oEPA
  United States
  Environmental Protection
  Agency
Opportunities For
Petroleum Brown fields
Printed on Recycled Paper

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Foreword
      The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST), in
      partnership with the EPA Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization (OBLR), released the
      Petroleum Brownfields Action Plan: Promoting Revitalization And Sustainability (Action Plan) in
October 2008 (www.epa.gov/oust/pubs/petrobfactionplan.htm). Its purpose was to improve stakeholder
communications; expand technical assistance to states, tribes, and local governments; explore potential
policy changes; and build upon existing successes by expanding partnerships to clean up and reuse
petroleum-contaminated properties.

Since the release of the Action Plan, EPA focused on providing tools to assist stakeholders to better
understand the options and diversity of petroleum brownfields as well as the latent opportunities these
properties often represent. EPA expanded and updated the EPA OUST website
(www.epa.gov/oust/petroleumbrownfields) to provide more information, including case studies of successful
reuse projects for stakeholders to use as models. EPA also developed two reports to help broaden the
discussion on petroleum brownfields: Petroleum Brownfields: Developing Inventories
(www.epa.gov/oust/pubs/pbfdevelopinventories .htm) and Petroleum Brownfields: Selecting A Reuse Option
(www.epa.gov/oust/pubs/pbfreuseoption.htm).

With Opportunities For Petroleum Brownfields, EPA has developed a tool to help state, tribal, and local
public officials, communities, developers, nonprofit organizations, and other stakeholders identify and tap
into the potential of these sites and reap the associated environmental, economic, and aesthetic rewards of
their revitalization. This report presents five categories of petroleum brownfields, examples of successful
reuse projects within those categories, and funding and technical assistance resources for petroleum
brownfields revitalization. By analyzing above and underground storage tank data; compiling funding and
technical assistance resources from the federal, state, local, and private sectors; and relating successful
approaches to revitalization from multiple redevelopment projects, this report aims to give stakeholders the
information they need to assess, clean up, and safely reuse petroleum sites in ways that can benefit
communities.

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Contents
I: Introduction	I
II: Defining Petroleum Brownfields and Their Universe	3
     Category I - Commercial.	7
     Category II - Industrial	10
     Category III - Transportation	13
     Category IV - Residential	15
     Category V - Open Land	17
     Summary of Categories	19
III: Reuse Case Studies	20
     Commercial: Gasoline Station to Sustainable Community Center - Portland, Oregon	20
     Industrial: Textile Mill to Middle School- Woonsocket, Rhode Island	23
     Industrial: Fuel Depot and Bulk Storage Terminal to Housing - Alexandria, Virginia	26
IV: Petroleum Brownfields Resources	29
     National Resources	30
     State Resources	36
     Local and Private Resources	37
V: Conclusion	39
Appendix	I-1

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I:  Introduction
       Opportunities For Petroleum Brownfields helps stakeholders faced with brownfields that have known
       or suspected petroleum contamination issues learn more about these types of properties, the
       opportunities and challenges they present, and the ways these sites can be successfully addressed and
reused. The purpose of defining and categorizing the universe of petroleum brownfields is to help identify
information common to petroleum-contaminated properties and support petroleum brownfields stakeholders
as they navigate the process of identification, assessment, cleanup, and revitalization of these sites. Examples
of stakeholders who can benefit from this report include communities, nonprofit organizations, state and
local governments, tribes, property owners and prospective purchasers, and developers and lenders. The
report helps define the types of sites likely to be considered "petroleum brownfields" and offers links to
stakeholder resources and technical assistance opportunities. More specifically, this report:

    •   Provides a detailed description of the universe of petroleum brownfields;
    •   Describes and defines five categories into which petroleum brownfields can fall and the
        methodology used for these categorizations;
    •   Provides background information and relevant reuse examples across these five categories; and
    •   Includes comprehensive case studies for three successful petroleum brownfields  reuse projects.

In a final section, the report's list of petroleum brownfields resources includes federal and state funding and
technical assistance opportunities, as well as a number of local, private-sector, and other resources available
to stakeholders. While the list of tools and resources in this document is not intended to be comprehensive,
the resources provided will be of value to those looking to assess, clean up, and safely reuse petroleum
brownfields. Like all brownfields, petroleum-affected properties are often loaded with reuse potential and
can become future sites for commerce, industry, recreation, restored natural habitat, and other beneficial uses
for communities. This  report can help stakeholders turn these types of reuse plans into reality.

EPA - Partners and Opportunities for Cleanup and Revitalization

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) and the
EPA Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization (OBLR or Brownfields Program) manage EPA program
efforts that focus on the cleanup and revitalization of petroleum brownfield sites. OBLR takes the lead in
overseeing the award and management of Brownfields grants for the assessment and cleanup of petroleum
brownfields, while OUST, in conjunction with state  programs and the ten EPA Regional offices, implements
a regulatory program for underground storage tank (UST) systems—which are often associated with
petroleum-affected properties. It should be noted that the types of properties eligible for EPA Brownfields
petroleum assessment and cleanup grants represent only a subset of the overall "universe" of sites with
potential petroleum contamination issues (this is defined more clearly in the next section of this report). To
address the larger universe of petroleum brownfields, OUST offers tools and resources to help with
petroleum site identification, assessment, cleanup, and reuse.

OUST works closely with the states and tribes on the implementation of the UST and leaking underground
storage tank (LUST) programs. In addition to its collaborations with OBLR and state and tribal programs,
OUST partners with other EPA offices, including the Office of Sustainable Communities  (OSC) and the
Office of Emergency Management (OEM). OSC and OUST work together to provide technical assistance to
communities to help them address challenging sites, such as petroleum brownfields, and incorporate smart
growth strategies into their planning efforts for redevelopment. OUST confers with OEM on the regulation
of non-transportation-related facilities storing, producing, using, processing, refining, or otherwise managing
oil of any kind that could potentially release oil into  navigable waters.  EPA requires such facilities to develop

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and implement Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) plans. Once a facility is closed, SPCC
requirements are no longer implemented. This can lead to the abandonment of a facility with oil tanks, thus
becoming a potential cause of petroleum brownfields. OUST also continues to support individual state UST
programs in addressing petroleum brownfields.

Description of Report Content

As every petroleum brownfields reuse scenario is unique, this report will be of different value to each person
using it. The report illustrates the diversity of petroleum brownfields and describes categories of such
properties as well as reuse project examples from each of the five categories of sites (Section II). Full case
studies are provided for three different petroleum brownfields reuse projects; these offer information on
obstacles overcome and lessons learned (Section III). For those with funding gaps in their revitalization
projects, the report provides a list of potential funding sources across federal, state, and local programs
(Section IV). This section also lists technical assistance opportunities for environmental assessments, site
reuse planning, or community involvement strategies. The Appendix contains a list of state and territorial
brownfields, UST/LUST, and UST fund program websites. The report is designed to provide enough
background information to give stakeholders an understanding of the different types of petroleum
brownfields  and the number and types of resources available to help address these sites.

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II:  Defining Petroleum  Brownfields  and  Their
     Universe
      Petroleum brownfields can be a complicated concept. Given two adjacent brownfields, the approach to
      reuse at each site could be very different. Federally-regulated USTs1 are typically managed by state
      programs. These sites are often ineligible for EPA Brownfields funding because they do not meet
EPA's funding criteria. Nonregulated sites with no viable responsible party are more likely to meet EPA
eligibility requirements for Brownfields funding. The distinction is important in order to classify a petroleum
brownfield site and determine appropriate and eligible funding and technical assistance. EPA considers a
petroleum brownfield to be a site contaminated with petroleum that qualifies for EPA Brownfields funding
while other entities, such as states, may use different criteria to define petroleum brownfields. The petroleum
brownfields universe, as defined in this report, is not necessarily limited to the types of properties eligible for
EPA Brownfields grants; rather it encompasses all brownfields potentially contaminated by petroleum.

As mentioned, states are an important partner in petroleum brownfields cleanup and reuse and will be able to
help characterize sites according to the EPA Brownfields eligibility criteria identified below. Stakeholders
should refer to EPA Brownfields grant eligibility guidelines to determine whether a given site meets the
eligibility criteria before applying for funding or technical assistance. State UST programs can help
stakeholders identify if a site falls under the purview of its regulatory program and provide guidance on how
to pursue potential assistance. State UST and brownfields programs' websites are a great resource for
stakeholders as the websites often have answers readily available to common questions regarding eligibility
and other petroleum brownfields-related questions. It should be noted that each state operates differently and
may have unique criteria for defining petroleum brownfields. In New Hampshire, for instance, the mere
presence or even potential  presence of petroleum can likely qualify a site as a petroleum brownfield.
Oklahoma addresses oilfields as part of its petroleum brownfields universe when in fact the prominent
contaminant is not petroleum. Therefore, oilfields are not considered petroleum brownfields by the federal
program, but other federal  brownfields funding can be used to address the assessment and cleanup of
oilfields. In Colorado, two separate and distinct agencies—the Division of Oil and Public  Safety and the
Department of Public Health and Environment—are working together to define site eligibility requirements
to help streamline the petroleum brownfields determination process.

EPA Brownfields Definition

EPA defines a brownfield  as a "real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be
complicated  by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant." In
January  2002, the Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act was signed into law.
This law expanded the original EPA  Brownfields Program by including relatively low-risk petroleum sites as
eligible  sites for Brownfields Assessment and Cleanup grant funding. EPA's detailed criteria for determining
whether a site is considered a brownfield can be found at www.epa.gov/brownfields/overview/glossary.htm.

For a petroleum-contaminated site to be eligible for Brownfields grant funds, EPA or a state must determine
that:
        •  The site is of relatively low-risk compared with other exclusively petroleum-contaminated sites
          in the state;
        •  The site has no viable responsible party;
'Not all USTs are federally regulated. Please visit http://www.epa.gov/oust/faqs/ustdefn.htm for more information on UST systems
and how they are regulated.

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       •   The funding will be used by a party that is not potentially liable for the petroleum contamination
           to assess, investigate, or clean up the site;
       •   The site is not subject to a corrective action order under the Resource Conservation and
           Recovery Act (RCRA);
       •   The site does  not include facilities receiving funds for cleanup from the LUST Trust Fund; and
       •   The site is not: 1) undergoing or have a planned removal action under the Comprehensive
           Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA); 2) proposed for or listed
           on the National Priorities List; and 3) subject to an order or consent decree entered into by the
           parties under  Superfund or other federal programs.

Please note that the above criteria are from EPA's most recent eligibility guidelines for petroleum
brownfields; any potential applicant for an EPA Brownfields grant should refer to the most recent version of
those guidelines (available at: http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/applicat.htm) before applying.

Defining the Petroleum  Brownfields Universe

For development of this publication, EPA analyzed sites tracked in its Assessment, Cleanup, and
Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) database; state tank incident databases; and a number of
secondary resources for information on petroleum brownfields, including interviews with local, state, and
federal program contacts.  The goal of the research was to identify the types of sites commonly thought of as
petroleum brownfields and those that could be considered potential petroleum brownfields. Sites were
identified and categorized through a mix of research methods. The purpose of defining the petroleum
brownfields universe is to help identify information common to petroleum-contaminated properties and
support petroleum brownfields stakeholders as they navigate the process of identification, assessment,
cleanup, and revitalization of
these sites.
                                             Frequency of Petroleum
                                          Brownfield Sites by Category
                                                 1%.
                                               3%.
                                     20%
Based on the review of
available information and
discussions with petroleum
brownfields stakeholders, the
set of categories that emerged
is based on general land use
designations and former use
trends. The categories
presented in this report are:
commercial, industrial,
transportation, residential, and
open land. These categories
encompass the range of sites
that historically have been
petroleum brownfields and
the types that could be                   Figure 1 - Frequency of petroleum brownfields sites by category
considered petroleum brownfields. They take into account current and former land use designations.
Generally, stakeholder interviews and data suggest that USTs are the most common release source for a site's
petroleum contamination. In addition, a petroleum brownfield designation may include large sites where only
a fraction of land is potentially affected by petroleum contamination (e.g., a small parcel with a leaking
                                                                       75%
                                                                                   I Commercial

                                                                                   I Industrial

                                                                                   Transportation

                                                                                   I Residential

                                                                                   Open Land
2 Estimates based on sites observed in ACRES and secondary research materials contributed to the development of the categories.
Data as of March 2011. Note'. The ACRES database likely underrepresents certain categories of petroleum brownfields sites, such as
residential, due to difficulties in identifying or inventorying these types of properties.

