ited States
  Environmental Protection
               Western Ecology  Division
                             Spring  2008
 Office of Research &

 National Health &
 Environmental Effects
 Research Laboratory

below: 'Northern Pike undergoes
biopsy sampling;  tissue sample
will be tested for methylmercury
Corvallis, Oregon
      Since the late 1980's, there has been a down-
      ward trend in mercury emissions from manu-
      facturing sources in the U.S. But according
      to WED's Dr. Spencer Peterson, mercury in
      stream fish tissue still exceeds the USEPA
      tissue based water quality criterion in several
      stream reaches across the Western U.S.

      Mercury consumption via fish remains a
      concern for both humans and wildlife because
      of their Methylmercury (MeHg) content.
      Since 2002, Peterson has carried out a series
      of studies to assess the regional extent of the

      MeHg is bioaccumulative; each fish absorbs mercury from the smaller fish or
      organisms it eats.  Thus,  older, larger fish have more Hg in them than small fish.

      Large-scale combustion of fos-
      sil fuels like coal release tons
      of mercury (Hg) into the
      atmosphere. When it is depos-
      ited in waterbodies (lakes,
      rivers and wetlands), bacteria
      transforms some of the Hg into
      methylmercury (MeHg), the
      most toxic form.
2002:  "Level and Extent of Mer-
cury Contamination in Oregon,
U.S.A. Lotic Fish "—This was the
first statistically designed survey
of its kind for the state of Oregon;
it assessed the proportion of
stream length affected by fish tis-
sue Hg (mercury) concentrations
considered harmful for  human and
wildlife consumption.

2005:  "A Biopsy Procedure for
Determining Filet and Predicting
Whole Fish Mercury Concentra-
tion "—Non-lethal biopsy sampling
is a reliable predictor of whole-fish
Hg  concentration. A tissue sam-
pling procedure was used to meas-
ure  Hg in filet, and then compare it
with whole-body Hg concentration
of the same fish. Fish were ana-
lyzed at 65 sites across  12 Western
States, and a tight correlation re-
sulted in an equation for predicting
whole-body Hg concentration
from Hg concentration in filets.
Filet samples can be collected us-
ing  a non-lethal  sampling method.
      2007:  Holding Time Study
      "Mercury Concentration in Frozen
      Whole-Fish Homogenates is Insensi-
     tive to Holding Time "— The most
     recent research demonstrates that
     there is no difference in Hg concentra-
     tion measured in the same frozen fish
     tissue sample when the analyses were
     done 4 years apart.  This extends the
     acceptable fish tissue holding time for
     analysis from the current 28-60 day
     period to at  least 4 years and probably
     longer, since there was no statistically
     significant change.  Frozen fish tissue
     can be held  for at least 4 years without
     affecting analytical results.
 2007: West Stream Study
 "Mercury Concentration in Fish from
 Streams and Rivers Throughout the
 Western United States "—This was
 the first application of probability
 sampling of streams for Hg in fish
 tissue over a large area (12 Western

 Salmonids (i.e., salmon, cutthroat
 trout) were assessed for mercury con-
 centration in 125,000 km of stream-
 length. In 11% of the assessed stream
 length salmonids exceeded the wild-
 life criteria value (0.1 (igHg/g). In
 2.3% of stream length salmonids ex-
 ceeded levels acceptable for human
 consumption (0.3u.gHg/g). Piscivo-
 rous fish (those that eat other fish) in
 31,400 kilometers of stream were
 also assessed. In 93% of assessed
 stream length, individuals exceeded
 0.1u.gHg/g.  In 57% of assessed
 stream length, individuals exceeded

left: map shows scope of 2007 WED
study of streams in Western U.S.

                          ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS  BRANCH
     In a Nutshell:
PATCH is a spatially
explicit, individual-based
life history simulator
designed to predict how
the numbers and distribu-
tion of wildlife species will
change overtime.

The model can predict
how wildlife populations
will respond to multiple
interacting stressors, how
population density will
increase or decrease,
and whether the species
is likely to go extinct. It
can produce maps of
where the species will be
found as a landscape
changes with time.
PATCH ("Program to
Assist Tracking Critical
Habitat") is a complex,
spatially explicit com-
puter model developed at
WED by Dr. Nathan
Schumaker. The model
can address diverse ques-
tions using multiple data-
sets to introduce various
factors into each simula-

PATCH was designed to
predict the potential ef-
fects of stressors such as
pesticides, pollutants and
land-use changes on eco-
systems, and  the long-
term response of various
species to  such stressors.
For example, habitat
types, weather conditions,
food sources or disease
events can be added or
removed to determine the
effect on a population.
Simulations can be used
to explore the efficacy of
anticipated habitat recov-
ery efforts.

