United States Environmental
Protection Agency

Office of Research
& Development
National Health &
Environmental Effects
Research Laboratory
     'Feature Stories:

    page 1: PCEIS Database

  page 2: Ongoing 'Research into
    Genetically Modified Plants
 page 3: Mercury Found in Western
     page 4: Importance of
      Intermittent Streams
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                   V^estern Ecology Division
               Research   Update
                          Winter 2006-2007
Corvallis, Oregon
        Winter 2006-2007
                                PCEIS"   DATABASE  WILL  NET BIG  RESULTS
      Next issue: watch for
       The Golden Mouse!
It's   pronounced   like
"Pisces",   but  PCEIS
stands  for Pacific Coast
Ecosystem   Information
System,  and  it's about
capturing   information,
not fish. PCEIS  is the
latest tool  being  devel-
oped at  Western Ecol-
ogy  Division's  marine
research facility in New-
port, Oregon, and it in-
corporates   spatially-
explicit information  for
the estuaries and coastal
regions  of the Northeast

 Still under development,
PCEIS  combines many
types  of    data  from
Coastal EMAP  (EPA's
large scale Environmental
Monitoring   &  Assess-
ment   Program)   and
USGS (US Geologic Sur-
vey), and integrates them
into one central database,
taking  thousands of facts
about   estuarine/marine
species and their habitats,
and organizing them in a
way that can be utilized
by researchers according
to their particular speci-
fications.  Geographical
distributions  of individ-
ual species can be  ex-
ported  into Excel,  then
input into GIS software
for mapping and spatial
analysis.   EMAP  has
generated   site-specific
data for over 1500 inver-
tebrate and  fish species,
collected from more than
200 estuaries in Oregon,
Washington, and Califor-

Initially, the goal was to
utilize  just  the  EMAP
data  more  efficiently.
But PCEIS also incor-
porates      information
about species distribution
from   numerous  other
sources, including other
Federal  and State data-
bases.  EPA and USGS
will  generate  a  future
version  to  span from
Alaska to northern Mex-
ico, which  will also in-
clude wetland species.

 One of the primary ob-
jectives is to provide in-
formation  about  native
and non-native, or inva-
sive,   estuarine  and
coastal species, including
additional   information
such as date of first re-
corded  occurence   and
potential  vectors   for
non-native species.
PCEIS  is  a unique  re-
search and risk assessment
tool;  it is the only inte-
grated database to include
both native and non-native
species,   georeferenced
distributions  ranging  in
spatial scale from tributar-
ies to the entire Northwest
Pacific,   landscape  data,
and the ability to easily
export data  for spatial or
statistical  analysis.   The
database  will     provide
researchers and managers
with a powerful tool  for
extracting  information  to
evaluate the effects of in-
vasive   species,   nutrient
enrichment, habitat altera-
tions, and other stressors.

An   expanded   version
should be  available to  the
public in book  form  by
2008.    PCEIS   project
leader   Henry  Lee  II
works  at WED's Pacific
Coast Ecology Branch in
Newport,  Oregon; Debbie
Reusse is a  Research Ge-
ographer    with  USGS-
Western   Fisheries   Re-
        search    Center.
                                 left: Louisiana  cray-
                                 fish  (Procambams
                                 clarkii),  one of many
                                 non-native   species
                                 documented   by

                             -WED Research Update-
                                            	page 2
                           "GENE TEAM"  STRIKES  GOLD
                            AND  MORE
                   New technology is making  it
                   possible to produce a variety of
                   crops like soy, corn,  and ca-
                   nola,  which  are  resistant to
                   pests  and disease.   Recently
                   added to the list is bentgrass
                   (Agrostis Stolonifera  L.),   a
                   commercially grown perennial
Bentgrass is commonly used on golf courses, and Oregon's
grass-seed growers have expressed great  interest in the
GM research carried out by WED
                   Bentgrass  has  been  altered
                   genetically to be resistant to a
                   commonly used weed killer.
                   EPA's Office of Pesticide Pro-
                   grams regulates such crops to
                   ensure that the  environment is
                   protected from potential  trans-
                   fer  of the new genes to  sur-
                   rounding  crops  and   native

