United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of
the Comptroller
Washington, DC 20460
January 1989
                                 -
                         jf   j L



                              '
         Summary of
         the 1990 Budget

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                 TABLE OF CONTENTS






                                                   PAGE




OVERVIEW OF THE 1990 BUDGET	     3




OPERATING BUDGET SUMMARY	     9




  Air....	    11




  Water Quality	    15



  Drinking Water	    19




  Hazardous Waste	    23




  Pesticides	    25



  Radiation	    27




  Interdisciplinary	    29




  Toxic Substances...	    31



  Energy	    33




  Management & Support	    35




SUPERFUND	    39



LUST	    45




CONSTRUCTION GRANTS	    51




RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT	    57




STATE AND LOCAL GRANTS	    67




APPENDK: BUDGET TABLES	     73

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NOTE: The charts on the following pages include the 1989 Current
         Estimate and the 1990 President's Budget.  Unless otherwise
         noted, all comparisons between 1990 and 1989 budget levels in the
         narrative refer to the 1989 Current Estimate and 1990 President's
         Budget, (The "Current Estimate" is the Agency's current plan for
         using its resources.)

         Additionally, references to workyears refer to total workyears
         rather than only "permanent" workyears.

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                                                     OVERVIEW
    Overview of the 1990 Budget

    The 1990 President's Budget for the
Environmental  Protection Agency  will
provide the  Agency with the resources
needed to successfully achieve the statu-
tory objectives with which it is entrusted,
and to pursue the mission of protecting
human health and the environment.

    The Agency's 1990 Budget represents
a  request   for  approximately 15,130
workyears and $4.9 billion. The request
includes 12,004 workyearsand $1.83 bil-
lion for our operating programs, 3,035
workyears  and $1.75 billion for the
Superfund program, and 91 workyears
and $100 million for the Leaking Under-
ground  Storage Tank (LUST) program.
Additionally, the request provides  $1.2
billion for the Construction Grants pro-
gram.

    The 1990  Budget Request provides
support for  implementing new require-
ments while continuing support for on-
going programs.  The Agency will concen-
trate its energy on aggressively expanding
the long-term research program.   This
policy will allow EPA to concentrate on
preventing pollution at its source, as op-
posed to traditional programs that have
concentrated almost solely on cleanup ef-
forts.   The Agency is also proposing  to
charge at market value for the rights to
produce chlorofluorocarbons and related
substances that deplete the ozone layer.
Our request continues  the expansion  of
the Agency's enforcement activities and
maintains the strong State-Federal part-
nership that is crucial to achieving our
environmental goals.  The Superfund
Response program continues to receive
high priority in 1990. Our commitment to
the LUST program is reflected by doubling
the resources available for this vital pro-
gram in 1990.

           HIGHLIGHTS

State and Local Grants:

   The President's 1990 Budget Request
allocates $344.4 million to support State
and local  environmental programs, an
increase of $26.3  million over the 1989
budget level.  The request will substan-
tially increase funding for the Section 106
State  Water Quality  grants program to
help States fund implementation of State
nonpoint source management plans, the
Section 404 wetlands program, and State
groundwater programs (for Wellhead Pro-
tection and Agchemical Management)
while  providing  increased  funding for
Indian Tribes' water quality programs.
Additionally,  a significant increase in
public water system grants will help build
State  capability to implement the  Safe
Drinking Water Act Amendments.  Re-
sources  will also  support air  pollution
grants to States as  provided by Section 105
of the Clean  Air  Act. Grants will  help
States continue their efforts to implement
and enforce clean air standards,  reduce
exposure to toxic  air pollutants, and re-
view new sources of air pollution.

Research and Development:

    The 1990 President's Budget Request
provides a  total of 1,873 workyears and

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$421,5 million for our research and devel-
opment program. This represents an in-
crease of 21 workyears and $33.6 million
over the 1989 level.

    The  major increases  will  enhance
global   climate  change   research,
strengthen our long-term research capa-
bilities,  rebuild our scientific infrastruc-
ture, and support media program needs.
The Agency requests a total of $14 million,
an increase of $10 million, for global cli-
mate change research.  These funds will
support a new Federal interagency Global
Climate Change Research Program.  The
Agency also requests an increase of $28
million to strengthen our long-term re-
search capabilities which  will help the
Agency identify and address  future envi-
ronmental  concerns.  The Agency  will
continue to upgrade our existing research
capabilities with an increase of $10 million
for  infrastructure needs.  Finally, media
research program needs will be increased
$6 million.

Enforcemen t:

    The  President's  1990 request  will
provide  an 8 percent increase to the
Agency's total enforcement resources.
       Enforcement Resources
             1988 to 1990
                         $304 M
             $282 M
                 J +$22 M
                 * +8%
  $262 M
     1988
  ACTUALS
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
  BUDGET
    Within the  Agency's request,  the
Superfund  program will receive an  in-
crease of 88 workyears and $6.9 million
over the 1989 budget.  These resources
provide  support for case referrals for set-
tlement or litigation to the Department of
Justice.   The  Agency will execute new
interagency agreements and  support on-
going agreements for remedial response at
sites owned or operated by other agencies.

    Our Civil and Criminal Enforcement
programs  will be  strengthened  with a
budget request of 440 workyears and $26.2
million.  This will strengthen our ability to
litigate civil cases. It will also strengthen
our Criminal Investigations  Program to
provide  a  more effective  national deter-
rent to those who willfully violate environ-
mental laws and regulations.

Superfund:

    The President's 1990 Budget Request
for  Superfund,  consisting  of  3,035
workyears  and $1,750.0  million,  repre-
sents a  significant commitment by the
Agency to meet its responsibilities to pro-
tect human health and the environment
from uncontrolled releases of hazardous
substances.  This commitment includes
our interaction with other Federal agen-
cies and States to implement the Compre-
hensive  Environmental Response, Com-
pensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of
1980, as  amended by  the  Superfund
Amendments  and Reauthorization  Act
(SARA)  of 1986.

    The  Agency is  requesting  1,281
workyears and $1,350.6 million for the site
response program. The primary emphasis
in this program remains  on meeting the
SARA remedial action schedule. This will
be accomplished through  supporting new
remedial  designs, new constructions,

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completing administrative and litigation
enforcement actions, and initiating engi-
neering studies at sites for eventual reme-
dial action.

Leaking Underground Storage Tank
(LUST) Program:

    Under  the President's 1990 Budget,
the LUST program requests 91 workyears
and $100 million, doubling the dollar re-
sources over the 1989 level.  Ninety per-
cent of these dollars will fund cooperative
agreements with the States for responding
to leaks  from underground  petroleum
storage tanks.

Construction Grants:

    For 1990, the Agency requests a total
of $1.2 billion for the Construction Grants
program, of which $800 million will be for
State Revolving Funds (SRFs) and $400
million for construction grants. The re-
quest supports a $12 billion phaseout of
the Construction  Grants program with
Federal funding continuing through 1993.

Summary:

    The President's 1990 Budget Request
for the Environmental Protection Agency
provides the Agency with the  necessary
resources  to address  the  nation's most
critical environmental problems. It gives
support to our new programs and  priori-
ties such  as long-term research,  global
climate, and protecting critical  water
habitats. It also ensures a stable base for
the Agency's operating programs.  This
year's  budget once  again reflects the
Administration's strong commitment to
protect the environment.

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 In 1990, The Agency's Budget For Superfund, LUST, And The
      Operating Programs Will Total Almost $3.7 Billion
                                                         $3,683
                                                   $3,370
                                            $3,227
                                      $2,700 '
G SUPERFUND/LUST PROGRAMS
E2 OPERATING PROGRAMS
 $1,428
1961
       1982
1983
1984   1985
1986
1987   1988   1989   1990
             The Agency's Workyear Ceiling Will
                    Increase by 3% in 1990
D  SUPERFUND/LUST PROGRAMS
0  OPERATING PROGRAMS
13,130
                                              14,450
                                                    14,720
                                                           15,130
1981   1982   1983   1984    1985    1986   1987
                                              1988
                                       1989   1990

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                s

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THE OPERATING PROGRAMS
                       Air
             Water Quality
            Drinking Water
        Hazardous
         Waste
       Pesticides
     Radiation
Interdisciplinary
  Toxic
Substances
Energy
Management
 & Support
         BUDGET SUMMARY

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                10

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                                                                     Am
    $268.4 M
              DOLLARS
                +$27,0 M
                  199O
              INCREASE
  $295.4 M
      1989
   CURRENT
   ESTIMATE
    190O
PRESIDENT'S
  BUDGET
                                              1,732
                            WORKYEARS
                                                          +22,
                                                                     1,754
                                                         199O
                                                       INCREASE
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    199O
PRESIDENTS
   BUDGET
            HIGHLIGHTS

Air Quality Planning and Standards:

    In  1990,  EPA  will  provide  195
workyears and $24.8 million, an increase
of 2 workyears and $5.5 million from 1989
to help achieve the ozone and participate
matter  (PM10) National  Ambient Air
Quality Standards  (NAAQS).  The  air
program will also continue implementing
the comprehensive toxic pollutant control
strategy, begun in 1985, by promulgating
additional federal regulations and provid-
ing increased support for State efforts to
regulate and manage toxic pollutants. In
1990 additional resources will support
efforts to upgrade programs for volatile
organic compounds monitoring, emissions
inventories, and regional ozone models.

State Grants:

    Grants  to  State  and local govern-
ments are provided under Section 105 of
the Clean Air Act. In 1990 the air program
will distribute $99.7 million, to support
                 State air pollution programs. The grant
                 program will help States continue their
                 efforts to implement the post-1987 ozone/
                 carbon monoxide policy, meet the NAAQS
                 for PM  , reduce exposure  to air toxics,
                 and review new pollution sources. States
                 will also continue carrying out core activi-
                 ties including source surveillance and
                 compliance efforts, monitoring networks,
                 and quality assurance programs.