Canadian researchers, led
by Dr. Julie Heinrichs,
recently sought input
from Dr. Schumaker to
assist them in predicting
the fate of the "at-risk"
Ord's Kangaroo Rat
(Dipodomys ordif).
Ord 's Kangaroo Rat was
once abundant in
Canada's arid sandhill

Seeing an opportunity to
work with a dataset that
could test and improve the
model for EPA applica-
tions, Schumaker helped
parameterize PATCH for
this use by the  Canadian
research team.
Ord's Kangaroo Rat is a
nocturnal desert dweller
whose energy require-
ment is met by a cheek-
pouch load of seeds daily.
It builds a complex under-
ground burrow, and can
survive for long periods
without water.

This solitary animal re-
quires an open, sparsely
vegetated, sandy habitat.

Kangaroo Rats are impor-
tant prey for many
raptors, reptiles, and
mammals, some of which
are considered at risk in
                            Under Canada's Species at Risk Act (SARA), habitat that is critical to listed animals
                            must be identified. Mapping such habitats requires integration of habitat availability
                            and quality, as well as a population analysis that indicates the potential future "success'
                            of the species.
The goal of Heinrichs and
her colleagues was to iden-
tify and assess habitats nec-
essary for recovery and
long-term persistence of
Ord's Kangaroo Rat (K-Rat)
using WED's spatially
explicit population model.

While kangaroo rats in gen-
eral are wide-spread in the
U.S., Ord's Kangaroo Rat
is listed as "at risk" in Can-
ada's Alberta and Sas-
katchewan provinces due to
?      ";
  loss of its arid sandhill

  In the model, a simulated
  population of K-Rats was
  distributed throughout the
  landscape; location and
  movement of the individu-
  als, and data on their over-
  wintering, reproduction,
  and summer survival,
  were tracked through the
  landscape over a 50-year
  period. Schumaker set the
  model's parameters to
  assign habitat quality
  scores to pixels on a map,
  and then integrated them
  into a hexagonal grid.

  left: clusters of yellow
  and green hexagons rep-
  resent high quality indi-
  vidual territories of
  Dipodomys ordii on this
  PATCH simulation map.
 PATCH may help predict
 what the future holds for
 K-Rat, and the results of
 this study will potentially
 be used as a benchmark
 for alternative manage-
 ment scenarios.

 The use of WED's
 PATCH model by Cana-
 dian scientists demon-
 strates not only its versa-
 tility in a variety of appli-
 cations, but also the value
 of EPA research to other
 nations and their agencies.

 PATCH is currently util-
 ized by EPA's Office of
 Pesticide Programs for
 ongoing research on the
 effects of pesticides in
 the environment.

Western Ecology Division scientist
Dr. James Power, working in
collaboration with the Oregon
Department of Fish & Wildlife
(ODFW), has been implanting
"pinger" devices into juvenile fish
and tracking their journeys to the
sea in an effort to learn more about
fish populations and migration pat-

Determining whether or not estua-
rine habitats are functioning prop-
erly to support salmonid popula-
tions  is necessary because, under
the Clean Water Act, States must
designate  specific uses for their
right: Derek Wilson (ODFW)
surgically implants tracking
device into smolt. The fish are
held for observation for up to a
week before release.
far right: Dynamac employees
Lucas Nipp and Una Monaghan
also searched for fish in the Alsea
River by kayaking downstream
while keeping an acoustic receiver
in the water to count fish.
How Do You Count Fish in a River?
Jim Power and the ODFW implanted
tiny transmitters in downstream-
moving coho, cutthroat, and  steelhead
smolts at upriver locations in Oregon's
Yaquina and Alsea Rivers. Acoustic
receivers, which record the date, time
and individual ID of passing fish,
were deployed in the water along the
migration route.  The receivers can
detect the signal from the fish at dis-
tances of up to 300 meters.
waterways, and periodically report
on those waterways. In Oregon,
"salmon rearing and migration" is
an important designated use for
many estuaries.

The downstream migration of sal-
monid smolts is an important phase
in the fish's life cycle: the fish is
under physiological stress as it tran-
sitions to the saltwater environment,
and it is also at greater risk of pre-
dation. Power's study tracked the
movements of migrant salmonid
smolts captured in tributaries of the
Yaquina and Alsea Rivers, and also
hatchery-raised smolts.
Salmonids are fish in the salmon
and trout family. Many salmonids
hatch in freshwater, migrate to the
ocean, and then return upriver to
spawn in fresh-water streams.