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petroleum storage tank encompassed by a much larger commercial property). Figure 1 illustrates the
frequency of petroleum brownfields sites by category. The chart is a result of a qualitative analysis of
ACRES and secondary data (e.g., previous publications, stakeholder interviews). Text fields in ACRES were
analyzed by predominant past use for former use information, which varies in availability and detail as
voluntarily reported by Brownfields grant recipients. State tank data and the secondary resources generally
supported the results of the qualitative ACRES analysis.

It should be noted that depending on the particular geographic region, the types of petroleum brownfields
may vary, and USTs may not be the most common source of potential petroleum contamination. For
example, in Oklahoma and Texas there are a significant number of oilfields as a result of former oil
exploration and drilling activities. These two states have over 400,000 known producing and temporarily
shut-in wells. In addition, Oklahoma and Texas have more than 800,000 historically drilled and abandoned
oil, natural gas, and exploratory wells. Oklahoma has found approximately 11,000 abandoned oilfield sites in
the last 15 years, which is over twice the  number of UST cleanup sites it found during the same time period.3

The significance that the examples within this section illustrate is that given the wide range of former uses
for petroleum brownfields, there is an equally wide range of potential reuses. If cleanup standards are
achieved, petroleum brownfields can offer stakeholders redevelopment opportunities that are protective of
human health and the environment and that help achieve community redevelopment goals. A dumping field
for oil industry waste can become the site for a new wing of a hospital. A former petroleum product
distribution facility that contaminated surrounding land can be redeveloped safely into residential units. The
ways in which petroleum brownfields can be transformed into assets are as diverse as their original  uses.

Categories of Petroleum Brownfields

Commercial — The majority of the petroleum brownfields sites fall into this category. The category
includes all sites related to automobile purchasing, repair, and fueling  (e.g., gasoline stations) and all other
general commercial facilities. Certain public uses, such as school, public works, police, or military facilities,
and sites used to support commercial agriculture are also included in this category.

Industrial — The second most common type of site observed in the data are industrial sites. This category
represents sites used for all forms of manufacturing and heavy industrial purposes, including bulk oil storage
(e.g., oil tank farms), pipeline compressor stations and storage yards, former refineries and natural gas
treatment plants, power generation facilities, and mining-related sites. Light-to-heavy manufacturing sites  are
most common within this category.

Transportation — Sites with a transportation-related use are observed in the data regularly, warranting this
category for sites that support the movement of goods and  services. Sites in this category include rail yards,
railroad spurs, roundhouses, airport facilities, and distribution centers for oil and coal, as well as former oil
pipelines.

Residential —Residential sites are  less common than the categories described above. These sites include
those used for housing, those located in residential areas, vacant sites where historical documentation reveals
a residential past use, housing on a military or industrial site, or an apartment building or home with a
heating oil tank.

Open Land —  This type of site is not frequently observed in the data analyzed but still warrants a separate
category. Sites in this category typically are  undeveloped parcels of land that have been environmentally
compromised. This may be the result of illegal dumping or storage, the presence  of an above ground storage
3 Information provided by Patricia Billingsley of the Oklahoma Corporation Commission.

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tank, or proximity to another site with contamination issues. Oilfields resulting from oil exploration and
drilling activities also fall under this category because the footprint associated with these activities is
relatively small in comparison to the amount of open land surrounding the impacted areas.

These categories are identified to help stakeholders understand the land uses that could account for petroleum
contamination. As always, it is important to recognize that not all brownfields require cleanup if an
assessment determines that contamination is not present at the property. If contamination is found at the
property, it might not be limited to petroleum. For example, a petroleum brownfield site4 may have a number
of commingled contaminants of which petroleum is only one. Also, these sites may be viewed by the public
as a petroleum brownfield regardless of whether they are regulated or nonregulated. In the next section, the
listed land use categories identify type of site use, potential contamination, site size, media affected, and
possible institutional controls5.  Stakeholders are encouraged to use this information to help get revitalization
projects started but also to review state brownfields, UST/LUST, and UST fund program websites for readily
available information and to get in touch with their appropriate state contact(s) when additional assistance is
needed. A list of state and territorial brownfields, UST/LUST, and UST fund program websites can be found
in the Appendix of this report.
4 EPA considers a petroleum brownfield to be a site that qualifies for EPA petroleum Brownfields funding while other entities, such
as states, may use different criteria to define petroleum brownfields.
 Institutional controls are defined broadly as legal measures that limit human exposure by restricting activity, use, and access to
properties with residual contamination.

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Category I  - Commercial
Definition

Properties with former uses related to the retail or wholesale of products and services, as well as those that
served a specific institutional, public, or civic need.

Background Information

The commercial category represents the most diverse and largest number of sites as a result of the volume of
former automotive service- and sales-related sites in the U.S., as well as the wide variety of sites with former
commercial uses. Gasoline stations are the most common former use in this category. Other common prior
uses are automotive-related (e.g., auto repair, parking lots, garages, dealerships) or mixed (e.g., banks, auto
parts distributors, tire and battery outlets, grocery stores, offices, restaurants). Marinas, including boat and
equipment storage and repair, where spills or leaks from old fuel and/or oil storage tanks may cause
petroleum contamination also fall under this category. While there are certain shared characteristics of this
category with both the transportation and industrial categories, what sets this category apart is its focus on
the sale of goods and services to the  end user versus the production or movement of goods and services. Sites
in this category are commonly related to automotive service or sales, including automotive-related sites such
as towing services, raceways, and charter bus companies; those used for a variety of public uses such as
school, public works, police, or military facilities; and sites used to support commercial agriculture. Research
indicates that floor drains in service station/auto shops are a common source of contamination as oil and
other products leak to the ground and are washed outside to affect soil and groundwater.
                                        Abandoned gasoline stations


Sites in this category vary in size from .01 acre to 57 acres.6  However, the majority were less than three
acres; these sites tend to be associated with gasoline stations, garages, vacant lots, or general commercial
retail located close to an automotive service-related site. Sites larger than three acres tend to be associated
with automotive dealerships and other larger retailers; salvage or junkyards; combined parcels with one
 Property sizes for all site categories are based on sites analyzed in the ACRES database and are not necessarily reflective of all
petroleum brownfields sites. A petroleum brownfield designation may include large sites where only a fraction of land is potentially
affected by petroleum contamination, or, conversely, a small site that is only one parcel of a larger property that has been assessed.

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having an automotive-related former use; or sites associated with a public or institutional former use such as
schools, hospitals, or the military. Common contaminants found at these sites include petroleum
contamination, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead, and
other metals. Soil and ground-water are the most common media affected at these sites. If institutional
controls (ICs) are required on these sites, the most common 1C category issued is informational devices (e.g.,
state registries, deed notices, advisories), followed by governmental controls (e.g., zoning, building codes,
drilling permit requirements) and proprietary controls (e.g., easements, covenants).

Reuse Project Examples

There are multiple examples of reuse projects at commercial sites, especially former gasoline stations. One
such project is in Throckmorton, Texas, in a historic county that is a geographical, historical, and political
gateway to west Texas. The former Throckmorton Service Station was situated at the artery of three major
interstates and adjacent to the historic courthouse in downtown Throckmorton. The station opened in 1957
on .05  acres of land and served the small rural town until 2007, when one of the site's four USTs was
punctured during municipal utility construction. The project received $71,000 from EPA Region 6's
Targeted Brownfields Assessment (TEA) Program and $32,200 from an EPA Brownfields Cleanup grant,
allowing for site assessments and the removal of 10 cubic yards of petroleum-contaminated soil, 550 gallons
of oil-tainted water, and all four USTs. Today, the site is home to a small public park memorializing the town
as the gateway to west Texas.

In downtown Boise, Idaho, a .45-acre site had been used for automotive service starting in 1947. When the
site's use changed to a 223-space parking garage in 1963, two USTs remained on the property. City
engineers deemed the parking garage structurally unsound in 2000. The garage was owned at the time by the
Capital City Development Corporation, an urban renewal agency that applied for and received a petroleum
Brownfields Assessment grant from EPA in 2004. That grant funded the creation of a brownfields inventory
for Boise's  entire downtown district and eventually led to the full cleanup of the site, including removal of
the two long-buried USTs. The property was eventually redeveloped as the Banner Bank Building, an
environmentally-friendly, energy-efficient 195,000-square-foot office building. Completed in 2006, the
Banner Bank Building received a U.S. Green Building  Council Leadership  in Energy and Environmental
Design (LEED) Platinum certification as well as a 2008 Phoenix Award for "exemplary brownfield
redevelopment and revitalization."

Though not often recognized as a "traditional" petroleum
brownfield, sites used for public uses can also have petroleum
contamination, such as the former Catholic school site located
within the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC). The fourth
highest populated Indian Reservation in the U.S., the GRIC is
located just south of Phoenix, Arizona. St. John's Mission
occupied 160  acres within the reservation as a Catholic school
from the  1920s to the late 1990s, providing support and education
to a community with high unemployment and diabetes  rates. Over
decades of use, USTs for fueling the school's buses were
suspected of contaminating portions of the site's soil and
groundwater. GRIC received nearly $75,000  in funding from
EPA's Office of Underground Storage Tanks in 2002 and a
$200,000 EPA petroleum Brownfields Cleanup grant in 2004 to address contaminated areas on a 40-acre
portion of the site, which resulted in the removal of two USTs. The project  received an additional $6 million
in federal funding that enabled the transformation of the property into a Diabetes Resource Center, a Boys
and Girls Club, and a 10-acre community park.
Boys & Girls Club redeveloped on the site
   of the mission's former gymnasium

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The Pik Kwick gasoline station operated in the Harris Park Historic Area of Westminster, Colorado, from
1952 until 1992 when the USTs were removed and contamination was discovered. The .5-acre property
remained vacant from 1992 until redevelopment was stimulated in 2007 once eligibility to the state fund was
established and cleanup began. The Colorado Division of Oil and Public Safety's (OPS) Petroleum Storage
Tank Committee determined the immediately previous owner was not responsible for the release. Based on
this status, the current owner chose to have the state conduct the cleanup, which includes soil vapor
extraction with oxygen diffusion at a cost of approximately $526,000. OPS worked closely with the
developer, city, and the purchaser of the completed building to integrate site cleanup with the property's end
reuse.

Completed in 2008, the 12,000-square-foot Neighborhood Building contains retail and office space. Due to
redevelopment, approximately 24 full-time office positions and 10 full-time retail positions were created as
well as approximately $33,000 in city and county tax revenues.

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Category  II - Industrial
Definition

Sites formerly used for predominantly light-to-heavy manufacturing operations.

Background Information

The industrial category is second only to the commercial category in the number of sites identified. This
category is diverse and includes former land uses that range from oil refineries to steel and iron
manufacturing to food production. The industrial category also has strong ties to land utilized for industry
that is often located near major infrastructure used to transport goods to the market place (e.g., waterfront
ports, rail, airports, and highways). What sets the industrial category apart from the transportation and
commercial categories is its focus on the production of goods rather than their movement or sale.

Other former land uses frequently observed in the industrial category include those for the reconditioning,
manufacture, and storage of heavy machinery; bulk fuel storage; a parcel on an industrial site used to store
fuel (e.g., coal, oil); steel manufacturing; and warehouses. However, this category also includes former uses
such as metal scrap yards, automotive  manufacturing and crushing facilities, asphalt plants, electric power
generation, and natural resource mining and exploration operations.
                    Former bulk oil storage terminal (left) and abandoned manufacturing site (right)
Sites reviewed varied in size from .01 acre to 693 acres; however, the majority of sites were less than five
acres. Smaller sites were associated with a wide range of industrial facilities, such as land used for bulk fuel
storage, reconditioning of large machinery, metal fabrication, mills and foundries, and a host of other general
manufacturing uses. Sites larger than seven acres were typically associated with mixed industrial uses,
manufacturing of large equipment, steel and iron manufacturing, and refineries. Though less frequently
observed, larger sites were also associated with quarries and mining and oil exploration and drilling.
Assessments of industrial properties often revealed petroleum, VOCs, PAHs, lead, and other metals. Soil and
groundwater are the most common media affected. When ICs are required, proprietary controls (e.g.,
easements, covenants), governmental controls (e.g., zoning, building codes, drilling permit requirements),
informational devices (e.g., state registries, deed notices, advisories), and enforcement/permit tools (e.g.,
orders, permits, consent decrees) were observed. In many regards, commercial sites and industrial sites are
very similar in contamination, media affected, and ICs required.

