2005 Year in Review: Emergency Management
— Prevention, Preparedness and Response
   Tff* "V?1
EPA 550-R-06-001

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     September 2006

Office of Emergency Management
                                                       2005 Year in Review

Message from the Office of Emergency Management Director	2

Section I: Who We Are	3

Section II: Our Goals	5

Section III: Highlights	7

    Prevention	7

    Preparedness	10

    Response	15

        Hurricanes Katrinaand Rita	15

        Other Response Activities	17

Office of Emergency Management
                                                                      2005 Year in Review
Message from Office of Emergency Management Director, Deborah Dietrich
I am pleased to share with you the 2005 report on the emergency management activities of the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Headquarters and Regional Offices. Like many other government
agencies, EPA played a major role in the response to hurricanes Katrina and Rita. EPA continued to
address priority areas under its National Approach to Response (NAR), including more training on the
Incident Command System (ICS) and improvements in data management systems. EPA also collaborated
with other agencies to develop an environmental laboratory response network. These efforts contributed
significantly to the effectiveness of EPAs response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

In the prevention arena, EPA proposed two amendments to the Spill Prevention, Control and
Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule. The first amendment proposed streamlining the requirements to enhance
oil spill prevention. The second amendment extended the deadline for SPCC compliance for all facilities.
This extension proposal was finalized on February 17, 2006. EPA is also examining aspects of chemical
accident prevention activities nationwide as we analyze the Risk Management Plan (RMP) data after our
last five-year anniversary reporting.

This year, we look forward to celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Emergency Planning and  Community
Right to Know Act (EPCRA). Our colleagues in the Regional Offices and our many partners, including
State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs), Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs),
RMP Implementing Agencies, and others in state and local governments and the private sector, have
made a sustained effort to actively improve their emergency preparedness. Together, I believe  we
continue to improve our response to environmental emergencies - contributing to the prevention of
accidents, while still preparing for those that we cannot yet predict.
                                     OEM Mission:
To ensure that this nation is better prepared for environmental emergencies, EPAs Office of Emergency
Management (OEM) is working with other EPA partners, federal agencies, state and local agencies, and
industry to prevent accidents, as well as to maintain superior response capabilities. OEM's overall mission
is to provide national leadership to prevent, prepare for, and respond to, health and environmental
emergencies. This is facilitated through partnerships, joint strategy development, technology development
and deployment, and training and exercises.

       Office of Emergency Management
                                                                           2005 Year in Review
       Section  I:  Who We  Are
       OEM, part of EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), was created in 2004
       to integrate the functions of the former Superfund Emergency Response Program, Oil Spill Prevention
       Program, and the Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office (CEPPO).
Office Of Emergency Management Organization Chart
Deborah V. Dietrich, Office Director
Dana S. Tulis, Deputy Office Director

National Decontamination Team
Steve Hawthorn, Leader

Business Operations Center
Dana Stalcup, Director

1 1 1
Regulation & Policy Na,jona| p|annj
Development Dms.on and Preparedness Division
Cra,3 Matth,essen, Director Mgrk Mpness/ Djrector
Kim Jennmss, Associate Director
Program Operations
and Coordination Division and C
Tito Irizarry, Director h

ammunications Division
;athy Jones, Director

Regulation and Policy Development Division

The Regulation and Policy Development Division (RPDD)
is OEM's policy and technical arm. RPDD develops policy,
regulations, and technical approaches required by various
environmental, safety, and accident statutes.

Evaluation and Communications Division

The Evaluation and Communications Division (ECD)
coordinates strategic planning, program evaluation, and
communication. For example, ECD coordinates OEM
work planning, develops lessons learned from exercises
and incidents, coordinates outreach, and keeps the OEM
Web site up-to-date.

National Planning and Preparedness Division
The National  Planning and Preparedness Division (NPPD)
is responsible for ensuring national EPA readiness to
respond to incidents involving hazardous chemicals, oil,
and biological and radiological contamination resulting
from terrorist  attacks or accidents. NPPD works closely
with EPA's Office of Homeland Security.
Business Operations Center

The Business Operations Center (BOC) is responsible for
program and resource management functions, including
budgetary planning, human resources, contracts and
grants, accountability, and the Emergency Operations
Center (EOC). BOC directs the formulation and execution
of annual budgets, and coordinates activities across OEM.

Program Operations and Coordination Division

The Program Operations and Coordination Division
(POCD)  provides coordination and oversight for all OEM
operational programs. Regional Coordinators provide
programmatic expertise, policy interpretation, response
strategies, and general support to the Regional Offices.
POCD personnel provide a 24/7 watch officer service,
serve  as regional points of contact for expertise and
support,  and serve as advocates for regional needs.