                   Last year, a team of scientists
                   from  Western  Ecology Divi-
                   sion received  EPA's prestig-
                   ious Gold  Medal for Service,
                   and  a Level  I Scientific &
                   Technological   Achievement
                   Award for their research dem-
                   onstrating   that  genetically
                   modified  (GM) plants  could
                   spread beyond their  original
                   fields.  Now,   the same team
                   has documented, for the first
                   time in the United States, the
escape of genetically modi-
fied  material   into   wild
plant populations up to sev-
eral  miles  away.  Their re-
search  showed  that  wild
plants with the altered genes
could  become established
after only a single growing
season.  Ecological conse-
quences of GM gene flow
in wild  plants  remains a
topic of active research.

The  study  involved an  ex-
perimental  field  of  bent-
grass  in   Central  Oregon
which is located next to ar-
eas  of natural vegetation.
Scientists   tested    20,000
grass leaf  samples outside
the GM crop  area using a
unique  environmental  fo-
rensic method to search for
a specific protein produced
by  the    modified  gene.

The Western Ecology  Divi-
sion  research  will help in-
form  decisions  about  the
potential   risks posed by
GM   crops growing   near
fields of Oregon's economi-
cally  important grass seed.
It  will    help  determine
where the GM crop pollen
is most likely to move, and
how  to calculate  the  dis-
tance  it can travel and still
remain  viable  enough   for
downwind  fertilization  to

EPA's  Office  of Pesticide
Programs will use  this in-
formation to develop testing
and   monitoring   systems,
and to help inform regula-
tory decisions regarding the
environmental safety of GM

The Western Ecology Divi-
sion team included  Connie
Burdick,    Anne   Fair-
brother,   E.  Henry Lee,
Jay    Reichman,   Lidia
Watrud, and National Re-
search  Council     fellow
 Peter  Van  de   Water.

   Western Ecology Division's Jay Reichman, Connie Burdick,
   Eidia Watrud, E. Henry Lee, and Anne Fairbrother enjoy a
   celebration after the announcement of their EPA. Gold Medal
   for Service Award and Eevell STAA Award,

                                        -WED Research Update-
                                                                    -page 3
Aquatic   environments  face
increasing threat from mercury
contamination and its potential
harm to humans and wildlife.
Western   Ecology   Division
scientists  Spencer   Peterson
and John Van Sickle  recently
completed a study of mercury
contamination,  based  on col-
lection and  analysis of 2,707
fish samples from 626  sites in
the  western  United  States.

All fish tested contained mer-
cury  above  detection  limits
(0.002 ppm).  From this sam-
pling, the  scientists  were able
to  estimate  the   length  of
streams affected by  various
mercury levels  across  the en-
tire region.

An applied statistical sampling
design was used to  assess the
condition of streams relative to
mercury concentrations in fish.
Salmonids like  cutthroat and
rainbow trout were the  most
common   large  fish   to  be
tested in an estimated 125,000
km of the  stream length in the

Salmonids exceeded the lev-
els that would  potentially af-
fect  fish-eating mammals like
otter and mink in 11% of the
assessed   streams,   and  ex-
ceeded the levels that would
potentially affect humans  in
2.3% of streams tested.

However,    fish  accumulate
mercury    predominantly
through their food, and preda-
tory fishes accumulate higher
concentrations of mercury than
plant and insect-eating ones. In
addition,   mercury  concentra-
tion  increases as fish age and
For predatory fish, mercury
levels  were  almost  three
times as  high as in herbivo-
rous fish; they exceeded the
levels that would potentially
affect  fish-eating  mammals
in  93%  of  the  assessed
streams,  and exceeded levels
that would potentially affect
humans in 57% of assessed

 So,  although  these  larger
fish-eating fish are less wide-
spread, they present a greater
potential   risk  to  sensitive
consumers.   Mammals
(including humans) and birds
that  consume them  greatly
increase  their  exposure  to
mercury   and  its  potential
neurological   effects.