A smolt is a juvenile salmonid at
the stage where the fish becomes
physiologically adapted to saltwa-
ter and begins its trek to its salt
water environment.
                                                 left: A rotary screw trap
                                                 operated by Oregon
                                                 Department of Fisheries
                                                 and Wildlife. Migrating
                                                 smolts that are moving
                                                 downstream are captured
                                                 and held by the trap, al-
                                                 lowing ODFW to monitor
                                                 the salmon populations in
                                                 Oregon's coastal
          Summary: Smolt Movements in Yaquina & Alsea Rivers/Estuaries:

Once entering the main channel of the river, smolts generally move downstream
rapidly, and spend more than half their time in the estuary reach nearest the
ocean, near seagrass beds and extensive tide flats. Smolts did not necessarily
enter the ocean at their first opportunity; rather some approached within a few
hundred meters of the open ocean, and then moved back up the estuary.
                                        The seagrass beds are thought to be
                                        an important habitat for these fish
                                        while in the estuary. This research
                                        underscores the importance of the
                                        estuarine habitat, and will help
                                        inform decisions that could help
                                        protect this habitat in the future.

                                 ECOLOGY  BRANCH  NOTES
Eelgrass is a vital element of estuarine
habitats, and their growth depends on
receiving sufficient light to carry out
photosynthesis.  If light is not suffi-
cient, plants must utilize stored energy,
depletion of which can eventually re-
sult in mortality. The minimum hours
of pigment-saturating (Hsat) daylight
needed by eelgrass has been estimated
at 3-5 per day.  However,  this value
has not been measured in the labora-
tory. Now, eelgrass harvested from
Yaquina Bay, Oregon is being grown
by Dr. Bruce Boese in  1,000 gallon
indoor mesocosms and exposed to
various light treatments. Results of a
similar experiment last summer indi-
cated that eelgrass was able to survive
and grow if Hsat light exceeded 4
hours daily. Data will be used by Drs.
Pete Eldridge and Jim Kaldy to aid in
the development of a model which will
predict seagrass responses to  changes
in light, nutrients, temperature, salinity
and sediment chemistry.
 Pilot experiment of eelgrass
 growth in mesocosms
Recently Dr. Henry Lee II (PCEB)
was interviewed for an article in
"Ballast Exchange Newsletter" of the
West Coast Ballast Outreach Project,
based at the University of California/
Davis. The interview focused on sev-
eral of Henry's current projects, in-
cluding the PCEIS database (which
combines detailed distributional data
on native and non-native species), his
technical assistance to IMO
(International Maritime Organiza-
tion), and recently, his evaluation of
an Aquatic Invasive Species theory
based on biogeography.

To read full text of article,  click here
and scroll to pages 4-5
         Ballast water
 Ballast water is carried in ships
 to provide stability. At the ships'
 destination, the water is
 pumped out, along with any
 organisms it contains; these
 "hitchhiker" organisms can be
 invasive and detrimental to
 local marine ecosystems.
Since the mid 1990's, surplus fish
carcasses have been placed in Pacific
Northwest streams and rivers in an
effort to boost nutrient levels needed
by wild juvenile salmon. To  deter-
mine how over-wintering juvenile
salmon utilize nutrients, Dr.  Robbins
Church has developed an approach
for analyzing  stable isotopes of car-
bon and nitrogen in fish mucus, a rap-
idly-changing "tissue" not previously
analyzed for isotopes. At the Oregon
Hatchery Research Center, Church and
colleague Dr. Joseph Ebersole are
conducting feeding experiments under
controlled conditions and measuring
the relative rates of isotopic change in
mucus vs.  muscle tissue. The data in
this groundbreaking study will comple-
ment data  collected from wild fish, and
will help evaluate restoration strategies
that may benefit wild salmon through-
out the region.
  What is a Stable Isotope?
The element carbon, for
example, has 6 protons in its
nucleus, but the number of neu-
trons (6, 7 or 8) determines the
atomic mass and the specific
When carbon is passed from
one system to another (as from
a food source to the tissue of an
animal) there  is a slight prefer-
ence for either the heavier or
the lighter isotope, so the ratio
changes, producing a distinctive
isotopic "fingerprint".
In June 2006, the US Supreme Court
ruled in two cases concerning juris-
diction under the Clean Water Act
(CWA). The decisions, which deal
with CWA jurisdiction of non-
navigable streams and adjacent wet-
lands, have increased the need for
scientific information to inform fu-
ture policies and legislation.
In a recent journal article, Drs. Scott
Leibowitz and Jim Wigington pro-
pose an approach for addressing
these science needs.
 In summary:
 • Addressing the science needs
 prompted by the Supreme Court cases
 requires that the various waters be
 regarded as components of integrated
 hydrological and ecological systems.
 • Leibowitz and colleagues define
 metrics of hydrological permanence
 and significant nexus.
 • Applying these metrics could help
 implement the new legal standards
 during jurisdictional determinations.
      Significant Nexus
refers to the effects of non-
navigable streams and adjacent
wetlands on the chemical, physi-
cal and biological integrity of
navigable waters.