National Decontamination Team
Located  in Cincinnati, Ohio, the National Decontamination
Team  (NOT) provides scientific and technical expertise
and support to On-Scene-Coordinators (OSCs)
regarding decontamination in the event of an incident
involving releases of radiological, biological, or chemical

Office of Emergency Management
                                                          2005 Year in Review
                           Regional Counterparts
           Program Component:
           Division     Removal
           Director     Manager
Program Component:
Division       CEPP
Director   Coordinator
Program Component:
Division       Oil
Director  Coordinator
Abe Ferdas
Richard C.
Cecilia Tapia
Max Dodson
Keith Takata
Dan Opalski
Art Johnson
Eric Mosher
Joe Rotola
Scott Hayes
Ken Buchholz
Dan Meer
Chris Field
Stephane S.
Abe Ferdas
Richard C.
Max Dodson
Keith Takata
Dan Opalski
Ray DiNardo
John Higgins
Walt Graham
Anthony Toney
Mark Horwitz
Steve Mason
Mark Smith
Martha Wolf
Kay Lawrence
Kelly Huynh
Abe Ferdas
Richard C.
Carol Kather
Max Dodson
Keith Takata
Dan Opalski
Steve Novick
Doug Kodama
Anita Davis
Beverly Kush
James Mullins
Paul Doherty/
Martha Wolf
Jim Hanson
Carl Kitz

Office of Emergency Management
                                                                     2005 Year in Review
Section   II:  Our  Goals
OEM and our regional colleagues work with
other EPA offices and federal, state, and local
agencies to fulfill the EPA Administrator's Action
Plan to protect human health and the environment
through results and accountability, innovation
and collaboration, and use of the best available
science. EPA's Strategic Plan guides OEM in the
performance of this charge and focuses on the
following priorities:

Reduce the risk of releases of oil and hazardous

Q Develop, maintain, and support a regulatory
   structure that promotes the prevention of
   releases of oil  and hazardous substances.

Q Participate in, and provide leadership to,
   national and international efforts to understand
   the causes of accidental releases of oil and
   hazardous substances, and to develop state-
   of-the-art accident prevention technologies.

Lead EPA in developing and updating emergency
preparedness structures for oil and hazardous
substance emergencies, and in providing for a
timely and effective response to any releases.

Q Continue to implement the National Response
   System (MRS) described in the National
   Contingency Plan (NCP) by maintaining up-
   to-date Regional Response Plans and Area
   Plans, and by maintaining and continually
   improving the Removal Program.

Q Use the capabilities of the MRS and the
   structures described in the Agency's NAR
   to  prepare to respond and recover from up
   to  five simultaneous Incidents of National
   Significance (INS).

Q Demonstrate readiness and effective
   response to oil and hazardous substance

Q Develop, maintain, and support a regulatory
   structure that promotes preparedness for
   releases of oil  and hazardous substances.
    TWo OEM Programs PARTed
            During 2005.

The Program Assessment Rating Tool
(PART) is used by the Office of Management
and Budget (OMB) to assess how well
management practices relate to program
objectives. The office also identifies program
measures and targets for specific program
objectives. Every federal government program
is expected to be PARTed every five years.

OMB performed a follow-up assessment of the
Removal Program and an initial PART of the Oil
Program; both programs received a "passing"
score. OEM developed new performance
measures (and related targets) for each
program. In addition, OMB and OEM agreed to
specific action items to be addressed throughout
the next five years to improve each program:

Q  For the Removal Program: (a) Modernize
   the program's data repository -
   Comprehensive Environmental Response,
   Compensation and  Liability Information
   System (CERCLIS), to ensure accurate
   and complete information on program
   performance and financial management;
   (b) Investigate the feasibility of outcome
   measures that test the link between program
   activities and impacts on human  health and
   the environment; and (c) Develop a plan for
   regular, comprehensive, and independent
   assessments of program performance.

Q  For the Oil Program: (a) Develop stronger
   strategic planning procedures to ensure
   continuous improvement in the program,
   including regular procedures that will track
   and document key decisions and work
   products; (b) Evaluate the quality of key
   data sources used by the program in order
   to improve the accuracy and reliability of
   performance information; and (c) Develop
   a forum for sharing and implementing
   best practices among Regional Offices to
   improve the program's overall performance
   and efficiency.

Office of Emergency Management
                                                                       2005 Year in Review
Develop and continually support external
partnerships with other federal agencies, state
and local governments, and the private sector
in order to prevent, prepare for, and respond to
releases of oil and hazardous substances.

Q Lead the MRS in the integration with and
   implementation of the NRP and the National
   Incident Management System (NIMS) by
   ensuring that all EPA preparedness and
   response staff are appropriately and actively
   involved in the various local, Regional, and
   national structures described in the NRP, NCP,
   and NIMS.

Q Promote the ability of states, tribes, and
   local entities to be leaders in broad-based,
   comprehensive preparedness activities.

Q Work with stakeholders to ensure that OEM
   regulations promote efficient and effective
   emergency prevention, preparedness, and
   response capabilities.

Develop state-of-the-art technology and
communicate timely, accurate information for
understanding and managing oil and hazardous
substance hazards.

