United States              Air and Radiation          EPA420-F-97-035
                   Environmental Protection                           December 1997

                   Office of Mobile Sources
v/EPA        Environmental
                   Fact  Sheet
                    The Congestion Mitigation and Air
                    Quality Improvement Program
                   The CMAQ program provides federal transportation funds to support
                   state and local development and implementation of projects that reduce
                   transportation-related air pollution. As states and local governments
                   have worked to reduce air pollution and attain the air quality standards,
                   they have generally relied on technological control measures. Industrial
                   processes with significantly lower emission levels and cleaner exhaust
                   from automobiles and fuels have resulted in cleaner air in many of our
                   cities. Yet the increase in the number of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in
                   recent years counterbalances these gains and may prevent other cities
                   from achieving healthy air. Strategies to reduce VMT and lessen
                   congestion in order to reduce pollution from travel are increasingly
                   viewed as integral parts of sustainable air quality plans.
                   What Is the CMAQ Program?

                   The CMAQ program was established by the Intermodal Surface Trans-
                   portation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) to fund projects that initiate or
                   expand transportation-related infrastructure and services that have air
                   quality benefits. The Department of Transportation operates the program
                   in consultation with EPA. The CMAQ program's flexible guidelines cut
                   across traditional transportation program boundaries to fund projects
                   dealing with highways, transit, and non-traditional projects such as
                   public outreach, clean fuel vehicles, and inspection and maintenance
                   (I/M) emissions testing programs.
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ISTEA provides to the CMAQ program about $1 billion per year for six
years. The money is divided among the states based upon a legislated
formula. Each state is guaranteed 0.5 percent, and the rest is given to
states with areas where ozone and carbon monoxide levels do not meet
air quality standards ("nonattainment areas"). The formula takes into
account the severity of the air pollution, as well as the population of the
nonattainment areas within each state.

Two funding requirements apply to the CMAQ program. First, the
money must be spent on projects that reduce ozone or carbon monoxide
from transportation sources. Second, the money must be used in a
nonattainment area, if one exists within the state. The state is responsible
for distribution among multiple nonattainment areas. If the state does not
have an ozone or carbon monoxide nonattainment area, the funds may be
used anywhere in the state for any activity eligible under the CMAQ or
another transportation program, the Surface Transportation Program.
However, in these cases, funding projects that address the reduction of
transportation-related particulate matter is encouraged.
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Because of the program's high degree of flexibility, CMAQ projects can
vary greatly from area to area. However, there are some common charac-
teristics, due to the program's focus on air quality. Generally, CMAQ

   1) are developed through a coordinated planning process;
  2) target the emissions for which the area is in nonattainment, and;
  3) produce emission reductions in the time frames established by the
     Clean Air Act for that area.

CMAQ projects can usually be classified in one of the following catego-

* Travel Demand Management Strategies
• Transit Improvements
• Shared Ride Services
• Traffic Flow Improvements
«Pedestrian and Bicycle Programs

These broad categories provide wide ranging flexibility and can support
specific projects that vary greatly in design, scope, and implementation.
The categories are not intended to be exclusive; other activities, such as
I/TV! programs, conversion of public fleets to clean alternative fuels, and
public education and outreach programs, may also be eligible.
For more information about this program, please contact Mark Simons at:

  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  Office of Mobile Sources
  2000 Traverwood Drive
  Ann Arbor, MI 48105
  Phone:  (734)214-4420
  Fax:    (734)214-4052
  E-mail:  simons.mark@epa.gov

This fact sheet and additional documents on transportation and air
quality are available electronically on EPA's Internetworld Wide Web
(WWW) site at:

  http ://www. epa.gov/oms/traq

Further information may also be available from:

• Your local Metropolitan Planning Organization
• Your State Department of Transportation
• The  U.S. Department of Transportation:
   Federal Highway Administration, Division Offices
   Federal Transit Administration, Regional Offices
• U.S. EPA Regional Offices