                           L  EFFECTS  BRANCH NOTES
There is a growing appreciation for
the importance of soil carbon to
ecosystem productivity and as a reser-
voir for carbon, yet our understanding
of soil carbon stability and distribu-
tion is limited. Soil carbon comprises
about 75% of all terrestrial carbon,
however, current soil carbon maps are
inadequate in representing these
stocks, which are vulnerable to loss,
as part of a dynamic carbon cycle. An
improved inventory and monitoring
approach is needed to assess not only
its distribution, but also its stability in
a changing environment. Dr. Mark
Johnson, a Soil Scientist at WED, has
been invited to serve on the Scientific
Steering Group of the National Soil
Carbon Network. This network is a
collaborative effort to  produce high-
resolution information on soil carbon
stability and distribution of soil carbon.
The sequestration of additional carbon
in soil may reduce atmospheric carbon
loads and help to mediate the effects of
climate change.
The report, A Summary ofNHEERL
Ecological Research on Global Cli-
mate Change, spans 14 years of re-
search conducted by EPA/Office of
Research and Development at its Na-
tional Health and Environmental Ef-
fects (NHEERL) research facilities.
Edited by Drs. Peter Beedlow and
David Tingey, the compendium pre-
 sents findings on how global climate
 change may affect terrestrial, fresh-
 water and marine ecosystems as
 well as agriculture. This research
 has provided a better understanding
 of the potential effects of global
 warming and rising levels of atmos-
 pheric CO2 on natural and managed
 Soil: a key life support system
          A Summary of
          NHEERL Ecological Research
          on Global Climate Change
                                      left: At WED's mesocosm facilities,
                                      KristyMathes (with clipboard) of
                                      Terrestrial Ecosystems Research
                                      Associates (TERA) gives a tour of the
                                      Asymmetric Warming experiment.

                                      Preliminary results from the DOE/
                                      EPA cooperative agreement study on
                                      asymmetric warming conducted by
                                      Dr. Jillian Gregg (TERA) show that
                                      grassland mesocosms exposed to
                                      asymmetrically elevated temperature
                                      treatments (+5°C daily minimum /
                                      +2°C daily maximum) had substan-
                                      tially higher respiratory  costs in re-
                                      sponse to the warmer night tempera-
                                      tures. However, assimilation also
                                      increased in response to warmer
                                      mornings and milder midday tem-
                                      peratures, resulting in no biomass
                                      difference when compared to sym-
                                      metrically elevated temperature
                                      The question now is whether vege-
                                      tation in the asymmetric treatments
                                      will grow more in response to
                                      longer growing seasons.  The ex-
                                      periment will also look for changes
                                      in species composition and abun-
                                      dance, and determine if there are
                                      changes in flowering times in re-
                                      sponse to the altered temperatures.
                                      The study continues through June,
Invasive  zebra mussels and  quagga
mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and
D bugensis ) have been aggressively
spreading  in many U.S. waterways.
Now, a team of researchers, including
Western  Ecology  Division  scientist
Dr.   Paul Ringold, have created an
ecoregion "risk" map based  on cal-
cium  concentrations,  to  determine
 where the mussels could successfully
 invade.  Primary data were taken from
 surveys made by the U.S. EPA's Envi-
 ronmental Monitoring and Assessment
 Program, and  Wadeable Streams As-
 sessment. The map can help determine
 where   resources should be targeted
 for management of the invasive s.
above: Zebra mussels compete
with native species, and can clog
pipes and other municipal water