Q Develop, maintain, and provide electronic
   tools, guidance, and technical assistance
   to help federal, regional, state, and local
   emergency planners and responders collect,
   manage, and use information to protect
   communities from threats of releases of oil
   and hazardous substances.

Q Develop and maintain state-of-the-art
   capabilities (including the EOC Web site) to
   gather, analyze, and communicate information
   about oil and hazardous substances.
    Office of Environmental
    Information on Quality
         Assurance (QA)

Quality Matters
Following its reorganization  in 2004,
OEM developed and finalized its Quality
Assurance Implementation Plan. At the
heart of the OEM Headquarters quality
program is the development of strong
procedures and training programs,
as well as intra-agency coordination.
OEM recognizes that most,  if not all,
OSWER environmental data collection
is performed in the regions,  with Quality
Assurance Project Plans being developed
by the organizations collecting the data.
EPA's quality assurance staff audited
OEM Headquarters' quality operations
in the summer of 2005 and found
"considerable evidence of good quality
assurance practices supporting OEM's
operations," and also observed good
management support for this critical
component of OEM's activities. OEM
continues to refine its quality practices,
which are reflected  in daily operations and
also during  extraordinary events such as
Internet posting of data collected in the
aftermath of the year's hurricanes.
Strengthen OEM.

Q Retain and attract a talented and diverse

Q Develop and implement cross-program
   outcome and efficiency measures.

    Office of Emergency Management
                                                                     2005 Year in Review
    Section  III:   Highlights
                    Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure
    For the Oil Program, 2005 was a busy year
    for regulatory and program development. In
    December, a proposed rule was published
    that would amend the July 2002 SPCC rule.
    Specifically, the proposal would:

    Q Allow owners and operators of facilities with
      an oil storage capacity of 10,000 gallons or
      less the option of self-certification;

    Q Provide certain facilities an alternative to the
      secondary containment requirements;

    Q Define airport mobile refuelers and exempt
      such vehicles from certain requirements;

    Q Amend the requirements for animal fats and
      vegetable oils; and

    Q Define "farms" and provide a separate
      compliance date for certain farms.

    OEM also proposed to extend the dates by which
    facilities must prepare and amend an SPCC
    Plan under the revised regulation (this extension
    was  finalized in  February 2006). Finally, OEM
    developed a comprehensive SPCC Guidance
    Document for Regional Inspectors to assist the
    inspectors (and the regulated community or
    interested stakeholders) in reviewing a facility's
    implementation  of the SPCC rule. Training based
    on the guidance was also developed.
  Field Inspection of an Above Ground Storage lank
SPCC Inspections by Region, FY2005 and 5-year Total
                                                      R1   R2  R3   R4   R5   R6   R7   R8   R9   R10
                                                             D 2005 • 5 year Total (2001 to 2005)]
                           International Oil Spill Conference
The International Oil Spill Conference (IOSC) took place in Miami Beach, Florida on May 14-19, 2005. The theme
for the conference was "Prevention, Preparedness, Response and Restoration—Raising Global Standards."
Co-sponsors of the IOSC included  International Maritime Organization (IMO), EPA, U.S. Coast Guard (USCG),
International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (I PI EGA), American Petroleum Institute
(API), Minerals Management Service (MMS), and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). A total
of 1,313 participants attended the conference representing 66 countries. Several regional and Headquarters staff
participated in the conference.

       Office of Emergency Management
                                                                                 2005 Year in Review
                                        Risk Management Plans
       The regulations implementing section 112 (r) of
       the Clean Air Act (CAA) require certain facilities
       to develop a risk management program to
       prevent and mitigate the effects of chemical
       accidents, and to document the program in a Risk
       Management Plan (RMP). By the beginning of
       2005, the RMP database contained approximately
       14,600 current RMPs, but many facilities had
       not yet taken any action to update their plans
       since their original submissions in 1999. After
       much follow-up in 2005 by Regional Offices and
       Headquarters, OEM examined the facilities that
       formally deregistered from the system between
       the beginning of the 2004 reporting cycle (in
       mid-2004) and early 2006. This included a
       total of more than 1,530 facilities. By contrast,
       in the much longer period from the inception
       of the program in 1999 to the period just prior
       to the June 2004 submissions, 1,626 facilities
       deregistered. These deregistrations are paralleled
       by new facilities entering the system, but the
       total number of current RMPs has declined to
       approximately 14,000 as of the beginning of
       calendar year 2006. Of these 14,000 facilities,
       EPA conducted 885 RMP field audits and
       inspections in 2005.

       Who deregistered in 2004-2005?

       The North American Industrial Classification
       System (NAICS) category reported that most
       deregistered facilities were wholesalers in non-
       durable goods. This category represented close
       to 30 percent of all deregistrations. This NAICS
     RMP Facilities Deregistered from 1999 to 2006

         1999  2000  2001   2002  2003   2004*  2005   2006*
              : No. of Facilities D No. of Facilities in 2004
code includes a diverse group of facility types,
including wholesale petroleum products, chemical
and allied products, raw material farm products,
and "miscellaneous" wholesalers, many of whom
use or store ammonia.