                 Regional Monitoring and Air Quality
                 Ma nagement:

                     The  Agency  has  allocated  375
                 workyears and $17.4 million, an increase
                 of 2 workyears and $0.8 million over 1989.
                 Additional  resources  will  support in-
                 creased Regional guidance to States that
                 are reviewing and revising their ozone
                 and PM10 SIPs.  Increased resources also
                 support State efforts to implement the
                 post-1987 ozone/carbon monoxide policy.
                 As in 1989, Regions will develop emission
                 inventories,  operate  Regional ozone
                                       11

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transport  models, and  expand the  air
quality data system. They will continue
providing effective and timely policy guid-
ance and technical consultation to States.
Efforts will  emphasize:  improving envi-
ronmental quality, particularly within the
non-attainment areas; revising SIPs for
updated NAAQS; and controlling air tox-
ics,

Mobile Sources:

    The 1990 request for mobile source air
pollution control and fuel economy totals
293 workyears and $31.2  million, which
represents an increase of 2 workyears and
$4.7 million over 1989. The increase sup-
ports testing and demonstrating alterna-
tive  fuels as well as implementing fuel
volatility and refueling emissions regula-
tions. The standards program in 1990 will
continue to  emphasize controlling ozone
precursors and air toxics.
       Resources for Ozone/CO
                  +$2M
   $77 M
        $75 M
                  1090
               INCREASE
        1989
      CURRENT
      ESTIMATE
    199O
PRESIDENTS
  BUDGET
 Mobile and Stationary Source
 Enforcement:

    Mobile source enforcement totals 114
 workyears and $9.5 million, representing
 an increase of 9 workyears and $1.9 mil-
lion. The 1990 initiatives for the mobile
source enforcement program include en-
forcing fuel volatility rules and establish-
ing a heavy duty vehicle enforcement pro-
gram.   In addition, the Mobile Source
Enforcement program will continue to
support State and local programs to pre-
vent tampering and fuel switching.

    The  request for  Stationary Source
Enforcement is 312 workyears and $18.4
million, $2.0 million over 1989.  In 1990,
the stationary program  will continue ef-
forts in NAAQS attainment and reduce
toxic  emissions.   Additional  resources
support  increased  asbestos inspections
and PMJO SIP reviews.

Stratospheric Ozone, Global Warm-
ing, Indoor Air Quality, and Acid
Deposition:

    In 1990, the air program will allocate
36  workyears and $10.1 million to con-
tinue efforts to implement  the Montreal
Protocol, to control domestic and interna-
tional production and consumption of chlo-
rofluorocarbons (CFCs),  and to develop
policy guidance on indoor air and acid rain.
Further, the program will continue coop-
erating with other federal agencies on
stratospheric ozone depletion and global
climate change programs. In addition, the
Office is proposing to charge market value
for the rights to produce CFCs and related
ozone-depleting substances.

Air Research:

    The 1990 request for research is 425
workyears and $84.2 million, an increase
of 3 workyears and $15.1  million.  The
additional resources will be used to en-
hance the global climate change research
program; to measure and study the forma-
tion of acid aerosol air pollutants; and to
                                       12

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provide equipment for a new clinical re-
search facility in Chapel Hill, North Caro-
lina. The new facility will strengthen the
Agency's capability to provide data on the
effects of inhaled air pollutants on human
health. The 199G program will also sup-
port research on  indoor air pollution,
stratospheric ozone depletion, air toxics,
and regional modeling of air pollutants
including ozone.
                                       13

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               14

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                                         WATER   QUALITY
              DOLLARS

               +$21.1 M
    $286.8 M  (  '      (\
                1990
             INCREASE
                            WORKYEARS
   $307.9 M
                          2,234
                     2,220
                                 1990
                              INCREASE
    1989
  CURRENT
  ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENTS
   BUDGET
           HIGHLIGHTS

    Resource increases are targeted pri-
marily toward increasing state capacity
through the funding of state grants, and
expanded programs for protecting critical
habitats as directed by the amended Clean
Water Act (CWA).

Critical Habitats:

    The EPA programs that address pollu-
tion problems in our national estuaries,
near coastal waters, wetlands, oceans, the
Great Lakes, and Chesapeake Bay, as well
as EPA's nonpoint source pollution control
program, are at the center of the Agency's
efforts to protect critical habitats vital to
the nation's environmental and economic
health. The 1990 President's Budget in-
cludes $71.8 million and  432 workyears
for  these programs, an increase of $9.3
million and 44 workyears over 1989.

    The National Estuary program, estab-
lished under Section 320 of the CWA, will
expand to include a total of 16 estuaries in
                 1990.  EPA will continue the programs
                 already underway in Albemarle/Pamlico
                 Sounds,  Buzzards Bay, Delaware  Bay,
                 Delaware Inland Bays, Galveston  Bay,
                 Long Island  Sound, Narragansett  Bay,
                 New  York/New Jersey Harbor, Puget
                 Sound, San Francisco Bay, Santa Monica
                 Bay, and Sarasota Bay. At the same time,
                 EPA will select and initiate four new estu-
                 ary projects on the basis of national signifi-
                 cance, with priority consideration given to
                 project sites referenced in the CWA. These
                 four projects will expand the geographic
                 coverage of the program, support the fur-
                 ther development of project expertise at
                 the regional and State levels, and apply
                 and test remedial approaches developed in
                 the earlier estuary projects.

                    In 1990, EPA will continue to work
                 with the National  Oceanic and Atmos-
                 pheric Administration (NOAA) and the
                 States to expand the ongoing near coastal
                 waters  (NCW) assessment.  This will in-
                 clude organizing NCW  assessment data
                                      15

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for use in ongoing EPA permitting and
other regulatory or management pro-
grams, and beginning an assessment of
innovative nonpoint source control pro-
grams by the States and EPA Regions.
Also, EPA will expand the Gulf of Mexico
Initiative to include a monitoring and data
collection program.  This program will be
used  in  evaluating the  environmental
health of the Gulf and as a basis for estab-
lishing policy and regulatory options for
managing Gulf pollution problems.

    Protecting  the nation's  remaining
wetlands resources has become a high
priority goal for EPA.  The Agency's wet-
lands program will continue to expand in
1990  to reflect the pressing need for in-
creased wetlands protection.


      1990 Wetlands Resources
            $9,8 M
            OCEAN
           DISPOS
 $23,3 M
NATIONAL
ESTUARY
PROGRAM/
NEAR
COASTAL
WATERS
     $8.8 M
   WETLANDS
      $6.5 M
   WQ MGMT/
       NFS
                       $12.0 M
                    I CHESAPEAKE
         REATLAKE
 Loss of wetlands has a major impact on our
 environment in terms of species decline
 and increased rate and severity of flood-
 ing. Additional resources in 1990 will be
 directed toward increased State assump-
 tions  of wetlands  protection activities
 under Section  404  of the CWA  and ex-
 panded efforts to develop and implement
 anticipatory approaches to wetlands pro-
tection, especially advanced identification
activities. Resources will also support an
expanded, more  aggressive enforcement
and compliance monitoring program.  At
the same time EPA will continue to work
with the Corps of Engineers and other
Federal agencies to issue policy and proce-
dures to clarify regulatory requirements of
the Section 404  program, including ad-
ministrative penalty authority, comple-
tion  of the  EPA wetlands  delineation
manual, and Bottomland Hardwood guid-
ance.

    Increased resources in the Ocean Dis-
posal program will be directed primarily
toward a more intensive Agency role in
developing Environmental Impact State-
ments (EISs) to  evaluate ocean disposal
sites for dredged material disposal, as well
as disposal site management and monitor-
ing  to  ensure compliance with ocean
dumping criteria.  Additional funds will
also be used to accelerate the New York
Bight Restoration Plan  to meet the De-
cember 1990 completion deadline, and to
continue the New York  Mud Dump Site
alternative study. In 1990, the Nonpoint
Source (NPS) program will concentrate on
helping States  protect and restore se-
lected  watersheds from  NPS  pollution,
with priority being given to high quality
and high value waters such as estuaries,
wetlands, and ground waters. An increase
in workyears will support development of
a  national outreach program to  educate
the public and local governments on NPS
controls.

    The  Great Lakes Program will con-
tinue to focus on the monitoring, assess-
ment,  and control of toxic pollutants as
directed in the Great Lakes Water Quality
Agreement with Canada and Section 118
of the amended CWA. In 1990, resources
will be directed toward final outfitting of
the  replacement research vessel with
                                       16

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modular laboratories for carrying out toxic
sample  preparation and analysis.  Also,
continued implementation of the Chesap-
eake Bay program will proceed in accor-
dance with Section 111 of the  CWA, the
revised  Chesapeake Bay Agreement, and
the Chesapeake Bay Restoration and Pro-
tection Plan. Program activities will focus
on water quality monitoring and analysis,
implementation of nonpoint source con-
trols, and expansion of the Baywide toxics
control strategy to include monitoring for
pesticides.

Section 106 State Grants:

    The amended CWA places a substan-
tial new workload on the States while at
the same time phasing out  funding from
Construction Grant set-asides. With this
in mind, EPA is actively studying the fea-
sibility  of establishing privatization and
technology transfer efforts capable of gen-
erating  sufficient funds to meet  State
needs in surface water and drinking water
programs. At the same time, to strengthen
the existing foundation of State environ-
mental programs, some increased Federal
funding is  appropriate. Therefore, EPA
will  direct increases in 1990 toward the
Section  106 State Water Quality grants
program to help States increase capacity
and  address  the  decline in Federal set-
aside funding. These resources will help
fund implementation of State nonpoint
source management plans, State assump-
tion of the Section 404 wetlands program,
and  Tribal  activities mandated by the
amended CWA, The 1990 budget includes
$83.2 million for Section 106 State grants,
a $16.1  million increase over 1989.

    Also in  1990, in  support  of the
Agency's coordinated Ground-Water Pro-
tection  Strategy, which calls for States to
take the lead role in protecting ground-
water resources,  EPA will expand the
portion  of Section 106 State grants di-
rected toward implementing strong State
ground-water protection programs. This
funding will be carefully coordinated with
resources and programs in the Office of
Ground-Water Protection and the Office of
Pesticides and Toxic  Substances.   The
funds will provide substantive assistance
to States for addressing the related prob-
lems of pesticides in ground-water, well-
head protection,  and  contamination  of
ground-water by nonpoint sources, haz-
ardous wastes, and leaking underground
storage  tanks.

Water Quality Point Sources:

    In  1990, EPA will provide technical
assistance to the States as they design and
implement  the  State Revolving Fund
(SRF) program.  EPA will  review  and
approve SRF programs, award capitaliza-
tion grants to States, and oversee implem-
entation of SRFs consistent with the re-
quirements of the CWA. EPA will  also
continue to administer the Construction
Grants  program with emphases on cost-
effective construction, prompt completion
of grant-assisted projects, and effective
operation and maintenance of completed
facilities.

