on an assessment of the viability of natural                             1 assessment
 attenuation as an option for the risk management of contaminated
 sediments.
 Baseline:    Performance Baseline: There is a need to move toward a more holistic approach to watershed
             management through the development of diagnostic tools. Development of "formal" baseline
             information for EPA research is currently underway.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

       The measure of designated use-support for assessed waters depends on data provided to EPA
pursuant to Clean Water Act Section 305(b).  This requires each state, territory, interstate water
commission, the District of Columbia and participating Tribes to develop a program to monitor the
quality of its surface and ground waters and prepare a report describing the status of its water quality.
       EPA provides guidance to help ensure the quality of data submitted. With the assistance of
the states, participating tribes, and other jurisdictions, EPA will update national guidance (scheduled
for the fall of 1999) for the 2000 Section 305(b) report submission.  This guidance delineates the
water quality elements  for update,  as well as  provides direction to ensure consistency and
comparability of the water quality monitoring and assessment data. While state 305(b) assessments
provide an  adequate representation  of individual states' water quality conditions, the Agency
recognizes that differing processes and methods among states can result in varying depictions of the
nation's water quality. The Agency intends to address this issue in early 1999 by convening a national
305(b) consistency workgroup. The Water Body System (WBS) defines and tracks the data elements
at the water body level and summarizes at various scales.  The WBS provides coding guides with
technical instructions for data users.  The guidance describes annual electronic protocols for
submission of the water quality data.
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       Some performance measures are expressed as the completion of explicit tasks. Verification
of these measures will require the objective assessment of completed tasks by program staff and
management. Those measures for which data verification and validation are not at issue include:
number of states electronically submitting 305(b) information; completed CCMPs; number of states
with marine debris monitoring programs; number of states submitting 303(d) lists; number of TMDLs
scheduled for completion; completion of the Watershed Restoration Progress Report; number of
ocean disposal site designation actions;  number of states developing wetlands health assessment
programs; and number of wetlands/river corridor restoration projects supported.

       Performance measures in the Chesapeake Bay Program are verified through direct monitoring
or through requirements of state grants,  i.e., grant deliverables.  For example, the number of
submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) acres in the Bay is measured directly by aerial photography and
photo interpretation via a grant and scope of work with explicit guidelines for collection of the
photography.  Similarly, the number of oyster reef acres is accomplished and verified through
restoration grants requirements for follow-up monitoring. The remaining performance measures are
monitored by the respective states agencies and reported as grant deliverables. All data must be
documented according to the requirements in the Chesapeake Bay Grant and Interagency Agreement
guidance which provides detailed QA/QC procedures for both data collection and submission.

       The Gulf of Mexico Program's  performance evaluation process adheres to the Quality
Assurance/Quality Control Plan of the Office and those of the participating Federal departments and
agencies. Additionally, the Gulf Program has organized a Scientific Review Committee of regional
experts (both public and private) that assist in the review and verification of the environmental
analyses and performance evaluations administered by the Program,

Research

       EPA has several strategies to validate and verify performance measures in the area of
environmental science and technology research. Because the major output of research is technical
information, primarily in the form of reports, software, protocols, etc., key to these strategies is the
performance of both peer reviews and quality reviews to ensure that requirements are met.

       Peer reviews  provide assurance during  the pre-planning, planning,  and reporting of
environmental science and research activities that the work meets peer expectations. Only those
science activities that  pass  agency peer review are addressed.  This  applies to program-level,
project-level, and research outputs. The quality of the peer review activity is monitored by EPA to
ensure that peer reviews are performed consistently, according to Agency policy, and that any
identified areas of concern are resolved through discussion or the implementation of corrective action.

       The Agency's expanded focus on peer review helps ensure that  the performance measures
listed here are verified and validated by an  external organization. This is accomplished through the
use of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) and the Board of Scientific Counselors  (BOSC). The
BOSC, established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, provides an added measure of
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assurance by examining the way the Agency uses peer review, as well as the management of its
research and development laboratories.

       In 1998, the Agency  presented a new Agency-wide quality system in Agency Order
5360.1/chg 1. This system provided policy to ensure that all environmental programs performed by
or for the Agency be supported by individual quality systems that comply fully with the American
National  Standard, Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data
Collection and Environmental Technology Programs (ANSI/ASQC E4-1994).

       The order expanded the applicability of quality assurance and quality control to the design,
construction, and operation by EPA organizations of environmental technology such as pollution
control and abatement systems; treatment, storage, and disposal systems; and remediation systems.
This rededication to quality provides the needed management and technical practices to assure that
environmental data developed in research and used to support Agency decisions are of adequate
quality and usability for their intended  purpose.

       A quality assurance system is implemented at all levels in the EPA research organization.  The
Agency-wide quality assurance system  is a management system that provides the necessary elements
to plan, implement, document, and assess the effectiveness of quality assurance and quality control
activities applied to environmental programs conducted by or for EPA. This quality management
system provides for identification of environmental programs for which  QA/QC is needed,
specification of the quality of the data required from environmental programs,  and  provision of
sufficient resources to assure that an adequate level of QA/QC is performed.

       Agency measurements are based on the application of standard EPA and ASTM methodology
as well as performance-based measurement systems. Non-standard methods are validated at the
project level. Internal and external management system assessments report the efficacy of the
management system for quality of the data and the final research results. The quality assurance annual
report and work plan submitted by each organizational unit provides an accountable mechanism for
quality activities. Continuous improvement in the quality system is accomplished through discussion
and review of assessment results.

Coordination with Other Agencies

       Involvement of many Federal  agencies is critical to the success of efforts to protect and
restore watersheds not meeting clean water, natural resource and public  health goals.  These
successes will depend largely on the  direct involvement of many Federal, state, tribal and local
governments who manage the multitude of programs necessary to address water quality issues on a
watershed basis. Federal agency involvement will include USDA (Natural Resources Conservation
Service, Forest  Service,  Agriculture Research Service), Department of Interior  (Bureau of Land
Management, Office of Surface Mining, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Fish and Wildlife,
and the Bureau oflndian Affairs), National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NO AA),
Department of  Transportation, and the Army Corps of Engineers. At the state  level, agencies
involved in  watershed management  typically include departments of natural resources or the
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environment, public health agencies, and forestry and recreation agencies.  Locally, numerous
agencies are involved, including regional planning entities such as councils of governments, as well
as local departments of environment, health and recreation who frequently have strong interests in
watershed projects.

       Government-wide, Federal agencies share the Administration's goal of achieving a net
increase of 100,000 acres of wetlands per year by 2005, increasing wetlands functions and values, and
implementing a fair and flexible approach to wetlands regulations. Working closely with Federal
partners, including the Corps of Engineers (COE), an interagency group on wetlands will issue a final
plan for developing a single, improved wetlands status and trends report.

       Developing and implementing successful comprehensive management plans for the estuaries
in the National Estuary Program depends on the  cooperation, involvement, and commitment of
Federal and state agency partners that have some role in protecting and/or managing those estuaries.
Other agencies routinely involved include the Corps of Engineers, NOAA, the Fish and Wildlife
Service, state departments of environmental protection or natural resources, and governors' offices.

       Federal agencies, Gulf states, non-governmental organizations, and private citizens serve as
members of the Gulf of Mexico Program's Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA)-chartered Gulf
of Mexico Policy Review  Board, subcommittees, and  workgroups to provide advice and
recommendations for development of performance goals and measures for protection and restoration
of the Gulf of Mexico.  Federal partners include:  EPA, USDA (Natural Resources Conservation
Service, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CREES), the Department
Of Defense (Corps of Engineers, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force), the
Department of the Interior (USGS, Fish and Wildlife Service), NOAA, and the Food and Drag
Administration. Gulf State partners include: Gulf State environmental agencies, natural  resource
agencies, departments of health and agriculture, marine fisheries commissions, and port authorities.
Non-government partners include: American Farm Bureau - Gulf of Mexico Committee, Gulf of
Mexico Business Coalition, GulfRestoration Network, and 5 citizens from each Gulf State appointed
by the  governors.

       The Chesapeake Bay Program is a partnership between Maryland, "Virginia, Pennsylvania, the
District of Columbia, the Chesapeake Bay Commission (a tri-state legislative body), and the U.S.
EPA, which represents the Federal government. The Bay Program was formed in 1983, and operates
in a consensus fashion among the states, EPA and  other Federal agencies. The Bay Program has 9
subcommittees which focus on specific issue areas (e.g., toxics, nutrients, communications, etc.), and
all of the state jurisdictions and EPA are represented on all of these subcommittees, which generally
meet every six weeks.

       The Chesapeake Bay Program also has a Federal Agencies Committee, which was formed in
1984 and has met regularly ever since. There are currently over 20 different Federal agencies actively
involved with the Bay Program through the Federal Agencies Committee. The Federal agencies have
operated over the past few years to implement the 1994 Agreement of Federal Agencies on
Ecosystem Management in the Chesapeake Bay,  which set specific goals and  commitments for
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Federally-owned lands and activities. In November 1998, EPA and over 20 other Federal agencies
signed the new Federal Agencies Chesapeake Ecosystem Unified Plan. The Unified Plan contains 50
new commitments which implement the President's Clean Water Action Plan in the Chesapeake
Region.

Research

      The National Research Council has recommended that EPA and the US Army Corps of
Engineers (USAGE) develop joint research projects concerning contaminated sediments. EPA and
the USAGE have already initiated actions to begin formulating compatible and interactive programs
to respond to these recommendations.

      In addition, under the Endangered Species Act, EPA is required to consult with the US Fish
and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) on actions that
may affect endangered species.  (EPA is in the process of developing a joint research plan for research
and development of criteria for endangered species.)

      The issue of eutrophication, hypoxia, and harmful algal blooms is a priority  with the
Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR).  A planning effort has been initiated to
develop an interagency research strategy for pfiesteria and other harmful algal species. This CENR
committee is also coordinating the research efforts among federal agencies to study nutrients and
hypoxia in the Gulf.
Statutory Authorities

Clean Water Act (CWA)
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRS A)
Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988
Shore Protection Act of 1988
Clean Vessel Act
Water Resource Development Act (WRDA)
Marine Plastic Pollution, Research and Control Act (MPPRCA) of 1987
National Invasive Species Act of 1996
Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act of 1990
North American Wetlands Conservation Act
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (F1FKA)
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA)
Pollution Prevention Act (PPA)
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                             Environmental Protection Agency

             FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                    Clean and Safe Water


Objective # 3:  Reduce Loadings and Air Deposition

       By 2005, pollutant discharges from key point sources and nonpoint source runofij will be
reduced by at least 20% from 1992 levels. Air deposition of key pollutants impacting water bodies
will be reduced.
                                     Resource Summary
                                    (Dollars in thousands)
                                           FY1999
                                           Request
              FY1999
              Enacted
FY2000
Request
FY2000Req.v.
 FY 1999 Ena.
Reduce Loadings and Air Deposition

    Environmental Program & Management

    Science & Technology

    State and Tribal Assistance Grants

       Total Workyears:
$1,487,800.9   $1,986,478.7    $1,160,583.1    ($825,895.6)

 $127,453.8     $133,781.6     $123,891.1      ($9,890.5)

   $7,347.1       $8,376.1       $8,692.0        $315.9

$1,353,000.0   $1,844,321.0    $1,028,000.0    ($816,321.0)

      887.3          899.0         890.2          (8.8)
                                       Key Programs
                                    (Dollars in thousands)

Rural Water Technical Assistance
Effluent Guidelines (CWAP)
NPDES Program (CWAP)
State Nonpoint Source Grants (CWAP)
National Nonpoint Source Program Implementation (CWAP)
Clean Water Action Plan-Related Research
FY1999
Request
$1,456.0
$23,715.9
$43,408.5
$200,000.0
$15,076.0
$0.0
FY1999
Enacted
$3,095.0
$22,365.8
$35,142.8
$200,000.0
$15,476.7
$0.0
FY2000
Request
$456.0
$23,193.0
$46,338.8
$200,000.0
$15,198.8
$213.4
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Key Programs (continued)
Water InfrastructureiClean Water State Revolving Fund (CW-SRF)
Water Infrastructure: Alaska Native Villages
Water MrastructureiBoston Harbor
Water WrastructurerBristol County
Water Infrastructure:New Orleans
Watershed Research
Sustainable Development Challenge Grants*
Urban Environmental Quality and Human Health
Project XL
Common Sense Initiative
FY1999
Request
$1,075,000.0
$15,000.0
$50,000.0
$3,000.0
$10,000.0
$7,347.1
$2,015.0
$814.7
$173.7
$1,338.5
FY1999
Enacted
$1,350,000.0
$30,000.0
$50,000.0
$2,610.0
$6,525.0
$8,376.1
$0.0
$0.0
$173.7
$0.0
FY2000
Request
$800,000.0
$15,000.0
$0.0
$3,000.0
$10,000.0
$8,692.0
$0.0
$0.0
$175.4
$960.9
* Effective in the FY1999 Enacted budget process, resources for the Sustainable Development Challenge Grants were transferred
to Goal 8.
FY 2000 Request

       A key element of the Agency's effort to achieve its overarching goal of clean and safe water
is the reduction of pollutant discharges from point sources and nonpoint sources. Under the National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program (which includes NPDES permits, urban
wet weather, pretreatment program for non-domestic wastewater discharges into municipal sanitary
sewers, and biosolids management controls), specific limits are set for pollutants discharged from
point sources into waters of the United States. These limits are designed to ensure that national
technology based standards (effluent limitations and guidelines) and water quality based requirements
are adequate to meet water quality standards throughout the country. Financial assistance to states,
interstate organizations, and tribes for many of these projects is provided through the Section 106
grant program included under Objective 2 of the Clean and Safe Water Goal: Conserve and Enhance
Nation's Waters.  EPA also provides financial assistance through the Clean Water State Revolving
Fund (CWSRF) program to  states  for the  construction of wastewater treatment facilities and
implementation of other water quality management projects. The program is also fostering the use
of CWSRF loans to finance the highest priority traditional and nontraditional projects on a watershed
or statewide basis. This includes the Agency's proposal to allow States to reserve up to an amount
equal to 20% of their CWSRF capitalization grants to provide grants of no more than 60% of the
costs of implementing nonpoint source and estuary management projects. Additionally, the program
provides grants for Alaska Native Villages, Indian Tribes, and communities with special needs.

       These base programs have been largely responsible for the substantial progress made to date
in reducing water pollution. Providing States with continuing support is essential to achieving this
objective and the overall goal of clean and safe water. EPA, in partnership with the States, will

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continue to ensure that all facilities required to have a permit have one that is effective and includes
all conditions needed to ensure water quality protection.  The Agency will continue its efforts to
streamline the implementation of the NPDES program and expects to issue final regulations to
streamline the administrative and procedural requirements of the pretreatment programs. In addition,
the Agency will continue to reorient both the NPDES and CWSRF programs to a watershed focus.

       The Agency will propose effluent limitations guidelines for two major industrial sectors: coal
mining and swine and poultry feeding operations. EPA will promulgate final effluent guidelines for
additional subcategories of the pulp and paper industry as well as for landfills, industrial waste
combustors,  and the transportation equipment cleaning industry.  These guidelines will then be
incorporated into NPDES permits as they are issued or reissued by the NPDES permitting authority.
The Agency will also begin to develop an effluent limitations guideline as part of a larger cluster rule
addressing air, water,  and waste impacts in urban areas of an industrial category as yet to be
determined.

       Over the next five to ten years, the Agency will place much greater emphasis on controlling
wet weather sources of pollution from combined sewer overflows, sanitary sewer overflows and
storm water and will focus greater attention on the impacts of contaminated sediment. Nationally,
urban runoff is a leading cause of impairment in estuaries, lakes, and rivers surveyed by states.  This
runoff has significant economic as well as environmental impacts. Implementing cost-effective wet
weather  programs will  pose  new challenges for EPA,  states, cities, and  industry  —  both
technologically and financially.  However, by having these programs in place,  we will be able to
implement basic wet weather pollution controls for all major point sources and will achieve a major
milestone for the National Water  Program.  By the end of 2000, the Agency expects to begin
implementing the new regulations to control storm water from small municipalities and construction
sources, to have approximately 900 Combined Sewer  Overflow (CSO) communities covered by
NPDES permits and implementing controls based on EPA's CSO policy, and to issue an Storm Sewer
Overflow (SSO) policy and modification of the NPDES regulations to clarify reporting requirements
and prohibition on SSO discharges.

       EPA will continue efforts to deliver decision support tools and alternative, less costly wet
weather flow control technologies for use by local decision makers involved in community-based
watershed management. Wet weather flow discharges pose significant risk to both human health and
downstream ecosystems. Effective watershed management strategies and guidance for wet weather
flow dischargers are key priority areas remaining to assure clean water and safe  drinking water.

       In support of the Clean Water Action Plan, EPA will place emphasis on updating regulatory
programs related to animal waste management in order to reduce environmental and public health
problems caused by animal feeding operations (AFOs).  Agricultural practices in the United States
were estimated to contribute to the impairment of over 25 percent of the Nation's surveyed rivers and
streams;  19 percent of the Nation's surveyed lakes, ponds, and reservoirs;  and 10 percent of the
Nation's surveyed estuaries in the 1996 National Water Quality Inventory.   Intensive animal
operations alone, not  including  the potential runoff from farms using manure as fertilizer, are
estimated to adversely impact 20 percent of waters impaired by agricultural practices. The Agency
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is developing a multi-year strategy to address how it will minimize environmental and public health
impacts from AFOs over the next decade and beyond. By the end of 2000, the Agency expects to
issue permits for all concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), as defined by the Unified AFO
Strategy, for which EPA is the permitting authority.

       Also as part of the Clean Water Action Plan, EPA will work with other federal land managers,
state agencies, tribes, and private parties to accelerate the cleanup of watersheds affected by mines.
Many streams and much ground water have been seriously affected by abandoned mines, in particular
abandoned coal mines in the eastern United States, and cooperation between EPA and  its partners
will help remediate these problems. In addition, EPA will continue to implement its Hardrock Mining
Framework (finalized on September 12,1997), by screening upcoming mining Environmental Impact
Statements to determine priorities for agency involvement.

       In 1998, the Office of Inspector General identified the NPDES permit backlog as a candidate
for material weakness under FMFIA.  The backlog in EPA issued permits has tripled over the past
10 years; and the backlog in State issued permits has doubled over this time. The goals and targets
cited for NPDES are contingent upon  the timely issuance of quality permits.  To ensure that this
occurs, a multi-year backlog reduction plan has been developed and is being implemented. The plan
will focus permitting activities on those facilities posing the greatest risk to the environment,  such as
facilities discharging into high priority watersheds, discharging at high volumes, or discharging toxic
pollutants or other pollutants of concern.

       Other high priority activities during 2000 will include continued implementation of the pulp
and paper rule; development of proposed regulations for cooling water intakes (rules currently subj ect
to court order); and  a revitalization of the Whole Effluent Toxicity program.

       EPA provides financial assistance through the CWSRF program for the construction of
wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of nonpoint source and estuarine management
plans.  The agency also provides technical assistance to support community needs.  These efforts
include dissemination of information  on  wastewater technologies,  enhancement of community
awareness of financing programs and assistance with program development activities, and, with the
Office of Research  and Development (ORD) support, the establishment of an Environmental
Technology Verification Center to address  control technologies for nonpoint source "urban wet
weather flows," and wastewater treatment systems for small communities. Federal capitalization
funds are a critical component of financing for point and nonpoint source programs aimed at reducing
pollutant discharge levels. In 2000, the Agency is requesting $800,000,000 in capitalization grants
to the Clean Water State Revolving  Fund.  Combined with the Drinking Water SRF  request
(discussed in Objective 1 of this Goal) and out year capitalization, this level enables both SRFs to
meet the Administration's long-term goal for providing $2.5 billion per year hi funding assistance.
The CWSRF is expected to provide about $2 billion of this amount.  In 2000, the Agency will
continue to capitalize the CWSRF that already has about $ 16 billion in capitalization grants, or almost
90% more than originally authorized  by Congress.  As such, the Agency expects that 30 state
CWSRF programs will meet or exceed threshold measures for the appropriate pace of program
implementation including loan issuance, construction  progress, and loan repayments.
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       To further support the objectives of the Clean Water Action Plan, the Agency proposes for
2000 to allow states to reserve up to an amount equal to 20% of their Clean Water State Revolving
Fund capitalization grants to provide grants of no more than 60% of the costs of implementing
nonpoint source and estuary management projects.  Such grant funds may not be used for publicly-
owned treatment works projects. Projects receiving grant assistance must, to the maximum extent
practicable, rank highest on the State's list used to prioritize projects eligible for assistance.  States
may make these grants using either a portion of their capitalization grant itself, or using other funds
in their state revolving fund (e.g, state match, repayments, bond proceeds).  These grants may also
be combined with loans for communities with eligible projects which might otherwise find loans
unaffordable.

       In addition to the CWSRF program, the water program is responsible for managing Water
Quality Cooperative Agreements and the Section 106 grants which directly support state and tribal
efforts to reduce point source loadings.  The Agency continues to manage the construction grants
close-"Out process and expects by the end of 2000 to have closed-out all but 107 projects.  The
program also provides grant assistance for environmental improvements to Alaska Native Villages
and Indian Tribes, and the program manages grant assistance for wastewater treatment projects with
special needs as requested by the President and as identified by Congress.

       Pollution from nonpoint sources remains the single largest cause of water pollution, with
agriculture identified as a leading cause of impairment in 25% of the river miles surveyed. In order
to meet this objective and restore and maintain water quality, significant loading reductions from
nonpoint sources (NPS) must be achieved. Because EPA has limited direct NPS authority under the
Clean Water Act, state NPS programs are critical to our overall success.  States will need to make
revisions to their existing nonpoint source programs and fully and expeditiously implement all of the
nine key program elements agreed to with EPA, EPA will award NPS monies exceeding the first
$ 100,000,000 of the $200,000,000 total request only to those states and tribes that have incorporated
all nine key elements into an approved section 319 Nonpoint Source Management Plan.  In addition,
coastal states will need to complete development of their coastal nonpoint pollution control programs
that were conditionally approved by EPA/National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) in 1998 and to begin implementation of these programs.

       EPA's nonpoint source program provides program, technical, and financial assistance to help
states and tribes implement programs to control various forms of runoff;  within this  objective
$200,000,000 is for direct grant assistance to  states and tribes. While agricultural sources are the
most significant category of nonpoint source runoff, state NPS programs address all categories of
NPS runoff with a mix of voluntary and regulatory approaches. These state programs are the primary
means for implementing nonpoint source Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) allocations  and for
achieving water quality standards. EPA's nonpoint source program works closely with  a number of
other Federal agencies to help reduce runoff and encourage private sector partnerships to spur
voluntary adoption of NPS controls. As the program moves forward, new tools, best management
practices, and NPS and contaminated sediment control strategies will need to be developed in
cooperation with states, tribes, other Federal agencies and the private sector. State implementation
plans for nonpoint sources will be required to provide reasonable assurances that load allocations
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within an approved TMDL are met for waters impaired solely or primarily from nonpoint sources.
Lastly, EPA recognizes that better performance goals are needed to measure nonpoint source
loadings. In 1999, EPA will work with Federal and state agencies to develop both near term and long
term environmental outcome measures for nonpoint source loadings reductions.
       Tribal participation in the Nonpoint Source Control Program under CWA section 319(h) is
limited by section 518(f) which authorizes EPA to grant up to one-third of one percent of national
319(h) program funds for tribes Tribes applying for and receiving section 319(h) grants have steadily
increased from two in 1991 to 11 in 1999. Currently, 20 tribes have met the eligibility requirements
to receive section 319(h) program grants. This number is expected to increase annually as more of
the 554 federally recognized tribes become eligible to participate in the 319(h) program (23 tribes are
working to become program eligible). Due to this increasing demand on the severely limited pool
of tribal grant funds, EPA proposes to eliminate the current statutory ceiling on the percentage of
Section 319 grant funds that may be awarded to tribes/tribal consortia for nonpoint source activities.

       As part of the Clean Water Action Plan, EPA (in coastal areas working with NOAA) will
increase efforts to promote the establishment of state authorities, by October 2000, needed to assure
the implementation of nonpoint source controls to achieve water quality standards, with particular
emphasis on nutrients and other NFS pollutants of concern in specific priority watersheds EPA will
publish guidance describing existing and potential models of enforceable authority related to polluted
runoff and will assist states in this effort. As part of this increased effort, EPA will continue to work
with states on upgrading their polluted runoff programs to better ensure NFS implementation. EPA
(in  concert with NOAA) will work with states to ensure  that all states have developed fully-
approvable programs to reduce polluted runoff in coastal areas.

       As part of the Clean Water Action Plan, states will be working with public and private sector
agencies and organizations and citizens to develop Watershed Restoration Action Strategies for
watersheds most in need of attention in the 1999-2000 period. Clean Water Act Section 319 grants
will be targeted to support implementation of priority NPS and watershed protection activities called
for in State Watershed Restoration Action  Strategies, including those implementation actions
necessary to support NPS management and controls specified in TMDLs developed for NPS-impaired
priority waters.  Additional Clean Water  Action Plan support through the Clean Water  State
Revolving Fund program provides  financial assistance for implementation of watershed restoration
projects; and agency technical assistance helps communities and rural areas plan and  invest in
decentralized wastewater treatment facilities, so that they are properly installed and maintained. This
Clean Water Action Plan "Key Action" aims to keep many malfunctioning systems from producing
nonpoint source pollution.

       The Clean Water Action Plan furthers the efforts of the Federal government in assessing the
risks associated with and reducing atmospheric deposition of pollutants, particularly nitrogen, using
both Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act authorities. To address air deposition, the Agency has
established a cross-media team to plan and implement strategies to reduce air deposition. As a result,
water quality protection has taken a prominent place in regulatory development under the Clean Air
Act, in air research, and in the focus of partnerships with local communities.  Air deposition is being
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addressed Agency-wide as an ecosystem problem with health, environmental, and economic impacts.
Fossil fuel utility boilers and  increased transportation demands associated with urban and other land
development increases air deposition loads.  In 2000, the Agency will use updated emissions
inventories of some persistent bioaccumulative toxic chemicals (PBTs) and nitrogen compounds
(NOx) and, using updated meteorological data, run appropriate model(s) to estimate transport and
deposition of the PBTs onto regional watersheds and estuarine systems across the U.S. The Agency
will develop methodologies that may be used by states, tribes, and EPA to develop TMDLs for these
PBTs and NOx compounds and will make available deposition data that can be used with BASINS
models and the methodologies for routine TMDL assessments.

Research

       Because almost 40% of rivers, lakes, and coastal waters surveyed by states do not meet water
quality goals, effective watershed management strategies and guidance for Wet Weather Flows
(WWFs) dischargers is one of the key priority areas remaining to assure clean water and safe drinking
water, EPA, in its March 1995 Report to Congress on stormwater discharges, cited pollution from
Wet Weather Flows as the leading cause of water-quality impairment. This degradation of water
quality poses significant risks to human and ecological health through the uncontrolled release of
pathogenic bacteria, protozoans and viruses as well as a number of potentially toxic, bioaccumulative
contaminants.  EPA  will  continue to develop diagnostic  tools to evaluate  exposures to  toxic
constituents of WWFs, and  develop and validate effective watershed management strategies for
controlling WWFs, especially when they are high volume and toxic.  This research will also develop
and provide effective beach evaluation tools necessary to make timely and informed decisions on
beach advisories and closures.

       The Agency will continue to develop and validate effective, less costly technologies and
approaches for use by local decision makers involved in community-based watershed management
and pollution control to treat high volume and toxic WWF discharges. To reduce capital investments
needed to retrofit and enlarge the existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the search for
suitable WWF treatment  technologies is directed toward high-rate operations  that can handle
maximum loadings. A variety of high-rate treatment methods show a potential to handle WWFs,
though a majority of them  still need to be demonstrated at full scale.  This research will  also
emphasize pollution prevention strategies, primarily through the investigation of best management
practices (BMPs) to avoid or minimize the generation of WWF contaminations. In 2000, EPA will
link urban stormwater management models to a geographic information system, allowing states and
communities to better characterize the  quality of their local water bodies by using stormwater
management models of their own local geographic information.

       There is growing  evidence of the risk  of infectious diseases resulting from  exposure to
microbes in recreational waters.  Exposure to these diseases is of particular concern after major
rainfall events which cause  discharges from both point sources (e.g., sanitary sewer overflows,
combined sewer overflows,  and  stormwater) and  non-point sources (e.g., animal feedlots and
malfunctioning septic tanks).  In 2000, the Beaches Environmental Assessment, Closure and Health
(BEACH) research program will continue to develop and provide the tools necessary to make timely
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and informed decisions on beach advisories and closures, develop models that can be used to predict
when beach closures or warnings are needed, and develop faster, cheaper test methods and indicators
for detection and measurement of human pathogenic microbes. Better information will also help local
communities to adopt the appropriate control technologies to mitigate the problem. These efforts
will complement work being done under Objective 1 of the Clean and Safe Water Goal.
FY 2000 Change from FY 1999 Enacted

EPM

•      (+$8,252,300 and 1.7 total workyears) To support development of the NPDES final Rule
       and guidance for CAFOs, issue permits for CAFOs and other priority facilities where EPA
       is the permitting authority, and provide assistance to Regions and states in modifying
       programs as well as increases for implementation of the forest roads pilot project, support to
       states for watershed activities, and the pretreatment program.

•      (+$515,000 and 3.5 total workyears) To provide technical assistance and guidance to Tribes
       in managing water program activities under Section 106 grants.

•      (+$ 1,763,200 and 2.4 total workyears) To support the expansion of a mining initiative aimed
       at characteriang and remediating surface and ground water contamination resulting from
       mineral extraction.

•      (+$663,600 and 1.3 total workyears) for the urban wet weather  program to support
       finalization of regulations and policy and development of implementation guidance.

•      (+$1,538,800) for the development of effluent limitations guidelines and assure that the
       Agency meets its commitments under the consent decree with NRDC. Resources will also
       be redirected within the effluent guidelines program to support the multi-media Air Toxics
       Cluster Rule proposal.

•      (+$416,500) for efforts to incorporate air deposition of pollutants into modeling tools like
       BASINS and support the development of TMDLs nationwide.

•      (+$2,283,200) Provides support for the CWSRF as well as support to the Corp of Engineers
       for close-out of construction grants and management of Mexico Border and special projects.

•      (-$ 1,000,000) from low-priority Small Flows Clearinghouse. This reduction will curtail some
       outreach, data collection, and technical assistance activities of the organization.
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       (-$1,267,900 and -13.2 total workyears) From the Municipal Water Pollution Prevention
       Program. This reduction to Regional office resources reflects completion of this effort to
       assist states to adopt and operate the program. The Municipal Water Pollution Prevention
       program was designed as a voluntary, state-based program to encourage municipalities to
       implement a variety of pollution prevention activities and maintain municipal wastewater
       treatment facility permit compliance.

       (-$29,100) Reflects a shift to establish a permanent Agency system modernization fund to
       improve management of system modernization needs to meet the Reinventing Environmental
       Information (REI) commitment and other mission needs on a multi-year planned basis.

       The 2000 Request is $20,089,000 below the 1999 Enacted budget level due to Congressional
       earmarks received during the appropriations process but not part of the 2000 President's
       Request.
STAG
       (-$550,000,000) The request is consistent with achieving the Administration's goals for the
       CWSRF to revolve at $2.0 billion per year after Federal capitalization grants end.  To date,
       almost $16 billion has been provided in capitalization grants, or almost 90% more than
       originally authorized by Congress.  This amount,  combined with state  matching and
       leveraging, has allowed the SRFs to provide nearly $23 billion in financial assistance to date.
       (-$15,000,000) from Alaska Native Villages which is consistent with the FY 1999 request.
       The Agency believes this to be the level of funding which can be most effectively utilized by
       the State of Alaska, and therefore does not request funding at the FY 1999 appropriation
       level.

       (-$50,000,000) from Boston Harbor which reflects fulfillment of the Administration's
       commitment.  The Administration provided a total of $475 million since FY 1994 to help
       clean up Boston Harbor.

       (+$3,475,000) for the city of New Orleans to support planning, design, construction and
       other activities related to unique problems in the city's sewer system.

       (+$390,000)  which supports the Administration's  commitment  to Bristol  County,
       Massachusetts.

       The 2000 Request is  $204,936,000 below the  1999 Enacted  budget level  due to
       Congressional earmarks received during the appropriations process but not part of the 2000
       President's Request.
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       Research

S&T

•      (+$54,000 and +1  workyear)  This request continues the second year of the Agency's
       Postdoctoral Initiative to enhance our intramural research program, building upon the
       overwhehningly positive response by the academic community to EP A's announcement of 50
       postdoctoral positions for 1999. These positions will provide a constant stream of highly-
       trained postdoctoral candidates who can apply state-of-the-science training to EPA research
       issues.

NOTE:  The FY 1999 Request, submitted  to Congress in February 1998, included Operating
Expenses and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in Goal 8
and Objective 5. In the FY 1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the FY 2000 Request, these
resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives.  TheFY 1999 Request columns in this document
have been modified from the original FY 1999 Request so that they reflect the allocation of these
ORD funds across Goals and Objectives,
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Secondary Treatment of Wastewater

In 2000      Another two million people will receive the benefits of secondary treatment of wastewater, for
            a total of 181 million people.

 In 1999     Another 3.4 million people will receive the benefits of secondary treatment of wastewater, for
            a total of 179 million.


 Performance Measures                                      FY 1999            FY 2000
 Additional people who will receive the benefits of secondary or    3.4 M People           2 M People
 better treatment of wastewater

 Baseline:    In July 1998,175.5 million people were receiving secondary treatment of wastewater
             according to data developed from EPA's Clean Water Needs Survey Database and the Permits
             Compliance System.

Biosolids and Beneficial Reuse

 In 2000     54% of biosolids are beneficially reused.

 In 1999     50% of biosolids are beneficially reused.
 Performance Measures                                     FY1999            FY2000
 POTWs beneficially reusing all or a part of their biosolids and,    50% biosolids            54% biosolids
 where data exists, the percent of biosolids generated that are
 beneficially reused.

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 Baseline:    An estimated 45% of biosolids were being beneficially reused as of September 1996.

Toxic and Conventional Industrial Pollutant Discharges

 In 2000      Industrial discharges of toxic pollutants will be reduced by 4 million pounds per year (a
             14% reduction) and conventional pollutants will be reduced by 388 million pounds per year
             (a 9% reduction) as compared to 1992 discharges when considerations for growth are
             considered.
 Performance Measures                                          FY1999              FY 2000
 Reduction in loadings in PCS for conventional pollutants for                            388 Million Pounds
 facilities subject to effluent guidelines promulgated prior to 1998,
 as compared to 1992 levels.

 Reduction in loadings in PCS for toxic pollutants for facilities                            4 Million Pounds
 subject to effluent guidelines promulgated prior to 1998, as
 compared to 1992 levels.

 Baseline:    EPA is working to establish the 1992 baseline from data in the Permits Compliance System (PCS).
              Current data on loadings are incomplete for some point soruces. EPA will augment its data with
              modeling while it collects more and better information on pollutant loading reductions
              throughout 1999.

NPDES Permit Requirements

 In 2000      Major point sources, storm water sources, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), new hardrock
             mines, and concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requiring NPDES permits are
             covered by a current NPDES permit.

 In 1999      All permittees among tie approximately 900 CSO communities are covered by permits or
             other enforceable mechanisms consistant with the 1994 CSO policy.

 In 1999      Development of a national inventory of AFOs and estimates of pollutant loadings.

 In 1999      Quantify the number of AFOs which are currently permitted by EPA and states and the
             extent the permits include manure management requirements.

 In 1999      More than 220 communities will have local watersheds improved by controls on combined
             sewer overflows and storm water.

 In 1999      All storm water sources associated with  industrial activity, construction sites over 5 acres,
             and designated storm water sources will be covered by current NPDES permits.

 In 1999      An assessment of necessary elements of a comprehensive general permit will be developed to
             aid Regions and States to issue permits to concentrated animal feeding operations.

 In 1999      80% of major point sources will be covered by current NPDES permits.
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Performance Measures
NPDES permits issued for new hardrock mines that requite
Environmental Impact Statements that reflect adequate financial
assurances to mitigate long-term environmental impacts.

Expired NPDES permits that are reissued to cover CAFOs as
defined by the Unified AFO Strategy, where EPA is the pennitting
authority.

Permittees (among the approximately 900 CSO communities
nationwide) that are covered by NPDES permits or other
enforceable mechanisms consistent with the 1994 CSO policy.

Completion of AFO documents

Inventory of Animal Feeding Operations/estimate loadings

Quantity of AFOs which are permitted

Communities that will have local watersheds improved by
controls on CSOs and stonnwater

Facilities w. a discharge requiring an indiv. permit that a) are
covered by a curr. indiv. NPDES perm.; b) have expir. perm.; c)
have applied but not been issued a perm.; & d) have perm, under
appeal

Major point sources that have a current NPDES permit.

Storm water sources assoc. with indust. activity, construction
sites over 5 acres, and desig. storm water sources (incl. municipal
Phase I) that are covered by a current indiv. or gen. NPDES
permit.
   FY1999             FY2000
                    100 % Permits-mines
                    100 % Permits-CAFOs



100 % permittees       100 % permittees



 1 Document

 1 Inventory

 IList

 220 Communities


                          no target




 80% Maj. PL Source 85 % Maj. Pi Source

  100 %SW sources   100 % SW sources
 Baseline:    By June 1998, permits for 585 of 900 CSO communities were based on EPA's 1994 CSO policy.  As
             of March 1998,72% of major point sources were covered by a current NPDES permit (PCS data is
             current review to improve data quality. This reveiw is likely to result in a change to this baseline in
             FYOO targets).  As of January 1992,1,900 CAFOs were covered by permit nationwide; determining
             the number of expired permits is part of the CAFO strategy. By March  1999, EPA will begin semi-
             annual reporting of storm water sources associated with industrial activity, construction sites over 5
             acres, and designated storm water sources covered by a currentNPDES permit By January 2000, EPA
             will establish semi-annual reporting for NPDES permits issued for new  hardrock mines.

Colonias Project Completion/Construction

 In 2000      45 colonias projects will have been completed or under construction.

 la 1999      30 colonias projects will have been completed or under construction.
 Performance Measures
 Colonias projects completed/under construction
    FY1999
 30 Projects
FY2000
 45 Projects
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 Baseline:     34 colonias projects were completed or under construction as of July 1,1998.

Construction Grant and Special Project Closeout

 In 2000      Expedite the closeout of Clean Water Act Title H (construction grants) projects and special
             project State and Tribal Assistance Grants (STAG).

 In 1999      All but 267 of the remaining construction grants projects will be closed out.
 Performance Measures                                         FY1999             FY 2000
 Construction grants projects (both those awarded before FY92 and  267 Projects             107 Projects
 after FY91) remaining to be closed out

 Special project STAG grants closed out witMn 7 years of grant                             90 % Grants
 award.

 Baseline:   As of September 1998, 439 construction grants projects remained to be closed out Special
             project STAG grants were first established in 1994. As of September 1998, none of these grants
             had been closed out

Effluent Guidelines

 In 2000     Take final action on 4 and propose 2 effluent guidelines limitations for industrial categories
             that contribute significantly to pollution of surface waters.

 In 1999     Take final action on one and propose two effluent guidelines limitations for industrial
             categories that contribute significantly to pollution of surface waters.
 Performance Measures                                          FY 1999             FY 2000
 Effluent guidelines proposed or promulgated                     1/2 Rules                 2/4 Rules

 Baseline:    Baseline is not applicable since these are new effluent guidelines.

Pretreatment Program Audits

 In 2000      Audit all approved pretreatment programs over a five year period.

 In 1999      Audit all approved pretreatment programs over a 5-year period.
 Performance Measures                                          FY 1999             FY2000
 Approved pretreatment programs audited in the last 5 years.       100 % programs        100 % programs
 Baseline:    Annual PCS data shows that 1,535 pretreatment programs were audited as of September 1997.
              On average, 20% of these programs are audited per year resulting in 100% of programs being
              audited over 5 years.

Clean Water State Revolving Fund: Annual Assistance


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 In 2000      Effectively implement the Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CW SRF) program to ensure
             annual assistance of approximately $2 billion.

 In 1999      26 states meet or exceed "pace of the program" measures for loan issuance and pace of
             construction

 In 1999      38 states and Puerto Rico conduct seperate annual audits of their SRFs


 Performance Measures                                          FY1999             FY 2000
 States that meet or exceed "pace of the program" measures for loan  26 States                 30 States
 issuance and pace of construction.

 States and Puerto Rico that conduct separate annual audits of       38 States                 42 States
 their CW SRFs

 States and PR that are submitting all of the information required                          51 States & PR
 for the SRF Information System thus showing effective use of SRF
 funds to protect and restore the quality of our nation's waters.

 Baseline:    As of July 1998,39 states/territories were conducting separate annual audits of their SRFs and utilizing
              fund management principles. As of June 1997, 25 states were meeting the "pace of the program"
              measures for loan issuance, pace of construction, and use of repayments. Note: Target for FY99 for
              annual audits of SRFs was erroneously input at 51.  The actual target for FY99 is 38
              states/territories.  Annually, 51 states and PR submit the information required for the SRF
              Information System.

Clean Water State Revolving Fund: Water Quality

 In 2000      Effectively implement the Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CW SRF) to improve water
             quality (Supports CWAP).

 In 1999      IS states are using integrated priority setting systems to make SRF funding decisions

 In 1999      Initiate operations at a total of 4,201 SRF projects
 In 1999      26 states are funding nonpoint source and estuary projects with their SRFs


 Performance Measures                                          FY 1999             FY 2000
 States funding nonpoint source and estuary projects with their CW   26 States                 30 States
 SRFs.

 CW SRF projects that have initiated operations.                   4,201 SRF projects     5,000 SRF projects

 States that are using integrated planning and priority systems to    15 States                 20 States
 make CW SRF funding decisions.

 Baseline:    The Agency's National Information Management System shows 3,154 SRF projects initiated as of
              June 1997. As of September 1998, 8 states were using integrated planning and priority systems
              to make SRF funding decisions and 24 states were funding nonpoint and estuary projects with
              their SRFs.
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Improving Wastewater Sanitation in Indian Country

 In 2000      Reduce the number of homes in Indian Country with inadequate wastewater sanitation
             systems by 6% through funding from the Clean Water State Revolving Fund Tribal Set Aside
             Program.
 Performance Measures                                         FY199?             FY 2000
 Reduction in the number of homes in Indian Country with                                  6 % Homes
 inadequate wastewater sanitation systems that were funded from
 the CW SRF Tribal Set Aside Program.

 Baseline:    Annual reporting by EPA and the Indian Health Service begins in FY 1998.  A baseline will be
              established in FY 1999.

Wastewater Treatment Facility Compliance

 In 2000     Through assistance under Clean Water Act Section 104(g), 699 wastewater treatment
             facilities are prevented from going into CWA non-compliance or assisted in moving toward
             compliance.
 Performance Measures                                         FY1999             FY2000
 Wastewater treatment facilities prevented from going into CWA                         699 WW facilities
 non-compliance or assisted in moving toward compliance through
 assistance under CWA Section 104(g).

 Baseline:    In 1998, 999 facilities were assisted to improve, maintain, or achieve compliance.

Non-Conventional Industrial Pollution Discharges

 In 2000     Industrial discharges of non-conventional pollutants will be reduced by 1.5 billion pounds
             per year (a 7% reduction) as compared to 1992 discharges when considerations for growth are
             considered.
 Performance Measures                                         FY 1999             FY 2000
 Reductions in loadings in PCS for non-conventional pollutants for                        1.5 Billion Pounds
 facilities subject to effluent guidelines promulgated prior to 1998,
 as compared to 1992 levels.

  Baseline:    EPA is working to establish the 1992 baseline from PCS data in the Permits Compliance System
              (PCS). Current data on loadings are incomplete for some data sources.  EPA will augment its
              data with modeling while it collects more and better information on pollutant loading reductions
              throughout 1999.

Nonpoint Source Program Upgrades

 In 2000     In support of the Clean Water Action Plan, 45 states upgrade their nonpoint source programs,
             to ensure that they are implementing dynamic and effective nonpoint source programs that are
             designed to achieve and maintain beneficial uses of water.
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In 1999      In support of the Clean Water Action Plan, 10 additional states will upgrade their nonpoint
            source programs, to ensure that they are implementing dynamic and effective  nonpoint source
            programs that are designed to achieve and maintain beneficial uses of water.
 Performance Measures                                      FY1999            FY 2000
 States & territories that have an upgraded NPS program           10 States               45 States
 (incorporating the 9 key elements outlined in national grant
 guidance), thereby ensuring implementation of an effective
 program.

 Baseline:    In 1998, 2 states upgraded their nonpoint source programs.

Air Deposition

 In 2000     Integrate and expand coastal air and water monitoring sites; e.g., expand the geographic
            areas for which measurements of total nitrogen deposition are available, (Supports CWAP)
 Performance Measures                                      FY 1999            FY 2000
 Coastal National Atmospheric Deposition Program/Clean Air                             7 Sites
 Status and Trends Network sites.

Baseline:      As of August 1998,0 coastal monitoring sites were established.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

       Performance data related to NPDES permits will be tracked largely through the Agency's
Permit Compliance Systems (PCS) database which is managed by the Office of Enforcement and
Compliance Assurance (OECA). Data is entered into PCS by the Regions, states and tribes. Regions,
states and tribes have entered extensive information about permittees such as effluent limits, discharge
monitoring report measuring data, compliance schedules, and so on, and this information can be used
as a baseline. Data entered into this system by the Regions and states and tribes is subjected to data
entry quality assurance (QA) procedures to verify that the information is consistent with facility-
provided information.  Quality assurance of facility-provided information is provided by OECA
through programs such as facility inspections. PCS offers EPA, state and tribal managers an effective
tool to validate the effectiveness of our performance in  meeting these goals and measures.  The
system includes additional QA features related to discharge data, including software capable of
rejecting gross data input errors, and Quality Management Plans with data criteria. Performance data
on CWSRF management will be compiled by EPA's Regional offices through interaction with the
states. A limitation on the use of PCS is that it is not very user-friendly, because it was developed
a decade ago.  However, the database is in the process of being updated to make it more user-
friendly, and to make it available to anyone who wants to use the system, not just EPA, states, and
tribes.

       The Agency's progress toward the goal of clean and safe water can be measured in part by
the extent to which point source  and nonpoint source  (NPS) pollutants are discharged into the

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Nation's waters.  Our longer-term measurement of NPS discharges will involve analyses of current
versus baseline loading estimates conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Department of
Agriculture.  Since states are the primary implementers of NPS programs and policies, the extent to
which states have upgraded their nonpoint source programs to reflect recent guidance will serve as
an effective surrogate for measuring progress toward our NPS reduction targets. State program
upgrades will be measured by evaluating each state's explicit short - and long-term  goals and
objectives and their associated indicators that demonstrate progress. EPA will conduct reviews and
evaluations of the nonpoint source documents submitted by state agencies describing the nine key
elements required to upgrade their nonpoint source management programs. In addition, the Agency
will increase emphasis on monitoring and assessment of nonpoint source impacts in order to ensure
achievement of long-term goals and objectives.

       Each of the NPDES goals/objectives  is based on results expected from the  successful
implementation of program requirements. The goals/objectives are indicators ofNPDES performance
and are of high quality. However, the pollutant loading reduction goal is based on estimates of
removal to be achieved through the implementation of new effluent limitation guidelines for industrial
discharges. This goal assumes that the new guidelines are included in the permits to which they are
applicable. At this point we do not have a foil data set supporting this assumption, and must use
modeling and sampling to verify that we are meeting the targets.

       Data on the promulgation of effluent guidelines and support for existing technology based
standards is collected through internal tracking processes in the Agency organizations where the work
is performed (no outside reporting is involved for these measures).

       Data to support EPA figures for the number of people being served nationally by treatment
of wastewater to secondary treatment standards are developed from the Permits Compliance System
(PCS) and Clean Water Needs Survey Databases.

       Data  on the effective functioning of the  Clean Water State Revolving Fund  (CWSRF)
Program are collected largely through state entries into the  National Information Management
System electronic database. Performance data on CWSRF management will be compiled by EPA's
Regional offices through interaction with the states.  Additional data collection and qualify control
reviews are accomplished through annual EP ARegjonal reviews of state programs, including financial
audits performed by Certified Public Accountants, and annual EPA Headquarters reviews ofRegions,

       Data on the agency goal to reduce the number of homes in Indian Country with inadequate
wastewater sanitation systems, through funding from the CW SRF Tribal Set Aside Program, comes
from  the Indian Health Service  (IHS) automated  Sanitation Deficiency System (SDS.)   This
information is reported annually by the IHS 12 Area Offices to the national SDS  system.  IHS
provides summary reports on EPA-funded wastewater treatment projects to EPA Headquarters and
Regional Offices. IHS asserts that, annually, at two levels in the organization, it reviews all data for
uniformity of reporting and project scoring before submitting it to EPA.
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       Data measuring the effective functioning of the Colonias Assistance Program are collected
via quarterly reporting by EPA Region 6, based on reports from Texas and New Mexico.  Data
Quality Assurance in Texas is performed by the Texas Water Development Board via periodic
Colonia inspections  and reports to EPA Region 6.  The New Mexico Environment Department
reviews the quality of its Colonias data before reporting to EPA Region 6.

       Data on the effective functioning of the Biosolids Beneficial Reuse Program have in past years
been collected via the Permits Compliance  System which is maintained for other purposes.  The
agency has  now  developed the Biosolids  Data Management  System (BDMS) to provide the
information  needed.   BDMS is designed to permit data  entry by  local wastewater/biosolids
management agencies; however, states  and EPA Regional offices will initially enter most data.
BDMS is equipped with internal checks and controls to flag and reject inaccurate and inconsistent
data.

       Data on the effective progression of the closeout of Clean Water Act Title n (construction
grants) projects and special project STAG grants are collected via semi-annual reporting by EPA
Regional Offices, supported  by periodic  EPA Headquarters reviews  of Regions.   Quality
Assurance/Quality Control of data is performed through a virtually continuous EPA Headquarters
review of progress via cross-checks of required regular and ad-hoc reporting, and via Headquarters
visits and calls to Regional offices.

       Data on the effectiveness of the assistance provided, as authorized under Section 104(g)(l)
of the Clean Water Act, to wastewater treatment facilities to prevent them from going into non-
compliance or returning them to compliance, are collected via semi-annual reporting by EP ARegional
offices to EPA Headquarters.
Research

       EPA has several strategies to validate and verify performance measures in the area of
environmental science and technology research. Because the major output of research is technical
information, primarily in the form of reports, software, protocols, etc., key to these strategies is the
performance of both peer reviews and quality reviews to ensure that requirements are met.

       Peer reviews provide  assurance  during  the  pre-planning,  planning,  and reporting  of
environmental science and research activities that the  work meets peer expectations. Only those
science activities that pass   agency  peer  review are addressed.  This applies to  program-level,
project-level, and research outputs. The quality of the peer review activity is monitored by EPA to
ensure that peer reviews are performed consistently, according to Agency policy, and that any
identified areas of concern are resolved through discussion or the implementation of corrective action.

       The Agency's expanded focus on peer review helps ensure that the performance measures
listed here are verified and validated by an external organization. This is accomplished through the
use of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) and the Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC). The
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BOSC, established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, provides an added measure of
assurance by examining the way the Agency uses peer review, as well as the management of its
research and development laboratories.

       In 1998, the Agency presented a new Agency-wide quality system  in Agency Order
53 60.1/chg 1. This system provided policy to ensure that all environmental programs performed by
or for the Agency be supported by individual quality systems that comply fully with the American
National  Standard, Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data
Collection and Environmental Technology Programs (ANSI/ASQC E4-1994).

       The order expanded the applicability of quality assurance and quality control to the design,
construction, and operation by EPA organizations of environmental technology such as pollution
control and abatement systems; treatment, storage, and disposal systems; and remediation systems.
This rededication to quality provides the needed management and technical practices to assure that
environmental data developed in research and used to support Agency decisions are of adequate
quality and usability for their intended purpose.

       A quality assurance system is implemented at all levels in the EPA research organization. The
Agency-wide quality assurance system is a management system that provides the necessary elements
to plan, implement, document, and assess the effectiveness of quality assurance and quality control
activities applied to  environmental programs conducted by or for EPA. This quality management
system provides for identification  of  environmental programs  for which QA/QC is needed,
specification of the  quality of the data required from environmental programs, and provision of
sufficient resources to assure that an adequate level of QA/QC is performed.

       Agency measurements are based on the application of standard EPA and ASTM methodology
as well as performance-based measurement systems. Non-standard methods are validated at the
project level. Internal and external management system assessments report the efficacy of the
management system for quality of the data and the final research results. The quality assurance annual
report and work plan submitted by each organizational unit provides an accountable mechanism for
quality activities. Continuous improvement in the quality system is accomplished through discussion
and review of assessment results.
Coordination with Other Agencies

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Program (NPDES)

       Since inception of the NPDES program under Section 402 of the Clean Water Act, EPA and
the authorized states have developed expanded relationships with various Federal agencies to
implement pollution controls for point sources. EPA works closely with the Fish and Wildlife Service
on consultation for protection of endangered species and with the Advisory Council on Historic
Preservation on National Historic Preservation Act implementation.  EPA and States rely  on
monitoring data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help confirm pollution control decisions.
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The  Agency also works closely with the Small Business Administration  and the Office  of
Management and Budget to ensure that regulatory programs are fair and reasonable.  The Agency
coordinates with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on efforts to ensure that
NPDES programs support coastal and national estuary efforts; and with the Department of Interior
on mining issues.

Joint Strategy of Animal Feeding Operations

       The Agency is working closely with the Department of Agriculture to develop a joint unified
strategy to minimize the water quality and human health impacts that can be caused by animal feeding
operations. This joint strategy is among the key actions in the Clean Water Action Plan.   The draft
strategy was released on September 16,1998. USDA and EPA have since held 12 national listening
sessions.  The final strategy is expected in FY 1999.

Clean Water State Revolving Fund CCWSRF)

       EPA's SKF program, HDD's Community Development Block Grant,  and USDA's Rural
Utility Service have signed a Memorandum of Understanding committing to assisting state or Federal
implementers  in:   (1) coordination of the funding cycles of the three Federal agencies;  (2)
consolidation of plans of action (operating plans, intended use plans, strategic plans, etc.); and (3)
preparation of one environmental review document to satisfy the requirements of all  participating
Federal agencies. A coordination group at the Federal level has been formed to further these efforts
and maintain lines of communication.  In many states, coordination committees have been established
with representatives from the three programs. EPA is also conducting an analysis to identify barriers
in the environmental review process so as to foster development of one environmental review per
project which meets the needs of all agencies involved.

Clean Water SRF Indian  Set Aside - Indian Health Service and Rural Utilities Service

       In implementation of the Indian Set Aside grant program under Title VI of the Clean Water
Act, US EPA has made broad use of the Indian Health  Service to administer most of these grant
funds to the various Indian Tribes, including determination of the priority ranking system for the
various wastewater needs in Indian Country.

       In 1998, US EPA and the Rural Utilities Service (RUS) of the US Department of Agriculture
formalized a partnership  between the two agencies to provide coordinated financial and technical
assistance to Indian Tribes.

Construction Grants Program - US Army Corps of Engineers

       Throughout the history of the construction grants program under Title n of the Clean Water
Act,  US EPA and the  delegated States have made broad use of the construction expertise of the
Corps ofEngineers (Corps) to provide varied assistance in construction oversight and administrative
                                         n-so

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matters. The mechanism for this expertise has been and continues to be an Interagency Agreement
between the two agencies.

Nonpoinl Sources

       EPA will continue to work closely with its Federal partners to achieve the ambitious strategic
objective of reducing pollutant discharges by at least 20 percent from 1992 levels.  Most significantly,
EPA will continue to work with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, which has a key role in reducing
sediment loadings through its continued implementation of the Environmental  Quality Incentives
Program, the Conservation Reserve Program, and the Conservation Compliance Program. USDA
also plays a major role in reducing nutrient discharges through these same programs. EPA will also
work  closely with the Forest Service and Bureau  of Land Management, whose programs can
contribute significantly to reduced pollutant loadings of sediment, especially on the vast public lands
that comprise 29% of all land in the United States. EPA will work with these agencies, USGS, and
the states to document improvements in land management and water quality.