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Reuse Project Examples
One successful reuse project is the Clyde Iron Works project in Duluth, Minnesota. Products manufactured
at this 12.2-acre steel foundry and manufacturing company established in 1889 were used to support the
logging industry and for constructing bridges, dams, and tunnels across the nation. In 2003 a reuse project for
the Clyde Iron Works facility began, with the goal of a mixed-use redevelopment that would help revitalize
the surrounding community. In 2005, the City of Duluth received a total of $400,000 in EPA Brownfields
Assessment grants for petroleum and hazardous substances, which allowed for formation of a cleanup
strategy.  In 2010, after seven years of cleanup and reconstruction, the Clyde Iron Works site was transformed
into the Clyde Park marketplace. This development includes the Clyde Restaurant & Bar, Brewery, and
Event Center. During this project, developers focused on preserving the history of the site by restoring much
of the historical architecture, including the massive iron beams and timber columns, along with the facility's
original brick and wood flooring. In addition, a portion of the site was donated to the nonprofit Duluth
Heritage  Sports Center, which constructed a new 1,200-seat hockey arena, a multi-use sports pavilion, a
12,000-square-foot Boys and Girls Club, recreational space, and an arts and crafts center.

As one of the fastest growing colleges in the state, Goodwin
College, located in East Hartford, Connecticut, wanted to
expand. The College purchased adjacent properties totaling 30
acres along Riverside Drive, which had been used for petroleum
storage and distribution due to their proximity to the
Connecticut River. These properties were substantially
contaminated with petroleum, VOCs, PAHs, and lead. The
Metro Hartford Brownfields Assessment Program, a joint
project of the Capitol Region Council of Governments and the
MetroHartford Alliance, worked together with the Connecticut
Department of Environmental Quality, Goodwin College, the
Town of East Harford, and the Connecticut Development
Authority to remove 30 above ground storage tanks (ASTs) and
address contaminated soil using natural bioremediation
techniques. A $121,900 Brownfields Assessment grant was provided by EPA; cleanup and development is
being funded by Goodwin College (which has contributed approximately $52 million) and the Connecticut
Development Authority (which provided $3 million). Total costs for cleanup and redevelopment are
estimated at $115 million.

Goodwin College has also assembled more than 700 acres along Riverside Drive surrounding its newly
improved campus to create a publicly-accessible riverfront park that includes 2!/2 miles of walking trails and
several sports fields. Construction of its new riverfront campus is slated for completion in 2012 and will
include 257,500 square feet of new classrooms, dorms, a library, an early childhood learning center, and
administrative space. The first building to have been completed as part of this project houses 39 new
classrooms, six science labs, computer labs, a student lounge, a cafe, a 700-seat auditorium, a library and
media center, and community rooms.
    Site of Good-win College's
future river campus (Source: Aerial
  Photography by Don Couture)

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Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, went through boom and bust periods
until the oil industry collapsed in the 1980s. To attract new investors
and employers downtown to revitalize its stagnant economy, the city
devised a unique and innovative approach known as the Metropolitan
Area Projects (MAPS) plan, which proposed a one-cent increase in
the city's sales tax for public infrastructure projects. The plan was
voted on by the public in December 1993, and with public support
for new infrastructure and diversified commercial growth, the MAPS
initiative soared. The resulting $309 million in funds and $54 million
in tax revenue interest went directly to rebuilding and renovating
downtown infrastructure; remediating petroleum brownfields,
industrial sites,  and oilfields; and turning the area into a vibrant
commercial and community center.

In total, there were nine public infrastructure projects under the
MAPS initiative, including the Bricktown Ballpark, the Ford Center,
the downtown library, the Bricktown Canal restaurant and shopping
district, renovation of the Myriad Convention Center, improvements
to the state fairgrounds,  rebuilding  of the Civic Center Music Hall,
the restoration and redevelopment of a seven-mile stretch of the
North Canadian River now known as the Oklahoma River, and the
introduction of the "Oklahoma Spirit" trolley system. The final
project, the downtown library, was dedicated in August of 2004.
Overall, private and public capital investments, including MAPS,
exceeded $4 billion. A new MAPS initiative  is now acquiring land
between downtown Oklahoma City and the banks of the Oklahoma
River for the development of a 750-acre Core to Shore park and
residential/retail area project located in an old oilfield, light
industrial, and partly residential area. Thus far, over 50 potential
petroleum brownfields have been located for assessment.7
Bricktown Canal area before MAPS
  (Source: City of Oklahoma City)
 Bricktown Canal area after MAPS
  (Source: City of Oklahoma City)
1 Information about the MAPS project was provided by Lloyd A. Kirk, Environmental Programs Specialist with the Oklahoma
Department of Environmental Quality. For more information on the MAPS project, visit: http: //www. bro wnfieldrenewal. com/print-
features perspective transformation  of a city mdash one penny at a time-856.html.

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Category  III - Transportation
Definition

Sites in the transportation category predominantly had a former use related to supporting the movement of
goods and services in both the public and private sectors.

Background Information

Transportation-related land use is where the land is used for goods and services in transit and for
maintenance of the rail cars, boats, and planes used to transport goods and services. Most of the sites in this
category are related to the rail industry (e.g., switchyards, freight depots, rail car storage and maintenance,
and railroad spurs) but also include airport grounds, fleet service and maintenance such as those related to the
trucking industry, and distribution centers for oil and coal. Pumping and/or compressor stations for oil and
natural gas pipelines and pipeline leak areas would also be included.
                                          Abandoned rail yards
Site acreage reviewed included sites from .01 acre to 144 acres; however, the majority of sites were less than
ten acres. Petroleum contamination is common at these sites, as are PAHs, VOCs, lead, and other metals.
Soil and groundwater are the most common media affected. When ICs are required, they are governmental
controls (e.g., zoning, building codes, drilling permit requirements) and informational devices (e.g., state
registries, deed notices, advisories).

Reuse Project Examples

There are many different examples of current reuse projects
at sites that fit within this category: an airport in Ohio, an
airport hangar in Illinois, a rail yard in Missouri, a fleet
fueling and maintenance site in Michigan, and a former rail
yard in St. Paul, Minnesota. In St. Paul, the city identified a
27-acre former rail yard along the Mississippi River that was
covered in trash, abandoned appliances, and contaminated
soil. The city used a total of $400,000 in EPA Brownfields
Cleanup grants to prepare the site for reuse; the project also
leveraged funding from the National Park Service, the
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and the Trust
Bruce Vento Nature Sanctuary in St. Paul, MN

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for Public Land to acquire and convey the land to the City of St. Paul. Completed in 2004, cleanup included
the removal of 7,500 tons of petroleum-contaminated soil, redistribution of 20,000 tons of soil, and
replacement of another 25,000 tons of soil to safely cover the property. After cleanup, much of the property
was restored to its natural habitat, with ten acres set aside for recreational purposes. Now named the Bruce
Vento Nature Sanctuary, the site is maintained by the city, and open to the public. Additional wetlands
restoration on the site will continue for several years to come.

As part of its ambitious 110-acre South Jefferson Redevelopment Area revitalization effort, the City of
Roanoke, Virginia, assembled 25 acres once used for locomotive maintenance and transformed them into the
Riverside Center for Research and Technology (RCRT), which includes the world-renowned Carilion
Medical Center and Biotechnology Park.  The property had been used for locomotive servicing and fueling
from the  early 1900s until 1959. As time passed, much of the site's rail infrastructure was removed and the
roundhouse demolished. A few tracks remained until 2004 to allow access to various industrial uses on the
site, including a concrete plant, warehouses, and building supply facilities.  Environmental assessments
initiated through the Virginia Department of Environmental  Quality's Voluntary Remediation Program
identified the site's primary environmental concern as a layer of cinder fill  material containing various metals
and petroleum constituents. These issues  were addressed through ICs (i.e., land use restrictions based on the
commercial nature of development). In mid-2004,  demolition began on the site, after which construction
commenced on the medical center.

An initial $20 million investment by the city through the Roanoke Redevelopment and Housing Authority to
establish and administer the redevelopment area, create the redevelopment  plans, acquire and assemble
property, and perform environmental assessments has leveraged nearly $200 million in private investment
from sources such as the Carilion Biomedical Institute, Carilion Clinic, and Carilion/Virginia Tech Medical
School. Now mostly complete, the RCRT will bring high-tech  industry growth and new jobs to the area.
Local materials were used in construction, and nearly 80 percent of construction waste material was recycled.
RCRT developers will eventually seek LEED certification for these green building efforts  and other
sustainable features of the Center's design.

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Category  IV - Residential
Definition

Property formerly used for predominately residential purposes.

Background Information

Sites in this category include residential housing areas, mixed commercial/residential sites, private residences
adjacent to rail lines, housing located on commercial/industrial properties, apartment buildings with first
floor commercial or community space, homes with heating oil tank leaks, and residences on large parcels of
land. In some instances, "residential" is merely the assumed land use based on surrounding land usage. There
are fewer sites in this category compared to other categories since many residential properties may not have
potential contamination issues. However, the potential does exist, especially for homes with heating oil tanks
or those adjacent to sites with petroleum contamination (and the possibility of migration). Additionally, there
are some circumstances where the original use of a property may have been for purposes such as fueling but
it was converted into a residential property decades ago.

Site size ranges from less than . 1 acre to more than 850 acres; however, the majority of sites were less than
one acre. On the larger site referenced, 850 acres was the entire property size with residential use reported on
roughly 10 percent of the property. Petroleum contamination is common at these sites, and lead, other metals,
and PAHs are often found during environmental assessments. Soil and groundwater are the most common
media affected. When ICs are required, they likely are governmental controls (e.g., zoning, building codes,
drilling permit requirements), informational  devices (e.g., state registries, deed notices, advisories), and
proprietary controls (e.g., easements, covenants). The assumed source of contamination for many current and
past residential sites is a leaking heating oil tank.

Reuse  Project Examples

There are many examples of reuse projects at sites that fit this category: a century-old residential property in
Iowa, a home in Arizona adjacent to railroad tracks, housing within the Naval Ammunition Plant in Nevada,
former gasoline stations that were  converted to residential use decades ago in New Hampshire, and vacant
land in Indiana where maps and historical records determined that a residence had once occupied the site.

In Kansas City, Kansas, the South Central Neighborhood
Association wished to convert a vacant lot in a residential
neighborhood into a community garden. The Association
received a grant from EPA's Brownfields Program in April
2004 to address concerns of potential petroleum
contamination from service stations adjacent to the property.
After assessments confirmed that petroleum residues fell
safely below state standards, the site was redeveloped into a
garden with a park, picnic tables, stone pathways,
greenspace, and sculptures.
                                                             Prescott Community Garden (Source: Kansas
                                                             Department of Health and Environment

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Two abandoned USTs were discovered on a one-
acre residential property in Lyndeborough, New
Hampshire, when one of the tanks collapsed and
created a hole after a Department of Transportation
truck filled with gravel drove over the tank. Both
tanks contained small amounts of gasoline sludge
and were located in close proximity to the street.
The current property owner was unaware that the
property had originally been used as a gasoline
station in the 1930s and 1940s and did not have the
resources to remove the tanks. Using $7,900 in
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
(ARRA) funding, the New Hampshire Department
of Environmental Services (NHDES) removed the
abandoned tanks in December 2009. NHDES
routinely encounters abandoned tanks near
roadways, and in some cases the properties have
been converted to residential use. The local
minister and his family continue to live in the
home on the property.
Excavation of abandoned gasoline tanks in a residential
Lyndeborough neighborhood (Source: NHDES)

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Category V - Open Land
Definition

Property predominately unused but environmentally compromised.

Background Information

Most sites in this category include those with petroleum contamination issues but no former land use is
known or on record. Such properties might be undeveloped land, parkland, or other forms of greenspace
disturbed by an AST on the site, illegal dumping, or contaminant migration from an adjacent site. Most
common examples are open land on larger sites with perceived contamination and open land with illegal
dumping issues.

In certain geographic areas, such as Oklahoma and Texas, oilfields are by far the most common type of
petroleum-contaminated brownfield. Oilfields fall under this category because the footprint related to
exploration and drilling activities is relatively small in comparison to the amount of open land surrounding
the impacted areas. Residual pollution is often best found using aerial photography since the contamination
cannot be seen from a distance at ground level. Actual contamination levels on oilfields vary greatly, from
mere surface debris to heavy amounts of petroleum mixed with drilling mud or spilled oilfield brine. These
sites are typically rural and often reused as pastures, farmland, hunting leases, wildlife areas, and greenspace.
However, around cities such as Tulsa or Houston, suburban communities have been built on old oilfield
lands.
                                                            Abandoned oilfield before and after cleanup (Source: Oklahoma Cor^
Sites reviewed ranged from less than .1 acre to more than 850 acres; however, the majority of sites were
between one and five acres, and almost all were less than 15 acres. Depending on the source of the
contamination, asbestos, PAHs, lead, and other metals can be found during environmental assessments. Soil
and groundwater are the most common media affected. When ICs are required, they are governmental
controls (e.g., zoning, building codes, drilling permit requirements) and informational devices (e.g., state
registries, deed notices, advisories).