    Base programs for  water  quality
monitoring, permit issuance,  effluent
guidelines, and standards and regulations
will continue  with  special emphasis on
reviewing National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permits for
major  facilities discharging into near
coastal waters and other critical habitats.
Significant resources in the water quality
monitoring and permit programs will con-
tinue to be directed toward meeting re-
quirements of Section 304(1) of the CWA.
Under this section, EPA and the States are
developing  individual  control strategies
(ICSs)  for  reducing toxic discharges to
                                       17

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surface waters. Increased resources will
go toward analyzing sediment contamina-
tion  problems and developing sediment
criteria, providing assistance to States for
using water quality criteria as standards,
accelerating the promulgation of sludge
technical regulations, and enhancing the
data base for tracking permit compliance.
The 1990 request includes $126.6 million
and 1,536 workyears for these programs.

Water Quality Research and Develop-
ment:

    The Agency's 1990 budget for water
quality  research is  $26.3 million  sup-
ported by 266 workyears.  Increased re-
search will be directed toward determin-
ing if constructed wetlands can be used as
a practical means for treating wastewa-
ters  from small communities and  acid
mine drainage.  EPA will increase re-
search on the development of sediment
quality criteria that define safe concentra-
tions of individual chemicals in sediment.
In addition, research will develop techni-
cal tools and provide guidelines to States
on implementing the water quality based
approach to pollution control, which will
help States to more effectively implement
their water quality programs.
                                        18

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                                      DRINKING   WATER
    S1O7.8M
              DOLLARS
               +411.2M
  Si 19,0 M
                199O
             INCREASE
     1989
  CURRENT
  ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
          WORKYEARS
              +26
                                            741
                                                                   767
                             
                               199O
                             INCREASE
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
           HIGHLIGHTS

Development of New Drinking Water
Standards:

    Pesticides and compounds that occur
in drinking water as by-products of chemi-
cal  disinfection  will be the 1990 focal
points for standard-setting required by
the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act (SD WA)
Amendments. A draft Ground-Water Dis-
infection  Treatment National  Primary
Drinking Water Regulation (NPDWR)
and draft Disinfection and  By-Product
Maximum  Contaminant  Level  Goal
(MCLGVNPDWR will be under develop-
ment. The program will work to complete
standards for 38 Inorganic/Synthetic Or-
ganic Chemicals and 30 Chemical/Radi-
onuclides. In 1990, the Drinking Water
program will work in conjunction with the
Office  of Pesticide  Programs towards
completion of the National Survey of Pes-
ticides in Drinking Water Wells by con-
cluding its sampling and analysis of com-
munity water systems.
                Mobilization and Public Water Sup-
                ply (PWS) Implementation:

                   The Agency requests 181 workyears
                and $54.2 million, which represents an
                increase of 16 workyears and $10.3 million
                over 1989. The program will continue to
                place high priority on improving compli-
                ance with the expanding PWS standards
                in primacy States and in States where
                EPA must directly implement programs.

                      MOBILIZATION / PWS
                   IMPLEMENTATION GROWS
                    43.9
                              	$54.2
                                            1989
                                            165.2
                               1990
                               181.2
                    I	j Drkg. Water
                    	Implement.
                       PWS Prog.
                       Assistance
                           Grants
                   Workyears
                                     19

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Increased  resources  will  enable the
Agency to assist States in building the
technical capacity to implement the stan-
dards  and to  initiate  a major effort  to
mobilize and educate agencies, organiza-
tions, water utility operators and the gen-
eral public to support the new standards.

    Additional resources will  also  help
States  to  foster  system  financial  self-
sufficiency, expand laboratory certifica-
tion capabilities, implement monitoring
and reporting  activities for the full range
of 83 contaminant standards, and initiate
adoption and  execution of the lead and
surface water  treatment rules. EPA will
help States provide the increased supervi-
sion of system  compliance required by the
1986 amendments to minimize the  bur-
den on the regulated community.

    A new initiative will assist the more
than 50,000 small community and  non-
transient systems to address their SDWA
implementation  challenges.   EPA re-
sources will support "circuit riders"  to
assess  and work out the individual prob-
lems of systems,  as well as training and
individualized  "hands-on" assistance  to
these structurally, financially, and techni-
cally disadvantaged systems. The initia-
tive will fund  level-of-effort contracts to
specialized self-help groups that can most
effectively  provide  these services  and
demonstration projects to test and evalu-
ate innovative solutions to the challenges
facing  small systems.  The Agency will
continue to provide technical assistance to
Indian  tribes  and  process  25 primacy
applications from Indian tribal authori-
ties.
Enhanced  Ground-Water Protection
Programs:

    The Agency requests 91 workyears
and $7,8 million, an  increase of  10
workyears and $0.1 million over 1989.  In
1990, the Agency will  assist States  in
developing comprehensive ground-water
protection strategies that include the full
range of activities necessary to address
actual and potential sources of contamina-
tion of their ground-water resources, such
as nonpoint sources, underground injec-
tions of toxic waste, and underground stor-
age tanks.  In particular, ground-water
protection strategies  will serve  as the
foundation for State  efforts to address
agricultural,  especially  pesticide,  con-
tamination  of ground water.   Working
with the Office of Pesticide Programs, the
Office  of  Ground-Water  Protection
(OGWP) will assist States in developing
pesticide  management  plans  which in-
clude prevention  measures tailored  to
area-specific differences in ground-water
use, value, and vulnerability.

    OGWP  will also  use additional re-
sources to work with States to develop
wellhead protection programs and incor-
porate these programs into their ground-
water protection strategies.  The Agency
will put into use a minimum data set to
assure that ground-water data collected
by or on behalf of EPA programs is compa-
rable, compatible,  and readily accessible
to State and  local managers as well  as
other Federal  agencies.  EPA is also mod-
ernizing  STORET and other data man-
agement systems to make them available
to a larger  number  of State and  local
officials in ground-water programs.
                                       20

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Ground-Water and Drinking Water
Research:

    The 1990 budget request for drinking
water research totals 189 workyears and
$23.2 million, which represents a $1.7
million increase over 1989, Research will
produce the data necessary to support
regulatory development  and  revisions
mandated by the  Safe  Drinking Water
Act and provide technical assistance  on
cost-effective approaches States can use in
developing and implementing wellhead
protection programs.  Ground-water re-
search will provide both technical infor-
mation and improved methods for predict-
ing contaminant movement and transfor-
mation. In addition, research on in situ
restoration techniques may lead to more
cost effective cleanup of aquifers.
                                      21

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Page Intentionally Blank
                22

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                                       HAZARDOUS  WASTE
    $264,8 M
              DOLLARS
                           $273.7 M
                1990
              INCREASE
    1989
  CURRENT
  ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
                                             1,491
                            WORKYEARS
                                                                    1,489
                                 1990
                              DECREASE
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
    The goal of the  Hazardous Waste
management program is to ensure that
human health and the environment are
protected from  the risks of  hazardous
waste through development, implementa-
tion and enforcement of sound national
waste management practices.

           HIGHLIGHTS

Hazardous Waste  Regulations  and
Guidelines:

    EPA is  requesting $76.7 million and
368 workyears for hazardous waste regu-
lations and  guidelines, a decrease of $2.3
million and 12 workyears from 1989 lev-
els. A significant segment of EPA's man-
dated hazardous waste regulations will be
in place.  An increasing portion of the
Agency's technical, regulatory and guid-
ance efforts will turn toward directing
Regional and State rule implementation
and addressing national solid waste  is-
sues. EPA will promulgate corrective ac-
                tion requirements at solid waste manage-
                ment units  and location standards for
                hazardous waste facilities. EPA will also
                continue its ongoing program to ban land
                disposal of untreated  hazardous waste,
                and will issue technical guidelines to clar-
                ify and supplement its completed major
                rules.  Municipal incinerator ash, oil and
                gas and mining wastes and industrial
                Subtitle D units comprise a great part of
                the solid waste universe remaining to be
                addressed.

                State Grants:

                    The strong technical, regulatory and
                enforcement  relationship between EPA
                and the States will continue to develop and
                mature as States develop their UST pro-
                grams and assume more responsibility for
                managing the Nation's hazardous waste.
                Federal grant resources  will total  $79.0
                million,  $70.0  million  for  Hazardous
                Waste and $9.0  million for UST grants.
                This increase of $4.0  million over 1989
                                     23

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levels will support effective State correc-
tive action programs at hazardous waste
facilities,  compliance  monitoring,  and
enforcement. The Agency will continue to
provide guidance and technical assistance
to foster State authorization and improve
State capabilities in the operation of the
Hazardous Waste and UST programs.

Hazardous Waste Enforcement:

    EPA is requesting $43.5 million and
490 workyears for enforcement activities,
an  increase  of $1.0  million  and  6
workyears over 1989 levels. The Agency
will  expand its monitoring of corrective
action at environmentally significant fa-
cilities and will start to enforce new regu-
latory standards such as the land ban and
corrective action  requirements.    The
Agency will continue to emphasize compli-
ance monitoring and enforcement against
hazardous waste violators and will pro-
mote voluntary compliance by, as well as
undertake formal enforcement against,
UST owners and operators. EPA Regions
will support the States in their authoriza-
tion efforts through enforcement training
and technical assistance.

Hazardous Waste Implementation:

    Hazardous  Waste  Implementation
activities  will receive $27.0 million and
380 workyears, increases  of $2.8 million
and 5  workyears over 1989 levels. Major
efforts will include meeting the incinera-
tor  permitting deadline, and processing
increasing numbers  of hazardous waste
permit modifications and appeals.  The
Agency will also continue to permit envi-
ronmentally significant storage and treat-
ment facilities.  The Regions will provide
technical  assistance  and  guidance to
States  for development  of State solid
waste  management  programs.    The
Agency will also assist States and local
governments in their implementation and
enforcement of the chemical  emergency
planning  and  community preparedness
programs under Title III, the Emergency
Planning and Community Right-to-Know
Act of 1986.