Utilities, the category with the next largest
amount of deregistrations, comprised 26
percent of deregistered facilities. This category
predominantly includes water, sewage, and other
systems, many of which use chlorine.
   Reasons for Deregistrations for the 1,531 Facilities
    Source terminated
    operations: 425
                                       Source reduced inventory
                                       of all regulated substances
                                       below TQs: 317
                                      Source no longer uses any
                                      regulated substance: 657
•After amended RMP Final Rule, 69 FR 18819, April 9, 2004.
"From January 1 to March 1, 2006.
Why did they do it?

In 2004, EPA modified the RMP regulation to
add a mandatory data element for sources to
identify reasons for revisions. Thus, there is now
information on the reason why many facilities filed
deregistration notices since mid-2004.

Improvements to RMP Systems

Throughout 2005, EPA improved its software to
allow facilities to make administrative changes
to their RMPs via the internet. EPA introduced
RMP*WebRC in 2004 to enable facilities to make
very limited administrative corrections. The 2005
expansion is a precursor to eventual Web-based
reporting of the  entire RMP. During 2005, federal,
state,  and local  responders and analysts were
also provided access via the Web to RMP*lnfo
database (i.e., RMP information not including
Off-site Consequence Analysis information). Both
of these steps made use of EPA's Central Data
Exchange, allowing the RMP program to take
advantage of EPA's reporting of improvements
and new developments in information technology.

      Office of Emergency Management
                                                                              2005 Year in Review
                EPA Region 7
       Analysis Helps Drive Action

      By examining specific facilities and
      NAICS Codes, Region 7 determined
      more accurate industrial classifications
      and accident rates. For example, the
      refrigeration industry sector—which
      includes bread and bakery product
      manufacturing and breakfast cereal
      manufacturing—reports 33 percent of the
      accidents in the Region's database, but
      represents only 8 percent of the Region's
      RMP industry. This industry sector is
      now identified as an area of concern.
      Further analysis of repeat accidents
      reveals trends within each industry
      sector. Inter-industry comparisons for
      the Region's four states - Missouri,
      Kansas, Iowa, and Nebraska - reveal
      that Missouri experiences more than two
      times the industry average of accidents
      for agricultural activities. Missouri also
      shows a greater percentage of accidents
      in the water industry sector than that of
      other facilities. This analysis is being used
      to coordinate the Region's collaborative
      actions with state officials. Further use
      of RMP data, in conjunction with other
      regional databases, not only sharpens
      the focus on particular issues, but also
      reveals deficiencies in RMP reporting.
Top 4 Industry Categories by NAICS Code in Region 7
       RMPs Filed*
                            RMP Accidents
    Q Refrigeration            • Chemical Manufactoring
    • Water & Waste Water Treatment D Other
    a Agriculture Activities
           EPA Region 2
  Reducing Risk in Rochester

EPA Region 2 selected the  Rochester,
New York area for a city-wide initiative to
reduce environmental and health risks
of residents (especially children) based
on data from the RMP program  and a
variety of other sources, including local,
state,  and other EPA programs.  This is a
highly industrialized area with relatively
high emissions reported through EPA's
Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). Health
data shows that some local children
have elevated blood lead levels. During
this initiative, EPA inspected a packaged
ice manufacturing and cold storage
facility that had a deficient RMP and
discovered  that the ammonia refrigeration
system was not operating safely. Using
authorities under the Clean Air Act (CAA),
EPA issued an order to the  facility to
immediately perform a comprehensive
assessment and make all necessary
repairs and upgrades. The inspection
was one of 166 in the Rochester area
during the initiative to assess industrial
and commercial facilities' compliance
with regulations governing air pollution,
solid and hazardous wastes, asbestos,
pesticides, toxic waste disposal, and
chemical inventories. The company paid a
$34,600 fine and  performed the required
repairs and upgrades under deadlines
ranging from one to three months, and
is currently  working to improve its risk
management program. The company's
actions will  result in a safer facility with
reduced likelihood of accidental air
releases of ammonia, which will lower
risks to employees, nearby residents, and
emergency responders.

Office of Emergency Management
                                                                    2005 Year in Review
   Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act and Computer
                 Aided Management of Emergency Operations
Congress passed EPCRAof 1986 in the wake of the deadly release of methyl isocynate in Bhopal, India.
Now in its 20th year, EPCRA has matured into the primary program to prepare for possible chemical
releases in our country, both
at the  local and state level.
EPCRA structures have
absorbed or have merged with
other organizations to ensure
preparedness practices are
established for releases caused
by terrorist events. In response
to a growing need, many
LEPCs throughout the country
have expanded to take on the
responsibility of the Citizen
Corps. Various agencies rely on
EPCRA chemical information to
analyze the threat of chemical
terrorism. OEM established the strategic planning goal of having 50  percent of all LEPCs nationwide
include deliberate releases by terrorists in the local emergency plan.