Testing methods were devel-
oped which potentially have
less  impact on fish  popula-
tions.  Scientists had already
done  studies showing  that
small core samples of muscle
had a direct proportion to the
mercury  levels in  the whole
fish, so it was possible   to
test with  a  biopsy sampling
method that was generally
not lethal to the fish.
                               Earlier   studies
                               required  the  use
                               of   whole-fish
                               samples, (left)  but
                               new  methods  use
Study Results:
Where does  mercury enter the
aquatic  food chain?   Peterson
and Van Sickle concluded that
the finding of mercury in nearly
all tested fish suggested atmos-
pheric  deposition,  rather  than
point source  contamination. At-
mospheric   deposition  occurs
when  a substance is  carried in
the upper atmosphere, and de-
posited  far— sometimes  thou-
sands of miles— from its  origi-
nal source,  for example,  from
coal-burning  factories in China.

Contact   Spencer   Peterson:

Read more about this study in Vol
41, No. 1:2007 issue of Journal of
Environmental Science  and  Tech-
                                                           Wildlife  may  be  at
                                                           greater risk than hu-
                                                           mans  for  mercury
                                                           poisoning  since their
                                                           mercury   tolerance
                                                           levels are lower

                                       -WED Research Update-
                                                                         	page 4
                                          WED  RESEARCH  SHEDS LIGHT  ON
                                                 INTERMITTENT STREAMS
   "seasonal streams
   higher spawning
  ind winter rearing
  for Coho salmon"
The  U.S.  Supreme  Court
recently  heard cases that
affect    whether
"intermittent"  streams  fall
under the jurisdiction of the
Clean Water Act.

Intermittent,  or  seasonal,
streams,  run  during  only
part  of the year.  The eco-
logical significance of such
streams  is  receiving  in-
creasing  attention, but in-
formation about their influ-
ence  on  fish populations
has been limited.

A team  of  scientists  at
Western Ecology Division,
led by Jim Wigington  and
Joseph Ebersole, has com-
pleted a major new study
which focuses on these sea-
sonal streams, and    Su-
preme Court  justices  had
the opportunity  to  review
the study's findings as part
of their preparation for the
 Presence of commercially
important  species   like
Coho salmon would be a
significant   consideration,
since Coho  spawn  in  the
seasonal  streams  of  the
Oregon coastal mountains.

The  team's  research in a
coastal Oregon watershed
showed   that   seasonal
streams provide dispropor-
tionately  higher spawning
and  winter    rearing  for
Coho salmon than the  re-
mainder of the stream net-

Residual  pools  in  these
streams  also   provide  a
place  for   the  juvenile
salmon to survive  during
dry periods.  Loss of  sea-
sonal stream habitat would
have  a negative effect on
Coho    populations   in
coastal    drainages.
                                                                           Employing  a tagging tech-
                                                                           nology that utilizes "passive
                                                                           integrated   transpond-
                                                                           ers"  (PIT),  the  scientists
                                                                           tracked the  survival, move-
                                                                           ment and growth of thou-
                                                                           sands  of  juvenile  Coho
                                                                           salmon   throughout  the
                                                                           stream  network,  and found
                                                                           that seasonal  streams were
                                                                           an important source of Coho
                                                                           salmon smolts.
                                                                           This  research demonstrates
                                                                           the  potential  of  seasonal
                                                                           streams to provide important
                                                                           ecological benefits to down-
                                                                           stream  waters,   and  could
                                                                           have far-reaching impacts on
                                                                           the Clean Water Act.