Hazardous Waste Research:

    The Agency requests $42.3 million
and 219 workyears for the  Hazardous
Waste Research program, a decrease of
$3.1 million and 4 workyears from 1989.
This reduction reflects the elimination of
an external research center, a phasedown
of research support for  developing land
disposal regulations and the termination
of some dioxin-specific research. In 1990,
research efforts will focus on pollution
prevention, evaluation of innovative tech-
nologies  for  disposing  and  destroying
municipal waste, and chemical accident
prevention and mitigation.  Areas of con-
tinued research will include studies of
ground  water  contaminant  behavior,
evaluation of municipal waste incinerator
emission controls,  and engineering stud-
ies to improve design, installation, correc-
tive action, and  detection methods for
underground storage tanks.
                                       24

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                                                     PESTICIDES
    $123.3 M
DOLLARS

  -$13.1 M
                 199O
              DECREASE
                            $110.2 M
     1989
  CURRENT
  ESTIMATE
               1990
          PRESIDENT'S
             BUDGET
                                              823
                                                     WORKYEARS
                                                          +30
                                           1990
                                         INCREASE
                           863
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
     1990
PRESIDENTS
   BUDGET
           HIGHLIGHTS

    The 1990 Pesticides program request
emphasizes a regional initiative, totalling
$12.4 million, to assist the states in three
important areas:

Enhanced Ground Water Protection:

    The Agency requests  13  workyears
and $6.35 million to build Regional and
State  capabilities to  encourage   site-
specific management plans focusing on
protection of ground  water from  pesti-
cides.  State  agriculture  departments,
which are not traditional participants in
pollution control programs, need to link
with State water, health  and environ-
mental  agencies  to  devise appropriate
management strategies for ground-water
protection. Regions will be required to
oversee and coordinate state efforts, nego-
tiate and monitor state demonstration
projects, and provide technical assistance
and outreach programs to the states and
the public. The  Office of Pesticide Pro-
                           grams will coordinate with the Office of
                           Water regional staff and Water Quality
                           grant programs to develop comprehensive
                           ground-water protection strategies.

                           Pesticide Worker Protection:

                              The Agency  requests 13 workyears
                           and $4.35 million to support the Pesticide
                           Worker Protection initiative, which will
                           provide measures to reduce worker expo-
                           sure to pesticides and increase worker
                           training in application of pesticides. Im-
                           plementation of  worker protection stan-
                           dards and related product label changes
                           necessitate  extensive  communications
                           and training, and enforcement efforts. The
                           complexity of reaching so many entities
                           and individuals requires a decentralized
                           program. Training materials and techni-
                           cal assistance will be directed at the local
                           level, tailored to local crops, practices and
                           state programs.
                                      25

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Endangered Species Protection:

    The Agency requests 4 workyears and
$1.7 million to support a program focusing
on pesticides management and the Endan-
gered Species Act of  1973. States will
develop programs which should  begin
implementation for the 1990 growing sea-
son, requiring cooperation among Agency
headquarters, Regional offices and the
states. State agriculture departments will
coordinate with their counterparts in fish
and wildlife services, as well as regional
offices, to devise the best approach to pro-
tect endangered  species from harmful
pesticides.

    Pesticides Regional Initiative
      Total = $12.4 Million
                 $4.35 M
                 Pesticide
                  Worker
                 Protection
  $6.35 M
GroundWater
  Protection
                             Endan-
                             gered
                             Species
                             Protection
Disposal of Cancelled/Suspended Pes-
ticides:

    The Agency is requesting $15.0 mil-
lion for 1990 to cover storage costs of pes-
ticides cancelled in previous years,  as
required by statute. Disposal of ethylene
dibromide  (EDB)  will be  completed  in
1989. The  remaining pesticide stocks of
Dinoseb  and  2,4,5,T/Silvex are  being
stored and will be disposed of once proper
disposal procedures and locale are identi-
fied.

Continued Emphasis on Existing
Pesticides:

    The Agency requests 314 workyears
and $29.3 million to continue its efforts on
existing  chemicals under the  Generic
Chemical Review program.  This repre-
sents an increase of $1.4 million. In 1990,
the Agency will continue to place emphasis
on the second round reviews and special
reviews of existing pesticides,  and in-
crease efforts to fulfill requirements of
legislation regarding reregistration activi-
ties.

Research and Development:

    The Agency requests 111 workyears
and $14.3 million  for the Pesticides Re-
search and Development Program, repre-
senting an increase of $0.8  million over
1989. Increased resources will  support
new  biotechnology research,  including
examination  of gene exchange potential,
when a genetically engineered organism is
released into the environment, and devel-
opment of new methods for identifying and
monitoring biological pesticide agents.

    The Agency's pesticides research pro-
gram will continue to improve abilities to
assess risks  to human health  and the
environment from pesticides  products
through development  and validation of
test methods for Federal Insecticide, Fun-
gicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) stud-
ies, health research on biological markers,
dosimetry and extrapolation, engineering
and  ecological research, and exposure
monitoring.
                                       26

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                                                     RADIATION
              DOLLARS

                +$8.8 M
             $3i.s:
     1989
  CURRENT
  ESTIMATE
              1990
          PRESIDENT'S
            BUDGET
                                      WORKYEARS
                                               260
                                                      261
                                                         1990
                                                      INCREASE
                      1989
                    CURRENT
                    ESTIMATE
                            1990
                        PRESIDENT'S
                          BUDGET
           HIGHLIGHTS
    The Radiation program will continue
its  monitoring program,  participate in
emergency  preparedness  and  response
activities, and support standards develop-
ment as called for in the Clean Air Act and
the Atomic Energy Act.   In 1990, addi-
tional resources will support the start-up
costs associated with implementing the
new Indoor Radon Abatement Act.
Radon Legislation:
          The Radon Program
           Increases in 1990
                          $22,5 M
                $13, ]
      $1O.2 M
       1988
     ACTUAL
  1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
  BUDGET
    In 1990 the Agency is requesting 63
workyears and $22.5 million, an increase
of $8.6 million. Resources will support ini-
tial efforts to implement the Indoor Radon
Abatement Act. In 1990, $8.0 million will
be used to initiate the three-year radon
grant program. The radon program will
provide  ongoing support for mitigation
and prevention programs; contractor pro-
ficiency  training courses; national, state,
and school surveys; and public informa-
tion guides.

Radiation Standards and Implemen-
tation:

    In 1990, as in 1989, Radiation Stan-
dards and Implementation  totals  109
workyears and $8.6 million. The radiation
program will continue to develop, promul-
gate, and implement standards, regula-
tions, and guidelines to minimize radia-
tion exposure. In particular,  the Agency
will develop high and low level  waste
standards and continue work on residual
radioactivity.
                                      27

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Regional Offices:

    The  program  has  allocated  24
workyears and $1.0 million to Regional of-
fices to support radon training centers and
provide ongoing assessment and mitiga-
tion of radiation-contaminated sites. The
program will also provide technical assis-
tance to States  for emergency  response
planning and for characterizing and iden-
tifying hazardous radioactive waste sites.

Radiation Research:

    The  1990  request for radiation re-
search is 23 workyears and $4.2 million,
an increase of $0.7 million. The research
program will continue to provide the Office
of Radiation Programs, State and local
governments and other officials with the
scientific data needed to determine expo-
sure to radioactive materials in the envi-
ronment, and to determine cost-effective
techniques for mitigating exposure to in-
door radon.

    Included in the 1990 request are 18
workyears and $3.9 million, an increase of
$0.5 million over  1989,  to  support the
radon mitigation program. The resources
will be used to demonstrate techniques in
existing homes; to evaluate preventive
measures in homes under construction;
and to expand research on mitigation tech-
niques in schools.  The request also in-
cludes 61 reimbursable workyears to pro-
vide monitoring support to  the  Depart-
ment of Energy at the Nevada Test Site.
                                       28

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                                        INTERDISCIPLINARY
              DOIJLARS

               +$41.6 M
   Si 18.6 M
    1989
  CURRENT
  ESTIMATE
    199O
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
                            WORKYEARS
                                 +6Q
                          740
                                               680
                                      P
                                                         19O
                                                      INCREASE
  1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
           HIGHLIGHTS

Interdisciplinary Research:

    The Interdisciplinary research pro-
gram consists of several research pro-
grams that benefit all media. These in-
clude quality assurance management,
technical information and liaison,  scien-
tific assessments, reducing uncertainty in
risk assessment,  exploratory research,
and new initiatives in infrastructure im-
provements and long-term research. The
1990  interdisciplinary research  request
includes 170 workyears and $77.7 million,
an increase of 36 workyears and $37.3 mil-
lion over 1989.

    Of this increase, 14 workyears and
$28.3 million are to strengthen our long-
term  research. This initiative includes
funds for ecological trend research to iden-
tify, collect, and analyze environmental
monitoring data and to report on the cur-
rent status, changes, and trends in the
nation's ecosystems. This research will be
conducted in conjunction with other Fed-
                 eral agencies and focused by a new na-
                 tional ecological research and environ-
                 mental statistics initiative. This long-
                 term research initiative also includes ad-
                 ditional funding for the Exploratory Re-
                 search Grants Program.

                    Another initiative includes a  $4 mil-
                 lion increase for the procurement of scien-
                 tific equipment to upgrade the Agency's
                 aging scientific research  equipment.
                 High-quality analytical research requires
                 sophisticated state-of-the-art equipment.
                 Since 1988, the Agency has been working to
                 upgrade its scientific infrastructure.

                 Civil and Criminal Enforcement:

                    In 1990, the Agency will strengthen its
                 Civil and Criminal  Enforcement Pro-
                 grams. The 1990 Budget request includes
                 440 workyears  and $26.2 million for legal
                 support provided by the Office of Enforce-
                 ment and  Compliance Monitoring
                 (OECM), an increase of 24 workyears and
                                      29

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$3.1 million from 1989.  Part of this in-
crease will fund litigation support to in-
sure that civil  environmental  cases are
well prepared for court.  Improved civil
cases should encourage  higher levels of
compliance in the future.


        CRIMINAL INVESTIGATORS
                                   57
 1990
1989
 1988
    Most of OECM's increase will support
additional  criminal investigators, legal
support, and technical  support for the
Criminal Enforcement Program. This in-
crease will allow the Agency to provide a
more effective national deterrent to those
who willfully violate environmental laws
and regulations.
Federal Facility and  Indian  Land
Compliance:

    EPA will maintain liaison with other
Federal agencies and Indian Tribes and
will continue to implement environmental
programs  on Federal and Indian lands.
The  1990 budget  request includes 115
workyears and $12.1 million  for these
activities, an increase of $1 million from
1989. The program will continue to con-
duct environmental assessments of Feder-
ally funded municipal wastewater treat-
ment projects and to review permits issued
to new  sources. In addition, the Agency
will continue its effort to improve environ-
mental programs on Indian lands.
                                       30

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                                         Toxic  SUBSTANCES
    $143,2 M
              DOLLARS
-$36.0 M
                           $107.2 M
                1990
              DECREASE
     1989
  CURRENT
  ESTIMATE
             1990
         PRESIDENT'S
           BUDGET
                                             872
                                    WORKYEARS
                                        199O
                                      INCREASE
                                                                     881
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    199Q
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
           HIGHLIGHTS

    The decrease in funding is largely due
to the Agency's decision not to  request
funds provided in 1939 for asbestos abate-
ment loans and grants to schools.