 Australia: Dr.  Mark Johnson attended
 the  3rd  International  Conference  on
 Mechanisms of Organic Matter Stabili-
 zation and Destabilization in  Soils and
 Sediments to give a presentation and to
 work with Australian colleagues on soil
 assessment methods.  Johnson also met
Brazil: Dr. Phil Kaufmann was invited
to the Universidade Federal de Minas
Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil to do research
and teaching in connection with the
Manuelzao Project, which includes de-
velopment of biomonitoring of water
quality, physical habitat and aquatic bio-
diversity of the Velhas River watershed.
China: Dr. Walt Nelson attended the
2nd Global Conference on Large Marine
Ecosystems (LME's) in Qindao, China
in September. On the agenda were
monitoring, assessment and manage-
ment of marine resources and ecosystem
France: Dr. John Stoddard attended
the 23rd Task Force Meeting of the
International Cooperative Programme
(ICP) on Assessment and Monitoring
of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes in
Nancy, France.  Eighteen European
countries, the US and Canada supply
 with  the Australian  scientist  who
 shares one of his own research inter-
 ests:  the  effects  of  manufactured
 nanomaterials on  the  environment.
 One of the expected results of the
 Conference is information sharing
 and possible collaborations.
 The Brazilian monitoring community
 has been interested in the integrated
 approaches of Environmental Moni-
 toring and Assessment Program
 (EMAP), which they learned of on
 EPA's web site. Dr. Kaufmann's
 visit will provide the foundation for
 national biomonitoring in Brazil.
 health, impacts of climate change on
 LMEs, socioeconomics and valua-
 tions of LMEs, assessment of the
 impacts of climate and anthropo-
 genic factors, and cooperative global
 programs for action.

 data on acidification to a central data-
 base; analysis of the data provides an
 understanding of long-range trans-
 boundary air pollutants, heavy metals
 and organic pollutants. The project
 demonstrates the benefit of interna-
 tional agreements to reduce emissions
 of pollutants.
above: Freshwater Ecology Branch
Chief Dr. Tony Olsen (left) and Dr.
Kuegel at WED
Dr. Benno Kuegel,  a biologist
with the Bavarian Ministry of
Environment's Agency of Water
Management in Germany, spent
two months at WED in Corvallis
during 2007 working with West-
ern Ecology Division scientists
and learning about WED's fresh-
water assessment methods. Dr.
Kuegel also  shared information
about sustainable water manage-
ment practices in Bavaria.

 above: Qindao, China—a junk
 (traditional Chinese sailing
 vessel) in Qindao.
 Photo courtesy of Walt Nelson
India: Dr. Kristina McNyset attended
the Joint Workshop on Ecological
Forecasting in Pune, India in August.
The  workshop addressed the rapidly
evolving discipline of ecological fore-
casting. The meeting exposed Indian
United Kingdom: Dr. Chris Andersen
attended the  September SETAC Con-
ference  on Environmental Effects  of
Nanoparticles  and  Nanomaterials  in
London. While production of nanoma-
terials is expanding rapidly, their  ef-
fects  on the  environment remain  in
scientists to U.S. advancements in
ecological forecasting; brainstorming
common areas of interest led to col-
laborative work programs and a
framework for an Indo-U.S. Virtual
Centre for Ecological Forecasting.
question.  Meeting  highlights  in-
cluded: properties of nanoparticles in
the environment; detection and bioas-
says for nanosubstances; and  envi-
ronmental and industrial applications
of nanotechnologies. Also discussed
were regulation, and policy issues.
 above: Pune, India—local women
 created sand mandala on floor of
 hotel lobby to celebrate a festival.
 Photo courtesy of Kristina

                     'NANO"   MAKES BIG NEWS
Engineered nanoparticles have the
potential to be used in every sector
of the economy, including consumer
products, health care, energy,  and
agriculture, and to improve how we
monitor, manage, and minimize con-
taminants. By 2014, 15% of all
goods manufactured globally could
involve nanotechnology; there are
already nearly 600 such products in
the marketplace including clothing,
cosmetics, and medicines.

Although the EPA is interested in the
possible benefits of nanotechnol-
ogy, it also has the mandate to pro-
tect human health and the environ-
ment, and to date, there is almost no
information on the effects of engi-
neered nanomaterials once they
reach the environment.

To address this information gap,
WED has initiated a new project,
being led by Drs. Chris Andersen,
Mark Johnson and Paul Ry-
giewicz, to examine the potential
effects of engineered nanoparticles
on terrestrial ecosystems. They re-
cently developed a three-phase re-
search approach. In Phase I, tradi-
tional OPPTS testing protocols will
be examined to determine their ade-
quacy in assessing the toxicity of
In Phase II, mechanisms of toxicity
will be explored and novel approaches
based on proteomics and genomics for
rapidly assessing toxicity will be
Finally, Phase III  will focus on the
degree to which nanoparticles released
into reconstructed  ecosystems repre-
sent a risk to ecosystem structure and
function. The unique aspect of Phase
III is shifting the endpoints of interest
from individuals to groups of individu-
als, and to their interactions and sys-
tem level responses.