                                                                           Denis White, M. Robbins
                                                                           Church,  Scott   Leibowitz,
                                                                           Renee  Brooks,  and Jana
                                                                           Compton also took  part  in
                                                                           the  study,  whose  findings
                                                                           were  published  in the De-
                                                                           cember   2006   issue   of
                                                                           "Frontiers in Ecology & the
                                                                           Environment".   Contact:
                                              ESTUARINE HABITAT RESEARCH
r-»»"1*" *."- ^^^t^-Wi
fc^'ffilSffiSf  Some estuarine habitats play
                  more crucial roles than oth-
                  ers by supporting high ani-
                  mal diversity or  providing
                  important   ecosystem  ser-
                  vices, such as food produc-
                  tion or nursery  grounds for
                  ecologically or economically
                  important  species.   WED
                  scientists    Steve  Ferraro
                  and Faith  Cole   recently
                  completed a multi-year study
                  in a Pacific Northwest estu-
                  ary to determine how popu-
                  lations and communities of
                  fish, crabs, shrimp, and other
                  creatures   (animals  collec-
                  tively called "nekton")  vary
                  among intertidal habitats.
Dungeness crab ('Cancer
magisterj is common in
Pacific Northwest estuaries
                               Three of the  4 habitats  in
                              their study were defined by
                              the presence of "ecosystem
                              engineering species": plants
                              and animals which, by their
                              physical structure or behav-
                              ior, create habitat for differ-
                              ent nekton prey  organisms
                              and provide different types
                              and degrees of shelter from
                              predation.  The fourth habi-
                              tat was bare sand.

                              The study found strong and
                              temporally robust associa-
                              tions  between the  nekton
                              and the habitats. In general,
                              the rank order of habitats in
                               richness,  abundance, and
                               diversity  was eelgrass  >
                               mud  shrimp   >  ghost
                               shrimp > bare sand.
                               The research  results con-
                               firms the biological rele-
                               vance of the habitats, and
                               provides   quantitative
                               tools for identifying criti-
                               cal  habitats,  prioritizing
                               habitats for environmental
                               protection, and predicting
                               the consequences of habi-
                               tat  changes  on  nekton
                               populations and commu-
                               nities.          Contact:

                                            -WED Research Update-
                                                	page 5
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                                        (continued on page 6)

                                           -WED Research Update-
                                              	page 6
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   cations for wetland mitigation in the Willamette Valley, Ore-
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   25(l):76-88, (2005).
Pfleeger,  T.G. Moving plant toxicology from the greenhouse to
   the field: a method that incorporates the positive attributes of
   each. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicol-
   ogy. Springer, New York, NY, 74(1): 16-23, (2005).
Pfleeger,  T.G., D.M. Olszyk, C.A. Burdick, G.  King, J. Kern, and
   J.S. Fletcher. Using a geographic information system to iden-
   tify areas with potential for off-target pesticide exposure. En-
   vironmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Society of Environ-
   mental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL,
   25(8):2250-2259, (2006).
Phillips, D.L., and P.M.  Eldridge. Estimating the timing of diet
   shifts  using stable isotopes. Oecologia. Springer, New York,
   NY, 47:195-203, (2006).
Phillips, D.L., M.G. Johnson, D.T. Tingey, C.A. Catricala, T.L.
   Hoyman, and R.S. Nowak. Effects of elevated CO2 on fine
   root dynamics in a Mojave desert community: a face study.
   Global Change Biology. Blackwell Publishing, Maiden, MA,
   12:61-73, (2006).
Phillips, D.L., M G. Johnson, D.T. Tingey, M.J. Storm, J.T. Ball,
   and D.W. Johnson. CO2 and N-fertilization effects on fine
   root length, production, and mortality: a 4-year ponderosa
   pine study. Oecologia. Springer, New York, NY, 148(3):517-
   525, (2006).
Rossignol, P.A., J. Orme-Zavaleta, and A.M. Rossignol. Global
   climate change and its impact on disease imbedded in eco-
   logical communities. Environmental Geosciences. The
   American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of
   Environmental Geosciences, Alexandria, VA, 13(l):55-63,
Rygiewicz, P.T., D. Zabowski, and M.F. Skinner. Site distur-
   bance effects on a clay soil under pinus radiate-root biomass,
   mycorrhizal colonization, 15 ammonium uptake, and foliar
   nutrient levels. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science.
   Scion, Rotorua, New Zealand, 34(3):238-254, (2004).
Shure, D.J., D.L. Phillips, and P.E. Bostick. Gap size and succes-
   sional processes in southern Appalachian forests. Plant Ecol-
   ogy. Springer Netherlands, Netherlands, 185:299-318, (2006).
Sigleo, A.C., C.W. Mordy, P. Stabeno, and W.E. Frick. Temporal
   variability of upwelled nitrate near the Oregon coast: estua-
   rine-coastal exchange. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science.
   Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 64:211-222, (2005).
Skjelkvale, B., J.L. Stoddard, K. Torseth, T. Hogasen, K.  Bow-
   man-James, J. Mannio, D. Monteith, R. Mosello, V. Pallanza,
   D. Rzychon, J. Vesely, J. Wieting, A. Wilander, and A.
   Worsztynowicz. Regional scale evidence for improvements in
   surface water chemistry 1990 to 2001. Environmental Pollu-
   tion. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 137:165-176,
Stoddard, J.L. Mid-Atlantic integrated assessment (MAIA) state
   of the flowing waters report.  U.S. Environmental Protection
   Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/620/R-06/001, 2006.
                                      (continued on page 8)