Asbestos in Buildings:

    The Agency requests  11 workyears
and $6.4 million for activities related to
asbestos abatement, which represents an
increase of $3.0 million over 1989. Im-
plementation of the Asbestos  Hazard
Emergency  Response Act (AHERA)
schools program will continue,  as will
monitoring of the Asbestos Hazard Abate-
ment Act (ASHAA) loan and grant awards
from past years. The program will also
implement activities to address several
key recommendations made in the 1988
Report to Congress on asbestos in public
and commercial buildings.  Those activi-
ties include increasing the infrastructure
of accredited personnel, evaluating the
AHERA schools program, providing tech-
nical  assistance  to  building owners on
                         thermal  insulation, and  supporting re-
                         search, to be jointly funded with the pri-
                         vate sector, to investigate exposure levels
                         in buildings following abatement actions.
                         The program will also focus on encourag-
                         ing States to  assume AHERA program
                         responsibilities, including accreditation of
                         asbestos professionals,

                         Title III Toxic Release Inventory:

                            In 1990 the Agency will focus addi-
                         tional resources on implementation of the
                         Toxic  Release Inventory (TRI)  require-
                         ments of Title III of the Superfund Amend-
                         ments and Reauthorization Act of 1986.
                         The request for implementation and en-
                         forcement totals 52 workyears and $16.0
                         million,  which represents an increase of
                         $3.5 million over 1989.   Under the TRI
                         program, EPA collects and makes publicly
                         available annual emissions data from fa-
                         cilities that manufacture, process or use
                         certain toxic chemicals.
                                      31

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       The 1990 Budget Stresses
           TRI Data Quality
The 1990 TRI program will focus on pro-
viding quality-assured data to the public
and encouraging the development of TRI
programs at the state level. Compliance
assistance and  enforcement  efforts will
focus on ensuring compliance with report-
ing requirements as well as the quality of
data being reported.

Enforcement and the Regional Toxics
Program:

    The  1990   budget  requests  193
workyears and $15.0 million for the Toxic
Substances  Enforcement  and Regional
Toxics programs, reflecting an increase of
$3.0 million and 10 workyears. These  re-
sources will enhance the Agency's ability
to manage the risks associated with exist-
ing toxic substances.  The workyear  in-
crease will provide for new regional staff to
facilitate regional and state involvement
in the development and implementation of
national  regulatory policies.  The  addi-
tional resources also reflect the Agency's
commitment to enhance the Agency's en-
forcement capabilities and to  strengthen
the regional and state  compliance net-
work, especially in the areas of polychlori-
nated biphenyls (PCBs) and asbestos.

Reducing Risks from New and Exist-
ing Chemicals:

    The Agency requests  a total of 439
workyears and  $41.8 million for the New
Chemical Review, Existing Chemicals and
Chemical Testing programs.  The New
Chemical Review program implements
the preventative philosophy of the Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA) by review-
ing new chemicals for risks before they are
manufactured or imported, including new
biotechnology product reviews. The Exist-
ing Chemicals program will focus on those
chemicals for which there is the maximum
potential for reducing risks through gov-
ernmental intervention, including asbes-
tos, PCBs, chlorinated  solvents, dioxins
and furans, and other chemicals identified
through the Toxic Release Inventory and
by other Federal programs.  Test  rules
developed  under the Chemical Testing
program will require industry to conduct
studies to  fill data gaps on chemicals of
concern, especially those data gaps identi-
fied for chemicals found at known Super-
fund sites and those identified through the
Title III Toxic Release Inventory.

Research and Development:

    The Agency requests 186 workyears
and $28.0 million for the Toxic Substances
research program. In 1990, increased re-
search emphasis will be placed on develop-
ment and evaluation of asbestos  abate-
ment,  control  and monitoring technolo-
gies, development of emission monitoring
methods for SARA Title III chemicals, and
increased health and engineering studies
in the field of biotechnology.

    The toxic  substances  research pro-
gram will  continue to provide support to
the Office of Toxic Substances by perform-
ing research in the  areas of test method
development and  validation,  structure
activity relationships,  engineering and
technology,  and ecological risk assess-
ment.
                                       32

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                                                            ENERGY
     $54.9 M
               DOLLARS
-$16.7 M
                            $38.2 M
                 1990
               DECREASE
      1089
   CURRENT
   ESTIMATE
             1990
        PRESIDENT'S
           BUDGET
   68
                                     WORKYEARS
               -16
                                         1990
                                      DECREASE
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
            HIGHLIGHTS

Acid Rain Research:

    1990 is the final year of the National
Acid Precipitation Assessment Program
(NAPAP) mandated by the Energy Secu-
rity Act of 1980.  NAPAP's objective is to
understand the causes and effects of acid
deposition and to provide policy  makers
with  credible, peer  reviewed scientific
data which can  be used to help assess
potential controls on air emissions that
cause acid deposition. The reduction in
acid rain research of 16 workyears and
$16.7 million  reflects the completion of
projects including aquatic and terrestrial
effects research projects; emission projec-
tion models; and Regional Acid Deposition
Model (RADM) development. The results
of this research will be synthesized and in-
tegrated into the 1990 NAPAP Final As-
sessment Report to Congress.

    The 33 workyears and  $34.7 million
requested in 1990 will be used to enhance
the Agency's capability to predict deposi-
                         tion trends and provide  an integrated
                         assessment of the state-of-the-science for
                         the 1990 Assessment. Research will con-
                         tinue to be focused in six major areas.
                         First, air emissions estimates of acid rain
                         precursors will be improved. Second, the
                         advanced version of the  Regional  Acid
                         Deposition Model (RADM) will be evalu-
                         ated using field data. RADM is designed to
                         assist policy makers in predicting changes
                         in deposition levels  which  result  from
                         changes in nearby or  remote sources.
                         Third, wet and dry deposition of acidic
                         materials will  be monitored to enhance
                         data  bases for use  in effects studies.
                         Fourth, data will be integrated to produce
                         a national scale assessment of damage to
                         aquatic ecosystems. Fifth, forests consid-
                         ered sensitive to acidic pollutants will be
                         studied while available data on forest ef-
                         fects will be integrated for the 1990 As-
                         sessment.  Finally, the amount of deterio-
                         ration to materials resulting from expo-
                         sure to acidic pollutants will be assessed.
                                       33

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LIMB Control Technology Research:

    In 1990, 19 workyears and $3.5 mil-
lion will be provided for LIMB research.
The LIMB (Limestone Injection Multi-
stage Burner) research program develops
and evaluates  emission control technolo-
gies that will remove sulfur oxides (SOX)
and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from the flue
gases of coal-fired  boilers. Combustion
testing of a tangentially-fired LIMB tech-
nology at Yorktown, VA will be completed
in 1990.   Commercial demonstration of
this LIMB technology  is  being funded
jointly by the Federal  government and
industry.
                                      34

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                                         MANAGEMENT &  SUPPORT
              DOLLARS

               +$41.5 M
   $431.0 M
    $389.5 M
                 1990
              INCREASE
     1989
  CURRENT
  ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
                                              2,919
                             WORKYEARS
                                                          +54
                                             2,973
                                 1990
                               INCREASE
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
           HIGHLIGHTS

Office of Policy, Planning and
Evaluation:

    The budget provides 315 workyears
and $38.8 million to support the Agency's
policy analysis, planning and evaluation
efforts. This represents an increase of 2
workyears and $0.1  million from 1989.
Working closely  with EPA  programs,
other agencies and international organi-
zations, the office will have lead responsi-
bility for important aspects of the global
climate  change program.  In addition, a
new pollution prevention  program will
begin to explore the possibilities of waste
minimization, reuse, and recycling as part
of an Agency-wide effort to provide alter-
natives  to traditional "end of the pipe"
strategies.  The Office will continue to
support  risk  communication,  manage-
ment and assessment, perform studies for
evaluating the economic impact of EPA's
regulations, develop  environmental indi-
cators,  provide statistical services and
continue the  operation of planning and
management tracking systems.
                 Office of General Counsel:

                     The budget for legal services supports
                 a total of 219 workyears and $12.6 million
                 to provide legal advice and assistance to
                 both Headquarters and Regional manag-
                 ers.  This represents an increase  of  2
                 workyears which will provide additional
                 legal  support for  air programs and pro-
                 curement review.  The program will con-
                 tinue to assure legal consistency in policies
                 and  decision-making  throughout  the
                 Agency. In addition, this program defends
                 the Agency in all litigation taken against
                 it.

                 Office of External Affairs:

                     The budget provides 130 workyears
                 and $8.2 million for the  Office of External
                 Affairs. This represents an increase of 2
                 workyears from 1989. This office provides
                 Agency outreach functions such as Con-
                 gressional, legislative,   and community
                 relations programs.
                                      35

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Office of Inspector General:

    The budget provides  243 workyears
and $21.4 million to support the Office of
the Inspector General. This is an increase
of 16 workyears and $5.2  million over
1989. The Inspector General will increase
the number of Construction Grant audits
and will start audits of States' Revolving
Fund Plans. The Inspector General will
also  continue its fraud prevention pro-
gram as well as internal audit and investi-
gative efforts. In addition, due to recently
enacted legislation, the Office of the  In-
spector General now has a  separate appro-
priation account.

Office of Administration and
Resource Management:

    The budget provides 1,465 workyears
and $76.3 million for Headquarters and
Regional components of the Office of Ad-
ministration and Resources Management.
This  represents and increase  of  33
workyears and $8.4 million over 1989. The
Office of Administration  and Resources
Management will  continue  to build  on
progress already achieved in assuring a
strong system of financial internal con-
trols, expanding and improving  contract
and  grant  administration,  integrating
financial management systems in accor-
dance wi th Circul ar A-127, placing greater
emphasis on achieving significant produc-
tivity improvements.focusing attention on
the public/private partnership initiative,
and ensuring quality administrative sup-
port to Agency programs. The office will
also support data sharing and integration
with states through the State/EPA data
management program.

Support Services:

    The budget contains $225.9 million for
support services, an increase of $33.5 mil-
lion over 1989.  These increases will pro-
vide additional Agency computing capac-
ity and general support services such as
automated data processing, rent, utilities,
maintenance, postage and supplies to all
Agency programs.  The account also pro-
vides support services for Agency labora-
tories.