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Reuse Project Examples

There are many different examples of reuse projects at sites in this category that have benefited from EPA
Brownfields Assessment and/or Cleanup grants. These include a .9-acre site in Niagara County, New York,
with no buildings and a sizeable wooded section where two ASTs operated between the 1970s and 1980s; a
13-acre site with two administrative buildings and the remainder as open land, including four acres of
riverfront, owned by a paper mill in New Hampshire; an 80-acre natural resource area in Michigan that was
the site of an illegal dump and storage area; undeveloped land used for grazing/ranching in Arizona; and six
acres of parkland in Iowa. EPA Section 128a funds, which support state and tribal response programs that
address brownfields sites, and state funds have been used to assess and restore abandoned oil well sites in
Oklahoma and Texas to productive (agricultural) use.

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Summary of Categories
The table below lists the various petroleum brownfields categories, the range of sites that historically have
been petroleum brownfields, and the types of sites that could be considered petroleum brownfields.
   Former Land
       Use
       Description
                                           Categories of Petroleum Brownfields
     Commonly Observed Petroleum
            Brownfields Sites8
             Additional Petroleum
              Brownfields Sites9
 Commercial
Property formerly used
predominately for retail or
wholesale of products and
services; to serve
institutional, public, or civic
needs; and commercial
agriculture
Gasoline (and diesel) stations or fuel stations,
including convenience stores, multi-use sites
with gasoline stations on portion of site,
garages or repair shops (e.g., automotive,
machine, farm equipment), storage, body
shops, used car lots, dealerships (e.g.,
automobile, tire), and agriculture supply stores
Automotive: Cab companies, junkyards, auto or
truck salvage, asphalt/pavement companies, auto
impound lots, parking lots, race tracks and drag
strips, tractor-trailer and RV dealerships, truck stops,
commercial driver training facilities, car rentals, and
oil change shops
General Commercial: Vacant store fronts, vacant
supermarkets, retail shopping, hardware stores, auction
houses, hotels, motels, warehouses, drive-in movie
theaters, tiling companies, farms, landfill buffer areas,
communications facilities, office buildings, and land used
to service marinas, yacht clubs, or boatyards
Public: Schools, hospitals, former national guard
sites, job training facilities, correctional facilities,
military facilities, fire stations, and churches
Agricultural: Retail farm equipment and supply
 Industrial
Property formerly used
predominately for light-to -
heavy manufacturing
operations
Bulk storage sites, tank farms (ASTs or USTs),
bulk oil and coal storage sites, warehouses,
former oil refineries, former manufactured gas
plant facilities, food production, grain elevators,
and general manufacturing
Manufacturing: Asphalt plants, paint factories, textile,
paper and flour mills, agricultural chemicals and seeds,
foundries, factories, canneries, automotive plants,
plastics manufacturing, welding shops, rubber plants,
and iron/metal manufacturing
Industrial Facilities: Electric power generation, solid
waste transfer stations, raw material stockpiles, slag
piles, chemical and dye facilities, sites with hydraulic lifts,
scrap yards, burn pits, pump stations, landfills, lumber
operations, and feed storage
Mining: Strip mines, quarries, and gravel mines and pits
 Transportation
Property formerly used
predominately to support the
movement of goods and
services (public or private)
Fleet management sites, transit stations,
maintenance facilities, distribution facilities (e.g., oil
and coal), pipelines, rail including rail lines on
property, rail yards, rail car repair, roundhouses,
rail right of ways (ROWs), yard sidings, and
switchyards
Shipyards, airports, airfields, terminals, fuel
terminals, rail spurs, rail stations, trolley systems,
heliports, seaplane bases, port areas, interstate oil
and natural gas pipelines and pumping stations,
canal systems, trucking fleet service and
maintenance facilities, and train depots
 Residential
Property formerly used
predominately for residential
purposes
Mixed use properties that include a residential
component, historically residential properties
now vacant, housing torn down for commercial
reuses, and oilfields in unzoned residential
                                              areas
Mobile home parks, RV parks, apartment
complexes, homes with heating oil tanks, and towns
and suburbs built after World War II over old,
abandoned commercial and industrial sites that are
now being redeveloped
 Open Land
Land is predominately
unused but environmentally
compromised
Open fields with an AST but never developed,
illegal dumping sites, undeveloped land adjacent to
contaminated sites, and natural gas or oil
exploration and drilling areas typically in open
fields
Beaches, other sandy areas, transitional areas (e.g.,
wetlands) in close proximity to developed land, open
space, parks, forested lands from which trees have
been removed, and off-road recreational areas
8 Sites in ACRES and state tank databases.
  Sites in ACRES and secondary resources (i.e., stakeholder interviews, previous publications) or inferred based on research;
common source of petroleum contamination assumed to be an on-site UST or AST.

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    :  Reuse  Case  Studies
      EPA and states have helped to support petroleum brownfields stakeholders in their efforts to redevelop
      petroleum brownfields sites for several years. Since 2003, when petroleum-contaminated sites first
      became eligible for EPA Brownfields grants, the agency has awarded close to $23 million annually
for the assessment and cleanup of petroleum sites. Stakeholder partnerships and funding from EPA and other
entities across the federal, state, local, and private sectors have been critical to the successful reuse of
petroleum brownfields. It is important to remember that while all sites are unique, stakeholders can learn
from those projects that have achieved their petroleum brownfields reuse goals.

The success of efforts to reuse a petroleum brownfields site often depends on a multitude of issues, including
ownership complications, community acceptance of reuse plans, migrating contaminants, funding gaps,
institutional controls, and ensuring that cleanup standards match intended reuses. Sometimes such
complications can delay a project or even halt progress indefinitely. However, in most instances,
stakeholders involved in petroleum brownfields reuse  can develop strategies to make their projects
successful. In each of the following three  case studies, the projects overcame significant barriers and
transformed petroleum-contaminated brownfields into properties of great value to their surrounding
communities.

Commercial:  Gasoline Station to Sustainable Community Center - Portland, Oregon

Background

The subject of this case study is a former gasoline station in Portland, Oregon, considered to be a brownfield
due to possible contamination from USTs. Located in North Portland in a residential area across from a city
park, the property was occupied by an Arco Products Company (ARCO) gasoline station from 1963 to
approximately 1989. The facility was identified by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)
as having LUST issues, and in  1989, ARCO excavated five USTs from the site and removed approximately
20 cubic yards of petroleum-impacted soil. In August  1990, DEQ provided ARCO with a No Further Action
letter, clearing the path for eventual purchase and redevelopment of the site.

Motivations for Redevelopment
The Portland Alumnae Chapter of the Delta Sigma Theta
Sorority, Inc., is an organization of 250 college-educated
women from a variety of professions and committed to
public service. The organization's mission is to create
community projects for the public good.

More than two decades ago, a small group of African
American women in the Portland Alumnae Chapter of
Delta Sigma Theta decided they needed a home for their
chapter and a community center from which they could
conduct their outreach projects. June Key, one of the
Sorority's alumnae, bought the ARCO gasoline station in
1992 and donated the property to the Sorority.
Former ARCO gasoline station before reuse
    (Source: Nye Architecture, LLC)
From the beginning of this project, the Sorority sisters did not want just a building but a place that
represented progress and inspired others. The Delta Sigma Theta chapter decided to redevelop the former

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gasoline station property in a sustainable manner—to both
serve as a Living Building Challenge demonstration project
and to show that "green" practices can come from
grassroots efforts. The Living Building Challenge is a green
building rating system created by the International Living
Building Institute to recognize buildings meeting the
highest level of sustainability. To meet the Living Building
Challenge, a building must produce all of its own energy
and manage all of its own water on site, as well as use
nontoxic, locally-sourced materials. Considered to be
among the most  stringent green building standards
(exceeding even LEED Platinum requirements), meeting
the Living Building Challenge would be an ambitious goal
for any project, let alone one that was 20 years in the
making  and that could have failed without the perseverance
and dedication of a small group of women.

Grassroots Redevelopment Strategy
Some of the design components used by
Delta Sigma Theta to meet the Living Building
Challenge and have a net-zero impact on the
environment include:
I) Incorporating recycled metal cargo containers in the
design of their approximately 2,700-square-foot public
facility to demonstrate options for materials reuse in
sustainable design

2) Utilizing stormwater management and rain water
harvesting systems to demonstrate water conservation
strategies

3) Incorporating energy-conserving systems (mainly a
ground source heat pump) and energy-producing
systems (specifically photovoltaics) to demonstrate the
feasibility of net-zero energy use in community
development projects
To make the new community center a reality, Delta Sigma Theta used a grassroots strategy, including
conducting fundraising efforts and seeking grants and technical assistance. Donations and in-kind community
and business support got the project started. A local construction company donated survey work and created
a preliminary blueprint in  1992. Through donations, garage sales, and fundraisers the Sorority began to
amass the needed funds; however, it was not until a longtime Delta Sigma Theta member willed $60,000 to
the project that a more detailed design phase could begin. Architecture graduate students at the University of
Oregon submitted five green designs for the project in 2003, and one was selected.

Little by little, through its  outreach efforts and the determination of its members, Delta Sigma Theta
continued to build financing for the project's estimated $900,000 construction cost. In 2007, Benson
Industries, a local manufacturer, donated $57,000 worth of glass that would otherwise have gone to a landfill
to the project. Professionals including architects, hydrologists, consultants, and engineers offered their
services either pro bono or for nominal fees. The project's green redevelopment approach also attracted
federal and local grants and technical assistance. In April 2007, the project was awarded more than $119,000
from Portland's  Bureau of Planning and Sustainability's  Green Investment Fund for reusing  salvaged
shipping cargo containers  in its design. Recycling large shipping containers is an eco-friendly and affordable
alternative to using conventional building materials for housing. In 2008, the project received a $25,000 EPA
Sustainability Pilot technical assistance grant that provided recommendations for sustainable stormwater
management and reuse and sustainable landscape design to meet the Living Building Challenge. Through an
EPA Brownfields Assessment grant, the City of Portland conducted assessments confirming that stormwater
infiltration would not destabilize any remaining contaminants, which allowed the designs to  be approved by
Portland's Bureau of Development Services.

In March 2010, local support for the project continued in the form of a Commercial Property Redevelopment
loan and Storefront Improvement and Community Livability grants totaling over $430,000 from the Portland
Development Commission. With an additional  $25,000 grant from the Tribes of Grand Ronde (Spirit
Mountain Casino), enough money had been raised for construction to begin. The Sorority continues to find
innovative ways to raise money for additional project costs, including selling  etchings on the planned glass
doors of the renovated building.

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Results
                                                            Construction underway using recycled shipping
                                                             containers (Source: Nye Architecture, LLC)
The first phase of construction—which began in August
2010 and was planned for completion in mid-2011—
increases the former gasoline station's building from
1,507 to 2,757 square feet to accommodate a new
meeting hall, three restrooms, accessory office space,
and a kitchen. Oregon Tradeswomen, a nonprofit that
helps women access living wage careers in construction
and green jobs through job training programs, provided
workers to aid in construction. In February 2011, those
workers provided the interior framing for the cargo
containers that will become the kitchen and restrooms.
The new community center will offer activities such as
tutoring sessions for school-age children and youth,
activities for seniors, and other neighborhood-oriented
activities. The second phase of construction will include
transitional housing adjacent to the property, also using shipping containers. Existing open space on the east
side of the  site will become a community garden.