OEM and the Regional Offices provide guidance and technical assistance to SERCs and LEPCs. The
OEM Web site includes information about chemical hazards, hazards analysis, and planning and risk
communication guidance. Several regions hold regular conferences  for LEPC members and others who
are  implementing EPCRA. (See the sidebars for a description of the conferences in Regions 3 and 7
during 2005.)
                                                              OEM continues to work with
                                                              NOAA to support the use of
                                                              Computer Aided Management
                                                              of Emergency Operations
                                                              (CAMEO) by LEPCs and fire
                                                              departments throughout the
                                                              country. A quarter of a million
                                                              users have downloaded
                                                              CAMEO free of charge from
                                                              the Internet since 9/11. The
                                                              Department of Homeland
                                                              Security (DHS) has trained
                                                              4,000 users in CAMEO.
                                                              Even Harvard University, with
                                                              Region  1 support, provides
                                                              CAMEO training. In 2005, the
                                                              US Navy adopted CAMEO
for all Navy systems to improve emergency response and planning in their base installations worldwide.
In 2005, a major enhancement for the Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres model (ALOHA) was
released, which now allows modeling of fires  and explosions. ALOHA is also undergoing enhancements
to allow it to address weapons of mass destruction.

In 2006, we look forward to celebrating the 20th birthdays of both EPCRA and CAMEO.
          EPA Region 7 LEPC/SERC Conference

On August 18-21, 2005, Region 7, with senior officials from the Regional
Office and Headquarters, sponsored its biennial LEPC/SERC Conference
in Kansas City, Missouri. The conference was co-sponsored by the
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), tribal, state and local
governments, and business and industry. Approximately 380 participants
came from the Region's four states, as well as from 21 other states, the
District of Columbia, and Canada. Five training sessions were offered:
1) Grant Writing; 2) Hazardous Waste and Emergency Response
(HAZWOPER) Refresher; 3) Basics of ICS; 4) Radioactive Material for First
Responders; and 5) Properties of Hazardous Materials. In addition, five
technical tracks were offered: 1) Radiation; 2) Health and Medical; 3) Tools for
Exercises; 4) LEPC Basics; and 5) Homeland Security. Twenty-six exhibitors
and three corporate sponsors provided financial support for the conference.

Office of Emergency Management
                                                                          2005 Year in Review
                                 Facility Response Plans
Facility Response Plans (FRPs) are an important planning link between facilities and area contingency
plans, and are required under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA). Certain facilities with large oil storage capacity
are required to prepare and submit a FRP for a worst-case discharge of oil that outlines procedures
for managing and mitigating the substantial threat posed by such an event. The FRP requires facilities
to establish emergency response resources, conduct a hazard evaluation, and determine discharge
scenarios for small, medium, and worst-case discharges. Facilities that may cause significant and
substantial harm in the event of a release are required to submit their FRP to the Regional Office for
                                                            FRP Facilities Located in the Paths of
                                                                Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
                                                      •  Facilities with Facility Response Plans
                                                        Within 10.ami ISO-Mile Radius of
                                                        Hurricane Katrina's Path
n                                                        Within 10-and 150-Mile Radius of
                                                        Hurricane Rita's Path
                                                        EPA Region a
                                                        EPA Region •..
Facilities also must train employees and
conduct drills and exercises to prepare for an oil
response. EPA conducts inspections and drills at
FRP facilities and has found that unannounced
exercises are an effective way to determine
emergency response readiness.

In 2005, OEM Regional Coordinators and
counterparts completed development of a national
database of 4,200 FRP plan holders. This
database was used to compile a national profile
of historical spill rates from FRP facilities dating
back to 2001. Prior to hurricanes Katrina and Rita
affecting major oil infrastructure, the total oil spill
rate for 2005 was trending lower than each of the
previous four years. Both the database and spill
history profile were used to support the Oil PART.

During 2005, the regions conducted numerous
outreach seminars for stakeholders and visited
facilities to conduct FRP inspections and
unannounced drills. To promote national consistency in the FRP program, OEM began to consolidate and
update existing FRP guidance to the regions. As part of the effort to ensure national consistency, OEM
participated in several FRP inspections and unannounced exercises alongside regional staff.

Office of Emergency Management
                                                               2005 Year in Review
           Core Emergency Response Scores Continue to Increase
Core Emergency Response (CORE ER) sets standards to ensure that each region works toward
improving and maintaining an excellent response program that is capable of responding quickly
and effectively to chemical, oil, biological agents, and radiological incidents. Under the Government
Performance and Results Act (GPRA), EPA has set a target to improve emergency response
preparedness by 10 percent each year, as measured through the CORE ER evaluation process. Overall,
EPA has increased its Emergency Response Scores.
                  50 4t
                  so H-H
                            D 2003 • 2004 • 2005

  Office of Emergency Management
                                                                          2005 Year in Review
  Exercises are commonly used by emergency
  responders to test existing plans and procedures
  and to validate communications equipment and
  protocols. Exercises are designed to assess how
  well different levels of government can coordinate
  during an emergency. Recent exercises have
  focused on testing NIMS and its use of ICS.
  Lessons learned from these exercises are
  subsequently used to update and modify plans
  and procedures in order to make them more

  EPA Regional Offices commonly participate
  in multi-agency exercises organized  by the
  Federal Executive Board. Each year, the regions
  employ roughly five percent of their resources to
  participate in numerous exercises with varying
  levels of complexity. During 2005,  EPA regions
  participated in approximately 300 exercises, some
  organized by EPA, others organized  by additional
  government agencies and/or industry. Scenarios
  ranged from terrorists attacks (radiological,
  biological, and chemical) to local fires and oil spills
  at FRP facilities.