This research will  assist EPA OPPTS'
development of regulatory require-
ments, including pre- and post-
registration product assessments and
monitoring. In addition, the results
will allow other Agency offices to
identify potential environmental con-
cerns resulting from nanoparticle ex-
posure. Finally, the results will enable
the Agency to evaluate its current risk
assessment framework, and may lead
to the development of a new assess-
ment framework should the current
approaches be inadequate for nano-
...or molecular "manufacturing",
allows researchers to alter
material properties to create
new materials and products.

The "novel" properties of
nanoparticles are different from
the properties of the  bulk mate-

For example, your new bedroom
slippers could have a silver lin-
ing—literally—of material con-
taining silver nano-particles,
which have antibacterial and
antifungal properties.

One nanometer =1 billionth of a
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    and dynamic models. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf
    Science 74:  1-11 (2007).
Harmon, M.E., Phillips, Donald L., Battles, J.J.,
    Rassweiler, A., Hal, R.O., Lauenroth, W.K.
    "Quantifying uncertainty in net primary production
    measurements." Chapter 12 in Principles and Stan-
    dards for Measuring Primary Production, edited
    Fahey T.J. & Knapp, A.K  Oxford University
    Press, New York, 2007,  238-260.
Hobbie, E. A., Rygiewicz, Paul. T., Johnson, Mark. G.,
    and Moldenke, A. R. 13C and 15N in microarthro-
    pods reveal little response of Douglas-fir ecosys-
    tems to climate change. Global Change Biology.
    Vol. 13:  1386-1397 (2007).
Hogsett, William E., David T. Tingey, E. Henry Lee,
    Peter A. Beedlow, Christian P. Andersen. An Ap-
    proach for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various
    Ozone Air quality Standards for Protecting Trees.
    Environmental Management, doi: 10.1007/s00267-
    007-9057-3 (2008).
Kaufmann, Phillip R., Faustini, John M., Larsen, D.
    Phillip., Shirazi, Mostafa. A Roughness-Corrected
    Index of Relative Bed Stability for Regional Stream
    Surveys. Geomorphology, doi: 10.10167
    j.geomorph.2007.10.007 (2008).
Kentula, Mary E. 2007. Foreword: Monitoring Wet-
    lands at the Watershed Scale.  Wetlands 27(3): 412-
    415 (2007).
Koch, N., Andersen, Christian P., Raidl, S., Agerer, R.,
    Matyssek, R., and Grams, T. E. Temperature-
    respiration relationships differ in mycorrhizal and
    non-mycorrhizal root systems of Picea abies (L.)
    Karst.  Plant Biology.  Vol. 9:545-549  (2007).
Lackey, Robert T.  Scientists and Democracy [Review
    of: The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in
    Policy and Politics.  Roger A. Pielke, Jr., Cam-
    bridge University Press, Cambridge, UK,
    2007.] BioScience 58(4):359-360, (2008).
Leibowitz, Scott.G., P.James  Wigington, Jr., M.C.
    Rains, and D.M. Downing. Non-navigable streams
    and adjacent wetlands: addressing science needs
    following the Supreme Court's Rapanos decision.
    Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 6, doi:
Lindsay, Kathryn Freemark, Mary V. Santelmann, Jean
    C. Sifneos, Denis White, and David A. Kirk .
    "Wildlife Habitat".  In From the Com Belt to the
    Gulf; Societal and Environmental Implications of
    Alternative Agricultural Futures. Editors Joan
    Everson Nassauer, Mary V.  Santelmann, and Don-
    ald Scavia. Resources for the Future, Washington,
    D.C., 2007,  147-163.
Lomnicky, Gregg A., Thomas R. Whittier, Robert M.
    Hughes, and David V. Peck. Distribution of nonna-
    tive aquatic vertebrates in western U.S. streams and
    rivers.  North American Journal of Fisheries Man-
    agement 27:1082-1093 (2007).
Magee, T.K., Paul L. Ringold, and Michael A. Boll-
    man. Alien species importance in native vegetation
    along wadeable streams,  John Day River basin,
    Oregon, USA. Plant Ecology,  Jo/:10.1007/sll258-
    007-9330-9  (2007).
Meador, Michael R., Thomas R. Whittier, Robert M.
    Goldstein, Robert M. Hughes,  and David V. Peck.
    Evaluation of an Index of Biotic Integrity Approach
    Used to Assess Biological Condition in Western
    U.S. Streams and Rivers  at Varying Spatial Scales.
    Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
    137:13-22 (2008).