Keys to Success/Lessons Learned

    •    A "green" redevelopment approach can both benefit and challenge a project. This project benefited
        through successful outreach that helped boost funding. However, meeting green standards can be
        more demanding and time intensive. In this project, all material going into the project needed to be
        evaluated to ensure it met Living Building Challenge requirements.
    •    If a project is ambitious enough and has a story/goal that generates public support, sources of
        funding can eventually be found.
    •    Because site design required storm water infiltration on-site, additional site testing was required by
        the city to determine if any residual contamination might be mobilized. This moved the project
        schedule back but allayed concerns and allowed the project to continue to pursue the Living Building
        Challenge.
    •    From garage sales to federal grants, tap  every possible resource to achieve a project's financial goals.
        Be creative and innovative in fundraising efforts.
Besides significant in-kind community and business support, Delta Sigma Theta compiled substantial public
and private funding sources for the project.
Local Funding
                             City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability's Green Investment Fund
                             Portland Development Commission
                             City of Portland Environmental Services
                             City of Portland Community Benefit Opportunity Program
Federal Funding
                             US EPA
Private/Nonprofit Funding
                             Tribes of Grand Ronde Spirit Mountain Community Fund
                             Rotary Club of Albina
                             Black United Fund
                             Energy Trust of Oregon
                             Legacy Emanuel Hospital Community Services
                             NIKE Community Grant
                             Piedmont Rose Connection, Inc.
                             Individual and business donations

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Industrial: Textile Mill to Middle School - Woonsocket,  Rhode Island
                                                              Woonsocket Middle School in Rhode Island
Background

Located at the northernmost part of Rhode Island bordering the
State of Massachusetts, Woonsocket has more than 43,000
residents and is Rhode Island's sixth largest city. Covering a 7.7-
square mile area bisected by the Blackstone River, Woonsocket
is a historically industrial city: its river frontage made it ideal for
the textile mills that proliferated in the mid-1800s. Many of
these mills faltered and closed during the Great Depression,
though World War II brought a temporary resurgence to the
area's textile industry.  Though most of Woonsocket's economy
has long since shifted from textile production to other more
stable types of manufacturing, idle remnants of the city's milling
operations are still easily found. With assistance from EPA
grants, the city identified more than 320 brownfields
representing more than 440 acres of idle and underused land in an area that is almost fully developed.

The 19-acre  property at the focus of this case study was assembled from 13 individual brownfields with
industrial uses dating back to the 1890s. Facilities on these adjacent parcels processed raw cotton into fabric
and dyed textiles. Another adjacent facility processed goat and camel hides to create cashmere. By the late
1960s, many of the lots had been purchased by a single company, American Copper Sponge (later known as
ACS Industries), which used the site to manufacture plastic cleaning supplies as well as metal automobile
parts. While these uses had ended by the early 2000s, ACS still used the property as an industrial knitting
facility until its buildings (as well as those of two neighboring textile companies) were destroyed by a
massive fire  in 2003. The City of Woonsocket acquired a large portion of the site through tax title in 2004,
including the largest remaining mill structure that had been built in 1908. However, the mill building was
destroyed by a second  fire in 2006.

Environmental Issues

Even before  these adjacent parcels were considered for a specific reuse, EPA Brownfields Assessment grants
awarded to the city in 2003 and 2006 were used to fund environmental investigations. Conducted by an
environmental consulting firm on behalf of the city and the Rhode Island Department of Environmental
Management (RIDEM), these assessments revealed a number of environmental issues resulting from former
industrial uses as well  as the recent fires, including the following.

    •   Petroleum in  soil: The multiple mill buildings on these parcels were heated with No. 6 oil, and all
       had one or more large USTs averaging 25,000 gallons, most dating back 50 years or more—12 USTs
       in all. Every one of these USTs had leaked, creating significant areas of petroleum contamination. In
       addition, soil at two other locations contained petroleum from oil used to lubricate industrial
       machinery.
    •   Urban fill-related compounds in soil: Soil throughout the site contained unsafe concentrations of
       semi-VOCs and metals. This was likely attributable to the use of urban fill material  (e.g., bricks,
       concrete, ash)  during previous development activities, common practice at industrial sites at the time,
       as well as contamination resulting from the site's long industrial usage.
    •   Volatile compounds in soil/groundwater: A volatile compound known as tetrachloroethene (PCE
       or PERC), used as an industrial solvent, was detected in unsafe concentrations in the area's soil and
       groundwater.

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Motivations for Redevelopment

Less than three blocks away from this area, Woonsocket's Middle School had its own share of problems.
With more than 1,600 students, the school had grown far beyond its original intended capacity, and its
structures and facilities were outdated. At the time the first round of environmental assessments was being
conducted on these nearby brownfields parcels, the city and school officials were searching for undeveloped
land on which to create a new middle school campus—a considerable challenge within Woonsocket's
densely-populated boundaries. The city was able to consolidate these adjacent brownfields—with their prime
location and existing utility and roadway access—for redevelopment into a new, much needed middle school
campus.

Environmental Justice Issues

Given the nature of this project—reuse of contaminated industrial land for a school—it received a great deal
of public attention and scrutiny from the beginning. In addition, the targeted area fell within an
Environmental Justice Zone designated by EPA and RIDEM. The project gave RIDEM the opportunity to
test some newly established public outreach strategies specifically designed for potentially controversial land
reuse projects, which included aggressive public outreach and a proactive approach to disseminating project
information. A series of public meetings allowed local residents to voice concerns and have their questions
addressed, including an initial meeting that explained to the community the details of the planned assessment
and cleanup and how comprehensive each of those steps would be. During these meetings, feedback was
sought from long-time residents who had actually worked at these former mills to get "inside information"
on potential contaminants and areas of concern from those intimately familiar with industrial operations on
the site. Public notices on project status and upcoming meetings were printed in the newspaper, and the
results of environmental reports were made available at the local library. A project fact sheet was distributed,
and direct mailings were sent to parent advisory councils and local teachers. "We didn't want any part of the
project to be delayed by people's last-minute concerns, so we put everything out front at every step,"
explained Pat Bowling from Fuss & O'Neill, the environmental consulting firm hired for this project.
"Gaining the public's trust and confidence was essential to the success of the project. Putting everything out
front and being candid about proposed project activities also helped to keep the project on track."

The Path to Redevelopment

Both preliminary and detailed environmental assessments funded by two $200,000 EPA Brownfields
Assessment grants, one in 2003 and one in 2006, were performed on these assembled parcels. Assessments
included drilling 181 soil borings, constructing 67 groundwater monitoring wells, and collecting 340 soil
samples, 138 groundwater samples, and 69 soil gas samples—all of which helped to characterize levels and
areas of contamination and prepare for cleanup.

A total of $800,000 in EPA Brownfields Cleanup grants ($600,000 awarded in 2008 and $200,000 in 2009);
$95,000 (with a local match of $19,000) and $295,000 from the  Rhode Island Economic Development
Corporation; and nearly $4 million in additional funding from the city funded the cleanup.  Overseen by
RIDEM, cleanup of the consolidated site included treatment of groundwater through an innovative process
known as reductive dechlorination, which uses natural bacteria to break down contaminants. Eight USTs
were removed (four had been removed prior to this project). Replacing all of the site's contaminated soil
with clean fill would have been prohibitively expensive; as a solution, the project set up a facility in which
soil and other debris could be treated on-site. Mixed with a form of cement, the treated material became  a
structural aggregate suitable for use beneath new pavement, sidewalks, and structures. With more than
35,000 tons of contaminated soil to treat, this innovative system allowed for soil and other  material to be
reused for construction as well as made the project financially feasible. By 2008, the city had purchased and

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assembled all of the parcels needed to complete this project, and redevelopment began. Construction of the
new campus was funded by the city and the State of Rhode Island at a cost of $72 million.

Keys to Success/Lessons Learned

    •  Taking a proactive approach to public outreach in this Environmental Justice community was critical
       to the project's success.
    •  Because there were so many individual parcels involved, the project required extensive collaboration
       and coordination with the regulating agencies involved  (e.g., RIDEM, EPA, U.S. Army Corps of
       Engineers), as well as multiple offices within RIDEM itself. Each of these entities and offices needed
       to be fully informed at every step to avoid confusion and the possibility of conflicting direction.
    •  Using multiple sources of EPA Brownfields funding, the city and RIDEM had to ensure that each of
       the 13 individual parcels met grant eligibility requirements.
    •  Finding a way to treat more than 35,000 tons of contaminated soil on-site—rather than off-site soil
       disposal and replacement with clean fill—not only made this project financially feasible, the process
       created a safe, concrete-like aggregate used in  construction of the new campus.

Project Results

In January 2010, based on the results of continued environmental testing and monitoring, RIDEM issued a
Letter of Compliance for the entire property. The new middle school campus opened to students that same
month. The largest middle school facility in all of New England, this property is now home to two middle
schools, a multi-purpose athletic complex, and parking areas, as well as a forthcoming bicycle path. In an
area known for high unemployment and poverty rates,  the cleanup and restoration of these assembled
brownfields is seen as a cornerstone for continued economic and aesthetic revitalization. This project is
expected to attract private investment to the community, catalyze additional redevelopment, and increase
surrounding property values. Just a few blocks away, Woonsocket's former middle school site  is now
planned for redevelopment into a senior housing complex.

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Industrial: Fuel Depot and Bulk Storage Terminal to Housing - Alexandria, Virginia
Background

Located in northern Virginia and bordering the Potomac River and Washington, B.C., Alexandria is one of
the oldest and most historic cities in the country. Incorporated in 1749, the city was a shipping port and by
the end of the 18th Century was one of the ten busiest ports in the country. The city played a vital role in
some of the nation's major conflicts, including the Civil War and World Wars I and II. As the government
expanded in the years following World War II, the city became a residential suburb of Washington, B.C.,
though its history left Alexandria with a legacy of former industrial sites.

Located in the heart of Alexandria's "Old Town" district, the Fannon Oil site operated as a fuel depot and
bulk storage terminal since the  1880s. Buring that time, petroleum was delivered to the site by rail, and the
depot served the surrounding community's fuel needs, including coal and firewood. In 1962, the owner
upgraded the depot by constructing a bulk oil terminal that included many ASTs as well as USTs, with a
combined capacity of over 500,000 gallons. At the height of operations in 1982, Fannon Oil was  selling
between  15 and 18 million gallons of product per year.

Environmental Issues

Bespite the critical role that the Fannon Oil terminal played for
the community of Alexandria, its age and sheer volume of
storage capacity led to significant contamination issues. In 1982,
a petroleum release from the site was detected by city workers
performing routine utility maintenance work in the surrounding
area. The level of contamination was so severe that initially the
workers thought that they had struck an underground oil
pipeline. Officials believed that the petroleum contamination had
been released from the Fannon Oil site but did not fully
understand the migration pathway. The Virginia Bepartment of
Environmental Quality (BEQ) required the installation of
monitoring wells that revealed that petroleum products migrating
from the  site were as much as 40 inches thick. Recovery wells
were constructed and operated by Fannon Oil and eventually
recovered nearly 27,000 gallons of petroleum product from
affected areas. In the late  1990s, additional monitoring wells
indicated that contamination from Fannon Oil had migrated to
other off-site properties. In response, a groundwater pump-and-
treat system was installed and began operation in 2001. A soil
vapor extraction system was also installed to mitigate the vapors
that permeated soils.

While these systems were effective at mitigating individual
releases of petroleum contamination, there was a need to address
the site holistically and consider future reuses. According to
Randy  Chapman, BEQ case manager, the question being asked
by the city and neighbors was, "Why do we still have a bulk
[petroleum]  distribution plant in Old Town?" The need for change on the site was clear, but without a
complete understanding of the site's contamination or a cleanup plan, there was little hope for
redevelopment. In response, BEQ chose the Triad approach, defined by EPA as "an innovative approach to
   Twenty-eight USTs were excavated and
   removed from the site during cleanup
Water treatment system installed in a basement
 to mitigate the threat of contaminated -water
   entering the city's storm-water system

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decision-making for hazardous waste site characterization and remediation... [that] proactively exploits new
characterization and treatment tools, using work strategies developed by innovative and successful site
professionals." With some technical assistance from EPA, DEQ, and the property owner's environmental
consultant, the Triad approach was implemented for the Fannon project.

Part of the Triad approach was an innovative solution for characterizing the contamination on the site. As an
alternative to the long-term installation of monitoring wells, a technology known as membrane interface
probes (MIP) provided real-time, three-dimensional maps of the site's petroleum contamination in only two
weeks. Cleanup of the site involved the excavation and removal of 28 USTs, underground piping, and 35,000
tons of petroleum-contaminated soil. A number of off-site extraction wells and pump-and-treat systems were
also installed to remove petroleum contamination from groundwater. These systems treated more than six
million gallons of groundwater and removed over 5,000 pounds of contaminants such as petroleum
hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE); 5,000 gallons of fuel oil; and 7,000
pounds of subsurface petroleum vapors. DEQ issued a case closure letter for the terminal property in April
2009 but further directed the property owner to continue remediation in the surrounding area. The entire
cleanup  of the area is reaching completion, and DEQ expects to issue a case closure letter by September
2011.

