Providing Safe Drinking Water in America
      1996 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report and Update on
            Implementation of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments

                             Section 1- Executive Summary

Safe drinking water is a cornerstone of public health protection.  One of the major goals of the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to ensure that the drinking water of all Americans is
safe. This report describes how well we are meeting that goal, the steps we need to take to
improve the data that allow us to measure that goal, and the activities under way that will allow us
to meet the goal more quickly.

The most important news is good. The nation's drinking water is generally safe.  In 1996, the
vast majority of people in the nation received water from systems that had no reported violations
of maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) and treatment technique requirements or significant
monitoring and reporting requirements. Further good news is that, since the passage of the Safe
Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, EPA and its public and private partners have
worked vigorously to develop and begin to use many new tools to enhance the quality of the
nation's drinking water.  However, in gathering and analyzing the data to provide both specific
compliance and general public information, EPA and its partners have realized that we have
questions about the quality of some of the data contained in our Safe Drinking Water Information
System. Nonetheless, when viewed in the aggregate, this data presents an overall picture of
public water systems (PWSs) compliance on a national basis. We present here the general findings
concerning the compliance status of PWSs and make recommendations to improve compliance as
well  as to improve the quality of the data.

This report on Public Water System (PWS) compliance is mandated by the 1996 SDWA
Amendments and provides information on the compliance status  of PWSs, including PWSs
located on Indian reservations, for calendar year 1996.  In 1993, the Administration proposed
sweeping revisions to the SDWA to supply many of the ingredients that are vital to providing safe
drinking water, but were lacking in the law at that time. In August 1996, Congress adopted and
President Clinton signed into law amendments to the SDWA that provide these new ingredients.
Accordingly, this report also discusses the variety of activities that the Agency has undertaken in
the last two years since the passage of the 1996 Amendments to  capitalize on the new
opportunities and authorities provided by those Amendments including: promoting public
information and involvement; providing tools to States, Tribes and water systems to improve
compliance; helping small systems provide safe drinking water; focusing safety standards on the
most serious health risks; and exercising new enforcement authorities and undertaking compliance
assistance activities.
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This national report is an annual requirement for EPA.  Subsequent reports will reflect new
actions that EPA and its partners have taken to improve compliance and data quality since 1996.

ASSESSING PWS COMPLIANCE WITH DRINKING WATER STANDARDS

The public and water supply managers must know whether drinking water systems are in
compliance with the drinking water standards mandated by law. PWSs are responsible for
reporting their monitoring results to the states.  The 1996 SDWA Amendments require that states
prepare annual reports on the compliance of PWSs within their state and make summaries
available to the public and that EPA produce an annual national compliance report.  This first
report presents compliance information for 1996 using state and Tribal data from EPA's Safe
Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS/FED) and discusses ways to improve both the data
and the overall compliance picture. SDWIS/FED is an exceptions-based database, meaning that
only violations or instances of non-compliance are recorded. The information presented in this
report is a summary of data provided to the Agency through SDWIS/FED and includes
information on health-based violations (i.e., MCL, treatment technique) and significant monitoring
and reporting violations.

An MCL is the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to any
user of a public water system. The MCL is set as close to the level where there are no known or
anticipated health effects as is feasible with the use of the best technology or treatment techniques.
EPA sets treatment techniques, instead of MCLs, where it is infeasible to monitor and ascertain
the level of a particular contaminant.  The required treatment techniques are designed to  prevent
known or anticipated health effects.

For this report, a significant monitoring and reporting violation occurs when a PWS collects none
of the samples or submits none of the reports required by a particular regulatory provision, or met
the significant noncompliance definition for the Lead and Copper Rule or the Surface Water
Treatment Rule (see Appendix A). EPA is concerned with these violations because without the
required monitoring, EPA and States do not know the quality of the water being delivered to
consumers.  Thus, people may be at risk without knowing it and appropriate steps to safeguard
public health cannot be taken by the States or EPA or by the consumers themselves.

In their reports,  States also presented EPA with compliance data for which many used data from
their own information systems.  EPA has compiled summaries of the state data in Appendix B.

Fifty-one of 56 states, Commonwealths, and  Territories prepared  compliance reports. EPA
compiled compliance information for American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.
EPA also prepared reports for States  and Tribes that do not have primary enforcement
responsibility for drinking water programs, including Wyoming, Washington, DC, and water
systems located on Indian reservations.
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Results In Brief

In 1996, the vast majority of people in the nation received water from systems that had no
reported violations of MCL and treatment technique requirements or significant monitoring and
reporting requirements. The report looks at the compliance status of all types of public water
systems; however, much of the report focuses on community water systems because the majority
of the population obtains drinking water from community water systems. Within the limitations of
data quality, as discussed below, some of the most notable findings are:

       The nation's drinking water is generally safe ~ 86 % of the country's population
       served by community water systems drank water from systems that reported no
       violations of any health-based drinking water standards.

          94% of all public water systems had no reported MCL or treatment technique
          violations.
          91% of community water systems had no reported MCL or treatment technique
          violations.  Violations were primarily of the Total Coliform Rule and Surface Water
          Treatment Rule - rules which protect against microbiological contamination of
          drinking water.
          94% of non-transient non-community water systems had no reported MCL or
          treatment technique violations. Most of the systems with a reported violation violated
          the Total Coliform Rule.
          95% of transient non-community water systems had no reported MCL or treatment
          technique violations.  As with non-transient non-community water systems, most of
          the systems violated the Total Coliform Rule.

       Nationwide, most violations are of significant monitoring and reporting
       requirements.

          In 1996, there were 141,617 MCL, treatment technique, and significant monitoring
          and reporting violations reported by 47,918 of the 170,942 public water systems in the
          nation. 87% were for violations of significant monitoring and reporting requirements.
          13% were for violations of MCL and treatment technique requirements.
          76% of all public water systems had no reported violations of significant monitoring
          and reporting requirements.
          72% of community water systems had no reported violations of significant monitoring
          and reporting requirements. The Lead and Copper Rule and Total Coliform Rule
          accounted for most of the systems with violations..
          66% of non-transient non-community water systems had no reported violation of
          significant monitoring and reporting requirements. The Lead and Copper Rule and
          Total Coliform Rule accounted for most of the systems with violations.
          80% of transient non-community water systems had no reported violation of

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       significant monitoring and reporting requirements. The Total Coliform Rule and
       Nitrate Rule accounted for most of the systems with violations.

Although the number of large systems with a reported violation is relatively small, the
population that is served by these systems can be large.

       9% of the 5,151 community water systems with an MCL or treatment technique
       violations were for large systems.  These systems served 30 million people. The
       Surface Water Treatment Rule, Total  Coliform Rule, or Lead and Copper Rule are the
       rules most frequently violated by large water systems.
       2% of the  15,182 community water systems with a significant monitoring and
       reporting violation were large systems. These systems served 17 million people.  The
       rules pertaining to total coliform, surface water treatment, organic chemicals, and
       nitrate accounted for most of these systems with violations.

Most violations are reported in small water systems that serve fewer than 3,300 people.

       Small systems comprised 96% of the 15,182 community water systems with a
       significant monitoring and reporting violation. These systems served 5.0 million
       people.
       Small systems comprised 82% of the 5,151 community water systems with an MCL
       and treatment technique violation. These systems  served 2.3 million people.
       Virtually all of the non-transient and transient non-community water systems are small,
       therefore, most violations for these system types occurred in small systems.

Approximately 10% of public water systems located on Indian reservations had a
reported violation of an MCL or treatment technique  requirement Most violations
were for significant monitoring and reporting violations which might prevent other
MCL and treatment technique violations from being detected.

       45% of the 920 public water systems on Indian reservations reported a violation. 75%
       of the systems with a violation serve fewer than 500 people.
       The majority of violations (97%) were of significant monitoring and reporting
       requirements,  primarily for the Total Coliform Rule and chemical contaminants. The
       Total Coliform Rule also accounted for most of the reported health-based violations.

There were no reported violations of variances and exemptions in 1996

       Very few of the states issued variances and exemptions in 1996.
Compliance data in  many individual state  databases differs from that reported to the
Federal database.
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          When viewed in the aggregate, comparison of national data from SDWIS/FED with
          that totaled from all individual state reports showed 19% more violations in state
          reports than in SDWIS/FED, most of which could be accounted for by differences in
          violation reporting of significant monitoring and reporting requirements for chemical
          contaminants..
          A state-by-state comparison of SDWIS/FED data with that included in state
          compliance reports, most of which were developed using information from a state's
          own data system, revealed differences, with both over- and under-reporting by states
          into SDWIS/FED.
          EPA also discovered problems with EPA Regional reporting of data for PWSs on
          Indian reservations into SDWIS/FED.

Although the data show that the nation's drinking water is generally safe, more work needs to be
done to improve compliance in specific areas and to improve the quality of the data.
Recommendations to improve  both compliance and data quality are presented at the end of this
summary.

ACTIVITIES UNDERWAY TO IMPLEMENT THE SDWA AMENDMENTS OF 1996

The Clinton Administration has always recognized that many tools and resources are essential to
ensure that Americans have drinking water that meets all health standards.  The SDWA
Amendments of 1996 provided many new authorities to enable EPA to more quickly meet its
goal of safe drinking water.  Now, two years after passage of the 1996 Amendments, EPA has
exercised these authorities and finalized every product required in the law to date and has done so
with maximum stakeholder involvement. This stakeholder participation included more than 100
public meetings, public review and comment of documents, and the help of the National Drinking
Water Advisory Council and its associated working groups.

Promoting Public Information and Involvement

The public has a right to know what is in its drinking water and to participate in decisions
affecting that drinking water.  The 1996 Amendments include a strong and pervasive ethic of
public information and involvement, and in this second year of implementing the Amendments,
EPA and its partners have produced major tools and undertaken a variety of activities to ensure
that the public is well informed.
   Consumer Confidence Reports: Consumer confidence
   reports are the centerpiece of the right-to-know provisions
   in SDWA. In August 1998, EPA finalized a rule to
   require drinking water systems to provide annual reports to
   their customers on the state of their drinking water supply.
   The information contained in these reports will enable

                                      Section 1-5
Consumer Confidence
Reports will provide
Americans with annual
snapshots of their drinking
water supply.

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Americans to make practical, knowledgeable decisions about their health and their
environment. The reports also provide a way for the public to get more information about
other provisions required by the 1996 Amendments such as assessments of drinking water
source quality.

Each report must provide consumers with the following fundamental information about their
drinking water: the source of the water; a brief summary of its susceptibility to contamination
(based on assessments of drinking water source quality that states will complete over the next
five years); the level (or range of levels) of any contaminant found in the drinking water,
compared with EPA's health-based standard; the likely source of that contaminant in the local
drinking water supply; the potential health effects of any contaminant detected in violation of
an EPA health standard; an accounting of any actions a system takes to restore safe drinking
water;  an educational statement for vulnerable populations, such as children, about avoiding
certain contaminants; educational information on nitrate, arsenic, or lead in areas where these
contaminants are detected at levels  more than 50% above EPA's standard; and phone
numbers for additional sources of information, including that of the water system and EPA's
Safe Drinking Water Hotline.

Ensuring Public Access to Additional Information: EPA is acting to ensure that new
public  information tools are made available to the public. This year, EPA worked with states
on ways to make the results of their up-coming source water assessments available to the
public, and has formed a Public Right-to-Know working group of the National Drinking
Water Advisory Council to discuss  how to make drinking water information  available to the
public, and how to involve them in making decisions with that information.

Using  the Internet to Increase Public Access: EPA has been working over the past year to
make drinking water information available to the public via the Internet
(http://www.epa.gov/safewater). EPA has created and will expand a geographic information
site where consumers will be able to get information about their water, including their local
drinking water supply. This will include information on violations of drinking water
standards, state compliance reports, water system consumer confidence reports, and state
drinking water information and contacts.

Preparing for Greater Public Involvement: In its effort to develop more effective and
durable policies, EPA has continued to uphold the law's ethic of public involvement in its
decision-making processes by holding public meetings and providing an opportunity for public
review of draft documents. By maintaining this high level of public involvement, resulting in
consensus building whenever possible, EPA is demonstrating on a national level the benefits of
the types of public involvement that the 1996 SDWA Amendments also  specify extensively for
states.  While SDWA provides states with flexibility and substantial federal funding to meet
the challenging task of building several important new programs, it also  adds a public
participation framework to enable states to involve their residents in, and strengthen the

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    substantive content of, their efforts.

    Over the past two years, as EPA has worked closely with states to provide guidance and
    implement programs, we have also worked to advance statutorily required public involvement
    in key areas such as:  state decisions on the use of the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund
    for projects and programs; development and implementation of state source water assessment
    programs; the framing of state programs to strengthen the technical, financial, and managerial
    capacity of water systems; and in state consideration of variance and exemption requests.

Providing Tools to  States, Tribes, and Water Systems to Improve Compliance

The 1996  SDWA Amendments gave the nation a new approach to drinking water protection
which focuses attention on the highest public health priorities.  This includes a holistic approach
to prevention and protection, an emphasis on the public's right-to-know, and a series of building
blocks for states and water suppliers that can help in implementation. Two years after passage of
the  Amendments, most of these building blocks are in place.  These activities will assist EPA and
the  states as they work to assure compliance with drinking water standards.

   Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF):  The 1996 Amendments created the
    DWSRF to enable states to help water systems finance infrastructure improvements that are
    needed to solve compliance and public health problems.  States can also use these funds to
    help systems protect their source water and improve water system management. Congress has
    appropriated $2 billion for the DWSRF through FY'98. By the end of FY'98, every state will
    have a DWSRF program approved by EPA, and will have received at least its first
    commitment of funds ("capitalization grant").

   Capacity Development: Capacity refers to the technical, financial and managerial  capability
    of a water system to plan for, achieve, and maintain compliance with drinking water standards.
    Capacity development is a State effort to help drinking water systems improve their finances,
    management, infrastructure, and operations so they can provide safe drinking water
    consistently, reliably, and cost-effectively. Many small drinking water systems have difficulty
    complying with some of the complex provisions of the SDWA because their capacity is often
    constrained by their limited economies of scale. The new SDWA has several features with
    great potential to increase system capacity, and thereby correct and prevent noncompliance.
    In August 1998,  EPA released guidance and information to help states work together with
    water systems to carry out new capacity development provisions from the law, including a
    requirement that states have authority to prevent the formation of new public water systems
    that lack the capability to operate and manage a drinking water system. States must also
    implement a strategy to help existing systems develop the capability to operate and maintain
    their system and ensure long-term compliance.

   Water System Operator Certification: Operator competency  is critical to the protection of

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   public health and maintenance of safe, effective, and reliable water treatment plants and
   distribution lines. In February 1998, EPA released information for states on recommended
   operator certification requirements, developed through a partnership with states, water
   systems, and the public. By February 1999, EPA will issue final guidelines for states to use in
   making changes to their operation certification programs.

   Source Water Protection: The first step in a multiple barrier approach to drinking water
   protection is  preventing contamination of drinking water sources. This avoids the need to pay
   for costly treatment to remove contamination after it occurs.  In August  1997, EPA issued a
   source water assessment and protection guidance for states to use to complete source water
   assessments for their public water systems. States, water systems, and the public can work
   together using federal funding to protect the highest priority sources identified in the
   assessments.  During this past year, states have been working diligently to prepare their
   assessment programs, which are due to EPA by February 1999.

   Proposed Regulation for Underground Injection Control Class V Wells: Some shallow
   waste disposal wells pose a threat to underground sources  of drinking water.  On July  17,
   1998 EPA issued a proposal, for public comment, in the Federal Register to regulate specific
   types of high-risk wells, such as large cesspools, motor vehicle wells, and industrial wells,
   located in source water protection areas for systems using groundwater.  When finalized in
   1999, this regulation will give states a new tool for source water protection efforts.

   Support for Indian Tribes:  The problems facing public water systems located on Indian
   reservations are significant. Many of the systems face challenges related to their small  size
   (75% of systems serve populations fewer than 500) and limited sources of revenue.  Many of
   the tools discussed above include funding and provisions to address the special problems of
   these public water systems. In addition, the 1996 SDWA Amendments provided that 1.5% of
   the amount appropriated for the DWSRF program be made available to water systems on
   Tribal lands in the form of grants.  This translated into $30 million for fiscal years 1997 and
   1998.
Helping Small Systems Provide Safe Drinking Water

Although they serve a small percentage of the nation's population, water systems serving fewer
than 10,000 persons constitute the majority of all community drinking water systems.  Small
systems often do not have a full-time operator, and their limited customer base often makes
compliance with public health standards difficult due to affordability problems. The 1996
Amendments created several new tools to help address the special needs of small systems.
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  List of Small System Compliance Technologies: In August 1998 EPA published a list of
   alternative technologies that small systems may use to remove or treat regulated contaminants.
   These alternative technologies give small systems more flexibility in choosing the most cost-
   effective methods to meet drinking water standards.

  Variances and Exemptions: In August 1998, EPA revised its variance and exemption rule,
   which provides a framework to help  small systems comply with drinking water standards.
   Variances allow a small system that  cannot afford to comply with a drinking water standard to
   deviate from the standard under certain conditions, as long as the drinking water is still
   protective of public health.  Exemptions allow a water system extra time to obtain needed
   financial assistance, develop an alternative source of water, engage in management or
   restructuring changes, or make any other effort needed to bring the  system into compliance.

  Technical Assistance: EPA is now supporting a total of eight technology assistance centers,
   based at universities, to help small drinking water systems with training, technical assistance,
   and technology demonstrations. With grant support from EPA, university-based
   Environmental Finance Centers are assisting states in developing and implementing innovative
   programs to help small systems build their capacity. In addition, up to two percent of a state's
   DWSRF capitalization grant may be used to provide technical assistance to systems serving
   fewer than 10,000 persons,  and the SDWA requires that at least 15% of the DWSRF be made
   available to small systems.

Focusing Safety Standards on the Most Serious Health Risks

Strengthening research to support development of regulations based on sound science is one of
the most significant provisions in the 1996 Amendments.  The first major products of that
scientific focus were produced in  1998.  These products demonstrate the principles of targeting
and focusing research on high risk contaminants and expanding public involvement in the
rulemaking process by enhancing public access to data.

  The Contaminant Candidate List:  In February 1998, EPA published its Contaminant
   Candidate List (CCL), which is the strategic blueprint for future standards development and
   public health decisions. The CCL is a list of currently unregulated contaminants that are
   known or anticipated to occur in drinking water.  The list will help EPA, states, and water
   systems focus their efforts on contaminants that pose the greatest risks to public health.
   Contaminants for priority drinking water research, occurrence monitoring, and guidance
   development, including health advisories, will be drawn from the CCL.  EPA will also use this
   list to outline a plan of action, required by the year 2001, for making regulatory decisions on
   developing standards for five or more contaminants.

   Strengthening Research:  EPA has expanded its research in occurrence studies, health
   effects, analytical methods, and treatment approaches to support its standard-setting priorities

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   under the CCL.  In addition, as required by the 1996 Amendments, EPA has developed, and is
   carrying out, its long-term research plans for arsenic and the microbial and
   disinfectants/disinfection byproducts cluster of rules.

  Microbial and Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rules: Congress and the
   Administration agree that microbial contaminants in drinking water, such as Cryptosporidium,
   pose the greatest potential risk to human health.  The 1996 Amendments required EPA to
   issue several rules to control these contaminants and the byproducts of chemicals used to
   control them.  In late 1998, EPA will dramatically advance public health protection by
   finalizing the first set of these rules, the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule and
   the Stage I Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule.