                              RECENT  PUBLICATIONS
Morse, John W., and Peter M. Eldridge. A non-steady
    state diagenetic model for changes in sediment bio-
    geochemistry in response to seasonally hypoxic/
    anoxic conditions in the "dead zone" of the Louisi-
    ana shelf. Marine Chemistry 106:239-255 (2007).
Morzillo, A.T., J. W. Hollister, M.E. Rocca, and M.E.
    Baker, et al. A Young Scientist's Guide To Gainful
    Employment: Recent Graduates' Experiences and
    Successful Strategies. Bulletin of the Ecological
    Society ofAmerica,89(2):l93-203 (2008).
Nagy, Laura, Anne Fairbrother, Matthew Etterson, and
    Jennifer Orme-Zavaleta. The Intersection of Inde-
    pendent Lies: Increasing Realism in Ecological
    Risk Assessment. Human and Ecological Risk As-
    sessment 13: 355-369 (2007).
Newsome SD, Etnier MA, Gifford-Gonzalez D, Phillips
    DL, van Tuinen M, Hadly EA, Costa DP, Kennett
    DJ, Guilderson TP, Koch PL.  The shifting baseline
    of northern fur seal ecology in the northeast Pacific
    Ocean.  Proceedings of the National Academy of
    Sciences 104  (23): 9709-9714 (2007).
Newsome, Seth D., Carlos Martinez del Rio, Stuart
    Bearhop, and Donald L. Phillips.  A niche for iso-
    topic ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Envi-
    ronment 5: 429-436 (2007).
Olszyk, David, Thomas Pfleeger, E. Henry Lee, Connie
    Burdick, George King, Milton Plocher and Jeffrey
    Kern.  Selecting and Evaluating Native Plants for
    Region-Specific Phytotoxicity Testing. Integrated
    Environmental Assessment and Management 4(1):
Paul, John F., Susan M. Cormier, Walter J. Berry,
    Philip R. Kaufmann, Robert L. Spehar, Douglas J.
    Norton, Robert E. Cantilli, Richard Stevens, Wil-
    liam F.  Swietlik, and Benjamin K. Jessup. Develop-
    ing Water Quality Criteria for Suspended and Bed-
    ded Sediments. Water Practice 2(1).  Water Envi-
    ronment Federation; doi: 10.2175/19331
    7708X281433 (2008).
Peterson, Spencer A., David V. Peck, John Van Sickle,
    and Robert M. Hughes. Mercury Concentration in
    Frozen Whole-Fish Homogenates is Insensitive to
    Holding Time.  Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 53:
Roelke, Daniel L., and Peter M. Eldridge. Mixing of
    Supersaturated Assemblages and the Precipitous
    Loss of Species. The American Naturalist 171 (2):
    162-175 (2008).
Rosfjord, Catherine H., Katherine E. Webster, Jeffrey
    S. Kahl, Stephen A. Norton, Ivan J. Fernandez, and
    Alan T. Herlihy. Anthropogenically driven changes
    in chloride complicate interpretation of base cation
    trends in lakes recovering from acidic deposition.
    Environ. Sci. Technol. 47:7688-7693 (2007).
Rustigian, Heather L., Mary V. Santelmann, and Nathan H.
    Schumaker.  "Amphibian Population Dynamics."  In
    From the Corn Belt to the Gulf; Societal and Environ-
    mental Implications of Alternative Agricultural Futures
    edited by Joan Everson Nassauer, Mary V. Santelmann,
    and Donald  Scavia. Resources for the Future, Washing-
    ton, D.C., 2007, 108-114.
Santelmann, Mary V., Jean C. Sifneos, Denis White, and
    Kathryn Freemark Lindsay. "Plant Diversity."  In From
    the Corn Belt to the Gulf; Societal and Environmental
    Implications of Alternative Agricultural Futures edited
    by Joan Everson Nassauer, Mary V. Santelmann, and
    Donald Scavia.  Resources for the Future, Washington,
    D.C., 2007,  91-101.
Schwindt, Adam R., John W. Fournie, Dixon H. Landers,
    Carl B.  Schreck and Michael L. Kent.  Mercury Concen-
    trations in Salmonids from Western U.S. National Parks
    and Relationships with Age and Macrophage Aggre-
    gates. Environ Sci. Technol. 42:1365-1370.  doi:
Shirazi, Mostafa A. and Minocher Reporter. A Diurnal Re-
    flectance Model Using Grass: Surface-Substrate Interac-
    tion and Inverse Solution. Agron. J. 99:1278-1287
Tingey, David T., E. Henry Lee, James D. Lewis, Mark G.
    Johnson, and Paul T. Rygiewicz. Do mesocosms influ-
    ence photosynthesis and soil respiration? Environmental
    and Experimental Botany 62: 36-44 (2008).
Tingey, David T., E. Henry Lee, Donald L. Phillips, Paul T.
    Rygiewicz, Ronald S. Waschmann, Mark  G. Johnson,
    and David M. Olszyk. Elevated CO2 and temperature
    alter net ecosystem C exchange in a young Douglas fir
    mesocosm experiment. Plant, Cell and Environment 30:
    1400-1410 (2007).
Usenko, Sascha, Dixon H. Landers, Peter G. Appleby, and
    Staci L. Simonich. Current and Historical Deposition of
    PBDEs, Pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs to Rocky Mountain
    National Park. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41:7235-7241
Van Sickle, J., David D. Huff, and C.P. Hawkins. Selecting
    discriminant function models for predicting the expected
    richness of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biol-
    ogy 51,359-372(2006).
Van Sickle, John, and Colleen Burch Johnson. Parametric
    distance weighting of landscape influence on streams.
    Landscape Ecology doi: 10.1007/sl0980-008-9200-4