Research

       Research addressing the ecosystem  effects of Wet Weather Flows is  divided into three
categories:  1) watershed management for WWFs; 2) control technology for drainage systems; and
3) infrastructure improvement. Implementation of this work is guided by the "Risk Management
Research Plan for Wet Weather Flows."  This research plan was peer reviewed by the Urban Water
Resources Research Council of the American Society of Civil Engineers and the Water Environment
Research Foundation of the Water Environment Federation. A portion of the WWF research plan's
projects are being conducted within EPA, with funding from Section 104 (b)(3) of the Clean Water
Act (CWA). This plan is also being used to coordinate relevant work being conducted by others such
as the Water Environment Research  Foundation's Wet Weather Advisory Panel, the American
Society of Civil Engineers Urban Water Resources Research Council, EPA's Sanitary Sewer
Overflow (SSO) Advisory Committee  and Urban Wet Weather Flow Subcommittee, and numerous
other organizations involved with WWF research to improve coordination and minimize duplication.

Statutory Authorities

Clean Water Act
Clean Air Act
Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990
Safe Drinking Water Act
Toxic Substances Control Act
                                         n-81

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Goal 3: Safe Food

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents
Goal 3: Safe Food	,	ffl-1
       Reduce Agricultural Pesticides Risk	,	 ..	HI-9
       Reduce Use on Food of Pesticides Not Meeting Standards	IH-17

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                           Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                      Safe Food
Strategic Goal:  The foods Americans eat will be free from unsafe pesticide residues. Children
especially will be protected from the health threats posed by pesticide residues, because they are
among the most vulnerable groups in our society.

                                  Resource Summary
                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Safe Food
Reduce Agricultural Pesticides Risk
Reduce Use on Food of Pesticides Not Meeting
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Reauest
$65,205.9
$26,477.5
$38,728.4
692.0
FY1999
Enacted
367,546.4
$29,139.0
$38,407.4
702.4
FY 2000 FY 2000 Req. v.
Reauest FY 1999 Ena.
$78,583.2
$30,830.1
$47,753.1
712.2
$11,036.8
$1,691.1
$9,345.7
9.8
Background and Context

       The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plays a major role in the lives of all
Americans by ensuring that agricultural use of pesticides will not result in unsafe food.  EPA
accomplishes this by working to protect human health and the environment from risks associated with
agricultural pesticide use, while ensuring that exposure from any individual agricultural pesticide use
will not, with reasonable certainty, cause harm.

      EPA regulates pesticides under two main statutes: the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Federal Food and Drug Control Act (FFDCA). FIFRA requires
that pesticides be registered (licensed) by EPA before they may be sold or distributed in the United
States, and that they perform their intended functions without causing unreasonable adverse effects
on people or the environment when used according to EPA-approved label directions.

       FFDCA authorizes EPA to set tolerances, or maximum legal limits, for pesticide residues in
or on food.  Tolerance requirements apply equally to domestically-produced as well as imported food.
Any food with residues not covered by a tolerance, or in amounts that  exceed an established
tolerance, may not be legally marketed in the United States.

      Both FIFRA and FFDCA have been amended by the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of
1996, which enhances protection of children and other sensitive sub-populations. Because of EPA's
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work under these laws, Americans enjoy one of the safest, most abundant, and most affordable food
supplies in the world.

      Pesticides subject to EPA regulation include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides,
disinfectants, plant growth regulators and other substances intended to control pests. The regulations
directly affect pesticide producers, formulators, distributors, retailers, commercial pest control firms,
farms, farm workers, industrial and governmental users, and all households.

   Pesticides are used in agriculture, greenhouses, on lawns, in swimming pools, industrial buildings,
households, and in hospitals and food service establishments. Total U.S. pesticide usage in 1995 was
about 4.5 billion pounds,  and there are about 1.3 million certified pesticide applicators in the U.S.
Herbicides are the most widely used pesticides and account for the greatest expenditure and volume.
Biopesticides and other non-conventional, or safer, pesticides make up about 20 percent of the total.
Agriculture accounts for over 70 percent of all applications.

      Through its food safety programs, EPA enhances health and environmental protection in a
number of ways, including the following:

        Establishing a single, health-based standard for pesticide residues in food, and eliminating past
        inconsistencies in  the law which treated residues in some processed foods differently from
        residues in raw and other processed foods.

•       Providing  for a more complete assessment of potential risks,  with special protections for
        potentially sensitive groups, such as infants and children.

•       Ensuring that pesticides are periodically reassessed  for consistency with  current safety
        standards and the  latest scientific and technological advances.

•       Expanding consumers' "right to know" about pesticide risks and benefits.

        Expediting the approval of
        safer,  reduced   risk
        pesticides.
EPA's Pesticide Regulations Affect a Cross-Section of the Population:

       30 major pesticide producers and another 100 smaller producers
       2500 formulators
       29,000 distributors and other establishments
       40,000 commercial pest control firms
       One million farms
       Several million industry and government users
       About 90 million households
        Consumers are at risk for
potential  adverse  effects   from
pesticide residues ingested  either
directly or through processed foods.
Pesticides  also   "bioaccumulate"
throughout the  food  chain.    A
critical step in protecting the public
health  is  to  evaluate  food  use
pesticides for potential toxic effects such as birth defects, seizures, cancer, disruption of the endocrine
                                            m-2

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system, changes in fertility, harmful effects to the kidneys or liver, or short term effects such as
headaches or disorientation. Ensuring that any residues on food are at acceptable levels is the essence
of the Safe Food goal.

Means and Strategy

       The Agency works toward a twofold strategy for accomplishing the objectives of the Safe
Food goal:

•      EPA encourages the introduction of new, safer pesticide ingredients (including new biological
       agents) within the context of new pest-management practices.

•      At the same time, the Agency systematically works toward reducing the use of currently
       registered  pesticides with the highest potential to cause adverse  health effects.  FTFRA
       mandates  Special Review, reregistration reviews  and other  risk-management measures
       available in the registration authority.  FQPA mandates additional screening for aggregate
       exposure, common mechanisms of toxicity and an additional tenfold safety factor to ensure
       protection of children and infants.

       In 2000, the Agency will accelerate the pace of new registrations for pesticides that offer
improved prevention or risk reduction qualities compared to those currently on the market.
Progressively replacing older, higher-risk pesticides is one of the most effective methods for curtailing
adverse impact on health and the ecosystem while preserving food production rates.

       Other priorities in 2000 include evaluating existing tolerances for  currently  registered
pesticides to ensure they meet the FQPA health standard and to screen and require testing of certain
pesticides and chemicals to evaluate their potential for disrupting endocrine systems in animals or in
humans.  The emphasis will be on balancing the need for pesticides, and allowing for smooth
transitions to safer pesticide alternatives.

       EPA uses  its FIFRA registration authorities and the  FFDCA mechanism  in tandem to
systematically manage the risks of such exposures by establishing legally permissible food-borne
exposure levels, or tolerances. EPA manages the legal use of pesticides,  up to and including the
elimination of pesticides that present a danger to human health and the environment.  This task
involves a comprehensive review of existing pesticide use as stipulated by the reregistration provision,
as well as a comprehensive reassessment and update of existing tolerances on a six-year schedule, as
required  by FQPA

       An additional dimension is the pursuit and incorporation of the latest scientific advances in
health-risk assessment practices, ensuring current uses meet the test of a reasonable certainty of no
harm, as stipulated by FQPA. This includes the incorporation of new scientific data relating to the
effects of endocrine disruption.
                                          m-3

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       Finally, in addition to setting the requirements of continued legal use of agricultural pesticides,
EPA works in partnership with USD A, FDA and the states toward the broader effort to prevent the
misuse of agricultural pesticides.

       More information about EPA's food safety efforts is available on the Office of Pesticides
Program's website at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides.

Research

     FQPA identifies the need for science to evaluate all potential routes and pathways of human
exposure to pesticides and their effects. Research in 2000 will continue the program started in 1998
and will center on such initiatives as assessing the risk of exposures of varying frequency and
duration. Research will also compare the effects of pesticide exposure to mixtures of pesticides and
other toxics chemicals with exposure to the individual chemicals.
Strategic Objectives and FY 2000 Annual Performance Goals

Objective 01:  Reduce Agricultural Pesticides Risk

By: 2000     Decrease adverse risk from agricultural uses from 1995 levels and assure that new
             pesticides are safe by such actions as registering 6 new chemicals, 1800 amendments,
             500 me-toos, 100 new uses, 45 inerts, 375 special registrations, 105 tolerances and
             13 reduced risk chemicals/biopesticides.


Objective 02:  Reduce Use on Food of Pesticides Not Meeting Standards

By: 2000     EPA will reassess 20% of the existing 9700 tolerances to ensure that they meet the
             statutory standard of "reasonable certainty of no harm," achieving a cumulative 53%.

Highlights

Reduce Agricultural Pesticides Risk

     The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide
and Rodentieide Act (FIFRA) authorize EPA to set terms and conditions of pesticide registration,
marketing and use. EPA will use these authorities to reduce the use of pesticides with the highest
potential to cause cancer or neurotoxic effects, including those which pose particular risks to children.
                                         m-4

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     New food/feed-use pesticides are registered after an extensive review and evaluation of human
health and ecosystem studies and data.  The Registration program includes special registration
activities, tolerance setting, and permits for experimental and emergency use.

     In 2000,  the Agency will continue to decrease the risk the public faces from agricultural
pesticides (from 1995 levels) through the regulatory review and approval of new pesticide chemicals,
including reduced risk pesticides and biopesticides. The Reduced Risk Initiative, which began in 1993,
expedites the registration of reduced risk pesticides.  Under this strategy, EPA will continue to
provide accelerated review of pesticides which meet the criteria of reduced risk, i.e., reduced levels
of acute toxicity, reduced exposure to humans or non-target organisms, and reduced environmental
burden, considering comparisons with available alternative pesticides.  These accelerated pesticide
reviews provide an incentive for industry to  develop,  register, and use lower risk pesticides.
Additionally, the availability of these reduced risk pesticides provide alternatives to older, potentially
more harmful products currently on the market.

     In addition to registering safer pesticides, EPA reviews petitions for temporary uses of
pesticides to respond to emergency situations, such as a pest infestation on a crop, and exceptions
for research purposes. These actions, provided for under FBFRA, include the issuance of emergency
exemptions allowing the use for a limited time of a pesticide not registered for that specific purpose.
Another provision addresses special local needs which allow registration of products by states for
specific uses not Federally registered; experimental use permits allowing pesticide producers to test
new pesticides uses outside the laboratory; amendments to previously approved pesticides (e.g., to
reflect label revisions or changed formulations for products already registered); applications for new
uses of a pesticide; and additional registrations for new products containing a pesticide  already
registered.

Reduce Use of Pesticides Not Meeting Current Standards on Food

     The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) requires the Agency to revise its risk-assessment
practices to ensure the adequate protection of children's health and other vulnerable groups, and to
reevaluate some 9,700 food residue tolerances approved before the passage of FQPA. To meet the
tolerance reassessment  requirement, the Agency  will complete approximately 1,950 additional
tolerance reassessments in 2000.  The Agency will also screen and test these pesticides for their
potential to disrupt the endocrine  system.

     In 2000, the Agency's  Pesticide Reregistration program is now in its  final phase.  The
Reregistration program will enable EPA to review  pesticides currently on the market to ensure they
meet the FQPA health standards. Pesticides found not in compliance will be eliminated or restricted
in order to minimize harmful exposure. The issuance of a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED)
summarizes the health and environmental effects findings of the chemical reregistration. The findings
determine whether the  products  registered under this chemical are eligible for reregistration.
                                           m-5

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     In 2000, EPA will complete 20REDs and approximately 750 product reregistrations. By 2002,
active ingredient and product reregistration willbe complete for all pesticides subject to reregistration
under FIFRA '88. By 2006, all 9700 of the reassessments of pesticide residue tolerances mandated
by FQPA will be completed.

     FQPA requires that EPA establish a process for periodic review of pesticide registrations. This
requires the updating of all pesticide registrations using current scientific data, risk assessment
methodology, program policies and effective risk reduction measures.
Research

      To address uncertainties associated with the Agency's ability to assess risk from exposure to
pesticides and other toxic chemicals, research hi 2000 will continue to focus on developing new
methods and models to evaluate and assess exposures to pesticides and toxic chemicals, particularly
cumulative/aggregate exposures, and to evaluate and predict potential human health effects of
exposures to pesticides and toxic chemicals, emphasizing cumulative exposure (e.g., multiple acute
exposures, exposure to chemical mixtures,  etc.). Methods will be developed for integrating effects
and exposure data for use in assessing the risks associated with chemicals regulated under FQPA.

External Factors

       The ability of the Agency to achieve its strategic goals and objectives depends on several
factors over which the Agency has only partial control or little influence. EPA relies heavily on
partnerships with states, tribes, local governments and regulated parties to protect the environment
and human health.

       In addition, EPA assures the safe use of pesticides in coordination with the USDA and FDA,
who have responsibility to monitor and control residues and other environmental exposures.  EPA
also works with these agencies to coordinate with other countries and international organizations with
which the United States  shares environmental goals.  This  plan discusses the mechanisms and
programs the Agency employs to assure that our partners in environmental protection will have the
capacity to conduct the activities needed to achieve the objectives. Much of the success of EPA
programs also depends on the voluntary cooperation of the private sector and the public.

       Other factors that may delay or prevent the Agency's achievement of some objectives include
lawsuits that  delay or stop the planned activities of EPA and/or state partners, new or amended
legislation and new commitments within the Administration. Economic growth  and changes in
producer and consumer behavior could also have an influence on the Agency's ability to achieve
several of the objectives within the time frame specified.

       Large-scale accidental releases,  such as large oil spills, or rare catastrophic natural events,
could impact EPA's ability to achieves objectives hi the short term.  In the  longer term, new


                                          m-6

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environmental technology as  well as unanticipated complexity or magnitude of environmental
problems could affect the time frame for achieving many of the goals and objectives, as could newly
identified environmental  problems and priorities.  In particular, pesticide  use is affected  by
unanticipated outbreaks of pest infestations and/or disease factors, which require EPA to review
emergency uses to ensure no unreasonable risks to the environment will result.  EPA has no control
over requests for various registration actions such as new products, amendments and uses, so its
projection of regulatory workload is subject to change.
                                          m-7

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IH-8

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                          Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                     Safe Food
Objective # I:  Reduce Agricultural Pesticides Risk

      By 2005, the public health risk from agricultural use of pesticides will be reduced by 50
percent from 1995 levels.

                                 Resource Summary
                               (Dollars in Thousands)

                                     FY1999     FY1999   FY2000     FY2000
                                     Request     Enacted    Request    Req. v. FY
                                                                        1999 Ena.
Reduce Agricultural Pesticides Risk

Environmental Program &
Management

  Science & Technology

       Total Workyears:
$26,477.5   $29,139.0   $30,830.1      $1,691.1

$23,4793   $26,243.8   $28,725.2      $2,481.4


 $2,998.2    $2,895.2    $2,104.9      ($790.3)

    291.3       291.3      294.4          3.1
                                   Key Programs
                               (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                 FY1999
                                                 Request
                       FY1999
                       Enacted
FY2000
Request
Pesticide Registration

Pesticide Reregistration

Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program

Pesticide Residue Tolerance Reassessments
            $16,165.7   $17,491.6

             $4,169.8    $4,253.3

             $1,164.0    $1,164.0

               $977.3      $976.4
$19,868.00

 $4,227.50

  $1,167.8

    $973.0
                                       m-9

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FY 2000 Request

       The FY 2000 Budget for this objective reflects a requested increase of $1,691,100 over the
FY 1999 Enacted Budget. This increase will be directed at accelerating the pace of new registrations
of reduced risk pesticides, and at increasing the number of new tolerances established.  It also reflects
the Administration's  goals  of  improving the safety of the  food produced and  consumed  by
Americans, and of continuing  commitment to implement the higher statutory standard of FQPA,
especially in the protection of infants and children.

       Many pesticides  currently on the market with approved food uses are suspected to  be
potential human carcinogens, neurotoxins, endocrine disrupters, or may otherwise pose significant
health concerns, especially to children. EPA may require regulatory action in these cases to minimize
exposure and thus reduce risk. To address these concerns, EPA will continue the Registration and
Reregistration/Special Review regulatory programs, giving high priority to the FQPA mandates.

Registration Activities

       Under the Registration program, the Agency registers new pesticides after extensive review
and evaluation of human health and ecological effects studies and data. The Registration program
includes new active ingredient registrations, new use registrations, special registrations, tolerance
setting activities, permits for use of
pesticides  for  emergencies  and
experimental   activities.     The
Registration program allows for the
accelerated processing of reduced
risk substitutes to products already
on the market, thus giving fanners
and other users new tools which are
better   for   health   and  the
environment.   EPA will work to
accelerate the   decision  making
process   for registering new and
reduced risk pesticides and for new
uses  of registered  pesticides that
meet  FQPA safety standards.

       In 2000, continued implementation of the FQPA standard of  "reasonable certainty of no
harm" will enable the Agency to ensure that pesticides exceeding safety standards  are essentially
eliminated. This  standard subjects potentially toxic pesticides to a more rigorous review and thus
reduces the potential for harmful pesticide exposure. The Agency will continue to revisit and revise,
as necessary, its regulatory processes and practices to ensure adequate protection of human health.
EPA  addresses dietary exposure within the regulatory processes,  particularly via tolerance setting
and tolerance reassessment activities.
EPA Responds to Requests from States for Pesticide
           Use Emergency Exemptions
                    Withdrawn
                     by States
                   Denied
     Decisions
      Pending
r~97-\
EPA allows States to use pesticides
for an unregistered use for a limited
time if emergency conditions exist.
In FY 1998 EPA received 601
requests for emergency exemptions
and authorized 410.
                                 Issued/All th
                                   orized
                                           ffl-10

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       EPA will take prompt action on petitions for temporary uses of pesticides to meet emergency
conditions and for research purposes. These actions consist of issuance of emergency exemptions
(FIFRA sec. 18) allowing the use for a limited time of a pesticide not registered for that specific
purpose and for special local needs (FIFRA sec. 24c) allowing registration of products by states for
specific uses not Federally registered; experimental use permits (trader FIFRA sec. 5) allow pesticide
producers to test new pesticide uses outside the laboratory to generate information to  apply for
amendments to previously approved pesticides (e.g., to reflect label revisions or changed formulations
for products already registered); applications for new uses of a pesticide; and additional registrations
for new products  containing  a
pesticide already registered.
                                        New Pesticide Registrations
                                        s
                                                   13
                                                      14
                                                      17
                                                          23
                                                          17
                                                             15
                                                                 10
                                                                 18
                                                                    13
                                                                    14
                                                                        15
                                                                            13
                                                                               Regular
Safer
                                        1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1938 1999 2000
                                     Rfigulan Convcidiraial Chcnocals and .Antimicrobials
                                     Safer: Kopcstirides and Reduced Risk Chemicals
       EPA is implementing the
new FQPA health-based standards
for pesticides with transparency
and   the   involvement   of
stakeholders.  EPA will  find the
right common-sense strategies for
reducing risk to acceptable levels
while retaining those pesticides of
the greatest public value, including
those utilized for minor uses and
integrated pest management needs.
EPA   will   also   explore
opportunities for reasonable phase
out   periods,   market-based
approaches  and incentives,  and
cooperative partnerships to achieve these goals.
                           Reduced Risk Chemicals and Biopesticides

       In 2000, EPA will decrease 1995 risk levels from agricultural pesticides through the
regulatory review of reduced risk pesticides, including biopesticides. Through registration of reduced
risk pesticides, the Agency will increase the availability of safer consumer alternatives, resulting in
a reduction in the use of higher risk pesticides.  The ongoing Reduced Risk Initiative will also
contribute to risk reduction by providing expedited review of pesticides which meet the reduced risk
criteria, i.e., pesticides with reduced toxicity, potential to displace other chemicals posing potential
human health concerns, reduced exposure to workers, low toxicity to non-target organisms, low
potential for groundwater contamination, lower use rates than alternatives, low pest resistance
potential, or high compatibility with integrated pest management and efficacy.

Reduce Agricultural Use of Potential Carcinogenic or Neurotoxic Pesticides

       A large number of current  pesticides with approved food uses are classified  as potential
human  carcinogens.   Current understanding of chemical pesticides  identifies  both  cancer  and
                                          m-ii

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neurotoxicity as endpoints  of great concern. EPA will move aggressively to minimize dietary
exposure from pesticides with the highest potential to cause cancer or neurotoxic effects. Major tasks
required over the next few years include the development of needed new science policies, refinement
of use information bases, advancement of the adoption of environmental stewardship and integrated
pest management, acceleration of regulatory reviews and, where warranted, approvals of effective
alternative tools for pest management.

FY 2000 Change from FY 1999 Enacted

EPM

•      (+$1,600,000) Increase and accelerate registration of reduced risk pesticides, including
       biopesticides. Because it takes a period of time to gear up and process new registrations, the
       increased outputs will not be seen until 2001.

        (+1,015,000) Increase in workforce cost of living.

S&T

•       (-$790,300)  Reduction reflects one-time costs and moving expenses for the pesticide
       laboratory consolidation at Fort Meade, Maryland.

NOmihe FY 1999 Request, submitted  to Congress in February 1998, included  Operating
       Expenses and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in
       Goal 8 and Objective 5. In the FY 1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the FY 2000
       Request, these resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives. TheFY 1999 Request
       columns in this document have been modified from the original FY 1999 Request so that they
       reflect the allocation of these ORD funds across Goals and Objectives.

Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Decrease risk from agricultural pesticides

In 2000     Decrease adverse risk from agricultural pesticides from 1995 levels and assure new pesticides
           that enter the market are safe for humans and the environment

In 1999     Decrease adverse risk from agricultural pesticides from 1995 levels and assure new pesticides
           that enter the market are safe for humans and the environment

Performance Measures                                     FY 1999            FY 2000

Register safer chemicals and biopesticides                      15 Registrations        13 Registrations

 New Chemicals                                         9 Registrations         6 Registrations

 Amendments                                           2000 Actions           1800  Actions

                                          m-12

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Performance Measures                                    FY1999              FY 2000

 Me-toos                                                600 Actions            500 Actions

 New Uses                                         .     90 Actions              100 Actions

 Inerts                                                 45 Actions              45 Actions

 Special Registrations                                     370 Actions            375 Actions

 Tolerance Petitions                                       95 Actions              105 Actions

Baseline: The number of safer pesticides registered (expected to be 46 by the end of 1999) since the passage of the
Food Quality Protection Act in 1996. Outputs compared with the previous year's performance.


Reduce use of highly toxic pesticides

 In 2000      Use of pesticides classified  as having the highest potential to cause cancer, or
              neurotoxics effects, will be reduced by 5% (from FY 1995 baseline).

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999       FY 2000

Reduction of pesticide use that has the highest potential to                                5% effects
cause cancer or neurotoxic effects

Baseline:  The number of cancer or neurotoxic pesticides on the market (approximately 100) and used on food crops
since the passage of the Food Quality Protection Act in 1996.

Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

       The performance measures for this objective  are program outputs for  the Registration
program and  are used as an indirect measure of reducing risk.   New pesticides undergoing
registration using FQPA standards are deemed less risky than most of those registered before FQPA,
because the new registrations have to meet a more stringent health standard.   Measurement of
reduced risk derives from the number of reduced risk pesticides and biopesticides that are registered.

       EPA has placed special emphasis on measuring alternatives to organophosphate pesticides that
will reduce overall risk. Organophosphate pesticides are widely used but have been shown to have
significant health effects. Risk is measured through the health effects, ecosystem effects, and risk
assessment screenings that are performed on every pesticide submitted for registration.

       Industry is required to provide a wide range of study results to accompany the application for
registration.  These results are then reviewed by the Agency in a multi-step process which evaluates
completeness and appropriateness of the testing. The Agency also reviews the potential interactions
and aggregate risk of this pesticide when combined with similar pesticides.
                                           IH-13

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       The Agency consults externally with the Science Advisory Panel (SAP) and provides notice
and comment on risk assessment results. The screening mechanisms and tools themselves are subject
to thorough testing and ongoing improvements through peer review and through the incorporation
of the latest scientific findings.  Information on pesticide residues is available from various sources,
including the Dietary Risk Evaluation System (ORES), the Pesticide Data  Program (POP) and
information provided in registrant submissions.

       The Agency is also developing a National Pesticide Residue Database (NPRD) which will
provide additional data. The performance measures are tracked internally by the Office of Pesticides
(OPP) and the information is readily available to the public via several agency databases.

Coordination with Other Agencies

       EPA coordinates  and uses information from a variety of Federal, state and international
organizations and agencies in  our  efforts to protect the safety of America's food supply  from
hazardous or higher risk pesticides.

       In May 1991, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USD A) implemented the Pesticide Data
Program  (PDP) to collect objective and statistically reliable data on pesticide residues on food
commodities. This action was in response to public concern about the effects of pesticides on human
health and environmental quality. EPA uses PDP data to improve dietary risk assessment to support
the registration of pesticides for minor crop uses.

       PDP is now a critical  component of implementing the Food Quality Protection  Act by
providing improved data  collection of pesticide residues, standardized analytical  and  reporting
methods, and increased sampling of foods most likely consumed by infants and children.  PDP
sampling, residue, testing and data reporting are coordinated by the Agricultural Marketing  Service
using cooperative agreements with ten participating states representing all regions of the country.
PDP serves as a showcase for Federal-State cooperation on pesticide and food safety issues.

       The Agency  is  also developing the National Pesticide Residue Database (NPRD), in
coordination with chemists and infonnation management specialists from FDA, USD A, California and
Florida.  This database will include automated validation of data submissions. The  system will be
integrated with the other EPA databases.

       FQPA requires EPA to consult with other government agencies on major decisions.  For
example, the USDA and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are routinely consulted when EPA
makes tolerance  decisions. Further, EPA, USDA and FDA work closely together using both a
memorandum of understanding and working committees to deal with a variety of issues that affect
the involved agencies. For example, these agencies work together on residue  testing programs and
on enforcement actions that involve pesticide residues on food, and we coordinate our review of
antimicrobial pesticides.

       While EPA is responsible for making registration and tolerance decisions, the Agency relies

                                         Tfl-14

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on others to carry out enforcement activities. Registration-related requirements under FIFRA are
enforced by the states.  Tolerances are  enforced by the Department  of Health and  Human
Services/Food  and Drug Administration  for  most foods, and  by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service for meat, poultry and some egg products.

       Internationally, the Agency collaborates with the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical
Safety (IFCS),  the CODEX Alimentarius Commission, the North American Commission on
Environmental  Cooperation (NACEC),  the  Organization  for  Economic  Cooperation  and
Development (OECD) and the North American Free Trade (NAFTA) commission to coordinate
policies, harmonize guidelines, share information, correct deficiencies, build other nations' capacity
to reduce risk, develop strategies to deal with potentially harmful pesticides and develop greater
confidence in the safety of the food supply.

       One of the Agency's most valuable partners on pesticide issues is the Pesticide Program
dialogue Committee (PPDC), which brings together a broad  cross-section of knowledgeable
individuals from organizations representing divergent views to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy
and implementation issues.  The PPDC consists of members from industry/trade associations,
pesticide user and commodity groups, consumer and environmental/public interest groups and others.

       The PPDC provides a structured environment for meaningful information exchanges and
consensus building discussions, keeping the public involved in decisions that affect them. Dialogue
with outside groups is essential if the Agency is to remain responsive to the needs of the affected
public, growers and industry organizations.

Statutory Authorities

Federal Fungicide, Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)

Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)

Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996
                                         m-15

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m-i6

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                          Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

                                     Safe Food
Objective # 2: Reduce Use on Food of Pesticides Not Meeting Standards

      By 2005, use on food of current pesticides that do not meet the new statutory standard of
"reasonable certainty of no harm" will be substantially eliminated.

                                 Resource Summary
                                (Dollars in Thousands)

                                     FY1999     FY1999    FY2000     FY2000
                                     Request     Enacted     Request    Req. v. FY
                                                                         1999 Ena.
Reduce Use on Food of Pesticides Not
Meeting Standards

Environmental Program &
Management

   Science &, Technology

       Total Workyears:
$38,728,4    $38,407.4    $47,753.1     $9,345.7


$37,276.6    $30,587.9    $39,987.9     $9,400.0


 $1,451.8     $7,819.5     $7,765.2       ($54.3)

    400.7       411.1       417.8          6.7
                                   Key Programs
                                (Dollars in Thousands)
                                                  FY1999
                                                  Request
                       FY1999
                        Enacted
FY2000
 Request
Pesticide Reregistration
Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program
Pesticide Residue Tolerance Reassessments
            $25,274.3   $20,718.2   $24,898.1

             $1,417.6    $1,417.6     $2,566.2

             $8,561.3    $8,564.4     $9,871.0
                                        rn-17

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FY 2000 Request

      The FY 2000 budget for this objective reflects a requested increase of $9,345,700 over the FY
1999 Enacted Budget. This increase will be directed at the Reregistration program and the associated
tolerance reassessments. The increase will also be directed at screening and testing existing pesticides
for their potential to disrupt the endocrine system. The increase reflects the Administration's goals
to improve the  safety of the food  produced and  consumed by Americans, and the  continuing
commitment  to implement the higher statutory standard of FQPA, especially in the protection of
infants and children.

Complete Active Ingredient and Product Reregistration

      Through the Reregistration program, now in its  final  phase, EPA will continue to review
pesticides currently on the market to ensure that these too meet the FQPA health standard.  Those
pesticides found not in compliance will be eliminated or otherwise restricted to minimize harmful
exposure. The issuance of a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) summarizes the health and
environmental effects findings during the reregistration review of  the chemical. This finding
determines whether the products registered under this chemical are eligible for reregistration. In
2000, the Agency will complete 20 REDs.

      As pesticides go through reregistration, they may meet certain criteria that will trigger a special
review.  These criteria include (a) acute toxicity to humans or domestic animals, (b)  potentially
chronic or delayed toxic effects in humans or hazards to non-target organisms, risk to threatened or
endangered species, (d) risk to critical habitats of threatened or endangered species, and (e) any other
unreasonable adverse effects to humans or the environment. This review subjects the pesticide to a
more in-depth analysis to determine with reasonable certainty that no harm will occur when used.
      In 2000, the Agency is placing
special emphasis on the screening
and   testing   of   pesticides,
commercial chemicals and drinking
water source contaminants which
have the potential to disrupt the
endocrine system.   If a pesticide
chemical  is  found   to  cause
endocrine  disruption,  EPA   will
work with pesticide users to identify
alternatives. Work on pesticide and
chemical   endocrine   disrupters
crosses two EPA goals (Goal 3 &
4). The outputs for both chemicals
and pesticides endocrine disrupter
work is shown in Objective 4.3.
Progress on Re-registrations Since FIFRA'88.
2002
1999
  I
1988
23!
38%
         IS*
         TO*
ED Reraglxtratlon Cajci Remaining to
  Complete
D Voluntarily Canceled
E3 RED1! Completed
                     TJie 184 CompteKD REDs Include
                      265 Active Injredents
                      6,194 PrnducB
                      1,572 tolerances
   Status of Rereglstratlon

  i Out rf a universe tf612cases, the remaining 197 reregstratton cases must be complete by 2002.
                                           m-is

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     By 2005, active ingredient and product reregistration will be completed for all pesticides subject
to reregistration under FBFRA '88.  Also, by 2005, 90 percent of the reassessments of pesticide
residue tolerances mandated by FQPA will be completed.
Reassessment of Existing Pesticide Residue Tolerances on Food

      A tolerance is the maximum legal amount of a pesticide residue permissible on food.  FQPA
requires that EPA reassess within ten years the 9,700
pesticide tolerances existing in 1996.   To meet this
requirement, the Agency will complete more than 50%
of the  tolerance  reassessments  by 2000.  Current
pesticides which  do not  meet the FQPA mandated
standard of "reasonable certainty of no harm" will not
receive  approval for food use.  This more stringent
standard for food reduces dietary exposure to potentially
toxic pesticides.  The Agency has revised  its risk
assessment practices to incorporate the new provisions
and increase protection  of the health of children and
other vulnerable groups.
FQPA requires EPA to reassess within ten
years over 9700 tolerances to ensure that
they meet the new FQPA safety standard.
In developing the reassessment schedule,
EPA is placing a priority on pesticides that
appear to pose  the greatest risk to  the
public. In FY 1998, over 1400 tolerances
were re-evaluated against the new standard,
Registration Review

       FQPA standards will have a great impact on the way pesticides are reviewed. The Agency
has worked extensively with stakeholders through the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee and
the Tolerance Reassessment Advisory Committee to ensure transparency in decision making and a
fuller understanding of the implications for growers, producers and the public. Particular emphasis
remains with facilitating a smooth transition to safer pesticides.

      Establishing a process for periodic review of pesticide registrations, with a goal of repeating
this process every fifteen years, is also required of EPA under FQPA. In 2000, efforts will center on
developing the proposed regulation which will define and outline the program.  This is a major
undertaking that will require the registrations of all pesticides to be updated with respect to current
scientific data, risk assessment methodology, program policies and effective risk reduction measures.
As the reregistration program ends, this new program will again review all pesticide registrations, and
will assure that additional, significant improvements are made in the protection of human health and
the environment. The FBFRA fund that supports the reregistration process will expire in 2001, so
funding for the new registration review process will need to be planned.

      FQPA and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments in 1996 require the Agency to screen new
chemicals and test those currently in use for their potential to disrupt the endocrine  systems of
humans and wildlife.  The endocrine system helps guide development, growth, reproduction and
behavior.
                                          m-19

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      This is a critical issue, especially for children, since exposure to endocrine disruptors during the
gestation period or infancy can pose serious and permanent developmental problems.  Affected
wildlife have been reported with deformed reproductive organs, aberrant mating behavior, sterility
and other physical and behavioral anomalies. In 2000, EPA will begin testing chemicals suspected
as being endocrine disruptors, and attempt to gauge how widespread these chemicals are in the
environment.

Research

      Congress enacted the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) in 1996, mandating a single health
based standard  for all pesticides in all foods  and providing special protections for  sensitive
subpopulations, particularly infants and children.  Titles ffl and IV of the Act identify clear science
needs consistent with the evaluation of all potential routes and pathways of exposures and their
effects, taking into consideration effects from cumulative exposures. Uncertainties associated with
our ability to assess  risk from aggregate/cumulative  exposure to mixtures of chemicals can be
articulated through such scientific questions as the following:

•     What are the human health effects associated with multiple, short-term exposures to pesticides
      and other toxic chemicals that differ from those resulting from chronic exposures?

      What are the human health effects associated with exposures to mixtures of pesticides and
      other toxic chemicals with similar modes of action that differ from those associated with  the
      individual chemicals?

      To address these and other issues related to implementing FQPA, research will continue to
focus on developing new methods and models to evaluate and assess cumulative/aggregate exposures
to pesticides and toxic chemicals and to evaluate and predict potential human health effects of
cumulative exposure (e.g., multiple acute exposures, chemical mixtures, etc.) to pesticides and other
toxic chemicals.

      More specifically, health effects research will focus on the development or improvement of
models to be used for evaluating human health effects under FQPA, including  physiologically-based
pharmacokinetic  (PBPK) models  to improve  dose  estimation across  exposure scenarios,
biologically-based dose-response (BBDR) models to reduce uncertainty in extrapolations (e.g., from
high doses in animals to environmental exposures in humans)and structure-activity relationship (S AR)
models to improve hazard characterization.  Moreover, many of the health effects methods  and
models developed under this program will be used to evaluate effects in susceptible subpopulations,
particularly infants and children. Many methods will be designed to evaluate the effects of pre- and
perinatal exposures.

      Much of the exposure research will also focus on infents and children.  Improved measurement
and exposure methods will be developed to detect,  characterize and quantify pesticide exposures in
infants and children (including age-related differences and activity patterns or behaviors unique to
children) and other susceptible subpopulations (elderly, those with a predisposition to disease,  and

                                          m-20

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high-end exposure groups focusing on identification and characterization of critical exposure factors
and pathways. Multimedia/multipathway exposure models will include all relevant pathways and
media (especially those related to child behaviors and activity patterns) and will be capable of
source-pathway-exposure-dose modeling in a predictive  and diagnostic manner.  Probabilistic
exposure models will be developed to describe various exposure scenarios.

     One specific requirement of FQPA is that multimedia/multipathway exposures be considered
when setting food tolerances for pesticides.  To address some of the major uncertainties here,
research will continue to develop a framework and to collect information that can be used to estimate
the potential for nondietary pesticide exposures for infants and children and identify those pesticides,
pathways and activities that represent the highest potential for exposure and health risks.

     Finally, methods will be developed for integrating effects, exposure and dose-response data for
use in risk assessments of chemicals regulated under FQP A.

     EPA will also continue to provide technical support in the form of assessment,  support
consultation and review to the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS).

FY 2000 Change from FY 1999 Enacted

EPM

     (+$1,148,600) Begin screening and  testing of pesticides for their potential to disrupt the
     endocrine  system.  This  initiative will  implement the recommendations  of the Endocrine
     Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) and begin the screening and
     testing of pesticides, commercial chemicals and drinking water source  contaminants for
     potential to disrupt the endocrine system and provide sound scientific methods information for
     protecting human health and wildlife.

•    (+$1,800,000) Design and start up activities associated with the new Registration Review
     program.  Resources will be used to develop policies and programs to implement the FQPA
     requirement that the Agency review pesticide registrations every fifteen years to ensure that all
     pesticides meet updated safely standards.

•    (+$2,905,200) Reflects increased complexity of analysis required for Reregistration Eligibility
     Decisions (REDs). This investment will help ensure that the remaining REDs are completed by
     2002.

•    (+1,772,500) Requested increase in support of new FQPA requirements to ensure adequate
     health protection from exposure to potentially toxic pesticides. Funding will help assure that
     major public health and environmental risks from existing pesticides are more rapidly identified,
     assessed and reduced.
                                         ffl-21

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•     (+$1,655,000) Increase support for Tolerance Reassessment program is requested to fully
      implement recommendations of Tolerance Reassessment Advisory Committee.

S&T

      (-$266,800) Reduction in one-time costs and moving expenses for the pesticide laboratory
      consolidation at Fort Meade, Maryland.

NOTE:      The FY 1999 Request, submitted to Congress in February 1998, included Operating
             Expenses and Working Capital Fund for the  Office of Research and Development
             (ORD) in Goal 8 and Objective 5. IntheFY 1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and
             the FY 2000 Request, these resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives. The
             FY 1999 Request columns in this document have been modified from the original FY
             1999 Request so that they reflect the allocation of these ORD funds across Goals and
             Objectives.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Reassess pesticide tolerances

In 2000      EPA will reassess 20% of the existing 9700 tolerances to ensure that they meet the statutory
            standard of "reasonable certainty of no harm", achieving a cumulative 53% assessed.

In 1999      Under pesticide reregistration, EPA will reassess 19% of the existing 9,700 tolerances
            (cumulative 33%) for pesticide food uses to meet the new statutory standard of "reasonable
            certainty of no harm."

 Performance Measures                                      FY 1999            FY 2000

 Tolerance Reassessment                                   1850 Actions           1950 Actions

 REDs                                                 34 Decisions           20 Decisions

 Product Reregistration                                    750 Actions            750 Actions

 Baseline:   Baseline is the number of REDs issued, product Reregistrations completed, and the number of
            tolerances (from a universe of 9700) set in 2000.

Issue proposed Registration Review rule

 In 2000     Issuance of the proposed rule for Registration Review.

 Performance Measures                                      FY 1999            FY 2000

Issue proposed Registration Review rule                                             06/30/2000

Baseline:      The rule will establish the framework for the registration review program required by FQPA.
                                           m-22

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Research

Research to support FQPA

In 2000 Provide methodologies to evaluate the risk to human health posed by food-use products.

 Performance Measures                                     FY1999            FY 2000

 Develop and validate a new and improve an existing method to                        09/30/2000 method
 evaluate the effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to pesticides
 and other toxic substances.

 Develop dose-response relationships to evaluate risks to human                          09/30/2000
 health from exposures to mixtures of pesticides and other toxic
 chemicals with the presumed same mode of action.

 First generation multimedia, multipathway exposure model for                        09/30/2000 model
 infants and young children and the identification of critical
 exposure pathways and factors.

 Develop a method to evaluate the human health effects of                                1 method
 cumulative exposure to pesticides and other toxic substances.

Baseline: Development of "formal" baseline information for EPA research is currently underway.

Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

      The performance measures for this objective  are program outputs for the  Reregistration
program and are direct measures of reducing the use of pesticides which do not meet the FQPA
standard.  The performance measures are tracked internally by the Office of Pesticides (OPP).  The
Pesticide Regulatory Action Tracking System (PRATS) which tracks registration actions, also tracks
product reregistration actions.  As pre-FQP A tolerances are reassessed, risk from pesticide residues
on  food will be reduced because the new tolerances must meet the new,  more stringent health
standard stipulated by FQPA.

      The Agency receives information on pesticide residues from a number of sources, such as the
Dietary Risk Evaluation System (DRES), the Pesticide Data Program (PDP) and information
provided in registrant submissions.  The Agency is also developing a National Pesticide Residue
Database  (NPRD) which will provide additional data.

      The DRES is used to conduct acute risk assessment. This system, however, assumes that all
crops with registered uses of a pesticide were treated with that same pesticide, and that the crops had
residues at the tolerance level.  DRES has been refined by incorporating analysis to better adjust for
actual use and residue  patterns,  when appropriate. Science Advisory Panel and stakeholder
                                           HI-23

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discussions of appropriate threshold levels are a key part of ongoing verification and validation for
this system.

     The Pesticide Data program, run by the USD A,  has a number of internal verification and
validation steps. The USDA interviews individuals regarding everything they ate and drank over the
previous twenty-four hours. Additional, non-consecutive days' information is also collected.  The
data are collected for large numbers of survey participants, scientifically selected so that results can
be projected as representative of the U. S. population. USDA survey interviewers are trained to probe
for additional information when unusual intakes of various kinds are reported. Additional data checks
and validation occurs in the data collection and analysis procedures to ensure that the reported intakes
are as accurate as possible.

     Through various groups such as the Tolerance Reassessment Advisory Committee (TRAC),
the  Food Safety Advisory  committee (FSAC), the Endocrine Disrupters  Screening and Testing
Advisory Committee (EDSTAC), the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC), and the State
MFRA Issues Research and Evaluation Group (SFIREG), the Agency is ensuring our review
processes  under FQPA receive diverse stakeholder input.   Additionally, the Agency receives
independent scientific peer review from Science Advisory Panel (SAP) and the Science Advisory
Board (SAB).

Research

     EPA has several strategies to validate and verify performance measures in the area of
environmental science and technology research. Because the major output of research is technical
information, primarily in the form of reports, software, protocols, etc., key to these strategies is the
performance of both peer reviews  and quality reviews to ensure that requirements are met.

       Peer reviews provide assurance  during the pre-planning, planning, and reporting of
environmental science and  research activities that the work meets peer expectations. Only those
science activities that  pass agency peer review are addressed.  This applies to program-level,
project-level, and research outputs. The quality of the peer review activity is monitored by EPA to
ensure that peer reviews are performed consistently, according to Agency policy, and that any
identified areas of concern are resolved through discussion or the implementation of corrective action.

       The Agency's expanded focus on peer review helps ensure that the performance measures
listed here are verified and validated by an external  organization. This is accomplished through the
use of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) and the Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC). The
BOSC, established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, provides an added measure of
assurance by examining the way the Agency uses peer review, as well as the management of its
research and development laboratories.

       In 1998, the Agency presented a new Agency-wide quality system in Agency Order
5360.1/chg 1. This system provided policy to ensure that all environmental programs performed by

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Goal 4: Preventing Pollution

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents
Goal 4: Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes,
               Workplaces and Ecosystems	IV-1
       Reduce Public and Ecosystem Exposure to Pesticides	,	IV-15
       Reduce Lead Poisoning	IV-23
       Safe Handling and Use of Commercial Chemicals and Microorganisms	IV-29
       Healthier Indoor Air			IV-43
       Improve Pollution Prevention Strategies, Tools, Approaches	IV-53
       Decrease Quantity and Toxicity of Waste	IV-65
       Assess Conditions in Indian Country	FV-75

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                           Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes, Workplaces and
                                     Ecosystems
Strategic Goal:  Pollution prevention and risk management strategies aimed at cost-effectively
eliminating, reducing, or minimizing emissions and contamination will result in cleaner and safer
environments in which all Americans can reside, work, and enjoy life. EPA will safeguard
ecosystems and promote the health of natural communities that are integral to the quality of life in
this nation.

                                 Resource Summary
                                (Dollars in Thousands)

Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in
Communities, Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems
Reduce Public and Ecosystem Exposure to
Reduce Lead Poisoning
Safe Handling and Use of Commercial Chemicals
Healthier Indoor Air
Improve Pollution Prevention Strategies, Tools,
Decrease Quantity and Toxicity of Waste
Assess Conditions in Indian Country
Total Workyears:
FYI999
Request
$259,7213
$48,998.9
$30,844.6
$44,750.6
$34,017.6
$26,829.8
$23,429.1
$50,850,7
1,122.8
FY1999
Enacted
$237,789.8
$43,178.2
$30,817.4
$42,443.2
$29,629.4
$21,884.0
$18,852.5
$50,985.1
1,124.9
FY2000 FY2QOOReq.v.
Request FY1999Ena.
$277,166.0
$51,050.8
$29,213.5
$56,874.1
$40,778.6
$25,116.1
$21,026.0
$53,106.9
1,117.9
$39376.2
$7,872.6
($1,603.9)
$14,430.9
$11,149.2
$3,232.1
$2,173.5
$2,121.8
-7.0
Background and Context

       EPA uses a number of approaches to protect Americans' and the nation's fragile ecosystems
from the risks of exposure to pesticides or toxic chemicals. The underlying principle of the activities
incorporated under this goal is the application of pollution prevention. Preventing pollution before
it does damage is cheaper and smarter than costly cleanup and remediation, as evidenced with
Superfund and PCB cleanups. In 1998, facilities reported a total of 10.2 billion pounds of pollutants
released, treated or combusted for energy. Reducing waste, and reducing the toxic chemicals that
are used in industrial processing, protects the environment and also  lowers costs for industry.
                                         IV-1

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Pollution prevention involves changing the behavior of those that cause the pollution and fostering
the wider use of preventive practices as a means to achieve cost effective, sustainable results.

       In Goal 4 the Agency targets certain specific chemicals of especially high risk as well as the
full range of pollutants addressed by the pollution prevention program.  Many chemicals are
particularly toxic to children. Lead, for instance, damages the brain and nervous system and can
result in behavioral and learning problems if blood levels are too high. Despite great progress over
the last twenty years, there are still over 1 million American children with elevated blood levels of
lead. Asbestos, PCB's and other chemicals present hi our buildings and in the environment pose
risks to anyone exposed as well as to wildlife. For other common chemicals, we simply don't know
what, if any, risks are present

Means and Strategy

       The diversity and fragility of America's environments (communities, homes, workplaces and
ecosystems) requires EPA to adopt a multi-faceted approach to protecting all Americans from the
threats posed by pesticide and toxic chemicals.   The underlying  principle  of the activities
incorporated under this goal is the application of pollution prevention. Preventing pollution before
it does damage to the environment is cheaper and smarter than costly cleanup and remediation, as
evidenced with Superfund and PCB cleanups. Pollution prevention involves changing the behavior
of those that cause the pollution and fostering the wider use of preventive practices as a means to
achieve cost effective, sustainable results.

       Under this Goal EPA ensures that pesticides and their application methods not only result
in safe food, but also cause no unnecessary exposure either to human health or to natural ecosystems.
In addition to the array of risk-management measures entailed hi the registration authorities under
FIFRA for individual pesticide ingredients, EPA has specific programs to foster worker and
pesticide-user safety as well as ground-water protection, and the safe, effective use of antimicrobial
agents.  These programs work to ensure the comprehensive protection of the environment and
wildlife hi general, endangered species hi particular, and to reduce the contribution of particular
pesticides to specific ecological threats such as endocrine disruption or pollutant loading hi precise
geographic areas. Within this context, EPA pursues a variety of field activities at the regional, state
and local levels, including the promotion of pesticide environmental stewardship programs with user
groups as partners. Finally EPA promotes the use of sensible Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
and the prevention of misuse in the panoply of uses within both the urban and rural environments.

       Much remains to be done to safeguard our nation's communities, homes, workplaces and
ecosystems. Preventing pollution through regulatory, voluntary, and partnership actions - educating
and changing the behavior of our citizens - is a sensible and effective approach to sustainable
development while protecting our nation's health.

       Preventing pollution through partnerships is central to the Agency's Chemical Right-to-Know
initiative in 2000. This new initiative will provide the public with information on the basic health


                                         IV-2

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and environmental effects of the 2,800 chemicals produced at the highest volumes in the U.S. Most
Americans come into daily contact with many of these chemicals, yet relatively little is known about
their potential impacts.  Basic hazard testing information will be the focus of a high visibility,
voluntary challenge program recognizing industry's contribution to the public knowledge base on
these prevalent chemicals. Risks to children is a particular focus, and the Agency will supplement
the information from industry with additional testing to identify and address any chemicals of special
concern for children's  health.

       Also central to the Agency's work under this goal in 2000 will be increased attention on
documenting and taking action to reduce risk from chemicals that persist, bioaccumulate or are
highly toxic (PBT's) and from chemicals that have endocrine disruption effects. These chemicals
have very high potentials for causing long-term damage to humans and to ecosystems. Accumulating
in the food chain, often far from the source of initial exposure, and disrupting the life cycle and
creation of healthy offspring, in essence these chemicals produce a multiplier effect that is difficult
to halt once it is in action in the environment. Pollution prevention and controlling releases are the
mainstays  of protection, once these chemicals are correctly identified.

       The Agency mixes both regulatory and voluntary methods to accomplish its job. For
example, each year the New Chemicals program reviews and manages the risks of up to 2,000 new
chemicals  and 40 products of biotechnology that enter the marketplace. This new chemical review
process not only protects the public from the immediate threats of harmful chemicals, like PCBs,
from entering the marketplace but it has also contributed to changing the behavior of the chemical
industry, making industry more aware and responsible for the impact these chemicals have on human
health and the environment. This awareness has lead industry to produce safer "greener" alternative
chemicals  and  pesticides.   Fewer harmful chemicals are  entering the marketplace and our
environment today because of the New Chemical Program. Through our Design for the Environment
program, today's EPA forms partnerships with industry to  find sensible solutions to prevent
pollution.  In one example, taking a sector approach, EPA has worked with the electronics industry
to reduce the use of formaldehyde and other toxic chemicals from the manufacture of printed wiring
boards.

       In several cases achieving the strategic objectives under this goal is a shared responsibility
with other federal and  state  agencies.  For example EPA's role in reducing the levels of
environmental lead exposure involves promotion of federal-state  partnerships to lower specific
sources of environmental lead, such as  lead-based paint and other lead-content products. These
partnerships emphasize public education and empowerment strategies, which fit into companion
federal efforts (e.g., HHS  and the Centers for Disease Control;  HUD) to monitor and reduce
environmental lead levels. Likewise, the results of EPA's efforts to reduce indoor air exposures are
measured  by public-health agencies. EPA focuses on specific agents (e.g., radon), on general
categories of indoor facilities  (schools, homes and workplaces), and on the characteristic risks
presented in each category.
                                         IV-3

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       Intrinsic to the effort to prevent pollution is the minimization of the quantities of waste
generated by industry, municipalities and hazardous-waste management operations. Strategies range
from fostering recycling and  other resource-recovery processes to broad-based campaigns  to
re-engineer the consumption and use of raw materials or personal conservation of resources.

       Since this Goal focuses on how Americans live in communities, it features the particular
commitment of promoting environmental protection in Indian country, as consistent with our trust
relationship with tribes, and is cognizant of the nation's interest in conserving the cultural uses of
natural resources.

Research

       The human health and ecosystems research included in this objective is designed to provide
direct support to EPA's regulatory program for pesticides and toxic substances. The information
developed from application of human health research will significantly increase understanding of
the impacts of specific pesticides and toxic substances on human health.  Ecosystems research will
help EPA develop the evaluative effects methods that are used in the regulation of toxic substances,
including pesticides, in ecosystems.  Test methods developed through this research program are
incorporated in the existing compendium of test methods used to support Agency regulatory
requirements.
Strategic Objectives and FY 2000 Annual Performance Goals

Objective 01:  Reduce Public and Ecosystem Exposure to Pesticides

By: 2000     Protect homes, communities, and workplaces from harmful exposure to pesticides
             and related pollutants through unproved cultural practices and enhanced public
             education, resulting in a reduction of 5%, or 20% cumulative (from 1994 levels) in
             the number of incidences of pesticide poisonings reported nationwide.

Objective 02: Reduce Lead Poisoning

By: 2000     Administer federal programs and oversee state implementation of programs for lead-
             based paint abatement certification and training in 50 states, to reduce exposure to
             lead-based paint and ensure significant decreases in children's blood lead levels by
             2005.
                                         FV-4

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Objective 03:  Safe Handling and  Use of Commercial Chemicals and Microorganisms

By: 2000     Provide methods and models to evaluate the impact of environmental stressors on
             human health and ecological endpoints for use in guidelines, assessments, and
             strategies.

By: 2000     Ensure that of the up to 1800 new chemicals and microorganisms submitted by
             industry each year, those that are introduced in commerce are safe to humans and the
             environment for their intended uses.

Objective 04: Healthier Indoor Air

By: 2000     890,000 additional people will be living in healthier residential indoor environments.

By: 2000     2,580,000 students, faculty and staff will experience improved indoor air quality in
             their schools.

Objective 05: Improve Pollution Prevention Strategies, Tools, Approaches

By 2000      The quantity of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) pollutants  released, treated or
             combusted for energy recovery, will be reduced by 200 million pounds, or 2%, from
             1999 reporting levels.

Objective 06: Decrease Quantity and Toxicity of Waste

By: 2000     Divert an additional 1% (for a cumulative total of 29% or 64 million tons) of
             municipal solid waste from land filling and combustion, and maintain per capita
             generation of RCRA municipal solid waste at 4.3 pounds per day.

Objective 07: Assess Conditions in Indian Country

By: 2000     20% of Tribal environmental baseline information will be collected and 20 additional
             tribes (cumulative total of 65) will have tribal/EPA environmental agreements or
             identified environmental priorities.
Highlights

       EPA seeks to prevent pollution at the source as the first choice in managing environmental
risks to humans and ecosystems. Where pollution prevention at the source is not a viable alternative,
the Agency will employ risk management and remediation strategies in a cost effective manner.
Reducing pollution at the source will be carried out using a multi-media approach in the following
manner:
                                         IV-5

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Reduce Public and Ecosystem Exposure to Pesticides

       Reducing risk from exposure to pesticides requires a multi-faceted approach. Beyond being
exposed through the food we eat, the general public, applicators, and farm workers may be exposed
through direct handling, groundwater contamination or aerial spray.  One intent of the Food Quality
Protection Act (FQPA) is to protect the public by shifting the nation toward safer pesticide use.
Appropriate transition strategies to safer pesticides are important to the nation to avoid disruption
of food supply or sudden changes in the market that could result from abrupt termination before well
targeted safer equivalents can be identified and made available. For these reasons, the Strategic
Agricultural Partnership initiative is an important priority in 2000. The Strategic Agricultural
Partnership will assist in developing alternative pest management tools and effective implementation
approaches. The Agency will work closely with industry, agricultural pesticide users and other
stakeholders to develop an effective transition to the safer pesticides required by the FQPA.

       In 2000, EPA will continue increasing agricultural workers* awareness and knowledge of
pesticides and worker safety through the Certification and Training (C&T) and Worker Protection
(WP) programs.  EPA  will continue to protect the nation's ecosystems and reduce impacts to
endangered species through Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP), and integrated
pest management (IPM). The Agency will emphasize efforts with our tribal partners to address
pesticide issues and enhance the development of tribal technical capacity, particularly in the areas
of risk management, worker safety, training, and pollution prevention.

       Together, the WP and the C&T programs address the problem of direct exposure.  These
programs safeguard workers from occupational exposure to pesticides by providing training for
agricultural workers, employers, and pesticide applicators and handlers.  Training and certification
of applicators of restricted use pesticides further ensures that workers and other vulnerable groups
are protected from undue pesticide exposure and risk.  The Groundwater Strategy, a cooperative
effort with states and Regions to develop Pesticide Management Plans (PMPs), will further  efforts
to prevent pesticide pollution of groundwater.   The Endangered Species program will enlist the
support of the agricultural community and other interested groups to protect wildlife and critical
habitats from pesticides. This voluntary program is carried out through communications and
outreach efforts and hi coordination with other federal agencies.  The Pesticide Environmental
Stewardship Program (PESP) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) play pivotal roles in moving
the nation to the use of safe pest control methods, including reduced risk pesticides. These closely
related programs promote risk reduction through collaborative efforts with stakeholders to  utilize
safer alternatives to traditional chemical methods of pest control.