Exercising New Enforcement Authorities and Undertaking Compliance Assistance

The 1996 Amendments strengthened EPA and State enforcement and penalty authorities.  In
recognition of the fact that enforcement is an effective tool in returning systems to compliance and
insuring that water systems which do not comply do not enjoy a competitive advantage over
others that do, the Amendments streamlined the process for issuing federal administrative orders,
raised the amount EPA could collect in administrative penalties, and required States as a condition
of primacy to have administrative penalty authority.  As with other provisions of the 1996
Amendments, EPA and the states are working to implement these provisions and will provide
more detail in future reports.

EPA's current enforcement priorities focus on those regulations and contaminants which pose the
greatest risk to public health, i.e., the microbiological regulations (Total Coliform Rule and
Surface Water Treatment Rule), lead and copper, and other acute contaminants (e.g., nitrate).

In fiscal year 1996, the Agency issued 1039 notices of violation, 254 final administrative orders,
40 complaints for penalty, and 9 new civil referrals. In 1997, EPA issued 266 notices of violation,
392 federal administrative orders, 12 complaints for penalty, and 4 new civil referrals.
To complement its enforcement activities, EPA also undertakes compliance assistance to increase
understanding of, and compliance with, drinking water requirements. The Agency conducted
more than 3,180 compliance assistance activities, including on-site visits to public water systems
and development and distribution of compliance assistance tools.  The Agency is also developing
a Compliance Assistance Center, the Local Government Environmental Assistance Network
(LGEAN) which is designed to help local government officials stay abreast of the latest
environmental requirements and technologies, including drinking water issues. LGEAN is
coordinated by a number of partners, such as drinking water and governmental associations. The
network will help governments disseminate information on drinking water to help water facilities
treat water more effectively and will field questions on environmental compliance and assistance

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information for state and local officials, inspectors, and regulators.

   The box below lists EPA's major products in support of SDWA implementation.
Programs
Public
Information/
Involvement


Tools for
States and
Water
Systems








Small System
Needs




Risk-Based
Standards
Setting

1st year (August 1996-97)
 Expansion of National
Drinking Water Advisory
Council (NDWAC)


 Drinking Water State
Revolving Fund Guidelines
 Source Water Assessment
and Protection Guidance
 Drinking Water
Infrastructure Needs Survey
 Alternative Monitoring
Guidance




 Treatment technologies list
for Surface Water Treatment
Rule



 Research plans for
Microbial/Disinfection
Byproducts and Arsenic

2nd year (August 1997-98)
 Consumer Confidence
Report Regulation
 Compliance Reports


 Information on
Operator Certification
 Capacity Development
Guidance
 Environmental Finance
Centers
 Proposed Class VUIC
Rule




 Compliance
technologies list
 Variance and
Exemptions Rule
 Technology Assistance
Centers
 Contaminant
Candidate List


Future
 National Contaminant
Occurrence Data Base
 Revised public notification
 Right-to-Know NDWAC
Working Group
 Operator Certification
Guidelines
 Federal support of state
source water assessment
activities through Clean
Water Action Plan
 Final Class VUIC Rule
 State ground water
protection reports
 Local Governmental
Environmental Assistance
Network
 NDWAC Small Systems
Working Group




 National Contaminant
Occurrence Data Base
 Unregulated Contaminant
Monitoring Rule
IMPROVING THE DATA THAT DESCRIBES AMERICA'S DRINKING WATER

The nation needs reliable data in order to manage its drinking water program. It is of great
importance to EPA and its partners to improve the quality and accuracy of drinking water data.
EPA has collected data from States for approximately 20 years on violations of drinking water
standards and stored them in an EPA data system that has recently been modernized and renamed
the Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS/FED). Portions of SDWIS/FED that are
under development will better track compliance with existing and future regulations, track
drinking water goals developed to meet the Government Performance and Results Act, and also
make data recovery easier for the public.  In preparing the compliance information described
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below, it became clear that some SDWIS/FED data should be updated or checked for reliability.
To ensure SDWIS/FED data reliability, EPA is undertaking a series of steps which are outlined in
the recommendations described later in this report.

In addition to having information about actual violations of drinking water standards for treated
drinking water, the nation also needs information on the occurrence of contaminants in our
sources of drinking water.  The SDWA Amendments of 1996 mandated that EPA prepare a
National Contaminant Occurrence Database (NCOD) by 1999 that will contain information about
the pollutants found in sources of drinking water. NCOD will draw on other databases from both
inside EPA and from our partners such as the U.S. Geological Survey, and will also include
information from forthcoming state and Tribal source water assessments. The database will give
both managers and the public information on the quality of water which is subsequently treated to
become our drinking water.

The planned improvements to violations data in SDWIS/FED as well as the new data available in
1999 through the NCOD will give both the public and the drinking water community a better
picture of the quality of our drinking water.

Recommendations

The  SDWA Amendments of 1996 require that the Administrator make "recommendations
concerning the resources needed to improve compliance" within the national compliance report.
This report makes general recommendations as to where states and EPA should direct their
efforts, based on existing resource levels and appropriations, to improve compliance.

States and EPA should work together to address the most significant findings identified in this
report:
  States and EPA should work together to address violations of significant monitoring and
  reporting requirements.

      For large community water systems, actions should address all rules. Failure by these
       systems to monitor can mask public health problems that affect many people and, as a
       result, formal enforcement should be an integral part of any action taken.
      For small and medium community water systems, actions should focus primarily on the
       Lead and Copper Rule, Total Coliform Rule and the Nitrate Rule. This strategy should
       include compliance assistance and enforcement, where appropriate.  The strategy should
       also focus  on the Surface Water Treatment Rule because violations indicate an increased
       risk from microbiological contamination.

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States and EPA should work together to address violations of MCL and treatment
technique requirements.

    For large community water systems, actions should address all rules, with an emphasis on
    the Total Coliform Rule, Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Lead and Copper Rule.
    Formal enforcement is especially appropriate for large water systems, particularly those
    failing to install or upgrade filtration treatment as required by the Surface Water
    Treatment Rule, and for facilities with continuing or repeated violations.
    For small and medium size community water systems, actions should focus on the Total
    Coliform Rule and Surface Water Treatment Rule. All available tools should be
    considered when responding to violations, in order to address the particular capacity
    development needs of these systems. Technical assistance should be made available to
    ensure that systems can return to, and remain in, compliance. While compliance assistance
    is often adequate to ensure long-term compliance, when a system does not respond to
    assistance, formal enforcement should be used.

States and EPA should work together to address violations at non-community water
systems.

    States and EPA should identify the reasons for significant monitoring and  reporting
    violations at non-community systems and take appropriate action. In particular, attention
    should focus on the Total Coliform, Lead and Copper, and Nitrate Rules for non-transient
    non-community water systems; and Total Coliform and Nitrate Rules for transient non-
    community water systems.
    Most non-transient and transient non-community water systems are small and face
    problems that are unique to small systems.  EPA and states should take an approach that
    addresses the special needs of these systems, including compliance assistance and
    enforcement, where appropriate.

EPA should take action to improve compliance of PWSs on Indian reservations.

    EPA should work cooperatively with water systems on Indian reservations to improve
    compliance with monitoring and reporting requirements, particularly for Total Coliform
    Rule and chemical contaminant requirements. This can be accomplished through
    compliance assistance such as increasing EPA's field presence, conducting more frequent
    sanitary surveys and providing technical assistance, and enforcement, as appropriate.
    EPA should improve its collection and maintenance of compliance data for PWSs on
    Indian reservations.

  EPA and states should work cooperatively to improve the quality of compliance data.


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   Further define the issue: EPA should work closely with states and utilities to define the
   data quality issue in detail. EPA will hold several stakeholder meetings across the
   country, and convene a special focus group to make recommendations. This group will
   work with ongoing groups and efforts such as the Association of State Drinking Water
   Administrators/EPA Data Management Steering Committee, the OECA enforcement
   systems reengineering efforts, and the National Drinking Water Advisory Council Right-
   to-Know workgroup.

  Ensure seamless data transfer to the Federal data system:  EPA will increase efforts to
   make it easier to use drinking water information systems, and processes to transfer data to
   them electronically. For the national-level SDWIS/FED, EPA will simplify both data entry
   and retrieval, and public access. For States and Tribes, EPA will accelerate development
   of the core modules of SDWIS/STATE, and increase electronic data transfer for those
   States that will continue to use their own data systems.

  Improve SDWIS data quality:  EPA and States need to work together to improve the
   quality  of data in SDWIS and in individual state systems.  In this effort, EPA and States
   can jointly  develop quality management plans for SDWIS data.  We can also take steps to
   improve the quality of data monitoring and reporting at all levels - utility, laboratory,
   State, EPA Regions, and EPA Headquarters.  These steps will include more frequent
   verification of data at all steps of the process, vigorous followup of findings from the
   verification efforts, and increased training in and accountability for system use and data
   quality  activities.

  Include compliance data in the effort to integrate drinking water information: EPA
   is working  to provide to managers and the public a comprehensive picture of drinking
   water quality, including both compliance and source water quality information.  This
   effort will integrate drinking water source information  from the developing National
   Contaminant Occurrence Data Base (which will access multiple data bases of EPA, the
   U.S. Geological Survey, and others on ambient water quality) as well as water quality in
   public water systems. As more reliable SDWIS data is generated in the future, EPA will
   incorporate that data into this comprehensive effort to  portray drinking water quality.

Future Direction

This report on  1996 data is the first in an annual series of reports presenting drinking water
compliance data and a national analysis of compliance, as well as recommendations to
improve PWS compliance. The report shows that there is  a need for improvements in both
compliance and reporting of the data  describing compliance. Compliance with drinking water
regulations is one of the primary goals for EPA under the Government Performance and
Results Act, and EPA has already initiated activities to address many of the findings and
recommendations in the report. EPA will work with states to address the recommendations

                                  Section 1-14

-------
and will use these reports to establish a baseline against which we will monitor progress.

In addition, States and EPA need to continue to aggressively implement the SDWA
Amendments of 1996, including development and implementation of new regulations, source
water protection activities, capacity development activities, operator certification, and full
implementation of the State Revolving Fund. These activities will result in improvements in
PWSs and ultimately in the quality of the drinking water provided to the public. Also, EPA
and the States need to insure implementation of and compliance with the consumer confidence
regulations as the centerpiece of the right-to-know provisions of the SDWA. It is critical that
these rules be implemented.

Because this first report is based on calendar year 1996 data, the data did not reflect
improvements to the drinking water program that are being made as a result of the many
activities initiated following enactment of the 1996 SDWA Amendments. A vital lesson
learned during the 12 years following passage of the earlier 1986 SDWA is that safe drinking
water must be achieved by a multi-action approach that includes: providing for public
information and involvement; providing tools to states, Tribes, and water systems to help
them supply safe water; paying special  attention to the needs of small systems; risk-based
decision-making to provide the best safety standards; and providing compliance assistance and
taking enforcement actions where violations occur. The new tools provided by the 1996
Amendments will, in time, help improve the quality of the public's drinking water and
compliance at PWSs, including PWSs located on Indian reservations. The many actions EPA
and its partners  have undertaken in the  first two years of implementation of the  1996 SDWA
Amendments will bear fruit in providing better information about drinking water quality and
reducing the number of violations of drinking water standards.  Future reports will track that
progress, to the  benefit of all Americans.
                               Section 1-15

-------
                                                                                Section 2
                       Section 2  -  National
                        Compliance  Report
PART I -
PURPOSE
The purpose of the remaining sections of this
report is to provide additional information to the
general public, Federal and State regulators,
and Tribal governments on the compliance
status of public water systems (PWSs), including
those located on Indian reservations and serving
Indian Tribes, for calendar year 1996. This
report summarizes and evaluates the compli-
ance information and makes recommendations
concerning actions that the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and States need to take
to improve compliance at public water systems.
Section 2 of this report addresses national
compliance of PWSs in the U.S. States and
Territories. Section 3 focuses on compliance of
PWSs on Indian reservations.
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amend-
ments of 1996 (PL 104-182) made fundamental
changes in the nature of the drinking water
program at the Federal, State, Tribal and local
levels. This report has been prepared to meet one
of these new requirements. Specifically, Section
1414(c)(3) of the amendments requires that:

   States with primary enforcement responsi-
    bility  (primacy) prepare and submit to EPA
    an annual report on PWS violations. States
    were required to submit their first report by
    January 1,  1998. These reports must
    address violations of national primary
    drinking water regulations with respect to
    maximum contaminant levels (MCLs),
    treatment requirements, significant moni-
    toring requirements, and variances and
    exemptions.
   States with primacy publish and distribute
    summaries of their reports and indicate
    where the full report is available for review.
   EPA summarize and evaluate the States'
    reports in an annual national report, of
    which this is the first. This report must
    make recommendations concerning the
    resources needed to improve compliance
    with the SDWA. The report must also
    address PWS compliance on Indian reser-
    vations, enforcement activities undertaken,
    and financial assistance provided by EPA to
    Indian reservations.

In addition to requiring State and national
compliance reports, the amendments include
two other provisions designed to give consumers
more information about the quality of their
drinking water. These are:

   A requirement that community water
    systems issue annual Consumer Confi-
    dence Reports that contain information on
    the source of the water supply, the levels of
    detected contaminants found in drinking
    water, information on the health effects of
    contaminants found in violation of national
    standards, and information on unregulated
    contaminants.
   A provision that improves the procedures
    for how and when public water systems
    must notify their customers when drinking
    water regulations are violated.



In developing this report, EPA convened several
workgroups and stakeholder groups consisting
of EPA, States, environmental and public health
groups, water system operators, trade associa-
tions,  representatives from Indian Tribes, Tribal
professional environmental organizations, and
I 996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                            September 1998    13

-------
  Section 2
Tribal water utility managers and water opera-
tors and coordinated with the Indian Health
Service and Bureau of Indian Affairs.

PART II -            AND
                                 	
To understand the compliance information
presented in this report, it is helpful to under-
stand the Public Drinking Water Program. In
order for a State, Territory, or Tribe to be given
the primary enforcement responsibility to run a
drinking water program (called primacy), it must
adopt regulations that are at least as stringent
as Federal regulations and demonstrate capacity
to enforce those regulations and implement
other activities to ensure compliance.  Of the 56
States and Territories, all but Wyoming and the
District of Columbia have primacy. EPA Regional
Offices administer the program within these two
jurisdictions. EPA also administers the program
on all Tribal lands.


EPA
The Safe Drinking Water Act requires that the
EPA establish national primary drinking water
regulations. These regulations set national
limits on contaminant levels in drinking water
to ensure that the water is safe for human
consumption. These limits, known as MCLs, set
the maximum permissible level of a contami-
nant in water delivered to a  user of a PWS. At
the Federal level, EPA has set drinking water
standards, or MCLs, for more than 80 contami-
nants. An MCL is the  maximum permissible
level of a contaminant in water which is deliv-
ered to any user of a public water system. There
are MCLs for both contaminants that cause
acute health effects after a short-term exposure
and contaminants that can cause chronic
health effects  after long-term exposure. Addi-
tional information on  the health effects of
specific contaminants can be found on the  EPA
web site (http: / /www.epa.gov/ safewater).

For some regulations, EPA sets a treatment
technique requirement where it is infeasible to
monitor and ascertain the level of a particular
contaminant.  The required treatment tech-
niques are designed to prevent  known or antici-
pated health effects. Treatment technique
requirements have been established under both
the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Lead
and Copper Rule. A violation of a treatment
technique indicates that the system failed to
treat the water as specified to minimize the
presence of potentially harmful contaminants.

EPA also sets monitoring, reporting, and record
keeping requirements that PWSs must follow. A
monitoring or reporting violation can occur
when a PWS either fails to take the required
number of samples or perform a required analy-
sis, or fails to report the results of an analysis
performed in a timely manner or as required by
law. Only significant monitoring and reporting
violations were analyzed in this report, as
required by the 1996 SDWA Amendments. A
significant monitoring and reporting violation
occurs when a PWS collects none of the samples
or submits none of the reports required by a
particular regulatory provision. It can also occur
if a PWS collects less than 90% of the samples
or submits less than 90% of the reports required
by the Surface Water Treatment Rule. Appendix
A contains additional information about the
definition and application of significant monitor-
ing and reporting violations.

PWSs are required to report all monitoring
results to their primary enforcement responsi-
bility. States and Territories with  primacy
analyze the monitoring results, determine
compliance, and report violations to EPA on a
quarterly  basis. EPA maintains these violations
in the national Safe Drinking Water Information
System (SDWIS/FED). SDWIS/FED is an excep-
tions-based database, meaning that only viola-
tions or instances of non-compliance are re-
corded.

States that have primacy, or EPA where it
administers the program,  may grant a PWS a
variance or exemption from national primary
drinking water standards, provided that the
terms adequately protect public health. As
provided by the SDWA, variances are available
to PWSs that cannot comply with national
primary drinking water regulations (due to
source water quality, or, in the case of small
systems, affordability). Variances generally allow
a PWS to comply with less stringent, but still
protective standards based on a specific tech-
nology available to the system. An exemption
 14  September 1998
    1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                      Section 2
allows a PWS with compelling circumstances
(including economic considerations) an exten-
sion of time before it must comply with appli-
cable SDWA requirements. An exemption is
limited to three years, although extensions of up
to six additional years are available to very
small PWS under certain conditions.



Public water systems must meet the require-
ments described above. A PWS is defined as a
system that has at least 15 service connections
or serves an average of at least 25 people for at
least 60 days per year. There are three types of
PWSs:

     Community water systems are those that
     serve the same people year-round (e.g.,
     cities, towns, villages, and mobile home
     parks).
     Non-transient non-community water sys-
     tems are those  that serve at least 25 of the
     same people for at  least six months of the
     year  (e.g., schools,  day care centers).
   Transient non-community water systems
    are those that serve transient populations
    (e.g., rest stops, campgrounds, and parks).

In 1996,  there were 170,942 public water sys-
tems (Table 1). The following presents a break-
down of these systems by type:

   Community water systems: 54,728 systems
    serving 249 million people.
   Non-transient non-community water sys-
    tems: 20,061 systems serving 6.1 million
    people.
   Transient non-community water systems:
    96,153 systems serving 16.2 million people.

Each of these three types of systems is regu-
lated differently. Community water systems and
non-transient systems must comply with all
regulations. Transient systems do not have to
comply with the regulations for contaminants
that cause chronic health effects because the
users of transient systems are not exposed to
the contaminants long enough for adverse
health effects to occur. Table 2 provides a
                    Ta ble I: Public Water System Inventory in Calendar Year 1996
Public Water System Inventory Data
Water Source

Surface
Ground
Total
Percent of Total
PWSs
Community Water Systems
(CWSs)
Number of
Systems
10,500
(19%)
44,219
(81%)
54,728
(100%)
32%
Population
Served
(Millions)
160
(64%)
89
(36%)
249
(100%)
*
Non-transient Non-community
Water Systems (NTNCWSs)
Number of
Systems
760
(4%)
19,300
(96%)
20,061
(100%)
12%
Population
Served
(Millions)
0.8
(13%)
5.3
(87%)
6.1
(100%)
*
Transient Non-community Water
Systems (TNCWSs)
Number of
Systems
2,143
(2%)
94,009
(98%)
96,153
(100%)
56%
Population
Served
(Millions)
0.9
(6%)
15.3
(94%)
16.2
(100%)
*
*Populations for all three categories are not totaled as some people are served by multiple categories of water
systems.