  The single major exercise in 2005 was TOPOFF-3,
  held in  early April.  More than 10,000 participants
  from 27 Federal agencies and 275 government
  and private organizations were involved in this
  event. Since the scenario involved terrorist activity
  in Connecticut and New Jersey, Regions 1  and
  2, along with Headquarters, were  major players.
  TOPOFF-3 required more than a year of detailed
  planning from the main  participants.
            Exercise Play during TOPOFF-3
Also in 2005, EPA regions organized and
participated in numerous Continuity of Operations
Planning (COOP) exercises. Some tested
notification procedures, while others involved
deployment of key staff to an offsite location.
Quarterly exercises were held at Headquarters
to test notification procedures. For example, after
key personnel were notified to report to an offsite
location by a specified time, the COOP leaders
evaluated how quickly each person received and
acknowledged the notification. In June 2005, EPA
Headquarters also participated in PINNACLE
05, sponsored by DHS and  FEMA. This exercise
was designed to test the ability of federal
agencies to deal with a major terrorist event in
the Washington, DC area. Several weeks before
the actual PINNACLE 05, OEM COOP  managers
conducted a "rehearsal exercise" that used a
simplified version of the PINNACLE scenario to
remind key Headquarters personnel of  important
COOP procedures.  In a post 9/11 world, COOP
has become an integral component in ensuring
the continuity of operations during an emergency
or disaster.
Exercise Play during TOPOFF-3

    Office of Emergency Management
                                                                           2005 Year in Review
                              National Approach to Response
    Issued in June 2003, NAR provides a framework for a consistent, EPA-wide approach for quickly and
    comprehensively responding to major incidents. Under NAR, EPA adopted NIMS ICS as the management
    structure for a major incident. NAR also clarifies regional coordination and affirms the role of the National
    Incident Coordination Team  (NICT) as the focal point for multi-program information sharing and issue

    This approach brings together existing emergency response assets to ensure the effective use of EPA
    resources. It also provides consistency in addressing key aspects of a response such as organizational
    elements, support personnel and national teams  in  ICS, exercises and training, equipment, laboratory
    capability/capacity, and contracting. In addition, NAR will prepare EPA to respond to an INS by
    integrating existing response plans, authorities and mechanisms, and by clearly articulating roles and
    interrelationships, including communications and interagency support. Perhaps most importantly, NAR
    establishes a requirement that EPA operate at the tactical level of response under a specific ICS during
    an INS.

    National Approach to Response Progress

    During 2005, Headquarters and regional staff advanced resolution of the issues involving nationwide
    consistency that will be necessary to allow for quick and effective response to an INS. Work continued on
    11 priority areas including: decontamination, environmental lab capacity, equipment, health and safety,
    human capital strategy, ICS, data management, telecommunications, radiation response, response
    support corps, and training/exercises. Accomplishments included:

    Q More than 2,000 EPA employees were trained in ICS;

    Q The National Decontamination Team was established;

    Q A gap analysis of national environmental lab capabilities for chemical, biological, and radiological
       agents was completed; and

    Q An Incident Management Handbook for EPA was drafted.
                              National  Decontamination Team

EPAs new National Decontamination Team (NOT) joins the force of Special Teams available to support On Scene
Coordinators. Located in Cincinnati, Ohio, this thirteen member team is dedicated to providing decontamination
expertise, especially related to contaminants that could be used as Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). The
team provides scientific support and technical expertise for decontamination of buildings, building contents, public
infrastructure (including waste/drinking water plants, chemical plants, power plants, food processing facilities
and subways), agriculture, and associated environmental media (air, soil and water). Working closely with EPAs
Environmental Response Team (ERT), the Radiological Emergency Response Team (RERT), and the National
Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), the NOT identifies research needs and bridges the gap between
research and application of newly developed field tools.

The NOT is currently developing a WMD Decontamination training course and also a Decontamination Portfolio,
a web-based one-stop reference source for decontamination information. During the recent Hurricane Katrina
Response, team members, who are fully trained in  the Incident Command System, worked as Scientific Support
Coordinators, Safety Officers and Environmental Unit Leaders.

