OWNER/OPERATOR INFORMATION  SHEET
 Could your family
       be affected?

         One company
     substituted higher-
       solids paints for
  conventional solvent-
  borne coatings, which
   resulted in increased
  transfer efficiency and
     a 30% decrease in
    VOC emissions and
 paint wastes. Also, the
       company saved
       $28,000 in  paint
   purchases and  paint
         disposal costs.
 — North Carolina Division
    of Pollution Prevention
       and Environmental
 The Coatings Guide™
   is an online pollution
     prevention tool for
   paints and coatings.
    This guide contains
 several tools to identify
   low-VOC and/or low
      toxic air pollutant
   content coatings that
       may be suitable
             — U.S. EPA
            Reducing Air  Pollution from:
        Painting and Coating Operations
Why should my painting and coating
operation reduce air pollution?
   People who are exposed to air toxics
at sufficient concentrations, for sufficient
durations, may increase their chances of
getting cancer or experiencing other
serious health effects, such as
reproductive problems, birth defects, and
aggravated asthma.
   Pollution prevention safeguards the
health of your employees, customers,
and families by using materials,
processes, or practices that can reduce or
eliminate air pollution at the source.
   Pollution prevention practices also
save money on waste disposal, materials
usage, and the cost of air pollution
   You may already be regulated by
federal, state, local, and Tribal agencies
and may already voluntarily implement
pollution prevention practices. However,
increasing pollution prevention efforts
further minimizes the impacts on human
health and the environment.

Why should I be concerned about air
pollution from my painting and
coating operation?
•  Painting and coating operations can
   produce emissions of toxic air
•  Lubricants, degreasers, and cleaners
   can release some toxic air pollutants
   and volatile organic compounds
   (VOC). Chemicals in these
   substances can react in the air to form
   ground-level ozone (smog), which
   has been linked to a number of
   respiratory effects.
•  While federal, state, local, and Tribal
   regulations limit the amount of
   emissions from painting and coating
   operations, dangerous releases of
   toxic air pollutants can occur if a
   painting and coating operation is not
   in compliance with regulations.

How can I reduce air pollution from
my painting and coating operation?

Substitute Materials
•  Use cleaners with low toxic air
   pollutants and VOC such as water-
   based, alkaline, or microbial cleaners.
   These can reduce air pollutant
   emissions up to 90%.
•  Use paint types such as waterborne
   paints, powder coatings, ultraviolet
   (UV) light or electron beam-curable
   coatings, or higher-solids paints.

Change Processes
•  Minimize the need for cleaning
   solvents by using waterborne paints.
•  Use a coating method that does not
   require spraying such as
   electrodeposition, dip coating, roller
   coating, or flow coating.

Improve Spraying
•  Use more efficient paint application
   equipment to reduce overspray such
   as switching to a high-volume, low-
   pressure spray (HVLP), airless spray,
   air-assisted airless spray, or
   electrostatic  spray guns.
•  Train painters in proper spray
   application techniques.  Proper
   training, which includes information
   on gun position, motion, triggering,
   and overlap, can reduce air pollutant
   emissions and enhance  the quality of
   the paint finish.
•  Minimizing overspray results in less
   labor and product used  and fewer air
   pollutants generated.

                                    Painting  and Coating Operations
Lower Emissions at the Source
•  Open containers only when adding or dispensing
   materials. This minimizes evaporative emissions and
•  Use air-tight containers to store solvents, paints, and
   other coatings.
•  Use a spray booth to capture and control emissions.

Change Cleaning Procedures
•  Use enclosed or mechanical parts and gun washing
   systems to reduce evaporative emissions.
•  Monitor the amount of cleaning solvent used during
   cleanup to avoid excess usage.
•  Reuse cleaning  solution or solvent. Use dirty solvent
   for initial cleaning, then follow with clean solvent.
•  Schedule color changes to minimize cleaning needed
   between colors. Paint products with light colors and
   then follow with increasingly darker colors.

Upgrade Your Operation's Equipment
•  Check with your state, local, or Tribal pollution
   prevention office for funding possibilities.