       Antimicrobial sterilants and disinfectants are used to kill microorganisms on surfaces and
objects in hospitals, schools, restaurants and homes.  Antimicrobials require appropriate labeling
and handling to ensure safety and efficacy. EPA will remain focused on concerns regarding product
labeling and product efficacy and on meeting other requirements for antimicrobial sterilants set forth
by FQPA.
                                          IV-6

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Reduce Lead Poisoning

       During FY 2000, EPA will implement the Lead Certification and Training Program for
lead-based paint professionals.  Most States choose to establish their own programs, however, in
an estimated 15 to 20 states the Agency will directly implement Lead Certification and Training.
EPA will also promulgate two major lead rules, the debris and lead hazard standards rules. Lead-
based paint is the primary source of lead-poisoning in children in the U.S. today. EPA contributes
to solving this environmental problem primarily by assisting in, and in some cases guiding, federal
activities aimed at reducing the exposure to children in homes with lead-based paint.

       EPA has promulgated  regulations to set up a federal infrastructure, including the lead
assessment and abatement training and accreditation rule for targeted housing, and the lead real
estate notification and disclosure rale (with HUD and HHS). In 2000 the Agency will prepare final
rules on disposal of lead-based paint debris and establishment of standards regarding hazardous
levels of lead in paint, dust and soil,  EPA will also develop 3 proposals, setting standards for
training and certification for lead-based paint abatement activities in  public and commercial
buildings, bridges, and superstructures, and reconversion and remodeling. These activities will make
significant contributions to the objective of reducing the blood lead levels of our nation's most
vulnerable children.

S,afeJH[andling and Use of Commercial Chemicals and Microorganisms

       Under TSCA, EPA identifies and controls unreasonable risks associated with chemicals.
In 1999, the Vice-President has called on EPA to launch the Chemical Right-to-Know Initiative,
addressing a critical gap in the nation's knowledge about the health and environmental hazards of
high production volume chemicals. The initiative will work with industry to put information about
those chemicals into the hands of the public, communities, environmental groups, States and the
Regions as quickly as possible, as well as take action to mitigate the risks identified during these
efforts.

       Another priority is working to implement the recommendation of the Endocrine Disrupter
Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC), which provided advice and counsel to the
Agency on a strategy to screen and test chemicals and pesticides that may cause endocrine disruption
in humans, fish, and wildlife.  EPA must implement the strategy by August 1999 and report to
Congress by August 2000.

       In 1999, EPA will begin the validation of an EDSTAC recommended screening test protocol
and will complete it in 2000. EPA then will begin testing chemicals in commerce for endocrine
disrupting potential. It is expected that by 2005 all high production volume chemicals will have been
screened for endocrine disrupting potential and the resulting priority chemicals will have been tested
or testing initiated, using the approach and test methods developed from recommendations of the
EDSTAC.
                                         IV-7

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       In 2000, EPA will also continue efforts in four important program areas, including: existing
chemicals; new chemicals; national program chemicals (including lead, fibers, dioxin, and PCB's);
and the endocrine disrupter testing program. The Agency reviews chemicals already hi commerce,
along with chemicals or microorganisms before commercialization (i.e., "new" chemicals) to
determine whether they can be handled and used safely. Another focus is identifying opportunities
for increasing the introduction and use of safer or "greener" chemicals.

       For those chemicals whose significant risks are well established (such as PCBs, asbestos, and
dioxin), reductions hi use and releases are important to reducing exposure of the general population
and also of sensitive sub-populations. EPA's PCB control efforts will shift from enforcing PCB use
standards toward encouraging phase-out of PCB electrical equipment, ensuring proper waste disposal
methods and capacity, and fostering PCB site cleanups. An Agency-wide dioxin strategy will
respond to the latest science and address dioxin risk management in a more comprehensive cross-
media approach.  EPA is also continuing work on its Dioxin Exposure Initiative which focuses on
identifying and quantifying the link between dioxin sources and the general population exposure.

       EPA's research program will support this effort by generating scientific information used in
improving the test methods used to generate the data.  Research seeks to improve our understanding
of both the risks to human health and adverse ecological effects. To the extent that this research
supports testing guidelines that relate to both toxic substances in general and to pesticides, research
under this objective additionally supports EPA's goal to reduce the risks to the nation's food supply
and the non-dietary pesticide risks posed to human health and the environment.

Achieving Healthier Indoor Air

       The Indoor Environments program will work on the education and outreach activities which
implement portions of "Asthma and the Environment: An Action Plan to Protect Children," the draft
Inter-agency Plan being developed under the President's Task Force On Environmental Health Risks
and Safety Risks to Children. All of the activities proposed for 2000 fall within Recommendations
2 and 4 of the inter-agency action plan. Recommendation 2 calls for the implementation of public
health programs that improve the use of scientific knowledge to prevent and reduce the severity of
asthma symptoms in children by  reducing environmental exposures. Recommendation 4 calls for
implementation of programs designed to eliminate the disproportionate impact on minorities and
those living in poverty. EPA's proposed activities will be conducted with close collaboration among
EPA offices, as well as with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and the National Institutes of
Health institutes to ensure that the activities complement those being conducted by the Department
of Health and Human Services. In support of the President's Task Force on Environmental Health
Risks and Safety Risks to Children, the Agency will conduct a pilot program to expand air pollution
monitoring in up to two communities downwind of industrialized urban centers to better understand
the relationship between air pollution and childhood asthma.  Asthma highlights include:
                                         IV-8

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Asthma Management In and Through Schools

       EPA will expand the implementation of its highly successful indoor air quality "Tools for
Schools," an indoor air quality management plan for schools, to several thousand more schools by
developing and implementing an incentive/recognition program. The Agency also will substantially
increase implementation of the "Open Airways" asthma management program to reach several
thousand more elementary schools and expand the  "A is for Asthma" program for pre-school
children to 89 locations.

Increased Community Action

       EPA will work with housing groups, home health educators, community groups, and building
operators to design and  conduct pilots to substantially reduce indoor environmental  triggers for
asthma in low-income housing. The Agency also will convene five state-wide urban environmental
asthma summits, and a National Environmental Asthma Caucus for practitioners, researchers,
industry, and government to identify the most effective ways to target and educate the public about
environmental triggers of asthma. For the first time, EPA will provide funding to local communities
through established programs to work with doctors, health clinics, and civic groups to reduce
children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a significant indoor environmental
asthma trigger.

Working with Managed Care to Get Asthma Reduction

       EPA will conduct economic analyses to identify areas to provide economic incentives for
managed care/health care organizations to help reduce asthma attacks through patient education
about indoor environmental triggers.  Incentives for health care providers to incorporate education
into their patient contacts  could include fewer doctor and urgent care visits, lowered  medication
costs, etc.  EPA will join with other Federal agencies to convene a cabinet level summit with
managed care CEO's to solicit their help in addressing asthma prevention by integrating strong
messages about indoor environmental triggers into health education programs.
       EPA will significantly expand to several waves, national multi-media campaigns on asthma
and ETS. The asthma campaign would be targeted to children and urban residents, who need to be
educated about the indoor environmental triggers of asthma. The ETS campaigns will target parents
of small children, counseling them not to expose children to smoke inside the home. Research
indicates that multiple messages are needed before the public will act.
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Improve Pollution Prevention Strategies. Tools

       Pollution prevention (P2) is designed to prevent contaminants from entering the environment.
To support that principle, current EPA strategies are to institutionalize preventive approaches hi
EPA's regulatory, operating, and compliance/enforcement programs and facilitate the adoption of
pollution prevention techniques by states, tribes and industry. EPA is encouraging the use of market
incentives, environmental management tools and new technologies to promote wider adoption of P2
measures. Perhaps the fastest growing opportunity for incorporating P2 into basic business practices
lie hi private sector partnerships, which enable EPA's knowledge of P2 principles and techniques to
be combined with industry-specific expertise hi production and process. These approaches provide
assistance and incentives to various sectors of society (e.g., manufacturers, product and service
suppliers, governments, consumers) to promote behavioral change that is sustainable and beneficial
to the environment.  These activities promote greater ecological efficiency and therefore help to
reduce the generation and release of production-related waste.

Decrease the Quantity and Toxicity of Waste

       The Agency's work encompasses many activities to decrease waste that include reducing
toxic chemicals hi industrial hazardous waste streams,  reducing the generation of municipal,
hazardous and other solid waste, and recycling hazardous and municipal solid waste.

       Reducing toxic chemicals in industrial waste streams will result hi more efficient use of
natural resources, and decrease human exposure to toxic wastes.  The Agency will further develop
partnerships with industry to minimize hazardous wastes by building on the tools and coordination
activities that were put in place hi 1998 and 1999. The RCRA program is focusing reduction efforts
on the most persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals hi hazardous waste which is consistent
with the national and international priority on reducing the presence of persistent, bioaccumulative
and toxic chemicals (PBTs) in the environment.

       As part of the national leadership to reduce the amount of waste generated, and to improve
the recovery and conservation of materials through source reduction and recycling, RCRA recy cling
and source reduction projects will continue to move beyondthe basics hi 2000. These efforts include
promoting financing and technology opportunities for recycling/reuse businesses and working with
partners to identify, analyze and share information on waste reduction opportunities for construction
and demolition debris, food wastes and other targeted waste streams. The Agency will also continue
working to reduce the barriers to safe recy cling of hazardous waste, through changes to the definition
of solid waste, through provisions in other regulatory standards and through ongoing outreach to
stakeholders to explore additional options. In 2000, the Agency will initiate the hazardous waste
recycling strategy. Options being considered for the strategy include outreach and rulemakings that
will reduce burden on industry while ensuring safer recy cling, including some regulations stemming
from the Agency's Common Sense Initiatives (CSI).
                                         IV-10

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Assess Conditions in Indian Country

       EPA places particular priority on working with Federally recognized Indian tribes on a
government-to-govemment basis to improve environmental conditions in Indian country in a manner
that affirms the vital trust responsibility that EPA has with the 554 tribal governments. The Agency
will concentrate on building Tribal infrastructure and completing a documented baseline assessment
of environmental conditions in Indian Country to enable EPA/Tribes to identify high priority human
health and environmental risks.  These assessments will provide a blueprint for planning future
activities through the development of Tribal/EPA Environmental Agreements (TEAs) or other
similar tribal  environmental plans to address and support priority environmental multi-media
concerns in Indian Country. EPA will support innovative approaches for implementation of tribal
programs and funding flexibility through participation in Performance Partnership Grants (PPGs).
 The Agency's Pollution Prevention Program can be described in five parts:

 I.      A guiding social principle to promote source reduction as the core environmental ethic of society - through
        education
 2.      Sustainable business practices to incorporate P2 approaches and techniques as an essential part of how successful
        businesses oprate - through programs like Energy Star, WasteWise and Environmental Accounting.
 3.      Core government actions, including EPA, other Federal and State regulatory programs, grants reinvention, and
        enforcement activities.
 4.      Cleaner technologies and processes to help companies continuously improve quality, competitiveness and
        environmental stewardship - through partnerships like the Design for the Environment
 5.      Safer products to ensure consumer and environmental protection - through activities like the Consumer Labeling
        Initiative and Environmentally Preferable Products.
External Factors

       The ability of the Agency to achieve its strategic goals and objectives depends on several
factors over which the Agency has only partial control or little influence. EPA relies heavily on
partnerships with states, tribes, local governments and regulated parties to protect the environment
and human health.  In addition, EPA assures the safe use of pesticides in coordination with the
USDA and FDA, who have responsibility to monitor and control residues and other environmental
exposures. EPA also works with these agencies to coordinate with other countries and international
organizations with which the United States shares environmental goals. This plan discusses the
mechanisms and programs that the Agency employs to assure that our partners in environmental
protection  will have the capacity to  conduct the activities needed to achieve the objectives.
However, as noted, EPA  often has limited control over these entities.  In addition, much of the
success of EPA programs depends on the voluntary cooperation of the private sector and the general
public.
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       EPA's ability to achieve the goals and objectives is also predicated on an adequate level of
resources for direct program implementation by EPA as well  as for delegated programs.  The
objectives in this plan are based on current funding levels. If appropriations are lower or different
from requested, some objectives may be difficult or impossible to achieve.  Other factors that could
delay or prevent the Agency's achievement of some objectives include: lawsuits that delay or stop
EPA's and/or State partners' planned activities; new or amended legislation; and new commitments
within the Administration. Economic growth and changes in producer and consumer behavior, such
as shifts in energy prices or automobile use, could have an influence on the Agency's ability to
achieve several of the objectives within the time frame specified.

       Large-scale accidental releases (such as large oil spills) or rare catastrophic natural events
(such as volcanic eruptions) could, in the short term, impact EPA's ability to achieve the objectives.
In the longer term, new environmental technology, unanticipated  complexity or magnitude of
environmental problems, or newly identified environmental problems and priorities could affect the
time frame for achieving many of the goals and objectives. In particular, pesticide use is affected
by unanticipated outbreaks of pest infestations and/or disease factors, which requires EPA to review
emergency uses to ensure no unreasonable risks to the environment will result. EPA has no control
over requests  for various registration actions (new products, amendments, uses,  etc,), so its
projection of regulatory workload is subject to change.

       In the absence of regulatory authority and grants to states for indoor environment programs,
the voluntary Federal indoor environments program relies heavily on state and local, private, and
non-profit  partnerships  to  implement and  manage indoor environmental  risk reduction
activities/programs. Many of our partners and states have small programs that often make it difficult
to achieve the desired level of results.

       The Agency's ability to achieve its objective of decreasing the quantity and toxicity of waste
depends in part on our state partners' commitment to this goal. To help address this potential issue,
EPA is working with Environmental Council of States (ECOS) to develop core measures beyond
FY 1998 and coordinating  with states to develop, for example, the  the  RCRA Persistent,
Bioaccumulative, and Toxics (PBT) list and other tools that will focus State activities on shared EPA
and State goals.

       In addition, recycling rates are affected by shifts in prices and potential regulatory changes
to reduce or eliminate disincentives to safe recycling. While market  forces have helped to achieve
current rates, better markets for recycled produets/recyelables/reusables are needed to encourage
increased recycling rates and source reduction. EPA has worked with the Chicago Board of Trade
and the Federal Environmental Executive  and currently has several other ongoing projects that
encourage market development

       Achieving our objective is based upon a partnership with Indian Tribal governments, many
of which face severe poverty, employment, housing and education issues. Because Tribal Leader
and environmental director support will be critical in achieving this objective, the Agency is working
                                        IV-12

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with Tribes  to ensure that they understand the importance of having good information on
environmental conditions in Indian country to meet their and EPA needs. In addition, EPA also
works with other Federal Agencies, Department of Interior (US Geological Survey, Bureau of Indian
Affairs, and Bureau of Reclamation),  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the
Corps of Engineers to help build programs on tribal lands.  Changing priorities in these agencies
could adversely affect their ability to work with EPA in establishing strategies and regulations that
affect Indian Tribes.
                                        IV-13

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IV-14

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                             Environmental Protection Agency

            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

     Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes, Workplaces and
                                         Ecosystems
Objective # 1: Reduce Public and Ecosystem Exposure to Pesticides

       By 2005, public and ecosystem risk from pesticides will be reduced through migration to
lower-risk pesticides and pesticide management practices, improving education of the public and
at risk workers, and forming "pesticide environmental partnerships" with pesticide user groups.

                                     Resource Summary
                                    (Dollars in thousands)
                                          FY1999
                                          Request
           FY1999
           Enacted
           FY2000
           Request
         FY2000Req.v.
          FY 1999 Ena.
Reduce Public and Ecosystem Exposure to
Pesticides

    Environmental Program & Management

    Science & Technology

    State and Tribal Assistance Grants

       Total Workyears:
$48,998.9
$43,178.2
$51,050.8
$7,872.6
$35,020.7
$863.6
$13,114.6
231.6
$29,219.0
$844.6
$13,114.6
231.6
$37,125.2
$811.0
$13,114.6
241.7
$7,906.2
($33.6)
$0.0
10.1
                                       Key Programs
                                    (Dollars in thousands)
                                                        FY1999
                                                        Request
                         FY1999
                         Enacted
                         FY2000
                         Request
Pesticide Registration

Pesticide Reregistration

Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program

Agricultural Worker Protection

Pesticide Applicator Certification and Training

Pesticides Program Implementation Grant
             $10,253.1

              $4,859.7

                $267.8

              $4,768.7

              $5,516.2

             $13,114.6
              $7,451.4

              $4,856.0

                $267.8

              $4,365.2

              $5,313.6

             $13,114.6
             $10,365.0

              $4,865.7

                $261.8

              $5,738.1

              $6,765.6

             $13,114.6
                                            IV-15

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FY 2000 Request

       The F Y 2000 budget for this objective reflects a requested increase of $7,872,600 over the
FY 1999 Enacted Budget This increase will be directed at the agricultural community to help them
transition to safer pesticides as a result of stricter standards under FQPA. The base resources in this
objective continue EPA's commitment to protect agricultural workers, to certify and train pesticide
applicators, to protect endangered species and ecosystems from the harmful effects of pesticides and
to protect our nation's groundwaterfrom pesticide contamination.

Reduce Human Exposure to Pesticide Use

       In 2000, through the Certification and Training Program (C&T) and the Worker Protection
Program (WP),  EPA  will increase
agricultural workers' awareness and  I „_. D .    ~     ~       "._ . .. „. , '   •   .
.     ,  ,    „     .  ,,     ,    ,      EPA Regions will focus on three areas of Pesticide Worker Protection.
knowledge of pesticides and worker
                                    1. Coordinate with state and tribal partners to assess compliance and
                                    evaluate the effectiveness of Worker Protection Standards.

                                    2. Build stronger links to the farm worker community to provide a field
                                    level perspective on the effectiveness of the national program.

                                    3. Continue to build better links to the health care community to support
                                    a national effort to improve the recognition and management of pesticide
                                    related illnesses.
safety.  The  C&T  and  the  WP
programs   protect  agricultural
workers, applicators and the public
from the potential dangers posed by
pesticides.    The  C&T program
increases the competence of the
applicators in handling and applying
pesticides.    The  C&T program
provides training  and certification
(and recertification every five years)
of private and commercial applicators of restricted use pesticides. C&T also provides safety training
for pesticide handlers and agricultural workers. These efforts are vital to the protection of workers
and to the prevention of pesticide environmental contamination.

       EPA will continue efforts to prevent pesticide misuse, both in rural and urban areas. EPA
will also focus on poor communities where there is significant public health risks to residents,
especially children and other sensitive populations.   To accomplish this goal, EPA will promote
product stewardship with product manufacturers and distributors, and work with states to improve
their certification and training programs. EPA will also work to improve consumer product labels,
pesticide containers and their distribution, and will direct enforcement activities at the sales of
agricultural pesticides. EPA will continue its public education campaign, which includes working
with low income and minority communities to demonstrate safe and effective pest management and
control.

       The Groundwater and Endangered Species programs further contribute  to preventing
pollution and reducing risk to humans and ecosystems from pesticides. The implementation of the
Groundwater Strategy will prevent pesticide pollution of the nation's groundwater supplies. This
strategy is based on cooperative efforts with states and Regions to develop Pesticide Management

                                          IV-16

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Plans (PMPs).  EPA Regional offices will provide guidance and assistance to the states/tribes in
development of these plans.

       A new effort  to  prevent or reduce
pesticide pollution in the agricultural sector is
the Strategic Agricultural Partnership initiative.
This initiative will develop pest management     e  p   ere  .
strategies which employ alternatives to harmful
pesticides and assist the agricultural industry in
meeting both state and Federal standards for
safe food.  EPA will implement 10-15 model
                                              1). Gather data on current application practices, crop pest
                                              profiles, and pesticide usage.

                                              2) Identify concerns regarding the need for high risk
                                              pesticides.
agricultural  partnership   projects   that   „„.     .           . .,    .....
                                              3) Chart paths to more sustainable practices by making the
                                              EPA regions will facilitate broad stakeholder collaborations
                                              linking scientists, farmers, industry, and local, state and
                                              best use of USDA research, EPA accelerated review of safer
                                              substitutes, and university supported technical support on
                                              alternatives and pest management practices.
demonstrate and facilitate the adoption of farm
management  decisions  and  practices  that
provide growers with "a reasonable transition"
away from the highest risk pesticides (those
likely to be lost under FQPA implementation). EPA Regions will facilitate the development of
FQPA transition projects with high-profile commodity groups by providing strategic and technical
assistance on project design, implementation, and evaluation.

Reduce Environmental Exposure to Pesticide Use

       Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP) and Integrated Pest Management
(IPM) are closely related programs that promote risk reduction by using safer alternatives to
traditional chemical methods of pest control. PESP is a voluntary program which forms partnerships
with pesticide users and other affected parties to reduce both health and environmental risks and
while incorporating pollution prevention strategies. Partners and supporters of PESP play vital roles
in developing common sense solutions to pesticide risk reduction. PESP supporters have an interest
in risk reduction because they  use agricultural produce or represent groups which are affected by
pesticides. EPA and USDA will continue to encourage and support IPM practices,  including the
managed use of an array of pest control methods (biological, cultural and chemical) that achieve the
best results with the least adverse impact to the environment.

       The Endangered Species program will enlist the support of the agricultural community and
other interested groups to protect wildlife and critical habitats from pesticides. This voluntary
program is carried out through  communications and outreach efforts, and in coordination with other
federal agencies.

       Antimicrobial sterilants and disinfectants are  used to kill microorganisms on surfaces and
objects in hospitals, schools, restaurants and homes. As such, they play a role in reducing risk in our
surroundings, including workplaces and residences.  EPA will remain focused on product labeling
and product efficacy and in meeting other requirements for antimicrobials.
                                           IV-17

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       The Agency will team with our tribal partners to address pesticide issues and enhance the
development of tribal technical capacity, particularly in the areas of risk management, worker safety,
training, and pollution prevention. The effectiveness of our field programs on tribal lands is directly
related to uibal capacity for pollution prevention.   In 2000, Agency efforts will Include: (1)
enhancing uibal environmental program capacity by conducting multi-media risk assessments; (2)
providing training and technical assistance for Tribal environmental managers to conduct then- own
assessments and mitigation activities, with a primary emphasis on pollution prevention, to reduce
children's exposure to persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs), pesticides, lead and other toxic
substances; and (3)  pilot testing an initial set of risk assessment guidelines by trained tribal
environmental professionals  who will conduct the work to determine the  feasibility, overall
effectiveness and affordability of the guidelines.
FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

EPM

•      (+$1,700,000,10.0 total workyears) Initiate a Strategic Agricultural Partnerships Initiative
       with the agricultural community.  Broad stakeholder collaborations will link scientists,
       farmers, industry, and government partners at the local, state and federal levels. Support for
       farmers will include both scientific research, alternative practices and flexible, locally-based
       programs to provide farmers with innovative technical and financial support programs.

•      (+$2,373,600) Increased Registration activities, including  registration of reduced risk
       pesticides, and related FQPA activities supporting reduced exposure to pesticides.

•      (+$1,130,800)  Expanded Pesticide Environmental  Stewardship and  Design for the
       Environment program activities to build partnerships with the agricultural community and
       other stakeholders. These partnerships assist the agricultural community in developing and
       using alternatives to conventional pesticides.

•      (+$825,800)  Additional resources  for support of pesticide field programs of worker
       protection, groundwater and certification and training.

•      (+$200,000)  Initiative to build tribal capacity by developing guidelines for conducting
       multimedia risk assessments.  Tribal managers will conduct their own  assessments and
       mitigation activities, with a primary emphasis on pollution prevention to reduce human
       exposure to pesticides.

•      (-$150,000)  Reflects a shift from Goal 4 (Reduce Human and Ecosystems Exposure to
       Pesticide Use), to establish a permanent fund to improve management of system
       modernization needs to meet the Reinventing Environmental Information (REI) commitment
       and other mission needs.

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•       (+$1,485,900)  Increase workforce cost of living.


Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Preventing Harmful Pesticides Exposure

 In 2000      Protect homes, communities, and workplaces from harmful exposure to pesticides and related
             pollutants through improved cultural practices and enhanced public education, resulting in a
             reduction of 5%, or 20% cumulative, (from 1994 levels) in the incidences of pesticide poisonings
             reported nationwide.

 In 1999      Protect homes, communities, and workplaces from harmful exposures to pesticides and related
             pollutants through improved cultural practices and enhanced public education, resulting in a
             reduction of 15% cumulative (1994 reporting base) in the incidences of pesticide poisonings reported
             nationwide.

 Performance Measures                                         FY1999             FY 2000
 Environmental Stewardship Strategies                          42 Complete             44 Complete

 Incidences of pesticide poisonings                             15% Reduction           20% Reduction
                                                            (cumulative)             (cumulative)

 Labor Population will be adequately trained                       38% Trained           46% Trained
                                                             (cumulative)             (cumulative)

 Pesticides w/ high probability to leach/persist in groundwater   10% percent managed     15% percent managed


 Baseline:    The baseline in the 1994 level (15,824 incidences) of worker and household cases of acute pesticide
              poisoning reported to poison control centers participating in the national data collection system.


Agricultural Partnerships

 In 2000      Implementation of 10-15 model agricultural partnership projects that demonstrate and
             facilitate the adoption of farm management decisions and practices that provide growers with a
             "reasonable transition" away from the highest risk pesticides.

 PerformanceMeasures                                         FY 1999             FY2000
 Model agricultural partnership pilot projects                        N/A              10-15 Pilots

 Baseline:    New goal; baseline will be 1999 accomplishment in identifying/establishing partners.
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Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

       The performance measures for this objective are program outputs for the  Field and
Environmental Stewardship programs and are used as an indirect measure of reducing risk. The
number of workers suffering from adverse effects of pesticides may be derived from various sources
such as poison control center data, public health system data, information gathered from the states
and public health agencies. The labor population training data may be determined using information
from USD A and States. The pesticides considered to be threats to groundwater have been identified
and will be used as the base.
Coordination with Other Agencies

       EPA coordinates with various state, tribal, and Federal agencies as well as with private
organizations to ensure that our strategic approaches to pollution prevention and risk reduction are
comprehensive and compatible with efforts already in place. Achievement of this objective depends
in part on successful cooperation with our partners and the successful implementation of our
regulatory programs. The number of partnerships  with private and public entities serves as an
effective indicator of EPA's progress in meeting its stated objectives.

       Coordination with State Lead Agencies and with U. S. Department of Agriculture provides
added impetus to the implementation of the Certification and Training program. States also provide
essential activities in developing  and implementing the Endangered Species, Groundwater, and
Worker Protection programs. States are involved in numerous special projects and investigations,
including emergency response efforts. The Regions provide technical guidance and assistance to
the states and tribes in the implementation of all pesticide program activities.

       EPA uses a range of outreach and coordination approaches for pesticide users, for agencies
implementing various pesticide programs and projects, and for the general public. Outreach and
coordination are essential to protect  workers, endangered species, and groundwater; to provide
training of pesticide applicators; to promote  integrated pest management and environmental
stewardship; and to support compliance through EPA's regional programs and those of the states and
tribes.

       In addition to the training that EPA provides to farm workers and restricted use pesticide
applicators, EPA works with the  state Cooperative Extension Services designing and providing
specialized training for various groups (e.g., training to private applicators on the proper use of
personal protective equipment and application equipment calibration, howto handle spill and injury
situations, farm family safety, how to prevent drift, and pesticide and container disposal).  Other
specialized training is provided to public works employees on grounds maintenance, to pesticide
control operators on proper insect identification, and on weed control for agribusiness.
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Statutory Authorities




Federal Fungicide, Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)




Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).




Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996.




Clean Water Act
                                      IV-21

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IV-22

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                           Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes, Workplaces and
                                     Ecosystems
Objective # 2: Reduce Lead Poisoning

       By 2005, the number of young children with high levels of lead in their blood will be
significantly reduced from the early 1990's.
                                  Resource Summary
                                 (Dollars in thousands)

Reduce Lead Poisoning
Environmental Program & Management
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Request
$30,844.6
$17,132.4
$13,712.2
119.3
FY1999
Enacted
$30,817.4
$17,105.2
$13,7122
119.3
FY2000 FY2000Req.v.
Request FY.1999'Ena.
$29,213.5
$15,501.3
$13,712.2
119.3
($1,603.9)
($1,603.9)
$0.0
0.0
                                    Key Programs
                                 (Dollars in thousands)
                                                    FY1999
                                                    Request
          FY1999
           Enacted
          FY2000
           Request
Lead Risk Reduction Program

Grants to States for Lead Risk Reduction
$16,928.7

$13,712.2
$16,911.3

$13,712.2
$14,986.3

$13,712.2
FY 2000 Request

       The FY 2000 budget for Lead Risk Reduction reflects a decrease of $ 1,620,500 over the FY
enacted budget This decrease is a result of completion of some regulatory work and a postponement
of outreach and public education projects.  During FY 2000, EPA will implement the Lead
                                        IV-23

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Certification and Training Program in all fifty states.  EPA will also promulgate two major lead
rules, the debris and lead hazard standards rules.  In the lead regulatory program, EPA will develop
3 proposals, setting standards for training and certification for lead-based paint abatement activities
in public and commercial buildings, bridges, and superstructures, and reconversion and remodeling.
These activities will make significant contributions to the objective of reducing the blood lead levels
of our nation's most vulnerable children.

       Childhood lead poisoning is a serious, yet preventable environmental illness.  Blood lead
levels as low as 10 micrograms per deciliter (jug/dl) are associated with children's learning and
behavioral disorders. High blood lead levels cause devastating health effects, such as seizures, coma,
and death.  Over the past 30 years, the U.S. has made great progress in combating this disease by
addressing a wide range of sources of lead exposures. The Federal government has phased out lead
in gasoline, reduced lead in drinking water, and banned or limited lead use in consumer products,
including toys, food cans, and residential paint. States and municipalities have initiated programs
to identify and treat lead poisoned children and to rehabilitate deteriorated housing. Parents, too,
greatly contributed to reducing their children's exposure to lead.  The U.S. children's blood lead
levels significantly decreased during the 1970's and 1980's.  The most recent data released by the
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) show that average blood lead levels in
children dropped to about 3 Mg/dl during 1991-1994.

       Notwithstanding these successes,  much remains to do.  HHS data show that almost one
million children under six still have blood lead levels above 1 O^g/dl, with a disproportionate number
of them living in inner cities; thus, lead poisoning is  a significant concern associated with
environmental justice issues. There are also significant numbers of children living in suburban and
rural areas that suffer from lead poisoning.

       EPA's current lead program focuses on the primary source (lead based paint) of lead-
poisoning in children in the U.S. today. A 1991 report issued by the Department of Housing and
Urban Development (HUD) showed that lead-based paint was used in millions of older homes and
housing units in the United States. Studies showed that lead-based paint has a tendency to become
incorporated in household dust as it cracks and weathers, lead paint also may chip or release particles
into the air as a result of routine friction on impact surfaces (such as windows, window sills, doors).
Young children may ingest the lead-contaminated dust during typical childhood behavior such as
crawling on floors and then putting their fingers in their mouth or mouthing toys or other objects that
are covered with contaminated dust.  Some children exhibiting pica behavior (a chronic tendency
of mouthing or eating non-food objects) could also swallow paint chips and be lead poisoned. The
infrastructure is designed to meet the need of homeowners that have access to safe, reliable and
effective methods to reduce children's exposure to lead-based paint.

       EPA,  under the 1992 Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X),
contributes to solving this environmental lead problem by assisting, and guiding, federal activities
aimed at reducing the exposure of children in homes with lead-based paint. Other Federal agencies,
such as the Departments of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and Health and Human
                                         IV-24

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Services (HHS), via the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, also play important roles. In the past six years, EPA has made great
strides in protecting children from lead poisoning, by a combination of rulemaMng, education,
research, and partnerships.  EPA has promulgated regulations to set up a federal infrastructure,
including the lead accreditation, certification and workplace standards rule for targeted housing, and
the lead real estate notification and disclosure rule (with  HUD).  The Agency has also recently
proposed rules on identifying hazardous levels of lead in paint, soil, and dust. The public education
programs and  tools developed include  a national clearinghouse to provide the public with
information on lead; grants to states and tribes to establish accreditation, certification, and workplace
standards programs for target housing; and a recently promulgated rule requiring disclosure of
information about hazards during renovation and remodeling of housing with lead-based paint. In
1998  EPA provided $450,000 in grants to  support community-based organizations in public
education and outreach in nine communities.  Nearly 400 applications for this grant program were
received, with proposals totaling over $20,000,000.

       By the year 2000, those states and tribes that Intend to run section 402 programs for lead
accreditation certification, and workplace standards in target housing will be approved. However,
all states will not adopt the program and we anticipate that EPA will be required to run a Federal lead
program in 15 to 20 states and in most of the tribal lands and U.S. territories. Federally run state
programs will require additional resources, a portion of which will be offset by fees.
       Since the enactment of Title X in 1992, EPA has promulgated a number of lead regulations,
but the statute requires several more rules. By the end of 2000, the Agency will submit to OMB for
review final rules on disposal of lead-based paint debris .and establish standards for hazardous levels
of lead in paint, dust and soil.  In addition, the Agency will continue to develop proposals for lead
abatement in renovation and remodeling, commercial buildings and bridges and superstructures, and
anticipates proposing rules for these hi FY 2000.

       By 2000, a national infrastructure will be in place  to ensure that homeowners and renters
have access to qualified lead abatement professionals that are properly trained to identify and safely
reduce lead hazards in the home.
FY 2000 Change from FY 1999 Enacted

EPM

•      (+1,000,000) This investment support acceleration of three key rulemakings in the lead
       program, to establish standards for lead-based  paint  abatement for renovation  and
       remodeling, for public and commercial buildings, and for bridges and superstructures.

•      (+$283,100 +1.0  workyears)  Building tribal capacity by developing guidelines  for
       conducting multimedia risk assessments.
                                         IV-25

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        (+$324,400) Increase in workforce cost of living.

        (-$1,200,000)   This decrease reflects the  completion of or reduction in lead program
        activities in the following areas: 405(d) implementation plans, outreach projects targeted to
        high risk communities,  renovation and remodeling course curriculum development, model
        training courses and course revisions.

        (-$2,000,000) 1999 Congressional add for lead outreach, will expire in 2000.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Lead-based Paint Abatement Certification and Training

In 2000      Administer federal programs and oversee state implementation of programs for lead-based paint
             abatement certification and training in 50 states, to reduce exposure to lead-based paint and
             ensure significant decreases in children's blood levels by 2005.

In 1999      Complete the building of a lead-based paint abatement certification and training program in 50
             states to ensure significant decreases in children's blood lead levels by 2005 through reduced
             exposure to lead-based paint

Performance Measures                                         FY1999             FY2000
Develop state programs for the training, accreditation and             35 States          30-35 States
certification of lead-based paint abatement professionals.
A Federal training, accreditation and certification program          15 Programs         15-20 Programs
will be established and administered in states which choose
not to seek approval from EPA to administer

Baseline:       Approved programs will lead to additional homes abated and certified clean of lead.
Lead Regulatory Standards

In 2000      Prepare final rules for disposal of lead-based paint debris and establish standards regarding
             hazardous levels of lead in paint, dust and soil.

In 1999      Promulgate final rules on disposal of lead-based paint debris and establishment of standards
             regarding hazardous levels of lead in paint, dust, and soil.

Performance Measures                                         FY1999             FY2000
Lead Debris Disposal Rule                                    1 Proposed            09/30/2000

Lead Hazard Standards Rule - develop final                 1 Final developed            09/30/2000
                                              IV-26

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Baseline:       Regulations and standards, where none previously existed, will promote safer homes and workplaces.
               Disposal rule reduces costs of lead paint abatement Hazard standards set consistent guidelines for
               lead paint abatement.


Training, Accreditation and Certification for Lead-Based Paint Activities

In 2000      Prepare rules on training, accreditation and certification requirements for renovation and
            remodeling activities and training, accreditation and certification requirements for lead-based
            paint activities in buildings and superstructures.

In 1999      Issue proposed rules on training, accreditation and certification requirements for renovation
            and remodeling activities and training, accreditation and certification requirements for
            lead-based paint activities in buildings and superstructures.

Performance Measures                                        FY1999             FY 2000
Lead Renovation Information Rule                             1 Promulgated

Develop proposed rules for OMB review                        1 Devel. proposal    09/30/2000 Devel. Pr

Baseline:       Rule development initiated in 1998; no consistent standard for abating lead paint for renovation or
               buildings/superstructures existed prior to Title X.


Publication of Lead-based Technical Reports to Support Regulatory Efforts

In 2000      Publication of technical reports to support regulatory efforts and program policies covering:
            1) extent of lead or lead hazards 2) link between environmental lead and blood lead levels
            3)analytical methods or protocols 4)abatement or control of lead or lead hazards or 5) Nat]
            Lead Lab Accreditation Program

Performance Measures                                        FY 1999             FY 2000
Number of technical reports published                                                  15 Reports

Baseline:       Information will enhance and fill gaps in scientific knowledge of lead hazards and best methods for
               abatement.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

        The  accomplishment of EPA's broader lead poisoning reduction goals (e.g., lead rule
promulgation, certified training programs, completed technical reports, etc.) will be verified by
realizing a significant reduction of children's blood lead levels compared to levels in the 1970's.  For
the past two decades, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has collected data on the
general health of the nation's population through the National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey (NHNES). The collection and laboratory analysis of children's blood for lead has been part
of this program since its inception and has become the standard for the estimation of national blood
lead averages. It is also the only national survey of children's blood lead levels. NCHS is preparing


                                             IV-27

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to begin another survey. Data collected by the HHS' National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)
will be used to measure the effectiveness of this national infrastructure, along with  additional
actions by other Federal agencies, in reducing childhood exposure to lead-based paint and decreasing
the incidence of lead poisoning among children. NCHS' National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey (NHANES) will be used to estimate national blood lead levels in the US population. This
survey is currently in the planning phases; data are expected to be available in 2002. Performance
measures for that year will include a description of appropriate data collection and verification
procedures for those data. The verification and validation of data fromNHANES will be conducted
by NCHS through a rigorous quality assurance program to ensure that the sample selected for
examination is truly representative of the U.S. population and that laboratory analyses of collected
blood samples are of known accuracy and precision.  NCHS has over 20 years experience hi
conducting this survey and these analyses.

      In addition, EPA will evaluate the effectiveness of regulations previously promulgated.
Through mechanisms including focus groups and surveys, the Agency will measure awareness and
any changes in behavior of the regulated community as a result of these regulations.
Coordination with Other Agencies

       The success of EPA's lead program depends in large part on coordination with other Federal
agencies, states and Indian tribes. In 2000, EPA will continue to develop a number of rules which
will  require close  coordination with  HHS,  HUD and the  Occupational  Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA).  EPA will also work closely with state and Federally recognized Indian
tribes to ensure that 1) authorized state and tribal programs continue to comply with requirements
established under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); and 2) the Federal target accreditation
housing certification and training program for abatement contractors is effectively implemented.
Statutory Authorities

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 6 and TSCA Title IV (15 U.S.C. 2605
and 2681-2692)

Safe Drinking Water Act sections 1412 and 1417 (42 U.S.C. 300g-l, 300g-6)

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42
U.S.C. 9601-9675)

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
                                        IV-28

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                            Environmental Protection Agency

            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes, Workplaces and
                                       Ecosystems


Objective # 3:  Safe Handling and Use of Commercial Chemicals and Microorganisms

       By  2005,  of the  approximately  2,000  chemicals and 40 genetically  engineered
microorganisms expected to enter commerce each year, we  will significantly increase  the
introduction by industry of safer  or  "greener" chemicals which will decrease  the regulatory
management by EPA.
                                   Resource Summary
                                  (Dollars in thousands)
                                        FY1999
                                        Request
           FY1999
           Enacted
           FY 2000    FY 2000 Req. v.
           Request     FY 1999 Ena.
Safe Handling and Use of Commercial Chemicals
and Microorganisms

   Environmental Program & Management

   Science & Technology

       Total Workyears:
$44,750.6
$42,443.2
$32,007.1      $31,206.6

$12,743.5      $11,236.6

   349.1         344.5
$56,874.1
$14,430.9
             $45,378.1      $14,171.5

             $11,496.0         $259.4

                347.1           2.6
                                     Key Programs
                                  (Dollars in thousands)

Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program
New Chemical Review
Existing Chemical Data, Screening, Testing and Management
National Program chemicals: PCBs, Asbestos, Fibers,and Dioxin
FY1999
Request
$1,599.9
$14,139.6
$12,491.2
$3,300.8
FY1999
Enacted
$1,257.4
$13,409.6
$12,870.0
$3,011.9
FY2000
Request
$3,667.1
$13,926.9
$23,045.6
$3,289.2
                                          IV-29

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FY 2000 Request

Background

       This objective includes work in four broad program areas, including existing chemicals
(chemicals in commerce), new chemicals (chemicals in the process of cornmercialization), national
program chemicals (including mercury, fibers, dioxin, and PCB's), and the endocrine disrupter
screening and testing program.  These programs are pivotal to reducing current and future risk by
promoting the design, development, and application of safer chemicals, processes and technologies
in the industrial sector. The major program enhancement in F Y2000 is the Chemical Right-to-Know
(CRTK) Initiative. Currently there is little information available on the potential risks of the 2,800
chemicals produced hi the highest volumes in the U.S. Working in partnership with industry, the
Agency will begin to carry out basic screening tests on these chemicals.

New Chemicals Program

       The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to review a chemical or
microorganism before commercialization (i.e., a "new" chemical) to determine whether it can be
handled and used safely. If the review shows that an unreasonable risk may be posed to people or
the environment, control measures  are put in place to ensure the chemicals' safety in the
marketplace. Since 1979, EPA has reviewed more than 33,000 premanufacture notices (PMN) and
taken actions to  control risks for about 10% of these chemicals. As part of its review of new
chemical substances
the  Agency   has
developed an  array
of  innovative,
efficient  screening
mechanisms.    A
number  of   these
tools  have   been
made  available  to
industry to assist in
product
development   and
improvements.
Number of TSCA PMN's, TSCA Control Measures and Green Chemistry Award Nominations
                            1930-1998
5
•g
                                                          PUN'S
                                                      CsOrOt Manures
                                                       Green Ctwntistiy
                                         rv-30

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       The Agency fosters safer chemicals and safer chemical production in a variety of ways,
through regulatory reinvention, through voluntary programs, and through outreach and technical
assistance. Looking at conventional chemicals, EPA sees tremendous opportunities for increasing
the introduction and use of safer or "greener" chemicals as another way to build on the success of
the New Chemicals program. Safer or "greener" chemicals are less toxic, result in lower exposure,
are more energy efficient, generate less (or less toxic) waste, or have other similar attributes. The
more such chemicals are available to replace harmful chemicals currently in use, the greater will be
the opportunity to achieve safer workplaces and communities. Green Chemistry Challenge Awards
are made annually to the top entries for new safer chemicals, safer manufacturing processes and
alternative solvents. As part of a new chemical review for a conventional chemical, the Agency
routinely works  with industry to  share any options and suggestions it may have on process
improvements, to produce new chemicals more safely.  Another example is new biotechnology
products, which the New Chemicals Program also examines to ensure that adequate testing has been
done before their release into the environment.  In many cases, biotechnology products can
contribute to source reduction or provide safer substitutes. Recent regulatory changes have lead to
an increased rate of new biotechnology products submitted for review. Other outreach and technical
assistance to encourage safer chemicals and chemical production include a reference compendium,
laboratory manuals, symposia and actual coursework materials, all developed in partnership with
industry, professional organizations and universities.

Existing Chemicals Program

       A crucial element ofEPA's approach to promoting industry's introduction of safer chemicals
is to fulfill the mandate under TSCA  to identify and control unreasonable risks associated with
chemicals which are already in commerce. The identification of existing chemicals that pose risks
provides additional incentives for industry to look for new chemicals or processes that are safer.
Chemical information, especially data on exposures as well as health and environmental effects, is
essential for screening, assessing and managing  chemical risks.  In dealing with the more than
75,000 chemicals currently in commerce, EPA  has worked in partnership with other Federal
agencies, industry, and other customers, to develop both traditional regulatory and innovative non-
regulatory approaches to control unreasonable risks.  Certain chemicals are manufactured or used
on a limited basis and risk-control measures can be more localized.  Others are present in quantity
and across a wide geographic area,  and a national program is needed to mitigate the risks. Today,
risk management controls are already in place or planned for many chemicals whose risks are well-
charaeterized, e.g., asbestos and poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In 2000, the Agency will expand
the range of existing chemicals it will screen, as part of the Chemical Right-to-Know Initiative.

Chemical Right-to-KnowInitiative

       The requested increase under the Existing Chemicals Program is for the Chemical Right-to-
Know Initiative.  This initiative will focus on the 2,800 highest production volume chemicals used
in the U.S.  We have no hazard information for many of these chemicals that we use daily in
                                         IV-31

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Current Hazard Data Availability for U.S. High Production Volume (HPV) Chemicals
    Full Data Set
  7.1
virtually every aspect of our lives. Only 7 percent of the 2,800 have a full set of basic information
on health and environmental effects; only 25 percent of consumer chemicals have the full set.

       Without this information, we are severely handicapped in our efforts to identify and control
the human health and environmental risks posed by these chemicals. In addition, relatively little is
                                                          known   about  the  potential
                                                          impacts on children's health of
                                                          many chemicals, including those
                                                          that are widely used in children's
                                                          products or otherwise have high
                                                          potential  for  exposure  to
                                                          children.   Similarly,  relatively
                                                          little is known about the class of
                                                          chemicals  that  are the  most
                                                          persistent, bioaccumulative, and
                                                          toxic  -  so  called PBT's - and
                                    fccomplete/NoData          their potential links to significant
                                 93.0%                     health   and  environmental
                                                          concerns.    PBT's  are toxic
                                                          chemicals  that do not degrade
over time in the environment, and that build up in the tissues of animals (including humans) that are
exposed to them directly or through the food chain.

       With the Chemical-Right-to-Know Initiative, all 2,800 High Production Volume chemicals
will be put into an accelerated schedule  for basic screening-quality hazard testing through a
voluntary industry challenge program and a series of test rules for those data not obtained through
the voluntary program. The results will be broadly disseminated to the public in an easy-to-use
format. The Agency will also take action to eliminate exposures to any newly identified risks.
Chemicals that children are disproportionately exposed to will also be subject to additional testing,
under the Children's Test Rule scheduled for proposal in 1999. Any  PBT  chemicals that are
identified will become part of facilities' routine TRI (Toxic Release Inventory) reporting. The result
will be that the real risks from PBT's will be better documented, affording better opportunities for
reducing the existing risks and avoiding future contamination. Another important part of tracking
risk is information on how the chemical is used. Use information will allow the Agency to identify
chemical exposure pathways and unsafe uses, define the chemicals by specific "use clusters," assess
risks associated with exposures, and identify the applicable  "universe"  of household chemicals.
EPA will amend its Inventory Update Rule to develop a Chemical Use Inventory (GUI) System as
another tool for carrying out risk reduction strategies.

       The underlying need for the Chemical Right-to-Know Initiative is the startling lack of
critical information on chemicals, and their exposures and uses, already prevalent in the marketplace.
This Initiative will help prioritize national chemical risk management and increase the amount of
                                        IV-32

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information on chemical  exposures, hazards  and risks that EPA can provide to the public.
Communities will be empowered with this new information to take action to reduce their risks,
complementing Agency efforts to address the  human health and environmental risks that these
chemicals present. This new information will incorporate innovative approaches, such as chemical
classification and labeling  systems, to advise users and consumers of chemical hazards and risks.

       Further, information on  toxic chemicals will  be made  available to state and local
governments to help them  conduct risk assessment and management activities.

National Program Chemicals

       Some chemicals were introduced  into commerce before the risks were known.  Some of
these chemicals are both prevalent and high-risk.  The Agency has established a national program
to manage reductions in  use, safe  removal,  disposal  or containment of these  chemicals, as
appropriate.  Significant risks are well established for PCBs, asbestos, and dioxin, for example, and
reductions in use and releases are important to reducing exposure of the general population and also
sensitive  subpopulations.  Risk reduction efforts on these chemicals will  continue to meet the
mandates under TSCA and fulfill the commitments made in domestic and international agreements.

       In 2000, EPA's PCB control efforts will shift from enforcing PCB  use standards toward
encouraging phase out of PCB electrical equipment, ensuring proper waste disposal methods and
capacity, and fostering PCB site cleanups. The Agency will also pursue opportunities for improved
risk reduction  for mercury, and  for certain industrial fibers that pose risks in the workplace.
Outreach and technical assistance will continue in the asbestos program for schools, in coordination
with the Occupational Safety and  Health Administration and the states.

       EPA is committed to developing an Agency-wide dioxin strategy that would respond to new
scientific findings concerning the  dangers of dioxin and address dioxin risk management in a more
comprehensive cross-media approach. EPA will continue efforts on reducing dioxin exposure,
focusing on identifying and quantifying the link between dioxin sources and the general population
exposure.  Gaining this understanding is central to the successful implementation of an effective
dioxin strategy.

Endocrine Djsruptor Program

       EPA established the Endocrine Disrupter Screening and  Testing  Advisory Committee
(EDSTAC), to provide advice and counsel to the Agency on a strategy to screen and test chemicals
and pesticides that may cause endocrine disruption in humans, fish, and wildlife.  EDSTAC's
recommendations were published in 1998. EPA must implement the strategy by August 1999 and
report to Congress by August 2000. During 1999, EPA will begin the validation of a recommended
screening test protocol and will complete it in 2000.  EPA then will begin testing chemicals in
commerce for endocrine disrupting potential. It is expected that by 2005, all high production volume
                                        IV-33

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chemicals will have been screened for endocrine disrupting potential and the resulting priority
chemicals will have been tested, or testing will have been initiated, using the approach and test
methods developed from recommendations of the EDSTAC.

Research

       There are over 20,000 pesticide products containing 620 active ingredients on the market.
Each year, 1 billion pounds of active ingredients in conventional pesticides are applied in the United
States. There are over 80,000 existing chemicals on the TSCA inventory and each year an additional
2,000 chemicals are added. Release of these chemicals into the environment through agricultural
and nonagricultural application and other means poses  serious risks to both human health and
ecosystems (e.g., plant and wildlife). The human health and ecosystems research programs described
below are designed to provide direct support to EPA's regulatory program for pesticides and toxic
substances.

       The methods and models are used to obtain data needed to meet the mandates of TSCA and
FIFRA. The continued development and validation of improved human health and ecological risk
assessment methods is  a high priority research need for the Agency's regulatory program for
pesticides and toxic substances. The efforts described here represent an applied research program
that is directly responsive to current regulatory issues. Individual research projects support both
pesticides and toxic substance performance  objectives.  For that reason, research for the two
objectives is housed here. Much of the human health and ecosystems exposure research described
under Sound Science (Goal 8, particularly 8.1 and 8.2) is integral to the research program described
here.

       Human Health Effects:

       Humans are exposed to thousands of chemicals either singly or in various  combinations
every day through the air, drinking water, food, and dust. The goal of the health effects research
program is to develop and validate methods  to detect, characterize and quantify adverse human
health effects that result from exposure to pesticides and other toxic substances; develop and validate
models to predict the human health effects of exposure to pesticides and other toxic substances; and
provide data on the health effects of selected pesticides and other toxic chemicals, alone or in
combination.

       In 2000, research will continue to focus on:  1) development of mechanistically-based
predictive models for human health risk assessment, such as structure-activity-relationship models
to help determine testing needs under Section 5 of TSCA, which addresses new chemicals, and 2)
development of data on chemical-specific effects, such as for those toxic chemicals, including
pesticides, identified as high priority from a regulatory perspective.
                                        IV-34

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       The information developed from application of these methods will significantly increase
understanding of the impacts of specific pesticides and toxic substances on human health.  The
Agency will  incorporate  these methods into its collection of testing  guidelines under which
manufacturers will be required to submit data to the Agency on pesticides under the  Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide,, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)  and toxic substances under the Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA).

       Ecological Effects:

       Over the long term, ecosystems degradation poses one of the most serious risks to human
health and economic sustainability. Our Nation's ecosystems provide valuable renewable resources
such as food, fiber, water storage, and wood. Stresses to the environment can impact these resources
and other critical self-purifying environmental processes. Understanding the effects of exposures
to environmental stressors and the uncertainties surrounding  risk associated with our current
definitions of stressors on our environment is an important long-term research goal. Ecosystems
protection remains a high priority area due to the need for better understanding of environmental
stressors and their impacts on the health and sustainability  of ecosystems.  The mechanisms and
consequences of changes in the biological, chemical and physical attributes of ecosystems due to
stressors are poorly understood and represent significant challenges to the research community.

       In 2000, the Agency will continue to support research  to improve our understanding of
ecosystem stressors. Efforts will continue to focus  on:  1) developing and validating predictive
models  (e.g., biologically-based dose-response, structure-activity-relationship) to identify and
characterize ecological hazard and risk, 2) developing hazard identification techniques for numerous
ecological health end points for various wildlife species, and 3) evaluating data on the direct stressor
effects of toxic chemicals, including pesticides, on  experimental ecosystems, including wildlife
species, and on interactions of such exposures with other anthropogenic and/or natural stressors. This
program is consistent with the Agency Strategic Plan for research.
FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

EPM

•      (+$14,000,000)  Investment in the Chemical Right-to-Know Initiative. The initiative is
       designed to ensure a quick start, in partnership with industry, for accelerated testing of
       chemicals with the highest  risk potential, and includes a special emphasis on both
       documentation and reduction of risks from PBT's.

•      (+$2,100,000) Investment in the screening of chemicals for endocrine disrupting properties.
       This investment will allow the Agency to begin to implement the strategy advised by the
       EDSTAC, and to begin the validation of a recommended screening test protocol.
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       (+$561,400) Increase for workforce cost of living.

«      (-$2,600,000) Redirected resources from the existing chemicals program will  support
       chemical right-to-know initiative.  Disinvestment from lower priority activities including
       exposure assessment methods development, information reporting support, test guidelines
       regulatory support and data management efforts.

Research

NOTE: The FY 1999 Request, submitted  to  Congress in February 1998, included Operating
       Expenses and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in
       Goal 8 and Objective 5. In the FY 1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the FY 2000
       Request, these resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives. The FY 1999 Request
       columns in this document have been modified from the original FY 1999 Request so that
       they reflect the allocation of these ORD funds across Goals and Objectives.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

New Chemicals and Microorganisms Review

In 2000      Ensure that of the up to 1800 new chemicals and microorganisms submitted by industry each
            year, those that are introduced in commerce are safe to humans and the environment for their
            intended uses.

In 1999      Ensure mat of the approximately 1800 new chemicals and microorganisms submitted by
            industry each year, those that are introduced in commerce are safe to humans and the
            environment for their intended uses.

Performance Measures                                      FY 1999            FY 2000
TSCA Pre-Manufacture Notice Reviews                      1800 Notices         1800 Notices

Baseline:     Over 33,000 PMN's reviewed; increasing trends in number of 'greener1 or safer chemcials
            reviewed.


Green Chemistry Challenge Awards

In 2000      Continue to stimulate development of new safe ("green") chemicals and safe chemical
            processes through public recognition for outstanding achievements in this field.

In 1999      Continue to stimulate development of new safe ("green") chemicals and safe chemical
            processes through public recognition for outstanding achievements in this field.

Performance Measures                                      FY1999            FY2000
Green Chemistry Challenge Award                        50 Applications        50 Applications
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Baseline:      Cumulative number of companies, organizations and individuals (160) competing for Green
              Chemistry Award.
Testing of Chemicals in Commerce for Endocrine Disruptors

In 2000      Begin testing chemicals in commerce for endocrine disrupting potential.

In 1999      Begin testing chemicals in commerce for endocrine disrupting potential.
Performance Measures                                          FY1999              FY 2000
Develop program to screen 5,000 chemicals for endocrine      Develop Program
disruption potential

Implement screening for endocrine disruption potential                              5000 Chemicals
Baseline:      Universe of 87,000 chemicals including pesticides, commodity chemicals, food additives,
              cosmetics and others. Screening and testing strategy completed in 1998.
Chemical Right-to-Know Initiative

In 2000      Expand EPA's ability to conduct safety reviews of chemicals already in commerce, and
             implement a strategy for comprehensively screening, testing, classifying and managing the
             risks posed by commercial chemicals, with an emphasis on high production volume
             chemicals.

In 1999      Expand EPA's ability to conduct safety reviews of chemicals already in commerce and
             implement a strategy for comprehensively screening, testing, classifying and managing the
             risks posed by commercial chemicals, with an emphasis on high production volume
             chemicals.

Performance Measures                                          FY 1999             FY 2000
TSCA Chemical Use Inventory Rule                             1 Proposed

Under Chemical Right-to-Know Initiative, secure voluntary                    1000 Chem Agreements
agreements from chemical manufacturers to test high production
volume chemicals

Through chemical testing program, obtain test data for high                              50 Test Data
production volume chemicals on master testing list.