          Office of Emergency Management
                                                                              2005 Year in Review
                                      Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
          The federal government faced unprecedented
          challenges responding to hurricanes Katrina
          and Rita. Through EPA's NAR coordination
          mechanism, almost every EPA office supported
          Regions 4 and 6 as they worked on a range of
          issues along the Gulf Coast. The depth of EPA's
          emergency response experience and its on-going
          commitment to preparation and training enabled
          EPA to go above and beyond its traditional role by
          providing the support necessary to protect human
          health and the environment.

          In the first days of the response, EPA took on
          a new role at the request of FEMA: rescuing
          approximately 800 residents from the New
          Orleans flood waters. As the response continued
          and presented more unique demands and
          challenges, more than 1,100 EPA employees
          from across the country were deployed to the
          Gulf Coast region to assist in the response
          and cleanup efforts. Thousands of additional
          employees supported EPA's response from their
EPA Assessing Storage Tank Flooded by Hurricane Katrina
            EPA Collecting Water Samples

home offices. Under these mission assignments,
as of April 30, 2006, EPA has:

Q Collected more than 10,000 samples of
   floodwater, sediment, soil, air, surface water,
   and ground water. For all media, there were
   more than 400,000 analyses associated with
   the sampling activity throughout the Gulf
   Coast region.

Q With the help of its partners, assessed more
   than 4,000 drinking water and wastewater
   system facilities, which EPA continues to
   monitor as they return to operation.

Office of Emergency Management
                                                                         2005 Year in Review
   Helped the lower six counties of coastal
   Mississippi control damaged water sector
   infrastructure. EPA also helped restore
   damaged sewer infrastructures in 11 coastal
   municipalities and cleaned lift stations to
   provide emergency power to local  communities.

   Helped set up temporary mobile water
   treatment units for community and medical
   facilities and delivered emergency supplies to
   water and wastewater utilities.

   Provided oversight for assessment and
   cleanup efforts at the million-gallon Murphy
   Oil Spill. The spill affected a square mile of
   residential properties,  including approximately
   1,800 houses.
Q Collected more than 3.2 million unsecured
   or abandoned containers of potentially
   hazardous wastes, collected more than
   439,000 electronic goods, and recycled more
   than 360,000 large appliances.

All EPA data can be found at http://www.epa.
As federal operations are shifting from the response phase to the long-term recovery phase, EPA is
working closely with FEMA staff and state officials in Mississippi and Louisiana to establish long-term
recovery plans, with an emphasis on water and wastewater infrastructure. EPA assisted in developing
brochures for local communities, including one entitled: "Federal Funding for Water and Wastewater
Infrastructure Damaged by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita."

In Louisiana, EPA worked with FEMA storefront planning teams on the parish recovery plans. EPA has
also facilitated meetings, fairs, and weekly conference calls with agencies that provide grants and loans
for drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. EPA provided a draft Smart Growth template to help
decision makers efficiently allocate recovery funding for community rebuilding. EPA is also working
with Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) to amend recovery plans to include the
assimilation of secondarily treated wastewater effluent into wetlands.

    Office of Emergency Management
                                                                          2005 Year in Review
                                 Other Response Activities
    Oil Spill Response Statistics

    EPA responds to spills that threaten or directly
    impact inland waters of the United States, and
    supports the USCG  during spills to the marine
    environment. In 2005,  EPA responded to
    approximately 260 oil spills.
    Response Removal Actions

    In 2005, Superfund conducted 343 emergency
    response and removal actions to address
    immediate and substantial threats to communities.
    Of these, 180 were Superfund lead actions; 19
    were federal facility actions; 141 were potentially
    responsible party (PRP) actions; and three
    were classified under "other."  EPA responds to
    a release or threat of release  of a hazardous
    substance, pollutant, or contaminant that may
    present an imminent and substantial danger to
    the public health or welfare. A removal action
    is generally short-term and addresses the most
    immediate threat.
FY2005 Completed Removals by Lead Organization
          Federal Facility PRP with no    PRP with
                   Enforcement   Enforcement
   OSWER/OEM 2005 Notable
   Achievement Award Winner

2005 Chemical Emergency Preparedness
and Prevention (CEPP) - State Partner Award:
Len Insalaco of the Pennsylvania Department
of Environmental Protection - Northeast
Regional Office's Emergency Response
Team is the 2005 CEPP State Partner award
winner. Len has been a valuable partner
to EPA Region 3's emergency response
program and has been instrumental in
leading the Northeast PA and East Central
Terrorism Task Forces in counterterrorism
planning and general hazmat/oil planning
and response. Since 1989, he has effectively
organized and managed the Pennsylvania
Department of Environmental Protection
(PADEP) Emergency Response Team, and
his expertise in environmental response is
routinely used across the state. Since 1980,
Len has supported and collaborated with
Region 3's OSCs. Due to Len's leadership and
commitment, the region is better prepared to
respond to environmental emergencies.