                                      -WED Research Update-
                                                            	page 7
Peter  Beedlow continues  to assist
EPA  Region   10  (Alaska,  Idaho,
Oregon & Washington) and the state
of Alaska in  identifying  potential
effects of climate change in Alaska.
Beedlow previously  had conducted
research  on the effects of rising at-
mospheric CO2 on Pacific Northwest
forests.  The   effects   of  climate
change could  have a major impact
on the environment and economy of
Alaska.  The  EPA Administrator's
Office  assigned   Region  10   the
study,  and they requested the assis-
tance of Dr.  Beedlow.   Contact:
Robert Lackey presented a lecture
at the annual meeting of British Co-
lumbia's Ministry of the Environ-
ment in Victoria in October.  Dr.
Lackey summarized the  results of
the Salmon 2100 Project. Protecting
remaining  salmon  populations in
British  Columbia and elsewhere in
the Pacific Northwest continues to
be a dominant  environmental sci-
ence and policy issue. Contact:
Thomas Pfleeger and David
Olszyk were invited to the Society
of Environmental Toxicology and
Chemistry/ Europe to present a pa-
per on Pesticide Risk Assessment  in
May 2006. The paper,   'Using field
grown potatoes to test for non-target
plant effects from pesticides', out-
lined the authors'  work with pesti-
cide  "drift", or the  ability  of pesti-
cides to have an impact on plants
outside their intended  target area.
Olszyk and Pfleeger also took part
in  discussions with European and
Canadian scientists.  Contact:
pfleeger. thomas@epa.gov
Henry Lee II provided scientific
support to  EPA's Office of Water
during International Ballast Water
Treaty discussions  at the United
Nations'    International Maritime
Organization.  Lee's assistance was
requested in addressing treaty lan-
guage dealing with risk assessment
for ships traveling between desig-
nated ports.  A single liter of bal-
last water  can contain dozens of
different species and  thousands of
organisms;      ballast water  dis-
charge is subject to  biologically-
based  standards,  including  guide-
lines for restricting  introduction of
invasive  species when ballast wa-
ter is discharged in U.S. ports.
Contact:  lee.henry@epa.gov
Leaders  of  ONAMI—Oregon
Nanoscience and Microtechnolo-
gies Institute—met with  Western
Ecology Division  Director  Tho-
mas Fontaine to  talk about col-
laborative research on the effects
of manufactured  nanomaterials  in
natural  systems.    (Materials  re-
duced to the nanoscale may  sud-
denly have  very  different proper-
ties.) Of special interest is the po-
tential  use of WED's micro- and
meso-cosms  (sealed  enclosures
containing  natural system  compo-
nents) for assessing ecological ef-
fects  of nanomaterials,  including
how their  physical and chemical
properties can  be related to their
other crops, as well as in homes and gardens
Jay Reichman traveled to Rus-
sia as part of an EPA team in a
joint project with the US Depart-
ment of State and the Ministry of
Health of the  Russian  Federa-
tion.  Goal: help Russian scien-
tists adapt  a former biological
weapons plant for use as a risk
assessment  research  facility,
learning  from  research  experi-
ences at  Western Ecology Divi-
sion.   Russian  officials  con-
tacted   EPA several years ago
with a  proposal  to set up  the
cooperative program. Their sci-
entists were recently able to pro-
cure genetic material to  use in
their research,  which will help
inform regulation of  the fledg-
ling agricultural bio-technology
industry  in  that   country.
 Contact:  reichman.jay@epa.gov