Baseline:      Number of chemicals for which voluntary testing agreements are secured or for which test data
              are obtained, from start of Chemical Right-to-Know initiative. Of 2,800 high volume productions
              chemicals,  7% have full data.
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Address Toxic Fiber Risks

In 2000      Reduce exposure to toxic fibers by identifying fibers of concern and addressing risks through
             outreach, voluntary initiatives, and regulatory actions.

Performance Measures                                          FY1999              FY2000
Prepare proposed revisions to Asbestos Model Accreditation Plan,                  02/28/2000 Proposed
Asbestos-in-Schools Rule, and Asbestos Worker Protection Rule.

Initiate implementation of voluntary risk-reduction agreement                            1 Agreement
with RCF industry coalition

Launch cooperative interagency strategy for assessing and managing                        1 Strategy
risks from other fibers.

Baseline:      Current level of exposure of public and workers to asbestos and other fibers of concern (e.g.
              ceramic).
Safe PCB Disposal

In 2000      Reduce the industrial burden and costs of managing the safe disposal of PCBs

In 1999      Reduce the industrial burden and cost of managing the safe disposal of PCBs by
             implementing the PCB rule.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999              FY 2000
Revisions to PCB Disposal Amendments, Non-liquid PCB use       5 Proposed      09/30/2000 Rules
authorization, Transboundary movement of PCBs

Baseline:     Amount of PCB's that were in storage for disposal as of 1995; cost estimates baselines prepared
              for rulemakings.


Research

Research on Commercial Chemicals and Microorganisms

In 2000      Provide methods and models to evaluate the impact of environmental stressors on human health
             and ecological endpoints for use in guidelines, assessments, and strategies.

In 1999      Improve in vitro screening methods for one-electron mechanisms of toxicity among industrial
             chemicals.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999             FY 2000
Peer reviewed publication on the in vitro screening methods for     30-SEP-l 999
one-electron reactions.
                                               IV-38

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Develop an animal model to assess susceptibility of the                                 1 model
developing immune system to environmental contaminants.

Baseline:     Performance Baseline: Methods and models are needed to evaluate the impact of environmental
            stressors on human health and ecological endpoints for use in guidelines, assessments, and
            strategies. Development of "formal" baseline information for EPA research is currently
            underway.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

      Performance will be measured by the number of new chemical Pre-Manufacture Notice
submissions (PMN's) that are determined by EPA to pose reduced risk relative to chemicals they
replace and that are determined not to require EPA management controls,  PMN submissions and
determinations are tracked under formal EPA document management and decision-making systems
to ensure compliance with statutory deadlines for Agency action. The "greener" the new chemical
EPA receives for review, the more success achieved in protecting human health and the environment.
Performance will also be measured by how much knowledge we gain in understanding the risks of
toxic chemicals to human health and the environment. EPA will  gain this knowledge through
required and voluntary chemical testing by industry.  When EPA identifies specific risks posed by
toxic chemicals, performance will be judged by its success in mitigating risk through actions such
as labeling or restricting or banning the chemical or its use in certain products. These counts will
be drawn from formal regulatory action tracking systems maintained by EPA that have thorough
QA/QC procedures to ensure the integrity of the data maintained therein. Last, success will be
judged by lowering risk through preventing  pollution and achieving this through voluntary
compliance over regulated controls.

      The Chemical Right-to-Know initiative and the Endocrine Disruptor screening and testing
project are both major efforts EPA is undertaking to ensure commercial chemicals are adequately
tested for health and environmental effects and that this data is available to the public. Performance
of the Chemical Right-to-Know initiative will be measured by tracking the number of chemicals for
which EPA  has received  commitments to complete screening-level testing from  chemical
manufacturers and by tracking the number of chemicals covered by regulations requiring chemical
testing.  Verification of program performance for the Endocrine Disruptor screening and testing
program can be determined by tracking the number of chemicals that have been tested by EPA with
the recommended protocols.

      Most performance measures for F Y2QOO for PCBs and fibers, including asbestos, are program
accomplishments that impact risk reduction.  They include Agency rule makings for PCBs and for
asbestos.  Verification  and validation of data  takes place as a required part of the rulemaking
procedure and accompanying formal risk assessment, as well as public notice and comment The
program will also develop a voluntary risk-reduction agreement with the refractory ceramic fiber
(RCF) industry coalition as well as a strategy for assessing and managing the risks associated with
                                         IV-39

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exposure to other fibers.  As part of the development of the voluntary with the RCF industry,
appropriate quality assurance/quality control procedures will be established to ensure the collection
of valid and verifiable date.

       Due to the nature of analytical measurement of dioxin in environmental media, extra
precautions are taken during field sample collection and laboratory analysis for dioxin.  A very
rigorous quality assurance/quality control program ensures that all attempts are made to eliminate
contamination of samples during  collection in the field and in the laboratory.  This quality
assurance/quality control plan also ensures that database development from laboratory analyses is
accurate and verifiable. For PCBs commercial storage and disposal rates are tracked through a self
reporting system by the industry for completion of the PCB Annual Report,  These data are used
to track the reduction of burden and costs of managing the safe disposal of PCBs.

Research

       EPA has several  strategies to validate and verify performance measures in the area of
environmental science and technology research. Because the major output of research is technical
information, primarily in the form of reports, software, protocols, etc., key to these strategies is the
performance of both peer reviews and quality reviews to ensure that requirements are met.

       Peer reviews  provide  assurance during the pre-planning, planning,  and reporting  of
environmental science and research activities that the work meets peer expectations. Only those
science activities that pass  agency peer review are addressed.  This applies to program-level,
project-level, and research outputs. The quality of the peer review activity is monitored by EPA to
ensure that peer reviews are performed consistently, according to Agency policy, and that any
identified areas of concern are resolved through discussion or the implementation of corrective
action.

       The Agency's expanded focus on peer review helps ensure that the performance measures
listed here are verified and validated by an external organization. This is accomplished through the
use of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) and the Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC). The
BOSC, established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, provides an added measure of
assurance by examining the way the  Agency uses peer review, as well as the management of its
research and development laboratories.

       In 1998, the Agency presented a new Agency-wide quality system  in Agency Order
5360.1/chg 1. This system provided policy to ensure that all environmental programs performed by
or for the Agency be supported by individual quality systems that comply fully with the American
National Standard,  Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data
Collection and Environmental Technology Programs (ANSI/ASQC E4-1994).
                                         IV-40

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       The order expanded the applicability of quality assurance and quality control to the design,
construction, and operation by EPA organizations of environmental technology such as pollution
control and abatement systems; treatment, storage, and disposal systems; and remediation systems.
This rededication to quality provides the needed management and technical practices to assure that
environmental data developed in research and used to support Agency decisions are of adequate
quality and usability for their intended purpose.

       A quality assurance system is implemented at all levels in the EPA research organization.
The Agency-wide quality assurance system is a management system that provides the necessary
elements to plan, implement, document, and assess the effectiveness of quality assurance and quality
control activities applied to environmental programs  conducted  by or for EPA. This quality
management system provides for identification of environmental programs for which QA/QC is
needed, specification of the quality of the data required from environmental programs, and provision
of sufficient resources to assure that an adequate level of QA/QC is performed.

       Agency measurements are based on the application of standard EPA and ASTM methodology
as well as performance-based measurement systems. Non-standard methods are validated at the
project level. Internal and external management system  assessments report the efficacy of the
management system for quality of the data and the final  research results. The quality assurance
annual report  and work plan submitted by each organizational  unit provides an  accountable
mechanism for quality activities. Continuous improvement hi the quality system is accomplished
through discussion and review of assessment results.
Coordination with Other Agencies

       Chemical testing data provide an important contribution to the worker safety mission of the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the research focus of the National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and the labeling and consumer use interest of the
Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).  The data is used in these agencies' chemical risk
management and regulatory programs. EPA frequently consults with the agencies on project design,
progress and the results of chemical testing projects.

       Mitigation of existing risk is a common interest for several federal organizations addressing
issues of asbestos and PCB's already in use.   EPA will continue to coordinate strategies for
assessing and managing risks from asbestos and other fibers with CPSC, OSHA and NIOSH. Safe
PCB  disposal is the emphasis of ongoing coordination with the Department of Defense, and
particularly the Navy which has special concerns involving ship scrapping. PCB's and mercury
storage and safe disposal are also of importance to the Department of Energy as alternatives and
better technologies for handling these high-risk chemicals are sought.
                                         FV-41

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Research

      EPA is among six agencies within the federal government that conduct intramural human and
environmental health research (EPA, NIEHS, NCI/NIH, CDC, FDA, and ATSDR). The Agency
conducts research in all elements of the human health risk assessment paradigm (e.g., exposure,
effects, risk assessment, and risk management), making our contribution unique within the Federal
government.  EPA is widely recognized both nationally and  internationally for its work  in
identifying the relationship between human health effects and exposure to environmental pollutants.
Basic research on the mechanisms underlying these effects and problem driven research programs
contribute significantly to the Agency's  ability to fulfill  its goals and objectives under several
environmental mandates. Collaborations with other Federal and international research organizations
create an atmosphere in which the impact of the individual programs is strengthened and the overall
positive impact on public health is significantly increased.
Statutory Authorities

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 4,5,6, 8,12(b) and 13 (15 U.S.C. 2603-5, 2607,
261 land 2612)

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) sections 3,4,5,6,11,18,24, and 25
(7 U.S.C. 136a, 136a-l, 136c, 136d, 136i, 136p, 136v, and 136w)
                                        IV-42

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                         Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes, Workplaces and
                                   Ecosystems
Objective #4: Healthier Indoor Air

      By 2005, fifteen million more Americans will live or work in homes, schools, or office
buildings with healthier indoor air than in 1994.
                                Resource Summary
                               (Dollars in thousands)

Healthier Indoor Air
Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
Building and Facilities
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Request
$34,017.6
$20,874.7
$4,984.9
$0.0
$8,158.0
152.8
FY1999
Enacted
$29,629.4
$16,662.1
$4,809.3
$0.0
$8,158.0
150.3
FY2000 FY2»OOReq.v.
Request FY 1999 Ena.
$40,778.6
$30,816.3
$1,804.3
$0.0
$8,158.0
130.0
$11,149.2
$14,154.2
($3,005.0)
$0.0
$0.0
(20.3)
Key Programs
(Dollars in thousands)

State Radon Grants
Indoor Environments: ETS
Indoor Environments: Schools
Indoor Environments : Asthma
Indoor Air Research






FY1999
Request
$8,158.0
$1,182.9
$6,788.5
$2,589.4
$3,011.7
FY1999
Enacted
$8,158.0
$1,050.0
$2,921.0
$1,135.5
$2,836.1
FY2000
Request
$8,158.0
$2,194.3
$9,946.7
$12,323.7
$0.0
                                      IV-43

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EMPACT                                                 $904.8          $0.0         $0.0

Tribal Capacity                                               $0.0         $0.0        $300.0



FY 2000 Request

      Americans spend about 90 percent of their time indoors, where they are exposed to levels of
pollutants that may be much higher and more concentrated man outdoors. As a result, indoor air
pollution poses high risks to human health, especially to sensitive populations, and has ranked
among the top four environmental risks in relative risk reports. Estimates of the economic costs to
the nation of poor indoor air quality, including lost worker productivity, direct medical costs for
those whose health is adversely affected, and damage to equipment and materials, are on the order
of tens ofbillions of dollars per year. (Report to Congress on Indoor Air Quality. EPA/400/1-89-001.
1989)

      Asthma in children is on the rise and has reached epidemic proportions.

      •  The number of children with asthma has more than doubled in the past 15 years;
      •  5.5 million children affected;
      •   150,000 hospitalizations due to asthma each year;
      •  A three-fold increase in the  number of deaths from astibma from 84 in 1977 to 280 in
         1995; and
      •  Over 10 million missed school days each year.

      Indoor allergens and irritants significantly contribute to the number and severity of asthma
episodes.  Scientific evidence also suggests that a number of indoor air pollutants can cause or
trigger asthma episodes, and several controlled studies have shown that reducing exposure to indoor
allergens can reduce asthma symptoms. By 2000, the findings of an EPA commissioned study by
the National Academy of Sciences that focuses on the role of indoor pollutants (such as dust mites
and cockroach allergens, animal dander, molds, ETS, and other irritants) and their relationship to
asthma morbidity and mortality will provide a foundation for EPA to better understand the link
between indoor air pollutants and asthma.

      EPA has classified Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), or second-hand smoke, as a
"Group  A"  carcinogen and  has estimated that it causes about 3,000 lung cancer  deaths in
nonsmokers annually. A 1998 court decision vacated the finding on adult lung cancer deaths.
However, EPA still maintains that the classification was and is correct and that subsequent scientific
studies confirm EPA conclusions. EPA has appealed the decision of the lower court. EPA also has
found that ETS is responsible for many childhood respiratory problems including 150,000-300,000
cases of pneumonia and bronchitis each year in children under 18 months of age, as well as middle
ear fluid build up hi children. Asthmatic children are especially at risk since ETS exposure increases
the number of episodes and severity of symptoms for up to 1,000,000 asthmatic children.  These

                                        IV-44

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Asthma Prevalence in Children
findings were not challenged by the tobacco industry and were, therefore, unaffected by the 1998
court decision.  Moreover, more recent studies have suggested links between ETS, sudden infant
death syndrome, and low birth weight A recent study reported in the American Heart Association
Journal concluded that constant ETS exposure in the workplace or at home nearly doubles the risk
of having a heart attack (between 30,000 and 60,000 excess deaths annually).

      In 2000, the indoor environments program plans a strategic shift of resources from radon and
the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) to two higher priority children's issues,
asthma and ETS.  The resources will allow the agency to focus on public awareness and the health
risks associated with asthma and ETS and children. For asthma, EPA will use redirected resources
to expand "Open Airways," an asthma prevention program for elementary schools children; perform
economic analyses to identify economic incentives for managed care; expand implementation of
indoor air quality "Tools for Schools;" design pilot interventions to reduce asthma risk to children;
and expand a media outreach campaign to alert parents to indoor environment triggers to asthma.
EPA also will use the redirected resources for ETS to expand both the number of media campaigns,
and the associated outreach. EPA will continue to analyze data from the BASE study and use these
analyses to improve existing indoor air quality guidance documents on sound building management
practices.  The BASE
data  provides   real
world information on
occupant perception,
building   design,
operation,   and
ventilation
performance of  one
hundred  randomly
selected  office
buildings  throughout
the    country,
representing the  full
range of building types
and climate zones  in
the U.S.

      Indoor air pollutants have additional significant impacts in  our  homes, schools, and
workplaces.  In homes, radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer and is responsible for an
estimated 15,000 to 22,000 deaths per year based on the February 1998 BEER. VI report from the
National Academy of Sciences.  The Agency recommends that all homes be tested for radon and
mitigated if levels are at or above 4 picocuries per liter of air. Nearly one out of every 15 homes is
estimated to have radon concentrations above this action level. In schools, the General Accounting
Office estimates that 9.9 million students and 570,000 teachers and school staff suffer illnesses
annually due to poor indoor air quality. In office buildings, a World Health Organization Committee
         1BSO
          Years
                liii
                        1998
     IV-45

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has suggested that up to 30 percent of new and remodeled buildings, including schools, worldwide
may be the subject of excessive complaints related to indoor air quality.

       EPA has two major strategies to meet its human health objective for indoor air quality. First,
EPA raises public awareness of actual and potential indoor air risks so that individuals can take steps
to reduce exposure. This outreach provides essential information to the public and to professional
and research communities about indoor air-related risks and takes steps to reduce them through
educational literature, media campaigns, hotlines, and clearinghouse operations. Second, EPA uses
partnerships and technology transfer to improve the way in which all types of buildings, including
schools, homes, workplaces, and other large buildings are designed, operated, and maintained to
bring about  healthier environments indoors.  To support these voluntary approaches, EPA
incorporates the most current science available as the basis for recommending reduction actions.

       To reach the objective, EPA focuses its efforts on outreach — an  overarching activity
supporting efforts to increase awareness about indoor air quality and to promote changes in indoor
air quality inhomes (with a focus on asthma, ETS, and radon), schools (including day care facilities),
and workplaces. Underpinning EPA's outreach efforts is a strong commitment to environmental
justice, community based risk reduction, and customer service.

       EPA provides essential mformation to  the public and  to professional and research
communities  about indoor air-related risks and takes steps to reduce them through educational
literature, media campaigns, hotlines, and clearinghouse operations. Many of these activities are
accomplished through assistance agreements/cooperative partnerships with organizations that share
EPA's goal of improving the indoor environment. In 2000, the number of waves of media campaign
will be increased to raise awareness  and action around asthma and ETS.

       In order to encourage individuals, schools, and industry to take action to get risk reduction
hi their indoor environments, EPA  must reach people at the local level. To do this, EPA uses
assistance agreements/cooperative partnerships with organizations such as the National Association
of Counties, the American Lung Association, the American Pediatric Association, the Consumer
Research Council, the National Environmental Health Association, the Council of Radiation Control
Program Directors, and the Real Estate Educators Association. These partnerships position EPA to
successfully reach and educate its target audience which includes county and local environmental
health officials, susceptible minority and disadvantaged populations, schools, and real estate and
building professionals. Through this national partner network of over 30 organizations and about
900 local field affiliates, EPA leverages the personnel, expertise, and credibility of these groups to
provide the tools to their audiences and the general public to make informed decisions about
reducing risk hi their indoor environment.

       These basic mformation services to the public and to our risk reduction network provide the
support necessary for continuing to achieve our bottom line results such as implementation of the
indoor air quality "Tools for Schools" kit, and increasing the number of "Open Airways" programs
hi elementary schools, office buildings managed with good Building Air Quality practices, home
radon tests completed, home mitigation accomplished, and new homes built with radon-resistant

                                        IV-46

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features. EPA Regions provide key information and assistance to the public, other governmental
agencies, and non-governmental organizations to help meet the program's objective. In 2000, the
Regions will also play a key role in the Agency's asthma work.

      Through the State Indoor Radon Grant Program, EPA provides assistance to the states for the
development and implementation of state programs to assess and mitigate radon. The grant program
enhances the effectiveness of state andlocal activities for radon risk management by: (1) establishing
the basic elements of an effective Radon Program in states that have not yet done so, and supporting
innovation and expansion in states that currently have programs in place; (2) encouraging states to
exercise creativity and flexibility in the design of their programs to address additional indoor radon
concerns; and, (3) strengthening the Federal/state  partnership by  helping states  develop radon
program elements and activities.
      The FY 2000 President's Budget Request does not include resources for the Indoor Air
Research Program.  The Agency continues to believe that understanding the health risks associated
with indoor pollutants and reducing those risks is important. Research aimed at understanding the
health effects of indoor air pollutants and reducing the risks of indoor contaminants will continue
in other research programs, all of which have in common the fact that exposures to many chemicals
and agents occurring outside the home also occur within the homes.
FY 2000 Change from FY 1999 Enacted

EPM

      (+$13,500,000 EPM) The investment resources of $13,500,000 will allow a significant
      increase over 1999 in EPA's investment in reducing asthma.  This increase will fund an
      expansion of EPA's 'Tools for Schools" program to include several thousand more schools
      by  developing  and implementing an incentive program  to adopt indoor  air quality
      management plans. The investment also will substantially increase implementation of the
      "Open Airways" asthma management program to reach several thousand more elementary
      schools and expand the "A is for Asthma" program for pre-school children to 89 locations.
      In addition, EPA will carry out economic analyses to identify economic  incentives for
      managed care/health care organizations to help reduce asthma attacks through patient
      education about indoor environmental triggers.  EPA also will join with other federal
      agencies in a cabinet level summit with managed care CEO's to solicit their help in asthma
      prevention by integrating strong messages about indoor environmental triggers into health
      education programs. There  will be a significant expansion of the  national multi-media
      campaigns on asthma and ETS, a significant indoor asthma trigger.   In order to increase
      community action on asthma, five state-wide urban environmental asthma summits, and a
      National Environmental  Asthma Caucus for practitioners,  researchers,  industry and
      government, will be convened to identify the most effective ways to target and educate the

                                        IV-47

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      public about environmental triggers of asthma. For the first time, EPA will provide resources
      to local communities through established programs to work with doctors, health clinics, and
      civic groups to reduce children's exposure to ETS. EPA also will work with housing groups,
      home health educators, community groups, and building operators to design and conduct
      pilots to reduce indoor environmental asthma triggers in low-income housing, using a variety
      of techniques, including in-home consultations. Finally, EPA will expand monitoring to
      increase pollution exposure information for correlation with asthma surveillance data.

      (+$300,000 EPM) With investment resources of $300,000, EPA will extend the indoor air
      program to Indian Country by modifying existing outreach approaches in orderto train Tribal
      officials and establish Tribal coalitions. One of the key goals will be to collect data on indoor
      radon levels including the number of homes with high levels of radon mitigated and new
      homes constructed with radon-resistant techniques.  This investment supports the Agency's
      increased emphasis on working with Tribes.

      (+$166,000 EPM) With a redirection of $166,000, EPA will increase its efforts with the
      National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO) to encourage more schools
      to upgrade or refurbish their heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems to provide
      healthier indoor environments for the students, faculty, and staff.

Research

•     (-$2,836,100, -19.4 workyears)  While the Agency is discontinuing the formal Indoor Air
      Research Program, research aimed at understanding the health effects of indoor air pollutants
      and reducing the risks of indoor contaminants will continue in other research programs, all
      of which have in common the fact that exposures to many chemicals and agents occurring
      outside the home also occur within the homes. Indoor air-related research activities include
      portions of the Children's Initiative, the Air Toxics program, the Partieulate Matter Research
      Program, and the Pollution Prevention Research Program.

NOTE:      The FY 1999 Request, submitted to Congress in February 1998, included Operating
            Expenses and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development
            (ORD) in Goal 8 and Objective 5. In the FY 1999 Pending Enacted  Operating Plan
            and the FY 2000 Request, these resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives.
            The F Y1999 Request columns in this document have been modified from the original
            FY  1999 Request so that they reflect the allocation of these ORD funds across Goals
            and Objectives.
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Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Healthier Residential Indoor Air

In 2000      890,000 additional people will be living in healthier residential indoor environments.

In 1999      700,000 additional people will live in healthier residential indoor environments.

Performance Measures                                          FY1999             FY2000
People Living in Radon Resistant Homes                       420,000 People        315,000 People

People Living in Radon Mitigated Homes                       85,000 People         64,000 People

Children Under 6 Not Exposed to ETS                                            360,000 Children

People Living in Healthier Indoor Air                          700,000 People        890,000 People

Baseline:      Performance Baseline:  1. By 2000, increase the number of people living in homes built with
              radon resistant features to 2,885,000 from 600,000 in 1994. (cumulative) 2. By 2000,
              decrease the number of children exposed to ETS from 19,500,000 in 1994 to 18,055,000.
              (cumulative) 3. By 2000, increase the number of people living in radon mitigated homes to
              1,490,000 from 780,000 from 1994. (cumulative)


Healthier Indoor Air in Schools

In 2000      2,580,000 students, faculty and staff will experience improved indoor air quality in their
             schools.

In 1999      1,540,000 students, faculty, and staff experience improved indoor air quality in their schools.

Performance Measures                                          FY1999             FY2000
Students/Staff Experiencing unproved IAQ in Schools     1,540,000 Students/S  2,580,000 Students/St

Baseline:      Performance Baseline:  The nation has approximately 110,000 schools with an average of 520
students, faculty and staff occupying them. The IAQ "Tools for Schools" Guidance implementation began in 1997, and
the program's projection for 2000 alone is that an additional 2,500 schools will implement the guidance, (additional,
not cumulative since there is not an established baseline for good IAQ practices in schools)



Research

Research on Effects of Indoor Contaminants

In 2000      Develop a biological model to improve understanding of human health effects of indoor
             contaminants.

In 1999      Identify methods to characterize role of indoor air on human health risks.
                                               IV-49

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Performance Measures                                     FY1999           FY2000
Report on development of asthma model to describe effects of      30-SEP-1999
indoor air contaminants on human health

Provide report-on development of biological models to describe                           1 report
effects of priority allergens on initiation and exacerbation of
asthma and other human health effects.

Baseline:     Development of "formal" baseline information for EPA research is currently underway.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

Radon

       Progress on the number of homes tested for radon and the number of homes fixed if levels
are elevated is assessed under a cooperative agreement between EPA and the Conference of
Radiation Control Program Officials. The Agency surveys the radon industry to determine the
amount of residential testing and mitigation completed and utilizes the results of an annual survey
of home builders to assess the extent to which they are employing radon-resistant construction
techniques.

ETS

       To ascertain the number of children aged six and under exposed to ETS in their homes, the
program utilizes the biennial survey conducted by the Conference of Radiation Control Program
Directors.

Schools

       The number of schools that implement the indoor air quality "Tools for Schools" kit is
tracked through  a centralized database where  data are provided by program office staff, the
Government Printing Office, national cooperative partners, contractor staff, and the EPA regional
offices. In addition, the program accesses the National Association of Energy Service Companies
database which tracks companies that have performed ventilation work in schools as well as public
school student enrollment numbers.

Buildings

       The first measure for large buildings is the characterization of 100 randomly selected office
buildings, and is tracked by the program.  The second measure is reported by the International Union
of Operating Engineers (IUOE) as part then- cooperative agreement with EPA. IUOE trains building
engineers and then assesses their implementation of good IAQ management practices.  The third
measure being developed is the "Assessment of IAQ Practices in Large Buildings." This measure
will determine the extent to which the EPA's IAQ guidance has been incorporated into building

                                         IV-50

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management practices throughout the nation and the barriers encountered. The Las Vegas laboratory
also collects and tracks the number of samples and analyses from buildings where measures are
collected.
Coordination with Other Agencies

      EPA works with aU levels of government, with other Agencies and organizations at the
federal level, and with other nations to promote more effective approaches to identifying and solving
indoor air quality problems. EPA is one of the five chairs of the Federal Interagency Committee on
Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ) and is the lead agency with respect to planning and convening meetings
and preparing annual updates. Among the coordination activities carried out by EPA are the
following: staffing meetings and activities of the CIAQ, providing extensive external review of all
draft EPA publications, distributing EPA publications to a wide array of target audiences, and
working with  representatives of State and  local agencies with indoor air quality-related
responsibilities. EPA co-chairs the Asthma Priority Area Workgroup of the President's Task Force
on Environmental Health Risks and safety Risks to Children. EPA's asthma initiative implements
key components of the Task Force's integrated, multi-agency action plan to combat childhood
asthma.  In addition, the Agency works collaboratively with the Department of Health and Human
Services in  developing and conducting programs  of mutual interest, specifically in the area of
reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and indoor triggers of asthma. These
collaborative efforts, which will expand considerably as the asthma initiative is implemented also
include continuing work with the Department of Housing and Urban Development on home safety
issues, especially those affecting children, and with the Consumer Product Safety Commission on
consumer products designed for use indoors that may present health hazards.
Statutory Authorities

"Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research Act" of Title IV of the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act (SARA)

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)section 6 and TSCA Titles H and HI (15 U.S.C. 2605 and
2641-2671)

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)

Clean Air Act (CAA)

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
                                        IV-51

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IV-52

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                          Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes, Workplaces and
                                    Ecosystems
Objective # 5:  Improve Pollution Prevention Strategies, Tools, Approaches

      By 2005, reduce by 25% (from 1992 level) the quantity of toxic pollutants released, disposed
of, treated, or combusted for energy recovery. Half of this reduction will be achieved through
pollution prevention practices.

                                Resource Summary
                                (Dollars in thousands)
FY1999 FY1999 FY2000 FY2000Req.v.
Request Enacted Request FY1999Ena.
Improve Pollution Prevention Strategies, Tools, $26,829.8 $21,884.0 $25,116.1
Approaches
Environmental Program & Management
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Total Workyears:

$20,830.3 $15,884.5 $19,116.6
$5,999.5
79.9
Key Programs
(Dollars in thousands)
$5,999.5 $5,999.5
79.9 77.2

FY 1999 FY 1999
Request Enacted
Design for the Environment
Pollution Prevention Program
Pollution Prevention Incentive Grants to States
Common Sense Initiative




$4,844.1 $4,554.0
$9,676.4 $8,872.3
$5,999.5 $5,999.5
$1,179.0 $429.1
$3,2324
$3,232.1
$0.0
(2.7)

FY2000
Request
$3,886.1
$9,581.2
$5,999.5
$501.8
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FY 2000 Request

Background

       Pollutionprevention (P2) is designed to prevent contaminants from entering the environment,
in contrast to risk management and remediation, which are designed to control pollutants that have
already been introduced to the environment. Under the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, it is the
policy of the United States "that pollution should be prevented or reduced at the source whenever
feasible," as the preferred approach to environmental protection.  Compared to the traditional
approaches of controlling, treating, or cleaning up pollution, pollution prevention (P2) can often be
more effective in reducing health and environmental risks to the extent that it:

•      reduces releases to the environment,
«      reduces the need to manage pollutants
•      avoids shifting pollutants from one media (air, water, land) to another, and
•      protects natural resources for future generations by cutting waste and conserving materials.

       Preventing pollution can be cost-effective to industry in cases where it reduces excess raw
materials and energy use. P2 can also reduce the need for expensive "end-of-pipe" treatment and
disposal, enable firms to avoid potential liability, and support quality improvement incentives in
place at facilities. Current EPA strategies are to institutionalize preventive approaches in EPA's
regulatory, operating, and compUance/enforcement  programs and to  facilitate the adoption of
pollution prevention techniques by states, tribes and industry. EPA is encouraging the use of market
incentives, environmental management tools and new technologies to promote wider adoption of P2
measures.  Much progress has been made in carrying out these strategies, though more work
remains. Perhaps the fastest growing opportunities lie in private sector partnerships, which enable
EPA's knowledge of P2 principles and techniques to be combined with industry-specific expertise
in production and process design.  This will be the strategy of choice to foster sustainable business
practices.

FY 2000 Kev Program Activities

       In FY 2000 and the succeeding five fiscal years, EPA will work to achieve the pollution
prevention objective by pursuing a coordinated set of initiatives, tailoring programs and projects to
the concerns and interests for each arena. Every type of organization and each individual consumer
has a part to play in preventing pollution. P2 approaches can be flexibly applied to almost any
endeavor.  The Agency will promote effective pollution prevention through:

       (a) Working -with states. The States are the primary sources for businesses and communities
that are seeking assistance in identifying and applying prevention approaches. EPA has provided
seed money to help states in promoting innovation and developing state capacity.
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       By the close of FY 2000, EPA will have completed cooperative projects with five states to
demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of integrating P2 into state environmental programs.
Another key program for states, the Pollution Prevention Incentives for States (PPIS) program,
fosters the development of new P2 approaches by providing grants to states in the areas of technical
assistance and training, education and outreach, regulatory integration, demonstration projects,
legislative activities and awards programs.

       (b) Working within the Agency.  Pollution prevention specialists will continue to provide
expert information and assistance to EPA media offices (e.g., air, water) in building pollution
prevention into regulatory approaches. In FY1999 and 2000, EPA will incorporate P2 approaches
into the Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rule and the Surface Coatings rule under the National
Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).  The experience gained from these
rulemakings will facilitate the development in FY 2000 of a P2 module for EPA's Planning your
Regulation Workshop.

       In 2000 the Agency will continue to place strong emphasis on P2 methods in a multi-media
initiative to reduce  the  serious risks posed by priority persistent,  bioaccumulative  and toxic
pollutants (PBTs). Mercury, dioxin, and the now-banned pesticide DDT are well-known PBTs.
PBT chemicals do not degrade in the environment.  In addition these chemicals stay in the food
chain by remaining in the tissues of the organism, including insects, birds, fish and mammals. Over
time and if there is frequent exposure, the amount in the tissues can build up and cause toxic effects.

       The PBT initiative, begun in 1999, will bring a rail range of tools (especially P2-based tools)
to bear on priority PBT pollutants.  By F Y 2000, National Action Plans will be implemented to
reduce mercury waste through both voluntary and regulatory means. In addition, waste generation
of other PBT chemicals, such as dioxin and ochtachlorostyrene, will be reduced through integration
into the mercury action plan. The National Action Plans will be the framework for coordinated
efforts across the Agency to eliminate current and avoid future contamination from these chemicals
of concern.

       (c)  Working with consumers and concerned citizens EPA is moving forward with efforts
to provide information consumers can use to make environmentally friendly choices, through the use
of Environmentally Preferable Products. The Consumer Labeling Initiative is designed to improve
household product labels to better present environmental, safe  use, health, and other information.
 Proper labeling is especially important for products that are used by or around children, so that
parents can prevent unnecessary risks to children from possible exposure to toxic chemicals.

       The Environmental Justice P2 Program administers grants to low income, minority and
federally recognized tribal communities to develop innovative P2 projects and capacity building
approaches to address environmental concerns. The program was established as a response to the
1992 report, "Environmental Equity: Reducing Risk for All Communities," which found that low
income, minority and tribal communities experience a higher incidence of environmental problems
than does the general population.  The program addresses toxics-related and other environmental

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concerns across all environmental media.  In FY 2000, there will be an increasing focus on
prevention of lead poisoning in disadvantaged communities.

       (d) Working within the Federal government.  EPA has the lead in carrying out Executive
Order 13101 and its predecessor Executive Order 12873, section 503. These orders require the
Federal government to useits purchasing power - about $200 billion in goods and services each year
- to create a demand for products and services that have a reduced impact on the environment (i.e.,
environmentally preferable products, or EPP). The Agency expects to finalize guidance in 1999 to
help executive agencies identify and purchase environmentally preferable products and services. In
FY 2000, EPA will expand an ongoing demonstration project to additional national standard setting
organizations (e.g.,  ASTM,  UL)  that  will  help  to extend government  experience  with
environmentally preferable products to the private sector.

       In 2000, the Buy Clean initiative will apply the principles of the EPP program to indoor air
quality, with an emphasis on its potential for risk reduction for children.   Concentrations of
environmental chemicals can be several times higher indoors than they are outdoors, and pollutants
are believed to be one factor in the growing incidence of childhood asthma. The initiative will begin
with a focus on products used hi schools, placing priority on any products containing chemicals that
could contribute to asthma or other health effects of concern.  EPA's Buy Clean initiative will
develop test procedures and create market incentives for manufacturers to make products that lead
to improved Indoor Environmental Quality.  EPA will work with one school district to develop
criteria/tools for the  purchase of environmentally  preferable products that will lead to an
improvement in the indoor environmental quality of schools and in student health and performance.

       (e) Working -with Business  Businesses can often reduce costs significantly by implementing
effective P2 programs. Sometimes the savings are not readily apparent due to the structure of the
company's internal accounting system. The Agency will play a strong role in promoting business
adoption of voluntary Environmental Management Systems (such as ISO 14000) and hi encouraging
businesses to modify then- management accounting systems to account for environmental costs fully
and explicitly. These  strategies will improve the current business management framework in ways
that will enable companies to more easily choose prevention practices.

       One of the Agency's key P2 industrial outreach programs  focuses on fostering cleaner
technologies.   EPA's Design for the  Environment  (DfE)  Program provides  industry with
performance, cost and comparative risk information about alternative technologies and processes,
in order to facilitate environmentally informed decisions. Through this program, EPA has entered
into partnerships with more than 15 industries, including printing,  garment care, printed wiring
board, computer display, auto refinishing, industrial laundries, foam furniture (adhesives), wall
paints, automobile manufacturing and others. DfE also is working with a network of community
colleges to help these institutions build P2 principles into their curricula.  In 2000, two new DfE
projects will be started: an additional formulator partnership project (similar to the industrial laundry
project) and one project addressing either high risk metal cutting fluids or the hazardous aspects of
boat building.

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       Some of the projects for cleaner technologies call for increasing the use of less toxic
chemicals and safer processes, which will bring about reductions in the use of toxic chemicals in
flexographic inks, foam furniture products, dry-cleaning and garment care. These use reductions will
translate into lower quantities of toxics released, disposed of, treated, or combusted for energy
recovery, contributing to the overall objective of achieving a 20 % reduction in such quantities. In
addition, the Agency will develop materials (i.e., curricula, training materials,  and technical
analyses) that will allow persons trained in community colleges to bring P2 principles to bear on the
choices they make hi their working lives.

       Due to the successful completion of several P2 activities in FY1999, no further funding for
these activities is planned in FY 2000. Several projects  will be completed including the DfE
lithography and DfE wall paint projects. EPA is applying findings from a recently completed pilot
project  with Eastman Kodak  Company  that demonstrate  the potential advantages of using
computerized methodologies to help design safer chemicals, redesign existing products to reduce
risk, and achieve waste reductions. Another major outreach project, the Agency's Common Sense
initiative, is completing its work and activities in the computers and electronics sector pertaining to
P2, will be closed out in 2000.
                   Form R's Reporting Source Reduction Activity by Category
                             Source Reduction Activity Categories
       The pollution prevention approaches discussed above are aimed at providing assistance and
incentives to various sectors of society to promote new habits and new ways of doing business that
are sustainable, cost-effective and beneficial to the environment. These activities promote greater
ecological efficiency and therefore help to reduce the generation and release of production-related
waste, as called for in Objective 4.5.
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FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

EPM

•      (+ $3,000,000) This increase over the F Y 99 enacted budget will support additional projects,
       designed and run  by communities, tribes and  other  local organizations, under the
       Environmental Justice pollution Prevention program. Projects target local P2 solutions to
       environmental problems, providing seed monies and capacity building for disadvantaged
       communities.

•      (+ $345,000) Requested funds will allow implementation of several projects delayed in 1999
       such as a training module for regulators working to  integrate  P2 principles into their
       standards, and  stakeholder and consumer outreach efforts including consumer product
       labeling efforts.

«      (+$500,000) This requested investment in the Buy Clean Initiative will support 1-2 pilot
       projects to demonstrate the benefits of environmentally preferable procurement by school
       districts. These 1 -2 school districts will serve as models for other districts and will begin to
       create incentives for the use of environmentally preferable products in schools.

•      (+374,000)  Requested funds will increase regional support for P2 outreach and technical
       assistance for states  and local governments.  Regions provide expert assistance for
       implementation of P2 projects, for example sector-based efforts with industry associations,
       i.e., printers, to reduce the use of highly toxic matierials in their routine operations.

•      (+317,000)  This requested investment will provide additional support for the Pollution
       Prevention Incentives for States grants. Through these grants, states are able to build internal
       capabilities  and  to test innovative P2 approaches and methodologies in targeted projects
       responding to local priorities.

•      (- $575,000)  Design for the Environment Program will complete several projects in 1999
       and will not start additional projects with small business or assess the environmental aspects
       of rapidly changing technologies (such as the Dffi computer display project).

•      (-$1,000,000) Fundingto supportthe $1M 1999 Congressional earmark will not be continued
       hi FY 2000 at that level since the Environmentally Preferable Products guidance is scheduled
       for release in FY 99.
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Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Pollutants Released

In 2000      The quantity of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) pollutants released, treated or combusted for
             energy recovery, will be reduced by 200 millions pounds, or 2%, from 1999 reporting levels.

In 1999      The quantity of Toxic Release Inventory pollutants released, treated or combusted for energy
             recovery will reduced by 200 million pounds, or two percent, from 1998 reporting levels.

Performance Measures                                          FY1999             FY 2000
Reduction of TRI pollutants released                             200 million Pounds   200 million Pounds

Baseline: Estimated 1999 reporting of 10 billion pounds released.


Managing PBT Chemicals

In 2000      Integrate second group of 6-10 PBT chemicals into National Action Plans for PBT chemicals

In 1999      Reduce risk to human health and the environment from exposure to PBTs through the
             elim ination or reduction of PBTs produced or through managing PBT use.

Performance Measures                                          FY 1999             FY 2000
Initiate risk reduction actions in accordance with National Action     12-14 Chemicals
Plan

Integrate level II chemicals into National Action Plans for level I                       6-10 Chemicals
chemicals

Baseline:      National Action Plans for 12 level I PET'S will be completed in 1999.  Approximately 50 PBT
              chemicals have been identified to date.


Broad-Based Implementation and Reporting ofP2 Measures

hi 2000      Continue to assure broad-based implementation and reporting of P2 measures by facilities
             required to submit Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data,

hi 1999      Continue to assure broad-based implementation and reporting of P2 measures by facilities
             required to submit Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data.

Performance Measures                                          FY 1999             FY 2000
Form Rs with Source Reduction activities (cumulative)             129,000 Facilities       145,000 Facilities

Baseline:      Cumulative number of Form R submissions on which facility reports having undertaken at least one
              source reduction activity (1996 data, reported in 1998: 109,000 facilities)
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Improvement of Indoor Environmental Quality In Schools

In 2000      Work with one school district to develop criteria/tools for procurement of products that will
             improve indoor environmental quality; identify two high priority product categories and set
             health-based product criteria for use in one pilot school district.

Performance Measures                                           FY1999              FY 2000
Agreement reached with school district on purchasing criteria for                          1  Agreement
two product categories.

Baseline:      Under development as part of project
Safer Alternative Cleaning Technologies

In 2000      From the 1998 baseline, expand P2 practices in the garment and textile care industries by
             achieving a 35% increase in the use of safer alternative cleaning technologies.

In 1999      From the 1998 baseline, expand P2 practices in the garment and textile care industries by
             achieving a 25% increase in the use of safer alternative cleaning technologies.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999              FY 2000

Percentage increase in the use of alternative cleaning technologies    10% Increase     35% Increased use
by garment care industry.

Baseline:     In 1997, S3 million pounds perchloroethylene used; 1998 figure not yet available. Safer cleaning
              technologies replace use of perchloroethylene.
Cleaner Products/Technologies

In 2000      Achieve a 5% increase in use of cleaner flexographic ink technologies and cleaner (water-or
             non-solvent-based) adhesives or bonding techniques in foam furniture products.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999              FY 2000
For inks, track size of flexographic ink industry and market share                       5% Cleaner inks
($ and Ibs) of cleaner inks. Baseline 199S.

Baseline:     Baseline for 1998 usage under development (new goal); 5% is best current estimate
Pollution Prevention Outreach Efforts

In 2000      Broaden outreach efforts on P2 methods to community colleges and tribal schools, sponsoring
             community college training network and modifying curricula to better reflect tribal values

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999             FY 2000
Number of P2/DfE curricula (comm. coll. and tribal) instructor                     3,10,1 Ed. Modules
workshops and training modules developed
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Baseline:     Number of workshops and curricula developed from start of project in 2000.


Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data:

       Industrial facilities in specified SIC codes are required to provide TRI data for chemicals
listed by law or regulation. This information is provided on documents known as "Form R's". The
data are estimates by the reporting facility of the quantities of toxic chemicals in production-related
wastes that are released to the environment or otherwise managed as waste (including quantities
disposed of, used for energy recovery, recycled or treated). Facilities also must report quantities that
are released or managed as waste off-site as a result of remedial actions, catastrophic events, or one-
time events not associated with production processes.

       The source reduction performance measures (see Goal #1, above) rely on data reported by
industrial facilities (on TRI Form R's) regarding any source reduction activities undertaken by the
facilities during the reporting year, and the methods used to identify these activities.  Facilities select
the methods they use to estimate the reported quantities managed as waste, and the validity of the
data depends on proper selection and application of the estimation methods as well as on the quality
of the available data.

       EPA conducts data quality site surveys to identify aspects of the TRI data reporting process
that could be unproved and to provide a quantitative assessment of the accuracy of data collected.
The latest survey, completed in 1998, showed that errors in reporting source reduction activities
varied by industry sector and resulted primarily from misinterpretations of key terms, particularly
"source reduction." The survey also suggested that source reduction activities may be somewhat
under-reported through TRI, since the results of such activities are not subject to TRI reporting
(hence there is less incentive to disclose the activities), and for other reasons.

       The Agency is preparing to propose regulatory definitions of key terms under the Pollution
Prevention  Act in order to standardize the waste management data submitted by covered facilities.
EPA will also prepare guidance to assist facilities in preparing their Form R's. This guidance will
focus on the reporting elements required by the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 and should be
issued in the year 2000. Under the TRI program, the Agency also is expanding collection of
information on toxic chemicals that persist and bioaccumulate hi the environment (PBTs) and is
proposing to lower the TRI reporting thresholds for all PBTs, as these chemicals are  of concern even
hi relatively small amounts.  Additionally, through a variety of other guidance documents  (both
general and industry-specific) and fact sheets in 'Q and A' format relating to TRI reporting, the
Agency expects  to see an increase in the understanding of the source reduction aspects of TRI
reporting, and a corresponding increase in its accuracy.
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       Also, EPA has initiated a project to develop a statistical model for purposes of measuring the
effect of source reduction practices on the quantity of waste generated by facilities that are required
to report TRI data.  The model also will be helpful in characterizing the degree to which such
facilities adopt waste management practices that move up in the waste management hierarchy (in
order of preference: source reduction, reuse and recycling) from release to source reduction.  In a
GPRA context, it should be possible to use the model to help estimate the environmental results of
pollution prevention practices.

       In addition to the data reported under TRI, EPA will utilize data from a variety of other
sources, EPA's PBT program expects to draw upon National Health and Nutrition Exam Survey
(NHANES) data, Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN) monitoring data, a fetal cord
monitoring study, and an EPA Office of Water (OW) fish tissue study, as these data sources become
available. EPA's Design for Environment Program conducts an evaluation of the extent to which
cleaner technologies have been adopted by each industry that takes part in the program, as each
project is completed. This can be as simple as collecting data on the amount of a particular chemical
used within an industry (for example, perchloroethylene used in dry-cleaning) or as challenging as
surveying an industry's overall progress  in installing newer, less polluting processes.  Survey
participants are typically small to medium-sized firms. While no single central database depository
exists for all survey results, findings are frequently documented and  incorporated into outreach
materials for industry.

       The performance measures related to the annual performance goals for (1) national action
plans for PBT chemicals and (2) development of educational curricula (see above), are expressed
as the completion of explicit tasks.  Verification of these measures will  require the objective
assessment of completed tasks by program staff and management.
Coordination with Other Agencies

       This objective spans a broad range of pollution prevention activities which will yield
reductions  in waste generation  in both the public  and private  sectors.  For example, the
Environmentally Preferable Product initiative, which implements Executive Orders 12873 and
13101, is promoting the use of cleaner products by federal agencies, which can stimulate demand
for the development of such products by industry. This effort includes a number of demonstration
projects with other federal departments/agencies, such as the General Services Administration (use
of safer products for indoor painting and cleaning), Department of Defense (use of safer paving
materials for parking lots), and Defense Logistics Agency (safer solvents). The program also works
with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the International Standards Organization,
and other groups to develop standards for Environmental Management Systems.
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Statutory Authorities

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) sections 4 and 6 and TSCA Titles II, IE, and IV (15 U.S.C.
2605 and 2641-2692)

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) sections 3,4,5,6,11,18,24, and 25
(7 U.S.C. 136a, 136a-l, 136c, 136d, 136i, 136p, 136v, and 136w)

Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) (42 U.S.C. 13101-13109)

Clean Air Act (CAA) section 309 (42 U.S.C. 7609)

Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C.  1251-1387)]

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) (42 U.S.C. 11001-11050)

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k
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                          Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes, Workplaces and
                                    Ecosystems
Objective # 6:  Decrease Quantity and Toxicity of Waste

      By 2005, EPA and its partners will increase recycling and decrease the quantity and toxicity
of waste generated.
                                Resource Summary
                                (Dollars in thousands)

Decrease Quantity and Toxicity of Waste
Environmental Program & Management
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Total Workyears:


RCRA State Grants
Waste Minimization
Source Reduction
Recycling
Urban Environmental Quality and Human Health
Common Sense Initiative
FY 1999 FY 1999
Request Enacted
$23,429.1 $18,852.5
$22^50.3 $15,779,5
$1,078.8 $3,073,0
135.5 132.0
Key Programs
(Dollars in thousands)
FY1999
Request
$1,078.8
$2,398.7
$5,504.9
$5,489.1
$220.0
$1,782.4
FY2000 FY2000Req.v.
Request FY 1999 Ena.
$21,026.0
$17,953.0
$3,073.0
131.0

FY1999
Enacted
$3,073.0
$2,195.3
$2,728.8
$4,980.8
$0.0
$634.3
$2,173.5
$2,173.5
$0.0
(1.0)

FY2000
Request
$3,073.0
$2,943.2
$3,073.4
$5,079.3
$0.0
$477.8
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FY 2000 Request

       Pollution prevention and safe recycling are two of the nation's best tools for environmental
protection.  Well implemented, systematic source reduction and recycling programs solve waste
management problems at their source, lowering pressure on the environment at a number of critical
points: production of raw materials; subsequent processing into finished products;  and eventual
transport and disposal at a waste management facility. At the same time, the best programs save
industry and municipalities money.

       The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) calls for national leadership to reduce
the amount of waste generated, and to improve the recovery and conservation of materials through
recycling.  The RCRA program  emphasizes a national  policy that focuses on a hierarchy of
preference for waste management options - reduce, reuse or recycle - that cut the need for eventual
storage, treatment or disposal. In the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act, Congress essentially codified
this 'decision tree'  for waste management, reaffirming the need for strong  source reduction and
recycling programs for both hazardous wastes and municipal solid wastes.

       The activities in this objective encompass the Agency's work to reduce toxic chemicals in
industrial hazardous waste streams, reduce the generation of municipal, hazardous and other solid
waste, and recycle hazardous and municipal solid waste.  Reducing toxic chemicals in industrial
waste streams will result in more efficient use of natural resources, and decrease human exposure
to toxic wastes. Source reduction and recycling of municipal solid waste will divert waste from
landfills and combustors, reduce air and water pollution, and reduce generation of global warming
gases by larger amounts than would occur if wastes were landfilled or burned for energy recovery.
(While a small percentage of organic waste is sequestered when landfilled the generation of methane,
which is  21  times more potent that carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas, more than offsets the
sequestered carbon.)

       In the  hazardous  waste arena, the Agency will further develop waste mmimization
partnerships with industry, building on the tools and coordination activities that were put hi place
in 1998 and 1999.  While  national policies and  slogans are useful, they are not enough. Industry
needs practical, effective methods that can achieve real environmental benefits.  In line with the
national and international priority on reducing the presence of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic
chemicals (PBTs) in the environment, the RCRA program is implementing a strategy to focus
reduction efforts on the worst waste streams by  first identifying them, then working with industry
and communities to find  ways to reduce them.  Reducing the most hazardous chemicals will
eliminate some of the risk that occurs when waste is released into the environment through accident,
mismanagement or residual emissions. EPA will work with industry to reduce, by 50 percent, the
most persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic chemicals in hazardous waste streams by 2005.

       Much of the work  in 2000  will build upon the RCRA Waste Minimization PBT Chemical
List. A draft list was issued hi November 1998 ranking chemicals according to these four  factors:
(1) a combined ability for chemicals to be persistent, to accumulate in human and animal tissues

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(bio-accumulate)  and result in toxic effects in humans (e.g., cancer) or pose other ecological
problems; (2) quantities of chemical present in hazardous waste and frequency of occurrence; (3)
documented presence of chemical in the environment, and (4) whether these chemicals are of RCRA
concern (e.g., hard to treat, hard to remediate, etc.).  The Agency has developed a Waste
Minimization Prioritization Tool (WMPT) software program.  The software will provide a user-
friendly  computer  application that  enables  the  user to  score  chemicals for persistence,
bioaccumulation, human and ecological toxicity. The intent is that the resulting "PBT" score will
facilitate development of waste minimization plans, helping a facility or other company set waste
minimization priorities.  Following completion of the software in 1999, the Agency will conduct
training sessions for state and regional staff in its use.

       In 2000, the emphasis will be on outreach and technical assistance to interested industry and
other partners, to reduce the presence of PBT chemicals in hazardous wastes. Analysis will continue
to identify voluntarily sectors, if any, that may predominate in generation of wastes  containing
PBTs.  Additional efforts will focus on profiling processes that generate wastes containing PBTs.
This information will help regional and state staff  direct their outreach, as well as focus future
pollution prevention research and development efforts. Another area of activity will be on the
development of measurement methods and  on evaluating progress, from the 1991 baseline, in
reductions of PBTs in hazardous wastes using nationally available data. Through this evaluative
effort and through extensive discussions with stakeholders, the aim will be to set up a feedback loop
that will first, identify those chemicals that are being reduced and giving recognition. In addition,
EPA will identify those chemicals for which progress is lagging and then, explore ways to enhance
progress in reducing them.

       As with waste minimization, increasing the rate of safe recycling of hazardous wastes will
reduce the amount of hazardous waste generated for disposal, thereby directly reducing overall risk.
Indirectly as well, safe recycling reduces risk and environmental damage by reducing the demand
on raw materials for production and the attendant  demand for extraction or processing and the
pollution that this process creates. The Agency is working to increase safe recycling of hazardous
waste, through targeted changes to the hazardous waste recycling regulations (i.e., the definition of
solid waste), through provisions in other regulatory standards and through ongoing outreach to
stakeholders to explore additional options. The Agency's goals are to develop clearer regulations
and more narrowly focus controls hi the types of recycling practices and materials that pose a hazard.
In addition, some of the regulatory reforms explored under the Agency's Common Sense Initiative
(CSI) will facilitate hazardous waste recycling.

       In 1999, the Agency's emphasis will be on proposed and final rulemakings targeted towards
specific industry sectors or recycling practices. This kind of focus will allow the Agency to gather
sufficient data about the affected universe to propose and support regulatory changes that  will
encourage sure safe recycling while at the same time reducing the regulatory burden on industry.
Focusing on a narrow universe also allows the Agency to better involve appropriate stakeholders in
the rule development process.  In addition, the Agency will conduct an initial scoping effort to
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identify methods that could be used to gather data about currently exempt hazardous waste recycling
and to identity risks/damages from various aspects of recycling.

       A number of the targeted regulatory efforts stem from the sector-based CSI. One example
is the Cathode Ray Tube recycling project.  The tubes contain lead and are prevalent - a major
component of both televisions and computer monitors.  Based on a recommendation from the
Computers and Electronics CSI sector, work is proceeding to develop streamlined regulatory control
under something like the 'universal waste' approach. This type of approach balances risk, handling
practices and recycling processes, while reducing the regulatory burden for the safe management of
selected common wastes.

       In 2000, EPA will continue working on regulatory changes targeted towards specific industry
sectors of recycling practices. In addition, EPA will develop a strategy for increasing safe hazardous
waste recycling. As part of this strategy development, the Agency will use data scoping information
developed in 1999 to begin gathering and analyzing data on hazardous waste recycling. The strategy
will be designed to strategically select potential beneficial changes to the regulation in general, or
projects that focus on increasing the safe recycling of PBT chemicals.  Better understanding of
recycling will allow EPA to evaluate recycling practices, such as use of industrial byproducts in
fertilizer, to determine if current, or evolving, recycling practices are creating risks to human health
or the environment and to develop regulatory controls that are appropriate to the risk.

       Reducing the amount and toxicity of hazardous waste has clear benefits yet affects a small
portion of the nation's waste when measured in terms of sheer volume produced. Annual generation
of municipal solid waste (MSW) has grown steadily from 8.8 million to 208 million tons between
1960 and 1995.  The RCRA municipal solid waste program provides national leadership, technical
assistance and outreach for local businesses and municipalities implementing source reduction and
recycling systems hi then: plants, facilities and communities, as well as for slates and tribes whose
laws provide the structure for these activities. Municipal solid waste includes waste generated from
residences, commercial establishments, institutions, and industrial non-process operations. The
program implements a coordinated mix of strategies to manage wastes, including source reduction
(also called waste prevention), recycling (including composting), combustion, and landfilling.
Preference is given to strategies that maximize the diversion of waste from disposal facilities, with
source reduction (including reuse) as the highest priority followed by recycling.

       In  2000, the RCRA recycling and source reduction projects will continue to rely on the
basics,   including  efforts such as promoting  financing and  technology opportunities for
recycling/reuse businesses and working with partners to identify, analyze and share information on
waste reduction opportunities for construction and demolition debris, food wastes and othertargeted
waste streams. As one of the principal participants in the 1998 White House Recycling initiative,
the RCRA program is working  closely with Council on Environmental Quality, the Federal
Environmental  Executive, and a select team representing state and local government,  non-
governmental organizations, federal agencies, and industry to reinvigorate America's commitment
to recycling and capitalize more fully on recycling's environmental and economic benefits. The

                                       .  IV-68

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Council on Environmental Quality announced this initiative in response to comments from industry
and State and local government that the federal government should assume greater leadership in
expanding and enhancing recycling in America,
         WASTE RECYCLING RATES - 1960 TO 1997
 75-

 60-

 45-

 30-

 15-

  0
 Total Waste
   RECYCLED
(mil tons/year)
                            28%
 6.4%
     "T5.6 mty
     1960
                                                 •
                                              16.2%
               "aoitity
                      PERCENT
                      RECYCLED
                  •30%

                  •20%

                  -10%

                  • 0%
              1970
1980
1990
•97
  Characterization of MSW in the US: 1998 Update, US EPA, Washington, DC
      Specific projects include Wastewise, the Agency's primary partnership program for source
reduction and recycling. Partners joining the WasteWise program set and achieve goals in three
areas: preventing waste, collecting recyclables, and increasing the purchase or manufacture of
recycled products.  Currently, WasteWise has over 850 partners plus an additional 60 endorser
organizations which promote the program  to their members.  In the program's  fourth year,
WasteWise partners prevented 816,000 tons of waste and recycled nearly 6.9 million tons.