                              RECENT  PUBLICATIONS
Van Sickle, John. An index of compositional dissimilar-
    ity between observed and expected assemblages.
    Journal of North American Benthological Society
    27(2):227-235. doi: 10.1899/07-111-1 (2008).
Wardrop, Denice H., Mary E. Kentula, Susan F. Jensen,
    Donald L. Stevens, Jr., Kristin C. Hychka, and
    Robert P. Brooks. Assessment of Wetlands in the
    Upper Juniata Watershed in Pennsylvania, USA
    Using the Hydrogeomorphic Approach.  Wetlands
    27(3): 432-445 (2007).
Wardrop, Denice H., Mary E. Kentula, Donald  L. Ste-
    vens, Jr., Susan F. Jensen, and Robert P.  Brooks.
    Assessment of Wetland Condition: An Example
    from the Upper Juniata.  Wetlands  27(3) 416-431
Whigham, Dennis  F., Amy Deller Jacobs, Donald E.
    Weller, Thomas E. Jordan, Mary E. Kentula, Susan
    F. Jensen, and Donald L. Stevens, Jr.  Combining
         HGM and EMAP procedures to assess wetlands at
         the watershed scale ~ status of flats and non-tidal
         riverine wetlands in the Nanticoke River watershed,
         Delaware and Maryland (USA).  Wetlands 27(3):
         462-478 (2007).
     White, Denis, and A. Ross Kiester. Topology matters:
         Network topology affects outcomes from commu-
         nity ecology neutral models.  Computers, Environ-
         ment and Urban Systems 32:  165-171. doi: 10. 1016/
         j .compenverbsys.2007.11.002 (2008).
     Whittier, Thomas R., Paul L. Ringold, Alan T. Herlihy,
         and Suzanne M. Pierson.  A Calcium-based invasion
         risk assessment for zebra and Quagga mussels
         (Dreissena spp). Front Ecol Environ; 6,
         doi: 10.1890/070073 (2008).
                                          The Last Word:
                          Seeking Public Opinion on Rodenticides
Recently 9,000 questionnaires were sent to
households and businesses in California as part
of Dr. Anita Morzillo's "Rodenticide Use" sur-
vey. Morzillo is a cross-NHEERL post doctoral
researcher working on sustainability issues at the
Western Ecology Division; she has been work-
ing on the project since November 2005.

The survey was done in collaboration with the
National Park Service and California State
University/Stanislaus, and will help assess
public awareness of the potential effects of
rodenticide use on wildlife. The information
will benefit land managers by giving insight into
environmental decision-making by individuals.
below: Dr. Morzillo loads some of the surveys that were mailed
to households and businesses in a target area of California.
              Scientists featured in this Research Update work at EPA's Western Ecology Division
                 (National Health & Environmental Effects Laboratory) unless otherwise noted.
                 For more information please contact editor Joan Hurley:
                             The information in this document has been funded wholly or in part by the U. S.
                             Environmental Protection Agency. It has been subjected to review by the Na-
                             tional Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory and approved for
                             publication. Approval does not signify that the contents reflect the views of the
                             Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute
                             endorsement or recommendation for use.