Source: Safe Drinking Water Information System
I 996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998

-------
 Section 2
summary of drinking water regulations as they
apply to the three types of PWSs.

PWSs can also be classified according to the size
of the population that is being served. EPA
frequently analyzes compliance trends based on
three PWS size categories:

    Small systems: serve 25 to 3,300 persons.
    Medium systems: serve 3,301 to 10,000
     persons.
    Large systems: serve more than 10,000
     persons.

The number of systems in each size classifica-
tion  in 1996 and the total population that they
serve are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

As these figures show, the number of large sys-
tems is small, but they serve a much greater
population than is served by the smaller systems.

PWSs obtain their water from:

    Surface water sources which include rivers,
     lakes, and reservoirs.
    Ground water sources that are supplied
     from wells drilled into underground aqui-
     fers.

Some PWSs obtain their water from a combina-
tion  of the two types of sources or purchase
their water from another PWS. In 1996, surface
water served as the source for approximately 8%
of the PWSs serving approximately 60% of the
total population served by PWSs (Table  1).
Ground water served as a source for approxi-
mately 92% of the PWSs, serving approximately
40% of the population served by PWSs.

PART III - PWS               DATA AND
          	
EPA has compiled and reviewed 1996 violations
data available from the Annual State Public
Water Systems Reports and national PWS data
from EPA's SDWIS/FED database. The national
analysis uses SDWIS/FED data, rather than
data from the State reports, primarily because
EPA conducted analyses at the national level
using information that was not required or
                                               included in the Annual State Public Water
                                               Systems Reports. Summaries of data from State
                                               reports can be found in Appendix B. In develop-
                                               ing this report, EPA and its partners have
                                               realized that we have questions about the
                                               quality of some of the data contained in SDWIS/
                                               FED. Nonetheless, when viewed in the aggre-
                                               gate, this data presents an overall compliance
                                               picture of PWSs nationwide. Later in this report
                                               is a discussion of data quality concerns and
                                               recommendations to address these concerns.


                                               DATA

                                               In 1996, the vast majority of people in the
                                               nation received water from systems that had no
                                               reported violations  of MCL and  treatment tech-
                                               nique requirements or significant monitoring
                                               and reporting requirements. The report looks at
                                               the compliance status  of all types of public
                                               water systems; however, much  of the report
                                               focuses on community water systems  because
                                               the majority of the population obtains drinking
                                               water from community water systems. Within
                                               the limitations of data  quality, as discussed in
                                               this report, some of the most notable findings
                                               are:

                                               The nation's drinking water is generally safe
                                                86 % of the country's population served
                                               by community water  systems drank water
                                               from systems that reported no violations of
                                               any health-based drinking water standards.

                                                    94% of all public  water systems had no
                                                   reported MCL or treatment technique
                                                   violations.
                                                    91% of community water systems had no
                                                   reported MCL or treatment technique
                                                   violations. Violations were primarily of the
                                                   Total Coliform Rule and Surface Water
                                                   Treatment Rule -  rules which protect
                                                   against microbiological contamination of
                                                   drinking water.
                                                    94% of non-transient non-community water
                                                   systems had no reported MCL or treatment
                                                   technique violations. Most of the  systems
                                                   with a reported violation violated the Total
                                                   Coliform Rule.
                                                    95% of transient non-community water
                                                   systems had no reported MCL or treatment
16   September 1998
                                                   1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                                 Section 2
                        Table 2: Summary of Drinking Water Regulations for PWSs
Applicability of Current Regulations
Contaminant/Rule
Organic
Contaminants
Total
Trlhal om e than e s
(TTHM)
Inorganic
Contaminants
Nitrate and Nitrite
Radio nu elides
Total Collform Rule
Surface Water
Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper
Rule
Community Water
Systems
All
Some
(Only systems
serving more than
10,000)
All
All
All
All
Some
(Only PWSs using
surface water or
ground water
sources under the
direct Influence of
surface water)
All
Non-transient non-
community water
systems
All
None
Some
(All except arsenic
and fluoride)
All
None
All
Some
(Only PWSs using
surface water or
ground water
sources under the
direct Influence of
surface water)
All
Transient non-
community water
systems
Some
(Only eplchlorohydrin
and acrylamlde)
None
None
All
None
All
Some
(Only PWSs using
surface water or
ground water sources
under the direct
Influence of surface
water)
None
        Figure I: Size Distribution of PWSs
               Number of Systems
Figure 2: Size Distribution of PWSs
        Population Served
00 000
to '
0)
o> 1 20 000
01 80 000
o
i_ 40 000
|j tU.UUU
> n
E 4
3
z.
162,663











4,592 3,687
Small (0- Medium Large (Over
3,300) (3,301- 10,000)
10,000)


to
c
'1
C
o 100
"CD
Q.
0
- n
203.7


9fi 7

|









Small (0-3,300) Medium (3,301- Large (Over
10,000) 10,000)
I 996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                         September I 998   17

-------
  Section 2
     technique violations. As with non-transient
     non-community water systems, most of the
     systems violated the Total Coliform Rule.

Nationwide, most violations are of significant
monitoring and reporting requirements.

    In 1996, there were 141,617 MCL, treat-
     ment technique, and significant monitoring
     and reporting violations reported by 47,918
     of the 170,942 public water systems in the
     nation. 87% were for violations of significant
     monitoring and reporting requirements.
     13% were for violations of MCL and treat-
     ment technique  requirements.
    76% of all public water systems had no
     reported violations of significant monitoring
     and reporting requirements.
    72% of community water systems had no
     reported violations of significant monitoring
     and reporting requirements. The Lead and
     Copper Rule and Total Coliform Rule
     accounted for most of the systems with
     violations.
    66% of non-transient non-community water
     systems had no reported violation of sig-
     nificant monitoring and reporting require-
     ments. The Lead and Copper Rule and
     Total Coliform Rule accounted for most of
     the systems with violations.
    80% of transient non-community water
     systems had no reported violation of sig-
     nificant monitoring and reporting require-
     ments. The Total Coliform Rule and Nitrate
     Rule accounted  for most of the systems
     with violations.

Although the number of large systems with a
reported violation is relatively low, the
population that is served by these systems
can be large.

    9% of the 5,151 community water systems
     with an MCL or treatment technique viola-
     tion were for large systems. These systems
     served 30 million people. The Surface
     Water Treatment Rule, Total Coliform Rule,
     and Lead and Copper Rule are the rules
     most frequently violated by large water
     systems.
    2% of the 15,182 community water systems
     with a significant monitoring and reporting
     violation were large systems. These systems
     served 17 million people. The rules pertain-
     ing to total coliform, surface water treat-
     ment, organic chemicals, and nitrate
     accounted for most of these systems with
     violations.

Most violations are reported in small water
systems that serve fewer than 3,300 people.

    Small systems comprised 96% of the
     15,182 community water systems  with a
     significant monitoring and reporting viola-
     tion. These systems served 5.0 million
     people.
    Small systems comprised 82% of the  5,151
     community water systems with an MCL
     and treatment technique violation. These
     systems served 2.3 million people.
    Virtually all of the non-transient and
     transient non-community water systems
     are small, therefore most violations for
     these system types occurred in small
     systems.

In the remainder  of this analysis, compliance
data will be presented by type of water  system.
This is being done to prevent double counting of
population when  presenting the number of
people served by systems reporting a violation.
For example,  it is possible that the same person
could drink water from three different sources
during a day by drinking water from their
residence (served by a community water sys-
tem), their school (served by a non-transient
non-community water system), and at a camp-
ground or highway rest stop (served by a tran-
sient non-community water system). Including
that same person three times in the population
figures would be misleading.


COMMUNITY WATER

There are 54,728 community water systems in
the nation which  serve a population of  approxi-
mately 248 million people. The remaining popu-
lation of the country receives residential water
from individual wells or from water systems that
are too small to meet the definition of a Federal
18   September 1998
    1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                     Section 2
public water system (i.e. they serve fewer than
25 people).

Community water systems can be further
categorized as follows:

    Small systems: 46,827 systems serving 25
     million people.
    Medium systems: 4,332 systems serving 25
     million people.
    Large systems: 3,569 systems serving 198
     million people.

Of these 54,728 systems, 91% had no reported
violations of MCL or treatment technique re-
quirements. Approximately 66% had no reported
violations of MCL and treatment technique
requirements and had no significant monitoring
and reporting violations.

Most of the violations experienced by commu-
nity water systems were for failure to monitor
the drinking water and report the results to the
State. While monitoring and reporting violations
do not necessarily indicate a health risk, if a
system fails to monitor it may not be aware of
the potential health risk posed by a contami-
nant which may be  present, but undetected.

While the data show that small systems have
the largest number  of MCL violations, a much
larger population is  served by large systems with
violations.

Figures 3  through 6 present a breakdown of
MCL, treatment technique, and significant
monitoring and reporting violations by rule. As
shown in  Figure 4, the rules with the greatest
number of significant monitoring and reporting
violations are the Lead and Copper, the Total
Coliform,  and Nitrate Rules. Most of the systems
with these types of violations are small. A
different picture is presented if population
affected is considered instead of number of
systems.

Figure 4 shows that large systems which violate
significant monitoring and reporting require-
ments serve more people than small and me-
dium systems which violate these requirements.
The only exception to this is the Lead and
Copper Rule, where both small and large sys-
tems with violations serve approximately the
same population. Figure 4 also shows that a
higher percentage of the population was served
by system s with violations of significant moni-
toring and reporting requirements for total
coliform, lead and copper, and nitrate/nitrite
than for other rules.

Turning to MCL and treatment technique re-
quirements, Figure  5 shows that community
water systems violate the Total Coliform Rule
and Surface Water Treatment Rule more often
than other rules. Most of the systems in viola-
tion are small.

However, when considering the population
served by systems in violation (Figure 6), a
higher percentage of the population was served
by community water systems with violations of
the Surface Water Treatment Rule, the Total
Coliform Rule, and the Lead and Copper Rule,
respectively. Again, large systems are respon-
sible for the greatest portion of the population
served by systems in violation.

The reason for the systems in violation of the
Surface Water Treatment Rule is that filtration
treatment was required for a number of large
systems. Although the law required this treat-
ment to be in place by 1993, for a variety of
reasons including planning, design and con-
struction of the complex infrastructure needed
to install filtration, this has taken  longer than
anticipated.

In 1996, the population served by  small and
medium systems in violation of the Total
Coliform Rule MCL was about 3 million people.
A much larger population (approximately 9
million) served by large systems was in violation
of the Total Coliform Rule owing primarily to
violations in 3 major systems serving popula-
tions more than 500,000.

The population served by systems  in violation  of
treatment technique requirements of the Lead
and Copper  Rule were served primarily by large
water systems. This is because all  large systems
are required to install corrosion control,
whereas only those small and medium systems
exceeding an action level must install corrosion
control. Additionally, large systems are given
less time to comply with the rule than small and
medium systems.
I 996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998   19

-------
  Section 2
                    Figure 3: Number of Community Water Systems with Monitioring
                                and Reporting Violations by System Size
1 0 ODD

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S3 4,000 -
A
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20  September 1998
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                          Section 2
                    Figure 5: Number of Community Water Systems with Maximum
                        Contaminant Level and Treatment Technique Violations
A nnn _

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I 996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
September 1998
21

-------
  Section 2
SYSTEMS
                                 WATER
monitoring and reporting increases, the complin
ance rate for the MCL could decrease.
The majority (94%) reported no violations of
health-based standards. Approximately 62% of
non-transient non-community water systems
reported no MCL or treatment technique violaD
tions and no significant monitoring and reportD
ing violations in 1996. Most of the violations
were for significant monitoring and reporting.

General findings for non-transient non-commuD
nity are:

    CDf the MCL and treatment technique
     requirements, more systems violated the
     Total Coliform Rule than other rules, with
     5% of the systems reporting an MCL violaD
     tion.
    CMore systems violated the significant
     monitoring and reporting requirements of
     the Lead and Copper Rule and the Total
     Coliform Rule, with 21% and 14% of the
     systems reporting violations, respectively.


Transient systems are required to comply with
the Total Coliform Rule, nitrate, and the Surface
Water Treatment Rules only. However, because
only 2.1% of transient systems use surface
water as a source, most transient systems are
not subject to the Surface Water Treatment
Rule.

Overall 95% of transient systems reported no
violations of MCL or treatment technique reD
quirements and 77% of the systems reported no
MCL, treatment technique, or significant moniD
to ring and reporting violations. However, 16% of
the systems had significant monitoring and
reporting violations for the Total Coliform Rule
and 8% for the Nitrate Rule. The percent of
systems that violated the MCL for Total Coliform
and nitrate were 4% and 0.3%, respectively.

For both non-transient non-community and
transient non-community water systems, there
was a relatively high proportion of systems
reporting significant monitoring and reporting
requirements of the Total Coliform Rule and a
relatively low proportion of MCL violations of the
rule. It is possible that if the compliance rate for


There are very few PWSs currently operating
under a variance or exemption. The SDWIS/
FED database did not show any variance or
exemption violations for 1996.


QUALITY OF DATA
The compliance numbers presented in this
report were taken from the national SDWIS/
FED database. States are required to submit
data to SDWIS/ FED quarterly. EPA assesses
progress in the implementation of regulations,
develops its national enforcement and complin
ance priorities and strategies, and provides
information to the public based, in part, on
analysis of the data in SDWIS/FED.

Most States, on the other hand, develop a data-
base system that tracks more information than
that contained in SDWIS/FED. State data sysD
terns often track monitoring results, compliance
assistance activities, and enforcement actions.
Most States used their own data system in
developing their State compliance reports.

Because the SDWIS/FED database relies on data
provided by the States, one may expect that
these numbers should be comparable to those in
the States' own data systems. Unfortunately, this
is not the case with many States. As with any
large, complex database network, especially one
like SDWIS/FED that is under development,
there are numerous difficulties in uploading data
and correcting identified problems.

Comparison of State and SDWIS/FED data
revealed both over and under-reporting by
States into SDWIS/FED across all rules, with
State data showing 19% more violations than
SDWIS/FED on a national basis. State chemical
MCL and monitoring and reporting violations
were virtually identical to information in
SDWIS/FED. The rule with the greatest discrepD
ancy rate was the Lead and Copper Rule.
SDWIS/FED contained almost three times as
many Lead and Copper monitoring and report D
ing violations as the State reports. Most of this
discrepancy, however, can be attributed to six
22   September 1998
    1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                     Section 2
States. SDWIS/FED data for Lead and Copper
treatment technique violations is less than half
of what States reported for these violations.

EPA periodically conducts data verifications
(independent, on-site audits of State records)
of State programs to ensure that the State is
determining compliance in accordance with
Federal regulations and to detect differences
between data in the State database and
SDWIS/FED. Data verifications1 show larger
discrepancies by States in reporting on non-
community water systems than for other
types, particularly in the area of significant
monitoring violations.

There are many reasons for these data disD
crepancies, including:

    SDWIS/FED is a complex database.
     Data entry procedures in SDWIS/FED
     are cumbersome and data retrieval is not
     user friendly.
    States use different data systems and
     designs.
    Data management and analysis of
     SDWIS/FED data is generally a lower
     priority  for some States and Regional
     Offices.  This lack of emphasis frequently
     leads to insufficient training, poor coorD
     dination among program  and data
     managers, and situations where the
     responsibility for management of data
     systems does not lie with the people who
     use and need the data.

EPA is working with the States to improve the
reporting  system and reduce data discrepanD
cies, to the maximum extent possible. Some
of the activities underway are:

    EPA, in  cooperation with  the States, is
     developing a State data system known as
     SDWIS/STATE. It is intended to improve
     data quality and data transfers between
     States and EPA. Nine States and two EPA
     regions currently have SDWIS/STATE installed.
    EPA is:
     -D Improving data entry by updating and
       streamlining documentation and training
       materials.
     - D Preparing Quality Assurance manuals for
       use by States and Regions.
     -Dlnvestigating mechanisms for making data
       retrieval more user friendly. EPA is also
       using the database to track progress
       toward meeting performance measures and
       making SDWIS/FED information publicly
       available through the internet site,
       Envirofacts. As the database is used more,
       and becomes easier to use, States will have
       a greater incentive to improve  the quality of
       data in it.
     -DConducting data verifications in many
       States each year. One of the components of
       these verifications is to identify
       discrepancies between the State system
       and SDWIS/FED.


PART IY -               AND            OF
                 	
EPA has received 1996 Annual  State Public Water
System Reports from 51 primacy States, Common-
wealths,  and Territories. As the primary enforceD
ment agency, EPA prepared reports for the District
of Columbia and Wyoming, and provided data on
Indian Tribes, which do not have primary enforceD
ment responsibility for the drinking water program.

The evaluation of these annual  reports is organ
nized into three subsections:

   [State enforcement and compliance assistance
     programs.
    Information on the State reports.
    State-by-State summaries.
'Data verifications were conducted for the following States from 1995 to 1997: Arkansas, Colorado, Connecti-
cut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine,  Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont,
Virgin Islands, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wyoming.
I 996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                                September 1998  23

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  Section 2


States engage in a variety of activities, including
formal enforcement actions, informal actions,
and compliance and technical assistance to help
PWSs remain in, and return to, compliance.
Additionally, all States have operator certificaD
tion programs that require many PWS  operators
to be licensed by the appropriate authorities.
State efforts may include:

    [Conducting on- site visits and sanitary
     surveys at PWSs (i.e., an on-site review of
     the water sources, facilities, equipment,
     operations, and maintenance of a PWS to
     evaluate the adequacy of these elements for
     producing and distributing safe drinking
    water) .
    Helping systems invest in preventive meaD
     sures.
    [Providing financial assistance for  system
     improvements through the Drinking Water
     State Revolving Fund.
    [Reviewing water system plans and specifiD
     cations.
    Conducting training sessions.
    Holding public information meetings.
    Loaning specialized monitoring equipment.
    [Publishing informational bulletins and
    newsletters on training events, etc.

Unless there is an immediate health risk, formal
enforcement actions may be initiated several
months after the violation is detected and
reported. The reason for this delay is that, when
appropriate, States commonly undertake a
variety of informal actions and compliance
assistance measures to try to get PWSs back
into compliance as quickly as possible. Informal
actions may include the following activities:

    [Compliance reminder letters or notices of
    violations.
    Field visits.
    Telephone calls.

Formal enforcement actions may include the
following activities:
   Bilateral compliance agreements.
   Citations.
   Administrative orders.
   Criminal complaints with penalties.
   [Civil referrals to State Attorneys General or
    to the Department of Justice.
    Emergency orders.
   Criminal cases.
   Fines or administrative penalties.
   [Other sanctions such as denying permisD
    sion for system expansion.

Information on State enforcement activities for
Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 can be found in EPA's FY
1996 State by State Enforcement Data SummaO
ries (August 1997) available on the internet
(http: / /es.epa.gov/index.html).