      The Jobs Through Recycling program is the cornerstone of the Agency's effort to stimulate
markets for recycled materials through creation of new recycling and reuse business.  The Agency
will continue fostering recycling market development by facilitating information dissemination and
exchange, and networking. The Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines program will proceed with
the work of improving markets for recycled, recycled-content, and recyclable goods by establi shing
guidelines for federal and state purchasing. These guidelines, along with the Recovered Materials
Advisory Notices, meet these obj ectives by setting minimum recovered materials content for certain
designated items.
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       Additional tools assisting states and local communities make more informed decisions among
municipal solid waste management options include the successful transfer of expertise in the Pay-As-
You-Throw and Full Cost Accounting programs,  as well as  source reduction and recycling
measurement methods. The Agency will share technical information on these established and cost
effective waste reduction programs through satellite-broadcast workshops, training, and outreach
materials that can be used by local communities and other partners in developing effective systems
for containing  costs while maintaining or improving environmental protection. Another basis for
setting priorities at the local level is information on the performance of recycling and source
reduction programs.  Stakeholders have indicated the need for a voluntary, standard method for
measuring recycling and source reduction. Outreach documents, a web site, workshops and a tool
called the Electronic Calculator help communities determine the rate of the success of their source
reduction and recycling programs. Additional measurement tools for other waste management topics
are under development.
FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

EPM

       (+$748,000) Increase to Waste Minimization activities. Finalize the draft PBT list, establish
       regional pilots, the Internet access and query system and strengthen partnerships with private
       groups and support Agency wide PBTI strategies.

•      (+$938,000) Increase to the Definition of Solid Waste for Increased outreach to states and
       regions. Provide additional analyses and data collection for Hazardous Waste Recycling by
       expanding efforts  to include a sector-based  approach (eg.  rags & wipes, antifreeze)
       associated with small businesses.

•      (+$440,000)  Increase to RCRA municipal solid waste source reduction and recycling
       programs by intensifying ad campaigns, outreach to  citizens  and  providing  technical
       assistance to states  and local communities.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Reducing PBTs in Hazardous Waste Streams

In 2000     Reduce persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals in hazardous waste streams by 10%
           as compared to the 1991 baseline.

In 1999     Issue final guidance on RCRA persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic (PBT) priority-setting
           software and conduct two training sessions for Regional and State staff.
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Performance Measures                                        FY1999             FY 2000
Issue final guidance on PBT Identification                        1 document

Percent reduction in persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic                               10 percent
chemicals in hazardous waste streams.

Baseline:     The 1991 baseline data are currently under development and will be available in 1999.
Development of RCRA Hazardous Waste Recycling Strategy

In 2000      Develop the RCRA hazardous waste recycling strategy that facilitates increased hazardous
            waste recycling.

Performance Measures                                        FY 1999            FY 2000
Distribute strategy for review and comment                                  09/30/2000 strategy

Baseline:     The 1993 baseline data are currently under development and will be available in 1999.
Municipal Solid Waste Source Reduction

In 2000      Divert an additional 1% (for a cumulative total of 29% or 64 million tons) of municipal
            solid waste from land filling and combustion, and maintain per capita generation of RCRA
            municipal solid waste at 4.3 pounds per day.

In 1999      Maintain levels (for a cumulative total of 28% or 62 million tons) of municipal solid waste
            (MSW) diverted from land filling and combustion, and maintain per capita generation of
            RCRA municipal solid waste at 4,3 pounds per day.

Performance Measures                                        FY 1999            FY 2000
Millions of tons of municipal solid waste diverted.                62 million tons     64 million tons

Daily per capita generation of municipal solid waste.              4.3 Ibs. MSW        4.3 Ibs. MSW

Baseline:      1990 levels established at 17% of MSW diverted and 4.3 pounds MSW per capita daily
             generation.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

       Data for RCRA performance measures under this objective are tracked through a variety of
systems, ranging from national databases managed by EPA to voluntary reporting from program
partners to information collected by the  Commerce Department. Appropriate verification and
validation procedures are in place.

       Monitoring national progress hi reductions of PBTs will rely heavily on the Toxics Release
Inventory (TRI) for establishing a baseline for tracking annual performance and measuring the
reductions of a specific list of PBT chemicals in hazardous waste. The regulated industry reports

                                             IV-71

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the TRI data, and the Agency receives the reports and enters the data directly into the TRI. All
applicable validation controls are in place for the TRI system.

       Although there are some chemicals on this list that are not included in TRI reporting in 1991,
some of these chemicals were either required to be reported in 1995 or will be added to the TRI hi
an upcoming rulemaking that expands reporting and lowers the reporting  threshold for certain
chemicals. There still remains a subset of chemicals (very small in number) that we will not have
TRI information on. For these chemicals, EPA plans on using the Biennial Reporting Information,
the 1986 RCRA Generator Survey, the National Hazardous Waste Constituent Survey (1996), and
the RCRA Waste Code Crosswalk to establish a baseline.

       Limitations of the TRI include: 1) not all sectors that generate hazardous wastes report in the
TRI; and, 2) information that is reported is not directly related to the RCRA program. However
these limitations are not of great concern. Although all sectors that generate hazardous wastes do
not report in TRI, the majority of waste (as discovered through analysis of Biennial Report System
data) is generated by those sectors that do report to TRI and are the most consistent reporters in BRS
as well as TRI.  Secondly, although information reported hi the TRI is not directly related to RCRA,
EPA is able to identify those reporters in TRI that are  also generators of hazardous wastes.  Both
these limitations are far outweighed by the strengths in TRI:  1) that data is collected annually and
therefore will provide us with more trend analyses; 2) that date is collected not on waste streams, but
on chemicals; 3) that improvements currently are being made to the systems and the reporting
universe is expanding, including more reporting of use and release of chemicals of concern for which
we have limited  information.  An  upcoming TRI rulemaking will expand reporting of some
chemicals and lower the report threshold of others. This will fill hi some of the data limitations
identified above.

       Tracking the rate of recycling for hazardous waste will use information in the Biennial
Reporting System (BRS), a national  database which supports EPA's RCRA program. BRS is a
biennial compilation of information supplied by hazardous waste handlers and provides data on
types and amounts of waste handled, as well as how the waste is handled (e.g., disposed, recycled).
EPA will track progress on increase of hazardous waste safely recycled using the BRS.  The
regulated industry reports the BRS data, and states and EPA regions quality check the data and enter
it into the data base.

       The BRS data system has validation/verification controls in place to help ensure that data is
complete and accurate. The BRS data entry software includes a series of basic and advanced edits
which check for completeness and accuracy. Additionally, EPA Headquarters runs BRS date quality
verification reports and then coordinates with states and EPA regions to discuss potential date errors.
Analysis also is conducted on significant changes which have occurred since the last biennial report.
Prior to issuing the final BRS report, a second set of BRS date quality verification reports are run
and follow-on discussions to verify/validate date are conducted for those states with significant
changes.  BRS has a  suite of user and system  documentation which describes the  overall
administration of the date collection and management activities. Training on use of the systems is

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provided on a regular basis, usually annually depending on the nature of system changes and user
needs.

       In February 1997, EPA's Office of the Inspector General performed an audit of the Biennial
Hazardous Waste Data, They made several recommendations which the Agency has acted on.

       A limitation of the data available in  BRS is that when a facility modifies its recycling or
handling operation thereby becoming excluded from the definition of solid waste and/or changes its
regulatory status so that future reporting is not required, that facility need no longer submit a biennial
report. However, that same facility could still be recycling hazardous waste. This type of change
may lead to an underestimating of the amount of hazardous waste safely recycled. The Agency is
monitoring BRS submissions to identify facilities that reported in the previous cycle but not in the
current cycle. EPA will use various analytical means to determine why reporting, either by the
facility as a whole or of a particular waste stream, stopped.

       Extensive improvements are underway for the RCRA national databases. The OSW Platform
Conversion of national systems (RCRIS and BRS)  will migrate  data and interfaces to a more
supportable database platform, using Internet based access methods. While the converted systems
will retain the essential data characteristics  of the current systems, the platform conversion will
provide new user interfaces that will help improve the quality of the data as it is being created. In
the longer term, the RCRA program currently is  in the process of reinventing its uiformation
management needs and systems through a joint initiative with the states called WIN/INFORMED.

       In the non-hazardous waste program, no national databases are hi place nor planned. The
baseline numbers for municipal solid waste source reduction and recycling are developed using a
materials flow methodology employing data  largely from the Department of Commerce and can be
found in an EPA report titled " Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States". The
report, including the baseline numbers and  current progress, is widely accepted among experts.
Since the report is produced by EPA, no reporting from outside sources will be required.  Quality
assurance and quality control is provided by the Department of Commerce's internal procedures and
systems. The report prepared by the Agency is then reviewed by a number of experts for accuracy
and soundness.

       Data limitations stem from the fact that the baseline and annual progress numbers are based
on a series of models, assumptions, and extrapolations and,  as such, is not an empirical accounting
of municipal  solid waste generated or recycled.  Since these numbers are widely reported and
accepted by experts, no new efforts to improve the data or the methodology have been identified or
are necessary.
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Coordination with Other Agencies

       In addition to business and industry and other non-governmental organizations, EPA will
work with federal, state, tribal, and local governments to encourage reduced generation of waste as
well as the safe recycling of wastes.  Frequently successful projects require multiple partners to
address the multi-media nature of effective source reduction and recycling programs. The Agency's
Common Sense Initiative brought a range of stakeholders together to examine alternatives in specific
industrial sectors, and several regulatory changes have followed which encourage hazardous waste
recycling.

       In an example of partnership within the federal government, EPA and the U.S. Postal Service
work together on several municipal solid waste projects.  For instance,  rather than dispose of
returned/unwanted mail, EPA and the U,S. Postal Service developed and implemented successful
recycling procedures and markets, including the  return of unwanted  mail (advertisements,
catalogues, etc.) to the Post Office for recycling rather than disposal by the recipient  EPA also
works with the Small Business Administration to provide developmental and continued support to
recycling businesses.

       EPA  works  with the  Council on Environmental  Quality  (CEQ) and  the Federal
Environmental Executive (FEE) to plan elements of the White House Initiative on Recycling,
involving business, industry, non-government organizations and all levels of government. EPA is
teaming with numerous other federal agencies  to respond to the Initiative's goal of reinvigorated
federal leadership for sustainable recycling. Agencies with which EPA  is working include the
Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Interior,
Justice, and Treasury. Other agencies include the Office of Management and Budget, USPS, CEQ,
General Services Administration and the FEE.  These joint efforts are intended to increase
coordination and lend focus to federal recycling activities, to avoid duplication of effort and increase
access by the public to federal information and assistance.
Statutory Authorities

Pollution Prevention Act (PPA)

Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984.

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
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                           Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

    Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes, Workplaces and
                                     Ecosystems
Objective # 7: Assess Conditions in Indian Country

       By 2003,60% of Indian Country will be assessed for its environmental condition and Tribes
and EPA will be implementing plans to address priority issues.
                                 Resource Summary
                                 (Dollars in thousands)

Assess Conditions in Indian Country
Environmental Program & Management
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Request
$50^50.7
$8,265.3
$42,585.4
54.6
FY1999
Enacted
$50,985.1
$8,399.8
$42,585.3
67.3
FY 2000 FY 2000 Req, v.
Request FY 1999 En a.
$53,106.9
$10,521.5
$42,585.4
71.6
$2,121.8
$2,121.7
$0.1
4.3
                                    Key Programs
                                 (Dollars in thousands)
                                                   FY1999
                                                   Request
          FY1999
          Enacted
          FY2000
          Request
Tribal General Assistance Grants
$42,585.4
$42,585.4
$42,585.4
FY 2000 Request

       Since 1984, EPA policy has been to work with Tribes on a government-to-government basis
that affirms the vital trust responsibility that EPA has with 554 tribal governments. Under Federal
environmental statutes, the Agency is responsible for assuring human health and environmental
protection in Indian Country.  Also, under the Administrator's "Nine Point Action Plan," EPA
endeavors to address priorities, ensure compliance with environmental laws, provide field assistance,
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assure effective communication with Tribes, allow flexibility in grant programs and increase
resource investments for Tribal operations.

      A lack of comprehensive environmental data severely impacts our ability to properly identify
risk to human health and the environment in Indian Country, Progress toward building Tribal and
EPA infrastructure and completing a documented baseline assessment of environmental conditions
in Indian Country will enable EPA/Tribes to identify high priority human health and environmental
risks.  These assessments will provide a blueprint for planning future activities through the
development of Tribal/EPA Environmental Agreements (TEAs) or other similar tribal environmental
plans to address and support priority environmental multi-media concerns in Indian Country.

      Under the authority  of the Indian  Environmental General Assistance Program, EPA
administers grants to tribal governments for developing the capacity to administer multi-media
programs.  As EPA progresses toward developing tribal capacity to implement programs, EPA will
support innovative approaches for implementation of tribal programs and funding flexibility through
Performance Partnership Grants (PPGs). As Tribal operations mature, improved program oversight
and government-to-government consultation and collaboration at the regional and national levels
will be necessary to assure program quality and accountability.
FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

EPM

•     (+$900,000)   Resources support the implementation of  a baseline assessment  of
      environmental conditions on tribal lands.  In order to assure that Tribes have adequate
      information with which to make environmental decisions, basic monitoring and assessment
      capacity for measuring the environmental conditions of water and air resources and potential
      waste problems should be established for each Tribe, Once EPA has established a baseline
      for environmental conditions in Indian country, EPA will also measure improvements in
      environmental conditions.

•     (+$520,000) Funds would support circuit riders and multi-media program and technical
      assistance activities.  EPA will conduct training  workshops for Tribes on multi-media
      programs and fund circuit riders  who will provide multi-media program and technical
      assistance to Tribes.

      (+$255,000, +3.3  FTE) The additional workyears will support oversight of Tribal PPG
      implementation, "treatment in a similar manner as a state" (TAS) eligibility determinations,
      and improved oversight of the Indian General Assistance Program (GAP) grants program.

•     (+$250,000) Funds would provide assistance to Alaska Tribes in water quality sampling and
      monitoring, air quality assessment, development of Tribal environmental action plans,

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       operation and maintenance for drinking water and wastewater facilities, and environmental
       education.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Tribal Environmental Baselines/Environmental Priorities

In 2000      20% of Tribal environmental baseline information will be collected and 20 additional tribes
            (cumulative total of 65) will have tribal/EPA environmental agreements or identified
            environmental priorities.

In 1999      10% of Tribal environmental baseline information will be collected and 10 additional tribes
            (cumulative total of 45) will have tribal/EPA environmental agreements or identified
            environmental priorities.

Performance Measures                                         FY1999             FY 2000
Tribal environmental baseline information collected                10% Baseline         20% Baseline

Tribes with Tribal/EPA environmental agreements or identified        10 Tribes             20 Tribes
environmental priorities

Baseline:       EPA will complete the design of a system to collect and manage data on environmental conditions
               in Indian country by the end of FY 1998. Data collection will begin in early FY 1999. In August
               1998, a total of 35 tribes had EPA/Tribal Environmental Agreements or similar plans.


Tribal Multi-Media Programs

In 2000      35 additional Tribal environmental media/multi-media programs delegated/approved

In 1999      38 (cumulative total of 249) Tribal environmental media/multi-media programs
            delegated/approved

Performance Measures                                         FY1999             FY2000
Tribal environmental media/multi-raedia programs                 3 8 Programs         35 Programs
delegated/approved

Baseline:       In March 1998, there were a total of 211 tribes with delegated or approved multi-media environmental
               programs in Indian country.


Tribal Environmental Programs

In 2000      20 additional Tribes with delegated/approved environmental programs.

In 1999      25 (cummulative total of 171) Tribes with delegated/approved environmental programs.
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Performance Measures                                    FY1999           FY 2000
Tribes with delegated/approved environmental programs            25 Tribes          20 Tribes

Baseline:      In March 1998, there were a total of 146 tribes with delegated or approved environmental programs
             in Indian country.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

       The Agency biannually updates an internal database  on the number  of Tribes with
delegated/approved environmental programs; the number of tribal environmental programs that EPA
has delegated/approved; the number of Tribal/EPA Environmental Agreements; and the number of
Tribes that have developed similar plans for environmental protection. The database is validated
against Agency Headquarters and Regional office records.

       The Agency will work with its Indian Tribal partners to collect baseline environmental
information as part of the overall strategy for conducting comprehensive environmental assessments
in Indian Country. This information will allow EPA and Tribes to better gauge the environmental
outcomes  of our partnership for public health  and environmental protection.  Much of the
information for the baseline assessment will come from existing EPA data sources and will conform
to Agency quality assurance standards. New data provided by the tribes or collected specifically for
the baseline assessment project will be subject to QA/QC review.
Coordination with Other Agencies

Clean Water Action Plan

       EPA has been instrumental in the establishment of an Inter-Agency Tribal Action Team to
deliver Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP) programs in Indian country. Inter-Agency Workshops for
Tribes were conducted in various locations throughout the country.  The Tribal Action Team will
continue to provide guidance, assistance and support to the CWAP  steering committee and work
with other action teams.

Domestic Policy Council

       The Agency co-chairs the Subgroup on the Environment & Natural Resources of the White
House Domestic Policy Council's Working Group on American Indians & Alaska Natives.  The
Subgroup has initiated "Building National Excellence in the Protection of Tribal Environments &
Natural Resources."   Under this initiative, inter-agency work teams will examine National
Environmental Policy Act, initiate senior level inter-agency workshops on common issues such as
Federal trust  responsibility,  and will conduct a Regional pilot to  explore uitergovernmental
problem-solving options for addressing tribal environmental and natural resources issues.
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EPA/BIA Interagencv Cooperation

       EPA is assisting other Agency programs (OECA, OSWER) and Regional Adrninistrators in
the development of a working relationship between EPA Regions and Bureau of Indian Affairs Area
Offices on matters of enforcement and compliance assistance. Additional areas under discussion for
joint EPA-BIA efforts are technical assistance and training.
Statutory Authorities

Indian Environmental General Assistance Program (GAP) Act as amended (42 U.S.C. 4368b)
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Goal 5: Waste Management

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents
Goal 5: Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated Waste Sites,
        and Emergency Response	,	 V-l
       Reduce or Control Rides to Human Health			V-9
       Prevent, Reduce and Respond to Releases, Spills, Accidents or Emergencies	 V-39

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                           Environmental Protection Agency

             2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

   Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated Waste Sites, and Emergency
                                      Response
Strategic Goal: America's wastes will be stored, treated, and disposed of in ways that prevent harm
to people and to the natural environment EPA will work to clean up previously polluted sites,
restoring them to uses appropriate for surrounding communities, and respond to and prevent waste-
related or industrial accidents.

                                  Resource Summary
                                (Dollars in Thousands)

Better Waste Management, Restoration of
Contaminated Waste Sites, and Emergency Response
Reduce or Control Risks to Human Health
Prevent , Reduce and Respond to Releases, Spills,
FY 1999 FY 1999
Request Enacted
$2,256,9343 $1,655,913.5
$2,076,119.9 $1,491,141.1
$180,814.4 $164,772.4
FY 2000 FY 2000 Req. v.
Reauest FY 1999 Ena.
$1,656,719.5
$1,477,134.1
$179,585.4
$806.0
($14,007.0)
$14,813.0
   Accidents or Emergencies

       Total Workyears:
4,304.8
4,316.9
4,246.1
-70.8
Background and Context

      Improper waste management and disposal threatens the health of people, endangers wildlife,
and harms vegetation and natural resources. Uncontrolled hazardous and toxic substances, including
radioactive waste, often migrate to ground water, surface water, and air. Consequently, they affect
streams, lakes, rivers, and water supplies. Toxins bioaccumulate in fish or accumulate in sediments.
In 2000, EPA will promote safe waste storage, treatment, and disposal, clean up active and inactive
waste disposal sites, and prevent the creation of new waste sites.
Means and Strategy

       A principal objective of this goal is to reduce or control the risks posed to human health and
the environment through better waste management and restoration of abandoned waste sites.  In
partnership with states, tribal governments, the public, and other stakeholders, EPA will reduce or
control the risks to human health and the  environment at thousands of Superfund, Bownfield,
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Underground Storage Tank (UST) sites.

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To achieve this goal, EPA strives to apply the fastest, most effective waste management and cleanup
methods available, while involving affected communities in the decision making process. Effective
use of research and enforcement strategies will also allow the Agency to further reduce the risks from
exposures to hazardous waste.

      Another principal objective of this goal is to prevent, reduce, prepare for, and respond to
releases, spills, accidents or emergencies.  Through the UST, RCRA, Chemical Preparedness and
Prevention, and Oil programs, the Agency and its partners manage the practices of thousands of
facilities to prevent dangerous releases to the environment. When releases do occur, EPA and its
partners will have the capabilities to successfully respond.

Research

      Research efforts will continue to focus on ground water and soils research, which seeks to
understand the process that governs  contaminant transport and fate to improve remediation and
monitoring technologies, especially their cost-effectiveness.

      The principle areas of concentration are exposure to soil and ground water contaminants,
assessment of the risks posed by these contaminants, cost-effective management of these risks, and
the development of innovative technologies to characterize and remediate contaminated sites. Work
will  also continue under active  waste  management and combustion facilities. Through the
development of new and improved methods and models to assess exposure and effects, this research
will provide the fundamental science and modeling backbone needed to conduct truly multimedia,
multipathway exposure modeling and risk assessment.
Strategic Objectives and FY 2000 Annual Performance Goals

Objective 01: Reduce or Control Risks to Human Health

By: 2000     170 (for a cumulative total of 408 or 24%) of high priority RCRA facilities will have
             human exposures controlled and 170 (for a cumulative total of 289 or 17%) of high
             priority RCRA facilities will have groundwater releases controlled.

By: 2000     Complete 21,000 Leaking Underground  Storage Tank (LUST) Cleanups fora
             cumulative total of 246,000 cleanups since 1987.

By: 2000     EPA will fund Brownfields site assessments in 50 more communities, thus reaching
             350 communities by the end of 2000.

By: 2000     EPA will complete 85 Superfund cleanups (construction completions), continuing
             on a path to reach 925 completed cleanups by the end of 2002.
                                         V-2

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By: 2000     Enhance scientifically-defensible decisions for site cleanup (cu) by providing targeted
             research & tech. support.

By: 2000     Ensure trust fund stewardship by recovering costs from PRPs when EPA expends
             trust fund monies. Address cost recovery at all NPL and non-NPL sites with a statute
             of limitations on total past costs equal to or greater than $200,000.

By: 2000     Maximize all aspects of PRP participation., including 70% of the work conducted
             on new construction starts at non-Fed Fac sites on the NPL, and emphasize fairness
             in the settlement process.  Result is timely and protective clean up of the Nation's
             worst contaminated sites and other significant threats to public health.

By: 2000     Ensure compliance with Federal facility statutes  and CERCLA Agreements and
             ensure completion of current NPL CERCLA lAGs.

Objective 02: Prevent, Reduce and Respond to Releases, Spills, Accidents or Emergencies

By: 2000     146 more hazardous waste management facilities will have approved controls in
             place to prevent dangerous releases to air, soil, and groundwater, for a total of 65
             percent of 3,3 80 facilities.

By: 2000     400 additional facilities will be in compliance with the Spill Prevention, Control and
             Countermeasure (SPCC) provisions of the oil pollution prevention regulations (for
             a cumulative of 890 facilities since 1997).

By; 2000     90% of USTs will be in compliance with the December  22, 1998, requirements,
             which improves upon the estimated 65 percent as of the December 22,1998 deadline.

By: 2000     Enhance  scientifically defensible decisions for  active management  of wastes,
             including combustion, by providing targeted research and technical support
Highlights

       In 2000, actions taken to clean up Superfund sites will reduce the effect of uncontrolled
releases on local populations and sensitive environments. EPA will complete construction at 85
Superfund sites and will take action to address contamination at 300 sites using removal authorities.
EPA will also obtain commitments from Potentially  Responsible Parties  (PRPs) to start new
construction at National Priorities List (NPL) sites.

       The direction and emphasis of the Superfund program in 2000 is to build on past successes
and maintain the pace of site cleanups. Administrative reforms will continue to provide benefits
which include savings in the cost and duration of Superfund actions. Additionally, Administrative
                                         V-3

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reforms have improved the program's effectiveness and enabled the Agency to accomplish the
following as of September 30,1998:

       Over 89% of Superfund's sites (1,228 of 1,370) ontheNPL are either undergoing cleanup
       construction (remedial or removal) or are completed.

•      585 Superfund sites have had all cleanup construction completed (41% of sites on the NPL).

•      Approximately 5,500 removal actions  have been taken at hazardous waste sites to
       immediately reduce the threat to public health and the environment.

•      Nearly 31,000 sites have been removed from the CERCLIS waste site list to help promote
       the economic redevelopment of these properties.

       To accomplish Superfund's objectives, EPA works with states, Indian Tribes, and other
Federal agencies to protect human health and the environment and to restore sites to uses appropriate
for the nearby communities.  The Agency also provides outreach and education to the surrounding
communities to improve their direct  involvement in every phase of the  cleanup process and
understanding of potential site risks.

       One of Superfund's major program goals is to have potentially responsible parties pay for
and conduct cleanups at  abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.  The Superfund
enforcement program maximizes PRP participation and is committed to reforms which increase
fairness, reduce transactions costs and promote economic redevelopment. The Agency also seeks
to recover costs associated with site cleanup from responsible parties when trust fund monies have
been expended.

       Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial properties which
are not Superfund NPL sites.  Economic changes over several decades have left thousands of
communities with these  contaminated properties  and  abandoned sites.    Concerns  about
environmental liability and cleanup, infrastructure declines, and changing development priorities
have worsened the situation.

       As with the Superfund program, the Brownfieldslnitiative has a coordinated federal approach
to assist our partners in better addressing environmental site assessment and cleanup.  In 2000, the
Agency will fund 50  additional assessment demonstration pilots and supplement 50 existing
assessment pilots to communities. These pilots provide EPA, States, local governments, and
Federally recognized Tribes  with useful information and new strategies for promoting a unified
approach to environmental site assessment and characterization, and redevelopment. Beginning in
2000, the Agency will provide funding to states for Brownfields site assessment activities and to
facilitate communication between Brownfields pilots and State environmental authorities. To further
enhance a community's capacity to respond to Brownfields redevelopment, the  Agency will also
make 70 awards to capitalize Brownfields Cleanup Revolving Loan Fund Pilots (BCRLF) to


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communities completing their Brownfields Site Assessment Demonstration Pilot activities. EPA
will fund 10 job training pilots for community residents and will provide $3.0 million to NIEHS to
support minority worker training and augment the communities' capacities to cleanup Brownfields
sites. In addition, EPA will continue to explore connections between RCRA low-priority corrective
action efforts and cleanup of Brownfields properties.

       In 2000, the RCRA Corrective Action program will actively implement the RCRA Cleanup
Initiative. This initiative targets active sites and is aimed at reforming the current RCRA Corrective
Action Program.  The impetus of the RCRA Cleanup Initiative is to remove barriers that would
prevent the Agency from achieving its GPRA Objective of reducing risk to human health and the
environment.  The RCRA Cleanup Initiative has identified several projects that are intended to: 1)
reduce impediments to achieving the Agency's  Objective;  2) enhance  State and stakeholder
involvement and; 3) promote innovative approaches to cleanup actions.  It incorporates several
longer term efforts to enhance the program into a more comprehensive, focused approach.

       In 2000, the RCRA hazardous waste permits program will have permits or other approved
controls in place for 146 additional RCRA hazardous waste management facilities for a cumulative
total of 3,380 facilities. These efforts will minimize the threat of exposure to hazardous substances
because the RCRA program's comprehensive framework regulates the handling, transport, treatment,
storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. To ensure that these controls are more effective and
efficient,  the Agency will streamline its permit process for implementors and  for the regulated
community.

       The Agency has also developed a strategy to address hazardous waste combustion facilities.
Phase I of the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards under the Clean Air
Act, which  will revise standards for incinerators and cement and lightweight aggregate kilns that
burn hazardous waste will be finalized in 1999. Thus, as the MACT standards are implemented by
2003, the Agency will reduce the emissions of dioxins, furans, and paniculate matter from these
sources. These efforts will further reduce the indirect exposure (primarily through the food chain)
to hazardous constituents in emissions, especially to children.

       The Agency has several efforts to better address risk in the RCRA Program. The proposed
Hazardous Waste Identification Rule seeks to regulate lower risk wastes, such as those that have
already undergone treatment, under alternative state non-hazardous waste regulation programs. The
Air Characteristics Study will be enhanced in 2000 to better answer the question whether some
industrial wastes should be classified as hazardous because of risks posed by then* air emissions. In
2000, as part of the Agency's Air Toxics Initiative, the RCRA program will explore the need for
regulatory changes to focus on these risks from wastewater treatment tanks, surface impoundments,
and landfills. The Agency is working to improve test methods under its Toxic Constituent Leaching
Procedure (TCLP) to better evaluate waste leaching potential for assessing whether a waste should
be classified as hazardous, how effective a treatment is, and whether land disposal is an appropriate
method for managing particular wastes.
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       In 2000, the Agency will work toward completing and implementing, with states and
industry, voluntary guidelines for industrial non-hazardous waste management. These voluntary
guidelines address  a range of issues including groundwater contamination, air emissions, and
alternatives to waste disposal. Although the states implement the municipal solid waste (MSW)
landfills  regulatory programs, the Agency establishes minimum national standards  for state
compliance.  The  Agency also reviews and  approves state  MSW landfill  permit programs.
Furthurmore, the Agency will continue working with states to ensure that an additional 141 facilities
for a cumulative of 2,600 out of 3,536 RCRA municipal solid waste facilities have approved
controls in place to  prevent dangerous releases to air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. These
activities will provide a uniform application of minimal safe management standards to help ensure
that sufficient controls are in place.

       The Agency conducts scientific research to support its programs. Under the RCRA program,
the Agency will conduct scientific research on active hazardous waste management and combustion
facilities to ensure that our regulatory approach will continue to be successful in the future.  The
Agency seeks innovative methods for stabilizing and solidifying toxic constituents in waste streams
thereby reducing their dispersion on the public and the environment.

       The Agency's highest priorities in the Underground Storage Tank (UST) program are to (1)
promote and enforce compliance with regulatory requirements aimed at preventing and detecting
UST releases, thereby reducing releases to the environment and (2) to address the backlog of 168,000
cleanups of Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST).  The Agency anticipates additional
releases will be discovered as owners and operators comply with the December 1998 requirements
for upgrading, replacing, or closing USTs.  In 2000, the Agency's anticipates that 21,000 LUST
cleanups will be completed under the supervision of EPA and its state, local, and tribal partners and
that approximately 90% of USTs will be in compliance with the December 22,1998 requirements.

       Reducing chemical accidents is vital to ensure that communities are not exposed to hazardous
materials.  The Agency  continues its efforts to help states and  Local  emergency  Planning
Committees (LEPCs) implement the  Risk Management Program (RMP).  EPA has made steady
progress in this area and in 2000, with additional resources, will delegate the RMP to four additional
states for a cumulative total of 13.  To assist in reaching this goal, EPA will provide technical
assistance grants, as well as technical support outreach and training to help both states and LEPCs
develop their accident prevention capabilities. Through these activities, States, local communities
and individuals will be better prepared to prevent and prepare for chemical accidents.

       Every day oil spills pose risks to human health, the environment and the economy.  EPA's
Oil Spill program responds to and monitors oil spills that occur in the waters of the United States
and adjoining shorelines. Approximately 20,000 oil spills are reported annually.  Over the past three
years, EPA has received and evaluated 35,000 oil spill notifications, served as lead responder at 275
oil spills, and shared responsibility with other parties at 475 responses. To prevent spills to the
greatest extent practicable, the Agency will take preventive measures by ensuring that 400 additional
oil storage  facilities are  in  compliance with  the Spill Control and Countermeasures (SPCC)
                                         V-6

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regulations. In addition, the Agency will improve the quality and quantity of data provided in Area
Contingency Plans, especially concerning environmentally sensitive and economically important
areas. By working with state and local governments and industry, EPA's Area Planning activities
ensure effective and immediate cleanup of oil spills.

       In the event of a terrorist act where there is a threat to human health or the environment, the
Agency is prepared to respond. The Agency has begun to prepare and educate other organizations
such as our Federal partners, and state and local planners about the National Response System and
the National Domestic Preparedness Program for terrorist events. In 2000, the Agency will provide
anti-terrorism training to 19 of the most vulnerable communities.

Research

       In 2000, the  Agency  will continue to focus its research efforts  in the exposure,  risk
assessment, and remediation areas of waste research.  Developing field analytical methods for
characterizing groundwater and soils, producing ecological soil screening values for common soil
contaminants, and researching innovative uses of abiotic treatment technologies continue to be
pivotal areas of focus in the Agency's effort to support the assessment and remediation of sites with
contaminated soil and groundwater.

       Research in support of multimedia science for the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule
(HWIR) will continue in 2000.  The intent of these efforts is to develop a systems approach to
modeling and data management Such an approach will facilitate scientifically credible assessments
of multimedia-based human and ecological exposure to chemical stressors. Combustion research will
provide the technical basis to determine risks and set operational monitoring and controls for
individual combustion facilities.
External Factors

       There are a number of external factors that could substantially impact the Agency's ability
to achieve the outlined objectives under this goal.  The external factors include, for example, heavy
reliance on state partnerships, development of new environmental technology, commitment by other
federal agencies, or statutory barriers.

       The Agency's ability to achieve its goal of reducing the number of confirmed releases from
underground storage tanks (USTs) is dependent on the performance of state programs. EPA does
not fully fund state UST programs, so achievement of the annual and strategic goals is dependent
on the strength of state programs and state funding levels. In most cases, states have the primary
responsibility for confirming releases from USTs and for ensuring that facilities meet the minimum
technical requirements to prevent releases, except in Indian Country,
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       The Agency's ability to achieve its goals of reducing risks posed by Superfund sites and
ensuring trust fund stewardship are partially dependent upon the capacity of our partners.  The
Agency's goals of construction completions, cost recovery, and maximizing PRP participation are
heavily dependent on the progress of PRP negotiations, agreements with states ans tribes, and the
nature of contamination at NPL sites. In addressing Federal facilities, internal decision processes
within  other Federal agencies such as the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy
would impact our goal of establishing Restoration Advisory Boards (RABs)/Site Specific Advisory
Boards (SSABs) and other clean up activities.

       The Agency's  ability to achieve  its goal of reducing community risks from  chemical
accidents is dependent on a number of factors, including:  1) Delegating the response RMP review
program to more states in 2000 will depend upon those states enacting laws, allocating funds and
developing specific capabilities that will enable them to review and audit risk management plans;
and 2)  Industry's willingness to provide the strong top-down leadership to make RMP compliance
a priority and commit the resources necessary to get the job done.

       The Agency's ability to achieve its  RCRA goals to prevent releases by proper facility
management is dependent on whether states, the primary implementors, have received authorization
of their hazardous waste management or approval of municipal solid waste landfill permit programs.
As such, EPA's annual performance depends, in part, on its state partners' commitment to this goal.
                                         V-8

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                         Environmental Protection Agency

            2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

  Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated Waste Sites, and Emergency
                                    Response


Objective # 1: Reduce or Control Risks to Human Health

      By 2005, EPA and its partners will reduce or control the risk to human health and the
environment at over 375,000 contaminated Superfuiid, RCRA, UST and brownfield sites.
                                Resource Summary
                               (Dollars in Thousands)

Reduce or Control Risks to Human Health
Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
Oil Spill Response
Hazardous Substance Superfund
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Request
$2,076,119,9
$42,645.0
$6,761.2
$28,400.6
$69,128.7
$962.0
$1,928,222.4
3,435.7
FY1999
Enacted
$1,491,141.1
$42,301.1
$49,809.4
$24,808.8
$70,418.7
$962.0
$1,302,841.1
3,455.5
FY 2000 FY 2000 Req. v.
Reauest FY 1999 Ens.
$1,477,134.1
$42,174.8
$8,375.2
$24,808.8
$69,500.7
$962.0
$1,331,312.6
3,357.4
($14,007.0)
($1263)
($41,434.2)
$0.0
($918.0)
$0.0
$28,471.5
(98.1)
Key Programs
(Dollars in Thousands)

RCRA Corrective Action
RCRA State Grants
Federal Preparedness




FY1999
Request
$22,870.7
$28,400.6
$1,500.0
FY1999
Enacted
$18,167.4
$24,808.8
$1,500.0
FY2000
Request
$22,755.5
$24,808.8
$1,500.0
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Leaking Underground Storage Tanks (LUST)Cooperative Agreements

Superfiind Remedial Actions

Superfiond Removal Actions

Federal Facilities

Assessments

Brownfields

ATSDR Superfund Support

NIEHS Superfund Support

Other Federal Agency Superfund Support

Hazardous Substance Research:Hazardous Substance Research Centers

Hazardous Substance Research:Superfund Innovative Technology

EMPACT

Common Sense Initiative

Superfund «• Maximize PRP Involvement (including reforms)

Superfimd - Cost Recovery

Superfund - Justice Support
$57,700.0
$1,056,615.3
$328,433.6
$28,641.6
$92,719.6
$90*882.4
$64,000.0
$48,526.7
$10,492.3
$1,094.2
$7,682.6
$921.7
$0-0
$96,266.6
$30,494.1
$29,663.5
$58,990.0
$588,190.0
$199,419.1
$28,641.6
$87,738.8
$91,538.9
$76,000.0
$60,000.0
$10,000.0
$1,067.2
$7,663.1
$398.4
$135.6
$89,109.2
$30,494.1
$29,000.0
$57,750.0
$592,842.5
$207,399,9
$28,720.4
$88,970.3
$91,667.5
$64,000.0
$48,526.7
$11,035.0
$1,092.5
$7,114.6
$440.2
$0.0
$89,234.5
$30,494.1
$28,663.5
FY 2000 Request

Leaking Underground Storage Tank

       This objective includes $68,270,400 in the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST)
account for the LUST cleanup program. The LUST program promotes rapid and effective responses
to releases from underground storage tanks containing petroleum. This is done by enhancing state,
local and tribal enforcement and response capability in the Leaking Underground Storage Tank
(LUST) program.

       In 2000, the Agency's goal is to assist in the completion of 21,000 cleanups under the
supervision of EPA and its state, local and tribal partners.  Corrective action at sites where
Underground Storage Tank (UST) releases have contaminated soil and/or groundwater is a key
element of the UST/LUST program.  Nearly all corrective actions are undertaken by UST owners
and operators under the supervision of State or local agencies (or EPA, for USTs on Indian lands).
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       Over the next several years, the Agency's highest priorities in the LUST program will be to
address the backlog of 168,000 cleanups (as of September 1998) yet to be completed.  To help
address the backlog and to help states make more efficient use of their resources (including state
funds that reimburse some UST owners and operators for a portion of their cleanup costs), the
Agency will continue to administer the LUST Trust Fund, which is used largely to fund cooperative
agreements under which states oversee cleanups by UST owners and operators, LUST Trust Fund
dollars are also used to  clean up releases where the responsible owner or operator is unknown,
unwilling or unable.  The Agency also commits LUST resources to address the environmental
problems caused by leaking tanks on Indian lands.

       EPA anticipates that there will be additional releases discovered as owners and operators
comply with the December 1998 requirements for upgrading, replacing or closing USTs. However,
EPA's LUST program will continue to support state efforts to make cleanups better, cheaper and
faster.  For example, the LUST program assists states in addressing responsible party cleanups and
voluntary compliance with corrective action and financial responsibility requirements. Furthermore,
the Agency will continue to support state efforts to design and implement risk-based corrective
action (RBCA) programs.  Because it entails moving from generic, one-size-fits-all cleanup goals
to site-specific cleanup goals based on risk assessments, RBCA requires a major re-engineering of
state programs. Ten states are now implementing RBCA programs. Nearly all others are in various
stages of RBCA training and program design. The Agency estimates it will take several years before
RBCA implementation is completed nationwide. To promote RBCA implementation, the Agency
will provide assistance to help state  and tribal UST programs surmount technical impediments.
Examples include the development of RBCA guidance for Indian lands, the collection and analysis
of state RBCA performance measures, RBCA "fate and transport" modeling guidance, and assisting
in resolving  multi-state  technical  implementation  barriers   to RBCA  development  and
implementation.
       The Agency will continue supporting
information  exchanges among the  states;
developing and providing policy guidance,
technical  manuals,   training  programs,
seminars; and supporting the use of innovative
cleanup technologies, the use of computer
software on topics such as cost-estimation and
cost-control, and the potential  uses  and
limitations of monitored natural attenuation.
In addition, in collaboration with other EPA
offices, the LUST program will identify and
evaluate techniques for cleaning up methyl
tertiary butyl  ether  (MTBE), a gasoline
component found with increasing frequency at
LUST sites.
  National UST Corrective Action Activity
Total corrective action cumulative over time from
          FY 1991 - FY 1998
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       The Agency has primary responsibility for implementation of the LUST corrective action
program on Indian lands. Through the end of September 1998, there were 1,024 confirmed releases
on Indian lands. In 767 cases, cleanups had been initiated, and 427 of them had been completed.
The Agency projects that cleaning up all known and yet-to-be-discovered releases on Indian lands
will take several more years. In collaboration with tribes, the Agency is developing a RBC A process
for LUST sites on Indian lands.

Superfund

       This objective includes $1,042,786,800 for Superfund response/cleanup.  The Superfund
program addresses contamination from uncontrolled releases at Superfund hazardous waste sites that
threatens humanhealth, the environment, and the economic vitality of local communities. Superfund
sites with contaminated soils and groundwater occur nationally in a large number of communities,
many of them urban areas, where they are often accessible to children or present exposure to
disadvantaged populations.  In fact, more than 27 million Americans, including over 4 million
children, li ve within four miles of a Superfund site. Once contaminated, groundwater and soils may
be extremely difficult and costly to clean up.  Some sites will require decades to be completed.

       In 2000, EPA will continue its successful emphasis on completing construction at Superfund
sites by obtaining commitments for potentially responsible parties (PRPs) to conduct work at new
construction starts at non-Federal facilities on the NPL, and  ensuring compliance with Federal
facility statutes and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
(CERCLA) agreements.  In 2000, EPA will maintain the pace of construction completions by
accomplishing 85 cleanups for a cumulative total of 755.
       To  protect human  health and the environment and  address  potential barriers  to
redevelopment, EPA works with states, Indian tribes, and other Federal agencies to: 1) assess sites
to determine whether they meet the criteria for Federal Superfund response actions; 2) prevent,
      900
            Cummulative Construction Completions
                1996
1997
    1998
Fiscal Year
1999 Est
2000 Est
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minimize or mitigate significant threats at Super-fund sites through removal actions; 3) generate
accurate risk assessment and cost-performance data critical to providing the technical foundation for
decisions made in environmental cleanup programs; 4) complete remedial cleanup construction at
sites (including Federal facilities) listed on the NPL; 5) develop technologies for cost-effective
characterization and remediation; 6) enhance the role of states and Indian tribes in implementation
of the Superfund program; 7) work with the surrounding communities to improve their direct
involvement in every phase of the cleanup process and their understanding of potential site risk; 8)
promote reuse and redevelopment of remedial and removal Superfund sites.

      EPA's efforts to address uncontrolled releases at Superfund sites begin when states, Indian
tribes, citizens, other Federal agencies, or other sources notify EPA of a potential or confirmed
hazardous waste site or incident. EPA then confirms this information, places sites requiring Federal
attention in the Agency's Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability
Information System (CERCLIS) database, and evaluates site data to determine whether sites need
immediate removal action and/or placement on the NPL for long-term cleanup. If no further Federal
action is appropriate, EPA removes the site from the inventory and may refer the site to state or tribal
environmental authorities for further attention if warranted. In the case of Federal facilities, sites are
placed on the Federal Facility Hazardous Waste Docket for assessment  The Agency is requesting
a total of $88,970,300 for site assessment.

      Removal authority under CERCLA is used by EPA to prevent, reduce or mitigate threats
posed by releases or potential releases of hazardous pollutants in emergency and non-emergency
situations at NPL and non-NPL sites.  EPA undertakes removal response actions at: 1) emergency
incidents where response is necessary within a matter of hours (e.g., threats of fire or explosion); 2)
time-critical situations at NPL sites to make these sites safe from immediate threats while they await
remedial action;  (3)  time-critical incidents at non-NPL sites posing major  public health and
environmental threats; and, (4) non-time critical  situations at both NPL and non-NPL sites to
promote quicker and less costly cleanup. Sites known to pose the greatest potential risk to public
health and the environment receive priority. The Agency is requesting a total of $207,399,900 for
Removal Action activities.

      For sites  listed on  the NPL,   restoration work begins with site characterization and a
feasibility  study  to review site  conditions and proposals for future land use.  This forms the
foundation for the Record of Decision (ROD) and remedy selection. Public involvement is a key
component in selecting the proper remedy at a site.  A remedial action is performed upon approval
of the remedial design and represents the actual construction or other work necessary to implement
the remedy selected. The United States Army  Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation
assist EPA in implementing most high-cost, Trust Fund-financed remedial actions and provide
on-site technical expertise.

      Many sites have more than one operable unit and each unit goes through the process from
study to cleanup. Once the cleanup construction is completed at an operable unit, operation and
maintenance activities are maintained to ensure cleanup methods work properly and the site remedy
                                         V-13

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continues to be effective. After construction completion, the final phase in long-term restoration is
the five-year performance review to ensure the continued protectiveness of the remedy. The various
cleanup stages and activities allowthe Agency to quickly mitigate immediate threats to public health
and the environment, develop and implement effective cleanup decisions, and eventually remove
sites from the NPL.  The Agency is requesting a total of $592,842,500 for long-term remediation
work.

       EPA provides technical and regulatory oversight at Federal facilities on the NPL to ensure
protection of human health and the environment through effective program implementation. EPA
works  with its  Federal partners  to find protective, creative, cost-effective solutions  to their
environmental problems; to rebuild local communities while protecting human health and the
environment;  and to ensure meaningful public involvement at federal facilities.  Executive Order
12580 establishes the framework for implementing the Superfund program and delegates certain
authorities ascribed hi the statute to the President, to the Departments of Energy and Defense. These
Federal agencies have lead response authorities to address releases or threats of releases at facilities
within their purview - for conducting removal actions and for generally selecting and implementing
remedial actions. The Agency is requesting a total of $28,720,400 for Federal facility work.

       EPA is committed to involving citizens in the site cleanup process. Superfund community
relations is based on two-way communication designed not only to keep citizens informed about site
progress, but  also to afford them the opportunity to provide input on site decisions.  Through
outreach  efforts, such as holding public  meetings, establishing community  advisory groups,
providing communities with financial assistance to hire technical consultants  to assist them hi
understanding the problems and potential solutions to the contamination problems, and distributing
site-specific fact sheets. EPA strives to create a decision-making process to clean up sites that the
communities feel is open and legitimate, and improves the community's understanding of potential
risk at hazardous waste sites. Similarly, at Federal facility Superfund sites, the Agency encourages
citizen involvement by working with, for example, the Department of Defense to establishes
Restoration Advisory Boards (RABs) and the Department of Energy to establish Site Specific
Advisory Boards (SSABs). EPA is conducting  a project to measure the effectiveness of the
Superfund program's community outreach and involvement activities at a sample of national
superfund sites.  The results will be  used both for GPRA reporting purposes, and to provide site
specific feedback to help Regional staff improve their community involvement programs.

       Steles and Indian tribes are key partners in the cleanup of Superfund hazardous waste sites.
Under Superfund, EPA can authorize the State or tribe to carry out a Fund-financed response. More
frequently, the State or tribe may operate as a support agency. In this role, they are actively involved
in site response  activities, but they do not take on a lead role for the response.  To support their
involvement as  a lead or support agency,  EPA provides financial support through cooperative
agreements to conduct removal, site assessment, remedial, and enforcement projects and core
infrastructure  activities that are associated with administering state and tribal programs.  With the
May 1998 release of the "Plan to Enhance the Role of States and Tribes hi the Superfund Program,"
EPA has provided opportunities for increased state and tribal involvement in the program.


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       Other Federal agencies (OFAs) contribute to this objective by providing essential services
in areas where EPA does not possess the needed Superfund specialized expertise.  Contributors
include the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the Department of Justice (DO J), the Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA), the National  Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), the Department of Interior (DOI), the United States Coast Guard (USCG), and the Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).  Some of the essential services performed by these
Federal agencies include the following: 1) ATSDR conducts public health assessments at NPL and
non-NPL sites; maintains toxicology databases for chemicals found at sites; and provides health
education to health care providers, local and national health organizations, and state and local health
departments; and, 2) NIEHS manages a worker training grants program which trains workers who
are, or may be, working with hazardous waste and funds a basic research program which focuses on
assessing the impacts of complex chemical mixtures on humans. The Agency is requesting a total
of $ 152,225,200 for OFA activities.

                  Overview of Other Federal Agency (OFA) Funding
Agency
ATSDR
NIEHS
DOJ
USCG
FEMA
NOAA
DOI
OSHA
TOTAL
FY 1999
Enacted
$76,000,000
$60,000,000
$29,000,000
$4,800,000
$1,100,000
$2,450,000
$1,000,000
$650,000
$175,000,000
FY2000
Request
$64,000,000
$48,526,700
$28,663,500
$5,135,000
$1,100,000
$3,000,000
$1,100,000
$700,000
$152,225,200
       EPA has significantly improved the Superfund program through administrative reforms and
these efforts will continue in 2000. There have been many noteworthy achievements over the last
year which include establishing Community Advisory Groups (CAG) at 47 sites; reviewing 20 site
decisions saving an estimated $31.5 million, saving more than $1.0 billion in future costs by
updating remedies at more than 210 sites; and evaluating over 50 projects on the Risk-Based Priority
Panel for NPL sites. The successes realized throughout Superfund place the Agency in a uniquely
positive position to achieve and expand Superrund accomplishments in the coming years.

       Nearly three times as many Superfund sites have been cleaned up in the past six years than
in all of the prior years of the program combined. As of September 30,1998, EPA has accomplished
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the following:  1) Over 89% of sites (1,228) on the final Superfimd NPL listing of 1,370 sites are
either undergoing cleanup construction (remedial or removal) or are completed; 2) 585 Superfimd
sites have reached construction completion (41% of sites on the NPL); 3) 457 (454 Final/3 Proposed
NPL sites) Superfund sites (32% of sites on the NPL) have cleanup construction underway. An
additional 209 sites have had or are undergoing a removal cleanup action (15% of sites on the NPL);
4) Approximately 990 sites have all final cleanup plans approved; 5) Approximately 5,500 removal
actions have taken place at hazardous waste sites to immediately reduce the threat to public health
and the environment; and 6) Over 31,000 sites have been removed from the CERCLIS waste site list
to help promote the economic redevelopment of these properties.

       Superfund  enforcement program has successfully encouraged or compelled potentially
responsible parties PRPs to undertake or fund approximately 70%ofnewremedial workatNPL sites
in recent years. The program focuses on the following efforts: 1) maximizing (PRP) participation
in conducting and  funding response actions while promoting fairness in the enforcement process;
2) recovering costs from PRPs when EPA expends funds from the Superfund Trust Fund; and
conducting 30 negotiations from Federal facilities on site remediation. The Agency provides funds
to the Department of Justice  (DOJ) for an Interagency Agreement to assist EPA Superfund in
enforcement efforts. This objective also supports the RCRA corrective action and the regional
leaking underground storage tank (LUST) legal enforcement program.

       One of the primary  goals of the Agency for 2000 is to maximize PRP participation in
conducting and funding cleanup actions while promoting fairness in the enforcement program. The
Superfund enforcement program ensures that responsible parties cooperatively contribute  then-
equitable share toward cleaning up Superfund hazardous waste sites. It also implements various
Superfund  reforms to  increase fairness, reduce transaction costs and promote economic
redevelopment

       In 2000, the Agency will negotiate cleanup agreements at sites on the NPL and will also
achieve removal agreements.  Where negotiations fail, the Agency will either take unilateral
enforcement actions to require PRP cleanup or use Trust Fund dollars to remediate sites. When
Trust Fund dollars are used to clean up sites, the program will take cost recovery actions against
PRPs to recover expenditures. (See "Superfund Cost Recovery" program below.)

       Superfund  enforcement reforms continue to provide gainful benefits. The Agency will
continue to  implement various  Superfund enforcement reforms to increase  fairness, reduce
transactions costs and allow for economic redevelopment. These reform efforts include undertaking
PRP searches  and investigations  to develop  sufficient information to make  orphan share
determinations. This includes making orphan share determinations for remedial design/ remedial
action  settlements. Through enforcement reforms the Agency also expedites negotiations to
facilitate settlements with parties with limited ability to pay, more effective and widespread use of
alternative dispute resolution (ADR), and early de niinimis settlements.  For example, the
enforcement program has achieved over 400 de minimis settlements with over 18,000 settlers
protecting small parties from potentially lengthy and expensive private party lawsuits. Furthermore,

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fairness and redevelopment benefits are gained from issuing administrative orders to all PRPs at a
given site, creating site-specific accounts, removing liability barriers to economic redevelopment
through prospective purchaser agreements, and assessing PRP compliance with clean-up obligations
at sites with potential environmental justice issues and seek penalties for significant non-compliance
with clean-up requirements, as appropriate.

       The Superfund Cost Recovery Program demonstrates fiscal stewardship and responsibility
by addressing past costs at sites. By pursuing cost recovery settlements, the program promotes the
principle that polluters should pay cleanup costs at sites where they caused or contributed to the
contamination  and maximizes the leverage of the Trust Fund to address future threats posed by
contaminated sites.

       In 2000, the Superfund Cost Recovery program will recover monies expended from the Trust
Fund from viable responsible parties.  Where settlement negotiations and previous enforcement
actions have failed to achieve PRP response, and Trust Fund dollars are used to clean up sites, the
program will take cost recovery actions against PRPs to recover expenditures.  Recovered funds will
then beavailable to clean up other contaminated sites, as appropriated. The program will achieve this
recoupment  through  administrative cost  recovery; CERCLA section 107 case referrals; and
alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

       The enforcement program's involvement in case referrals and support includes:  case
development and preparation, referral and post-filing actions.  The program will also provide case
and cost documentation support for the docket of cases currently being worked on by the Department
of Justice (DOJ). The enforcement program will meet cost recovery statute of limitation deadlines
and use alternative dispute resolution to resolve  cases in an equitable and timely manner.

Brownfields

       Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial properties where
expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived contamination.  Brownfields'
properties are not Superfund NPL sites. Economic changes over several decades have left numerous
communities with these contaminated properties  and abandoned  sites.   In fact, the General
Accounting Office has estimated that over 450,000 brownfields properties exist.  Concerns about
environmental  liability and cleanup, infrastructure declines, and changing development priorities
have worsened the situation.

       In response to needs for the assessment and cleanup of brownfields properties, the Agency
implements strategies to bring these properties back into use for the benefit of their communities.
The Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative is a comprehensive approach to empower
states,  communities, and other stakeholders interested in environmental cleanup and economic
redevelopment to work together to prevent,  assess, safely clean up, and sustainably reuse
Brownfields.
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       The Agency has provided Brownfields Site Assessment Demonstration Pilots for up to
$200,000 each.  In FY 2000, the Agency will begin to supplement some existing site assessmetn
pilots with additional site assessment funding. These pilots provide EPA, states, local governments,
and Federally recognized Indian Tribes with useful information and new strategies for promoting a
unified approach to environmental site assessment and characterization, and redevelopment. In F Y
2000, the Agency will also begin providing funds to states to provide EPA pilots with State
Superfund program assistance.  This assistance is designed to facilitate communication between
brownfields pilots and State environmental authorities, and expedite the redevelopment and reuse
of the brownfields properties.

       Where appropriate, the Agency provides funding for targeted brownfields assessments,
usually hi communities without an assessment pilot. This activity enjoys wide support from cities
and other local communities. This funding provides preliminary assessments and site investigations
(PA/SI) using standard methodology established by the American Society for Testing Materials. Site
assessments at non-pilot Brownfields sites are performed either under existing PA/SI cooperative
agreements with states or through EPA contractors.

       The Agency will also award cooperative agreements to capitalize Brownfields Cleanup
Revolving Loan Fund Pilots  (BCRLF) of up to $500,000 to communities completing their
brownfields assessment demonstration pilot activities. This funding enables pilots to develop
cleanup strategies, make loans to prospective purchasers to clean up properties, and encourages cities
to leverage other funds into their revolving loan fund pools.  In addition, the Agency awards
brownfields job training and development demonstration pilots at up to $200,000 over two years to
help residents of brownfields communities take advantage ofnewjobs created by the assessment and
cleanup of brownfields.