Local high school  students will
benefit from the world-class sci-
entific expertise resident at  the
Western   Ecology  Division  in
Corvallis, Oregon.  Ron Wasch-
mann  has signed on  to give
technical   and  scientific assis-
tance to Corvallis High  School's
biodiesel  project. Biodiesel is a
domestic, renewable fuel derived
from natural plant sources.  Us-
ing a research grant from Hew-
lett Packard, the students  will
investigate and compare the  ef-
fects of  biodiesel and  gasoline
fuel emissions on plant life. Stu-
dents from biology,  chemistry,
horticulture   and   automotive
classes will  design, build, and
operate   open-top  chambers to
conduct their experiments.
                                                                                          (continued on page 9)

                                         -WED Research Update-
                                             	page 8
The  "grassland  ecosys-
tems"  in  Jillian Gregg's
planter boxes don't look
particularly unusual.  But
as the  plants from  Ore-
gon's upland prairie eco-
system go through  their
growing cycle, they are
being closely monitored
for their reaction to  arti-
ficially elevated tempera-
tures that  simulate  cli-
mate change.  The  US
Department of Energy's
Climate   Change    Re-
search    Division    has
leased  the unique  tera-
cosm research  facility  at
Western  Ecology  Divi-
sion, one of the few  fa-
cilities  of its kind in the
Jillian Gregg checks on plants
growing in one of the mesomsms

 nation. Principal investiga-
 tor  Jillian  Gregg explains
 that the project's goal is to
 determine   the  effects   of
 symmetric versus asymmet-
 rically higher temperatures
 on   the  plants.  Symmetric
warming means that tem-
peratures are  elevated by
the  same  amount  over  a
24-hour period. Asymmet-
ric warming—which  sci-
entists  have  now  docu-
mented—means that mini-
mum  dawn  temperatures
are more affected  by cli-
mate change than mid-day
maximum temperatures.

Asymmetric    warming
could have  a  negative ef-
fect on  plants, due to in-
creased   respiration  and
reduced  growth   overall.
Or, conversely, the longer
growing   season   with
warmer minimum  temper-
atures could increase plant
growth.   Gregg's   three-
year   experiment  should
provide definitive answers.

The  outdoor  sunlit  plant
growth chambers, or tera-
cosms, house the  plants,
giving year-round  control
of  temperature, humidity,
C02,   soil  moisture,  and
fertility    under    natural
sunlight.  Plants are grown
in soils reconstructed to be
as  similar  as possible to
natural soils.
Gregg   is   a  researcher
working   for  Terrestrial
Ecosystems   Research