Office of Emergency Management
                                                                     2005 Year in Review
   National Response Team/
   Regional Response Team
       Co-Chairs Meeting

The annual National Response Team/
Regional Response Team (NRT/RRT)
Co-Chairs meeting was held in Denver,
Colorado from March 8-10, 2005. Attended
by EPA and USCG Co-Chairs  of each
of the 13 RRTs, representatives of the
NRT member agencies and subject
matter speakers served as an  information
exchange and activity coordination forum
among the RRTs and NRT.
Discussion topics included:

a NRT/RRT role  in international

Q Next steps with regard to NIMS and the

Q Developments in bio-defense
   planning and response for bio-toxins,
   pathogens, and prions;

Q Lessons learned from selected major
   incidents and exercises in  2004;

Q Reorganizations  of EPA's OEM,
   USCG's Sectors, and NOAAs Office of
   Response and the resultant impact on
   RRT operations;  and

Q Safety and health of workers
Major Response Actions

Graniteville Train Derailment

On January 6, 2005 at 2:40 a.m., a Norfolk
Southern train derailed after it collided with a
parked train near Graniteville, South Carolina. The
collision resulted in the derailment of 16 rail cars
and two locomotives,  including four hazardous
materials cars. The derailment punctured one of
the three chlorine cars, releasing approximately
46 tons of chlorine along with nearly 3,000 gallons
of diesel fuel from the wrecked locomotives.
Five thousand people were evacuated, nine
fatalities occurred due to the chlorine exposure,
and hundreds of victims were treated at nearby
hospitals. Numerous local and state agencies,
EPA Regions 3 and 4, the EPA Environmental
Response Team (ERT), the USCG Gulf Strike
Team, the Agency for Toxic Substances and
Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the Superfund
Technical Assessment and Response Team
(START) contractors responded. The team was
supervised under the  direction of EPAOSCs and
the response actions took approximately two
                                                           Graniteville Train Derailment

Office of Emergency Management
                                                                        2005 Year in Review
Fair Play Tire Fire

On March 11, 2005 at 10:00 p.m., a large fire
involving  2.5 million disposed tires in a quarry
was reported near Fair Play, Missouri. Local
emergency management officials, along with EPA
OSCs, START contractors, Emergency and Rapid
Response Services (ERRS) contractors, and
13 rural volunteer fire departments responded
to the fire. A shelter-in-place order was issued
by local emergency management. Smoke was
visible in the sky for miles, and embers from
the burning tires ignited fires in nearby fields.
START contractors monitored the air quality in
a one-mile radius for both on-site workers and
for six nearby residences. Based on air-quality
monitoring results, the shelter-in-place order was
cancelled the following day at noon. Throughout
the following six days, heavy equipment and fire
suppression techniques were used to extinguish
the field fires and to push the extinguished
material and remaining tires into piles in the
quarry. EPA monitored the air quality during
the entire response and the Airborne Spectral
Photometric Environmental Collection Technology
(ASPECT) aircraft was dispatched to collect a
          Fair Play Tire Fire
series of aerial imaging data in the immediate
area to ensure protection of public health and the

Magellan Pipeline

On May 23, 2005 at 2:00 a.m., a high-pressure
gasoline pipeline broke and approximately
118,600 gallons of gasoline were released onto
the ground and into the storm sewers in Kansas
City, Kansas. The spill affected two nearby
railroad lines,  a local utility facility, and storm
sewers leading to the Missouri River. A Unified
Command, which included both EPA and USCG,
was established by the local county emergency
management agency. Magellan Pipeline, the
responsible party, conducted boom recovery
and monitoring operations at the spill location.
EPA deployed two field teams for air monitoring
at areas affected by the spill. The two rail lines
were shut down for three hours the following day
while impacted soil was removed and stockpiled
nearby. After the nearby sewers were flushed and
the discharge  water was monitored by USCG, the
utility facility was able to resume operations on
the third day. The EPA field teams monitored the
air quality in the sewer lines after the flushing to
ensure that no residual vapors or products were
still present in the lines at concentrations harmful
to public health or the environment.
                                                 In closing, a look forward...

                                                 EPAs response to Katrina/Rita reminded us of
                                                 the need to continue to enhance our capabilities
                                                 to protect human health and the  environment.
                                                 We learned lessons from the response to the
                                                 World Trade Center, trained EPA staff in ICS
                                                 and coordinated regularly with other Federal,
                                                 State and local agencies in advance about our
                                                 appropriate roles during an emergency. We
                                                 knew from EPCRA,  RMP and FRP data where
                                                 hazardous chemicals and oil were stored and
                                                 used in the area hit by the hurricanes. Using our
                                                 experience with the  recent hurricane response,
                                                 we will now adapt our work under the National
                                                 Approach to Response to ensure that the next
                                                 time we do an even  better job. Every time that
                                                 EPA responds to an incident, we learn ways
                                                 in which we can  prepare better, and we are
                                                 motivated to work with our partners to implement
                                                 the EPCRA, RMP and SPCC programs to ensure
                                                 that we do what we can to prevent accidental
                                                 spills and releases and be prepared for those that
                                                 we cannot prevent.