Building and Facilities:

    The budget contains $8.0 million for
buildings and  facilities.  Repair and im-
provements funds will be used to address
critical repairs related to employee health
and  safety, required  alterations,  and
maintenance and energy conservation ef-
forts.  The Agency will also emphasize
projects  supporting EPA's  compliance
with environmental regulations.   The
Agency plans to provide more support for
day-care facilities.
                                       36

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              37

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SUPERFUND

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                                                     SUPERFUND
   $1,579.1 M
              DOLLARS

               +$325.0 M    $1,75O.O M
                 199O
              INCREASE
                (NOA)
     1989
  CURRENT
 ESTIMATE
     199O
PRESIDENT'S
  BUDGET
  NOA = New Obligational Authority
                             WORKYEARS
                                 -1-210
                          3,035
                                              2,825
                                 199O
                              INCREASE
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
    199O
PRESIDENT'S
  BUDGET
    The Comprehensive Environmental
Response, Compensation,  and Liability
Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the
Superfund Amendments and Reauthori-
zation Act (SARA) of 1986, charges the
Agency with the responsibility for protect-
ing human health and the environment by
providing emergency response to hazard-
ous substances released into the environ-
ment and the remediation of uncontrolled
hazardous waste disposal sites.  Super-
fund activities are financed by excise taxes
on petroleum and certain chemical feed-
stocks,  a corporate  environmental  tax,
response cost recoveries, fines and penal-
ties, and general revenues.

    In carrying out its mandate, the EPA
will provide direct Federal site response or
will initiate enforcement actions to compel
potentially responsible parties (PRPs) to
conduct response actions.  When direct
Federal action occurs, the EPA will seek to
recover the response costs  from those
found responsible.
                    While the Agency has  the  primary
                 responsibility for implementing the pro-
                 gram, CERCLA, as amended, and Execu-
                 tive Order 12580 provide a mandate for
                 the Agency to work closely with a variety of
                 other Federal agencies and  the States to
                 carry out the Act.  Close cooperation
                 among various Agency offices, the States,
                 and other Federal agencies with specific
                 program responsibilities is required to
                 effectively integrate the various program
                 responsibilities established in the Act.

                    The  1990  President's Budget for
                 Superfund represents a continued com-
                 mitment on the part of the Agency to meet
                 its  responsibilities to  protect  human
                 health and the environment from uncon-
                 trolled releases of hazardous substances
                 and reflects  the Agency's commitment to
                 meet the SARA mandatory schedules for
                 remedial action starts.  The  Agency's
                 strategy is to increase  its  emphasis on
                 enforcement while maintaining a  strong
                 response capability. The budget provides
                                       41

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           DOLLARS
              WORKYEARS
                                 0 Response
                                 HI Enforcement
                                 E2 Mgmt & Support
                                 CD R&D
                                 D Other Federal
                                     Agencies
the Agency with $1,750.0 million in new
budget  authority  supported  by  3,035
workyears. This represents an increase
in new budget authority of $325.0 million
and 210 workyears. In addition, our total
program in 1989 will include $154.1 mil-
lion in prior year funds, bringing the total
operating program to $1,579.1 million.

            HIGHLIGHTS

Response Actions:

    The Agency is requesting $1,350.6
million  supported  by  1,281  total
workyears for site response. This repre-
sents an increase of $162.4 million and 60
total workyears over 1989 levels.

    This funding will support the 75 new
remedial designs and 41 new construc-
tions which the EPA plans to begin in
1990. The total response program man-
aged by the Agency is significantly higher
as PRPs and other Federal agencies begin
to play an expanded role in site response.
In addition, the Agency plans to complete
administrative and litigation enforcement
actions requiring oversight of responsible
party remedial activities.  PRPs are ex-
pected to initiate 65 new designs and 50
new constructions in 1990.  This is a total
of 140 new designs and 91 new construc-
tions representing a 10 percent increase
in designs and a 68 percent increase in con-
structions over 1989 levels.

    The Agency also intends to initiate
engineering studies at 55 sites  for even-
tual remedial action. PRPs are expected to
start  engineering  investigations at an
additional 50 sites. By the end of 1990,
planning work will have been initiated at
nearly  1,000 National  Priorities  List
(NPL) sites, over 90% of the current NPL.

Emergency Response:

    The Agency, as part of its  response
activities, will continue  to focus its re-
moval actions on "classical emergencies"
or time critical responses where there is no
PRP,  State, or local response alternative.
A lack of action on the Agency's part in
these situations could  result in substan-
tial harm to the public health and/or the
environment. Continued emphasis will be
placed on greater State and local partici-
pation in all areas of emergency  response.

Enforcement Activities:

    The Agency is  requesting $123.7 mil-
lion,  supported by 1,079 workyears, for
enforcement activities.  This represents an
increase of $6.9 million and 88 workyears
over  1989 levels. Increases provide sup-
port for 83 case referrals for settlement or
                                       42

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litigation to the Department of Justice,
compelling PRPs to undertake response
action. This represents a 22 percent in-
crease for cases over 1989 planned activity
levels.

    In 1990, the Agency will develop 80
cost recovery cases, representing  an 18
percent increase over 1989 activity levels.
In addition, the Agency expects to execute
68  new and  support  46  ongoing inter-
agency agreements with the other Federal
agencies  for remedial response at sites
owned or operated by those agencies.

Other Federal Agencies:

    The EPA is requesting $96.9 million
for  other Federal agencies, an increase of
$2.5 million from 1989. Consistent with
the Agency's emphasis on strengthening
its enforcement efforts, the Department of
Justice will receive greater resources to
ensure adequate support of its  larger
caseload. In addition, almost 69 percent of
the interagency budget is targeted to sup-
port the significantly expanded health
authorities under SARA. These activities
are primarily conducted by the Depart-
ment of Health and Human Services.

Research and Development:

    The Agency requests 107 workyears
and $68.1 million  for  the Superfund re-
search program, representing an increase
of 4 workyears and a decrease of $5.0 mil-
lion.  The reduction  in funding  occurs
because of the availability of carryover
funds of $5.0 million for 1989 for Univer-
sity Research Centers. The Centers were
selected in 1988 but will not receive their
initial funding until 1989.

    The Superfund research program will
continue to support the Agency, States,
and industry in resolving technical prob-
lems which inhibit the effective implemen-
tation of removal and remedial actions at
Superfund sites. The research program
also  supports  the  commercialization of
alternative treatment technologies for use
in response  actions  through full scale
demonstrations  under  the  Superfund
Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE)
program.  In 1990, research efforts will
focus primarily  on evaluating, demon-
strating, and commercializing advanced
field monitoring methods to provide real-
time monitoring data at Superfund sites
and developing expert systems for provid-
ing decision makers  information on re-
sponse action  technologies.  Additional
technical support will also be provided to
Regions  and States  in areas such  as
ground water modeling, remote sensing,
and sampling methods.

Management and Support:

    A total of 568 workyears and $110.6
million  is requested for administrative
and management services to support the
Superfund  program. The Agency will
emphasize the award and monitoring of an
increasing number of Superfund contracts
and grants,  recruitment for  Superfund
employees, development of property man-
agement procedures  for Superfund con-
tracts, and meeting the program's demand
for new and revised information systems.
The Agency  will also continue to imple-
ment improvements in financial documen-
tation procedures for cost recovery cases.

Inspector General:

    Recently enacted legislation estab-
lishes a separate Inspector General (IG)
appropriation.  Superfund will transfer
from Management and Support $10.3 mil-
lion and 68 workyears to the IG appropria-
tion, an  increase of $3.4 million and 15
workyears over  1989  operating levels.
These  resources support an increase in
Superfund audits and investigations.
                                      43

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              44

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LEAKING
UNDERGROUND
STORAGE
TANKS
     45

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                                                                 LUST
              DOLLARS

               +$47.7 M
   $100.0 M
    1989
  CURRENT
  ESTIMATE
     1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
                                               9O
                            WORKYEARS
                                                         199O
                                                      INCREASE
                                              91
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
     199O
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
   The goal of the Leaking Underground
Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund pro-
gram is to assure timely and appropriate
response to leaking underground petro-
leum tanks.  The Agency's strategy is to
encourage the development of comprehen-
sive and permanent LUST programs in all
the States and Territories. Under finan-
cial responsibility regulations, owners and
operators have the primary responsibility
for responding to leaks.  The States will
provide enforcement and oversight  to
ensure that owner and operator responses
are appropriately conducted.  The States
will also conduct responses at abandoned
sites and where owners and operators are
unwilling or unable.

            HIGHLIGHTS

State Programs:

    The States will receive $90.1 million
through cooperative  agreements, an in-
crease of $47.6 million over 1989 levels.
                 There are approximately 2 million under-
                 ground storage tanks in the U.S., of which
                 between 10% and 40% are expected to be
                 leaking.  The most efficient and effective
                 method  of addressing these threats to
                 human health and the environment is
                 through the States.  The States are better
                 equipped to tailor the LUST program to
                 their  own  circumstances   and needs.
                 Therefore, the Agency will encourage the
                 States to build strong and independent
                 LUST programs. EPA will assess each
                 State  program's  capabilities and  work
                 with each State  to continually improve
                 performance.  The  Agency  will act  as a
                 clearinghouse to  disseminate innovative
                 solutions developed by individual States
                 to other States facing similar problems.
                 The Agency will encourage the creation of
                 independent permanent State  funding
                 sources,  recognizing that  Federal  re-
                 sources will fund only a small portion of
                 the  needed  response  and  enforcement
                 activities.
                                      47

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   Leaking Underground Storage
   Tanks Cooperative Agreements
               1990
             $90.1 M
            1989
           $42.5 M
Enforcement:

    Leak detection and  closure require-
ments  are  expected  to  significantly in-
crease  the number  of  leaks  reported.
Therefore, voluntary compliance by a high
percentage  of owners and operators is key
to successful implementation of the pro-
gram.  The States will provide oversight
and technical assistance to owners  and
operators performing response actions at
their own sites. Formal  enforcement ac-
tions will be used to compel response ac-
tions by recalcitrant owners and opera-
tors.  When States actually perform re-
sponse actions, they will seek recovery of
appropriate costs from owners and opera-
tors.

.Response:

    States have inventoried thousands of
leaking tanks which are now awaiting
response.  A significant portion of the in-
creased cooperative agreement resources
will fund State responses at abandoned
sites and at sites where the owners and
operators are unwilling or unable to con-
duct responses.  When the LUST Trust
Fund is used, response costs will be sought
from all recalcitrant owners and opera-
tors. The Agency will disseminate techni-
cal information on remedial technologies,
as well as assist States in developing the
capabilities  to manage  a response pro-
gram.
                                       48

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              50

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CONSTRUCTION
    GRANTS
       51

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                                        CONSTRUCTION  GRANTS
    The Administration continues to sup-
port a $12 billion phaseout (1986-93 fund-
ing) of the Construction Grants program.
This overall funding level provides the
Federal resources  needed to meet the
highest priority facility needs and capital-
ize  State revolving funds. For 1990, the
Agency requests new funding of $1.2 bil-
lion for the Construction Grants Appro-
priation, of which $800 million will be for
State revolving funds and $400 million
for construction grants.
           HIGHLIGHTS

Transition to State Revolving Funds
(SRFs):

    The transition to SRF programs, be-
gun during 1988, will be essentially com-
plete by 1990. By the end of 1989, it is
expected that 40 States will have received
SRF capitalization grants totalling ap-
proximately $1.5 billion. During 1990, the
Agency projects 51  SRF capitalization
grant awards totalling $1.0 billion.