In conclusion, States undertake a variety of
formal and informal activities to return violating
systems to compliance  and to ensure that the
public has safe drinking water. While EPA did
not analyze compliance assistance and enforce D
ment data in this report, it may do so in future
reports. EPA encourages States to include this
information in future reports to provide a more
complete picture of PWS compliance.


              on

EPA reviewed each State report to determine
whether  it met the requirements of the 1996
Amendments to the SDWA. The contents of the
State reports are  summarized in Table 3. The
table indicates whether a report was submitted
to EPA, whether all required elements of the
report were included, and whether the State
included a list of PWSs with MCL violations or
treatment technique violations. The chart also
includes a column indicating if information was
provided on the public availability and distribuD
tion of State reports. Publication and distribuD
tion of summaries of the report and indication of
where the full report is available for public
review is a statutory requirement of the 1996
SDWA Amendments. This summary chart also
indicates whether any  additional information
was included in the report that would be of
interest to the public.
24   September 1998
    1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                            Table 3: Summary of Elements Reported by States
                                                                                                Section 2
State
Alabama
Alaska
American Samoa
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
DC
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
Submitted
Report
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Reported On
Violations
Categories
MCL
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
M/R
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
TT
X
X
Reported
on
V/E*
X


X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X

X
X
X

X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
Report
Identified Each
System with
MCL and TT
Violations
X
X


X
X
X
X
X
X

X

X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X

X
X
Provided
Information
to Public on
Availability
X
X


X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Report
Provided
Additional
Information
X
X


X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X

X
X
X
X
X
I 996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
September 1998  25

-------
  Section 2
                    Table 3 (Continued): Summary of Elements Reported by States
State
Mew Hampshire
New Jersey
Mew Mexico
Mew York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Northern Mariana
Islands
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virgin Islands
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Submitted
Report
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Reported On
Violations
Categories
MCL
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
M/R
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
TT
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Reported
on
V/E*

X
X
X

X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X

X
X
Report Identified
Each System with
MCL/TT
Violations

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X

X
X

X
X
X
X


X
Provided
Information
to Public on
Availability
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Report
Provided
Additional
Information
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X

MCL - Maximum Contaminant Level, M/R - Significant Monitoring and Reporting, TT - Treatment Technique,
V/E - Variance and Exemption.
*This designation indicates that the  State addressed the use of variances and exemptions in the State Report.
It does not indicate that any violations were necessarily reported or that variances or exemptions were
issued.
      BY
EPA has developed a State-by-State summary of
information reported in each State report which
is located in Appendix B. A standardized format
was used that includes an overall summary of
the violations data specified in Section 1414 of
the 1996 SDWA Amendments (i.e., violations
with respect to MCLs, treatment technique
violations, significant monitoring and reporting
violations, and variances and exemptions).
Information on how and where to obtain a copy
of each State report has been included on the
respective summary chart.
26  September 1998
    1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                    Section 2
EPA has not interpreted the data in Appendix B
and does not pass judgement on whether the
States have fully reported all violations. Readers
should interpret the violation data provided in
the State summaries in the context of each
specific State and its individual drinking water
program. Although PWSs are required to report
all violations to the State, States vary in the
areas emphasized by their program. Thus, a
large number of violations under a certain rule
(e.g., the Lead and Copper Rule), may only
indicate that a State devoted more attention and
resources to that rule than other rules and, as
such, the data reported are more complete.

A list of all PWSs having either MCL or treat-
ment technique violations in 1996 has also been
developed for many States and provided by
States to EPA. Copies of these lists will be
available from EPA's Safe Drinking Water
Hotline at (800) 426-4791.


PARTY-CONCLUSIONS AND
                      	
The nation's drinking water is generally safe. In
1996, the vast majority of people in the nation
received water from systems that had no re-
ported violations of MCL and treatment tech-
nique requirements or significant monitoring
and reporting requirements. Significant chal-
lenges, however, remain to improve compliance
with the SDWA Amendments of 1996.

Compliance data in many individual State
databases differs from that reported to the
Federal database. Still, when viewed in the
aggregate, the data presents an overall national
compliance picture of PWSs.

States and EPA should work together to address
the most significant findings identified in this
report:

States and EPA should work together to
address violations of significant monitoring
and reporting requirements.

    For large community water systems,
    actions should address all rules. Failure by
    these systems to monitor can mask public
    health problems that affect many people
     and, as a result, formal enforcement should
     be an integral part of any action taken.
    For small and medium community water
     systems, actions should focus primarily on
     the Lead and Copper Rule, Total Coliform
     Rule and the Nitrate Rule. This strategy
     should include compliance assistance and
     enforcement, where appropriate. The
     strategy should also focus on the Surface
     Water Treatment Rule  because violations
     indicate an increased risk from microbio-
     logical contamination.


States and EPA should work together to
address violations of MCL and treatment
technique requirements.

    For large community water systems,
     actions should address all rules, with an
     emphasis on the Total  Coliform Rule,
     Surface Water Treatment Rule and the
     Lead and Copper Rule. Formal enforcement
     is especially appropriate for large water
     systems, particularly those failing to install
     or upgrade filtration treatment as required
     by the Surface Water Treatment Rule, and
     for facilities with continuing or repeated
     violations.
    For small and medium size community
     water  systems, actions should focus on the
     Total Coliform Rule and Surface Water
     Treatment Rule. All available tools should
     be considered when responding to viola-
     tions,  in order to address the particular
     capacity development needs of these sys-
     tems. Technical assistance should be made
     available to ensure that systems can return
     to, and remain in, compliance. While
     compliance assistance is often adequate to
     ensure long-term compliance, when a
     system does not respond to assistance,
     formal enforcement should be used.


States and EPA should work together to
address violations at non-community water
systems.

    States and EPA should identify the reasons
     for significant monitoring and reporting
     violations at non-community systems and
     take appropriate action. In particular,
I 996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  27

-------
 Section 2
     attention should focus on the Total
     Coliform, Lead and Copper, and Nitrate
     Rules for non-transient non-community
     water systems; and Total Coliform and
     Nitrate Rules for transient non-community
     water systems.
    Most non-transient and transient non-
     community water systems are small and
     face problems that are unique to small
     systems. EPA and States should take an
     approach that addresses the special needs of
     these systems, including compliance assis-
     tance and enforcement, where appropriate.

EPA and States should work cooperatively to
improve the quality of compliance data.

    Further define the issue: EPA should
     work closely with States and utilities to
     define the data quality issue in detail. EPA
     will hold several stakeholder meetings
     across the country, and convene a special
     focus group to make recommendations.
     This group will work with ongoing groups
     and efforts such as the Association of State
     Drinking Water Administrators/EPA Data
     Management Steering Committee, the
     Office of Enforcement and Compliance
     Assurance (OECA) enforcement systems
     reengineering efforts, and the National
     Drinking Water Advisory Council  Right-to-
     Know workgroup.
    Ensure seamless data transfer to the
     Federal data system:  EPA will increase
     efforts to make it easier to use drinking
     water information systems, and processes
     to transfer data to them electronically. For
     the national-level SDWIS/FED, EPA will
     simplify both data entry and retrieval, and
     public access. For States and Tribes, EPA
     will accelerate development of the core
     modules of SDWIS/STATE, and increase
electronic data transfer for those States
that will continue to use their own data
systems.
 Improve SDWIS data quality: EPA and
States need to work together to improve the
quality of data in SDWIS and in individual
State systems.  In this effort, EPA and
States can jointly develop quality manage-
ment plans for SDWIS data. We can also
take steps to improve the  quality of data
monitoring and reporting  at all levels -
utility, laboratory, State, EPA Regions, and
EPA Headquarters. These steps will include
more frequent verification of data at all
steps of the process, vigorous follow-up of
findings from the verification efforts, and
increased training in and accountability for
system use and data quality activities.
 Include compliance data in the effort to
integrate drinking water information:
EPA is working to provide to managers and
the public a comprehensive picture of
drinking water quality, including both
compliance and source water quality
information. This effort will integrate
drinking water source information from
the developing National Contaminant
Occurrence Data Base (which will access
multiple data bases of EPA, the U.S.
Geological Survey,  and others on ambient
water quality) as well as water quality in
public water systems. As  more reliable
SDWIS data is generated  in the future,
EPA will incorporate that data into this
comprehensive effort to portray drinking
water quality.
28   September 1998
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                           Section 3 - Tribal Compliance Report

                                   Part I - Introduction

Purpose
The purpose of this section of the 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance
Report1 is to provide information on the compliance status of public water systems (PWSs) on
Indian reservations.

Workgroup and Stakeholder Process
In order to develop this section of the report, EPA established a workgroup consisting primarily
of EPA Regional Office staff who work most directly with PWSs on Indian reservations and
shared the report with Tribal representatives and water system operators. EPA also contacted
the Indian Health Service and Bureau of Indian Affairs.

EPA held a series of teleconference calls with stakeholders and one face-to-face meeting to
collect comments from stakeholders.  Stakeholders included representatives of Indian Tribes,
professional environmental organizations, and members of the Native American Water
Association. Tribal water systems operators, as well as officials of Tribal governments, were
represented. EPA  solicited comments on drafts of this section of the report from approximately
400 Tribal representatives that included Tribal Leaders, Tribal Environmental Officers, and Tribal
water utility managers and operators.

Role of Other Federal Agencies
EPA works with other Federal agencies in helping implement the drinking water program at
PWSs on Tribal lands.  The  mission of the Indian Health Service (MS) is to provide a
comprehensive health services delivery system for American Indians and Alaska Natives along
with the opportunity for maximum Tribal  involvement in developing and managing programs to
meet health needs.  The IHS  maintains a sanitation facilities construction program and has
implemented Sanitation Deficiency System procedures to identify, and report annually to
Congress, the sanitation deficiencies of all American Indian and Alaska Native Homes and
communities.
       'Under Section 1414(c)(3)(B) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), as amended in 1996, EPA
is required to prepare an annual report which analyzes PWS violations, enforcement activities, and
financial assistance to PWSs located on Indian reservations. The report must also summarize notices
submitted by PWSs serving Indian Tribes pursuant to subparagraph (C) or (D) of paragraph (2) and make
recommendations concerning resources needed to improve compliance. However, because regulations
implementing the public notice provisions of subparagraph (C) or (D) of paragraph (2) were not yet
effective during calendar year 1996, they are not included in this report.

                                       Section 3-1

-------
The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is the primary Federal agency fulfilling the United States'
trust responsibilities to Tribes and Native Villages.  The BIA works with Tribal managers in
protecting and managing trust resources.  As the Bureau of Indian Affairs expands its expertise in
environmental management, it will work with Tribes, Native Villages, and other Federal agencies,
such as EPA and the Indian Health Service, to ensure that PWSs in Indian country are in
compliance.
                          Part II - PWSs on Indian Reservations

Tribes are eligible to receive primary enforcement responsibility (primacy) to administer their
drinking water program. However, because no Tribe has received primacy to date, EPA
implements the drinking water program on all Indian lands (Figure 7).

              Figure 7. Location of American Indian Tribal Lands
                                       Section 3 - 2

-------
During calendar year 1996, there were 732 community water systems, 75 non-transient non-
community water systems, and 113 transient non-community water located on Indian lands.
These 920 PWSs served a population of approximately 500,000. Most of these systems are small
and serve fewer than 500 people.  According to EPA's data, there were no PWSs on Indian lands
in 1996 that served more than 100,000 people, and only two served populations of more than
10,000.
Part III - Compliance Data and Analysis

EPA used a variety of approaches to assess compliance of PWSs located on Indian reservations.
The national drinking water database (SDWIS/FED) was the primary source of information for
this report.  The EPA Regional Offices are responsible for keeping information in SDWIS/FED
current.

In developing this report, EPA found that inventory and violations data for 1996 were not fully
reported in SDWIS/FED.  The quality and amount of these data vary from Regional Office to
Regional Office within EPA.  Traditionally data quality has been a priority secondary to program
impementation for many Regions. Due to competing resources, personnel concentrate on
correcting sanitary deficiencies rather than collecting data and arranging for data to be reported
on a long-term basis.  EPA Headquarters is working to improve its Tribal compliance data, for
example, by offering SDWIS/FED training to Regional  program office personnel on a more
frequent basis, by developing a Quality Assurance manual to help ensure better data entry and by
promoting streamlined documentation.

This section on Tribal compliance does not include compliance figures for Alaska Native Villages
because the State of Alaska included them within the State report.  EPA likewise included them
within Section 2 of this report. However, the discussion on financial assistance and conclusions
and recommendations within this section are applicable to Alaska Native water systems.

Compliance Analysis
For 1996, 410 of the 920 PWSs on Indian reservations recorded violations.  More than 97%
percent of these violations were significant monitoring and reporting violations.  Monitoring
requirements for the Total Coliform, chemical monitoring and the Lead and Copper Rules were
most frequently violated (Figure 8).  There were few violations of the MCL and treatment
technique requirements, with roughly 90% of all systems reporting no violations. It is important
to note, however, that the high number of monitoring and reporting violations could mean other
MCL and treatment technique violations were undetected.
                                      Section 3-3

-------
           Figure 8.  Number of PWSs on Tribal Lands with violations by rule.
Enforcement and Compliance Activities
EPA can take formal and informal enforcement actions against PWSs.  There are several types of
formal enforcement actions which can be taken against PWSs, including: administrative and
emergency orders, bilateral compliance agreements, civil referrals to the Department of Justice
and criminal cases.  In 1996, there were no formal enforcement actions taken against PWSs on
Indian reservations. EPA does not generally pursue formal enforcement actions against PWSs on
Indian reservations which have not performed all their required monitoring and reporting. This is
consistent with the National EPA Indian Policy which stresses working cooperatively with Tribes.
Although there may be situations where formal enforcement is appropriate (e.g., against non-
tribally owned PWSs), in most cases, compliance assistance is generally used, rather than formal
enforcement.

Informal enforcement or compliance assistance includes:

      Making telephone calls to discuss potential or actual violations.
      Sending compliance reminder letters or pre-warning violation letters.
      Meetings with Tribal Leaders, utility managers, or PWS operators.
      Conducting on-site visits.
      Issuing notices of violation (while this action is normally a formal enforcement action,
       EPA has created  a subset of notices of violation that function as informal enforcement
       responses for Indian Tribes).
                                       Section 3 - 4

-------
Table 4 depicts the numbers of informal enforcement actions in relation to the total number of
PWSs on Indian reservations.  The largest numbers of informal enforcement actions are Federal
Violation or Reminder Notices. For calendar year 1996, EPA issued 1,558  Federal Violation or
Reminder Notices.
      Table 4. Number of Violations and Numbers of Informal Enforcement Actions
/1 996 PWSs and Violations
Total Number of PWSs
Total Number of Violations Issued
Total Number of PWSs with Violations
Enforcement Actions in Response to Violations
* . i . j>
Federal Notice of Violation issued by EPA Regional
Offices. This is usually a formal action, however,
some Regions use it as an informal action with Tribes.
Federal Violation or Reminder Notice issued by the
EPA Regional Offices.
Federal Public Notification requested by EPA
Regional Offices to be sent to consumers of a PWS
regarding violations and health risk.
Federal public notification to consumers of a PWS
regarding violations and health risk issued by EPA
Regional Offices.
Number
920
8,677
410
Number Issued
3
1,558
209
67
                      Source: Safe Drinking Water Information System
Compliance Assistance
EPA has developed a number of approaches for working toward assuring compliance of PWSs on
Indian reservations.  This subsection discusses compliance assistance using examples since
compliance assistance actions are not generally represented in the SDWIS/FED database.
Technical assistance is an important part of compliance assistance. Technical assistance can
include circuit rider programs that make expert operators  available to several water systems and
provide information through site visits, mailings and hotlines.

Region 5, for example, oversees Federally recognized Tribes in Michigan, Minnesota, and
                                      Section 3-5

-------
Wisconsin, and provides technical assistance to Indian Tribes through a circuit rider program.
Recently, the Region has conducted six workshops and created four newsletters specific to Tribal
interests. Region 5 staff also issued notices of non-compliance (similar to a notice of violation)
and provided telephone follow-up.

Region 8 implements the program on Indian reservations in six states: Utah, Colorado, Wyoming,
Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.  Various methods of technical and compliance
assistance are offered to Tribes, including circuit riders, and training arranged through EPA, the
Indian Health Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Rural Water Association, and the Rural
Community Assistance Program.  In addition, Region 8 staff routinely provide Tribal PWS
operators with information on updated monitoring and reporting requirements, such as a yearly
monitoring requirement letter customized for PWSs located within each reservation in the Region.
Technical assistance is an integral part of the enforcement/compliance assistance process, which
follows the Regional and National Indian Policy.

Region 9's program works toward compliance with drinking water regulations through its field
presence, technical assistance to Tribes, and cooperative working relationships within EPA, and
with other agencies such as the Indian Health Service. The Region, which has the national lead
for the program on all Navajo lands, made about 100 on-site inspections of facilities during 1996.

Infrastructure Needs
The EPA Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey, First Report to Congress (published in
January 1997), addresses the needs for capital improvements of PWSs in  the nation and for Indian
Tribes.  The Needs Survey discusses the needs associated with treatment, transmission,
distribution, storage, compliance with the SOW A, and the needs of small PWSs.

The EPA Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey reports the following for tribal needs:
      $560 million is needed for infrastructure improvements at water systems on Indian
       reservations.
      Average 20-year need on  a per-household basis for water systems on Indian reservations is
       much greater than that for non-Tribal households served by small  systems.  The estimated
       20-year per household need, in 1995 dollars, is $6,200, which compares with $3,300 per
       household for other small systems around the country.
      EPA determined that these needs  are higher for a number of reasons:
           Since they are often remote, improvements at systems on Indian reservations can be
           expensive.
           Systems on Indian reservations are often located in arid regions, making water sources
           hard to find.  Where sources do exist, they are often of poor quality and are expensive
           to treat.

          As with all small communities, American Indian communities  lack economies of scale.
      This high cost of infrastructure is  a heavy burden because many American Indian people

                                       Section 3-6

-------
       live through traditional subsistence farming, hunting, and fishing and do not generate
       significant cash income.

Additional Small System Needs
Many small PWSs need to enhance their technical, financial, and managerial capabilities in order
to ensure consistent compliance with SDWA requirements. Often, noncompliance can be traced
back to weaknesses in one or more of these three elements of capacity.  Capacity development is
especially important and problematic for PWSs on Indian reservations.

Protection of public health and compliance with drinking water requirements is also directly
related to operation and maintenance. PWSs on Indian reservations, like many small PWSs, face
the challenge of addressing the considerable costs associated with properly operating and
maintaining a PWS. Many PWSs on Indian reservations lack a viable utility organization which
can accurately project and establish an appropriate rate structure to cover operation and
maintenance costs.  Once these costs are translated into user fees, the PWS must face the task of
billing and collecting fees from customers which is a challenge when the cost per household may
be beyond the means of some households being served.  Additionally, the costs of compliance
monitoring are not always factored into the operating budget. Failure to set aside adequate funds
for performing the required contaminant monitoring is likely to result in monitoring violations.

Financial Assistance
EPA provides financial assistance to PWSs on Indian reservations in several ways.  One approach
is to build Tribal capacity.  Capacity building entails providing Tribes with grants, training,  and
program technical assistance as they develop their own environmental programs.  A significant
source for building capability is through grants provided under the General Assistance Program.
Under a second approach, EPA's Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water provides funding
for specific program priorities. Historically, 3% of the appropriation for State implementation of
the Public Water System Supervision program is used for implementation of the program on
Tribal Lands. The funds are used by EPA to operate its Tribal Public Water System Supervision
program. About $2.3 million was used for implementing the Public Water System Supervision
program on Tribal  lands in Fiscal Year 1996. Additionally, a number of grants have been awarded
to Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations to address various aspects of the drinking water
program.

In Fiscal Year 1998, EPA received $3.8 million, in addition to the 3% set-aside, to be used for
activities such as:
      Public Water System Supervision Program Primacy Workshops - EPA is planning to
       provide general outreach material to all Tribes eligible to pursue primary enforcement
       responsibility.
      Capacity Development - EPA is providing funds for Tribal capacity development projects.
       Source Water Protection - EPA is providing funds for Tribal source water protection
       projects.