       Fundingto support the expansion, enhancement and development of State voluntary cleanup
programs (VCPs) continues to be an  important activity in the Agency's attempt to reuse and
redevelop brownfields properties. EPA provides both monetary and technical/legal assistance to
states and tribes developing and enhancing VCPs. VCPs address contaminated sites which do not
require Federal action, but which need cleanup before the sites are considered for reuse.  EPA
believes that building strong and effective state and tribal programs, such as VCPs, will  also
complement efforts to address the cleanup of brownfields properties.

       EPA's Superfund Federal Facilities Base Realignment and Base Closure (BRAC) program
facilitates the reuse and redevelopment of Federal  property.  Since the  early 1990's, the Federal
Government has reduced its military bases and nuclear production facilities; consequently, the
Federal government is disposing of property to reduce operation and maintenance expenses while
protecting the livelihood of the local communities. The Federal facility program plays a key role in
these efforts through its review and concurrence finding that properties are environmentally suitable
for transfer, either by deed or lease. EPA's BRAC program totals 143 FTE in 2000 and will be
funded through a reimbursable agreement with the Department of Defense.
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Resource ConservationandRecovery Act

       This objective includes $36,063.5  in the EPM account and $24,808,800 in the STAG
account for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) program. Under RCRA, EPA
and authorized States are required to clean up environmental contamination at more than 5,000 sites
across the country where hazardous wastes are being or have been stored, treated, or disposed. The
most serious  pollution problems at RCRA facilities occur when  releases migrate  off-site,
contaminating public and private drinking water supplies, and in a number of cases endangering
wetlands and other sensitive ecosystems. This objective addresses approximately 1,700 high priority
facilities that are identified as "high risk" under the National Corrective Action Priority System
(NCAPS) and other priorities identified by the state or region that may not be high risk but are clear
cleanup priorities for other considerations, such as environmental justice or Brownfields revitalization.
We are developing new guidance focused on clearly identifying the type of information as well as
the documentation needed to make defensible determinations as to whether the GPRA performance
goals have been achieved.  In 1999, the Agency will have finalized its baseline determination and
completed development of national guidance for  evaluating and documenting environmental
indicator determinations.

       Although the long term goal for the RCRA Corrective Action Program is to achieve final
cleanup at all RCRA facilities, the Agency' s policy is to focus implementation efforts on nearer term
actions to mitigating actual or imminent human exposure problems, as well as actions designed to
stop the further spread of contaminants in the environment, attending to the worst sites first.

       Base efforts in 1999 for the Corrective Action Program encompass regulation reform,
streamlining and reinvention proj ects that will improve the program's implementation. These efforts
are a part of a larger RCRA Cleanup Initiative, which is aimed at reforming the RCRA Corrective
Action Program in 2000 and beyond. The components of the RCRA Cleanup Initiative will promote
achievement of the strategic objective by protecting  public health and the environment more
effectively, efficiently and promptly.

       The impetus of the RCRA Cleanup Initiative is to increase the pace of cleanup and remove
barriers that would prevent the Agency from achieving its objective of reducing risk to human health
and the environment The RCRA Cleanup Initiative has identified several projects that are intended
to encourage cleanups, reduce impediments to achieving the Agency's objective, enhance State and
stakeholder involvement, and promote innovative approaches to cleanup actions. It incorporates
several long term efforts to enhance the program into a more comprehensive, focused approach. The
completion of RCRA Cleanup projects, described below, will accelerate the pace of RCRA cleanups
and assist in achieving the Agency's strategic objective.

       Regulatory action under RCRA Cleanup will include the Hazardous Waste Identification
Rule (HWIR)-Media Regulation and the Post Closure Rule. HWIR-Media, which the Agency
finalized in November 1998  and which will be effective June 1999, creates a new RCRA permit
called a Remedial Action Plan (RAP) for managing wastes from cleanups that will be fester and
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easier to obtain than other permits, and that will not require facility-wide corrective action. In
addition, the H WIR-Media Rule provides for streamlined authorization procedures when states make
minor revisions to their RCRA program.

       In 2000, the Agency will implement the Post Closure rule which the Agency finalized in
October 1998. This rule will provide the ability to merge clean up and closure in some cases.

       The RCRA Cleanup Initiative seeks to streamline the corrective action process to conduct
faster, more appropriate cleanups, saving resources for industry, the states, and the Agency.  The
initiative includes a series of guidance during 1999, that establishes the national priorities for EPA.
This guidance will allow program implementors to emphasize environmental results, instead of the
process, and that in turn will make it possible to apply specialized approaches that can accelerate
cleanups. The Agency also believes that guidance will facilitate the communication process between
facility owners/operators and regulatory agencies, improving the pace of cleanups.  Finally this
approach is designed to foster better working relationships that focus on achieving desired results
in a cost-effective and expeditious manner.

       Beginning hi 1999 and continuing through 2000, the Agency will begin implementation of
a new national training initiative to train EPA and state regulators on how to use available flexibility
and specific tools to improve site-specific implementation of the corrective action program. This
effort focuses on key principles and approaches that have accelerated schedules, improved efficiency
and results-oriented implementation. In 2000, the Agency will conduct a technical forum comprised
of experts hi the field of underground hazardous waste migration to discuss remedial approaches,
monitoring and site characterization.  This project is aimed at improving the Corrective Action
Program by engaging stakeholders in theoretical problem solving that will result in working better,
smarter, and faster.

       Another project designed to highlight results is a pilot program under the Environmental
Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking (EMPACT). The objective of this project
is to use a set of basic scientific measures to summarize the quality of soil, groundwater, and surface
water at contaminated sites. This project will demonstrate how well presented measures, can provide
the public with a clear understanding of the extent and amount of contamination at specified sites.
Initially, a pilot is underway that focuses on the New Jersey/New York City metropolitan area. Over
the next few years, the program will be expanded to include contaminated sites  across all 10 EPA
Regions.
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Research

       Research under this objective  supports the assessment and remediation of sites with
contaminated soil and groundwater.  Groundwater and soils research seeks to understand the
processes that govern contaminant transport and fate and to improve remediation and monitoring
technologies, especially their cost-effectiveness. Groundwater discharge can result in widespread
sediment contamination, presenting a direct ecological threat to the fauna and the rest of the food
chain. Immediate threats to human ingestion may be minimized by the provision of costly alternate
water supplies.  These do not always eliminate other routes for human exposure (e, g. inhalation
via showering)  nor is the value of the groundwater resource replaced.  Contaminated soils pose
chronic and acute health risks to surrounding communities and ecosystems through a number of
exposure routes and pathways, and can provide a continuing secondary source of groundwater
contamination.
       The risk posed by contaminated groundwater and soil is potentially high due to: 1) the large
number of sites with known contamination; 2) the technical difficulties of groundwater cleanup; 3)
the presence of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLS) contamination, toxic contaminants such as
heavy metals, persistent bioaccumulative substances (PBS), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
in the soil  and  groundwater; 4) the potential of human exposure through multiple routes and
pathways even after the provision of alternate water supplies; 5) the fact that ecological impacts,
especially as groundwater discharges through sediments into surface water, are poorly understood;
and 6) the very high cost of subsurface characterization and remediation. Research will focus on
exposure to soil and groundwater contaminants, assessment of the risks posed by these contaminants,
cost-effective management of these risks, and  the development of innovative technologies to
characterize and remediate contaminated sites.  Research on Hazardous Substances, Leaking
Underground Storage Tank (LUST), and Oil Spills fall within this objective.

       Exposure research will be conducted to reduce uncertainties associated with soil/groundwater
sampling and analysis and to reduce the time and cost associated with site characterization. In order
to achieve this end, methods and instruments will be tested and developed to provide more accurate
characterizations of sites.  Major  research  areas  include:  1)  subsurface characterization of
groundwater; 2) sampling methods, sampling  designs, and environmental  statistics; 3) field
analytical methods for characterizing soils and  groundwater; and 4) oil and dispersant fate and
transport.

       Subsurface characterization for groundwater research will involve non-invasive geophysical
techniques that can provide methods for subsurface site characterization. Significant effort will be
directed toward the development of a  unique test facility for evaluating  these geophysical
technologies under controlled spilled conditions. Improvements in all aspects of soil sampling are
being investigated to quantify and reduce/eliniinate possible errors that commonly occur during
sample collection, handling, preservation, and storage.

       Research in the application of  advanced instrumentation to soils and groundwater
characterization focuses on methods that will provide high-quality data with simple and effective
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protocols.  Emphasis in 2000 and beyond will be on innovative methods and technologies to
evaluate/characterize the natural attenuation of contaminants in groundwater and soils.  Oil and
dispersant fate and transport research will involve the development of an oil spill model used for the
movement of water and crude oil or oil by-products and dispersant in evaluating the impact on near-
coastal environments.

       In order to estimate human exposure and delivered dose for contaminated soils, EPA will
develop approaches (i .e., models, factors) that enable risk assessors to accurately estimate the amount
of a contaminant found in the soil matrix. In addition, research will develop methodologies and
factors that enable ecological risk assessors to estimate the amount of soil-borne contamination that
is toxicologically available.  The focus in 2000 will be on developing ecological soil screening
values for common soil contaminants.

       EPA will also seek to demonstrate more effective and less costly remediation technologies,
specifically in the areas of: 1) groundwater (soils and sediments) treatment; and 2) containment. Site
treatment research includes bioremediation,  abiotic treatment, and natural attenuation (NA).
Bioremediation research involves the understanding and application of biological  processes to
transform contaminants into innocuous products so that they are not biologically available. Field
studies on the degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and the subsurface
will continue, evaluating several low-cost techniques, as well as treatment trains such as biotreatment
and chemical treatment. In 2000, research will include field evaluation of enhanced anaerobic
processes to degrade chlorinated solvents and transform metals in groundwater.

       Research continues  on innovative uses of abiotic treatment technologies  to reduce
contaminant levels in soil and sediment In 2000, abiotic treatment research of small pilot-scale tests
of multiple dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) extraction techniques will be conducted at a
site to compare their effectiveness. Work will continue to look at cost-effective surfactant reuse and
studies of NA or other secondary treatment of NAPL residuals. Field tests will be conducted of
permeable reactive barriers (PRB) applied to mixtures of metals and organics and techniques for
deep installation of PRBs.

       Natural attenuation (NA)  research will focus on organics, metals,  and multi-component
mixtures of contaminants dissolved in groundwater, soils, and the unsaturated subsurface. Research
includes  understanding  natural degradation and dispersive processes  that affect the  fate  of
contaminants and enhancing these processes for treatment, as well as techniques for evaluating the
potential for NA and monitoring its progress. In 2000, EPA will conduct a field validation of a draft
technical resource document for groundwater.

       Containment research seeks to understand and improve the effectiveness of containment
systems and developing innovative systems using new materials, including vegetative caps and
geosynthetics. The scope of study includes caps, covers, and vertical barriers for the vadose zone,
which is the unsaturated level above the groundwater table, as well as fixed barriers and pumping
methods for containing contaminated plumes.
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       The Superfund Innovative Technology and Evaluation (SITE) program promotes innovative
technology use to characterize and remediate sites, and evaluates the effectiveness of Federally and
privately funded pilot and full scale remediation and characterization options. Building on the
strengths of the existing program, such as demonstration design, technology transfer, etc., the SITE
program has shifted from a technology-driven focus to a remediation problem focus. Innovative
monitoring technology demonstrations will focus on the development of reports for sediment
sampling devices. Reports from these and earlier demonstrations will be produced to aid site
owners, regulators,  and  others  in  making  decisions  about  appropriate  site  cleanup  and
characterization technologies.

       The SITE program will also initiate evaluations of technologies dealing with the following
remediation problems: oxygenate compounds in groundwater, difficult to treat contaminants  in
groundwater and soils, and pesticides and chlorinated aromatics in soil sediments. In addition, work
will be initiated  on containment systems.
FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

LUST

•      (+$373,000,  +1.0 workyears).   Resources for the LUST Program remediation and
       assessments on Tribal lands. EPA anticipates this increase will fund approximately 5
       additional site assessments, 2 cleanups and staff-time to oversee responsible party-lead and
       direct federal lead cleanups in Indian Country.

•      (-$1,182,300) Resources for the LUST Program State Cooperative Agreements.  This
       resource level will still enable EPA to meet its GPRA target of 21,000 cleanups completed
       at UST sites where releases have contaminated soil and/or groundwater.

Superfund

*      (+$13,864,700).   Increases to the Superfund Response program (Remedial  Actions
       $4,652,400; Removals $7,980,800; Site Assessments $1,231,500) reflect the Agency's
       decision to direct more Superfund resources toward cleaning up sites. These added resources
       will assist the Agency in accomplishing its targeted GPRA goals for 2000.

•      (+$6,306,200).  Additional funds were provided to support increased costs associated with
       the workforce.

•      (-$22,438,300).  Reduction to Other Federal Agencies largely reflects Congressional Add-
       ons not sustained in the President's 2000 Request (-$12,000,000 ATSDR and -$11,473,300
       NIEHS); however several agencies received additional resources due to a redirection from
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       the Superfund Response program (NOAA +$550,000; USCG +$335,000; DOI +$100,000;
       and OSHA +$50,000).

•      (-$4,251,600). Reduction of funds from the Superfund enforcement program, due to savings
       from moving some enforcement work from contractors to Agency staff.

•      (-16.0 FTE). The workyears provided by the President's initiative to accelerate clean-up of
       NPL sites were redirected to support other Agency priorities.

•      (-$336,500).  Reflects a decrease to Department of Justice for Superfund support.

Brownfields

•      ($5,000,000).  Supports redirection from Voluntary  Cleanup Program funding to site
       assessment funding.  Redirection from the Voluntary Cleanup Program reflects states'
       reduced funding needs for state infrastructure building and voluntary cleanups. Reflects
       states' request for increased funding for brownfields targeted site assessments and support
       of state liaisons with pilot communities.
RCRA
       (+$4,588,100).  This increase inRCRA Corrective Action program funds RCRA reinvention
       efforts to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the program.  This increase will also
       help to increase the rate of high priority RCRA corrective action facilities with human health
       risks and ground water releases controlled.
       (-$5,000,000)  Due to Congressional Add-ons received during the appropriations process,
       but not part of the 2000 President's request.
Research
       (+$54,000 and +1.0  workyears) This request continues the second year of the Agency's
       Postdoctoral Initiative to enhance our intramural research program, building upon the
       overwhelmingly positive response by the academic community to EPA's announcement of
       50 postdoctoral positions for 1999. These positions will provide a constant stream of highly-
       trained postdoctoral candidates who can apply state-of-the-science training to EPA research
       issues.

       (-$3,217,500 S&T) Funding to support the following 1999 Congressional earmarks will not
       be continued in 2000:Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research Center, The University of
       New Hampshire Bioremediation of Bedrock Aquifers.
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       (41,945,300 Superfund) In 2000, funding for Superfund Minority Centers will be reduced,
       consistent with traditional enacted appropriations levels.

•      (-$1,071,200 and 12.4 workyears S&T) This decrease represents resources transferred from
       contaminated sites research to active waste management facilities research, in Goal 5
       Objective 2. In 2000, the Agency will expand its waste management research program and
       additional HWIR research will be conducted.

•      (-$929,400 Superfund) This reduction will result in one less SITE demonstration project and
       fewer research activities related to subsurface cleanup of groundwater. The development of
       improved process level models and databases for quantifying pollutant transformation rates
       and mechanisms in soil, sediment, and aquatic ecosystems will also be phased out.

NOTE: The FY 1999 Request, submitted  to Congress in February  1998, included Operating
       Expenses and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in
       Goal 8 and Objective 5. In the FY 1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the FY 2000
       Request, these resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives. The FY 1999 Request
       columns in this document have been modified from the original FY 1999 Request so that
       they reflect the allocation of these ORD funds across Goals and Objectives.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

RCRA Corrective Action

In 2000      170 (for a cumulative total of 408 or 24%) of high priority RCRA facilities will have human
            exposures controlled and 170 (for a cumulative total of 289 or 17%) of high priority RCRA
            facilities will have groundwater releases controlled.

 In 1999     83 (for a cumulative total of 23 8 or 14%) of high priority RCRA facilities will have human
            exposures controlled and 45 (for a cumulative total of 119 or 7%) will have groundwater
            releases controlled.

Performance Measures                                     FY 1999            FY 2000
High priority RCRA facilities with human exposures to toxins      83 facilities             170 facilities
controlled.

High priority RCRA facilities with toxic releases to groundwater    45 facilities             170 facilities
controlled.

Baseline:      EPA established a baseline of 1,700 high priority corrective action facilities in January 1999.


Leaking Underground Storage Tank Cleanups

In 2000      Complete 21,000 Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Cleanups for a cumulative total
            of 246,000 cleanups since 1987.


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In 1999      Complete 22,000 Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) cleanups.

Performance Measures                                          FY1999              FY 2000
LUST cleanups completed.                                     22,000 cleanups         21,000 cleanups

Baseline:      EPA completed a total of 178,297 LUST cleanups through 1997.
Superfund Site Assessments

In 2000      In 2000, EPA and its partners will make final Superfund site assessment decisions on 530
             additional sites for a cumulative total of 35,968.

 In 1999      In 1999, EPA and its partners will make final Superfund site assessment decisions on 530
             additional sites for a cumulative total of 35,438.

Performance Measures                                          FY1999              FY2000
Site assessment decisions.                                      530 decisions            530 decisions

Baseline:      EPA completed total of 34,427 site assessments from 1982 through 1997.


Superfund Removal Response Actions

In 2000      Conduct 300 Superfund removal response actions for a cumulative total of 6,100 removal
             response actions  since 1982.

 In 1999      Conduct 300 Superfund removal response actions (for a cumulative total of 5,800 Superfund
             removal response actions).

Performance Measures                                          FY 1999              FY 2000
Removal response actions.                                     300 responses            300 responses

Baseline:      EPA completed total of 5,079 removal response actions from 1982 through 1997.


Superfund Cleanups

In 2000      EPA will complete 85 Superfund cleanups (construction completions), continuing on a path
             to reach 925 completed cleanups by the end of 2002.

In 1999      EPA and its partners will maintain the pace of cleanups by completing construction at 85
             additional Superfund sites (for a cumulative total of 670 construction completions with a
             target of 925 construction completions in 2002).

Performance Measures                                          FY 1999              FY 2000
Construction completions.                                     85 completions         85 completions

Baseline:      EPA completed a total of 585 construction completions from 1982 through 1998.
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Superfund Cost Recovery

In 2000      Ensure trust fund stewardship by recovering costs from PRPs when EPA expends trust fund
             monies. Address cost recovery at all NPL and non-NPL sites w/ a statute of limitations on
             total past costs equal to or greater than $200,000.

In 1999      Address cost recovery at all National Priority List (NPL) and non-NPL sites with a statute of
             limitations on total past costs equal to or greater than $200,000.

In 1999      Ensure trust fund stewardship by recovering costs from PRPs when EPA expends trust fund
             monies.

Performance Measures                                          FY1999              FY2000
Address Cost Recovery at all NPL & Non-NPL sites w/tot past       100 Percent               100 Percent
costs = or >$200K

Baseline:     In FY98 the Agency will have addressed 100% of Cost Recovery at all NPL & Non-NPL sites with
              total past costs equal or greater than $200,000.


Superfund Potentially Responsible Party Participation

In 2000      Maximize all aspects of PRP partic., including 70% of the work conducted on new construction
             starts at non-Fed Fac sites on the NPL, and emphasize fairness in the settlement process.
             Result is timely and protective clean up of the Nation's worst contain, sites and other sign.
             threats to pub. health

In 1999      Obtain PRP commitments for 70% of the work conducted at new construction starts at
             non-Federal facility sites on the NPL and emphasize fairness in the settlement process.

Performance Measures                                          FY 1999              FY 2000
Section 106 Civil Actions                                       38 Agreements

De Minimis Settlements                                         23 Settlements           20 Settlements

Remedial Admin. Orders                                        19 Orders

Administrative and judicial actions                                                        100 actions

Orphan Share Offers at all eligible work settlement negotiations     100% Settlements       30 Settlements
much obliged

Baseline:     In FY97 approximately 70% of new remedial work at NPL sites (excluding Federal facilities) was
              initiated by private parties.


Superfund Prospective Purchaser Agreements

In 2000      Continue to make formerly contaminated parcels of land available for residential, commercial,
             and industrial reuse by addressing liability concerns through the issuance of comfort letters
             and prospective purchaser agreements.
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In 1999      Continue to make formerly contaminated parcels of land available for residential, commercial,
             and industrial reuse by addressing liability concerns through the issuance of comfort letters
             and prospective purchaser agreements.
Performance Measures                                         FY1999             FY2000
Eval. liability concerns - Prospective Purchaser Agreement          100 Percent              100 Percent
requests assessed

Baseline:      No Performance Baseline Information is available.
Superfund Federal Facilities Compliance

In 2000      Ensure compliance with Federal facility statutes and CERCLA Agreements and ensure
             completion of current NPL CERCLA lAGs.

Performance Measures                                         FY 1999             FY 2000
Fed. Facilities CERCLA Negotiations                                                   4 Negotiations

Fed. Facilities Current NPL lAGs                                                      6 NPL lAGs

Baseline:      No Performance Baseline Information is available.


Brownfields Site Assessment Grants

In 2000      EPA will fund Brownfields site assessments in 50 more communities, thus reaching 350
             communities by the end of 2000.

In 1999      EPA will fund Brownfields site assessments in 100 more communities, thus reaching 300
             communities by the end of 1999.

Performance Measures                                         FY 1999             FY 2000
Cooperative agreements for site assessment                       100 agreements          50 agreements

Baseline:      EPA signed a cumulative of 227 agreements for site assessments in 1998.
Brownfields Supplemental Site Assessments, Revolving Loan Funds,
Showcase Communities, and Job Training Pilots-

In 2000      Sign agreements for 50 supplemental brownfields site assessments, sign agreements with 70
             communities to capitalize revolving loan funds, and support 16 existing brownfields showcase
             communities and 10 job training pilots.

In 1999      Support 16 showcase communities, and sign agreements with 63 communities to capitalize
             revolving loan funds.

Performance Measures                                         FY 1999             FY 2000
Showcase communities.                                        16 communities         16 communities
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Cooperative agreements to capitalize revolving loan funds.          63 agreements           70 agreements

Job training pilots.                                                                       10 pilots

Supplemental site assessment agreements.                                                50 agreements

Baseline:      EPA signed 23 agreements for capitalization of revolving loan funds in 1997. 16 showcase
              communities were announced in 1998.


Research

Scientifically Defensible Decisions for Site Cleanup

In 2000      Enhance scientifically-defensible decisions for site cleanup (cu) by providing targeted
             research & tech. support.

In 2005      Develop and Evaluate Risk Management Options for Remediation of Sites, including
             Brownfields, Contaminated by Metals, PAHs, NAPLs and Chlorinated Solvents

In 2002      Evaluate Applicability of Natural Attenuation and Risk-based Management Goals to Clean up
             of Contaminated Sites

In 2001      Demonstrate and verify the performance of 18 innovative technologies by 2001, emphasizing
             remediation and characterization of groundwater and soils.

In 1999      Develop Risk Assessment Methods, Models, Factors and Databases that Describe Key
             Exposure Parameters Human Activity patterns, and Dose-response Toxicity Relationships

Performance Measures                                           FY1999             FY2000
Environmental Research Brief on permeable reactive barrier of      30-SEP-1999
ground water contaminated with chromium and chlorinated
solvents

Using data from the Exposure Factors Handbook, develop           30-SEP-1999
peer-reviewed statistical distributions for selected exposure factors.

Final report and draft journal article comparing the most common                         09/30/2000 report
analytical methods for VOC in soils will allow waste site mgrs. to
select the most appr. methods to char, contamination at waste sites.

Technical Resource Document for Monitored Natural Attenuation                            1 document
in Sediments

Summary Report of Case Studies of Natural Attenuation of MTBE, a                            1 report
fuel additive, at Geographically Diverse Locations

Progress report on Field Demonstration of Chemically-Enhanced                          09/30/2000 report
Subsurface Dense, Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Extraction
Technologies
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Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program                              1 report
Report to Congress.

A report summarizing the key research findings methods, models,                           1 report
and factors relating to evaluating the risks from the dermal route
of exposure.

Develop eco-toxicity soil screening values for the 20 most common                      09/30/2000 values
Superfund soil contaminants for plants, invertebrate microbes,
birds, and mammals.

Delivery of the Annual SITE Program Report to Congress          30-SEP-1999

Baseline:     EPA research will focus on the need to: improve characterization of contamination by VOCs and
            NAPLs;  improve risk assessments for the dermal route of exposure and for ecological receptors; and
            improve and evaluate, including via SITE demonstrations, cleanup and natural attenuation processes.
            In addition, the SITE report to Congress will document the completion of the required six field
            evaluation projects and the maintenance of a 60 percent or greater technology deployment rate.


Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

       The Office ofUnderground Storage Tanks (OUST) uses the following processes to verify and
validate the performance measures data.

       Designated State agencies submit semi-annual progress reports to the EPA regional offices,
who review, verify and then forward the data to the OUST Headquarters. OUST Headquarters staff
examine the data and resolve any discrepancies with the regional offices. The data are displayed on
a region by region basis, which allows regional staff to verify their data. OUST does not maintain
a national database.

       The performance results are also used in OUSTs Regional Strategic Overview (RSO) Process
to assess the status of State progress in implementing the program. This process is based on strategic
discussions that the  program has with the states, regarding how to continue to improve states'
performance. In the mid-year and end of year state evaluations, the Program discusses with states
their efforts to update and validate their data,  and to make continual  improvements in their
performance. EPA relies on its state partners to provide our measurement data which have been used
by the UST/LUST program for 10 years.

       CERCLIS is the official  database used by the Agency to help track and store Superfund
national site information. The Agency is taking steps to ensure that all Superfund accountability data
are rigorously validated. The database is used to track, store, and report national accomplishment
information.  It has defined the various roles and responsibilities of key individuals who are
responsible for development, operation and maintenance of CERCLIS. The headquarters sponsor
of the data is responsible for (1) identifying the data elements needed, (2) defining the data elements,
and (3) informing the appropriate people that the information needs to be collected and loaded into
CERCLIS. The regional person who owns and enters the data (e.g., Superfund remedial project

                                           V-30

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manager) is responsible for reviewing, verifying, and validating site data in CERCLIS.  The
Information Management Center (IMC), under the EPA's Office of Emergency and Remedial
Response (OERR), responsibility is to ensure: (1) there is a data element with an accurate definition
for all data; (2) the data element is accessible to searches and can be retrieved for reports; (3) the
source for the data is referenced in the system; (4) the data is accurately entered or converted into
the system; (5) data from other sources is considered draft until it has been checked against its source
data, and is found acceptable; and (6) data integrity is  maintained in all system applications and
reports.

      To assure data accuracy and control, the following administrative controls are in place: (1)
Superfund/Oil Implementation Manual (SPIM) — This is the program management manual which
details what data must be reported; (2) Report Specifications — Report specifications are published
for each report detailing how reported data are calculated; (3) Coding Guide — It contains technical
instructions to data users such as regional IMCs, program personnel, report owners and data input
personnel; (4) Quality Assurance (QA) Unit Testing —Unit testing is an extensive QA check made
by the report programmer to assure that its product is producing accurate data that conforms to the
current specification; (5) QA Third Party Testing — Third party testing is an extensive test made by
an independent QA tester to assure that  the report produces data in conformance with the report
specifications; (6) Regional CERCLIS Data Entry Internal Control Plan — The data entry internal
control plan includes: (a) regional policies and procedures for entering data into CERCLIS; (b) a
review process to  ensure  that  all Superfund accomplishments are  supported  by  source
documentation;  (c)  delegation of authorities for approval of data input into CERCLIS; and (d)
procedures to ensure that reported accomplishments meet accomplishment definitions ; and (7) a
historial lockout feature has been added to CERCLIS so that changes in past fiscal year data: (a) can
only be changed by approved and designated  personnel, and (b) are logged to a change-log report.

      Two audits, one by the Office Inspector General (OIG) and the other by Government
Accounting Office (GAO), were done to assess the validity of the data in CERCLIS. The OIG audit
report "Superfund Construction Completion reporting", No. E1SGF7-05-0102-  8100030,  was
performed to verify the accuracy of the information that the Agency was providing to Congress and
the public regarding the construction completion statistic. The OIG concluded that the Agency "has
good management controls to ensure the accuracy of the information that is reported," and "Congress
and the public can rely upon the information EPA provides regarding construction completions."
The GAO'sreport "Superfund: Information on the Status of Sites", GAO/RCED-98-241, also sought
to review the accuracy of the information in CERCLIS on sites' cleanup progress.  GAO tested the
accuracy of data in the CERCLIS system for a random sample of NPL sites. On the basis of GAO's
sample results, GAO "estimates that the cleanup status of NPL sites reported by the Superfund
database is accurate for 95% of the sites."

      In 2000, the Agency will  continue its  efforts begun in 1999 to  improve the Superfund
program's technical information by incorporating more site remedy selection, risk, removal response,
and community involvement information in CERCLIS. Also, it will continue its efforts to share
information among the Federal, state and tribal programs. The additional information will further
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enhance the Agency's efforts to efficiently identify, evaluate and remediate Superfund hazardous
waste sites.

       RCRA data verification procedures ensure that the data collected at the field or facility level
are not corrupted or confused before they are presented, aggregated, and analyzed at the Federal
level. Environmental monitoring data will meet  standard Quality Assurance/Quality Control
(QA/QC) procedures for the RCRA program, as documented in the Office of Solid Waste Quality
Assurance Management Plan and the Guidebook for QA/QC Procedure for Submission of Data for
the LDR Program. These procedures, in part, define requirements for sampling and analysis to
assure data quality. Another common method of verification involves examination of data collected
and evaluating the relationship of those data to other data collected under similar circumstances.

       The Resource Conservation Recovery Information System (RCRIS) is the national database
which supports EPA's RCRA program. RCRIS contains information on entities (generically referred
to as "handlers") engaged in hazardous waste generation and management activities regulated under
the portion of RCRA that provides for regulation of hazardous waste. RCRIS has several different
modules, including a Corrective Action Module which tracks the status of facilities requiring
correction action and also the two environmental indicators related to corrective action. In 1999, the
Agency will have finalized its baseline and development of its national guidance for evaluating and
documenting  environmental indicators.  The Corrective  Action Program is  also considering
Headquarters  include spot checks of Regional and State  El determinations during the annual
Beginning of the Year process.

       While some problems in the accuracy of RCRIS data have been found in the past, significant
improvements in quality have been made over the last two years.  The importance of RCRIS data
has been recognized, and the quality of RCRIS data has improved, due to the Headquarters office
pulling and using the RCRIS data in reports that  are issued to the Regions and states.  Charts
illustrating the comparative progress between Regions, and between states within each Region, have
been constructed and shared with the Regions and states. These charts will be placed on a web site,
that will be available to the public, in  the near future.

       RCRIS controls include maintaining a high degree of consistency in data elements over time
as well as data screen  edits to help ensure that key data is entered for all facilities.   States and
Regions, who create the databases, manage data quality control.  RCRIS has a suite of user and
system documentation which describes the overall administration of the data collection and
management activities. Training on  use of the systems is provided on a regular basis, usually
annually depending on the nature of system changes and user needs.

       The RCRA program is currently evaluating its future information management needs and
systems through a joint initiative with the states called WIN/Informed. This project  covers the
activities and information currently supported by both the RCRIS and BRS data systems. Analysis
under WIN/Informed  includes  the identification of the data elements needed to support the
implementation and management of the RCRA program; development of .common, agreed upon

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national definitions; identification of programmatic process improvements; and tracking burden
reduction. The design and construction of new systems will be based on the results of each area of
analysis., and will be flexible to accommodate future needs. The WIN/Informed project is scheduled
to be completed by the end of the calendar year 2002.

       In order to validate the Brownfields performance measure data, the Outreach and Special
Projects Staff utilize data input and verification of the Brownfields Management System (BMS) and
the CERCLIS 3  system.  The BMS is  used to evaluate  management, environmental,  and
economically-related results such as jobs generated and acres assessed and cleaned up. BMS uses
data gathered from Brownfield pilots' quarterly reports and from the Regions.  The CERCLIS 3
system records Regional accomplishments  on Brownfields Assessments.  Verification relies on
reviews by Regional staff responsible for pilot cooperative agreements or Brownfields cooperative
agreements and contracts.

Research

       EPA has several  strategies to validate and verify performance measures in the area of
environmental science and technology research. Because the major output of research is technical
information, primarily in the form of reports, software, protocols, etc., key to these strategies is the
performance of both peer reviews and quality reviews to ensure that requirements are met

       Peer reviews provide assurance during the  pre-planning, planning,  and  reporting of
environmental science and research activities that the work meets peer expectations. Only those
science activities that pass agency peer review are addressed. This applies to program-level, proj ect-
level, and research outputs. The quality of the peer review activity is monitored by EPA to ensure
mat peer reviews are performed consistently, according to Agency policy, and that any identified
areas of concern are resolved through discussion or the implementation of corrective action.

       The Agency's expanded focus on peer review helps ensure that the performance measures
listed here are verified and validated by an external organization. This is accomplished through the
use of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) and the Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC).  The
BOSC, established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, provides an added measure of
assurance by examining the way the Agency  uses peer review, as well as the management of its
research and development laboratories.

       In 1998, the Agency presented a new Agency-wide  quality  system  in Agency Order
5360.1/chg 1. This system provided policy to ensure that all environmental programs performed by
or for the Agency be supported by individual quality systems that comply fully with the American
National Standard, Specifications and Guidelines for Quality Systems for Environmental Data
Collection and Environmental Technology Programs (ANSI/ASQC E4-1994).

       The order expanded the applicability of quality assurance and quality control to the design,
construction, and operation by EPA organizations of environmental technology such as pollution
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control and abatement systems; treatment, storage, and disposal systems; and remediation systems.
This rededication to quality provides the needed management and technical practices to assure that
environmental data developed in research and used to support Agency decisions are of adequate
quality and usability for their intended purpose.

       A quality assurance system is  implemented at all levels in the EPA research organization.
The Agency-wide quality assurance system is a management system that provides the necessary
elements to plan, implement, document, and assess the effectiveness of quality assurance and quality
control activities applied to environmental programs conducted by or  for EPA. This  quality
management system provides for identification of environmental programs for which QA/QC is
needed, specification of the quality of the data required from environmental programs, and provision
of sufficient resources to assure that an adequate level of QA/QC is performed.

       Agency measurements are based on the application of standard EPA and ASTM methodology
as well as performance-based measurement systems. Non-standard methods  are validated at the
project level. Internal and external management system assessments report the efficacy  of the
management system for quality of the data and the final research results. The quality assurance
annual report and work plan submitted by  each organizational unit provides an  accountable
mechanism for quality activities. Continuous improvement in the quality system is accomplished
through discussion and review of assessment results.
Coordination with Other Agencies

       State LUST programs are key to achieving the objectives and long-term strategic goal. EPA
relies on states agencies to implement the LUST program, including overseeing cleanups by
responsible parties and responding to emergency LUST releases. LUST Cooperative Agreements
are made directly to the states to assist them in implementing their oversight and programmatic role.

       The Superfund response/cleanup program coordinates with many other Federal and state
agencies in accomplishing its mission.  Many of these agencies perform essential services in areas
where the Agency does not possess the specialized expertise.  Currently, the Agency has active
interagency agreements with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the National
Institute for Environmental Health Services, the Department of Interior, the Department of Justice,
the National  Oceanic and  Atmospheric Administration, the  Federal  Emergency  Management
Agency, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the United States Coast Guard.

       The services these  agencies provide include conducting public health assessments at
Superfund sites, niaintaining toxicology databases for chemicals found at Superfund sites, providing
health education to health care providers, local and national health organizations and state and local
health departments;  funding to colleges and  universities for basic research which focuses on
assessing the impacts of chemical mixtures on humans; supporting response preparedness and
management  activities to the National Response Team, Regional Response Teams, On-Scene
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Coordinators and Remedial Project Managers, outreach to states, Indian tribes and Federal natural
resource trustee officials on natural resource damage assessments; providing scientific support for
response operations through Coastal Resource Coordinators in EPA's coastal Regional offices and
coordination between Federal and state natural resource trustee agencies; supporting the Superfund
program in the management and coordination of training programs for local officials through the
Emergency Management Institute and the National Fire Academy, and supporting the National
Response System by providing expertise in emergency preparedness and administrative support to
the Regional Response Teams and National Response Team; conducting compliance assistance visits
to review site safety and health plans and programs and developing guidelines and procedures in the
composition of manuals for assessing safety and health at hazardous waste sites; responding to
actual or potential releases of hazardous substances involving the coastal zone, including the Great
Lakes and designated inland river ports; and litigating and settling cleanup agreements and cost
recovery cases and seeking civil penalties.

       The United States Army Corp of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation provide
management and  support for design and  construction  management at  Superfund sites which
contribute to the direct  cleanup at many sites. These Federal partners implement most high-cost
Fund-financed remedial actions, provide  on-site  technical  expertise, and  ensure that project
management is consistent between Fund and PRP financed projects.

       The Agency also works in partnership with states and tribal governments to strengthen state
and tribal hazardous waste programs and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the nation's
overall hazardous waste response capability. EPA assists the states in developing their CERCLA
implementation programs through infrastructure support, financial and technical assistance , and
training. Partnerships with states increase the number os site cleanups, improve the timeliness of
responses, and make land available for economic redevelopment sooner, while allowing for more
direct local involvement in the cleanup process. EPA is working to enhance the role of states and
tribes in the implementation of the Superfund program  by encouraging their participation in all
aspects of the Federal  Superfund program, from  site assessment through remedial  design and
construction.  Twenty pilot projects are underway to enhance the role of states and tribes in
Superfund.

       Executive Order 12580 delegates certain authorities for implementing Superfund to other
Federal agencies. These responsibilities are carried out in close consultation and coordination with
EPA.  EPA works with these agencies to ensure compliance with environmental laws and
regulations, and in partnership with the states to provide effective and efficient oversight of Federal
cleanup programs. EPA also provides technical and program assistance, training and outreach for
Federal facilities; works with other state and tribal  regulators and Federal agencies to develop
cleanup priorities and milestones; facilitates appropriate transfer and leasing  of excess Federal
properties; and works with tribal nations to enhance their technical capabilities.

       The Agency maintains a close relationship  with state agencies that  are  authorized to
implement the RCRA Corrective Action program. States are required to achieve the same level of
                                         V-35

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Federal standards as the Agency, including the annual performance goals of human exposures and
groundwater releases controlled. As part of the state grant process, Regional Offices negotiate with
the state agencies annualized goals that the state agencies should achieve with the grant funds.
Examples of items that Regional Offices may negotiate with state agencies include the number of
facilities that are investigated, studied, stabilized, or have corrective action measures initiated. The
Agency will continue our partnership effort with states by sponsoring a national program meeting
to discuss a Variety of corrective action and other RCRA topics. The agency will continue to provide
state agencies with guidance on implementing the corrective action program. Also the Agency will
develop Brownfield guidance that will facilitate redevelopment efforts at RCRA sites.

      The Brownfields National Partnership represents a significant investment in brownfields
communities including more than 100 commitments from more than 20 Federal agencies. Federal
resources  include additional brownfields  pilots  from EPA;  redevelopment funds  from the
Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Economic Development Agency; and job
training efforts from the Department of Labor, the Department of Health and Human Services, the
Department of Education, and the Veterans Agency. These funds will help cleanup and redevelop
nearly 5,000 properties.

      The centerpiece of the Brownfields National Partnership is the funding of 16 Brownfields
Showcase  Communities.  EPA and other Federal agencies provide active support to brownfields
activities across the country. The Agency's  commitment to the project is awarding additional
assessment and demonstration pilots and funding Intergovernmental Personnel Act (IPA) staff in
each of the 16 communities. In addition, 24 community finalists received funding and technical
support from the Agency.

      The Brownfields program also relies on partnership building with local government, State,
and non-government groups to leverage Federal funding with private sector funding. As part of the
brownfields initiative, EPA will continue to provide outreach, curriculum development, job training,
and technical assistance to community residents through cooperative agreements to community-
based organizations, community colleges, universities, and private sector non-profit groups. The
Agency also  works  with  cities,  states, Federally recognized  Indian Tribes, community
representatives,  and other stakeholders to implement the  many commitments.   Successful
brownfields redevelopment is proof that economic development and environmental protection go
hand in hand.

      The Brownfields program has demonstrated that cleaning up abandoned or under-used
contaminated land can have significant payoffs. Building on the pilot program, EPA will continue
to partner with other Federal, state, local, and private sector efforts to restore contaminated property
to economic reuse. The Agency will also provide information and tools and develop model practices
and policies to be used by local governments, developers, and transportation officials in their pursuit
to redevelop brownfield properties.
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      EPA coordinated the 2000-2005 BRAC workload projections with the Department of
Defense,  Office of the Secretary of Defense  (for Environmental  Security); and each of the
environmental program directorates in the Air Force, Army and Navy. Workload discussions were
held in January-February 1998 to access outyear requirements and closing and realigning military
installations included under the BRAC account A letter of projected need was sent to the Office of
Secretary of Defense for Environmental Security in May 1998 declaring EPA's FY 2000 needs, a
letter of general approval was received from DoD by in July, 1998 for FY 2000 and beyond. EPA
and DoD continually evaluate workyear needs and requirements, from budget formulation through
development of operating year plans.

Research

      The Agency spends substantial effort in coordinating with other agencies to conduct risk
management and exposure research.  These activities include work with the Department of Defense
(DOD) in their Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and the
Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) programs, as well as sediments
activity with the Waterways Experiment Station (WES). Other groups include the Department of
Energy (DOE) and the Office of Science and Technology and the Integrated Treatment Remediation
Demonstration (ITRD) Program. Collaborative field and laboratory research with DoD, DOE, and
DOI to improve characterization and risk management options for dealing  with subsurface
contamination is also conducted. Collaboration with external organization allows the Agency the
needed flexibility in dealing with complex waste/site characterization and remediation problems.

      The Agency works with The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
to advance fundamental Superfund research.  NIEHS manages a large basic research program
directed at Superfund issues.  The program is mandated in  CERCLA (Section 209), which
establishes a "basic university research and education program" in NIEHS, and further reinforced
in Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Title  III, Section 311), where the
intent of  Congress  is  clarified,  indicating that the program "may include" the  following:
epidemiologic and ecologic studies, advanced techniques for detection, assessment and evaluation
of effects on human health of hazardous substances; methods to assess the risk to human health
presented by hazardous substances; and methods and technologies to detect hazardous substances
in the environment and basic biological, chemical, and physical methods to reduce the amount and
toxicity of hazardous substances.
Statutory Authorities

•      Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984
       to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976

•      Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as
       amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
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      Pollution Prevention Act (PPA) (42 U.S.C. 13101 -13109)

      Oil Pollution Act 33 U.S.C.A.

•     Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579 as amended
      by Public Law 104-201) 40 CFR194: Criteria for the Certification and Recertification of the
      WIPP's Compliance with the Disposal Regulations (1996): Certification Decision (1998).

•     Energy Policy Act of 1992, Public Law 102-486 and Administrative Procedures Act, 5
      U.S.C. 551-559,701-706.

•     Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, 42 USC 2011 et seq. (1970) and Reorganization
      Plan No. 3 of 1970

•     Uranium MiU Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (an amendment to the
      Atomic Energy Act), 42 USC 7901 et seq (1978)

•     Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974: National Primary Interim Drinking Water Regulations
      (1976),MCL

•     The Defense Base Closure and Realignment Actof 1990, Section2905 (a)(l) (E)(10U.S.C.
      2687 Note).
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                          Environmental Protection Agency

             2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

   Better Waste Management, Restoration of Contaminated Waste Sites, and Emergency
                                     Response


Objective # 2: Prevent, Reduce and Respond to Releases, Spills, Accidents or Emergencies

      By 2005, over 282,000 facilities will be managed according to the practices that prevent
releases to the environment, and EPA and its partners will have the capabilities to successfully
respond to all known emergencies to reduce the risk to human health and the environment.
                                 Resource Summary
                                (Dollars in Thousands)

Prevent , Reduce and Respond to Releases,
Spills, Accidents or Emergencies
Environmental Program & Management
Science & Technology
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Oil Spill Response
Hazardous Substance Superfund
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Request
$180,814.4
$111,190.9
$9,229.4
$36,126.6
$15,818.2
$8,449.3
869.1
FY1999
Enacted
$164,772.4
$93,966.8
$8,797.6
$38,038.4
$13,496.9
$10,472.7
861.4
FY2000 FYlOOOReq.v.
Request FY 1999 Ena.
$179,585.4
$106,110.4
$9,449.0
$39,438.4
$14,114.9
$10,472.7
888.7
$14,813.0
$12,143.6
$651.4
$1,400.0
$618.0
$0.0
27.3
                                   Key Programs
                                (Dollars in Thousands)

RCRA Permitting
RCRA State Grants
FY1999
Request
$17,384.4
$25,581.9
FY1999
Enacted
$15,388.6
$27,493.7
FY2000
Request
$16,773.6
$27,493.7
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Waste Combustion

Accident Safety/Prevention

Risk Management Plans

Federal Preparedness

Community Right to Know (Title in)

Underground Storage Tanks (UST)

UST State Grants

Oil Spills Preparedness, Prevention and Response

Hazardous Waste Research

Project XL

Common Sense Initiative.

Civil Enforcement

Compliance Assistance and Centers
$8,002.6
$1,010.0
$11,870.9
$8,036.8
$5,351.0
$6,701.3
$10,544.7
$14,183.1
$7,051.1
$110.3
$0.0
$1,270.7
$0.0
$7,346.7
$0.0
$7,258.3
$9,560.2
$4,683.5
$6,077.9
$10,544.7
$11,98^.0
$6,619.3
$112.6
$130.0
$1,234.0
$274.8
$7,297.7
$0.0
$11,804.6
$9,560.2
$5,099.4
$6345.3
$11,944.7
$12,437.5
$7,249.6
$114.3
$95.5
$1,334.7
$342.7
FY 2000 Request

Underground Storage Tank Program

       This objective includes $6,345,300 in the EPM account and $11,944,700 in the STAG
account for the Underground Storage Tank (UST) program. The goal of this program is to prevent,
detect, and correct leaks from USTs containing petroleum and hazardous substances. The objectives
are to stimulate development and implementation of a comprehensive  regulatory program with
standards at the state and local level that are at least as stringent as the Federal standards; to improve
implementation and enforcement performance; and to provide  ongoing technical mformation,
assistance, research and training. These objectives directly support the Agency's guiding principle
of promoting partnerships by building strong regional, state, local and tribal UST programs.

       States have the primary responsibility for ensuring that UST facilities (except those on Indian
lands) are brought into compliance. EPA's primary role is to provide technical and financial support
to State UST programs. Over the next several years, the Agency's highest priorities are to promote
and enforce compliance with regulatory requirements aimed  at preventing  and detecting UST
releases and to approve additional States to operate their own UST/LUST programs in lieu of the
federal program. As of September, 1998,26 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have
State program approval.  EPA anticipates that by 2000, 30 states will have obtained program
approval.
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       By promoting and enforcing UST compliance, EPA expects the number of USTs in
compliance to increase. Consequently, the Agency will focus on providing technical and financial
support to State UST programs to help them promote regulatory compliance. Financial support will
be provided through UST State grants. EPA and States will work together to promote and enforce
compliance with the 1998 deadline.  EPA funding  will support state UST inspections and
enforcement by providing technical materials and training programs to help State inspectors assess
compliance with requirements for leak detection, corrosion protection, spill containment, and overfill
prevention. EPA funding will also support state-EPA assessments of the validity of third-party
evaluations of leak detection methods and state development and start-up of third party service
provider programs to inspect tanks on states' behalf.  EPA will also assist states in overcoming
barriers to EPA approval of State programs and in developing formal applications for EPA approval.

       EPA has the primary responsibility for implementation of the UST program on Indian lands.
This responsibility requires EPA Regional Offices to educate owners and operators about the UST
requirements, conduct inspection and enforcement activities, and maintain a database of information
on USTs located on Indian lands. Demonstration grants under RCRA Section 8001, as well as non-
demonstration grants under RCRA Section 2007, will continue to help Tribes develop the capability
to administer UST programs.

       December 1998 was the regulatory deadline for upgrading, replacing, or closing USTs that
are not protected against corrosion, spills, and overfills. The Agency estimates that approximately
65% or more of USTs were in compliance by December 1998, and that by 2000, approximately 90%
of USTs will be m compliance with the December 1998 requirements. By 2005, EPA anticipates
that approximately 99% of USTs — encompassing virtually all remaining USTs regulated under
RCRA Subtitle I  — will be in compliance with the December 1998 requirements.  In 2000, the
Agency will begin an evaluation of EPA's technical requirements for UST systems to understand
how well they are working and how they might be further improved.

          ESTIMATED COMPLIANCE RATE WITH 1998 REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS
            FOR UPGRADING, REPLACING OR CLOSING UNDERGROUND STORAGE
                              TANKS (as of December 1998)
                                                                  DEsttmatttd CompJtanca

                                                                  • Estimated Non compliance
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Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention

       This objective also includes $16,904,000 in the EPM account for Chemical Emergency
Preparedness and Prevention.  Chemical safety is vitally important to all Americans. Every day,
incidents involving hazardous materials threaten the health and safety of people in states, cities, and
towns across the country. From 1995 to 1997 EPA recorded 16,000 releases ofhazardous substances
resulting in 53 deaths and 2,258 injuries.  A 1996 analysis estimated that more than 400 releases of
extremely toxic and flammable chemicals resulted in two dozen fatalities, 1,000 injuries, thousands
of evacuations, and more than $1 billion in damages. Manufacturers produce these chemicals in
communities and they transport them through cities and towns in rail cars, trucks, and pipelines.

       In 2000, federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the public, will have unprecedented
access to information on the presence of chemicals in every community and the potential hazards
those chemicals present. Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires some 66,000 facilities
to develop comprehensive Risk Management Plans (RMPs) and submit these plans to EPA, state
agencies, and Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs).

       Each RMP will identify and assess the hazards posed by on-site chemicals, provide a five-
year facility accident history, and outline an accident prevention program and an emergency response
plan. However, only about half of those  facilities required to submit RMPs are expected to do so
by the statutory deadline of June 1999. Many facilities which fail to meet that deadline will be small
businesses. A program priority during 2000 will be to increase compliance with the RMP reporting
requirement to the point that 75 percent of those facilities required to report will have done so by the
end of the year. This will be done by providing technical assistance, outreach, and training to those
facilities that are unable to meet the June 1999 deadline.

       EPA will continue to place as a high priority in 2000 the delegation of authority to implement
and manage the RMP program to more states. Individual states are best suited to implement the
program because they are closer to the facilities that must report and they know the communities that
are at risk.  They also have an important stake in preventing accidents that would endanger their
citizens and damage their economy. EPA's strategy is to emphasize flexibility in how states are
authorized to receive delegation and to provide a combination of grant assistance, technical support,
training, and other outreach services to  help them enact necessary laws, establish funding, and
develop the capabilities needed to review and audit RMPs.  EPA's goal is to delegate the RMP
program authority to 13 states by the end of 2000. This milestone marks the halfway point toward
our goal of having 25 states manage RMP programs  by the end of 2003.

       The CAA mandates an RMP program for every state. In those states that have not yet
accepted delegation, EPA Regional offices will manage then: RMP programs, per the Clean Air Act.
A major activity of EPA Regions and states with delegated authority during 2000 will be to ensure
the effectiveness of the program through an audit process. Depending upon the threat posed by a
facility, auditors may elect to conduct an in-house technical review of the select RMPs to check for
completeness, verify accuracy of selected RMPs hi on-site visits, or conduct comprehensive on-site
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States implementing the RMP Program
1998
     1999  2000
               2001
                     2002   2003
            Years
                           Cumulative Estimate
RMP audits to determine the
appropriateness and quality
of  the  risk  management
program.      While
implementing   an  audit
program is mandated under
the law, it is also essential to
ensuring that more facilities
conduct their operations in a
safe and responsible manner.
EPA's goal in the year 2000
is to complete audits for 300
RMP-covered     facilities.
This is about one percent of the facilities expected to comply with the June 1999 deadline. In 2000,
the Agency requests $11,804,600 for activities within the RMP program.

      A vital role of EPA is to help communities carry out their role in implementing accident
prevention programs. Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs - which were established
under the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA)) serve as the focal
point for discussions on reducing chemical risks at the local level. Under the RMP program, LEPCs
take information on how facilities are reducing the risk of accidents and integrate it into their
emergency plans and community right-to-know programs. In 2000, EPA will support LEPC efforts
by providing tools, technical  assistance and guidance  to better enable them to use the risk
information. The Agency will also continue an initiative begun in 1999 to improve and enhance
emergency preparedness and prevention in Tribal communities.  The Agency requests $5,099,400
for preparedness and prevention activities under the EPCRA program.

      Funding of the independent Chemical Safety Board (CSB) has placed new responsibilities
on the Agency with regard to chemical safety and accident prevention. The same Clean Air Act
provisions that established the CSB authorize EPA to respond to the Board's recommendations and
provide  support for its activities. The Agency is authorized to conduct activities in three areas: 1)
responding to Board recommendations that result from investigations. EPA anticipates that each
CSB investigation will lead to several recommendations which may require program adjustments
and modifications; 2) gathering information at the site of accidental releases to understand the source
and nature of the release and to support decision-making on CSB recommendations; and 3) taking
prevention actions and  providing outreach to industry, government and the public to enhance
application of chemical safety measures. EPA expects to complete a memorandum of understanding
with the Board  in 1999 that will clarify our roles and working relationship.
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Oil Program

       This objective includes $12,437,500 for Oil Spill Response, Prevention, and Preparedness.
The goal of the Oil Program, which is authorized by the Clean Water Act (CWA) and has been hi
effect for over twenty years, is to protect public health and the environment from hazards associated
with a discharge or substantial threat of a discharge of oil or hazardous substances into navigable
waters, adjoining shorelines, and exclusive economic zones of the United States, The program was
strengthened by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA) which was passed hi response to increasing
frequency and severity of accidental oil discharges into the environment, such as the Ashland Tank
Collapse and the Exxon-Valdez spill.  Each year more than 20,000 oil spills occur, well over half
of them within the inland zone over which EPA has jurisdiction. On average, one spill of greater
than 100,000 gallons occurs every month from a total of 450,000 regulated oil storage facilities and
the entire transportation network. Oil spills contaminate drinking water supplies; cause fires and
explosions; kill fish, birds, and other wildlife; destroy habitats and ecosystems; and impact the food
chain.  There are also serious economic consequences of oil spills because of their impact on
commercial and recreational uses of water resources.

        The Oil Spill Program uses its  resources to implement a comprehensive  approach to
integrate prevention, preparedness, and response as mandated and authorized in the Clean Water Act,
Section 311, and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990.   Under the CWA and OPA, EPA protects
inland waterways through oil spill prevention, preparedness, response, and enforcement activities
associated with non-transportation-related oil storage facilities. These facilities, which range from
hospitals and apartment complexes storing heating oil to large tank farms, include any oil storage
facility with a single aboveground storage tank larger than 660 gallons, total aboveground storage
capacity greater than 1,320 gallons, or underground storage greater than 42,000 gallons.

       The Oil Program establishes requirements to prevent and prepare for spills at oil storage
facilities subject to its regulations, and respond to all spills to inland waterways. EPA's regulatory
framework includes the Oil and Hazardous Substances National Contingency Plan (NCP) (40 CFR
Part 300), the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation or Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure
(SPCC) regulation, (40 CFR Part 112), and the Facility Response Plan (FRP) regulation.

       All  regulated oil storage facilities must prepare SPCC plans.  In 2000, 360 additional
facilities will be in compliance with  SPCC provisions,  In addition, certain high-risk oil storage
facilities must prepare FRPs to identity and ensure the availability of resources to respond to a worst
case discharge, establish communications, identify an individual with authority to implement
removal actions, and describe training and testing drills at the facility. In the event of a spill, the
NCP is the Nation's blueprint for the Federal  response to releases of oil and hazardous substances.
In 1999 and 2000, EPA will review only a small number of FRPs triggered by any large at spill, or
a spill a particularly high risk facility that warrants attention.

       The OPA also requires area committees (comprised of state, local and Federal officials) to
develop Area Contingency Plans (ACPs).  These plans detail the responsibilities of those parties
involved inplanning the response process, describe unique geographical features of the area covered,

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and identify available response equipment and its location. In 2000,360 additional facilities will be
in compliance with SPCC provisions.