    These Federal funds, the required 20
percent State match, and any additional
resources dedicated to the fund  will pro-
vide financial support to  communities in
the form of loans and other non-grant
assistance.   In  order to increase the
amount of assistance  provided,  some
States will be developing aggressive lever-
aging programs. By expanding the capital
in the SRF, leveraging can enable States to
provide assistance  for  a  far  greater
amount of their remaining facility needs.
  $2,304 M
               $1,950M
             JB8MSPEG,
               $941 M
                SRF
               $941M
               CONST.
             gGRANTS
                            $1,200 M
              $800
               SRF
            '', $4M
            ', CONST.
            ^GRANTS
    1988
  ACTUALS
   1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
   1990
PRESIDENT'S
  BUDGET
Federal     Required
Capitalization  State
Grants     Match
Leveraging
    Financially sound SRFs will provide
an ongoing source of funding support for
wastewater treatment facility construc-
tion after Federal funding ends.  In addi-
tion, once a State's municipal wastewater
treatment needs are satisfied, SRFs may
be used to support  implementation of
Nonpoint Source management plans and
National Estuary Program comprehen-
sive conservation management plans.

Protecting Existing Federal Invest-
ment:

    EPA has obligated over $50 billion for
wastewater treatment facility construc-
                                      53

-------
tion since 1972 under the Clean Water Act.
These funds have been used for 15,600
grants to support construction of wastewa-
ter treatment facilities, 5,600 of which are
either  still  under  construction  or are
awaiting administrative completion. Pro-
tecting this infrastructure investment to
ensure maximum water quality benefits is
a high priority for the Agency.
   The Construction Grants Program
   Protects Our Existing Investment
                Operational
                4,480 Grants
Operational]
and Admin.
Complete
                             Under
                             Construc-
                             tion
           $50.6 Billion
                                          EPA will continue to focus significant
                                      efforts toward ensuring effective construc-
                                      tion and timely completion  of on-going
                                      wastewater treatment facilities. Also, the
                                      Agency will emphasize effective financial/
                                      technical operation  and  maintenance
                                      practices  for  publicly-owned treatment
                                      works supported by the 15,600 construc-
                                      tion grants awarded since 1972.  Finally,
                                      funds available for the  National Small
                                      Flows Clearinghouse will be used to trans-
                                      fer the Agency's technical information on
                                      wastewater treatment facility construc-
                                      tion and management to State and local
                                      program personnel.
                                        54

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  RESEARCH
    AND
DEVELOPMENT

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              58

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                                        RESEARCH &  DEVELOPMENT
    $387.9 M
              DOLLARS
                +$33.6 M
  $421.5 M
                 1990
              INCREASE
     1989
   CURRENT
   ESTIMATE
    1990
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
                             WORKYEARS
                                                          +21
                                              1,852
                                             1373
                                 1990
                               INCREASE
    1989
  CURRENT
  ESTIMATE
     199O
PRESIDENT'S
   BUDGET
    The goals of EPA's Research
Development Program are to:
         and
  - provide scientific  data  for  decision
   makers to select cost-effective and en-
   vironmentally safe means of achieving
   environmental results;

  - provide scientific data to support the
   Agency's statutory and regulatory re-
   sponsibilities; and

  - advance the state of knowledge on en-
   vironmental problems not yet under-
   stood.

           HIGHLIGHTS

Strengthening Long-term Research:

    Since  EPA's inception, its  research
and  development program  has  been fo-
cused  on shorter-term  regulatory de-
mands. Consequently, the Agency's capa-
bilities  to  address  emerging  environ-
mental concerns, such as global climate
change, have  become  limited.   White
shorter-term research has been essential
in support of the Agency's mission, the
Agency must be capable of anticipating
emerging environmental problems which
requires  a longer-term   perspective.
Therefore, in 1990, the Agency proposes to
strengthen its  long-term  research pro-
gram with an increase of  $28.3 million.
This increase includes $10.3 million for ex-
ploratory research grants to the scientific
community and $18.0 million for an eco-
logical research program. This latter area
will  be made up of an ecological monitor-
ing and trends program ($7.8 million) and
a national  ecological research  and envi-
ronmental statistics initiative ($10.2 mil-
lion). This new initiative will involve EPA
working with other agencies and groups to
conduct core  ecological  research and to
collect and analyze environmental  statis-
tics.
                                      59

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Rebuilding Scientific Infrastructure:

    To provide quality scientific analysis
of today's complex environmental prob-
lems requires state-of-the-art equipment
and an ability to rapidly shift with ad-
vances in technology. As regulatory pro-
grams require more sensitive levels  of
detection (e.g. parts per billion) and the
number of regulated pollutants increases,
scientific analysis requires more sophisti-
cated analytical tools.  Since 1988, EPA
has been addressing the problems of aging
scientific equipment and inadequate  re-
search facilities. In 1990, $12.0 million is
requested to further rebuild the scientific
infrastructure of the Agency. Part of this
increase will equip three new laboratories
- Chapel Hill, NC; Gulf Breeze, FL; and
Newport, OR. The remaining funds will be
used to upgrade scientific research equip-
ment for the Agency's research laborato-
ries.

Addressing Global Climate Change:

    Assessing  the potential  impacts  of
global climate change will be one of the
most  significant environmental issues of
the 1990's.  EPA and other Federal agen-
cies are working  together to develop an
integrated  research program to address
this complex issue.  In  1990, the Agency
requests 21 workyears and $14.1 million
for global climate change research. This
additional 16 workyears and $9.9 million
over  1989 will significantly  enhance  re-
search on the regional  effects of global
climate change including impacts on key
ecosystems. Other priority research will
be initiated on regional scale atmospheric
modeling and improving emission esti-
mates for greenhouse gases (methane and
nitrous oxide).  Research from  domestic
and international sources will be inte-
grated to develop a national strategy for
assessing global climate change impacts.
Achieving  Environmental Program
Results:

    EPA research traditionally provides
the basic information to characterize envi-
ronmental problems and help assess po-
tential solutions to  them.  In 1990, this
function continues as EPA addresses new
media program concerns with an increase
of 4 workyears and $6.4 million above the
1989 level.  This increase includes initia-
tives on: techniques to measure and study
the formation of acid aerosol air pollutants
and regional ozone modeling; constructed
wetlands as a low cost wastewater treat-
ment option; pollutants in bottom sedi-
ments; and technical assistance to states
involved in  protecting wellheads. Addi-
tional research will  also address growing
public concerns  on how to adequately
regulate biotechnology and  ensure  ade-
quacy of asbestos cleanup actions. Finally,
a research program will be initiated to
evaluate innovative technologies for dis-
posal and destruction of municipal wastes.


        1990 Research Budget
         E3 Base Program
         H Long-Term Research
         CD Global
         D Infrastructure
         EH Program Needs
                                       60

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1990 Research and Development Resources;

    Funding for EPA's Research and Development Program is provided through four
major appropriations.  The following table summarizes the 1990 President's Budget for
EPA's Research and Development Program by each of these appropriations and by the
eleven agency program areas.

            President's 1990 Budget for Research and Development
                              by Appropriation

                               (Dollars in Millions)

                                    1990        Change From
     Appropriation              Total Dollars        1989

     Salaries & Expenses             117.2             +5.9
     Research & Development         235.0             +32.5
     Superfund                       68.5              -4.8
     LUST Trust Fund                 0.8              0.0

        TOTAL                    421.5            + 33.6
    The structure of the Research and Development Program also tracks with the Agency's
regulatory programs.  Research is provided to support each of the media programs as
follows:

            President's 1990 Budget for Research and Development
                                  by Media

                                (Dollars in Millions)

                                      1990        Change From
       Research Program         Total DoEars         1989

       Air                             84.2            + 15.1
       Radiation                        4.2            + 0.7
       Water Quality                   26.3            +2.1
       Drinking Water                  23.3            + 1.7
       Pesticides                       14.3            + 0.8
       Toxic Substances                 28.0              0.0
       Energy/Acid Deposition           38.2            - 16.7
       Hazardous Waste                42.3             - 3.1
       Superfund/LUST                 69.3             - 4.8
       Interdisciplinary                 77.7            + 37.3
       Management & Support          13.7            + 0.5

          TOTAL                    421.5           + 33.6
                                     61

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    A summary of research and develop-
ment activities for each Agency media
program is described below with major
changes for 1990.

Air Research:

    Research will increase $15.1 million
(22%) to support three major initiatives.
First, the global climate change research
program will be significantly enhanced.
Second, a research program to study the
formation of acid aerosol air pollutants
and  to evaluate low  cost measurement
techniques will  be initiated.   Finally,
equipment for a new clinical research fa-
cility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina will
be provided to strengthen  the  Agency's
capability to study human health effects
from inhaled air pollutants.  The  1990
program will  also support research on
stratospheric  ozone  depletion,  regional
modeling of air pollutants including ozone,
air toxics, and indoor air pollution.

Radiation Research:

    Research will increase $0.7 million
(18%) for research on techniques for reduc-
ing exposure to indoor radon in schools.
The impact  of structural differences be-
tween homes and schools on the effective-
ness of previously examined radon reduc-
tion methods will be evaluated. Mitigation
demonstrations  in  existing homes and
evaluation of preventive measures for
homes under construction will also be
conducted.

Water Quality Research:

     Research  will increase $2.1  million
(9%) to support two initiatives.  First, re-
search into sediment quality criteria will
be expanded. Second, research will be ini-
tiated to develop criteria for determining
whether constructed wetlands are a prac-
tical solution  for treating wastewaters
from small communities and acid mine
drainage. Research will also continue to
support the mandates of the Clean Water
Act Amendments of 1987.

Drinking Water Research:

    Research will increase $1.7 million
(8%) to expand a cost-effective approach
for States to use in developing and imple-
menting a wellhead protection program.
The 1990 program will also emphasize in
situ restoration techniques  which  may
lead to more  cost-effective cleanups of
contaminated  aquifers and  research to
support the mandates of the Safe Drinking
Water Act of 1986.