                                       Section 3-7

-------
       Operator Certification - EPA is developing a voluntary Operator Certification Program for
       Tribes and will use funds to provide operator training and certification to Tribal operators.

Examples of additional support provided by Regional Offices include circuit rider programs to
help Tribes develop self-supportive PWSs on Indian reservations, conducting laboratory analyses
of samples required for monitoring, and awarding grants to address operator training and
wellhead protection.

In the 1996 Amendments to the SDWA, an infrastructure funding program was established to
improve water supplies.  Each year, 1.5 percent of the year's appropriation for the national
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund program will be set aside as grants to improve
infrastructure for water systems on Indian reservations and in Alaska Native Villages.  The initial
set-aside from the 1997 appropriation amounted to $19.25 million, and an additional $10.87
million was set-aside from the 1998 appropriation. The Amendments also authorized grants to
the State of Alaska for the benefit of rural  and Native villages. Although the authorized $15
million annual grant, for fiscal years 1997 through 2000, targets construction needs, a portion of
the funds can be used to  support technical assistance.

Additional technical assistance for small PWSs is also provided under Section 1442(e) of the
SDWA, which states that a portion of the funding appropriated under the section shall be used to
provide technical assistance to small PWSs owned or operated by Indian Tribes. For example,
EPA currently has two cooperative agreements funded under Section 1442(e) of the SDWA with
the National Rural Water Association and  the Rural Community Assistance Program to provide
support to PWSs.

                       Part IV - Conclusions and Recommendations

Approximately 90% of the PWSs located on Indian lands reported no violations of MCL and
treatment technique requirements.  More than 97% of the violations reported by systems on
Indian lands were for failure to meet monitoring and reporting requirements. It is important to
note that while MCL and other treatment technique violations were low, the high number of
monitoring and reporting violations could indicate that MCL and treatment technique violations
are not being detected. In developing this report, EPA found that 1996  violations data for PWSs
on Indian reservations were not fully reported by the Regions to SDWIS/FED.
       EPA should take action to improve compliance of PWSs on Indian reservations.

          EPA should work cooperatively with water systems on Indian reservations to improve
          compliance with monitoring and reporting requirements, particularly for Total
          Coliform Rule and chemical contaminant requirements. This can be accomplished

                                       Section 3-8

-------
through compliance assistance such as increasing EPA's field presence, conducting
more frequent sanitary surveys, and providing technical assistance and enforcement, as
appropriate.
EPA should improve its collection and maintenance of compliance data for PWSs on
Indian reservations.
                             Section 3 - 9

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                                                                                  Appendix A
Acute Contaminants
Short-term exposure to acute contaminants,
such as bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and nitrate,
may result in immediate illness and, in some
cases, death.

Administrative Order
Administrative orders are written documents,
considered to be formal enforcement actions,
which are issued by EPA or the States to ad-
dress the noncompliance of a public water
system, usually by means of a schedule with
enforceable milestone  dates.

Bilateral Compliance Agreements
Bilateral compliance agreements are written
documents, considered to be formal enforce-
ment actions signed by the water system and
EPA or the State. They contain a compliance
schedule with enforceable  milestone dates.

Chronic Contaminants
Exposure to chronic contaminants, such as
organic chemicals (volatile and synthetic),
inorganic chemicals (e.g., metals, lead and
copper) and radionuclides,  may result in severe
health effects that can recur frequently or
develop slowly as a result of long-term exposure.

Coliform Bacteria
Microorganisms  found in nature, in any decay-
ing substance and also in the intestinal tract of
humans and animals.   Their presence in  water
can indicate a lapse in treatment and potential
contamination by pathogens.

Community Water System
A community water system (CWS) is a public
water system that serves at least 15 service
connections used by year-round residents  or
regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents
(e.g., homes, apartments and condominiums
that are occupied year-round as primary resi-
dences).

Cryptosporidium
Cryptosporidium is a protozoa that causes the
gastrointestinal disease cryptosporidiosis.  The
most serious, and sometimes deadly, conse-
quences of cryptosporidiosis tend to be focused
among members of the population with compro-
mised immune systems.

Disinfection
Disinfection is a type  of drinking water treat-
ment, where microbiological contamination  is
inactivated by using chlorine, chloramines, and
chlorine dioxide or ozone.

Inorganic Chemicals
These are non-carbon based, mostly naturally-
occurring compounds, such as metals, nitrates,
and asbestos.  EPA has established MCLs for 15
inorganic contaminants.

Lead and Copper Rule
Compliance with the Lead and Copper Rule
indicates that a public water system has taken
steps to minimize the risk of exposure to lead
and copper from drinking water by monitoring
for these contaminants  and installing corrosion
control where required.
Maximum Contaminant Level
A maximum contaminant level (MCL) is the
maximum permissible level of a contaminant in
water delivered to any user of a public water
system.

Monitoring and Reporting
EPA established monitoring and reporting
schedules, or contaminant-specific minimum
testing schedules and operational reporting
requirements, for public water systems.

Nitrate and Nitrite
Nitrate and nitrite are inorganic compounds
that can enter water supplies from fertilizer
runoff and sanitary wastewater discharges.
Nitrates in drinking water are associated with
methemoglobinemia, or blue baby syndrome,
where nitrate reduces the blood's ability to
carry oxygen.

Non-transient Non-community Water System
A non-transient non-community water system
(NTNCWS) is a public water system that serves
at least 25 of the same persons for over six
months per year. A typical example of a non-
transient non-community water system is a
school or an office building that has its own
water source, such as a drinking water well.

Notice of Violation
A notice of violation (NOV) is a written docu-
ment, usually considered to be a formal enforce-
ment action, issued by EPA or the States re-
garding a public water system's violations of
applicable drinking water standards or schedule
requirements. The notice of violation specifi-
cally describes the violations and seeks a return
to compliance.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  A-l

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 Appendix A
Pathogens
These are microorganisms (e.g., bacteria,
viruses, or parasites) that can cause disease in
humans and animals.

Public Water System
A public water system (PWS) is a system that
provides piped water for human consumption
and serves at least 25 persons or has at least 15
service connections.  A public water system can
be either a community water system, a non-
transient non-community water system, or a
transient non-community water system.

Radionuclides
Radioactive particles, such as radium-226,
radium-228, gross alpha, and beta particle/
photon radioactivity, can occur naturally in
water or may result from human activity.  EPA
has established MCLs for beta/photon emitters,
alpha emitters, and combined radium 226/228.

Regional Offices
Regional Offices are responsible  for Environ-
mental Protection Agency Regional programs
within their respective jurisdictions. Regional
Offices cooperate with Federal, State, interstate,
and local agencies, as well as with industry,
academic institutions, and other private groups
to ensure that Regional needs are addressed
and that Federal environmental  laws are up-
held.

Surface Water Treatment Rule
Compliance with the Surface Water Treatment
Rule (SWTR) indicates that a public water
system has taken steps to reduce exposure to
microbiological contamination through filtra-
tion and disinfection or disinfection and water-
shed control.

Total Coliform Rule
The Total Coliform Rule establishes limits on
coliform  bacteria in water distribution systems.
Although coliform bacteria usually are not
pathogenic, they may indicate the presence of
pathogens.

Transient Non-Community Water System
A transient non-community water system
means a non-community water system that does
not regularly serve at least 25 of the same
persons over six months per year.
Treatment Technique
These are treatment methods required by EPA
to minimize the level of a contaminant in
drinking water.  In cases where EPA has deter-
mined it is not technically or economically
feasible to establish an MCL, EPA can instead
specify a  treatment technique.
A-2  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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CONTENTS
Alabama	B-3
Alaska	B-4
American Samoa	B-5
Arizona	B-6
Arkansas	B-7
California	B-8
Colorado	B-9
Connecticut	B-10
Delaware	B-ll
District of Columbia	B-12
Florida 	B-13
Georgia 	B-14
Guam	B-15
Hawaii	B-16
Idaho	B-17
Illinois	B-18
Indiana 	B-19
Iowa	B-20
Kansas	B-21
Kentucky	B-22
Louisiana	B-23
Maine	B-24
Maryland	B-25
Massachusetts 	B-26
Michigan	B-27
Minnesota	B-28
Mississippi	B-29
Missouri	B-30
Montana	B-31
Nebraska	B-32
Nevada	B-33
New Hampshire	B-34
New Jersey	B-35
New Mexico	B-36
New York	B-37
North Carolina 	B-38
North Dakota 	B-39
Northern Mariana Islands 	B-40
Ohio	B-41
Oklahoma 	B-42
Oregon	B-43
Pennsylvania	B-44
Puerto Rico	B-45
Rhode Island	B-46
South Carolina	B-47
South Dakota	B-48
Tennessee 	B-49
Texas 	B-50
Utah	B-51
Vermont	B-52
Virgin Islands	B-53
Virginia	B-54
Washington	B-55
West Virginia	B-56
Wisconsin	B-57
Wyoming	B-58
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B-l

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  Appendix B
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) developed a summary of information for
each State report.  For example, see the sum-
mary for the Alabama report on page B-3.  A
standardized format was used that includes an
overall summary of the violations data specified
in Section  1414 of  the 1996 Safe Drinking
Water Act (SDWA) Amendments (i.e., violations
with respect to maximum contaminant levels
(MCLs), treatment  technique  violations, signifi-
cant monitoring  and reporting  requirements*,
and variance and exemptions).
The purpose of the State summaries is simply
to summarize the data provided in the State
reports.  EPA has not interpreted the data in
this section and does not pass judgement on
whether the States  have fully  reported all viola-
tions. EPA's evaluation of the State reports and
compliance and data issues is discussed as part
of the findings and recommendations in
Section 2.
VIOLATIONS  FOR 1996	
MCL, treatment technique, and significant
monitoring violations data were summarized
into four categories:
 Violations of specific contaminant require-
  ments."
 Violations for the Total Coliform Rule.
 Violations of the Surface Water Treatment
  Rule.
 Violations for the Lead and Copper Rule.
Where data for violations or systems in violation
totals are not available from the State reports,
data from the Federal version of the Safe Drink-
ing Water Information System (SDWIS/FED)
have been included.
The numbers of violations and the numbers of
individual PWSs in violation for the State were
summarized for these four categories for MCL,
treatment technique, and significant monitoring
requirements violations.

              	
The total number of systems, the total number
of violations reported, and the total number of
PWSs in violation in 1996 are also given.

             AND               	
Data on variance and exemption violations were
generally not reported as very few of the States
had variances or exemptions in force  in 1996.
Information on variance and exemption viola-
tions is summarized separately.

             	
Any additional information that is provided in
the State report is summarized.

        TO         1996
                            	
Available information is provided on obtaining a
copy of the State or Territorial report.
*For this report, "significant" monitoring and reporting violations occur when a public water system (PWS)
collects none of the samples or submits none of the reports required by a particular regulatory provision, or
collects less than 10% of the samples or submits less than 10% of the reports required by the Surface Water
Treatment Rule. A comprehensive definition of significant monitoring and reporting violations, including
exceptions to the definition for the Total Coliform Rule and Lead and Copper Rule is included in the report
glossary in Appendix A.

"MCL and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and
nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.
B 2   September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                     Appendix B
                  of Alabama 1996 Annual       Public
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
10
37


Systems in
Violation
5
35


Treatment Technique
Violations


14
0
Systems in
Violation


2
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
384
70
0
20
Systems in
Violation
64*
49
0
20
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of organics (22), inorganics (37), and radionuclides (5) subtotals.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
762
175*
535
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996            AND
Alabama does not grant variances or exemptions
to PWSs.
DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided
in Alabama's report.  Alabama's Water Supply
Branch conducts annual inspections of all PWSs
in the State. Water supply, storage, and distri-
bution deficiencies or inadequacies are identi-
fied and discussed.  During the 1996 calendar
year,  Alabama reported that 79% of its PWSs
were in compliance with drinking water regula-
tions.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Alabama. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Alabama
has fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Alabama's State Report, including information
about Alabama Public Water System Violations,
is available by accessing the State's Web site at
http://www.adem.state.al.us/viorep96.html or
contacting the  State at Water Supply Branch -
ADEM,  P.O. Box 301463, Montgomery, AL
36130,  phone (334) 271-7791.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                               September 1998 B 3

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 Appendix B
                  of        1996 Annual       Publ ic
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
4
45


Systems in
Violation
2
42


Treatment Technique
Violations


321
0
Systems in
Violation


90
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
2,730
1,611
800
362
Systems in
Violation
330
732
163
136
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1,635
1,495
5,873
1996            AND
No information was provided on variances or
exemptions for Alaska PWSs. SDWIS/FED did
not report any variance or exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory  information is provided
in Alaska's report. Alaska's 1996 Annual State
Public Water Systems Report has been included
as part of the 1997 State of Alaska Environment
Report.  This report summarizes the quality of
Alaska's drinking water as well as the signifi-
cant public health protection and enforcement
actions completed by the State from 1993-1997.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Alaska.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Alaska has
fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Alaska's State Report is available by accessing
the State's Web site at http://www.state.ak.us/
dec/deh/drwater/dwvio96.htm or by contacting
James Weise, Drinking Water/Waste Water
Program Manager, Department of Environmen-
tal Conservation, 555 Cordova Street, Anchor-
age, AK 99501, phone (907) 269-7647.
B 4  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                      Appendix B
               American         1996 Annual Public
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
Q
79


Systems in
Violation
Q
10


Treatment Technique
Violations


14
Q
Systems in
Violation


14
Q
Significant Monitoring
Violations
Q
47
Q
Q
Systems in
Violation
Q
15
Q
Q
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where data from American Samoa were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
21
19
140
1996            AND
SDWIS/FED did not report any variance or
exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
The American Samoa Report was not received,
therefore SDWIS/FED data were used.
        TO         1996 ANNUAL PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
A specific source for obtaining a copy of this
report has not been provided.  General informa-
tion on its availability may be obtained from:
American Samoa Environmental Protection
Agency, Office of the Governor, Pago Pago,  AS
96799, phone (684) 633-2304.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                               September 1998   B-5

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  Appendix B
                  of Arizona 1996 Annual        Public
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
212
211


Systems in
Violation
112
181


Treatment Technique
Violations


31
NotAvailable*
Systems in
Violation


10
NotAvailable*
Significant Monitoring
Violations
15,026
2,232
470
NotAvailable*
Systems in
Violation
275
972
62
NotAvailable*
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 * "Not Available" is given in the State report summary table.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.688
1,612*
18,182
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996            AND
No information was provided on variances or
exemptions for Arizona PWSs. SDWIS/FED did
not report any variance or exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
A summary table of State data for drinking
water violations during 1996 was provided and
is  summarized above. The Total Coliform Rule
MCL systems subtotal is greater than the num-
bers listed for each type of violation under the
Total Coliform Rule.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Arizona.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Arizona
has fully reported all violations.
        TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
A specific source for obtaining a copy of this
report has not been provided.  General informa-
tion on its availability may be obtained from:
Drinking Water Section, Arizona Department of
Environmental Quality, 3033 N. Central, Room
200, Phoenix, AZ 85012-2809, phone (602) 270-
4644.
B 6  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                     Appendix B
                 of Arkansas 1996 Annual        Public
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
13
81


Systems in
Violation
6*
70


Treatment Technique
Violations


70
0
Systems in
Violation


21
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
0
439
60
2
Systems in
Violation
0
285
41
2
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of organics (2), inorganics (2), and radionuclides (2) subtotals.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.151
423*
665
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996            AND
No variances or exemptions were issued to any
PWSs in Arkansas during the calendar year
1996.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided
in Arkansas' report. Microbiological MCL viola-
tions were mostly among small community and
non-community water systems. The systems
having these violations served only  1.78% of the
total population served by PWSs in Arkansas;
99.75% of the PWSs did not have an organic
MCL violation; 99.92% of the  PWSs did not have
a nitrate MCL violation; and 99.75% of the
PWSs did not exceed the radium-226/228 MCL.
There were no monitoring violations for chemi-
cals covered under Phases I, II,  IIB, and V since
the Arkansas Department of Health performs
monitoring of these chemicals on behalf of the
PWSs.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Arkansas.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Arkansas
has fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Arkansas' State Report is available by accessing
the State's Web site at http://
www.health.state.ar.us/eng/doe.htm or by
contacting Usman Patel at Arkansas Depart-
ment of Health, Division of Engineering, 4815
West Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205-2032,
phone (501) 661-2623,  fax (501) 661-2032, or
upatel@mail.doh.state.ar.us (electronic mail).
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                               September 1998  B-7

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  Appendix B
                 of Cal ifotnia 1996 Annual       Publ ic
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
25
340


Systems in
Violation
17*
288


Treatment Technique
Violations


78
0
Systems in
Violation


74
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
0
470
0
0
Systems in
Violation
0
327
0
0
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Data from the list of PWSs with violations.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
8,595
706*
913
 *Sum of State Systems in violation potentially contains
 double counting.

1996 VARIANCES AND
The California Department of Health Services
did not report the issuance of any variances or
exemptions into the SDWIS/FED database for
calendar year 1996. However, it is the intent of
the California Department of Health Services to
incorporate information regarding variances and
exemptions into subsequent annual reports.

DISCUSSION
A discussion of the significance of identified
violations was presented for the California
population; 99.9% received drinking water that
satisfied all of the primary drinking water
standards for organic contaminants; approxi-
mately 99.7% received drinking water that
satisfied all of the primary drinking water
standards for inorganic contaminants; and
approximately 97% of California's population
received drinking water that satisfied the pri-
mary drinking water standards for bacteriologi-
cal quality continuously throughout the year.
Only 1.5% of the State population was served by
PWSs that reported treatment technique viola-
tions of the Surface Water Treatment Rule.  In
response to the identified violations of the Safe
Drinking Water Act during 1996, the Depart-
ment issued 1,331 enforcement letters, 424
citations, and 41 compliance orders  to the
affected PWSs.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of California. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of California
has fully reported all violations

       TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
California's State Report is available by access-
ing the State's Web site at http://
www.dhs.ca.gov/org/ps/ddwem/
ddwemindex.htm or by contacting the State at
California Department of Health Services,
Division of Drinking Water and Environmental
Management, phone (916) 323-6 111.
B-8  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                   Appendix B
              of Colorado  1996 Annual        Public Water Systems  Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
26
85


Systems in
Violation
22
51


Treatment Technique
Violations


65
6
Systems in
Violation


35
6
Significant Monitoring
Violations
91
470
42
35
Systems in
Violation
79
336
17
29
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
2,182
575*
820
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No variances were granted to Colorado PWSs
during the 1996 calendar year. In Colorado
there are presently two exemptions for nitrate.
Both systems are on orders to provide public
notice and bottled water to the affected popula-
tion. One of the systems is in the process of
installing the necessary treatment, and the
other is evaluating the treatment options. There
were no variance or exemption violations re-
ported.

DISCUSSION
All failure to monitor violations for chemical
contaminants have been  corrected, except for
two which are in the Administrative Order phase
of enforcement.  Total Coliform Rule violations
resulted in system notification, increased moni-
toring, and enforcement action so that samples
were submitted to verify that the water contin-
ues to be safe.  Surface Water Treatment Rule
monitoring violations are followed up with
enforcement actions on a routine basis. All but
three of the 29 PWSs with Lead and Copper
monitoring violations have come into compli-
ance with monitoring requirements.  Two of
these are in the process of monitoring,  and the
other is under enforcement action.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Colorado.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Colorado
has fully reported all violations.

       TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Colorado's State Report is available by  accessing
the State's Web site at http://www.state.co.us
or by contacting the State at Compliance Moni-
toring-Data Management, WQCO-CMDM-B2,
4300 Cherry Creek Drive South, Denver, CO
80246-1530.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998 B 9

-------
 Appendix B
            of Connecticut 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
17
146


Systems in
Violation
14
80


Treatment Technique
Violations


10
4
Systems in
Violation


10
4
Significant Monitoring
Violations
258
77
1
174
Systems in
Violation
24
57
1
163
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not  applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
4,460
290
687
1996 VARIANCES AND
Connecticut did not grant any variances or
exemptions to PWSs during 1996.

DISCUSSION
Through technical assistance and enforcement
actions, the Connecticut Water Supplies Section
has been able to significantly reduce the num-
ber of community water systems having moni-
toring and reporting violations in recent years.
The Connecticut Water Supplies Section is in
the process of implementing a strategic plan
that includes formalization of a technical assis-
tance program to promote compliance.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Connecticut. EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and is
not commenting on whether the State of Con-
necticut has fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Connecticut's State Report is available by
contacting the State at Department of Public
Health, Water Supplies Section, 450 Capitol
Avenue, MS#51WAT, P.O. Box 340308, Hartford,
CT 06134-0308.
BIO  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                       Appendix B
                  of Delaware  Annual         Public Water  Systems  Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
35
63


Systems in
Violation
16*
54**


Treatment Technique
Violations


N/A
N/A
Systems in
Violation


N/A
N/A
Significant Monitoring
Violations
N/A
N/A
N/A
84
Systems in
Violation
N/A
N/A
N/A**
84**
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.
 * Data from the list of PWSs with violations.
 "Systems in violation for all data categories from the "Compliance Highlights" table are inconsistent with the Summary chart: Total
 Coliforom Rule 53, Surface Water Treatment Rule 0, and Lead and Copper Rule 28.
 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
564
97*
182
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996            AND
No information was provided on variances or
exemptions granted to Delaware PWSs. SDWIS/
FED did not report any variance or exemption
violations.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is included in
Delaware's report. This report also presented data
on the compliance actions taken by the State of
Delaware in 1996, which included 95 notices of
violation, 95 public notices, 3 administrative
orders, and 6 boil water orders.  Information on
the population served by systems in compliance is
also given in Delaware's report. Delaware's public
drinking water program conducted 142 inspec-
tions, reviewed 190 plans and specifications,
provided operator training to 25 people, and
provided lead and copper training to 10 people.
The Delaware Office of Drinking Water conducts
all the monitoring for 98% of the PWSs (10 systems
conduct their own monitoring).
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Delaware.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Delaware
has fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Delaware's State Report is available by access-
ing the  State's Web site at http://
www.state.de.us/govern/agencies/dhss/irm/
dhss.htm or by contacting Ed Hallock or Chad
Hall at the  Division of Public Health, P.O. Box
639, Dover, DE 19903.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998 B 11

-------
 Appendix B
         District of Columbia 1996 Annual  Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
0
3


Systems in
Violation
0
1


Treatment Technique
Violations


0
0
Systems in
Violation


0
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
0
0
0
0
Systems in
Violation
0
0
0
0
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
2
1
3
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where District data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
EPA has never issued any variances or exemp-
tions to the PWSs in the District of Columbia.
DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided
in the District of Columbia's report.  Information
was provided from EPA Regional Office since the
District of Columbia does not have primary
enforcement authority.
        TO OBTAIN 1996 ANNUAL PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
The District of Columbia Report is available by
contacting George Rizzo, EPA, Region III,
phone (215) 814-5781.
B 12  September 1998
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                      Appendix B
                of Florida  1996 Annual         Public Water Systems  Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
8
240


Systems in
Violation
8*
223


Treatment Technique
Violations


0
1
Systems in
Violation


0
1
Significant Monitoring
Violations
220
1,184
0
52
Systems in
Violation
220**
888
0
52
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of organics (1), inorganics (4), and radionuclides (3) subtotals.

 **Sum of organics (0), inorganics (220), and radionuclides (0) subtotals.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
6,958
1,392*
1,705
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996            AND
No variances or exemptions were granted to any
Florida PWSs for the 1996 calendar year.

DISCUSSION
Many of the violations occurred because sys-
tems failed to sample on time. The low number
of Surface Water Treatment Rule violations is
due to the fact that Florida State law required
filtration before Federal law and Florida only
has 19 surface water systems.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Florida. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Florida has
fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Florida's State Report Summary, State rules,
forms, and drinking water inventory are avail-
able by accessing the State's Web site (http://
www.dep.state.fi.us/water/Wf/dw/dw.htm).
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  B 13

-------
  Appendix B
               of Georgia 1996 Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
2
207


Systems in
Violation
2
161


Treatment Technique
Violations


0
0
Systems in
Violation


0
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
307
767
0
6
Systems in
Violation
285*
566
0
134**
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of organics (1), total trihalomethanes (0), inorganics (284), and radionuclides subtotals (0).

 **Sum includes 132 systems with significant noncompliance determination dates due in 1996.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
2.514
1,148*
1,289
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
The State of Georgia does not currently grant
any variances or exemptions to any PWSs.

DISCUSSION
The majority of all Georgia PWS violations (84%)
involved failure to submit a sample, or failure to
report test results.  There were total coliform
violations in 149 community water systems
serving a total of 518,623 persons, and 12 fecal
coliform violations for PWSs serving a total of
2,819 people.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Georgia. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Georgia
has fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Georgia's State Report is available by accessing
the State's Web site at http://
www.dnr.state.ga.us/dnr/environ/ or by con-
tacting Betty Butler at Georgia Environmental
Protection Division, Suite 1362, East Floyd
Tower, Atlanta, GA 30334.
B 14   September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                   Appendix B
                 Guam 1996 Annual Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
Q
Q


Systems in
Violation
Q
Q


Treatment Technique
Violations


Q
Q
Systems in
Violation


Q
Q
Significant Monitoring
Violations
Q
Q
Q
Q
Systems in
Violation
Q
Q
Q
Q
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where data from Guam were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
10
Q
Q
1996 VARIANCES AND
SDWIS/FED did not report any variance or
exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
The Guam report was not received, therefore
SDWIS/FED data were used.
        TO OBTAIN       ANNUAL PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
A specific source for obtaining a copy of this
report has not been provided.  General informa-
tion on its availability may be obtained from:
Guam Environmental Protection Agency, Gov-
ernment of Guam, P.O. Box 22439 GMF,
Barrigada, GU 96921, phone (671) 472-8863.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B 15

-------
 Appendix B
               of Hawaii 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
0
10


Systems in
Violation
0
7


Treatment Technique
Violations


128
0
Systems in
Violation


12
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
0
1
4
0
Systems in
Violation
0
1
1
0
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
144
20
143
1996 VARIANCES AND
There were no variances or exemptions granted
for any of the State of Hawaii's PWSs for the
calendar year 1996.

DISCUSSION
The vast majority of violations in Hawaii were
treatment technique violations for the Surface
Water Treatment Rule.  By January 1998, of the
12 systems receiving 128 treatment technique
violations, 7 remain in noncompliance.  One of
the 7 has installed a microfiltration facility, and
5 are under enforcement actions to upgrade
their water treatment plants.  One system uses
a "groundwater under the direct influence of
surface water" source which will be replaced by
a well. The number of Total Coliform Rule
violations has dropped from 25 in 1995 to 5 in
1997.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Hawaii. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Hawaii has
fully reported all violations.

       TO         1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Hawaii's State Report is available by contacting
William Wong at the Safe Drinking Water
Branch, Department of Health, 919 Ala Moana
Blvd., Room 300, Honolulu, HI 96814-4920,
phone (808) 586-4258, fax (808) 586-4370,
email (waterbill@aol.com).
B 16  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                      Appendix B
                of Idaho 1996 Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
1
421


Systems in
Violation
1
332


Treatment Technique
Violations


336
N/A**
Systems in
Violation


42
N/A**
Significant Monitoring
Violations
784
1,372
0
N/A**^
Systems in
Violation
625*
773
0
N/A**^
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.
 *Sum of organics (17), inorganics (608), and radionuclides (0) subtotals.
 **The lead and copper data are not included at this time due to need for a computer update.  1996 lead and copper data will be
 provided with the 1997 Idaho Violations Report.
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.

 Shaded  areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
2,018
1,294
2,914
1996            AND
No information is provided on variances or
exemptions granted to Idaho PWSs during the
1996 calendar year. SDWIS/FED did not report
any variance or exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided
in Idaho's report. Idaho Division of Environ-
mental Quality, in cooperation with the State's
seven district health departments, provides a
variety of services including working with PWSs
to ensure compliance with minimum Federal
requirements, conducting sampling surveys and
on-site visits to prevent public health problems,
reviewing PWS plans and specifications, con-
ducting training  sessions, holding public infor-
mation meetings, loaning specialized monitoring
equipment, publishing informational bulletins
and a quarterly drinking water newsletter,
providing a coordinated training calendar,
distributing a technical assistance notebook to
all PWSs, and issuing monitoring waivers.
Bacteriological contamination is more frequent
than chemical contamination in Idaho.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Idaho.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Idaho has
fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Idaho's State Report is available by accessing
the State's Web site (http://
www.magiclink.com/web/tmdl), and by contact-
ing the Idaho Division of Environmental
Quality's six Regional Offices or the State's
seven district health departments.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  B 17

-------
 Appendix B
               of  Illinois 1996 Annual         Public Water Systems  Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
323*
158


Systems in
Violation
205
96


Treatment Technique
Violations


23
19
Systems in
Violation


7
19
Significant Monitoring
Violations
4,315
639
36
148
Systems in
Violation
221
210
10
39
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *30 of these violations are exceedances of a more stringent Illinois Health Standard, not a Lederal violation.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
6,051
480
5,138
1996 VARIANCES AND
There are no PWSs in Illinois that have re-
ceived variances or exemptions during the 1996
calendar year.

DISCUSSION
Over 89% of the population was served by
Illinois community water systems that were
compliant with all health standards (maximum
contaminant levels, treatment techniques, or
health advisories) during the calendar year of
1996. Over 96% of the population received
drinking water free  from the potential of acute
(short-term) adverse health effects, and over
92% of the population received drinking water
free from the potential of chronic (long-term)
health effects.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Illinois. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Illinois has
fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
The Illinois State Report is available by contact-
ing Roger Selburg, Division Manager, at the
Division of Public Water Supplies, Illinois EPA,
1021 N. Grand Avenue - East, P.O. Box 19726,
Springfield, IL 62794-9276, phone (217)  785-
8653.
B 18  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                    Appendix B
               of Indiana 1996 Annual         Public Water Systems  Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
42
282


Systems in
Violation
25
260


Treatment Technique
Violations


6
1
Systems in
Violation


5
1
Significant Monitoring
Violations
2,123
2,419
8
78
Systems in
Violation
714
1,278
5
65
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
4.505
1,879
4,959
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996            AND
Indiana did not issue any variances or exemp-
tions during 1996 calendar year.

DISCUSSION
In 1996, the Indiana Drinking Water Branch
staff conducted 308 sanitary surveys, 62 vulner-
ability assessments, 59 well site surveys, 252
technical assistance visits, and  130 MCL follow-
up visits. Other compliance assistance activi-
ties consist of courtesy reminder letters,  moni-
toring waivers, and outreach. Indiana's report
provides analysis of information by type of PWS.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Indiana. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Indiana
has fully reported all violations.
        TO OBTAIN       ANNUAL
PUBLIC WATER
Indiana's State Report is available by accessing
the State's Web site at http://www.ai.org/idem/
owm or by contacting the State at Indiana
Department of Environmental Management,
Drinking Water Branch, P.O. Box 7148, India-
napolis, IN 46207-7148.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B 19

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 Appendix B
                of Iowa 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems  Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
68
151


Systems in
Violation
13
126


Treatment Technique
Violations


0*
45
Systems in
Violation


0*
45
Significant Monitoring
Violations
54
106
0*
12
Systems in
Violation
41
43
0*
12
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Iowa has no surface water systems which do not filter.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1,939
280
436
1996 VARIANCES AND
Iowa does not issue variances or exemptions for
MCLs, treatment techniques, or monitoring and
reporting  requirements.

DISCUSSION
Iowa's report includes percentages of systems
in and out of compliance and information on
contaminants.  92.6% of Iowa's active PWSs
complied with MCLs. Of the 83 regulated
contaminants, only 7 were found at levels that
exceeded the MCL.  96.8% of Iowa's active PWSs
complied with monitoring requirements. En-
forcement action information is also presented.
During the 1996 calendar year, there was 1
public notice, 8 administrative orders with
penalty, 4 administrative orders without pen-
alty, 6 referrals to the attorney general, and 11
formal notices of violation issued.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Iowa. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Iowa has
fully reported all violations.

        TO OBTAIN 1996 ANNUAL
PUBLIC WATER
Iowa's 1996 State Annual Compliance Report is
available by accessing the State's Web site at
http://www.state.ia.us/government/dnr/
organiza/epd/wtrsuply/wtrsup.htm or by
contacting the Iowa Department of Natural
Resources, Water Supply Section, Wallace State
Office Building, 900 East Grand Avenue, Des
Moines, IA 50319-0034.
B 20  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                    Appendix B
               of           1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
100
86


Systems in
Violation
49
58


Treatment Technique
Violations


27
6
Systems in
Violation


10
6
Significant Monitoring
Violations
1
121
5
17
Systems in
Violation
1
59
3
17
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.095
181
355
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No information was provided on variances or
exemptions during the 1996 calendar year for
Kansas PWSs. SDWIS/FED did not report any
variance or exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory data, such as source of
water,  is provided in Kansas' report, as well as
populations affected.  99.7% of the PWSs were
in compliance with the ethyl dibromide MCL.
A total of 150 persons were affected by ethyl
dibromide MCL violations.  97% of the PWSs
were in compliance with the selenium MCL. A
total of 1,150 persons were affected by sele-
nium MCL violations. Seven PWSs were in
violation of the radium MCL and one PWS
failed to monitor. The population affected by
radium MCL violations was 6,265 and the
population affected by the PWSs that failed to
sample was 32.  3.2% of the population served
by all PWSs, or 74,205 people, were affected by
bacteriological MCL violations. The population
affected by bacteriological monitoring viola-
tions was 19,453 or 0.8% of the population
served by all PWSs.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Kansas. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Kansas
has fully reported all violations.

       TO        1996 ANNUAL
PUBLIC
The Kansas State Report is available by access-
ing the State's Web site at http://
www.state.ks.us/public/kdhe/bow.html or by
contacting the State at Public Water Supply
Section, Kansas Department of Health and
Environment,  Bldg. 283,  Forbes Field, Topeka,
KS 66620, Attn: Peter Armesto, phone (785)
296-6297.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B 21

-------
 Appendix B
             of Kentucky 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems  Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
46
13


Systems in
Violation
23
11


Treatment Technique
Violations


50
0
Systems in
Violation


21
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
85
156
45
NR
Systems in
Violation
77
46
21
NR
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 NR = not reported

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
718
139
395
1996 VARIANCES AND
Kentucky has not granted any variances or
exemptions to any PWSs.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information and a
compliance summary are provided in Kentucky's
report. There were 509 PWSs with no viola-
tions. There were 53 MCL violations.  34 PWSs
had MCL violations.  There were 286 significant
monitoring and reporting violations.  144 PWSs
had significant monitoring and reporting viola-
tions. There were 50 treatment technique
violations. 21 PWSs had treatment technique
violations.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Kentucky.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Kentucky
has fully reported all violations.

        TO OBTAIN       ANNUAL
PUBLIC WATER
Kentucky's State Report is available by access-
ing the State's Web site at http://
water.nr.state.ky.us/dow/compsum.htm or by
contacting Vicki Ray, Drinking Water Branch,
Division of Water, 14 Reilly Road, Frankfort, KY
40601.
B-22  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                    Appendix B
             of Louisiana  1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
0
348


Systems in
Violation
0
262


Treatment Technique
Violations


6
54
Systems in
Violation


5
54
Significant Monitoring
Violations
0
0
0
7
Systems in
Violation
0
0
0
7
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.965
328*
415
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No information was provided on variances or
exemptions granted to any Louisiana PWSs
during the 1996 calendar year. SDWIS/FED did
not report any variance or exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Louisiana.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State  of Louisiana
has fully reported all violations.
        TO OBTAIN      ANNUAL
PUBLIC WATER
A specific source for obtaining a copy of this
report has not been provided. General informa-
tion on  its availability may be obtained from:
Division of Environmental and Health Services,
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals,
Office of Public Health, P.O. Box 60630, New
Orleans, LA 70160, phone (504) 568-5100.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B 23

-------
  Appendix B
                of fVfaine  1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
Q
272


Systems in
Violation
Q
267*


Treatment Technique
Violations


NR(13)
NR$>
Systems in
Violation


NR(i3)
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
354
620
NR^
NR$>
Systems in
Violation
44
601**
NR@)
77***
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of acute (30) and non-acute (237) MCL.
 **Sum of routine (589) and major repeat (12) monitoring.
 ***Sum of initial lead and copper tap monitoring/reporting (19) and follow-up or routine lead and copper tap monitoring and
 reporting (58).

 NR - The subtotal was not reported, as it was not available from the State data system for calender year  1996.
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where  the State data were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1,898
1,227*
1,259
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No information on variances or exemptions
during the 1996 calendar year for Maine PWSs
was available in the State data system.
SDWIS/FED did not report any variance or
exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
Maine's report provides data on systems with
violations, but not the number of violations.
General PWS inventory  data is provided in
Maine's report.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Maine.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Maine has
fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL STATE PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Maine's State Report is available by accessing
the State's Web site at http://www.state.me.us/
dhs/eng/water/water.htm or by contacting the
State at Drinking Water Program, 10 State
House Station, Augusta, ME 04333, phone (207)
287-2070.
B-24   September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                     Appendix B
              of Maryland 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
19
371


Systems in
Violation
12
346


Treatment Technique
Violations


96
22
Systems in
Violation


16
1
Significant Monitoring
Violations
50
127
0
70
Systems in
Violation
39
82
0
293*
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Includes 223 systems with significant noncompliance determination dates due in 1996.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
3.123
795*
755
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No variances or exemptions were granted to any
PWSs in Maryland during the calendar year
1996.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory data and violation
resolution data are provided in Maryland's
report.  All of the 51  bacteriological health level
violations occurring  in 1996 were reconciled by
the end of 1996.  3 out of the 16 Surface Water
Treatment Rule health level violations occurring
in 1996 were reconciled by the end of 1996.
81,150 people benefitted from this.  3 of the  14
nitrate health level violations were reconciled by
the end of 1996.  3 of the 4 volatile organic
chemical health level violations were recon-
ciled by the end of 1996 and 98 of the 270 lead
and copper violations were reconciled.
This page provides a summary of  the data
reported by the State of Maryland. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting  on whether the State of Maryland
has fully reported all violations.

       TO         1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Maryland's State Report is available by contact-
ing Nancy Reilman at Maryland Department of
the Environment, Public Drinking Water Pro-
gram, 2500 Broening Highway, Baltimore, MD
21224, phone (410) 631-3729.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  B-25

-------
 Appendix B
          of                   1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
5
140


Systems in
Violation
4
104


Treatment Technique
Violations


60
1
Systems in
Violation


60
1
Significant Monitoring
Violations
2,669
434
1
37
Systems in
Violation
323
257
1
35
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1,629
622
3,347
1996 VARIANCES AND
There were no variances or exemptions granted
to any Massachusetts PWSs during the 1996
calendar year.