The Approach to Redevelopment

Aside from the obvious environmental conditions that resulted
from the property's previous uses, the surrounding community
had grown in ways incompatible with this large industrial site.
The owner of Fannon Oil had long recognized that the property
needed to be cleaned up and redeveloped but could not cease
operations unless: (1) a new location for the bulk oil terminal
could be found; (2) a viable developer/buyer was identified; and
(3) the property fetched a fair market price. In 2000, DEQ met
with the owner and environmental consultant to strategize about
cleanup  and redevelopment. Chapman remembers, "We all
came together and sat down to think outside the box." This
meeting led to further discussion and the realization that despite
the property's environmental issues, the value of the land could
make  cleanup and redevelopment  financially viable.
A view of The Duke row homes from West
    Street in Old Town Alexandria
Eventually, the property owner and the potential developer, Van Metre Homes, reached an agreement on the
terms of cleanup and sale. Fannon Oil was able to build a new bulk oil terminal in neighboring Prince
William County and move its operations; this new facility uses modern technology and safety precautions
that will reduce the risk of any future releases. Once cleanup was complete, Van Metre began construction on
The Duke Townhomes and Flats, a mixture of street-level row homes and apartments, and completed
construction in 2010. As part of development, the city required Van Metre to install additional ICs beyond
what the state required as an added factor of safety for future residents and the environment. The new Duke
Townhomes and Flats represent many smart growth attributes, including infill redevelopment; a pedestrian-
friendly neighborhood with shops, restaurants, and grocery stores within easy walking distance; and
transportation options, including a Metro stop just a few blocks away.

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Funding and Technical Assistance

Cleanup was funded primarily through an arrangement between Fannon Oil's owner and the developer Van
Metre. In addition, the project made use of the Virginia Petroleum State Tank Fund (VPSTF), which is used
to clean up petroleum releases on storage tank sites throughout the Commonwealth and is financed through a
state fee of one-fifth to three-fifths of one cent per gallon on regulated petroleum products. Depending upon
the type of petroleum storage tank, owners/operators may request access to the Fund either for cleanup costs
only or for both cleanup and third-party costs. The owner/operator is eligible to request reimbursement from
the Fund for costs that exceed his Financial Responsibility Requirement (deductible) for cleanup (and if
applicable, third-party damages) up to a maximum of $1 million per occurrence. In the case of this property,
since the cleanup cost was so large, DEQ had to decide how best to leverage the Fund resources to meet
cleanup goals and be consistent with the site's redevelopment plans. DEQ determined that the owner was
eligible to access the Fund for $1 million for each of the three identified releases (occurrences) on the
property—$3 million total—and that the owner would pay $50,000 per release, or $150,000, in deductibles.
VPSTF funding was ultimately used for the project's initial assessments, MIP survey, pump-and-treat
systems, recovery wells, and a large portion of the soil excavation and dewatering costs.

Community Engagement

Community engagement and involvement were essential to the success of this project. Early on, stakeholders
that included community representatives were convened to hold discussions on the property's reuse. In mid-
2006, a public meeting was held to discuss the environmental plans and what would occur during the
development. In addition, the city and DEQ also met with adjacent homeowners' associations, civic
associations, and other stakeholders to discuss the project and address any concerns.

Keys to Success:

    •  Stakeholder engagement was important. Because the project involved multiple entities, it was
       essential that all parties met and collaboratively developed a strategy for moving forward. This
       allowed for better information exchange and kept the community informed about long-term goals.
    •  The membrane interface probe tool provided real-time, low-impact characterization of the site's
       contamination and finally allowed parties to develop a cleanup strategy.
    •  The Virginia Petroleum  State Tank Fund provided financial incentives for site cleanup.

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IV:  Petroleum  Brownfields  Resources
        Rmsing brownfields with known or
        mcertain issues with any contaminant,
        et alone petroleum, can be complex and
may require multiple sources of funding and
technical assistance. In some cases, financial
incentives (e.g., tax incentives, property
transfers) rather than direct funding may be
equally valuable. While not comprehensive, this
section of the report provides a list of federal,
state, and other  funding and technical assistance
resources available for petroleum brownfields
projects. Stakeholders need to remember that
depending on how the site is defined as a
petroleum brownfield, the resources may or may
not apply to each site.  It is strongly encouraged
that stakeholders review the eligibility
requirements for all resources before investing
time to secure these resources.
Helpful Tips for EPA Petroleum Brownfields Proposals
EPA petroleum brownfields funding for assessment, revolving
loan fund, and cleanup grants is a competitive national funding
opportunity, and applications must be well prepared. Consider
these tips when creating a proposal:
  • Answer all questions completely.
  • Tell a compelling story.
  • Address all criteria.
  • Avoid acronyms and organizational jargon.
  • Use the proposal checklists to ensure a complete
    submission.
  • Involve the community from the beginning, including the
    proposal stage.
  • Proofread and spell check your application.
  • Peer review the application for feedback.
  • Be clear on the ownership of sites.
  • Contact your state for petroleum  site eligibility early.
  • Avoid maps and photos.
  • Make sure the budget is clear and  detailed.
Some EPA Regions offer Grant Writing Workshops; contact
                                                your EPA Regional Office for more information.
In addition to the following table of resources,
there are four particularly helpful and often used sources of additional information from EPA on funding and
financial support for petroleum brownfields projects:

    •    The Brownfields Federal Programs Guide (2011). EPA compiled this catalog of technical and
        financial support for the cleanup and redevelopment of brownfields.

        Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/partners/bf_fed_pr_gd.htm

    •    A Guide to Federal Tax Incentives for Brownfields Redevelopment (2011) provides an overview
        of the key federal tax incentives and credits that can be leveraged for brownfields cleanup,
        redevelopment, and reuse - excerpted from the Brownfields Federal Programs Guide.

        Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/tax/tax_guide.pdf

    •    EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Grants and Funding Web Page
        lists a variety of grants and other funding options, many of which are available to petroleum
        brownfields projects.

        Link: www.epa.gov/oswer/grants-funding.htm

    •    Funding and Financing for Brownfields Web Page provides information about other brownfields-
        related money matters, such as federal brownfields funding sources and financial issues and
        incentives.
       Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/mmatters.htm

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National Resources
Type of Resource
                                                         Description
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Resources
X
X
X
X
X

X




X
X





X





Brownfields Program
CERCLA Section 128(a) Grants
Brownfields Assessment Grants
Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund
Grants
Brownfields Cleanup Grants
Targeted Brownfields Assessments
(TBA)
EPA has funding and technical assistance tools and resources for communities
looking to plan for the redevelopment of petroleum brownfields. In addition to
providing financial support through the grant programs listed, EPA provides
information on specific technical aspects of planning for redevelopment, such as
land use and institutional controls. Other tools include facilitation support, visioning
tools, and links to regional regulatory or hazardous substance research consortia.
Link: http://epa.gov/brownfields/
Section 128(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,
and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, authorizes a noncompetitive $50 million
grant program to establish and enhance state and tribal response programs.
Generally, these response programs address the assessment, cleanup, and
subsequent redevelopment of brownfield sites and other sites with actual or
perceived contamination.
Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/applicat.htm
Competitive grant program where grant recipients use funding for inventory,
characterization, assessments, and conducting planning and community
involvement related to Brownfields within a three-year time limit. Awards are given
in amounts up to $200,000 for sites contaminated with hazardous substances,
pollutants, or contaminants. Petroleum brownfield sites may request up to the
same amount. Special cases exist where applicants can request up to $1 ,000,000.
Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/assessment grants.htm
Competitive grant program that awards grants to entities such as states and tribes
to create low-interest loans for carrying out cleanup activities at brownfield sites.
Repaid loans are returned to the fund for future borrowers.
Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/rlflst.htm
Competitive grant program that awards up to $200,000 (with a five-site limit under
one grant) to carry out cleanup activities at Brownfields with petroleum and
hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants. This grant requires a 20
percent cost share that may be waived depending on hardship.
Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/cleanup grants.htm
Provides technical assistance to those states, tribes, municipalities, nonprofits,
and other eligible entities for diminishing the uncertainties of contamination often
associated with Brownfields and promoting their cleanup and subsequent
redevelopment. TBA is not a grant program but a service provided through an EPA
contract in which EPA directs a contractor to conduct environmental assessment
activities.
Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/grant info/tba.htm


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Type of Resource
                                                                                           Description
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Resources (continued)
        X
Technical Assistance to Brownfields
Communities (TAB)
TAB grants provide technical assistance and training on Brownfields assessment,
remediation, and subsequent redevelopment/reuse through independent
resources.
Link: http://epa.gov/brownfields/tools/index.htmtflab
                        Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information
                        (CLU-IN) Website
                                      EPA created the CLU-IN website to disseminate information on contaminants,
                                      cleanup technologies, strategies, and other resources for cleaning up hazardous
                                      waste. Many of the resources listed on the website apply to petroleum brownfields.
                                      Link: www.clu-in.org/
                        Road Map to Understanding Innovative
                        Technology Options for Brownfields
                        Investigation and Cleanup, 4th Edition
                        (2005)
                                      EPA produced this guidance document to assist in the identification and selection
                                      of innovative technologies for site characterization and cleanup during the
                                      brownfields redevelopment process.
                                      Link: www.brownfieldstsc.org/roadmap/home.cfm
                        Training, Research, and Technical
                        Assistance Grants
                                     Authorized under CERLCA, these grants provide funding for training, research,
                                     and technical assistance to facilitate Brownfields revitalization.
                                     Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/trta  k6/index.htm
                        Sustainable Design and Green Building
                        Toolkit for Local Governments
                                      This toolkit assists local governments in identifying and removing barriers to
                                      sustainable design and green building within their existing codes/ordinances and
                                      permitting processes.
                                      Link: www.epa.gov/region4/recvcle/green-building-toolkit.pdf
                        Smart Growth Implementation
                        Assistance (SGIA) Program
                                      SGIA is a competitive program where communities receive direct technical
                                      assistance from a team of national experts to help incorporate smart growth
                                      strategies into planning efforts for future development.
                                      Link: www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/sgia.htrn
                        Area-Wide Planning Pilot Program
                                      Competitive grants of approximately $175,000 to support community involvement
                                      in the assessment, cleanup, and subsequent reuse of brownfields in an area-wide
                                      context.
                                      Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/areawide grants.htm
                        Environmental Workforce Development
                        and Job Training Grants
                                      Provides funding to nonprofit organizations and other eligible organizations to
                                      recruit, train, and place low-income and minority unemployed and under-employed
                                      residents residing within solid and hazardous waste-impacted communities.
                                      Training aims to provide residents with the skills needed to secure employment in
                                      the environmental field to perform assessment and cleanup work within their
                                      communities.
                                      Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/iob.htmtfgra
                        Local Government Planning Tool to
                        Calculate Institutional and Engineering
                        Control Costs for Brownfield Properties
                                      This cost calculator is designed as a voluntary guide for local governments to
                                      assist in calculating their expected costs of implementing and conducting long-
                                      term stewardship of institutional controls and engineering controls at brownfields
                                      properties.
                                      Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/tools/ic ec cost tool.pdf

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Type of Resource
                                                               Description
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Resources (continued)
X
X
X





X









X
X
Brownfields Tax Incentive
Environmental Justice Grants
Community Action for a Renewed
Environment (CARE)
Brownfields Redevelopment Toolbox for
Disadvantaged Communities (2008)
RE-Powering America's Land Initiative
Environmental cleanup costs, including those related to petroleum brownfields,
are fully deductible in the year incurred to promote the cleanup and recycling of
brownfields. Improvements in 2006 expanded the tax incentive to include
petroleum cleanup.
Link: www.epa.qov/brown fields/tax/index. htm#about

Provides funding through a competitive grant process to eligible organizations to
build partnerships, identify the local environmental and/or public health issues, and
envision solutions and empower the community through education, training, and
outreach.
Link: www.epa.aov/compliance/ei/grants/index.html
A competitive grant program that provides direct funding to local governments or
health departments to address environmental conditions in their communities.
This includes funding for environmental assessments at brownfields.
Link: www.epa.gov/care/
Provides technical guidance and resources for disadvantaged communities that
face even larger obstacles due to crime, depressed property values,
environmental justice issues, etc., to help reverse the trends and restore economic
vitality to these communities.
Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/tools/bftoolbox disadvantage communities.pdf

Helps stakeholders identify the renewable energy potential of currently and
formerly contaminated land and mine sites. Provides useful resources for
communities, developers, industry, and state and local governments interested in
reusing these sites for renewable energy development.
Link: www.epa.gov/renewableenergyland/
Other Federal Resources
X