Are HVLP spray guns really better? Where can I
find out about training?
   HVLP guns are better than conventional atomized air
spray guns if technicians are trained properly. VOC
emissions released  during a painting operation are
directly related to the skill of the spray gun operator.
   Properly used HVLP  spray guns often result in a
higher transfer efficiency, which results in reduced
   Reduced overspray minimizes costs and worker
exposure to toxic emissions.
   Information about training may be found at
•  Iowa Waste Reduction Center: www.iwrc.org/
   programs/STAR.cJm or call 1-800-422-3109.
•  State, local, or Tribal pollution prevention offices.
•  Spray equipment suppliers.
•  Trade associations for painting and coating

What else can I do to reduce air pollution?
   Your community may already have groups
working for cleaner air. Your expertise and
knowledge can be very helpful to these groups.
   Many pollution prevention offices offer free on-
site assessments for interested businesses. A list of
these small business assistance programs can be found
atwww.epa.gov/smallbusiness. This site provides
information about assistance and technical help,
environmental experts, environmental regulations and
laws, funding, and cost-saving opportunities.
   Refer your customers to Web sites for the Solvent
Alternatives Guide (www.sage.rti.org) and The
Coatings Guide™ (www.cage.rti.org) where they can
increase their understanding of alternative paints and
coatings. Stay involved with trade associations  and
keep up to date with industry developments through
industry-related Web sites.
   Sponsor employee awards for good ideas, great
efforts, and dedication to pollution prevention. For
example, you could provide a cash award for workers
who implement a work practice that reduces both
costs and pollution.
 EPA 's Sector Strategies Program works within the painting and coating operations sector to assess
      opportunities for improving environmental performance while reducing regulatory burden.
                                                    — U.S. EPA

   Could your family
         be affected?

       The cost of on-site
 distillation units depends
                 on size.

     2-gallon still: $2,100
    3.5-gallon still: $3,000
     5-gallon still: $4,000
    7.5-gallon still: $4,700
    15-gallon still: $8,500

     These prices do not
    include vacuum assist
    — Iowa Waste Reduction
   In a conventional spray
      painting process, as
 much as 70% or more of
    the paint may miss its
    target surface.  Using
 more efficient application
methods can substantially
      reduce that amount.
                  — Ohio
    Environmental Protection
                                         OWNER/OPERATOR  INFORMATION SHEET
                                                     Painting and  Coating Operations

•  National Paint and Coatings Association: www.paint.org, (202) 462-6272

•  Community-Based Projects: www.epa.gov/air/toxicair/community.html

•  EPA's Sector Strategies Partnership Program for the Paint and Coating Sector:
   www.epa.gov/sectors/paintcoatings/index.html, (202) 566-2958

•  Paints and Coatings Resource Center: www.paintcenter. org

•  Iowa Waste and Reduction Center STAR® Training:
   www.iwrc.org/programs/STAR.cfm, (800) 422-3109

•  Spray painting options:

•  Painting and coating operations: www.epa.state.oh.us/opp/paints/fact23.html

•  Good operating practices: www.dep.state.ct.us/wst/p2/industry/optindex.htm

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
•  Auto and Light-Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations:
   www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/auto/autopg. html

•  Large Appliance Surface Coating Operations:

•  Magnetic Tape Manufacturing: www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/magtape/magtappg.html

•  Metal Can Surface Coating Operations: www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/mcan/mcanpg.html

•  Metal Coil  Surface Coating Operations: www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/mcoil/mcoilpg.html

•  Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products Surface Coating Operations:
   www. epa.gov/ttn/atw/misc/miscpg. html

•  Paper and Other Web Surface Coating Operations:

•  Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products:

•  Wood Building Products Surface Coating Operations:
   www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/wbldg/wbldgpg. html

•  Solvent Alternatives Guide: www.sage.rti.org

•  The Coatings Guide™: www.cage.rti.org

•  Biochemical solvents:
   or_Pollution_Prevention. html

Toxicity of Solvents
•  Integrated Risk Information Systems (IRIS): www.epa.gov/iris

•  Air Toxics Health Effects Notebooks: www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hapindex.html