Stoddard, J.L. Use of ecological regions in aquatic assessments of
   ecological condition. Environmental Management.  Springer-
   Verlag, New York, NY, 34(Suppl. 1):S61-S70, (2005).
Stoms, D.M., F.W. Davis, S.J. Andelman, M.H. Carr, S.D. Gaines,
   B.S. Halpern, R. Hoenicke, S.G. Leibowitz, A. Leydecker, E.P.
   Madin, H. Tallis, and R.R. Warner. Integrated coastal reserve plan-
   ning: making the land-sea connection. Frontiers in Ecology and the
   Environment. . Ecological Society of America, Ithaca, NY,
   3(8):429-436, (2005).
Suter, G.W., S.B. Norton, and A. Fairbrother. Individuals versus or-
   ganisms versus populations in the definition of ecological assess-
   ment endpoints. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Man-
   agement. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, KS,  1(4):397-400, (2005).
Tingey, D.T., E. Lee, R.S. Waschmann, M.G. Johnson, and P.T. Ry-
   giewicz. Effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on soil CO2
   efflux: evidence for acclimatization during the third and fourth
   year of treatment. New Phytologist. Blackwell Publishing, Maiden,
   MA, 170:107-118,  (2006).
Tingey, D.T., M.G. Johnson, E. Lee, C.M. Wise, R.S. Waschmann,
   D.M. Olszyk, L.S. Watrud, andK.K. Donegan. Effects of elevated
   CO2 and O3 on soil CO2 efflux in ponderosa pine microcosms.
   Soil Biology and Biochemistry. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York,
   NY, 38:1764-1778, (2006).
Trudell, S.A., P. T. Rygiewicz, andR.L. Edmonds. Patterns of nitro-
    gen and carbon stable isotope ratios in macrofungi, plants and
    soils in two old-growth conifer forests. New Phytologist.  Black-
    well Publishing, Maiden, MA, 164(2):317-335, (2004).
 Van Sickle, I, C.P. Hawkins, D.P. Larsen, and A.T. Herlihy. A null
    model for the expected macroinvertebrate assemblage in streams.
    Journal of the North American Benthological Society. Allen
    Press, Inc., Lawrence, KS, 24(1): 178-191, (2005).
  Van Sickle, J., D.D. Huff, and C.P. Hawlins. Selecting discrimi-
     nant function models for predicting the expected richness of
     aquatic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology. Blackwell
     Publishing, Maiden, MA, 51:359-372, (2006).
  Warren, J.M., F.C. Meinzer, J. Brooks, and J.C. Domec. Verti-
     cal stratification of soil water storage and release dynamics
     in Pacific Northwest coniferous forests. Agricultural and
     Forest Meteorology. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY,
     130(l-2):39-58, (2005).
  Watrud, L.S. Long distance pollen-mediated gene flow from
     creeping bentgrass. ISB News Report. January: 1-3, (2005).
  Watrud, L.S., S. Misra, L. Gedamu, T. Shiroyama, S. Maggard,
     and G.D. Di Giovanni. Ecological risk assessment of alfalfa
     (medicago varia 1.) genetically engineered to express a hu-
     man metallothionein (HMT) gene. Water, Air, and Soil Pol-
     lution.  Springer, New York, NY, 176:329-349, (2006).
  White, D. Patterns of endemism of the eastern North American
     cave fauna. Journal of Biogeography 32(8): 1441-1452,
  White, R.D. Display of pixel loss and replication in reprojecting
     raster data from the sinusoidal projection. Geocarto Interna-
     tional. Geocarto International Centre, Hong Kong, China,
     21(2): 19-22, (2006).
  Wigington Jr., P.J., T. Moser, and D.R. Lindeman. Stream
     network expansion: a riparian water quality factor. Hydro-
     logical Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Indianapolis,
     IN, 19(8): 1715-1721,  (2005).
  Woods, A., J.M. Omernik, C.L. Pederson, and B. Moran. Level
     III and IV ecoregions of Illinois. U.S. Environmental Pro-
     tection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-06/104, 2006.

                                      -WED Research Update-
                                                                   	page 9
New model could improve
 salmon management:

Computer simulation models
are a valuable tool  for ad-
dressing a  wide  range  of
management options. Scott
Leibowitz has created a spa-
tially-explicit  simulation
model  for   coho  salmon.
This model uses either actual
stream  networks  to study
specific management options
or   randomly  generated
stream networks to  realisti-
cally represent a broad range
of  stream   network condi-
tions.   This modeling tool
provides   EPA   decision-
makers  with better informa-
tion to  meet  the require-
ments  of  the Endangered
Species Act and the Clean
Water  Act.       Contact:
  Many factors affect young
    salmon & steelhead:
Warm  summer temperatures
in streams  of the   Pacific
Northwest can create stressful
conditions for fish requiring
cold water,  like salmon  and
trout.  Colder  water  from
springs can enter streams, and
create small  pockets of refuge
for fish, but Joe Ebersole has
found that fish also respond
to  refuge   depth,   dissolved
oxygen  levels, and other  fac-
tors, suggesting that cold  wa-
ter alone  may not be suffi-
cient to  create a useful refuge
in warm weather.  The infor-
mation will  be useful  in ef-
forts to  protect and restore
stream  habitats  for salmon
and  trout.      Contact:
      Book is long-awaited
   outcome of "Salmon 2100"