DISCUSSION
A summary table of State data for drinking
water violations during 1996 was provided and
is summarized above.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Massachusetts. EPA
has not interpreted the information provided
and is not commenting on whether the State of
Massachusetts has fully reported all violations.

       TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
A specific source for obtaining a copy of this
report has not been provided.  Additional infor-
mation about the Massachusetts Drinking
Water Program is available by accessing the
State's Web site (http://
www.magnet.state.ma.us/dep/brp/).
B-26  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                   Appendix B
              of Michigan 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
24
596


Systems in
Violation
24
521


Treatment Technique
Violations


14
0
Systems in
Violation


9
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
1,331
6,643
0
161
Systems in
Violation
1,329
4,369
0
161
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
11,536
6,413*
8,769
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996 VARIANCES AND
Michigan had no PWSs under a variance or
exemption during the 1996 calendar year.

DISCUSSION
Violations data are presented in three separate
tables: community, non-community, and a
combined community non-community table.
General PWS inventory information is provided.
Approximately 95% of the total violations re-
corded in Michigan in 1996 are from non-
community water systems.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Michigan. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Michigan
has fully reported all violations.

        TO OBTAIN 1996 ANNUAL
PUBLIC WATER
Michigan's State Report is available by access-
ing the State's Web site at http://
www.deq.state.mi.us/dwr or by contacting the
State at Michigan Department of Environmental
Quality, Drinking Water & Radiological Protec-
tion Division, Lansing, MI 48909-8130.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B-27

-------
 Appendix B
             of Minnesota  1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
26
217


Systems in
Violation
26
217


Treatment Technique
Violations


137
0
Systems in
Violation


28
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
8
74
0
9
Systems in
Violation
7
64
0
64
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
8.222
406
471
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
There were no variances or exemptions granted
to any Minnesota PWSs during the 1996 calen-
dar year.

DISCUSSION
A summary table of State data for drinking
water violations during 1996 was provided and
is summarized above.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Minnesota. EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and is
not commenting on whether the State of Min-
nesota has fully reported all violations.

        TO OBTAIN 1996 ANNUAL
PUBLIC WATER
Minnesota's State  Report is available by con-
tacting the State at Minnesota Department of
Health,  P.O. Box 64975, St. Paul, MN  55164-
0975, Attention: Dennis E. Maki, phone (617)
215-0756 or by contacting Dennis E. Maki via
electronic mail (dennis.maki@health.state.
mn.us).
B 28  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                     Appendix B
             of Mississippi  1996 Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
0
66


Systems in
Violation
0
63


Treatment Technique
Violations


Q
Q
Systems in
Violation


Q
Q
Significant Monitoring
Violations
1
89
Q
Q
Systems in
Violation
1
83
Q
Q
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.550
147*
156
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996 VARIANCES AND
The Mississippi Division of Water Supply has
never granted a variance or exemption to any
PWS.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory data is provided in
Mississippi's report.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Mississippi.  EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and is
not commenting on whether the State of Missis-
sippi has fully reported all violations.
        TO OBTAIN       ANNUAL
PUBLIC WATER
Mississippi's State Report is available by ac-
cessing the State's Web site at http://
www.msdh.state.ms.us/OHR/watersup/
wshome.htm or by contacting the Mississippi
State Department of Health, Water Supply
Division, P.O. Box 1700, Jackson, MS 39215-
1700.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  B-29

-------
  Appendix B
              of Missouri 1996 Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
11
424


Systems in
Violation
7
331


Treatment Technique
Violations


1
0
Systems in
Violation


1
Q
Significant Monitoring
Violations
363
1,372
0
18
Systems in
Violation
51
707
0
18
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
2,667
1,207*
2,189
 *Sum of systems with monitoring (924) and MCL/TT (283) violations potentially contains double counting.
1996 VARIANCES AND
Exemptions from the atrazine MCL, originally
granted for 10 PWSs in 1995 continue to be in
effect for nine of those PWSs in 1996.  No
variances were granted for any Missouri PWSs
during the 1996 calendar year.  There were no
variance or exemption violations in 1996.

DISCUSSION
No data on numbers of Systems in were pro-
vided; however the report contains a list of
PWSs with violations.  General PWS inventory
data are provided in Missouri's report.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Missouri. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Missouri
has fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
To obtain a copy of Missouri's State Report or
additional information regarding Missouri's
PWSs contact the Missouri Department of
Natural Resources, Public Drinking Water
Program,  P.O. Box 176, Jefferson City, MO
65102, phone (573) 751-5331.
B 30  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                    Appendix B
              of Montana 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
34
51


Systems in
Violation
19
51


Treatment Technique
Violations


127
114
Systems in
Violation


32
114
Significant Monitoring
Violations
682
2,096
214
260
Systems in
Violation
566*
709
22
238
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of the Phase 2 and Phase 5 Rules (251) total and the radionuclides (315) subtotal.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.882
1,751*
3,578
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No violations of variances or exemptions were
recorded for Montana PWSs during the 1996
calendar year.

DISCUSSION
Enforcement data and a Discussion of water
sources, regulations and enforcement, and
general PWS  inventory data are provided in
Montana's report. The State PWS Section has
worked with the State Department of Environ-
mental Quality Enforcement Division when
necessary to  address more difficult compliance
problems through formal enforcement actions.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Montana.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Montana
has fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Montana's State Report is available on the
Montana Department of Environmental
Quality's Web site at http://www.deq.mt.gov or
by contacting the State at Montana Department
of Environmental Quality, Box 200901, Helena,
MT 59620-0901.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B 31

-------
 Appendix B
              of             1996 Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
32
178


Systems in
Violation
25
128


Treatment Technique
Violations


0
0
Systems in
Violation


0
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
0
140
0
1
Systems in
Violation
0
105
0
1
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.403
259
350
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No information was provided on variances or
exemptions granted to any Nebraska PWSs
during the 1996 calendar year.  SDWIS/FED did
not report any variance or exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided
in Nebraska's report.  In  1996, the Nebraska
Public Water Supply Program issued 21 admin-
istrative orders to PWSs in Nebraska. A descrip-
tion of additional compliance assistance activi-
ties of the Nebraska Public Water Supply Pro-
gram is provided. A listing of formal enforce-
ment actions is also included.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Nebraska.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Nebraska
has fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Nebraska's State Report is available by access-
ing the  State's Web site (http://
www.hhs.state.ne.us).
B 32  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                     Appendix B
               of          1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
10
22


Systems in
Violation
10
21


Treatment Technique
Violations


19
0
Systems in
Violation


19
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
45
99
0
346
Systems in
Violation
45
87
0
173
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not  applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
675
355*
541
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No variances or exemptions were granted or in
effect for any Nevada PWSs during calendar year
1996.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided.
Analysis of violations data is provided by type of
violation.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Nevada. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Nevada has
fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Nevada's State Report is available through Larry
Rountree at the Nevada State Health Division
Office, 1179 Fairview Drive, Carson City, NV
89710.  It is also available at county libraries
throughout the State.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  B 33

-------
 Appendix B
             of New Hampshire 1996 Annual Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
23
256


Systems in
Violation
19
206


Treatment Technique
Violations


13
0
Systems in
Violation


10
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
1,898
223
126
13
Systems in
Violation
148
157
26
13
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
2.071
398
2,552
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No information was provided on variances or
exemptions granted to any New Hampshire
PWSs during the 1996 calendar year.  SDWIS/
FED did not report any variance or exemption
violations.

DISCUSSION
Analysis of violations data is provided by PWS
type in New Hampshire's State report. The
report was based on data from the New Hamp-
shire WSEB Database.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of New Hampshire.  EPA
has not interpreted the information provided
and is not commenting on whether the State of
New Hampshire has fully reported all violations.

       TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
New Hampshire's State Report is available by
accessing the State's Web site at http://
www.state.nh.us/ or by contacting Laurie K.
Cullerot at Department of Environmental Ser-
vices, Water Supply Engineering Bureau, 6
Hazen Drive , P.O. Box 95, Concord, NH 03302-
0095.
B-34  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                    Appendix B
            of New Jersey 1996 Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
48
172


Systems in
Violation
35
115


Treatment Technique
Violations


15
3
Systems in
Violation


4
3
Significant Monitoring
Violations
13,974
2,805
2
80
Systems in
Violation
1.455
1,384
2
28
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
4,740
3,026*
17,099
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996 VARIANCES AND
The New Jersey Bureau of Safe Drinking Water
did not issue any variances or exemptions to
any PWS during the 1996 calendar year.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided
in New Jersey's report. New Jersey regulates
five volatile organic compounds in addition to
those covered by Federal regulations. New
Jersey also set standards (MCLs) that are more
stringent than the Federal standards on 12 of
the Federally regulated volatile organic com-
pounds.  Both the additional regulated contami-
nants and the more stringent MCLs are listed
on page 21 of the 1996 New Jersey report.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of New Jersey. EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and is
not commenting on whether the State of New
Jersey has fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Copies of the complete New Jersey Drinking
Water Standards chart, and/or a copy of the
1996 New Jersey State Report is available by
contacting the State at New Jersey Department
of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Safe
Drinking Water, P.O. Box 426, Trenton, NJ
08625-0426. The report is also available at all
county libraries, college and local libraries, and
in the April 1998 issue of Pipeline, a quarterly
publication of the NJ AWWA.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B-35

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  Appendix B
            of New Mexico 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
1
77


Systems in
Violation
1
68


Treatment Technique
Violations


13
0
Systems in
Violation


7
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
0
146
2
3
Systems in
Violation
0
105
2
3
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.266
186*
242
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No variances or exemptions were issued by New
Mexico to any PWSs during the 1996 calendar
year.

DISCUSSION
Analysis of violations data is provided by PWS
type, PWS size, and population served in New
Mexico's State Report.  Sources of inaccuracy in
the data are also discussed. Possible sources of
data inaccuracy are: failure of New Mexico
Environmental Department staff to accurately
record violations, especially in the chemical
rules; lack of standardized methods for the
exchanging of data between labs, field offices,
water systems, and the central office; lack of
electronic transfer methods to EPA for chemical
data.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of New Mexico. EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and is
not commenting on whether the State of New
Mexico has fully reported all violations.

       TO        1996 ANNUAL STATE PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
A specific source for obtaining a copy of this
report has not been provided.  General informa-
tion on its availability may be obtained from:
Drinking Water Bureau, New Mexico Environ-
ment  Department, 525 Camino De Los Marquez,
Suite  4, Santa Fe, NM 87501, phone (505) 827-
7536.
B 36  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                       Appendix B
                   of New York 1996 Annual Public Water System  Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
31
160


Systems in
Violation
11
137*


Treatment Technique
Violations


125
9
Systems in
Violation


94
9**
Significant Monitoring
Violations
357
1,312
9
44
Systems in
Violation
353
790
9
43***
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of acute (52) and non-acute (85) MCL.

 **Sum of treatment installation (5) and public education (4).

 ***Sum of initial lead and copper tap monitoring/reporting (3) and follow-up or routine lead and copper tap monitoring and
 reporting (40).

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.


1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
9.129
1,449*
2,021
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996            AND
Exemptions have been issued to New York PWSs
under the Surface Water Treatment Rule.  A list
of these systems is provided in New York's State
Report. There were no variances granted to any
New York PWSs during the 1996 calendar year.
There is no record of variance or exemption
violations in 1996.

DISCUSSION
A summary table of State data for drinking
water violations during 1996 was provided and
is summarized above.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of New York.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of New York
has fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
New York's State Report is available by access-
ing the State's Web site at http://
www.health.state.ny.us or by contacting the
State at BPWSP - NYSDOH, 1215 Western Ave.,
Albany, NY 12203.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  B-37

-------
 Appendix B
          of North  Carolina 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
17
201


Systems in
Violation
16
184


Treatment Technique
Violations


8
1
Systems in
Violation


8
1
Significant Monitoring
Violations
20,690
776
0
60
Systems in
Violation
484
463
0
60
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
8,244
1,216*
21,753
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No information was provided on variances or
exemptions granted to any North Carolina PWSs
during the 1996 calendar year.  SDWIS/FED did
not report any variance or exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
State data was reported in addition to SDWIS/
FED data in North Carolina's State report.
General PWS inventory information is also
provided.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of North Carolina.  EPA
has not interpreted the information provided
and is not commenting on whether the State of
North Carolina has fully reported all violations.

       TO         1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
A specific source for obtaining a copy of this
report has not been provided. General informa-
tion on its availability may be obtained from:
Public Water Supply Section, Department of
Environment and Natural Resources, P.O. Box
29536, Raleigh, NC 27626-0536, phone (919)
733-2321.
B 38  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                    Appendix B
          of North                 Annual        Public
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
10
60


Systems in
Violation
10
47


Treatment Technique
Violations


6
0
Systems in
Violation


3
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
1
138
2
6
Systems in
Violation
1
102
2
6
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.
 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
604
171*
223
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains
 double counting.
1996            AND
North Dakota had no PWSs operating under a vari-
ance or exemption during the 1996 calendar year.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided in
North Dakota's report. Data on the percentage of
systems with no violations by PWS type is also
provided. 97% of the community water systems
and 100% of non-transient non-community water
systems had no organic MCL violations.  100% of
the community water systems and non-transient
non-community water systems had no organic,
inorganic, or radionuclide monitoring violations
and no radionuclide MCL violations. 99.6% of
transient non-community water systems had no
inorganic monitoring violations and 98.8% had no
inorganic MCL violations. 98.1 % of the commu-
nity water systems had no inorganic MCL viola-
tions. 92.1% of the community water systems,
94.1% of the non-transient non-community water
systems, and 95.2% of the transient non-commu-
nity water systems had no MCL violations of the
Total Coliform Rule. 82.1% of community water
systems, 88.2% of non-transient non-community
water systems, and 84.1% of transient non-
community water systems had no monitoring
violations for the Total Coliform Rule.  95% of the
community water systems and 80% or the non-
transient non-community water systems had no
treatment technique violations for the Surface
Water Treatment Rule.  95% community water
systems and 90% non-transient non-community
water systems had no Surface Water Treatment
Rule monitoring violations. 98.7% of the commu-
nity water systems had no monitoring violations
for the Lead and Copper Rule. Annually, approxi-
mately 400 of the 604 total PWSs are issued
Certificates of Compliance for maintaining full
compliance.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of North Dakota. EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and is
not commenting on whether the State of North
Dakota has fully reported all violations.

       TO        1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
North Dakota's State Report is available by con-
tacting the State at North Dakota Department of
Health, Division of Municipal Facilities, P.O. Box
5520, 1200 Missouri Avenue, Bismark, ND 58506-
5520, Attention: Jeni Walsh or Attention: Larry
Thelen, phone (701) 328-5231 and phone (701)
328-5211, fax (701) 328-5200.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B 39

-------
 Appendix B
     Northern fVfariana  islands 1996 Annual Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
Q
Q


Systems in
Violation
Q
Q


Treatment Technique
Violations


Q
Q
Systems in
Violation


Q
Q
Significant Monitoring
Violations
Q
Q
Q
Q
Systems in
Violation
Q
Q
Q
Q
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where data from the Northern Mariana Islands were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
3
Q
Q
1996 VARIANCES AND
SDWIS/FED did not report any variance or
exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
The Northern Mariana Islands report was not
received, therefore SDWIS/FED data were used.
        TO OBTAIN      ANNUAL PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
A specific source for obtaining a copy of this
report has not been provided.  General informa-
tion may be obtained from: Division of Environ-
mental Quality, Commonwealth of the Northern
Mariana Islands, Post Office Box 1304, Saipan,
MP 96950, phone (670) 234-6114.
B 40  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                    Appendix B
                 of Ohio        Annual        Public
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
14
1,758


Systems in
Violation
8
868


Treatment Technique
Violations


280
1
Systems in
Violation


49
1
Significant Monitoring
Violations
11,314
3,277
26
224
Systems in
Violation
1,863
2,023
7
224
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
6,193
3,084
16,894
1996 VARIANCES AND
There were no variances or exemptions granted
to any Ohio PWSs during the 1996 calendar
year.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information and compli-
ance assistance information is provided in
Ohio's report. Ohio's Compliance Assistance
includes: providing a sampling and monitoring
schedule for each PWS; offering technical assis-
tance during facility inspections (sanitary
surveys) and all office hours; distributing a
divisional newsletter to all PWSs; providing
operator and laboratory personnel training
sessions; distributing reminder postcards and/
or contacting the PWSs towards the end of the
monitoring periods to ensure collection of the
required samples; and providing notice of
violation letters for failure to meet the require-
ments of any of the specific regulations.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Ohio.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Ohio has
fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Ohio's State Report is available by accessing the
State's Web site at http://www.epa.state.oh.us/
ddagw/annualreports.html or contacting the
State at PWS Annual Compliance Report,  Ohio
EPA - DDAGW, P.O. Box 1049, Columbus, OH
43216-0149.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B 41

-------
  Appendix B
              of Oklahoma  1996 Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
156
156


Systems in
Violation
58*
127


Treatment Technique
Violations


153
0
Systems in
Violation


52
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
0
316
3
NR
Systems in
Violation
0
191
3
760**
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of the organics (7), inorganics (51), and radionuclides (0) subtotals.

 **There were 760 systems with significant noncompliance determinations due in 1996.

 NR =  not reported

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.


1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.672
1,191*
784
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996            AND
The Oklahoma Department of Environmental
Quality does not have any PWSs which have
been granted variances or exemptions.

DISCUSSION
Information on water sources is provided in the
State report.
This page provides a summary  of the data
reported by the State of Oklahoma.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Oklahoma
has fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Oklahoma's State Report is available by access-
ing the State's Web site at http://
www.deq.state.ok.us or by contacting the State
at Oklahoma Department of Environmental
Quality office at 1000 NE 10th Street, Oklahoma
City, OK.
B-42  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                     Appendix B
               of Oregon 1996  Annual        Public Water Systems  Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
6
247


Systems in
Violation
6
195


Treatment Technique
Violations


291
0
Systems in
Violation


106
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
1,008
2,352
453
NR
Systems in
Violation
1,006
1,176
101
151
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not  applicable.

 NR =  not reported

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
2.630
2,741*
4,357
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996            AND
Oregon issued no variances or exemptions
during 1996, electing instead to pursue correc-
tive actions through enforcement actions.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided
in Oregon's report. During 1996, Oregon issued
65 Administrative Orders and 15 Notices of
Violation for high priority violations of stan-
dards, primarily for coliform and nitrate MCL
violations,  surface water treatment violations,
and repeated failures to sample and report
results. The Oregon Health Division received
evidence of 365 notifications to water  users from
water suppliers.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Oregon.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Oregon has
fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Oregon's State Report is available by accessing
the State's Web site at http://
www.ohd.hr.state.or.us/cehs/dwp or by con-
tacting Diane Weis at the Oregon Health Divi-
sion, 800 NE Oregon Street, Portland, OR
97232.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  B-43

-------
 Appendix B
           of Pennsylvania 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
125
312


Systems in
Violation
102
225


Treatment Technique
Violations


117
5
Systems in
Violation


28
5
Significant Monitoring
Violations
7,527
1,800
264
249
Systems in
Violation
1,099
1,270
54
216
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
10.249
2,639
9,841
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No variances or exemptions were in effect for
any of the Pennsylvania PWSs during the 1996
report period.