       Current Oil Program prevention efforts focus on continued implementation of SPCC
regulations. Preparedness efforts focus on periodic review of FRPs and on development of ACPs.
Response efforts include monitoring or responding to all spills within the inland waterways. Over
the past three years (1996-1998), EPA has received and evaluated approximately 35,000 oil spill
notifications, served as lead responders at approximately 275 oil spills, and shared response
responsibility with another party at approximately 475 responses.

Resource Conservationand Recovery Pjrqgram

       This objective also includes $71,294,000 in the EPM account and $27,493,700 in the STAG
account to implement the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Agency's RCRA
program accounts for about 13,900 of the facilities addressed by this objective.  The RCRA program
reduces the risk of human exposures to hazardous, industrial non-hazardous,  and municipal solid
wastes. Every year, municipalities and industries generate approximately  208 million tons of
municipal solid waste, 270 million tons of industrial hazardous waste (including waste waters), and
more than 7.6 billion tons of industrial non-hazardous waste. A combination of regulations, permits
and voluntary standards and programs ensure safe management of the various  wastes. Without the
RCRA program, new Superfund sites will result from mismanagement of these wastes, threatening
communities near waste management facilities.  In 2000 the focus of the RCRA program will be on
reducing risk, tailoring management practices by identifying degrees of risk in regulatory standards,
and on creating efficiencies through streamlining procedures and waste management procedures and
systems.

       The main vehicle for hazardous waste program implementation is the issuance of RCRA
hazardous waste permits. The permitting program reduces the risk of exposures to dangerous
hazardous wastes by establishing a "cradle-to-grave" waste management framework.   This
framework regulates the handling, transport, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste,
ensuring that communities are not exposed to hazards through improper management.  Significant
progress has been  made in ensuring that hazardous waste management facilities have appropriate
controls in place to minimize the threat of exposure to hazardous substances. To date, 47 of 50
states, Guam, and the District of Columbia are  authorized to issue permits. The Agency and the
states have now permitted almost all  operating landfills and land disposal sites, as well as most
commercial incinerators. Permits for storage and treatment facilities as well as post-closure of
facilities comprise the largest remaining workload.

       In 2000, the Agency will continue its efforts  to streamline the permitting processes for
implementors and for  the  regulated community.   In  2000  the RCRA program  will  begin
implementation of the standardized permit rule, finalized hi 2000, which will simplify the permitting
process for lower-risk treatment and storage facilities.  Other improvements include a streamlined
permit renewal process, which will provide real relief to states which face a large workload over the
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next several years in this area.  The Agency is working to reduce the substantial burdens of the
hazardous waste manifest system. The RCRA program is developing a rule to be proposed in 2000,
with the intent of (1) streamlining and standardizing the form; (2) moving toward automated means
of tracking waste; and (3) examining possible exemptions. The Agency is also examining all
paperwork encumbrances on its regulated communities with the goal of reducing the total burden
hours by 40%. These projects will  offer efficiencies to industry, and to state and  federal
implementors alike. The  Agency expects that the  streamlined permits projects will result in a
corresponding increase in the pace of permitting. The Agency's Project XL pilots are real world
tests of innovative strategies designed to achieve cleaner and cheaper environmental results than
conventional regulatory and policy approaches would achieve. About 60% of the current Project XL
applications invol ve RCRA requirements and it is expected to remain at that level for future proj ects.

       In 2000, the RCRA program will engage  hi multimedia efforts on joint RCRA/CAA
permitting as part of the implementation of the Phase I combustion rule. Special needs during this
transition period will include  modifying and reissuing RCRA permits currently  existing to
incorporate appropriate provisions, as well as monitoring trial burns and site-specific testing and risk
assessments. During this implementation period, the Agency will certainly be called upon to address
potential community concerns assockted with facilities being permitted, as well as the testing and
permitting process. Outreach efforts will be critical in ensuring that those concerns are adequately
and appropriately addressed and that communities are informed.

       In 2000, Regional Offices will continue to provide technical assistance to states that are
authorized to implement the RCRA program. Assistance to states will include specialized training
in the permitting program, regulatory interpretation, and program guidance. In those states that are
not authorized to conduct permitting activities, the Regions will implement the permitting program.
Significant efforts will be made to incorporate effective permit  streamlining principals in both
authorized and non-authorized programs. Special emphasis will be placed on interim status facilities
and permit renewals.  Regional offices will continue to work with both authorized and non-
authorized states to implement the standardized permit rule. Also, Regional offices will work with
authorized states to meet GPRA annual performance goals and measures.

       The centerpiece of the Agency's efforts to better calibrate risk and regulatory standards is
the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule (HWIR). This proposal, under development in 1999, will
identify lower-risk waste currently regulated under Federal hazardous waste requirements (Subtitle
C) that could safely be regulated under state non-hazardous waste regulatory programs. Under this
proposal, generators of listed hazardous wastes that meet the standards would no longer be subject
to the hazardous waste management system and thus  generators would have areduced management
burden for lower risk wastes.  In 2000, the HWIR-Waste re-proposal will be published for public
comment and the Agency will review public comments and  incorporate any changes into the
proposed rule for finalizing  by 2001.  This rulemaldng also involves the development of risk
assessment tools that will have other uses within the waste management program.
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       Through its RCRA hazardous waste identification program the Agency identifies those
wastes which pose sufficient risk to human health and the environment to warrant regulation under
the RCRA hazardous waste management framework. One critical aspect of the RCRA program is
protecting groundwater.  Improved test methods to better evaluate waste leaching potential are
needed for assessing whether a waste should be classified as hazardous (either brought into the
system, or allowed out in a delisting), how effective a treatment is, and whether land disposal is an
appropriate method  for managing particular wastes. The Toxic Constituent Leaching Procedure
(TCLP) in the Toxicity Characteristic (TC) regulation is the Agency's method for determining the
level of toxiciry of the leachate that results from the disposal of wastes in a municipal landfill.
Recent challenges to some uses of the TCLP test have led the Agency to begin a review of the test
and its applications.  Better understanding of basic leaching phenomena and the development of
improved methods and procedures to evaluate leaching may improve testing protocols and leaching
models, and reduce barriers to the use of innovative waste treatment processes. Over the next several
years, the Agency will undertake a comprehensive review of the  TCLP and other leach testing
protocols and their application to different wastes and waste management conditions.  In 1999, initial
work will include a public meeting, in 1999, of scientists and stakeholders from the states, industry,
academia, and the environmental community, and continued support  of ongoing research  on
fundamental leaching phenomena. In 2000 development of alternative candidate waste leaching tests
and procedural development of new improved models will take place, if warranted, based on a
review of the scientific research.  Research will also be initiated to address any critical gaps in
scientific knowledge of basic waste leaching incidents identified by the review of tests and the
scientific experts at the public meeting. In 2001, the Agency may be able to begin peer review and
validation testing, both in the laboratory and in the field, for the most promising approaches to waste
leaching evaluation.  Validation of leach testing approaches is necessary to establish both the
precision and the accuracy of candidate approaches.

       The ongoing Air Characteristics Study will be completed by 2000, addressing the question
whether some industrial wastes should be classified as hazardous because of risks posed by then: air
emissions. Preliminary results indicate that there could be air pathway risk from aerated wastewater
treatment tanks and from windborne particulate solid materials containing lead from waste piles in
landfills.  However, the Agency does not have adequate data on the concentrations or the occurrence
of these constituents to evaluate the true hazard.  In 2000, as part of the Agency's Air Toxics
Initiative, the RCRA program will explore the need for regulatory changes to focus on these risks
from wastewater treatment tanks, surface impoundments, and landfills. The RCRA program will
investigate possible options for risk reduction.

       In 1999 and 2000, the Agency's RCRA waste identification program will address potential
risks through listing  determinations on wastes generated during the production of paints, as well as
dyes and pigments. Other listing efforts include the development of aproposal for wastewaters from
the production of chlorinated aliphatics.

       The Hazardous Waste Minimization and Combustion Strategy outlines the Agency's plans
to ensure that hazardous waste combustion in incinerators and boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs)
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is safe and reliable. The existing rules do not address the risks posed by indirect exposure (through
the food chain, primarily) to the dioxins, furans and toxic metals emitted by these facilities. Dioxins
and furans are known carcinogens, and may also cause endocrine disruption. Lead and mercury are
particularly toxic to children. These toxic substances all accumulate in the environment, leading to
potential long-term health impacts.  Rulemakings designed to reduce the emissions of hazardous air
pollutants will improve the quality of life, as well as limit the number of people and areas exposed
to releases from hazardous waste combustion facilities. To reduce the burden on the Agency and
the regulated community, the Agency has combined its efforts and is developing these rules under
both the CAA and the RCRA.

       The Phase I combustion rule will be finalized in 1999 and addresses revised standards for
hazardous waste incinerators and cement and lightweight aggregate kilns that bum hazardous waste.
The Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule will mean an air permit for hazardous
waste combustion facilities using streamlined procedures for industry and state implementors. The
Phase II rule will deal with revised standards for industrial boilers and  other types of industrial
furnaces that bum hazardous waste. After the final Phase I rule is issued, implementation efforts in
1999 and 2000 will include the issuance  of one or more guidance documents on technical and
permitting issues. Further in 2000, the Agency will initiate development of the Phase II rule. Also
in 2000,  the Agency will conduct additional stack testing to better assess continuous emission
monitors for particulate matter at incinerators, cement kilns, and lightweight aggregate kilns that
burn hazardous waste.  This effort will support site-specific decision making by permit writers and
help evaluate public demands for this type of monitoring.

       Other efforts to improve the Agency's understanding of risk include implementation of the
Land Disposal Program Flexibility Act of 1996.  In 2000, the Agency will proceed with surveys and
sampling to provide data for the statutorily mandated five-year surface impoundment study, which
will improve our understanding of risk, exposure and potential ecosystem stressors associated with
waste waters and surface impoundments. An estimated 97% of non-hazardous industrial wastes (i.e.,
7.4 billion tons) are managed in surface impoundments, and the five-year study will provide
information on the risks of this large category of waste. The study will quantify the probability of
human health and ecological effects attributable to exposure from hazardous constituents managed
in industrial surface impoundments.  In 1999, the Agency will begin implementation of the risk
assessment survey and development of a model to estimate risk.  In 2000 the Agency will begin
compiling and verifying responses to the risk  assessment survey and begin collecting publicly
available data on the composition of wastes in surface impoundments.

       The Agency is also working to reduce risks - both known and unknown - from industrial
non-hazardous waste, also known as Industrial D waste. Manufacturing facilities generate and
dispose of 7.6 billion tons of industrial non-hazardous waste on-site each year. In 2000, the RCRA
program  will  work toward completing the Industrial D Guidance and working with states  and
industry to implement voluntary guidelines for industrial non-hazardous waste management. The
voluntary guidelines, which will be issued in draft in 1999 and finalized in 2000, will address a range
of issues  including groundwater contamination, air emissions, and alternatives to waste disposal.


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States and tribal governments are solely responsible for regulating management of these wastes; the
RCRA program  has developed the guidelines in full partnership with the  states and other
stakeholders. The recommendations in the guidelines are comprehensive and detailed and yet
incorporate substantial flexibility for a broad range of different waste streams which pose varying
degrees of risks.   Outreach and training efforts scheduled for 2001 will be necessary to ensure
effective  implementation of the guidance, which will also  include simplified, workbook-style
information on ways to estimate risk of leachate or air emissions without expensive site-specific
modeling. The Agency will work with states, other Federal Agencies, and industry to promote safe
handling of wastes from mining, oil and gas production and utilities. In 1999, the Fossil Fuel Report
to Congress will  be  completed and work will begin on a regulatory determination.  In 2000, the
Agency will provide grant funding to the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) to
conduct state program reviews open to all stakeholders.  The primary impetus of the state review
process will focus on whether states have effective programs in place to protect human health and
the environment.

       Although municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill regulatory programs are implemented by the
states, it is the Agency's responsibility to establish minimum national standards with which all
facilities must comply. In addition, the Agency must review and approve state MSW landfill permit
programs. Without proper siting, design, operation, closure, and post-closure care, MSW disposal
facilities can endanger public health and the environment In fact, a number of Superfiind sites are
former municipal landfills. In 2000, states will continue to implement the modifications to the
Subtitle D National  Criteria.  These modifications are designed for increasing the flexibility of
operating small MSW landfills, resulting in lower management costs for lower risk situations while
still protecting human health and the environment  The federal framework for states' municipal
landfill management programs will seek the uniform application of minimal safe management
standards to help ensure that sufficient controls are in place to protect public health and the
environment, regardless of the facility's location.

       Waste management is one of the significant environmental issues facing tribes across the
country. Open dumps are of particular concern to tribal leaders and is the area for which tribes most
frequently request technical assistance from the Agency.  In 2000, the Agency will enhance its
partnership with the Indian Health Service (IHS) and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to address the
issue of open dumps. The Agency's plan is to work with BIA and IHS to develop a comprehensive
strategy to address the landfill compliance issues.  EPA, together with other Federal agencies, will
assess risk to human health and the environment and also will provide on site technical assistance
during the closing of dumps.  In addition, EPA will play the much needed role of liaison between
the federal agency team and the members of the communities adjacent to the sites.  In 2000, the
Agency will facilitate work with tribes that have hazardous waste issues to help build their capacity
to effectively manage hazardous waste. Improving waste management is also inextricably integrated
with the tribes' number one environmental and public health priority - clean drinking water and the
concomitant necessity to protect groundwater resources - especially in areas where water treatment
may not be available.
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       In order to address information management across the waste program, the Agency launched
the Waste Information Needs (WDSf/Informed) Initiative. This multi-year comprehensive review and
design of the RCRA information systems is being conducted as a partnership between EPA and the
states and seeks to reduce the reporting burden of data providers by streamlining current national
reporting requirements, coordinating RCRA information system standards with other EPA data
systems, improving the utility of the information that is collected, and continuing  to promote
electronic reporting whenever feasible.  By 2000, the project will have analyzed the information
needed  to identify the universe of hazardous waste handlers and have begun analyzing the
information needed to support the monitoring of waste activities at  handlers (e.g.  generation,
movement and management - the areas currently supported by the Biennial Reporting System).
Design and construction of new systems will begin based on these analyses.

       A total of $ 10,060,200 is requested for Federal response planning and coordination activities.
EPA supports a highly effective national emergency preparedness and response capability. Under
the National Response Team (NRT)/Regional Response Team mechanism and Federal Response
Plan, the Federal government helps states and communities address major incidents that are beyond
then- capabilities. EPA chairs the NRT, which integrates activities of all Federal partners to prevent,
prepare for and respond to hazardous releases and emergencies. A key priority under the Federal
preparedness program is to protect public health and the environment from terrorist threats. Under
this program,  EPA participates with other Federal agencies to implement a number of national
security and counter-terrorism requirements. They include:

       1) Continuity of Operations (COOP) Program.  This effort, a  2000 Presidential priority,
       requires EPA to ensure that essential Agency operations continue in the event of an
       emergency. As such, hi 2000 the Agency will improve its capabilities to perform these vital
       functions; e.g., deliver training, conduct exercises, and refine contingency plans.

       2) Critical Infrastructure Protection.  Presidential Decision Directive (FDD) #63, requires
       EPA (and other Federal agencies) to strengthen Agency and stakeholder defenses against
       assaults on critical infrastructures, including cyber systems. EPA has the lead responsibility
       for coordinating plans and activities with the water supply sector. In the year 2000, we will
       focus efforts on implementing industry and EPA plans to ensure identified vulnerabilities are
       adequately addressed.

       3) Counter-terrorism Emergency Preparedness. As directed under PDDs #39 and #62, EPA
       participates hi the crisis and consequence management phases of terrorist incident response
       exercises; prevents and prepares for deliberate release situations; and coordinates efforts with
       other federal agencies to ensure that counter-terrorism activities are integrated with other
       state and local emergency preparedness and response programs (such as State Emergency
       Response Commissions, LEPCs and the National Response System).

       In 2000, EPA's counter-terrorism program will continue to focus  on helping stakeholders
to prepare for and respond to nuclear, biological and chemical acts of terrorism. EPA will ensure
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that response personnel are trained to respond to terrorist events. We will also work with our Federal
partners to train federal, state and local planners to understand the connections between the National
Response System and the National Domestic Preparedness Program for terrorist  events.  Our
activities will be conducted as part of the Federal government's initiative to ensure that State and
local emergency officials are adequately trained. The Agency's goal in the year 2000 is to complete
training programs in an additional 19 of the 120 communities deemed most vulnerable to terrorist
attacks.

       Under the National Contingency Plan and the Federal Radiological Emergency Response
Plan, EPA  assists the regions, states and other Federal agencies in responding to radiological
emergencies; offers field monitoring expertise, mobile radio analysis, and dose assessment; and
develops Protective Action Guidance for use by  state/local authorities.   EPA also performs
radiological lab analyses, which provide data to the public on dose levels and potential risks.  EPA
maintains and will make enhancements to the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System
which is comprised of 260 monitoring stations that sample drinking and ground water, air and, milk
samples to detect levels of radiation.

Research

       Research conducted in this objective supports the Agency's Office of Solid Waste (OSW).
Research will focus on: 1) combustion; 2) multimedia science in support of the HWIR; and 3) waste
technology  research related to waste derived products, stability of new waste forms, and recycling.
Research is  needed to provide the technical basis to determine risks and set operating monitoring and
controls for individual combustion facilities. Potential for exposure to humans and ecosystems is
high since there are numerous generators of hazardous wastes in every community, ranging in size
from dry cleaners and brake shops to major chemical industrial complexes.

       Through the development of new and improved methods and models to assess  exposure and
effects, research will provide  the fundamental  science and modeling backbone needed to conduct
truly multimedia, multipathway exposure modeling and risk assessment. This research is in direct
support of the regulatory reform efforts under HWIR and is related to the development of national
"exit levels" (levels below which a waste or waste stream is excluded from regulation under RCRA
Subtitle C) based on sound  scientific data and models. HWIR has been proposed to provide
administrative and economic relief to the regulated community by developing a risk-based approach
expected to exclude many low-risk wastes and waste streams from regulatory control under Subtitle
C of the RCRA. This research is intended to develop a systems approach to modeling and data
management for the purpose of facilitating the consistent and scientifically credible assessment of
multimedia-based human and ecological exposure to chemical stressors at various geographic scales,
including waste sites and small watersheds.

       Present exposure modeling techniques do not adequately account for many contaminant
speciation processes that impact the fate of pollutants in natural systems. It is necessary to reduce
the uncertainty associated  with exposure assessment model predictions by providing improved
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process level data and models for quantifying pollutant interactions in a variety of natural systems.
The research also provides consultation on sampling/sample design related to compliance with
proposed "exit levels" in support of the proposed HWIR. The major outcome for 2000 will be the
completion of a prototype integrated, multimedia, multichemical, multipathway  ecosystem and
human health cumulative exposure/risk assessment model.

       Additional research will involve indirect pathway risk assessment.  The purpose of this
research is to evaluate the risk posed by combustion facilities on human and ecological receptors.
Indirect pathway risk assessment research will focus on development, validation,  and refinement
of a methodology that estimates exposures from combustion facilities via indirect or non-inhalation
exposure pathways.  The methodology was developed to provide a set of procedures  for the
estimation of exposures resulting from emitted pollutants that have been transferred  from the
atmosphere to environmental media and biota. For 2000, emphasis in this area will be refining the
methodology and developing an expert system software package.

       In the risk management area, the current principal focus is on hazardous waste combustion.
This area addresses incinerators and industrial systems burning wastes. It studies the reduction of
emissions by system design and operation changes, as well as through the use of add-on controls.
Emissions from waste combustion facilities have remained a public concern, and a number of
uncertainties remain about the risks posed by these facilities.  This area requires further research to
reduce uncertainties related to waste combustion and provide protection to the  public and the
environment.

       In 2000, characterization of dioxin and furan emissions from industrial boilers will continue
and approaches to reducing these emissions will be assessed. Work will continue to identify
surrogates for organic products of incomplete combustion (PICS) that can be used hi permitting and
monitoring combustion unit performance. Work on mercury emissions characterization and control
will also continue. Manual methods for speciating mercury emissions streams will be evaluated in
order to improve characterization of streams in the combustion unit and at the stack emissions point.
Collaborative work on mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMS) will continue with the
Department of Energy (DOE). Improved approaches to mercury control through either combustion
unit modification, sorpbent addition, and/or add-on-control, will be evaluated.

       Waste management research will be conducted to improve ways to manage both solid and
hazardous wastes.  This includes development and/or evaluation of more cost-effective waste
treatment, containment and recycling processes, and technical guidance, etc. on then- design and
implementation.  Research activities will include evaluation of RCRA landfill engineering and
design issues, and evaluation of unproved containment systems  for hazardous and solid waste
landfills.
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FY 2000 Change from FY1999 Enacted

EPM

•      (+$125,200) This increases technical assistance to tribes since EPA has the responsibility
       for implementing the UST/LUST program on Indian lands.

•      (+$4,504,400)  increases  resources for technical assistance grants  to  promote  State
       implementation of the RMP program. These funds will put the Agency on track to have 25
       states manage an RMP program by the end of 2003.

•      (+$454,800) increases funding to improve emergency preparedness for chemical accidents
       on tribal lands.

       (+$1,773,800  +9.5 FTE)  This  increase in RCRA tribal program will improve both the
       Headquarters and Regions ability to provide assistance to tribes to continue and implement
       integrated waste management plans, to further identify waste management priorities and
       build waste management capacity on tribal lands,  and increase support in the management
       of tribal grants and contracts. In addition, this increase would promote liaison capability with
       other Federal agencies in addressing the issue of open dumps on tribal lands,

•      (+$500,000 ) This increase in the RCRA hazardous wastes identification program, proposed
       for the Agency's Air Toxics Multi-media initiative, will evaluate air pathway risks to human
       health and the environment from wastewater treatment tanks, surface impoundments, and
       landfills.

•      (+$1,000,000) This increase in the RCRA land disposal program will permit the Agency to
       conduct critical surveys and sampling to provide data for the statutorily mandated five-year
       surface impoundment study, which will improve  our understanding of risk, exposure and
       potential ecosystem stressors associated with waste waters and surface impoundments.

•      (+$1,285,600) This increase  in the RCRA permitting program will allow the Agency to
       implement the standardized permit rule, which will simplify the permitting process for lower-
       risk treatment and storage facilities and propose a new rule to reduce the substantial burdens
       of me hazardous waste manifest  system.  This increase affects permitting activities in the
       Gulf of Mexico, along  the Mexican Border and further enhance  state and local capacity
       building efforts. In addition, these changes will offer efficiencies to industry and regulators
       with an expected corresponding increase in the pace of permitting. The increase will provide
       transition support for the multi-media efforts on joint RCRA/CAA permitting as part of the
       Phase I combustion rule implementation.
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»     (+$500,000)  This increase in RCRA risk analysis program will support a review of the
      Toxic Constituent Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and other leach testing protocols and their
      applicability to various wastes and waste management conditions at land disposal sites.

•     (+$400,000) This increase in RCRA industrial D program will provide grant funding to the
      Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) to conduct state program peer reviews
      open to all stakeholders and support the completion of Industrial D Guidance.

»     (+$500,000) This increase in RCRA Waste Information Needs program will complete waste
      activity monitoring analysis and recommend revisions to the  current database system.
      Design and construction of new database systems will begin based on these analyses.

•     (+$411,300) This increase in the RCRA hazardous waste combustion program will support
      the issuance of one or more guidance documents on technical and permitting issues and
      initiate development of the Phase II rule.

•     (-$162,100) This reduction from in UST State Program Approval (SPA) support is being
      made because of the moderate success states have had in achieving SPA.

*     (-$177,600) This reduction in support for developing UST partnerships is a result of being
      able to fund this work primarily with FTE resources.

      (-$400,000) Due to Congressional Add-ons received during the appropriations process, but
      not part of the 2000 President's Request

•     ($420,300) This redirection will be used for compliance assistance used ensure more owners
      and operators are in compliance with  the UST requirements  and  to help conduct an
      evaluation of UST systems.

Superfund

•     (+342.7).  Reflects an increase to Non Civil Enforcement HQ Oil Pollution Act.

STAG

«     (+$ 1,400,000) For additional  state UST grants to Indian tribes to assist them in developing
      the capability to administer and implement the UST program.
OIL
      ($304.200) This is a redirection to SPCC compliance support and Contingency Planning
      activities. The funds are redirected from Facility Response Plan reviews to meet higher
      Agency priorities.
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Research

•      (+$ 1,071,200 and 12.4 workyears S&T) This increase represents resources transferred from
       Goal 5 Objective 1, contaminated sites research, to active waste management facilities
       research.  In 2000,  the Agency  will expand its research on the characterization and
       prevention of emissions from waste combustion to more rapidly address such topics as
       dioxins and furans  emissions from industrials boilers and waste combustion mercury
       emissions. Additional Hazardous Waste Identification Rule (HWIR) research  will be
       conducted.

•      (-$816,640 and -1.6 work years S&T)  Grant resources in  support of active waste
       management facilities research will be eliminated in this Objective in 2000, as a result of the
       conclusion of resources targeted at active waste management facilities research in  1999.

NOTE:The FY 1999 Request, submitted  to  Congress in February 1998, included  Operating
       Expenses and Working Capital Fund for the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in
       Goal 8 and Objective 5. In the FY 1999 Pending Enacted Operating Plan and the FY 2000
       Request, these resources are allocated across Goals and Objectives. The FY 1999 Request
       columns in this document have been modified from the original FY 1999 Request so that
       they reflect the allocation of these ORD funds across Goals and Objectives.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

USTCompliance

In 2000      90% of USTs will be in compliance with the December 22,1998, requirements, which
            improves upon the estimated 65 percent as of the December 22,1998 deadline.

Performance Measures                                     FY 1999            FY2000
Percentage of USTs in compliance with the 1998 deadline                                90 percent
requirement.

Baseline:      An estimated 65% of USTs were in compliance at the time of the December 22, 1998 deadline.


BMP Requirements

In 2000      75% of facilities will be in compliance with the RMP submission requirements, 6 States (for
            a cumulative total of 13) will be implementing the RMP program, and 300 audits will be
            completed on RMP plans to determine completeness and accuracy.

In 1999      Complete electronic systems for collecting and establishing baseline data on 33,000 RMP
            facilities. Additionally, 3 States (for a cumulative total of 7) will be implementing the
            Risk Management Plan program, and 70 local emergency planning committees will have
            integrated prevention programs.
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Performance Measures                                           FY1999              FY 2000
Percentage of facilities in compliance with RMP requirements.                                75 percent

RMP audits completed.                                                                  300 audits

Number of states implementing the RMP program                  3 states                     6 states

Number of LEPCs implementing the Clean Air Act 112 (r)          70 LEPCs
chemical RMP- prevention programs

Baseline:      This is a new activity and the baseline is being established.


SPCC Compliance

In 2000      400 additional facilities will be in compliance with the Spilll Prevention, Control and
             Countermeasure (SPCC) provisions of the oil pollution prevention regulations (for a
             cumulative of 890 facilities since 1997).

In 1999      190 additional facilities will be in compliance with spill prevention, control and
             countermeasure (SPCC) provisions of the oil pollution regulations (for a cumulative total of
             490 additional facilities since 1997).

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999              FY 2000
Facilities in SPCC compliance.                                   190 facilities             400 facilities

Baseline:      More than 300 facilities were in compliance in 1998.


Response to Oil Spills

In 2000      Respond to or monitor all significant oil spills in the inland zone.  EPA typically responds to
             70 oil spills and monitors 130 oil spill cleanups per year.

In 1999      Respond to or monitor all significant oil spills in the inland zone. EPA typically responds to
             70 oil spills and monitors 130 oil spill cleanups per year.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999              FY 2000
Oil spills responded to  by EPA.                                   70 spills                   70 spills

Oil spills monitored by EPA.                                    130 spills                  130 spills

Baseline:      EPA typically responds to 70 oil spills and monitors 130 oil spill cleanups per year.
OPA Enforcement

In 2000      Facilities will be managed so as to prevent releases into the environment

In 1999      Facilities will be managed so as to prevent releases into the environment.
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Performance Measures                                           FY1999              FY 2000
OPA Case Referrals & Admin. Enforce. Actions                   30 Actions               30 Actions

Baseline:      No Baseline Performance Information is available.
RCRA Permitting Standards and Compliance

In 2000      146 more hazardous waste management facilities will have approved controls in place to prevent
             dangerous releases to air, soil, and groundwater, for a total of 65 percent of 3,380 facilities.

 In 1999      122 hazardous waste management facilities (for a cumulative total of 61% of 3,380 RCRA
             facilities) will have permits or other approved controls in place.

Performance Measures                                           FY1999              FY2000
Promulgate final streamlined permitting standards                                           09/30/2000

RCRA hazardous waste management facilities with permits or other   122 facilities             146 facilities
approved controls in place.

Baseline:      EPA identified hazardous waste management facilities as of 1997.  The baseline will be finalized
              in 1999.
Hazardous Waste Combustion

In 2000      Initiate development of the Phase 2 rule for reducing hazardous waste combustion facility
             emissions of dioxins, furans, and particulate matter under RCRA,

In 1999      Promulgate the Phase 1 rule for reducing hazardous waste combustion facility emissions of
             dioxins, furans, and particulate matter under RCRA.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999             FY 2000
Complete industry scoping studies and issue report                                          09/30/2000

Complete initial analysis of existing EPA databases solicit                                   09/30/2000
industry comment.

Promulgate Phase 1 of Waste Combustion Rule                    09/30/1999 rale mak

Baseline:      Promulgation of the Phase 1 rale for reducing hazardous emissions of dioxins, furans, and
              particulate matter under RCRA is anticipated in 1999.
Non-Hazardous Industrial Waste

In 2000      Issue final guidance for guidance on management of RCRA-regulated nonhazardous industrial
             waste.

In 1999      Issue draft guidance on management of RCRA-regulated nonhazardous industrial waste.


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Performance Measures                                           FY1999             FY 2000
Issue final guidance for RCRA Industrial D guidance.                                       09/30/2000

Issue draft RCRA Industrial D guidance                          09/30/1999

Baseline:      The baseline will be established as a result of EPA's outreach and training.


Municipal Solid Waste

In 2000      74% (141 for a cumulative total of 2,600 out of 3,536) of existing RCRA municipal solid waste
             facilities in states will have approved controls in place to prevent dangerous releases to air,
             soil, groundwater, and surface water.

In 1999      70% (125 for a cumulative total of 2,475 out of 3,536) of existing RCRA municipal solid waste
             facilities in states will have approved controls in place to prevent dangerous releases to air,
             soil, groundwater, and surface water.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999             FY2000
Percent of municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) with          70 percent               74 percent
approved controls.

Baseline:      The universe was obtained in the 1996 MSWLF survey. EPA is currently negotiating with states
              to determine a means of data collection and verification.


Ann-Terrorism

In 2000      Provide anti-terrorism training to 19 communities.

In 1999      Provide anti-terrorism training to 30 communities.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999             FY2000
Number of communities receiving anti-terrorism training           30 communities         19 communities

Baseline:      This is a new activity and the baseline is being established.


Research

Scientifically Defensible Decisions for Active Management of Wastes

 In 2000      Enhance scientifically defensible decisions for active management of wastes, including
             combustion, by providing targeted research and technical support

Performance Measures                                           FY1999             FY2000
Develop provisional toxicfty values for 10 - 20 waste constituents                          09/30/2000 values
that do not have values describing their dose-response
lexicological properties.

Provide journal article on factors that control Hg speciation in                                  1 article
incinerators

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Baseline:      l)Refines and expands scientific basis of HWIR by add toxicity values and refining multimedia,
             multipath exposure and risk modeling software; 2) initiates research into non-combustion treatment and
             recycling of prior wastes; 3)improve understanding of Hg formation in combustion processes in order
             to minimize Hg contamination of wastes. Development of "formal" baseline info for EPA
             research is currently underway.


Prototype Model for Assessing Cumulative Exposure - Integrated Risk Assessment

In 1999      Complete prototype model for assessing cumulative exposure-risk assessment integrating the
            environmental impact of multiple chemicals through multiple media and pathways.

Performance Measures                                      FY1999            FY 2000
HWIR Human and Ecosystems Site (Generic) Exposure-Risk       30-SEP-l 999
Assessment Screening Model, peer reviewed and applied to HWIR
listed chemical exit levels

Beta version for comprehensive modeling system.                09/30/1999 system

Baseline:      Development of "formal" baseline information for EPA research  is currently underway.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

       The Office ofUnderground Storage Tanks (OUST) uses the following processes to verify and
validate the performance measures data. Designated state agencies submitted semi-annual progress
reports to the EPA regional offices, who review, verify and then forward the data to the OUST
Headquarters office. OUST Headquarters staflfexamine the data and resolve any discrepancies with
the regional offices. The data are displayed on aregion by region basis, which allows regional staff
to verify that their data are the same as Headquarter's. However, OUST does not maintain a national
database.

       The performance results are also used in OUST's Regional Strategic Overview (RSO) Process
to assess the status of State progress in implementing the program. This process is based on strategic
discussions that Headquarters has with the Regions and the Regions have with the States, regarding
how to continue to improve States' performance. In the mid-year and end of year state evaluations,
the Regions discuss with States their efforts to update and validate their data, and to make continual
improvements in their performance. EPA relies on its state partners to provide our measurement
data which have been used by the UST/LUST program for 10 years.

       The Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention program uses the following processes
and data bases to collect and validate performance data.  Facilities will be required to  submit
information on the chemical risks in their facilities in 1999.  This information will be placed in a
database that will be accessible to  Federal, state, and local officials, as well as the public with
safeguards for sensitive information.  The information will be verified through Regional and state
audits and reports. LEPCs will be contacted periodically to verify risk reduced in their community.
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The Emergency Release Notification System (ERNS) database will be used to confirm releases
reported in RMPs.

       States and LEPCs will be surveyed to determine the status of their chemical emergency
preparedness and prevention programs, including the steps taken to integrate counter-terrorism
planning.  A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) database will be monitored to
determine if all hazard plans include a counter-terrorism appendix. A database will track the status
of RMP state delegated programs. Regions and headquarters will routinely enter information on the
status of state RMP implementation plans, and Regions will ensure quality of the data through
quarterly reviews of the states and random checks of LEPCs.

       The CERCLIS database developed for the Superfund program is also used to help track and
store the Oil Spill Program performance data. Entry of Oil Spill Program data into CERCLIS began
in 1993. A complete description of the CERCLIS database is located under Goal 5, Objective 1.

       Environmental monitoring data (such as measures of combustion facility emissions) will
meet standard quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures for the RCRA program, as
documented in the Office of Solid Waste Quality Assurance Management Plan and the Guidebook
for QA/QC Procedures for Submission of Data for the Land Disposal Restrictions Program.

       The majority of data for the RCRA information system (RCRIS) and the Biennial Reporting
System (BRS), originates with and is received from the states. The system architectures provide
states with the ability to use software other than the national software managed by EPA for their data
management activities, provided that they supply the mandatory data to EPA in the required quality
and format.  The Agency consolidates data from the states which is then used to construct the
national databases used for program oversight and public information.

       The national RCRA software provides a range of functions to ensure data quality. Both
systems employ on-line data validation checks (e.g., range limits, mandatory data entry for required
elements before saving of a record) to assure data type integrity as well as batch edits (performed
when data is extracted and consolidated) to enforce program rules requiring associated consistency
across data components for which on-line edits are impractical or inappropriate. Beyond the system-
enforced data quality controls, states and regions who  implement the  program perform data
validation reviews to ensure that the data properly inventories the essential program activities and
is programmatically correct. During periodic program reviews, EPA headquarters also confirms the
timeliness and accuracy of key data elements which support national program status reporting.
Training on use of the systems is provided on a regular basis, usually annually, depending on the
nature of system changes and user needs.

       Non-hazardous waste management is delegated to the states. Federal guidance is provided,
but no actual federal program implementation exists. Individual states collect and verify data on
waste management practices for Industrial D and municipal wastes in accordance with local needs.
The Agency receives aggregate data more indirectly than in the case of hazardous waste, through
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reports, studies, or statistical sampling rather than a national data system. To measure progress, the
Agency must rely on the ability and willingness of state regulatory programs to share information
in these areas.  "Approved controls in place" means compliance with the requirements of federal
regulations, Agency approved state permit program, or other system of prior approval and conditions.
For 2000, continued emphasis will be placed on approving State programs that will lead to all MSW
disposal facilities having approved controls in place.

      Progress under RCRA Permitting is recorded in activity event codes  hi RCRIS which are
reviewed at least annually during the Beginning of the Year Plan process. While some problems in
the accuracy of RCRIS data have been found in the past, significant improvements in quality have
been made over the past few years.  The importance of RCRIS data has been recognized, and the
quality of RCRIS data is improving. Charts illustrating the comparative progress between Regions,
and between States are shared with the Regions and States.

      The RCRA program is currently evaluating its future information management needs and
systems through a joint initiative with the states called WIN/INFORMED. This project covers the
activities  and information currently supported by both the RCRIS and BRS data systems. Analysis
under WIN/INFORMED includes the identification of the data elements needed to support the
implementation and management of the RCRA program; development of common, agreed upon
national definitions; identification of programmatic process improvements;  and tracking burden
reduction. The design and construction of new systems will be based on the results of each area of
analysis,  and will be flexible  to accommodate future needs.  The WIN/INFORMED  project is
scheduled to be completed by the end of the calendar year 2002.

      EPA  has several strategies to validate and verify performance measures in the area of
environmental science and technology research. Most performance measures are verifiable through
quantitative means.  For those measures that are output-oriented, actual outputs or products can be
objectively verified. Because the major output of research is technical information, primarily in the
form of reports, software, protocols, etc., key to the validation and verification strategies is the
performance of both peer and quality assurance reviews.

      Peer  reviews provide assurance during the pre-planning, planning, and reporting of
environmental  science and research activities that the work meets peer expectations. Only those
science activities and resulting information products that pass Agency peer review are addressed and
published. This applies to program-level, project-level, and research outputs. The quality of the peer
review activity is monitored by EPA to  ensure that  peer reviews are performed consistently,
according to Agency policy, and that any identified areas of concern are resolved through discussion
or the implementation of corrective action.

      A quality assurance system is implemented at all levels in the EPA research organization.
The Agency-wide quality assurance system is a management system that provides the necessary
elements to plan, implement, document, and assess the effectiveness of quality assurance and quality
control activities applied to environmental programs conducted by  or for EPA. This quality
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management system provides for identification of environmental programs for which Quality
Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) is needed, specification of the quality of the data required from
environmental programs, and provision of sufficient resources to assure that an adequate level of
QA/QC is performed.

Research

       EPA has several strategies to validate and verify performance measures in the area of
environmental science and technology research. Because the major output of research is technical
information, primarily in the form of reports, software, protocols, etc., key to these strategies is the
performance of both peer reviews and quality reviews to ensure that requirements are met.

       Peer reviews  provide assurance during the pre-planning,  planning, and  reporting  of
environmental science and research activities that the work meets peer expectations. Only those
science activities that pass agency peer review are addressed. This applies to program-level, project-
level, and research outputs. The quality of the peer review activity is monitored by EPA to ensure
that peer reviews are performed consistently, according to Agency policy, and that any identified
areas of concern are resolved through discussion or the implementation of corrective action.

       The Agency's expanded focus on peer review helps ensure that the performance measures
listed here are verified and validated by an external organization. This is accomplished through the
use of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) and the Board of Scientific Counselors (BOSC). The
BOSC, established under tihe Federal Advisory Committee Act, provides an added measure of
assurance by examining the  way the Agency uses peer review,  as well as the management of its
research and development laboratories.

       In 1998, the  Agency presented a new Agency-wide quality system in Agency  Order
5360.1/chg  1. This system provided policy to ensure that all environmental programs performed by
or for the Agency be supported by individual quality systems that comply fully with the American
National  Standard, Specifications and Guidelines far Quality Systems for Environmental Data
Collection and Environmental Technology Programs (ANSI/ASQC E4-1994).

       The order expanded the applicability of quality assurance and quality control to the design,
construction, and operation by EPA organizations of environmental technology such as pollution
control and  abatement systems; treatment, storage, and disposal systems; and remediation systems.
This rededication to quality provides the needed management and technical practices to assure that
environmental data developed in research and used to support Agency decisions are of adequate
quality and  usability for their intended purpose.

       A quality assurance system is implemented at all levels in the EPA research organization.
The Agency-wide quality assurance system  is a management system that provides the necessary
elements to  plan, implement,  document, and assess the effectiveness of quality assurance and quality
control activities applied to environmental programs conducted by  or for EPA.  This quality
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management system provides for identification of environmental programs for which QA/QC is
needed, specification of the quality of the data required from environmental programs, and provision
of sufficient resources to assure that an adequate level of QA/QC is performed.

       Agency measurements are based on the application of standard EPA and ASTM methodology
as well as performance-based measurement systems. Non-standard methods are validated at the
project level. Internal and external management system assessments report  the efficacy of the
management system for quality of the data and the final research results. The quality assurance
annual report and work plan submitted by each organizational  unit provides an accountable
mechanism for quality activities. Continuous improvement in the quality system is accomplished
through discussion and review of assessment results.
Coordination with Other Agencies

       State UST programs are key to achieving the objectives and long-term strategic goal. EPA
relies on states agencies to  implement the UST program, including developing core program
capabilities and promoting and enforcing compliance with the UST requirements.

       Because many agencies at all levels of government have authority to regulate and implement
aspects of hazardous materials safety programs, coordination is essential for the success of EPA
initiatives. For chemical accident preparedness and prevention programs, inter-agency coordination
remains a critical factor in accomplishing the goals of the Risk Management and EPCRA programs.
EPA works in partnership with states and local governments and other organizations to promote
actions to reduce risk. EPA also provide technical assistance and tools to states and LEPCs to better
utilize the information on chemical hazards and risks available to them. In addition, through the rule
making process, EPA works closely with our Federal partners (OSHA, DOT) and with states to
ensure compatibility with existing  accident  preparedness and  prevention initiatives.  Close
coordination and a cooperative working relationship is also required to effectively meet EPA
responsibilities to respond and provide support to the Chemical Safety Board.

       The focal point for our Federal preparedness efforts is EPA's role in the National Response
System, which is responsible for coordinating chemical emergency preparedness and response at the
federal, state and local levels.  Within this structure, EPA chairs the multi-agency National and
Regional Response Teams that oversee national, regional, and area spill contingency planning.  In
addition, the Agency plays a leadership role in crisis management and counter-terrorism requiring
participation on anumber of inter-agency workgroups. EPA also works with the United States Coast
Guard work to coordinate with other Federal authorities to implement the National Preparedness for
Response Program (PREP).

       The Oil Spill  Program is multi-dimensional, integrating prevention, preparedness, and
response activities to address oil spills that create significant environmental and economic impacts.
These activities include implementing the Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC)
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program; evaluating, improving, and providing periodic review of facility response plans (FRPs) and
developing, overseeing, and strengthening area contingency plans with other Federal agencies such
as the US Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS), National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), US Coast Guard (USCG), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Department
of the Interior (DOI), Department of Transportation (DOT), Department of Energy (DOE), and other
Federal agencies and States, as well as with local government authorities. The Department of Justice
(DOJ) also provides assistance to agencies with judicial referrals when enforcement against violators
becomes necessary.

       The Agency maintains a  close relationship with state agencies that are authorized to
implement the RCRA Permitting, MS W Landfills programs. States are required to achieve the same
level of Federal standards as the Agency, including the annual performance goals of controls at
hazardous waste facilities and MSW landfills. Regional Offices negotiate with the state agencies
annualized goals that the state agencies should achieve with the grant funds. For example, Regional
Offices may negotiate with  state  agencies the number of facilities that are permitted in a year
resulting in approved controls in place at facilities. The Agency will continue our partnership effort
with state agencies by providing technical assistance and guidance on implementing permitting and
MSW Landfill programs.

       Regional RCRA tribal teams will partner with the Indian  Health Service (IHS) and the
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) for the open dump initiative. In states where partnerships with these
federal  agencies have not been  well established,  the Regional  offices will establish strong
workgroups comprised of members from each agency. The workgroup representatives from each
Federal agency will coordinate tasks based on the field of expertise of each agency which will allow
for efficient completion of the initiative without overlapping efforts.

       Research is being conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) for mixed waste
management issues. EPA and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) are
jointly funding chemical mixtures research, which is of value to EPA program offices and outside
agencies.

Research

       Research is being conducted by DOE for mixed waste management issues. EPA and the
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) are jointly funding chemical mixtures
research, which is of value to EPA program offices and outside agencies. HWIR model development
is being conducted in cooperation  with DOE also.
Statutory Authorities

Subtitle I of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 to the Solid Waste Disposal Act.
The regulated substances are liquid petroleum products and substances defined as hazardous under
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the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability At of 1980, as amended
under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976.

Clean Air Act

Title HI (Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Knpw Act) of CERCLA, as amended by
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986.

Clean Water Act (CWA), Section 311.

Oil Pollution Act (OPA), .33 U.S.C.  2701-2761.

Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 to the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended
by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579 as amended by
Public Law 104-201) 40 CFR 194: Criteria for the Certification and Recertification of the WIPP's
Compliance with the Disposal Regulations (1996): Certification Decision (1998).

Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 Public Law 97-425.

Energy Policy Act of 1992, Public Law 102-486 and Administrative Procedures Act, 5 U.S.C. 551-
559,701-706.

Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended, 42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq. (1970), and Reorganization Plan
#3 of 1970.

Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) as amended.

RobertT. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1998.

Title XTV of the National Defense Authorization Act of 1996 (Nunn-Lugar II).

Section 6981, Research, demonstration, teaming, and other  activities, of RCRA specifically
authorizes the Administrator to perform research on waste management and waste combustion
issues.  The Agency must evaluate and permit many combustion facilities in a relatively short time.
EPA is also mandated under The Clean Air Act Amendments to develop MACT regulations and to
evaluate and reduce the risks from combustion facilities.
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Goal 6: Global and Cross-Border

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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents
Goal 6: Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Bisks	  VT-1
       Reduce Transboundary Threats:  Shared North American Ecosystems	VI-7
       Climate Change	,	VI-19
       Stratospheric Ozone Depletion	VI-39
       Protect Public Health and Ecosystems From Persistent Toxics		,	.......	YI-45
       Achieve Cleaner and More Cost-Efiective Practices	VI-55

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                            Environmental Protection Agency

            FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

               Reduction of Global and Cross-border Environmental Risks
Strategic Goal: The United States will lead other Nation's in successful, multilateral efforts to
reduce significant risks to human health and ecosystems from climate change, stratospheric ozone
depletion, and other hazards of environmental concern.

                                  Resource Summary
                                 (Dollars in Thousands)

Reduction of Global and Cross-border
Environmental Risks
Reduce Transboundary Threats: Shared North
American Ecosystems
Climate Change
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Protect Public Health and Ecosystems From
Persistent Toxics
Achieve Cleaner and More Cost-Effective
Practices
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Request
$398,286.4
$120,392.3
$232,960.4
$26,914.3
$6,883.2
$11,136.2
530.2
FY 1999
Enacted
$229,366.9
$71,025.9
$127,968.9
$17,033.8
$4,125.8
$9,212.5
522.4
FY 2000 FY 2000 Req. v.
Request FY 1999 Ena.
$407,414.2
$119,987.5
$242,765.0
$27,046.5
$6,943.1
$10,672.1
519.9
$178,047.3
$48,961.6
$114,796.1
$10,012.7
$2,817.3
$1,459.6
-2.5
Background and Context

       Air, water, and waste pollution crossing our boarders with Mexico and Canada can imperil
the health, environment and well-being of people  in the United  States.  Thus, international
cooperation is critical to achieving EPA's mission.

       Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer increases the amount of the sun's ultraviolet
radiation reaching the earth's surface. Climate change, pollution of the oceans and irreversible loss
of species and habitats worldwide undermine the resource base critical to our well-being and quality
of life and deprive us of commercially valuable and potentially life-saving genetic materials.  EPA's
continued leadership is necessary to build the international cooperation and technical capacity that
are essential to prevent harm to the global environment and ecosystems that we share with other
nations.  A coordinated international response is needed to confront the  climate  change threat,
depletion of the stratospheric ozone  layer,  transboundary circulation  of toxics, and  other
environmental issues significant to the interests of the United States.

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Means and Strategy

       Pollutants are oblivious to geographic and political boundaries, and their propensity to migrate
threatens human health and the environment, demanding coordinated international action. The United
States addresses  global environmental problems, such as climate change and  stratospheric ozone
depletion, through bilateral and multilateral consultations and agreements. Other problems are not
global but cross borders, such as between the US and Mexico, and between the US and Canada,  In
the Great Lakes,  and in our marine and Arctic environments, EPA uses a geographic approach to
direct environmental action.

       EPA will use a variety of approaches to prevent harm to the global environment and
ecosystems including: 1) forming bilateral and multilateral environmental agreements, environmental
foreign policy initiatives, and regional and global negotiations; 2) cooperating with other countries
to ensure that domestic and international environmental laws, policies, and priorities are recognized
and implemented; 3) working with other federal agencies, states, business, and environmental groups
to promote the flow of environmentally sustainable technologies and services worldwide; facilitating
cooperative research and development programs; and international technical assistance, training and
information  exchange;  and 4) and  promoting public/private partnership programs to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions.

       Greenhouse gases, for example, are produced by burning coal, oil, and natural gas to heat our
homes, power our cars, and illuminate our cities. Deforestation and land clearing also contribute to
the production of greenhouse gases.  These gases may have several environmental effects: raising
atmospheric and ocean temperatures, ultimately changing weather patterns; increasing evaporation,
drying soil and increasing drought; increasing precipitation and its intensity, causing floods; increasing
incidences of heat waves; and raising sea levels.

       Possible adverse consequences for human health include: increasing  numbers of deaths
associated with heat waves;  increasing incidence of allergic disorders; and increasing diseases that
thrive in warmer climates, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, encephalitis, and cholera.
Since the early 1990s,  EPA has been building partnerships  with businesses in all sectors of the
economy in order to meet the 1990 Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC)  objective
to stabilize greenhouse gases emissions at 1990 levels. EPA also plays a major role in the President's
Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI), launched in October, 1997, and included in the 1999
Budget.

Research

       EPA's research and assessment activities will evaluate the potential consequences of global
change and climate variability in the United States. These assessments will focus on evaluating the
impacts of global change on human health, ecosystems, and economic systems at regional, state, and
local scales.  Among the impacts the agency will examine are the spread of vector-borne and water-
borne disease, changes in landscape cover and the migration of plant and animal species, and changes
in farm productivity and food distribution.  These research and assessment activities are an integral
part of the U-S. National Assessment Process of the U.S. Global Change Research Program.

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Strategic Objectives and FY 2000 Annual Performance Goals

Objective 01:  Reduce Transboundary Threats: Shared North American Ecosystems

By: 2000     9 additional water/wastewater projects along the Mexican border will be certified for
             design-construction for a cumulative total of 34 projects.

By: 2000     Assess and report on the state of key Great Lakes ecosystem components, report
             current status and trend information to Great Lakes environmental managers, and
             coordinate measurement of SOLEC environmental indicators applicable to the entire
             Great Lakes Basin.

Objective 02:  Climate Change

By: 2000     Assess the consequences of global change and climate variability at a regional scale.

By: 2000     Greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced from projected levels by more than 50
             million metric ton  carbon equivalent  per  year  through EPA partnerships with
             businesses, schools, State and local governments, and other organizations. Reduction
             level will increase 10 million metric tons over 1999.

By: 2000     Reduce energy consumption from projected levels by more than 60 billion kilowatt
             hours, resulting in over $8 billion in energy savings to consumers and businesses that
             participate in EPA's climate change programs.  Increase of 15 billion kilowatt hours
             & $5 million in annual energy savings over 1999.

By: 2000     Demonstrate technology for a 70 mpg mid-size family sedan that has low emissions
             and is safe, practical, and affordable.

Objective 03:  Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

By: 2000     Restrict domestic consumption of class n HCFCs below 208,400 metric tonnes (Mis)
             and restrict domestic exempted production and import of newly produced class I
             CFCs and halons below  130,000 MTs.

Objective 04: Protect Public Health and Ecosystems From Persistent Toxics

By: 2000     Successfully conclude international negotiations on a global convention on Persistent
             Organic Pollutants (POPs) reaching agreement on POPs selection criteria, technical
             assistance, and risk management  commitments on specified POPs.
                                         VI-3

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Objective 05: Achieve Cleaner and More Cost-Effective Practices

By: 2000     Deliver  30  international training modules;  implement 6  technical assistance/
             technology dissemination projects; implement 5 cooperative  policy development
             project;  &  disseminate info products on  US  environmental  technologies and
             techniques to 2500 foreign customers.

Highlights

       EPA's continued leadership is necessary to build the international cooperation and technical
capacity that are essential to prevent harm to the global environment and ecosystems that we share
with other nations. In 2000, EPA will use a variety of approaches to prevent harm to the global
environment and ecosystems.

       Recognizing that no single country can resolve the problem of global climate change, EPA
will help facilitate the international cooperation necessary to achieve the stabilization of greenhouse
gas concentrations. The 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) set the objective
of stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
interference with  the  climate  system.  On the domestic  side, EPA will  encourage voluntary
partnerships, provide technical assistance and promote State and local efforts to achieve future green
house gas emission reductions. Administration-wide,  the programs launched in the 1993 Climate
Change Action Plan have the potential to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by over 160 million
metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) annually by the year 2010.

       The Agency will contribute to the science underpinning U. S. policy, including the assessment
of consequences of climate change and climate variability.  Particular attention will be paid to the
potential beneficial and detrimental consequences of climate variability and change for human health,
ecosystems, and economic systems at the regional, state and local levels. EPA will play a major part
in peer-reviewed economic and policy analyses that  serve U.S. policy-makers and international
negotiators.

       To protect the earth's  stratospheric ozone layer,  EPA will continue to regulate ozone-
depleting compounds and foster the development and use of alternative chemicals in the U.S. and
abroad. The United States response to the harmful effects of stratospheric ozone depletion is its
commitment to honor the Montreal Protocol by phasing out domestic production of ozone-depleting
substances (ODSs).  EPA's role stems from the Protocol and  Title VI of the Clean Air Act
Amendments of 1990. EPA helps other countries find suitable alternatives to ODSs , informs the
public about the dangers of overexposure to UV radiation, and uses pollution prevention strategies
to require the recycling of ODSs and hydroflourocarbons.

       Reduced risks from toxics, especially persistent organic pollutants and selected metals that
circulate in the  environment at global and regional scales, will  be achieved by working with the
Department of State and other countries to control the production and use or phaseout of targeted
chemicals.  EPA is also working to reach agreement on import and export requirements applicable
to certain chemicals, an expansion of pollutant release and transfer registers and the harmonization


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of chemical testing, assessment and labeling procedures. The goal of international harmonization of
test guidelines is to reduce the burden on chemical companies of repeated testing in satisfying the
regulatory requirements of different jurisdictions both within the United States and internationally.
Harmonization also expands the universe of toxic chemicals for which needed testing information is
available, and fosters efficiency in international  information exchange and mutual international
acceptance of chemical test data. For test guideline harmonization, EPA will continue to cooperate
closely with  other Federal  agencies  and the  Organization for Economic  Cooperation and
Development (OECD) in harmonizing testing guidelines.

       Internationally, the Agency will oversee  the implementation of the of the global POPs
convention and continue our efforts in reducing the use of leaded gasoline globally.  Working with
Canada, we are moving to reduce sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions that cause acid rain,
and protect shared ecosystems along our northern border. EPA will assess and report on the state
of Key Great Lakes ecosystem components, provide current status and trend information and
coordinate measurement of environmental indicators applicable to the entire Great Lakes Basin.
Through open lake and nearshore sediments monitoring, and the joint Great Lakes National Program
Office (GLNPO) Canadian integrated atmospheric deposition network reports will be issued on, or
developed for, the 15 GLNPO "Monitoring Indices."

       The U.S. is working with other OECD member countries to implement the International
Screening Information Data Set (SIDS) program, a voluntary international cooperative testing
program started in 1990. The program's focus is on developing base-level test information (including
data on basic chemistry, environmental fate, environmental effects and health effects) for international
high production volume chemicals. SIDS data will be used to screen chemicals and to set  priorities
for further testing and/or assessment.  The Agency will review testing needs for 50 SIDS chemicals
in 2000.

       To reduce environmental and human health risks along the U.S./Mexico Border, EPA is
working with the border states and Mexico in a multi-media approach targeted at air and water
quality and hazardous waste management and disposal. Nine working groups will address key issues
working closely with state and local agencies on both sides of the border. EPA will also support the
financing and construction of wastewater treatment and solid waste facilities.