The  goal  of  the Salmon 2100
Project, organized by EPA fisher-
ies    biologist
Robert Lackey,
was  to identify
options   that
would  have  a
high  probability
of   success   in
restoring signifi-
cant,  sustainable
runs   of   wild
salmon in   the
Pacific   North-
west.   The  re-
sulting book provides a summary
of practical  policy prescriptions,
says Lackey.  Former EPA head
William Ruckelshaus was keynote
speaker at  the  project's  January
2006 conference in Portland, Ore-
gon, and  each of the  project's
participating  salmon  experts and
policy  analysts  contributed   a
chapter to the book,   now avail-
able through American Fisheries
Society   (www.afsbooks.org).
Contact:   lackey.robert@epa.gov
   Stressors on
salmon  include
 fishing, dams,
 disease, losing,
   and habitat
Don Phillips traveled to uni-
versities in  Brazil and Uru-
guay  to consult with scien-
tists on stable isotope analy-
sis and modeling for an inter-
national study on estuarine
food  webs.  Coastal  lagoons
in the two countries  are  im-
portant  as feeding, reproduc-
tion, and nursery areas for a
number of marine and terres-
trial plants and animals,  but
are vulnerable to a variety of
human-caused   stressors.
Phillips was invited   to par-
ticipate  because of his role in
developing  modeling  tech-
niques using stable isotopes
 as environmental tracers.   This
 project will foster  collaboration
 and good-will in the international
 environmental research arena.
 Contact: phillips.donald@epa.gov
 Tom Pfleeger traveled to Majuro
 in  the  Marshall  Islands  for a
 three-month appointment  as an
 Embassy Science Fellow. Pflee-
 ger's assignment: evaluate critical
 environmental  problems,   and
 recommend  solutions. Top  pri-
 orities included creating a sustain-
 able solid waste disposal and re-
 cycling   program, and   explor-
 ing sources of renewable energy.
    The    island nation's  fragile
    coral reef  ecosystem  consti-
    tutes  its  major  potential  for
    economic development through
    ecotourism, fishing and aqua-
    culture.         Contact:
                                    bodies el from
                                    coconuts is one
                                    of the options
                                    that could help
                                    cut down on
                                    imported oil in
                                    the Marshall

                                      -WED Research Update-
                                                                            -page 10
                     LAST  WORD:   BLUEBIRDS  OF  THE  WILLAMETTE
Nathan   Schumaker  and
former  EPA  post-doc  re-
searcher    Laura  Nagy
weren't your typical  bird-
watchers... .they   were
evaluating    the   western
bluebird as part of a 2-year
study  that is helping  re-
veal how birds in the wild
respond to stressors in their

Schumaker and Nagy stud-
ied     birds  in the  Wil-
lamette  Valley,   Oregon,
measuring    reproduction
and  survival  to   evaluate
how birds cope with pesti-
cides,  habitat change, and
other   environmental
Their  study  demonstrates
the   value   of   PATCH
(Program   to   Assist   in
Tracking Critical Habitat),
a  spatially  explicit  "life
history"  model developed
by Schumaker.

 PATCH is easily adaptable
to the needs of researchers;
with the input of data like
habitat maps and reproduc-
tion rates, it  can  project
where species will be found
as  the  landscape changes
over time,  and predict in-
creases  or  decreases   in
population density.

Schumaker  and   Nagy's
database   includes  all  in-
formation  required to  run a
population  model,  includ-
                                              examined and
ing  data on survival and
reproduction  rates. This
database  will consolidate
all the required data in a
summarized form.
Ecological  risk assessors
throughout   EPA   will
benefit  from  the  im-
proved     model.
 schumaker. nathan
                                       United States Environmental Protection Agency
                                            Office of Research & Development
                                National Health & Environmental Effects Research Laboratory
                                                Western Ecology Division
                                                    200 SW 35th Street
                                                    Oregon 97333-4996
                                                 The information in this document
                                                 has been funded wholly or in part
                                                 by the U. S. Environmental Protec-
                                                 tion Agency. It has been subjected
                                                 to  review by the National Health
                                                 and Environmental Effects  Re-
                                                 search  Laboratory and approved
                                                 for publication. Approval does not
                                                 signify that the contents reflect the
                                                 views of the Agency, nor does
                                                 mention of trade names or com-
                                                 mercial products  constitute en-
                                                 dorsement or recommendation for