X
X
U.S. Department Housing and Urban
Development (HUD) - Community
Development Block Grant Program
HUD provides block grants and other competitive awards for promoting economic
and community development and revitalization projects in distressed areas.
(Community Development Block Grant Program; Section 108 Loan Guarantee
Program; HOME Investment Partnership Program; Empowerment Zones and
Enterprise Communities Initiative; Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant
Program). Link:
www.hud.qov/offices/cpd/economicdevelop ment/proqrams/rc/resource/brwnflds.cfm
HUD is also a partner with EPA and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)
in the Partnership for Sustainable Communities.
Link:
http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?mode=disppage&id=OSHC PART SUST C
OMM

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Type of Resource
                                                                                          Description
Other Federal Resources (continued)
X
X
X
X
U.S. Department of Transportation
(DOT) Federal Highway Administration
(FHWA)
FHWA implemented the Transportation and Community and System Preservation
program to provide grants and research funding to help build sustainable
communities, including the redevelopment of brownfields.
Link: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tcsp/00sect2.htrnl
FHWA also works to include brownfields redevelopment in their transportation
planning and provides technical assistance to communities regarding brownfields
redevelopment planning.
Link: www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bf disc.htm
DOT is also a partner with EPA and HUD in the Partnership for Sustainable
Communities.
Link: http://fta.dot.gov/publications/publications 10935.html
                        U.S. Department of Commerce
                        Economic Development Administration
                        (EDA)
                                                     EDA offers technical assistance and provides planning grants, revolving loan
                                                     funds, and loan guarantees to stimulate private investments for infrastructure
                                                     construction related to brownfields.
                                                     Link: www.eda.gov/Research/Brownfields.xml
                        U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
                        Energy Efficiency and Renewable
                        Energy
                                                     The Building Technologies Program (BTP) funds research and technology
                                                     development to reduce commercial and residential building energy use. The
                                                     resources available through BTP can help ensure that once brownfields cleanup is
                                                     achieved, redevelopment is energy efficient and sustainable.
                                                     Link: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/
                        U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI)
                        National Park Service (NPS)
                        Groundwork USA
                                                     The Groundwork Initiative pilot program is funded through the EPA Brownfields
                                                     Program and receives technical assistance from the NPS Rivers and Trails
                                                     Program to improve neighborhoods with brownfields by reclaiming land for
                                                     community parks and gardens.
                                                     Link: www.nps.gov/ncrc/programs/rtca/whoweare/wwa partners GW.html
                                                     Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/policy/initiatives  co.htm#gt
                        DOI NPS -Technical Preservation
                        Services
                                                     The NPS administers a 20 percent federal tax credit to restore and rehabilitate
                                                     historical buildings, including those that are now deemed brownfield sites.
                                                     Link: www.nps.gov/hps/tps/tax/incentives/index.htrn
                        Department of Health and Human
                        Services (HHS) Agency for Toxic
                        Substances and Disease Registry
                        (ATSDR) Brownfield/Land Reuse
                        Initiative
                                                     Works with communities to incorporate health into sustainable redevelopment
                                                     activities. Provides grants to assess health issues associated with redevelopment
                                                     plans and tools and technical assistance for community involvement. A recent
                                                     publication, Leading Change for Healthy Communities and Successful Land
                                                     Reuse, highlights brownfields redevelopment projects with health-related reuses.
                                                     Link: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/sites/brownfields/index.html
                        U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ)
                                                     DOJ's Community Capacity Development Office instituted the "Weed & Seed"
                                                     Program designed to assist communities with crime prevention and control (e.g.,
                                                     cleaning up illegal drug labs), which may indirectly affect redevelopment by
                                                     promoting revitalization activities in distressed areas where abandoned and/or
                                                     underutilized properties are located.
                                                     Link: www.oip.gov/ccdo/ws/welcome.html

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Type of Resource
                                                               Description
Other Federal Resources (continued)

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers (USAGE) Urban
Waters
Appalachian Regional Commission
(ARC)
U.S. Small Business Administration
(SBA)
Supports local communities and military installations with planning, design,
construction, management, contracting, and operations. Also provides engineering
technical assistance related to hazardous contaminant remediation, flood hazard
mitigation, etc.
Link: https://environment.usace.armv.mil/what we do/brownfields/

Provides funding to state and local governments for economically-distressed
counties in the Appalachian Region. Although ARC does not have any
brownfields-specific programs, the agency's current strategic plan seeks to raise
awareness of and leverage support for the reclamation and reuse of brownfields.
Brownfields are also a key element of ARC's Asset-Based Development initiative.
Link: www.arc.qov/abd
Provides support for small businesses. SBA provides information and other non-
financial technical assistance for redevelopment efforts - targeted to small
businesses.
Link: www.sba.gov/content/cleanup
Nonprofit Organization Resources






X
X

X

X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
The Brownfields and Land Revitalization
Technology Support Center (BTSC)
National Association of Development
Organizations (NADO)
International City/County Management
Association (ICMA)
National Association of Local
Government Environmental
Professionals (NALGEP)
Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMW)
New England Interstate Water Pollution
Control Commission (NEIWPCC)
Provides support to federal, state, local, and tribal officials for brownfields
redevelopment efforts. Also delivers technical support, provides information on
technologies, and reviews project documents.
Link: www.brownfieldstsc.org/
Offers technical assistance related to brownfields redevelopment and economic
revitalization to regional development organizations across the U.S.
Link: www.nado.org/
Provides information on brownfields for local governments and communities in the
form of books, newsletters, blogs, question and answer forums, and other
publications. Also posts links to websites that provide further knowledge on
brownfields.
Link: www.icma.org/main/topic.asp?tpid=19&hsid=10
Sanctions communities to revitalize their towns with strategies, tools, and best
practices for brownfields cleanup and reuse by offering advice on green and
sustainable redevelopment.
Link: www.nalgep.org/issues/brownfields/
The Institute is a resource for communities to obtain information (best practices,
sustainable development, etc.) on the environmental cleanup and economic
redevelopment of brownfield sites.
Link: www.nemw.org/index.php/current-initiatives/current-initiatives-brownfields

A resource for technical assistance relating to LUST and UST topics, including a
LUSTLine newsletter, training videos, and points of contact for further information.
Link: www.neiwpcc.org/ust.asp

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Type of Resource
                                                                                          Description
Nonprofit Organization Resources (continued)
             X     X    Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (RTC)
Provides a toolbox to help stakeholders learn the basics of trail-building, including
corridor research, railbanking, acquisition, outreach, trail design, and trail
management and maintenance.
Link: www.railstotrails.org/ourwork/trailbuilding/toolbox/index.html
                        International Economic Development
                        Council (IEDC)
IEDC is a nonprofit membership organization for economic developers that
provides information on a range of brownfields topics from brownfields
redevelopment to tips on conducting charettes. Also provides website links to
other brownfields resources.
Link: www.iedconline.org/?p=Brownfields Resource  Center
                        Database of State Incentives for
                        Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE)
Provides information on state, local, utility, and federal incentives and policies that
promote renewable energy and energy efficiency.
Link: www.dsireusa.org/
                        Community Brownfields Foundation
Provides technical assistance, project team training, community education,
strategic real estate, and economic development services.
Link: www.communitvbrownfields.com

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State Resources

Each state offers unique tools, resources, and technical assistance for brownfields. Stakeholders are
encouraged to learn more about their state programs via state brownfields, UST/LUST, and UST fund
websites and consult their appropriate state contact(s) for more information, as needed. Many states offer a
state voluntary cleanup program (VCP) that supports brownfields cleanup and subsequent reuse activities,
and a state may also have an UST program that oversees regulated tank sites. The state program to contact
(e.g., state brownfields or UST program) will depend on whether a site is identified as regulated.
State Voluntary Cleanup Programs
State VCPs are mechanisms to support the cleanup and subsequent reuse of brownfields by addressing
environmental, financial, and legal obstacles. These programs provide a mechanism to conduct cleanup and
obtain No Further Action determinations for sites where cleanup is not specifically regulated by other federal
or state regulatory programs. VCPs lend support and technical assistance to property owners  or developers
who choose to voluntarily clean up their sites. These programs provide a streamlined approach to assessment
and cleanup by focusing on the reduction of human and environmental risk and allowing real estate
transactions and/or redevelopment to proceed. Furthermore, parties not responsible for the presence of
contamination on a site, such as future owners and leasers, can receive liability protection by complying with
the requirements of these programs. EPA's publication, State Brownfields and Voluntary Response
Programs: An Update from the States, provides a concise, user-friendly synopsis of the programs and tools
available through state programs and can be found at: www.epa.gov/brownfields/state tribal/pubs.htm#sta. A
list of state brownfields program websites can also be found in the Appendix of this report.
State Underground Storage Tank (UST) Programs
Many states have separate UST programs that oversee the regulation and cleanup of tank sites. UST
programs cover tanks (and certain pipes connecting them) storing petroleum products  or other hazardous
chemicals. When these tanks begin to leak, they can contaminate soil and groundwater. Cleaning up a
leaking UST (LUST) can cost anywhere from $10,000 to $1,000,000 depending on the extent of the
contamination. The average cleanup is estimated to cost $125,000.10 For more details, please check with
your state UST, LUST, and/or tank  fund program, which can be found in the Appendix.

State Financial Assurance Funds
Some states have financial assurance funds that reimburse tank owners for the cost of  cleanup at eligible
releases and may also provide direct funding for cleanup. Property owners dealing with regulated sites can
check if funding is available to help offset cleanup costs. There is great variability among states regarding
which agency or office oversees state financial assurance funds. The Association of State  and Territorial
Solid Waste Management Officials  (ASTSWMO) conducts an annual state financial assurance fund survey
that includes information such as responsible agency, fund coverage, sources of funds, and average cleanup
costs. For more information on ASTSWMO's annual state fund survey, visit:
www. astswmo. org/Page s/Policies and Publications/Tanks .htm.  For additional  information on state financial
assurance funds, visit: www.epa.gov/oust/states/fhdstatus.htm.
10  Source: http://www.epa. gov/oust/ltffacts.htm

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Other state and tribal resources include:
State and Tribal Response Programs Web Page
Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste
Management Officials (ASTSWMO)
State Economic Development Agencies
State Oil and Gas Cleanup Funds
Oil and Gas Agency Well-Plugging Funds
This EPA Web page provides further links to background information, state and tribal grant funding
guidance, MOUs, MOAs, state brownfields websites, and state VCP websites.
Link: www.epa.gov/brownfields/state tribal/index.html
ASTSWMO provides services and information to states and territories on programs and policies
related to solid waste management. ASTSWMO works closely with EPA to bring awareness and
technical assistance to its members on the most current developments relating to waste and
sustainability programs (e.g., petroleum brownfields programs). Link: www.astswmo.org
State economic development agencies help distressed communities develop economic growth,
including infrastructure and brownfields redevelopment projects. Links to state economic
development agencies are available at: www.eda.gov/Resources/StateLinks.xml
States such as Oklahoma (www.oerb.com/WellSiteCleanuD/tabid/60/Default.asDx) and Texas
(www.rrc.state.tx.us/environmental/ofcfund/index.php) have oilfield cleanup funds that can be
accessed for oilfield sites.
Many states from Ohio to Texas have a fund for plugging abandoned wells that were not plugged
at all or to modern standards. When these wells have leaked or are leaking petroleum, the funds
can be accessed to stop further pollution and sometimes to perform a limited area cleanup.
Local and Private Resources
Local Resources

Local governments can create and implement a variety of financing tools to help spur brownfields
redevelopment, including sites impacted by petroleum contamination. Typical financing tools used by local
governments for cleanup and redevelopment may include, but are not limited to, the following:

    •   Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Districts: Cities create TIP Districts to make public improvements
        within those districts that will generate private-sector development. In these districts, the current tax
        rate is frozen while area improvements or development occur. Tax increases in property assessment
        value after redevelopment go into a special bond fund or are used for future growth in the district.
    •   Tax Credits: A tax credit lowers the amount of income tax owed by a tax payer.
    •   Tax Abatements: Cities or counties may agree to reduce taxes owed or exempt property owners from
        paying property taxes for a period of time in order to spur economic development.
    •   Locally Capitalized and Operated Revolving Loan Funds: Typically fixed-rate, low-interest and/or
        long-term loan funds that supplement or leverage private financing, often capitalized with dollars
        that do not have to be repaid and sustained through the repayment of principal and interest.
    •   General Obligation Bonds: Locally issued bonds for purposes including land acquisition, site
        preparation, or infrastructure improvements.