       The Agency will focus attention on concern for children exposure to environmental tobacco
smoke. The focus of the Agency's international program is to improve the protection of children's
health from environmental threats by: prioritizing the research needs identified, seeking to allocate
research among countries and international organizations, agreeing on timelines,  and developing
international reporting mechanisms. In addition, EPA is focusing on those Sub-Saharan Africa
countries and specific sectors (Le., refineries, mining companies, and stockpilers of agricultural
chemicals) in those countries which are major contributors to globally circulating chemical/toxic risks,
focusing on pesticides, mercury and lead.
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Research

       Research and assessment activities will examine the potential consequences of climate change
for human health and ecosystems in three regions in the United States: the Mid-Atlantic, the Gulf of
Mexico, and the Great Lakes regions. EPA will assess the possibility of changes in disease patterns
due to changing climate, the impact of heat stress on populations, especially the elderly and children,
and the socioeconomic consequences of extreme weather events, such  as hurricanes, floods, and
droughts.  Researchers will also analyze the impact of climate change and variation on the ability of
ecosystems to provide services that many of us rely on but often take for granted, such as water
filtration and air purification. The outcome of these assessments  will help inform decision making
regarding  strategies to address  possible changes and variations in  climate.

External Factors

       The success ofEPA's programs and activities under Goal 6 will depend on active participation
by other nations: both developed and developing countries. Reduction of air, water,  and waste
problems along the U.S. border with Mexico will require continued  commitment by national, regional
and local environmental officials in that  country.  Similarly, EPA's efforts to reduce global and
regional threats to oceans and  the atmosphere will require active cooperation of other countries.
Health and environmental benefits  resulting from the multi-billion dollar investment by U.S.
companies to reduce emissions of stratospheric ozone depleting  compounds could be completely
undone by unabated  emissions of these chemicals in other countries.  Fortunately, the Montreal
Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has secured the participation of most countries,
including major producers and  consumers of these chemicals.

       While many factors outside of EPA or U.S. control determine a nation's willingness to
participate in international environmental protection efforts (e.g., economic or political considerations
within the country),  EPA's international policy and technical exchange  programs can play an
important role in convincing particular nations of both the need and feasibility of participating. Other
factors affecting EPA's programs under Goal 6 include continued Congressional and public support;
cooperation with other Federal agencies, such as the State Department and the U.S. Agency for
International Development; and collaboration with state and local groups, business and industry
groups, and environmental organizations.
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                           Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

              Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks


Objective # 1: Reduce Transboundary Threats: Shared North American Ecosystems

       By 2005, reduce tramboundary threats to human health and shared  ecosystems in North
America, including marine and Arctic environments,  consistent with our bilateral and multilateral
treaty obligations in these areas, as well as our trust responsibility to tribes.
                                 Resource Summary
                                 (Dollars in thousands)

FY1999 FY1999
Reauest Enacted
Reduce Transboundary Threats: Shared North $120,392.3 $71,025.9
American Ecosystems
Environmental Program & Management
State and Tribal Assistance Grants
Total Workyears:


Great Lakes National Program Office (CWAP)
Water JtaftastructureMexico Border
U.S. - Mexico Border
Partnership with Industrial and Other Countries
$20,392.3 $21,025.9
$100,000.0 $50,000.0
$83.0 $81,8
Key Programs
(Dollars in thousands)
FY1999
Reauest
$13,314.6
$100,000.0
$4,707.2
$1,542.0
FY2000 FY2000Req.v.
Reauest FY 1999 Ina.
$119,987.5
$19,987.5
$100,000.0
$81.8

FY1999
Enacted
$14,614.6
$50,000.0
$10,642.8
$784.0
$48,961.6
($1,038.4)
$50,000.0
$0.0

FY2000
Request
$13,367.5
$100,000.0
$5,056.3
$816.1
FY 2000 Request

       EPA's activities under this objective address transboundary environmental threats along the
U.S. border areas, in shared North American ecosystems, as well as in the Great Lakes. Activities
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focus on the U.S.-Mexico Border, the U.S.-Canada Border, the Great Lakes Program, and marine
and Arctic environments.

U.S.-Mexico Border

       Along the 2,000 mile U. S. -Mexico border, communities live side-by-side, sharing the benefits
of rapid economic growth and the subsequent environmental problems. Today, there are more than
11 million border residents, a population that has doubled in the last 15 years. The effects of urban
and industrial growth has contributed to the problems of inadequate environmental infrastructure.
EPA's Mexico border area programs are designed to (1) improve air quality, (2) provide wastewater
and drinking water services to under served communities, (3) manage chemical accidents, (4) support
pollution prevention programs that will,  over the long term,  reduce the adverse health and
environmental  effects of pollutants, and (5) reduce and effectively manage hazardous and solid
wastes. EPA's base programs will  continue efforts in establishing air monitoring networks and
completing emissions inventories in non-attainment areas. These are basic activities that must be
done prior to developing strategies for improving air quality.  The completion of joint chemical
accident contingency plans in border sister cities will further reduce the risk to human health and
ecosystems due to chemical spills. Working with sister cities and the Government of Mexico will
greatly enhance the governments of the U.S.' and  Mexico's ability to expand the  use of tracking
systems for hazardous waste shipments across the US-Mexico border, thus enabling more efficient
and accurate tracking of waste, and providing a tool for enforcement of waste disposal regulations,
decreasing the risk of exposure due to noncompliance.

       A significant portion of residents along the U.S.-Mexico border area are without adequate
basic  services  such as  potable water and wastewater treatment and the  problem has become
progressively worse in the last few decades due to expanding urbanization.  Identified wastewater
infrastructure needs along the  U. S./Mexico border are estimated to be $2.8 billion. The Agency has
established a goal of 34 high priority projects to have been certified for design-construction by the
end of 2000. Within this objective, the Agency is requesting $100,000,000 to support these efforts,
largely through the Border Environmental Infrastructure Fund (BEDF). The Agency will cooperate
with its Mexican counterpart agencies to implement the provisions of the LaPaz Agreement and the
Border XXI Framework Document which provide a long term strategy to improve public health and
the environment and protect essential natural resources in the border. Nine binational working groups
will address key issues working closely with state and local agencies on both sides of the border.
EPA will also work closely with the Border Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC) and the
North American Development Bank (NADBank), which manages the BEIF, to support the financing
and construction of water and wastewater treatment and solid waste facilities.  EPA is proposing
$ 1,000,000 for the U. S.-Mexico Foundation for Science in cooperation with the programs, activities
and projects of the BECC, NADBank, International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and
the Mexican Combustion Nacional de Agua.
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Great Lakes

       Within this objective, EPA is requesting $13,494,800 and 46.2 total workyears for the Great
Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) and supporting Great Lakes activities. The Great Lakes
Basin is home to 33 million people, including more than one-tenth of the population of the United
States. It contains some of the world's largest concentrations of industrial capacity and, at the same
time, is the largest system of fresh, surface water on earth, containing 20% of the world's supply.
The effects of years of urban and industrial growth necessitate efforts to reduce pollution from toxic
substances, with an emphasis on persistent, bioaccumulative substances, and to protect and restore
vital habitats and biological integrity. The Agency's Great Lakes National Program Office steers and
coordinates these efforts through  implementation of an ecosystem approach in the Great Lakes
among its Federal, state, tribal, and local partners, fully implementing a "community-based" approach.
GLNPO and its partners will act consistently with goals of the Great Lakes Five Year Strategy and
the Agency's Strategic Plan.

       EPA will assess and report on the state of key Great Lakes ecosystem components, make
current status and trend information available to Great Lakes environmental managers, and coordinate
measurement of environmental indicators applicable to the entire Great Lakes Basin. Through open
lake and nearshore sediments monitoring, and the joint GLNPO/Canadian integrated atmospheric
deposition network (including air monitoring stations on each Great Lake), reports will be issued on,
or developed for, 9 of the proposed 12 GLNPO "Monitoring Indices." The Indices will summarize
the prior year's data on select fish  contaminants, atmospheric deposition, limnology, biology, and
sediments,  thus providing state  and Federal environmental managers with information for
decision-making and providing the  public with understandable information about the environmental
condition of the Great Lakes.  GLNPO will adjust its monitoring program to implement indicators
monitoring consistent with the Indices and with indicators identified through the process developed
for the biennial State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference (SOLEC).  SOLEC  brings together
representatives  of the public and private sectors to facilitate decision-making based upon sound
environmental information. GLNPO will report model predictions for Lake Michigan toxic reduction
scenarios from the multi-media initiative for the first-ever intensive monitoring of Lake Michigan air,
water, sediments, and biota (the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study, or "LMMB"), supporting the
Great Waters provision of the Clean Air Act and §118  of the Clean Water Act. This will enable the
Agency and its partners to determine how to further reduce Great Lakes pollutants and will provide
trend and baseline data to support and target remedial efforts and measure environmental progress
under Remedial Action Plans and Lakewide Management Plans. EPA will also expand public access
to LMMB and other Great Lakes environmental information via the Internet.

       EPA will work with Environment Canada  and lead domestic partners in implementing the
Great  Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy, signed in  1997.  The  Strategy, a ground breaking
international  toxics reduction effort, targets a common set of persistent,  toxic  substances for
reduction and virtual elimination from the Great Lakes.  It focuses on pollution prevention efforts,
using voluntary and regulatory tools to achieve reductions, and contains reduction challenges for a
targeted set of substances, e.g., mercury, PCBs, dioxins/furans,  and  certain canceled pesticides.
Actions and activities are outlined in the Strategy which states, industry, tribes, non-government
organizations and other stakeholders may undertake  to achieve these reductions. Each targeted


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substance will be addressed at the appropriate phase of an analytical framework which consists of
information  gathering,  analysis of current regulations/initiatives,  identification of options and
implementing reduction actions. Grants to stakeholders (such as the Great Lakes States, Tribes and
environmental groups for mercury or PCB reduction projects) will help to achieve some of the
reduction targets. Progress will be documented. Implementation of the Strategy will be coordinated
with and augmented through cross-Agency support and activities relating to its 1999 Persistent
Bioaccumulative Toxics Initiative.

       EPA, with its partners, will continue to address the contaminated sediments polluting the
harbors of  the 31 U.S. and/or binational Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the Great Lakes.  Using
expertise from  the  CongressionaUy mandated Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated
Sediments program, GLNPO uses its Research Vessel (R/V) Mudpuppy and other resources to visit
sites and assess sediments, returning as needed for finer scale assessment and remedial design. If a
community then chooses to remediate the sediments, GLNPO can conduct a sediment site cleanup
demonstration.  In 2000, GLNPO will assist communities with assessments and remedial design at
5 AOCs, thus having provided this assistance at 25 AOCs since this program began.  Two of the
AOCs will be visited for the first time,  GLNPO will complete 1 sediment cleanup demonstration,
bringing the total cleanups to 4 since 1996.

       The Agency will support the efforts of States, Tribes, and local communities to protect and
restore  important  habitats  identified in the Great Lakes biodiversity report  of The Nature
Conservancy (TNC) and SOLEC habitat papers. The program emphasizes habitats important for
biodiversity and ecological integrity (such as those necessary for endangered and threatened species).
Additional projects for ecological enhancement will start in nearshore waters, coastal wetlands, river
corridors,  and terrestrial lands.  The  projects will implement measures to protect ecological
communities and biodiversity or take steps to restore ecological functions and  processes.

       EPA, Regions, States, and local communities will strategically target reductions of critical
pollutants through Remedial Action Plans for Areas of Concern and through Lakewide Management
Plans for Lakes Ontario, Michigan, Superior, and Erie. The Agency will continue to meet specific
requirements for reporting to Congress and the International Joint Commission regarding progress
under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.

Marine and Polar Environments

       Within this objective, the Agency is requesting $524,600 for international activities protecting
our most northern borders and marine environments.  The focus of the base program is the protection
of those resources in the marine and polar environments that are important to the United States and
other countries.  More specifically, the programs will reduce environmental damages associated with
tributiytin, ballast water discharges, and ocean dumping.  In addition, on-going efforts to address
land-based sources of marine pollution in the Wider Caribbean should result in improvements  in
regional water quality and marine habitats that include economic benefits to significant commercial
interests in the Region. Finally, our involvement in multilateral negotiations is critical  to maintain
needed flexibility in domestic rulemaking and other environmental policy mechanisms.
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       The 2000 performance goals address activities relating to long-term achievement of the
objective.  The first pertains to the conclusion of negotiations on a regional agreement addressing
land-based marine pollution; the second concerns different global negotiations underway through the
International  Maritime Organization.  The combination of these goals represent incremental
components in seeking to prevent significant degradation of the marine and polar environments over
the long-term. Completion of the regional protocol on land-based marine pollution will provide the
first instrument in the Wider Caribbean for establishing international norms for specific contaminants
and effluents.  Achievement of our goals in negotiations underway at the International Maritime
Organization will enhance the effectiveness of existing domestic environmental controls and reduce
pollution of U.S. waters resulting from international shipping.
FY 2000 Change from FY 1999 Enacted

EPM

•      (+$52,900) to reflect a payroll cost of living adjustment and regional travel increase for the
       Great Lakes National Program Office.

•      (+$159,000) to reflect a payroll cost of living increase and a modest increase to support
       activities associated with hazardous waste disposal along the US- Mexican border.

       The 2000 Request is $1,300,000 below the 1999 Enacted budget level due to Congressional
       earmarks received during the appropriations process but not part of the 2000 President's
       Request.
       (+$50,000,000) to  the Mexico  Border Infrastructure Program.    This  reflects  the
       Administration's commitment for funding infrastructure needs along the U.S./Mexican
       Border.
Annual Performance Goals and Performance Measures

Air Monitoring Networks

In 2000      Complete air monitoring networks for 3 of the 7 non-attainment areas along the US/Mexican
            border.

In 1999      Complete emissions inventories for 5 of the 7 non-attainment areas along the US/Mexican
            border.
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Performance Measures                                           FY1999             FY 2000
Number of non-attainment areas along the border with emission    5 inventories
inventories

Number of non-attainment areas along the border with air                                    3 areas
monitoring networks

Baseline:   Seven non-attainment areas along the Mexico border.

V.S.-Mexico Border Water/Wastewater Infrastructure

In 2000      9 additional water/wastewater projects along the Mexican border will be certified for
             design-construction for a cumulative total of 34 projects.

In 1999      1 additional water/wastewater projects along the Mexican border will be certified for
             design-construction.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999             FY 2000
Projects certified for design-construction along the Mexican           1 Projects
Border

Additional water/wastewater projects along the Mexican border                             9 Projects
certified for design/construction.

Baseline:      As of June 1998, a cumulative total of 24 Mexican border projects were either certified for
              design/construction or had received grants or lAGs.

Great Lakes: Ecosystem Assessment

In 2000      Assess and report on the state of key Great Lakes ecosystem components, report current
             status and trend information to Great Lakes environmental managers, and coordinate
             measurement of SOLEC environmental indicators applicable to the entire Great Lakes Basin.

In 1999      Assess and report on the state of Great Lakes ecosystem components, make current status
             and trend information available to Great Lakes environmental managers, and coordinate
             measurement of SOLEC environmental indicators applicable to entire Great Lakes Basin.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999             FY 2000
Develop protocols for 5 of a proposed 15 GLNPO Monitoring        5 Protocols
Indexes, summarizing the prior year's data on select fish
contaminants, atmospheric dep., limnology, biology, & sediments.

Model predictions for Lake Michigan for toxics reduction                               5 Predictions
scenarios.

Reports on 9 of the proposed 12 GLNPO Monitoring Indexes,                               9 Indexes
summarizing the prior year's data on select fish contaminants,
atmospheric deposition, limnology, biology, and sediments.

Baseline:      Although GLNPO has assessed and reported on Great Lakes conventional pollutants, toxics, air
              deposition, and ecosystem indicators and components (particularly plankton and fish
              contaminants) since the 1970's and 1980's, that data has not previously been routinely
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Baseline(cont) summarized and reported. In FY2000, the Great Lakes program will establish a baseline using thee
              FY1999 data; consequently, the current baseline is zero.

Great Lakes: Binational Toxics Strategy

In 2000      Documented reductions or progress which fulfills challenges raider the Binational Toxics
             Strategy (BNS).

In 1999      Documented reductions or progress which fulfills challenges under the Binational Toxics
             Strategy (BNS).

Performance Measures                                          FY1999             FY 2000
Catalog and publicize actions (partnerships or virtual elimination      3 Actions
demonstration projects) toward reduction challenges under BNS.

Great Lakes Projects initiated in support of toxics reduction          11 Projects

Number of catalogued and publicized actions (partnerships or                             10 Actions
virtual elimination demonstration projects) initiated toward
reduction challenges under BNS.

Completion and documentation of BNS analytical process for each                  100 % Completion
of the Level 1 chemicals.  Process includes info, gathering,
analysis of reg. gaps, recommendations, & options for reductions

Baseline:      The Canada - U.S. Binational Toxics Strategy (BNS) was signed in 1997. The BNS Implementation
              Plan was developed and completed in 1998.  Pursuant to the BNS challenge goals, three reports
              (octacMorostyrene, five cancelled pesticides, and alkyl-lead) will be completed by end of 1998. The
              baseline for actions toward BNS reduction is zero in 1997 (the date at signature of the Canada-U.S.
              BNS). 3 actions were initiated by FY99 and a cumulative total of 10 will be underway in the year
              2000. In 1997, the BNS established challenge goals for mercury, octacMorostyrene, pesticides, alkyl-
              lead', PCBs, Dioxins, and HCB/B(a)P. At that time, a single report on mercury was substantially
              complete. Drafts of three reports (octacMorostyrene, pesticides, and alkyl-lead) have since been
              completed. Reports pertaining to the remaining challenge goals (PCBs, Dioxins, and HCB/BaP) are
              scheduled for FY2000.

Great Lakes: Contaminated Sediments

In 2000      Support state/community clean-up of contaminated sediments by sediment assessment and
             characterization(at sites in 1 new AOC, thus having visited 25 of 31 US AOCs) and by
             sediment cleanup demonstrations.

In 1999      Support state/community clean-up of contaminated sediment by sediment assessment/
             characterization(at a site in 1  new AOC, thus having visited 24 of 31 US AOCs) and by
             sediment cleanup demonstrations

Performance Measures                                          FY 1999             FY2000
Great Lakes sediment cleanup demonstrations completed                            4 Demonstration

Assessments and characterizations at Great Lakes Areas of        5 Assessments        5 Assessments
Concern
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Performance Measures(continued)                                 FY 1999              FY2000

Cumulative total (out of 5 started since 1996) of sediment       3 Cleanup demos
cleanup demonstrations completed.

Baseline:     By 1998, GLNPO has assisted Great Lakes communities in addressing contaminated sediments
              through assessments and characterizations at 21 Great Lakes Areas of Concern. In 1998, GLNPO
              completed 1 sediment site cleanup demonstration.

Great Lakes: Habitat Protection

In 2000      Aquatic, wetland, riverine, and terrestrial habitat protection & restoration projects funded
             by GLNPO will impact an additional 6,000 acres.

In 1999      Habitat protection and restoration proj will begin positive ecological impacts on 23% (cumulative) of
             the Basin's total land area. Ecolog. enhancements will occur at 5 of the 14 US terrestial
             biodiversity investment areas. Biodiversity investment areas will be identified for coastal
             wetlands/aquatic areas.

Performance Measures                                           FY 1999              FY 2000
Projects and acreage ecologically enhanced in terrestrial     6,000 Projects/Acres
biodiversity investment areas

Aquatic, wetland, riverine, and terrestrial habitat projects                                   5 Projects
funded by GLNPO.

Aquatic, wetland, riverine, and terrestrial habitat acres impacted                          6,000 Acres
by GLNPO habitat protection and restoration projects.

Set of quantifiable targets for ecological enhancement in aquatic           1 Set
biodiversity investment areas.

Baseline:     Baseline for projects: GLNPO funded 20 habitat protection and restoration projects in 1997, bringing
              the total number of projects funded since 1992 to 109 and the cumulative number of acres impacted
              to more than 18 million acres. The positive ecological impacts on Great Lakes ecosystem, including
              the number of projects and acreage, will be assessed in 1999. Baseline for acres: beginning with a
              baseline of zero projects and acreage in 1992, the Great Lakes National Program Office has since
              funded 109  projects which, according to grantee reports through 1997,  are beginning to have a
              cumulative positive impact on more than 18 million acres (out of a total  of 136 million acres of land
              and nearshore waters in the Great Lakes ecosystem). "Positive ecological impact" means measures are
              implemented to protect ecological communities and biodiversity or steps are taken to restore ecological
              functions and processes.

Marine and Polar Environments

In 1999         Complete construction of prototype fortransportable containment system for spent
                & damaged nuclear fuel from decommissioned Russian submarines;start

In 2000      Complete testing and certification of a prototype 40 ton spent nuclear fuel storage cask for
             use in NW Russia that meets international guidelines and internal Russian Federation
             standards.
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Performance Measures                                     FY1999            FY2000
Complete construction of cask containment system prototype     9/30/99/Report

A prototype spent nuclear fuel storage cask is certified for use                9/30/2000 Certification
in Russia by Russian Federation Nuclear and Environmental
Authorities.

Baseline: Development of two spent nuclear fuel casks.
Verification and Validation of Performance Measures

       Data on the effective functioning of the Mexico Border Infrastructure Program are collected
via quarterly reports from EPA Regions 6 and 9.

       Performance measures for the Great Lakes program are derived from open lake measurements
taken by GLNPO and from annual programmatic analysis of activities pursuant to the Great Lakes
Water Quality Agreement, the Binational Toxics Strategy, and the GLNPO programs for information
management, sediments, and habitat. Individual projects which generate data are required to comply
with the Agency's standards for quality assurance and control.  LMMB project data is entered into
the Great Lakes Environmental Monitoring Database (GLENDA). A QA/QC tracking system is in
place to ensure that QA/QC requirements are part of all applicable GLNPO projects.  GLNPO uses
its annual planning process as a check on indirect|performance measures such as improved planning,
coordination and communication. The GLNPO performance measures are written into Great Lakes
State Environmental Performance Partnership Agreements as commitments. GLNPO provides the
states with assessments of progress against those commitments. Under the GLNPO structure, each
of the GLNPO programs conducts an end of year review of its progress regarding identified measures
and  activities,  draws conclusions, and makes recommendations to management regarding the
subsequent year's activities and measures. Management ultimately determines what the activities and
measures will be for the succeeding year.

Coordination with Other Agencies

Mexican Border - BECC. NADBank. IBWC

       Over the last several years, US EPA has continued to work with the US and Mexican Sections
of the International Boundary and Water Commission to further our efforts to improve water and
wastewater services to communities within 100 km of the US - Mexico Border. Recently, the IBWC
and  US EPA have been involved in joint efforts to plan, design and construct six water and
wastewater facilities in the Border region.

       The Governments  of Mexico  and the United States  agreed, in November 1993, on
arrangements to assist communities on both sides of the border in coordinating and carrying out
environmental infrastructure projects. The new agreement furthers the goals of the North American
Free Trade Agreement and the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation.
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       To this  purpose, the governments established two international institutions: 1. Border
Environment Cooperation Commission (BECC), with headquarters in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua,
Mexico,  to  assist local  communities  and  other  sponsors  in  developing and implementing
environmental infrastructure projects, and to certify projects for North American Development Bank
financing; and 2. North American Development Bank (NADBank), with headquarters in San Antonio,
Texas, capitalized in equal shares by the United States and Mexico, with an authorized capital of
$3,000 million dollars, to provide new financing to supplement existing sources of funds and foster
the expanded participation of private capital.  Currently, US EPA has placed $170 million of its
Border grant funds (Border Environmental Infrastructure Fund, BEEF) with the NADBank.

GreatLakes

       Pursuant to the mandate in Section 118 of the Clean Water Act to "coordinate action of the
Agency with the actions of other Federal agencies and State and local authorities...," GLNPO is
engaged in extensive coordination efforts with State, Tribal, and other Federal agencies, as well as
with our counterparts in Canada.  In 1991, EPA joined  States and Federal agencies that have
stewardship responsibilities for the Lakes in developing a shared five year strategy. In addition to the
eight Great Lakes States, partners to the plan include the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), the
Coast Guard, the Fish  and  Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Oceanic  and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA), and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The strategy
joins environmental protection agencies with natural resource agencies in pursuit of common goals.
These partners envision  updates that will keep the strategy a current, action-forcing document that
targets different problems in succession. These same organizations and the Great Lakes Tribes also
meet at GLNPO's annual Great Lakes Planning Meeting to plan and prioritize near term activities.
GLNPO monitoring involves extensive coordination among these partners, both in terms of running
the monitoring  program, and in  utilising  results from the monitoring to manage  environmental
programs.  GLNPO's sediments program works closely with the States and the Corps regarding
dredging issues. Implementation of the Binational Toxics Strategy involves extensive coordination
with Great Lakes States. GLNPO works closely with States, Tribes, FWS, and NRCS in addressing
habitat issues in the Great Lakes.   GLNPO  also coordinates with  these partners regarding
development and implementation of Lakewide Management Plans for each of the Great Lakes and
for Remedial Action Plans for the 31 US/binational Areas of Concern.

Statutory Authorities

Clean Water Act
Clean Air Act
Toxic Substances Control Act
Resource Conservation  and Recovery Act
Pollution Prevention Act
North American Free Trade Agreement
1997 Canada-U.S. Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy
1996 Habitat Agenda
1990 Great Lakes Critical Programs Act
1987 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement


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Environmental Protection Agency
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification
Table of Contents
Goal 8: Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental Risks,
               and Greater Innovation to Address Environmental Problems	  Vni-1
       Research for Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration	  Vin-11
       Research for Human Health Risk Assessment	  VHI-23
       Emerging Risk Issues ,	,	  Vm-35
       Pollution Prevention and New Technology			   Vffl-43
       Increase Use of Integrated, Holistic, Partnership Approaches	,.,..,...,	  Vffl-53
       Increase Opportunities for Sector Based Approaches	  Vni-57
       Regional Enhancement of Ability to Quantify Environmental Outcomes	  VHI-63
       Science Advisory Board Peer Review	  Vffl-65
       Incorporate Innovative Approaches to Environmental Management	  VTH-69

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                          Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

          Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental Risk, and
                Greater Innovation to Address Environmental Problems
Strategic Goal:  EPA will develop and apply the best available science for addressing current and
future mvironmental hazards, as well  as  new approaches  toward improving environmental
protection.
                                Resource Summary
                               (Dollars in Thousands)

Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Env. Risk
and Greater Innovation to Address Env. Problems
Research for Ecosystem Assessment and
Restoration
Research for Human Health Risk Assessment
Research to Detect Emerging Risk Issues
Pollution Prevention and New Technology for
Environmental Protections
Enable Research oil Innovative Approaches to
Current & Future Env Problems - NOT IN USE
Increase Use of Integrated, Holistic, Partnership
Approaches
Increase Opportunities for Sector Based
Approaches
Regional Enhancement of Ability to Quantify
Environmental Outcomes
Science Advisory Board Peer Review
Incorporate Innovative Approaches to
Environmental Management
Total Workyears:
FY1999
Request
$322,661.8
$106,489.4
$57,063.6
$61,639.2
$54,246.4
$0.0
$16,810.5
$11,496.8
$7,995.1
$2,586.7
$4,334.1
1,212.1
FY1999
Enacted
$346,996.2
$111,978.7
$50,573.7
$56,648.8
$77,286.3
$0.0
$16,390.5
$21,091.9
$6,505.5
$2,486.7
$4,034.1
1,194.2
FY2000 FY2000Req.v.
Request FY1999Ena.
$321,747.4
$118,553.3
$56,229.1
$49,806.9
$55,801.7
$0.0
$16,663.8
$10,018.5
$7,659.8
$2,636.2
$4,378.1
1,187.3
($25,248.8)
$6,574.6
$5,655.4
($6,841.9)
($21,484.6)
$0.0
$273.3
($11,073.4)
$1,154.3
$149.5
$344.0
-6.9
                                      VIII-1

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Background and Context

       Science allows us to identify the most important sources of risk to human health and the
environment, and thereby guides our priorities, policies, and deployment of resources.  Science
provides the understanding  and technologies needed to detect, abate,  and avoid environmental
problems.

       In the future, environmental problems will be addressed using those features of the current
system that have proven effective and by designing and testing fundamentally new tools and
approaches that utilize the latest advances in scientific knowledge and technology.
Means and Strategy

       EPA has several strategies to strengthen the scientific basis for environmental protection and
develop innovations that will allow achievement of our strategic objectives.  The Agency has
implemented a risk-based research planning process to use risk assessment and risk management as
principal priority-setting criteria. EPA conducts annual research program reviews to both evaluate
the status and accomplishments of its research and determine strategic planning priorities.

       In FY 2000, EPA will continue the Agency's Postdoctoral Initiative, begun in 1998, to
enhance our intramural research program.  These positions will provide a constant stream of
highly-trained postdoctoral candidates who can apply state-of-the-science training to EPA research
issues. For FY 2000, new post-doctoral candidates will be recruited to: (1) strengthen our ability
to meet the scientific challenges of the next several years; (2) bring a fresh scientific perspective and
new energy to our highest priority research and development programs by working with experienced
ORD Principal Investigators; (3) work in critically important areas such as human exposure
modeling in particulate matter and ecological risk assessment; and (4) improve our workforce
diversity. Post-doctoral resources are spread throughout the FY 2000 budget.

       To better draw upon expertise of the environmental academic community, EPA created the
Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Program of peer reviewed, mission-driven extramural grants.
The Agency is also working with the National Research Council to identify emerging environmental
issues for which we must begin planning the necessary research.  EPA's research program will
increase the understanding of environmental processes and the capability to assess environmental
risks not only to human health, but also to ecosystems.

       The emphasis of ecological monitoring research will shift from a Mid-Atlantic integrated
assessment of ecosystem health to a Western Pilot demonstration of methods developed in the Mid-
Atlantic. In addition, the Coastal Monitoring Initiative beginnmg in 2000 will fund the first national
demonstration of the status and trends monitoring of the health of U.S. estuaries. Knowing the
current conditions of these ecosystems, how best to measure those conditions, and what problems
exist are important parts of this effort and will provide essential  input to  the modeling and

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assessment elements of the program.  Process and modeling research will seek to explain stressors
and their effect on an ecosystem, as well as the way in which they cause that effect.

       EPA is also committed to developing and verifying  innovative methods and models for
assessing the susceptibilities of populations to environmental agents, aimed at enhancing current risk
assessment and management strategies and guidance. In response to the heightened awareness and
concern over children's health risks and the provisions of the new legislation on food safety, EPA
established the Children's Health Research Program. In collaboration with the National Institute for
Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), EPA has established eight university-based research
centers to study the unique environmental risks that threaten the health of our children, with research
focusing on childhood asthma and developmental disorders.  The 2000 research program includes
plans to establish one additional center focused on children's health research to conduct basic and
applied research in combination with community-based prevention efforts that focus on identifying
and preventing environment-related diseases in children. This center will look at non-asthma related
research issues including developmental disorders. Agency research efforts for asthma are part of
the interagency work under the President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety
Risks to Children.

       The Agency will establish research capability and  mechanisms to anticipate and identify
environmental or other changes that may portend future risk. A clear vision of future environmental
risk will enable EPA to manage strategically for tomorrow and tactically for today.  Substantial
capability to discern early warnings and patterns of change  will be developed through work
undertaken on endocrine disrupters.  Benefits will include an improved framework for decision-
making, increased ability to anticipate and perhaps deter serious environmental risks, and enhanced
communication with the public and other stakeholders.

       In order to promote decisions which place pollution prevention as the first solution among
many,  research will focus on the development of methods and  decision tools that are more
quantitative and easier for stakeholders and decision-makers to use than those currently available.
Research on pollution prevention  technology and approaches will accelerate the adoption and
incorporation  of pollution prevention by  developing, testing, and demonstrating techniques
applicable across economic sectors.  This research will test the ability of risk assessors and risk
managers to develop tools and methodologies which are meaningful and understandable to me public
in terms of the costs and benefits associated with the magnitude of the risk reduction options.

       A key element of EPA's strategy for reinvention is testing and adopting innovative policy
tools designed to achieve better protection at less cost. The Agency has a number of new tools and
approaches that are being tested or implemented in various  environmental programs, including:
market trading and banking, third party certification of environmental performance, and recognition
and incentives for environmental  stewardship.  In  each  area, EPA is looking to advance the
application of the innovative tool or approach by promoting broader testing and incorporation into
our system of environmental protection. For example, EPA' s Permit Action Plan outlines a broad
strategy for building the next generation of environmental permitting. This strategy will harmonize

                                         VHI-3

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requirements across media, and will make permitting more accessible to the public and more flexible
for facilities.

       Sector strategies complement current EPA activities by allowing the Agency to approach
issues more holistically; tailor efforts to the particular characteristics of each sector; identify related
groups of stakeholders with interest in a set of issues; link EPA' s efforts with those of other
agencies; and craft new approaches to environmental protection.

       Sustainable industry programs serve as incubators and developers of innovative approaches
to environmental policy making, testing alternative regulatory and programmatic approaches through
regional projects, and multi-stakeholder processes. The experience gained in working with six
industry sectors on the Common Sense Initiative provides the basis for moving forward with
sector-based approaches to environmental protection.

       Also, President Clinton created Project XL in March 1995 to provide regulated entities and
other stakeholders with  the opportunity to develop and implement alternative environmental
management strategies that achieve superior environmental performance in exchange for regulatory
flexibility. Sector-based approaches will offer valuable supplements to traditional environmental
policy and may become the predominant means for environmental protection in the 21st century.

       Nearly 7,000 businesses, trade association, citizens groups, state and local governments, and
universities are volunteering to improve environmental performance in a timely, cost-effective way
through an array of EPA partnership programs. Known collectively as Partners for the Environment,
these programs complement traditional regulatory approaches to environmental protection.

       Partners set practical, meaningful goals to improve and better protect the environment -- from
conserving water and energy to reducing hazardous emissions, waste, and pesticide risks. These
efforts are good for the environment, make good business sense, and prove that pollution prevention
pays.
Strategic Objectives and FY 2900 Annual Performance Goals

Objective 01: Research for Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration

By 2000     Report on monitoring findings in the Mid-Atlantic Region as a cost effective means
             of measuring the condition of these systems.

Objective 02: Research for Human Health Risk Assessment

By 2000     Develop risk assessment guidance and regional assessments concerning risks to
             children exposed to environmental contaminants.
                                        VHI-4

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Objective 03: Research to Detect Emerging Risk Issues

By 2000      Develop tools to identify hazards and formulate strategies to manage risks from
             exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals capable of inducing adverse effects in
             humans and wildlife.

Objective 04: Pollution Prevention and New Technology for Environmental Protections

By 2000      Complete development of one or more computer-based tools which simulate product,
             process, or system design changes, and complete proof-of-process structure for one
             or more generic technologies (appl.  to >1  env. problem) to prevent or reduce
             pollution in chemicals and industrial processes.

Objective 06: Increase Use of Integrated, Holistic, Partnership Approaches

Objective 07: Increase Opportunities for Sector Based Approaches

By 2000      All 50 Project XL projects will be implemented.

Objective 08: Regional  Enhancement of Ability to Quantify Environmental Outcomes

Objective 09: Science Advisory Board Peer Review

Objective 10: Incorporate Innovative Approaches to Environmental Management


Highlights

       Research is an important aspect of the Agency's  mission and ensures a strong scientific
foundation for the process of identifying public health and environmental issues and the approaches
taken to address them. EPA's F Y 2000 Annual Plan proposes a robust program which continues to
support its commitment to developing and applying the best available science for addressing current
and future environmental hazards, as well as new approaches toward improving environmental
protection,

Ecosystems Protection Research

       Natural ecosystems provide valuable services and resources to the public, such as air and
water purification, flood control, raw materials for manufacturing and industrial processes, food, as
well .as less tangible benefits such as recreation. Many human activities alter or damage ecosystems
and their ability to provide these goods and services.  In order to balance the growth of human
activity and the need to protect the environment, it is important to understand the current condition
of ecosystems, what stressors  are changing that condition, what are the consequences of those
                                        VIII-5

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changes, and what can be done to prevent, mitigate, or adapt to those changes. EPA's ecosystems
protection research is organized in four main areas to address these questions: ecological monitoring,
modeling, risk assessment, and risk management.

       Ecological monitoring research addresses the question, "What is the current condition of the
environment, and what stressors are most closely associated with mat condition?" To do this,
researchers develop indicators, monitoring systems, and designs for measuring the exposures of
ecosystems to multiple stressors and the response of ecosystems at local, regional, and national
scales.  In FY 2000, the Coastal Research Initiative will provide EPA with baseline and trend
analyses for important data gaps  such as the aquatic health of our nation's estuaries.

       Process and Modeling Research addresses the question, "What are the biological, chemical,
and physical processes affecting the condition of ecosystems  and their response to stressors?"
Drawing from information gathered by monitoring efforts, process and modeling research develops
a basic understanding of the processes that govern ecosystem function, and the technology to model
those processes. This modeling ability allows for predictions of future landscapes, stressor patterns,
ambient conditions, and receptor responses. Predicting the impact of changes in conditions allows
resource managers to address problems in ways that will more accurately achieve the environmental
protection goals they seek.

       Risk  Assessment Research addresses the question, "What is the relative risk posed to
ecosystems by stressors, alone and in combination, now and in the future?" Ecological assessments
can link stressors with consequences and evaluate the potential for damage to particular ecosystems.
This is a valuable tool for environmental risk  managers at local, state, and federal levels, enabling
them to link high priority ecosystems with ecosystems at high risk. EPA's research efforts hi support
of the National Science and Technology Council's Integrated Science for Sustainable Ecosystems
Initiative will develop methods and models to  integrate socioeconomic analysis with landscape
ecology and ecological risk  assessment and give EPA,  state,  and  local  community-based
environmental partners capability to identify the most significant environmental stress and select risk
reduction alternatives to improve or sustain biological and chemical water quality in streams, rivers,
and estuaries. This program will also develop a capacity to evaluate and measure the success or
failure of policies in sustaining or improving ecosystem health.

       Risk  Management and Restoration Research addresses the question, "What options are
available to manage the risk to, or to restore, degraded ecosystems?" Given the rate of development
of the man-made environment, present regulatory  approaches may not always limit risks to
vulnerable ecosystems to tolerable levels. There is a need to develop new, cost-effective prevention,
control, and remediation approaches for sources of stressors, and adaptation approaches for
ecosystems.

Research to Improve Human Health Risk Assessment

       Advances hi the state of environmental  science have illustrated that new risk assessment
methods are needed to investigate complex environmental and human health issues that were not

                                         VIII-6

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considered by early environmental legislation.  Creating a strong scientific foundation for risk
assessment and for subsequent risk management decisions requires research to redtice significant
areas of scientific uncertainty. In recent years, a number of national scientific advisory groups have
developed specific recommendations to assist hi strengthening this foundation. EPA has identified
three major areas of uncertainty as the focus for its Human Health Risk Assessment Research
Program: 1) human exposure measurements and models; 2) identifying/characterizing hazards and
assessing dose response; and 3) characterizing and assessing variation in human exposure and
susceptibility to disease. Because substantial uncertainties are associated with these areas, resolution
will greatly advance the science of human health risk assessment.

       Research on human exposure measurements and models will focus on demonstrating a model
to assess, predict, and diagnose the population distribution of multi-media, multi-pathway exposures
to major classes of environmental agents. Human exposure measurement research will continue to
develop, demonstrate, and evaluate human exposure measurement and surveillance through the
National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) program and the Borders XXI (NAFTA)
program. Research to develop multipathway exposure models will continue to develop, demonstrate,
and evaluate measurement-based models that represent multi-pathway source-exposure-biomarker-
dose relationships and the physical and chemical factors that affect potential and absorbed dose.
Research on residential pesticides will continue to focus on methods to significantly improve our
understanding of the extent of human exposure to specific pesticides and toxic substances.

       Research to identify/characterize hazards and assess dose response addresses both qualitative
(hazard identification) and quantitative (dose-response analysis) concerns associated with current
risk assessments.  This research will focus on providing mechanistically-based data, tools, and
approaches for more quantitative and biologically defensible human health risk assessments.

       Research to characterize/assess variation in human exposure and susceptibility to disease has
strong  support from national scientific advisory organizations, the Administration and Congress.
EPA is also committed to developing and verifying innovative methods and models for assessing
the susceptibilities of populations to environmental agents, aimed at enhancing current risk
assessment and management strategies and guidance. In collaboration with the National Institute for
Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), EPA has established eight university-based research
centers to study the unique environmental risks that threaten the health of our children, with research
focusing on childhood asthma and developmental disorders. The 2000 research program includes
plans to establish one additional center focused on children's health research to conduct basic and
applied research in combination with community-based prevention efforts that focus on identifying
and preventing environment-related diseases in children. This center will look at non-asthma related
research issues including developmental disorders. Agency research efforts for asthma are part of
the interagency work under the President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety
Risks to Children.
                                         VIII-7

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Emerging Risks Research

       In 2000, research on  emerging  environmental  risk  will  respond directly to  the
recommendations of numerous external advisory panels, including the Committee on Research
Opportunities and Priorities for EPA under the National Academy for Public Administration, and
EPA's Science Advisory Board. Our goal is to establish a clear vision of future environmental risk
which will enable EPA to manage strategically for tomorrow and tactically for today. Benefits will
include an improved framework for decision-making, increased ability to anticipate and perhaps
deter serious environmental  risks,  and enhanced communication with the  public and  other
stakeholders.

       Evidence has been accumulating that humans and domestic and wildlife species have
suffered adverse health consequences resulting from exposure to environmental chemicals mat
interact with the endocrine system, known as endocrine disrupters (EDC). EPA has developed the
Endocrine Disrupter Research Strategy for addressing areas of major  uncertainty.  In 2000, the
highest priority areas of the Endocrine Disrupter Research Strategy will be: conducting integrated
toxicology and  exposure studies  in ecological systems or human populations with suspected
contamination or exposure; the development of PBPK/BBDR models; the identification of major
sources of EDCs entering the environment; and the development of tools for risk management. The
program will also continue to investigate the nature and extent to which environmentally relevant
exposures to chemicals are producing adverse effects in humans and wildlife species.

       We will continue to maintain a strong graduate fellowship program which was initiated in
1995 for the purpose of training the next generation of scientists and engineers. By providing
support for masters and doctoral students in environmental sciences and engineering, EPA helps to
develop the Nation's environmental and technology base for addressing the environmental concerns
in the next century. The Exploratory Grants research program generates new ideas and produces new
scientific information by encouraging creativity and innovation  in scientific research.  Through
publication of an annual general solicitation, the program defines general areas in which there exist
significant gaps in scientific knowledge and understanding, and allows individual investigators from
the academic research community to conceive, define, and propose research projects.

Pollution Prevention and New Technologies

       EPA supports pollution prevention as a necessary and logical strategy for dealing with high-
risk human health and environmental problems that are addressed by Federal environmental, health,
and safety regulations. In order to promote decisions which place pollution prevention as the first
solution among many, research must begin to focus on the development of methods and decision
tools that are more quantitative and easier for stakeholders and decision makers to use than those
currently available. Two areas of research contributing to the achievement of the objective's goals
are: 1) the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program; and 2) the Mercury Initiative.

       ETV was created to substantially accelerate the  introduction  of new environmental
technologies into the domestic marketplace. In 2000, the program will support the development and

                                        VIII-8

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implementation of innovative approaches for current and future environmental problems. As a result
of the interest in the ETV program abroad, EPA will expand the application of U.S. technologies,
verified under ETV, to the international marketplace.  ETV will also continue in this effort under
its twelve pilots; complete the last year of its 5 year pilot phase (1995-2000); and begin preparation
of a report to Congress for 2001. The report will contain a summary of the major outputs of the pilot
phase, the costs of verification, the results of verification in moving better technologies into use, and
recommendations for procedures to effectively conduct an ongoing program.

       Mercury research will focus on the speciation and control of mercury emissions from coal-
fired utilities and other combustors, risk management alternatives for non-combustion sources of
mercury, and a continuing emphasis on collecting and analyzing data and information on mercury
risks and mercury risk communication. Improved techniques for controlling mercury emissions into
the environment will allow the Agency to achieve its programmatic and regulatory goals and meet
an accelerated time table for reducing mercury releases.

Increased Community-Based Approaches

       In 2000, EPA will continue to strengthen local partnerships to address serious environmental
risks to human health or ecosystems.  Regional Geographic Initiatives (RGI) are an approach EPA
Regional offices use to partner with states, local governments, private organizations, and others. The
work targets specific environmental problems identified as high risk to human health and ecosystems
which are not adequately addressed by other Agency resources.

Increased Facility-and Sector-based Strategies

       EPA's strategy for reinvention is testing and adopting innovative policy tools designed to
achieve better protection at less cost.  The Agency has a number of new tools and approaches that
are being tested or implemented in various environmental programs, including: market trading and
banking, third party certification of environmental performance, and recognition and incentives for
environmental stewardship.

       Sector strategies complement current EPA activities by allowing the Agency to approach
issues more holistically; tailor efforts to the particular characteristics of each sector; identify related
groups of stakeholders with interest in a set of issues; link EPA's efforts with those of other
agencies; and craft new approaches to environmental protection. Sustainable industry programs
serve as incubators and developers of innovative approaches to environmental policy making, testing
alternative regulatory and programmatic approaches through regional projects, and multi-stakeholder
processes. Sector-based approaches will offer valuable supplements to traditional environmental
policy and may become the predominant means for environmental protection in the 21st century.

Science Advisory Board Peer Reviews

       The Agency plans to support the activities of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) which
provides independent expert advice to Congress, the Administrator, and the Agency on scientific and

                                         Vffl-9

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engineering issues that serve as the underpinnings for Agency regulatory decision making. Each
year, the Administrator and EPA program offices nominate numerous issues to the SAB for peer
review. The SAB selects several of these issues for review each year, culminating in reports that
help the Agency make better use of science in its decision-making process. The issues that are not
selected for review can be nominated again the following year. The SAB's broad, objective review
of important scientific and technical issues promotes sound science within the Agency's scientific
and technical programs. The use of the SAB for peer reviews supports the Agency-wide peer review
evaluation efforts, in response to GAO findings in 1997.
External Factors

       Sound science is predicated on the desire of the Agency to make human health and
environmental decisions based on sound scientific data and information. It challenges the Agency
to apply the best available science and technical analysis when addressing health and environmental
problems that adversely impact the United States.  Such a challenge moves the Agency to a more
integrated, efficient,  and  effective approach  of reducing risks to both human health and the
environment. As long as  sound science is a central tenet for actions taken by the Agency, then
external factors will have a minimal impact on the goal.
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                          Environmental Protection Agency

           FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan and Congressional Justification

          Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental Risk, and
                Greater Innovation to Address Environmental Problems


Objective # 1:  Research for Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration

      By 2008, provide the scientific understanding to measure, model, maintain, or restore, at
multiple scales, the integrity and sustainability of ecosystems now and in the future.
                                Resource Summary
                                (Dollars in thousands)
FY1999 FY1999 FY2000 FYZOOOReq.v.
Request Enacted Request FY1999Ena.
Research for Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration $106,489.4 $111,978.7 $118,5533
Science & Technology $105,521.0 $111,978.7 $118,112.7
Hazardous Substance Superfund $968.4 $0.0 $440.6
Total Woikyears: 402.3 400.8 456.4
Key Programs
(Dollars in thousands)
FY 1999 FY 1999
Request Enacted
Clean Water Action Plan -Related Research $0.0 $1,406.0
Coastal Environmental Monitoring $0.0 $0.0
Endocrine Disrupter Research $0.0 $0.0
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, EMAP $36,26 1 .5 $33,255.0
$6,574.6
$6,134.0
$440.6
55.6

FY2000
Request
$4,689.3
$6,549.0
$927.7
$33,955.0
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FY 2000 Request

      Natural ecosystems provide valuable services and resources to the public, such as air and
water purification, flood control, raw materials for manufacturing and industrial processes, food, as
well as less tangible benefits such as recreation. Many human activities alter or damage ecosystems
and their ability to provide these goods and services. In order to balance the growth of human
activity and the need to protect the environment, it is important to understand the current condition
of ecosystems, what stressors are changing that condition, what are the consequences of those
changes, and what can be done to prevent, mitigate, or adapt to those changes. EPA's ecosystems
protection research is organized in four main areas to address these questions.

Ecological Monitoring Research

      Ecological monitoring research addresses the question, "What is the current condition of the
environment, and what stressors are most closely associated with that condition?" To do this,
researchers develop indicators, monitoring systems, and designs for measuring the exposures of
ecosystems to multiple stressors and the response of ecosystems at local, regional, and national
scales.

      Highlights of EPA's monitoring research include The  Environmental Monitoring &
Assessment Program (EMAP) and the new Coastal Monitoring Initiative. EMAP develops the
science of monitoring that is required to implement the Committee on Environment and Natural
Resources (CENR) National Monitoring Framework, and to develop EPA's capability to measure
trends in environmental health, especially the health of freshwater and marine ecosystems.  EMAP
is the only research program specifically seeking to overcome the data gaps for measuring aquatic
ecosystem health. Efforts under EMAP include the development of survey designs for a Western
States Pilot.  This pilot will address the scientific gaps in monitoring designs for arid, alpine and
grassland watersheds in western regions. The field monitoring phase of the Mid-Atlantic Integrated
Assessment (MAIA) has concluded, and this program will shift into an assessment phase.  Data
gathered in this five-year effort will be assessed by EPA researchers.

      The Coastal Research Initiative will provide EPA with baseline and trend analyses for
important data gaps such as the aquatic health of our nation's estuaries.  This initiative will:

      implement nationwide coastal monitoring technologies developed under EMAP

•     work directly with other federal agencies and states and tribes to transfer new monitoring
      designs to local monitoring programs.

Process and Modeling Research

      Process and Modeling Research addresses the question, "What are the biological, chemical,
and physical processes affecting the condition of ecosystems  and their response  to  stressors?"
Drawing from information gathered by monitoring efforts, process and modeling research develops

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a basic understanding of the processes that govern ecosystem function, and the technology to model
those processes. This modeling ability allows for predictions of future landscapes, stressor patterns,
ambient conditions, and receptor responses. Predicting the impact of changes .in conditions allows
resource managers to address problems in ways that will more accurately achieve the environmental
protection goals they seek.

       Current models used to predict the outcome of any individual management option are
generally  single-media models, involving only  a single stressor or pollutant.  Models being
developed by EPA will be able to incorporate multiple stressors and multiple receptors, and will be
linked to landscape models in order to characterize future environments and habitats. This research
has one overarching goal: to publicly release models, and the common software framework
Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS), for computation of nutrients, toxics, pesticides,
sediments, and pathogen loadings into surface waters for determination of total maximum daily
loadings (TMDLs), including alternative management solutions.  EPA's monitoring research seeks
to identify the criteria of ecosystem integrity and the modeling seeks to provide the models to look
at alternative means of meeting those criteria. Thus, the emphasis of the research is related to the
needs of the Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP).

High-priority research will include:

•      Developing a prototype modeling framework for EPA covering a full range of computing
       architectures from personal computers to scalable, parallel machines;

•      Understanding, quantifying, and modeling key transport and/or transformation processes for
       nutrients, industrial chemicals, pesticides, metals (with special emphasis on mercury), and
       pathogens and incorporating these processes into terrestrial and aquatic exposure assessment
       models;

•      Developing stressor/response analyses and techniques to establish cause-and-effect
       relationships and to improve effects models and the applicability of the exposure models.

Risk Assessment Research,

       Risk Assessment Research addresses the question, "What is the relative risk posed to
ecosystems by stressors, alone and in combination, now and in the future?" Ecological assessments
can link stressors with consequences and evaluate the potential for damage to particular ecosystems.
This is a valuable tool for environmental risk managers at local,  state, and federal levels, enabling
them to link high priority ecosystems with ecosystems at high risk. In 1992, EPA published  the
Ecological Risk Assessment Framework as the first statement  of principles for ecological risk
assessment.  In 1998, the Ecological Risk Assessment Guidelines were published, which describe
methods for conducting the more conventional single-species, chemical-based risk assessments,
discussing techniques for assessing risk to ecosystems from multiple stressors and from multiple
endpoints.
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       The goal in this research area will be to continue development of better ecosystem risk
assessment methods.  Specifically, high-priority areas will include:

•      Developing risk assessment  guidelines to improve and  standardize ecological  risk
       assessments within and outside EPA;

•      Conducting ecological risk assessments at real places, on special problems, and for important
       chemicals;

•      Developing new methods to conduct place-based, multiple-stressor assessments.

       The focus of research in 2000 will be the development of a broad perspective regional
assessment plan that will facilitate the completion of a regional risk assessment.

       EPA is increasing its efforts to support the National Science and Technology Council's cross-
Agency priority of Integrated Science for Sustainable Ecosystems. EPA's research efforts in this
area will develop methods and models to integrate socioeconomic analysis with landscape ecology
and ecological risk assessment and give EPA, state, and local community-based environmental
partners capability to identify the most significant environmental stress and select risk reduction
alternatives to improve or sustain biological and chemical water quality in streams, rivers, and
estuaries. This program will also develop a capacity to evaluate and measure the success or failure
of policies in sustaining or improving ecosystem health. Measuring the performance of policies in
the context of promoting sustainable ecosystems will mean that models of ecosystem health will
have to be linked with models of socioeconomic forecasting that drive human demands on our
ecosystems in a manner that has never been achieved before.

Risk Management and Restoration Research

       Risk Management and Restoration Research addresses the question, "What options are
available to manage the risk to, or to restore, degraded ecosystems?" Given the rate of development
of the man-made environment, present regulatory approaches may  not always limit risks  to
vulnerable ecosystems to tolerable levels. There is a need to develop new, cost-effective prevention,
control, and remediation approaches for sources  of  stressors, and adaptation approaches for
ecosystems.  Cost-effective stressor reduction may not always be feasible or practical as a means to
reduce risks. Therefore, it is also important to invest in restoration technologies, including protocols
and indicators, to diagnose ecosystem  restoration needs, evaluate progress toward restoration, and
establish ecologically relevant goals and decision support systems for state and community planners
in order to facilitate consistent, cost-effective decisions on ecosystem restoration within watersheds.

       Risk management research will focus on:

•      Developing and verifying improved tools, methodologies, and technologies to improve or
       maintain ecosystem condition at watershed scales;
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•      Developing best management technologies to reduce the impact of watershed development
       on the biological and chemical condition of stream quality;

•      Developing techniques to improve decontamination of stream sediments;

•      Developing techniques  to decrease the risk of degradation  through adaptation of the
       landscape, ecosystems, and species;

•      Developing the techniques to restore and rehabilitate ecosystems to achieve local, regional,
       and national goals.

       In 2000, the  program  will deliver its first review of the existing best management
technologies and alternatives to riparian restoration.  This will serve as  the foundation for
determining where EPA can best contribute to further development of alternatives in support of the
whole of the ecosystems protection program. Risk management research is being conducted with
both 2000 and prior-year funding.
FY 2000 Change from FY 1999 Enacted

S&T

•      (+ $5,000,000) These resources will fund the National Science and Technology Council's
       Integrated Science for Sustainable Ecosystems Initiative (ISEC). ISEC will develop methods
       and models to integrate socioeconomic analysis with landscape ecology and ecological risk
       assessment and give EPA, state, and local community-based  environmental partners
       capability to identify the most significant environmental stressor and select risk reduction
       alternatives to improve or sustain biological and chemical water quality in streams, rivers,
       and estuaries. This initiative will also develop a capacity to evaluate and measure the success
       or failure of policies in sustaining or improving ecosystem health. This research will directly
       support EP A's goal of improving the science and understanding of environmental risk and
       fostering greater innovation to address environmental problems.

*      (+ $6,549,000, +20.0 workyears) These resources will fund the Coastal Initiative beginning
       in 2000. The 20 workyears are redirected from EMAP Geographic Studies research. This
       initiative will provide a demonstration of status and trends monitoring of the health of U.S.
       estuaries.  The research will  focus on estuarine communities  and develop baselines for
       tracking performance of efforts to control excess nutrients and sediment contamination. The
       Coastal initiative will work with existing state and tribal monitoring efforts, in coordination
       with the Office of Water and the Regional Offices, to transfer new monitoring technologies
       to local programs and to improve  the cost effectiveness of monitoring aquatic ecosystem
       health in our nation's coastal waters.
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(+$650,000) This investment in the mercury initiative will provide for development of better
methods for measuring both wet and dry atmospheric deposition of mercury and provide
information for source attribution. Researchers will also study the fate and transport of
mercury in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems to better quantify the link between atmospheric
mercury deposition and  mercury accumulation in fish.  Additional research under the
mercury initiative is funded in Goal 8, Objective 4.

(+$2,951,160; +15.4 total workyears) This shift will support the development of models
linking sources, transport and transformations of pollutant stressors, along with physical
predictive models, to estimate exposures at appropriate temporal and spatial scales. These
models will also be linked with landscape models to characterize future environments and
habitats, and t