DISCUSSION
This report also presented data on the compli-
ance actions taken by the State of Pennsylvania
in 1996, which included 6,081 compliance
letters, 43 consent and administrative orders,
and 251 water advisories. Violation data and
system compliance rates are also analyzed by
PWS size and type.  For the community water
systems 77.4% of small systems, 84.9% of
medium systems, and 90% of large systems
were in compliance for monitoring and report-
ing.  97% of small community water systems,
97.5% of medium community water systems,
and 100% of large community water systems
were in compliance for MCLs. Also for commu-
nity water systems, 99.5% of small systems,
97.2% of medium systems, and 90% of large
systems were in compliance with treatment
techniques.
Pennsylvania uses an intricate computerized
violation determination procedure which identi-
fies potential violations for investigation and
verification. This process assists Pennsylvania
in the measurement of drinking water compli-
ance, and is reflected  in part by the number of
violations and amount of compliance activity
data being reported.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State  of Pennsylvania.  EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and  is
not commenting on whether the  State of Penn-
sylvania has fully reported all violations.

       TO        1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Pennsylvania's State Report is available by
accessing the State's Web site at http://
www.dep.state.pa.us or  by contacting the State
at (717) 772-4018.
B-44  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------
                                                                                     Appendix B
              Puerto Rico 1996 Annual Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
12
1,079


Systems in
Violation
7*
390***


Treatment Technique
Violations


344
7
Systems in
Violation


193
7
Significant Monitoring
Violations
171
1,657
1,096
56
Systems in
Violation
14**
248
135
47****
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of inorganic (0), nitrate (2), VOC (3), TTHM (2), and SOC (0) subtotals.

 "Sum of inorganic (0), nitrate (8), VOC (3), TTHM (0), and SOC (3) subtotals.

 ***Sum of acute (208) and Non-acute (182) MCL.

 ****Sum of initial lead and copper tap monitoring and reporting (1) and follow-up or routine lead and copper tap monitoring and
 reporting (46).

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
489
1,041*
4,422
* Sum of systems in violation contains double counting.


 1996 Variances and Exemptions

No variances or exemptions were granted to any
PWSs in Puerto  Rico during the 1996 calendar
year.

DISCUSSION
A summary table of Commonwealth data for
drinking water violations during 1996 was
provided and is  summarized above.  During the
1996 calendar year, there were no significant
violations for inorganic contaminants, except for
nitrates.  For the systems in noncompliance
with the MCL for nitrate a Notice of Violation
and Administrative Order was issued.  Closure
Orders were issued to two systems with viola-
tions of the MCLs for tetrachloroethane and
trichloroethane.  In all systems that presented
violations for the group of contaminants regu-
lated in drinking water, a Boil Water Order,
Violation Notification and/or  State and Federal
Administrative Orders have been issued.  In
response to these actions, systems have been
taken out of operation, systems have been
replaced, or have been placed under corrective
action plans to reach compliance.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by Puerto Rico. EPA has not inter-
preted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether Puerto Rico has fully
reported all violations.

       TO         1996 ANNUAL PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Puerto Rico's Report is available by contacting
Mrs. Olga I. Rivera, Puerto Rico Department of
Health, Water Supply Supervision Program, P.O.
Box 70184, San Juan, PR 00936.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  B-45

-------
 Appendix B
           of         Island         Annual        Public
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
3
40


Systems in
Violation
1
31


Treatment Technique
Violations


2
0
Systems in
Violation


2
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
5
6
0
1
Systems in
Violation
5
6
0
1
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
451
46
57
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
There were no variances or exemptions granted
to any Rhode Island PWSs during the 1996
calendar year.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided
in Rhode Island's report. A trend analysis is
illustrated in Rhode Island's State report based
on its drinking water performance indicator.
The performance indicator is the sum of popula-
tion served and days in compliance with MCLs
and treatment technique divided by the sum of
population served  and the total days in opera-
tion. The indicator values were given from 1991
to 1996, with  1996 being the largest value of
0.993.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Rhode Island. EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and is
not commenting on whether the State of Rhode
Island has fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Additional information about Rhode Island's
drinking water program is available on the
State's Web site at http://
www.health.state.ri.us or by contacting the
Rhode Island Department of Health, Office of
Drinking Water Quality, 3 Capitol Hill, Room
209, Providence, RI 02908, phone (401) 222-
6867.
B-46  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                   Appendix B
          of South Carolina 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
11
52


Systems in
Violation
6
44


Treatment Technique
Violations


13
23
Systems in
Violation


12
23
Significant Monitoring
Violations
0
247
0
42
Systems in
Violation
0
130
0
28
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.526
230
388
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
South Carolina did not grant any variances or
exemptions to any PWSs during the 1996 calen-
dar year.

DISCUSSION
South Carolina's State Report included general
PWS inventory information.  The report also
included information on how and why the report
was created, general inventory information on
PWSs in South Carolina, information on the
compliance and enforcement process, and
statistics and conclusions drawn from the data
in the report.  During the calendar year 1996,
230 Federally-defined PWSs, or approximately
7% of the total number of systems, had at least
one violation.  This means that approximately
93% of South Carolina's PWSs were in compli-
ance with all drinking water regulations.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of South Carolina. EPA
has not interpreted the information provided
and is not commenting on whether the State of
South Carolina has fully reported all violations.

       TO        1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
South Carolina's State Report is available by
accessing the State's Web site at http://
www.state.sc.us/dhec/eqchome.htm or http://
www.state.sc.us/dhec/bowl996.exe, by con-
tacting the State at SCDHEC - Bureau of Water,
2600 Bull Street,  Columbia, SC 29201, Atten-
tion: Angela G. Mettlen, or  by contacting Angela
G. Mettlen at (803) 734-5326 or mettleag@
columb32.dhec.state.se.us (electronic mail).
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B-47

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  Appendix B
            of South           1996  Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
53
135


Systems in
Violation
18
95*


Treatment Technique
Violations


19
0
Systems in
Violation


5
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
891
392
0
66
Systems in
Violation
83
188
0
160**
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of acute (11) and non-acute (84) MCL.

 **Sum of initial lead and copper tap monitoring and reporting (94) and follow-up or routine lead and copper tap monitoring and
 reporting (66). The significant noncompliance determinations were due for 94 systems in 1996.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.


1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
751
549*
1,556
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No variances or exemptions have been issued
to any PWSs in South Dakota.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of South Dakota. EPA has
not interpreted the information provided  and is
not commenting on whether the State of South
Dakota has fully reported all violations.
        TO OBTAIN        ANNUAL
PUBLIC WATER
South Dakota's State Report is available by
accessing the State's Web site at http://
www.state.sd.us/state/executive/denr/des/
drinking/dwprg.htm or by contacting the State
at DENR, Drinking Water Program, 523 E.
Capitol St., Pierre, SD 57501-3181.
B 48   September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                  Appendix B
             of Tennessee 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
1
43


Systems in
Violation
1
38


Treatment Technique
Violations


261
0
Systems in
Violation


30
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
248
163
5
8
Systems in
Violation
76
118
4
8
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not  applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.059
262
731
 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
Tennessee does not grant variances or exemp-
tions to PWSs.

DISCUSSION
Tables showing PWSs with violations along with
the dates the violation occurred and the county
where the PWS is located are provided in the
Tennessee State Report.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Tennessee. EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and is
not commenting on whether the State  of Ten-
nessee has fully reported all violations.

       TO         1996 ANNUAL      PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Tennessee's  State Report is available by con-
tacting the Division Water Supply Central Office
at: Division of Water Supply - Central Office,
401 Church Street, 6th Floor, L&C Tower, Nash-
ville, TN 37423-1549, phone (615) 532-0152; or
any of the six field offices: Division of Water
Supply, Suite 550-State Office Building, 540
McCallie Avenue, Chattanooga, TN 37402-2013,
phone (423) 634-5745; Division of Water Supply,
1221  South Willow, Cookeville, TN 38502, phone
(931)  432-4015; Division of Water Supply, 362
Carriage House Drive, Jackson, TN 38305-
2222, phone (901) 661-6200; Division of Water
Supply 2305 Silverdale Road,  Johnson City, TN
37601-2162, phone (423) 854-5400; Division of
Water Supply, Suite 220-State Plaza,  2700
Middlebrook Pike, Knoxville, TN 37219, phone
(423)  594-6035; Division of Water Supply, 537
Brick Church Park Drive, Nashville, TN 37243-
1550, phone (615) 226-6918.  Copies of
Tennessee's  State Report are  also located  in
each county health department and in most
public libraries in Tennessee.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B-49

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  Appendix B
                of        1996 Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
185
269


Systems in
Violation
164
235


Treatment Technique
Violations


49
4
Systems in
Violation


25
4
Significant Monitoring
Violations
N/A
602
210
36
Systems in
Violation
N/A
401
31
36
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 N/A - Not applicable, since in Texas, most of the chemical monitoring is conducted by the State.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
6,658
896*
1,355
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996 VARIANCES AND
No variances or exemptions have been granted
to any Texas PWSs.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information and general
compliance information is provided in Texas'
report. In Texas, most  of the chemical monitor-
ing is conducted by the State.  In 1996, 94.2%
of all Texas PWSs were  in compliance with the
Federal and State laws governing drinking
water quality.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Texas. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Texas has
fully reported all violations.

        TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
A specific source for obtaining a copy of this
report has not been provided. General informa-
tion on  its availability may be obtained from:
Water Utilities Division, Texas Natural Resource
Conservation Commission, P.O. Box 13087,
Austin,  TX 78711-3087, phone (512) 239-6020.
B-50  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                     Appendix B
                 of Utah        Annual         Public
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
Q
97


Systems in
Violation
Q
72


Treatment Technique
Violations


Q
Q
Systems in
Violation


Q
Q
Significant Monitoring
Violations
1.206
285
Q
Q
Systems in
Violation
113
213
Q
Q
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
963
338
1.588
1996 VARIANCES AND
No information was provided on variances or
exemptions during the  1996 calendar year for
Utah PWSs.  SDWIS/FED did not report any
variance or exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
The data table provided did not provide viola-
tions or system data; therefore, SDWIS/FED
data were used.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Utah.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Utah has
fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Utah's State Report is available by  contacting
the State at Utah Division of Drinking Water,
P.O. Box 144830, Salt Lake City, UT 84114-
4830, Attention: Ken Bousfield, phone (801)
536-4207.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  B 51

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 Appendix B
              of Vermont 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
6
133


Systems in
Violation
6
88


Treatment Technique
Violations


20
3
Systems in
Violation


20
3
Significant Monitoring
Violations
126
237
0
109
Systems in
Violation
117
145
0
109
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1,270
488
634
1996 VARIANCES AND
No variances or exemptions have been granted
to any Vermont PWSs.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided
in Vermont's report.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Vermont. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Vermont
has fully reported all violations.

       TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Vermont's State Report is available by contact-
ing the State at Water Supply Division, 103 S.
Main St,  Waterbury, VT 05671-0403, phone
(802)241-3400.
B-52  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                      Appendix B
             Virgin  islands 1996 Annual Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
0
106


Systems in
Violation
0
88*


Treatment Technique
Violations


0
0
Systems in
Violation


0
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
0
110
0
0
Systems in
Violation
0
54*
0
0
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *There were 12 PWSs which had both MCL violations and monitoring violations in 1996.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not  applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
305
130*
216
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where data from the Virgin Islands were not available.
1996            AND
No variances or exemptions have been granted
to any PWSs in the Virgin Islands.

DISCUSSION
A table of data for drinking water violations
during 1996 was provided and is summarized
above. Approximately 8.75% of PWSs in viola-
tion were for not monitoring for biological
contaminants (total coliform) or for failing to
properly report their monitoring data. Approxi-
mately 14% of the PWSs in the Virgin Islands
had at least one month during 1996  in which
they had at least two water samples test positive
for total coliform.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the Virgin Islands. EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the Virgin Islands has
fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
The Virgin Islands  Report can be obtained by
contacting Austin Moorehead, Director, Division
of Environmental Protection, Virgin Islands
Department of Planning and Natural Resources,
Building 111, Apartment 114, Watergut Homes,
Christiansted, St. Croix, USVI, 00820,  phone
(340) 775-0565.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                              September 1998  B-53

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 Appendix B
              of Virginia 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
18
197


Systems in
Violation
U
166


Treatment Technique
Violations


4
0
Systems in
Violation


4
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
23
519
0
59
Systems in
Violation
21
311
0
220*
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

 *Includes 161 systems with significant noncompliance determinations due in 1996.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
4.241
733*
820
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains
 double counting.

1996 VARIANCES AND
No information was provided on any variances
or exemptions granted to any Virginia PWSs
during the 1996 calendar year. SDWIS/FED did
not report any variance or exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
Basic information on Virginia PWSs is provided
in the State report. A summary of compliance
assistance activity is also provided. There were
8,018 technical assistance contacts made
during the 1996 calendar year.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Virginia.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Virginia
has fully reported all violations.
        TO OBTAIN 1996 ANNUAL
PUBLIC WATER
Virginia's State Report is available by accessing
the State's Web site at http://
www.vdh.state.va.us or by contacting any of the
State's following six field offices:  Office of Water
Programs, Abingdon Field Office - Field 1, 454
East Main Street, Abingdon, VA 24210, phone
(540) 676-5650 and fax (540) 676-5659; Office of
Water Programs, Lexington Field  Office - Field
2, 131 Walker Street, Lexington, VA 24450,
phone (540) 463-7136 and fax (540) 463-3892;
Office of Water Programs, Southeast Virginia
Field Office - Field 3, 5700 Thurston Avenue -
Suite 203, Virginia  Beach, VA 23455, phone
(757) 363-3876 and fax (757) 363-3955; Office
of Water Programs, East Central Field Office -
Field 4,  300 Turner Road, Richmond, VA 23225,
phone 1(804) 674-2880 and fax (804) 674-2815;
Office of Water Programs, Danville Field Office -
Field 5,  1347 Piney Forest Road, Danville, VA
24540, phone (804) 836-8416 and fax (804) 836-
8424; Office of Water Programs, Culpeper Field
Office -  Field 6, 400 South Main Street - 2nd
Floor, Culpeper, VA 22701-3318, phone (540)
829-7340 and fax (540) 829-7337.
B-54  September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                   Appendix B
            of Washington 1996 Annual        Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
Q
745


Systems in
Violation
Q
501


Treatment Technique
Violations


239
3
Systems in
Violation


62
3
Significant Monitoring
Violations
Q
1,281
54
Q
Systems in
Violation
Q
1,281
13
Q
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
4,184
1,254
2,322
1996 VARIANCES AND
No variances or exemptions have been issued
to any PWSs in Washington.

DISCUSSION
A table of State data for drinking water viola-
tions was provided and is summarized above.
The report referenced a  1996 study of the State
information management system which found it
to be inadequate to respond to the requirements
of the 1996 Amendments.  Only 50% of
Washington's program information management
needs were being supported by data systems. A
multi year program was initiated in 1997 to
redesign the entire data structure.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Washington. EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and is
not commenting on whether the State of Wash-
ington has fully reported all violations.

       TO        1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Washington's State Report is available by ac-
cessing the State's Web site at http://
www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/dw/ or by contacting the
State at Division of Drinking Water, P.O. Box
47822, Olympia, WA 98504-7822.
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B-55

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  Appendix B
            of        Virginia 1996 Annual         Public Water Systems  Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
0
121


Systems in
Violation
0
110*


Treatment Technique
Violations


38
0
Systems in
Violation


19
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
1,969
646
0
3
Systems in
Violation
398
452
0
288**
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 *Sum of acute (76) and non-acute (34) MCL.

 **Sum of initial lead and copper tap monitoring and reporting (285) and follow-up or routine lead and copper tap monitoring and
 reporting (3).

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
1.374
1,267*
2,777
 *Sum of State systems in violation potentially contains double counting.
1996            AND
No information was provided on variances or
exemptions granted to any West Virginia PWSs
during the 1996 calendar year.  SDWIS/FED did
not report any variance or exemption violations.

DISCUSSION
A summary table of State data for drinking
water violations during 1996 was provided and
is summarized above.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of West Virginia.  EPA has
not interpreted the information provided and is
not commenting on whether the State of West
Virginia has fully reported all violations.

        TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC

A specific source for obtaining a copy of this
report has not been provided.  General informa-
tion may be obtained from: Environmental
Engineering Division, Office of Environmental
Health Services, Bureau of Public Health,  815
Quarrier Street, Suite 401, Charleston, WV
25301, phone (304) 558-2981.
B-56   September 1998
 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

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                                                                                   Appendix B
             of Wisconsin 1996 Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
27
720


Systems in
Violation
27
610


Treatment Technique
Violations


0
4
Systems in
Violation


0
4
Significant Monitoring
Violations
4,352
1,005
0
169
Systems in
Violation
1,014
939
0
168
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
11,895*
2,762
6,277
 *1998 data, no historical data was available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
Wisconsin did not grant variances or exemp-
tions in 1996.

DISCUSSION
General PWS inventory information is provided
in Wisconsin's report. Approximately 95% of the
PWSs in Wisconsin were in compliance with
monitoring requirements.  The three main
reasons for systems' noncompliance were lack of
training or understanding the SDWA require-
ments, operator turnover,  and cost of monitor-
ing.  Wisconsin's Department of Natural Re-
sources is addressing these issues through
development of operator certification and capac-
ity programs.  Over 96% of the people served by
PWSs in Wisconsin received drinking water
within the SDWA limits.  Most MCL violations
were associated with potential bacterial con-
tamination which are short-term in nature and
resolved quickly.
This page provides a summary of the data
reported by the State of Wisconsin.  EPA has not
interpreted the information provided and is not
commenting on whether the State of Wisconsin
has fully reported all violations.

       TO         1996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
Wisconsin's State Report is available by contact-
ing the State at Wisconsin Department of Natu-
ral Resources, P.O.  Box 7921, Madison, WI
53707, Attention: Jim Zellmer - DG/2, phone
(608) 267-7581, zellmj@dnr.state.wi.us (elec-
tronic mail).
1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report
                             September 1998  B-57

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 Appendix B
              of Wyoming 1996 Annual         Public Water Systems Report
VIOLATIONS FOR 1996
Violations Category
Chemical Contaminant Group
Total Coliform Rule
Surface Water Treatment Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
MCL
Violations
0
51


Systems in
Violation
0
51


Treatment Technique
Violations


7
0
Systems in
Violation


4
0
Significant Monitoring
Violations
440
244
0
55
Systems in
Violation
146
187
0
55
 The Chemical Contaminant Group includes MCL violations and significant monitoring violations for organic, inorganic, total
 trihalomethane (TTHM), nitrate and nitrite, and radionuclide contaminants.

 Shaded areas of this chart are not applicable.

1996 TOTALS
Total Number of Regulated Systems
Total Number of Systems in Violation
Total Number of Violations
707
443*
797
 *Sum of systems in violation potentially contains double counting.

 Data from SDWIS/LED have been included and underlined where the State data were not available.
1996 VARIANCES AND
During calendar year 1996, EPA, Region 8 did
not allow variances or exemptions to any MCL
or monitoring requirement for PWSs in the State
of Wyoming for which the Region has primary
enforcement authority.
                                                DISCUSSION
                                                Information provided from EPA Regional Office
                                                since Wyoming does not have primary enforce-
                                                ment authority.

                                                WHERE TO        1 996 ANNUAL       PUBLIC
                                                WATER SYSTEMS REPORT
                                                Wyoming's State Report is available from: John
                                                Gillis, EPA Region 8, 999 18th Street, Suite 500,
                                                Denver, CO 80202-2466, phone (303) 312-6229.
B 58  September 1998
                                                 1996 National Annual Public Water Systems Compliance Report

-------