Pesticides Research:

    Research will increase $0.8 million
(6%) to  support new biotechnology re-
search. This includes examining the dis-
persal, effect, and survival of genetically
engineered organisms in the environment
and developing new methods for identify-
ing and monitoring  biological pesticide
agents. The 1990 research program will
continue to support the Office of Pesticide
Programs by developing and validating
test methods for FIFRA studies, conduct-
ing health research on biomarkers, and
research on exposure monitoring.

Toxic Substances Research:

    Research funding will remain  rela-
tively  stable from 1989.  However, in-
creased emphasis will be placed on three
areas. These are development and evalu-
ation of asbestos abatement, control, and
monitoring technologies; development of
emission estimation techniques and moni-
toring methods for SARA Title III chemi-
cals; and increased health and engineer-
ing studies in the field of biotechnology.
                                       62

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The 1990 research program will continue
to support the Office of Toxic Substances
in test  method  development,  structure
activity relationships, biomarkers, expo-
sure monitoring, environmental engineer-
ing, and ecological risk assessment.

Energy/Acid Rain Research:

    Research will decrease $16.7 million
(-30%) reflecting the completion of some
acid  rain  research.    This  reduction
includes  aquatic  and terrestrial  effects
research projects,  emission projection
models, and development of the Regional
Acid Deposition Model (RADM). The 1990
acid  rain  program  will  focus  on
synthesizing and integrating the results of
the ten year research program for the 1990
Final Assessment Report to Congress by
the   National  Acid   Precipitation
Assessment  Program  (NAPAP).   In
addition, the LIMB (Limestone Injection
Multistage Burner) research program will
develop and evaluate retrofit emission
control technologies designed to remove
sulfur oxides (SOX) and nitrogen oxides
(NOX) from the flue  gases of coal-fired
boilers.

Hazardous Waste Research:

    Research will decrease $3.1 million
(-8%) reflecting the termination of funding
for an external research center, the phase-
down of support for developing land dis-
posal regulations, and the completion of
some dioxin-specific research.  Increased
research will focus on pollution preven-
tion, evaluation of innovative technologies
for disposing and destroying  municipal
waste, and chemical accident prevention
and mitigation. Research will continue on:
contaminant behavior in  ground water;
municipal waste combustor emission con-
trols; and  engineering  design, installa-
tion,  corrective  action,  and  detection
methods for underground storage tanks.

Hazardous Substances Research:

    Research will decrease $4.8 million
(-7%) reflecting the availability of $5 mil-
lion in carryover funds  for  the  1989
Budget. These funds are for the establish-
ment of five (5) University Research Cen-
ters selected in late 1988 which will not
receive  their  initial funding until  early
1989.

    In 1990, the Superfund research pro-
gram will also support the Agency, States,
and industry in resolving technical prob-
lems which inhibit the effective implemen-
tation of removal and remedial actions at
Superfund sites.  The research program
also supports the commercialization of
alternative treatment technologies for use
in cleanup actions through full scale dem-
onstrations under the Superfund Innova-
tive Technology Evaluation  (SITE) pro-
gram. In 1990, additional resources will be
devoted to evaluating naturally occurring
or improved microorganisms (biosystems)
for  their  ability  to degrade hazardous
substances. Increased research will also
focus on evaluating advanced field moni-
toring methods to provide real-time moni-
toring  data at Superfund sites.  Expert
systems for  providing information on
cleanup technologies  will be developed.
Additional technical support to  Regions
and States  for ground water modeling,
sampling,  testing techniques and  data
interpretation will also be provided.

Leaking  Underground Storage Tanks
(LUST) Research:

    Research funding will be maintained
at the 1989 level. This research program
provides technical support to EPA's Office
of Underground Storage Tanks, EPA Re-
gions, States, and local agencies respon-
                                       63

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sible for the implementation of the LUST
Trust Fund Program. Technical support
will focus on providing scientific expertise
on low cost approaches for assessing site
contamination and evaluating remedial
technologies.

Interdisciplinary Research:

    Intermedia  research  will  increase
$37.3 million (92%) for two major initia-
tives - long-term research and infrastruc-
ture improvements.   The long-term re-
search initiative includes increasing the
Exploratory Grants  Program by $10.3
million to support more investigator-initi-
ated environmental research studies by
researchers outside the Agency. This also
includes  a new national ecological  re-
search and environmental statistics ini-
tiative to help coordinate environmental
research statistics and foster more basic
ecological research. This long-term initia-
tive  includes research into long range
impacts of environmental changes on our
ecological  systems.    Finally, the infra-
structure initiative will  further upgrade
scientific equipment for research laborato-
ries.  The 1990 interdisciplinary  budget
will continue to support research in qual-
ity assurance management, scientific as-
sessments, and reducing uncertainties in
risk assessment.
                                       64

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  STATE AND
LOCAL GRANTS

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                  STATE   AND  LOCAL   GRANTS
                                                                  $344
    $272
   1981   1982
1983   1984  1985
1986   1987  1988   1989   199O
   Recognizing the important role these
grant programs play in maintaining and
improving environmental quality in the
States, the request for 1990 continues to
maintain the commitment for these essen-
tial programs while addressing necessary
fiscal constraints throughout the Federal
Government.

Addressing Critical Areas of Concern:

   In order to provide sufficient support
for major environmental  problems in the
States, the  President's Budget Request
increases funding for the Section 106 State
Water Quality  grants program.  These
additional resources will assist States in
implementing the Section 404 wetlands
program, the Nonpoint Source program,
and  Groundwater  Protection programs,
while supporting implementation of In-
dian Tribal activities mandated by the
                     amended Clean Water Act. A significant
                     increase in Public Water System grants
                     will help build State capability to imple-
                     ment the Safe Drinking Water Act.

                     Maintaining the State-Federal
                     Partnersh ip:

                         The President's Budget Request rec-
                     ognizes the need to maintain and, where
                     appropriate, improve the partnership that
                     has developed and matured over the years.
                     The funding levels proposed for 1990 rec-
                     ognize that the continued support of the
                     States is necessary if we are to meet our
                     statutory environmental goals and also
                     address the  pressing national need to
                     control Federal expenditures.

                     The following chart shows State and local
                     grants by program area:
                                    69

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STATE AND LOCAL GRANTS



    (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

ADI
SECTION 105
WATER QUALITY
SECTION 106
CLEAN LAKES
DRINKING WATER
PUBLIC WATER SYSTEM
PROGRAM GRANTS
UNDERGROUND INJECTION
CONTROL PROGRAM
SPECIAL STUDIES
HAZARDOUS WASTE
H.W. FINANCIAL
ASSISTANCE
UNDERGROUND STORAGE
TANKS
PESTICIDES
PESTICIDES ENFORCEMENT
GRANTS
PESTICIDES PROGRAM
IMPLEMENTATION
TOXIC SUBSTANCES
TOXIC SUBSTANCES
ENFORCEMENT GRANTS
TOTAL
1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
$101,500.0
67,100.0
12,500.0
33,450.0
10,500.0
3,000.0
66,020.0
9,000.0
8,803.4
4,000.0
2,200.0
$318,073.4
1990
PRESIDENTS
BUDGET
$99,700.0
83,200.0
2,000.0
40,450.0
10,500.0
1,000.0
70,000.0
9,000.0
12,803.4
12,500.0
3,200.0
$344,353.4
1990-1989
DD7FERENCE
-1,800.0
+16,100.0
-10,500.0
+7,000.0
0.0
-2,000.0
+3,980.0
0.0
+4,000.0
+8,500.0
+1,000.0
+$26,280.0

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            71

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  APPENDIX:
BUDGET TABLES

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                   ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                       SUMMARY OF AGENCY RESOURCES
                                        BY MEDIA

                                   (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
  MEDIA

Affi
WATER QUALITY
DRINKING WATER
HAZARDOUS WASTE
PESTICIDES
RADIATION
INTERDISCIPLINARY
TOXIC SUBSTANCES
ENERGY
MANAGEMENT & SUPPORT
  FY1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE

 $268,431.7
  286,771.1
  107,802.9
  264,772.8
  123,347.4
   23,025.0
   76,894.0
  143,219.1
   54,903.2
  389,472.6
     SUBTOTAL OPERATING PROGRAMS   1,738,639.8
  FY1990
 BUDGET
ESTIMATE

 $295,464.2
  307,902.3
  118,954.6
  273,703.3
  110,224.6
   31,822.9
  118,494.4
  107,225.2
   38,207.7
  431,000.8

 1,833,000.0
  1990-1989
DIFFERENCE
   TOTAL
  DOLLARS

  +$27,032.5
   +21,131.2
   +11,151.7
    +8,930.5
    -13,122.8
    +8,797.9
   +41,600.4
    -35,993.9
    -16,695.5
   +41,528.2

   +94,360.2
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE
     RESPONSE TRUST FUND

LEAKING UNDERGROUND
     STORAGE TANK
     TRUST FUND

CONSTRUCTION GRANTS
     GRAND TOTAL
 1,579,093.2


   52,325.9



 1,950,000.0


$5,320,058.9
 1,750,000.0
  100,000.0
 1,200,000.0
$4,883,000.0
  +170,906.8
   +47,674.1
   -750,000.0
  -$437,058.9
                                         74

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           ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
               SUMMARY OF AGENCY RESOURCES
                               BY MEDIA

                               (WORKYEARS)
  MEDIA

AIR
WATER QUALITY
DRINKING WATER
HAZARDOUS WASTE
PESTICIDES
RADIATION
INTERDISCIPLINARY
TOXIC SUBSTANCES
ENERGY
MANAGEMENT & SUPPORT

  SUBTOTAL OPERATING PROGRAMS
 FY1989
CURRENT
ESTIMATE

 1,731.9
 2,219.5
   741.1
 1,491.0
   822.8
   260.2
   679.9
   871.6
    68.6
 2,918.7

 11,805.3
  FT 1990
 BUDGET
ESTIMA.TE

  1,753.9
  2,234.0
    766.7
  1,489.0
    853.3
    261.2
    740.0
    880.6
    52.4
  2,972.9

  12,004.0
    1989-1988
DIFFERENCE
      TOTAL
WORKYEARS

       +22.0
       +14.5
       +25.6
        -2.0
       +30.5
        +1.0
       +60.1
        +9.0
       -16.2
       +54.2

      +198.7
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE
  RESPONSE TRUST FUND

LEAKING UNDERGROUND
  STORAGE TANK
  TRUST FUND
 2,824.7
    90.0
  3,035.0
    91.3
      +210.3
        + 1.3
  GRAND TOTAL
 14,720.0
  15,130.3
      +410.3

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