Private/Other Resources

In most brownfields redevelopment projects, private-sector involvement (e.g., private developers) is a major
component. Once a site's contamination uncertainties are cleared up, the private sector often steps in to pay
for cleanup and redevelopment in recognition of the site's value for reuse. Listed below are examples of
funding (and in some cases, technical) assistance resources from the private sector:

    •   Nonprofit groups, like Habitat for Humanity or environmental organizations;
    •   In-kind contributions from local businesses (e.g., materials donations, services);
    •   Private foundations (e.g., through competitive grant programs);

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University support, typically in the form of technical assistance;
Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) provide credit, capital, and financial
services to underserved communities; and
Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) acts as owner with private investor funds that shields investor
liability.

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V:  Conclusion
      This report explores the potential of petroleum brownfields and the myriad creative and beneficial ways
      they can be returned to use. While addressing these sites can be complicated due to regulations and
      the different programs and agencies that are often involved, the examples within this report illustrate
that success is often a matter of identifying the right resources, tools, and partners to complete a reuse
project. This report was developed to help broaden stakeholder understanding of the types of sites likely to
be considered petroleum brownfields. It also offers links to resources and technical assistance opportunities
to assist stakeholders with petroleum brownfields reuse projects. Ideally, the information and guidance
offered in Opportunities For Petroleum Brownfields will help you address sites with potential petroleum
contamination issues in your area, leading to a reuse that will benefit you and your community.

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Appendix
      Provided below are website links, organized alphabetically by state or territory, to the following state or
      territorial programs: brownfields, UST/LUST, and UST fund (state financial assurance fund). Most
      petroleum brownfields funding and technical assistance will be found within state brownfields
programs, since UST/LUST and UST fund programs are geared toward regulated tank sites rather than
petroleum brownfields. However, some state programs work together to address site assessment and cleanup.
Please check with your state or territorial contact to determine a site's eligibility under a selected program.
Note: Where "n/a" (not applicable) is indicated, it does not necessarily mean that the state does not have a
particular program or fund but that a related website could not be found.
ALABAMA
State brownfields website:
    •   http://adem.alabama.gov/programs/land/brownfields.cnt
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •  www.adem.state.al.us/programs/water/groundwater.cnt
State UST fund website:
    •  www.adem.state.al.us/programs/water/groundwater.cnt
ALASKA
State brownfields website:
    •  www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/csp/brownfields.htm
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •  www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/ipp/ust.htm
State UST fund website:
    •  www.dec.state.ak. us/spar/rf a/index, htm
AMERICAN SAMOA
State brownfields website:
    •   http://asepa.gov/site-assessment-remediation.asp
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://asepa.gov/hazardous-materials.asp
State UST fund website:
    •   n/a
ARIZONA
State brownfields website:
• www.azdeg.gov/environ/waste/cleanup/brownfields.html
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Depends - crude oil
is excluded.
State UST/LUST program website:
• www.azdeg.gov/environ/waste/ust/index.html
State UST fund website:
• www. azdeg . gov/envi ron/waste/ust/saf/i ndex. html

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ARKANSAS	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.adeq.state.ar.us/hazwaste/bf/default.htm
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Depends - petroleum sites are ineligible for some
funding.	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www. adeq. state, ar. us/rst/
State LIST fund website:
    •   www.adeq.state.ar.us/rst/branch programs/trustfund.htm
CALIFORNIA
State brownfields website:
• www.dtsc.ca.gov/SiteCleanup/Brownfields/
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Depends - petroleum contamination from
releases is eligible. State Water Resources Control Board regulates petroleum hydrocarbons.
non-UST
State UST/LUST program website:
• www.waterboards.ca.gov/water issues/programs/ust/
State UST fund website:
• www.waterboards.ca.gov/water issues/programs/ustcf/
COLORADO
State brownfields website:
    •   www.cdphe.state.co.us/HM/rpbrownfields.htm
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.colorado.gov/cs/Satellite/CDLE-OilPublicSafetY/CDLE/1240336920113
State UST fund website:
    •   http://oil.cdle.state.co.us/OIL/Fund/fundindex.asp
CONNECTICUT
State brownfields website:
    •   www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2715&g=324950&depNav GID=1626
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2692&g=322600&depNav GID=1652&depNav=
State UST fund website:
    •   www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2717&g=325322&depNav GID=1652
DELAWARE
State brownfields website:
    •   www.awm.delaware.gov/SIRB/Pages/Brownfields.aspx
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.dnrec.state.de.us/dnrec2000/Divisions/AWM/ust/
State UST fund website:
    •   www.dnrec.state.de.us/dnrec2000/Divisions/AWM/ust/firstfund/default.asp

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DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
State brownfields website:
    •   http://doh.dc.qov/doh/cwp/view,a,1374,Q,58643%205,dohNav GID,1812,.asp	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? n/a - list under development	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://ddoe.dc.aov/ddoe/cwp/view,a,1209,q,494854,ddoeNav  GID.1486.ddoeNav.l31375l31377l.asp
State LIST fund website:
    •   n/a	

FLORIDA	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/categories/brownfields/default.htm	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.dep.state.fi.us/waste/categories/pss/default.htm	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.dep.state.fi.us/waste/categories/pcp/default.htm	

GEORGIA	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.gaepd.org/Documents/brownfields.html	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.gaepd.org/Documents/index land.html	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.gaepd.org/Documents/techguide  lpb.html#ust	

GUAM	
State brownfields website:
    •   http://epa.guam.gov/	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://epa.guam.gov/	
State UST fund website:
    •   n/a	

HAWAII	
State brownfields website:
    •   http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/gis/brownfields/	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://hawaii.gov/health/environmental/waste/ust/index.html	
State UST fund website:
    •   n/a

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IDAHO	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.deq.idaho.gov/waste-mgmt-remediation/brownfields.aspx
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.deg.idaho.gov/waste-mgmt-remediation/storage-tanks/underground-storage-tanks.aspx
    •   www.deg.idaho.gov/waste-mgmt-remediation/storage-tanks/leaking-underground-storage-tanks.aspx
State LIST fund website:
    •   www.idahopstf.org/	

ILLINOIS	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.epa.state.il.us/land/brownfields/index.html	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.sfm.illinois.gov/commercial/ust/index.aspx	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.epa.state.il.us/land/lust/ust-fund.html	

INDIANA	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.in.gov/ifa/brownfields/	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.in.gov/idem/4999.htm	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.in.gov/idem/5063.htm	

IOWA	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.iowabrownfields.com/	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.iowadnr.gov/lnsideDNR/RegulatoryLand/UndergroundStorageTanks.aspx
    •   www.iowadnr.gov/lnsideDNR/RegulatoryLand/UndergroundStorageTanks/LeakingUndergroundTanks.aspx
State UST fund website:
    •   www.iowadnr.gov/lnsideDNR/RegulatoryLand/USTFundBoard.aspx	

KANSAS	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.kdheks.gov/remedial/index.html	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.kdheks.gov/tanks/	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.kdheks.gov/tanks/trust  fund/index.html

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KENTUCKY
State brownfields website:
• http://dca.kY. qov/brownfields/Paqes/default.aspx
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes - petroleum releases are not eligible for a
Covenant Not To Sue (CNTS) if they fall under the LIST program. The CNTS does not apply to petroleum storage
tanks.
State UST/LUST program website:
• http://waste.kv. qov/ust/Paqes/default.aspx
State LIST fund website:
• n/a
LOUISIANA
State brownfields website:
    •   www.deq.louisiana.gov/portal/tabid/269/Default.aspx
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.deq.louisiana.gov/portal/tabid/2659/Default.aspx
State UST fund website:
    •   www.deq.louisiana.gov/portal/tabid/230/Default.aspx
MAINE
State brownfields website:
    •   www.maine.gov/dep/rwm/brownfields/index.htm
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.maine.gov/dep/rwm/ust/index.htm
State UST fund website:
    •   www.maine.gov/dep/rwm/qroundwater/qwoilclean.htm
MARYLAND
State brownfields website:
    •   www.mde.state.md.us/proqrams/Land/MarylandBrownfieldVCP/Paqes/proqrams/
        landproqrams/errp  brownfields/default.aspx
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program?
Depends - exclusive petroleum contamination is not covered under brownfields but is allowed with other contaminants.
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.mde.marYland.qov/proqrams/land/oilcontrol/underqroundstoraqetanks/paqes/proqrams/landproqrams/oil
        control/usthome/index.aspx
State UST fund website:
    •   n/a

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 MASSACHUSETTS
 State brownfields website:
     •   www.mass.gov/dep/cleanup/brownfie.htm
 Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
 State UST/LUST program website:
     •   www.mass.gov/dep/toxics/ust/
 State LIST fund website:
     •   www.mass.gov/?pagelD=dorterminal&L=4&LO=Home&L1=Businesses&L2=Programs+%26+S
        ervices&L3=Underground+Storage+Tank+Program+%28UST%29&sid=Ador&b=terminalcontent&
	f=dor ust ppcf overview&csid=Ador	

 MICHIGAN	
 State brownfields website:
     •   www.michigan.gov/deg/0,1607,7-135-3311 4110—.OO.html	
 Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
 State UST/LUST program website:
     •   www.michigan.gov/deg/0,1607,7-135-3311 4115 4238—.OO.html	
 State UST fund website:
     •   n/a

 MINNESOTA	
 State brownfields website:
     •   www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/waste/waste-and-cleanup/cleanup-programs-and-topics/cleanup-
	programs/brownfields.html	
 Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Depends - if petroleum is the sole contaminant,
 the site is inelegible for VIC program.	
 State UST/LUST program website:
     •   www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/waste/waste-and-cleanup/waste-management/tank-compliance-and-
        assistance/underground-storage-tanks-ust/underground-storage-tank-ust-
	systems.html?menuid=&redirect=1	
 State UST fund website:
     •   www.state.mn.us/portal/mn/isp/content.do?id=-536881377&agencY=Commerce	

 MISSISSIPPI	
 State brownfields website:
     •   www.deg.state.ms.us/MDEQ.nsf/page/GARD brownfields?OpenDocument	
 Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
 State UST/LUST program website:
     •   www.deg.state.ms.us/MDEQ.nsf/page/UST PageHome?OpenDocument	
 State UST fund website:
     •   www.deg.state.ms.us/MDEQ.nsf/page/UST AssessRemediation?OpenDocument#Trust

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MISSOURI	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.dnr.mo.gov/env/hwp/bvcp/hwpvcp.htm
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.dnr.mo.gov/env/hwp/tanks/tanks.htm
State LIST fund website:
    •   www.pstif.org/
MONTANA
State brownfields website:
    •   http://deg.mt.gov/brownfields/default.mcpx
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://deg.mt.gov/UST/default.mcpx
State UST fund website:
    •   http://deg.mt.gov/pet/default.mcpx
NEBRASKA
State brownfields website:
    •   www.deg.state.ne.us/Superfun.nsf/Pages/Brown1
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.deg.state.ne.us/LUST-RA.nsf/Pages/PR-Fund
State UST fund website:
    •   www.deg.state.ne.us/LUST-RA.nsf/Pages/LUST
NEVADA
State brownfields website:
    •   http://ndep.nv.gov/bca/brownfld.htm
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Depends - petroleum contamination is eligible if
site does not qualify for reimbursement under the state's Petroleum Fund.	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://ndep.nv.gov/bca/ust home.htm	
State UST fund website:
    •   http://ndep.nv.gov/bca/fundhome.htm	

NEW HAMPSHIRE	
State brownfields website:
    •   http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/waste/hwrb/sss/brownfields/index.htm	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Depends - sites addressed under state's
petroleum reimbursement fund are excluded.	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/waste/orcb/ocs/ustp/index.htm	
State UST fund website:
    •   http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/waste/orcb/fms/prfp/index.htm

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NEW JERSEY
State brownfields website:
    •   www.state.nj.us/dep/srp/brownfields/
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.state.nj.us/dep/srp/bust/bust.htm
State LIST fund website:
    •   www.ni.gov/dep/srp/finance/ustfund/
NEW MEXICO
State brownfields website:
    •   www.nmenv.state.nm.us/gwb/NMED-GWQB-RemediationOversight.htm	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.nmenv.state.nm.us/ust/ustbtop.html	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.nmenv.state.nm.us/ust/caf.html	

NEW YORK	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.dec.nY.gov/chemical/brownfields.html	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.dec.nY.gov/chemical/287.html	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.osc.state.nY.us/oilspill/index.htm	

NORTH CAROLINA	
State brownfields website:
    •   http://portal.ncdenr.org/web/wm/bf	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Depends - sites with exclusively petroleum
hydrocarbon contamination from USTs are ineligible for brownfields program. State VCP addresses only non-
petroleum contamination.	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://portal.ncdenr.org/web/wm/ust	
State UST fund website:
    •   http://portal.ncdenr.org/web/wm/ust/tfb	

NORTH DAKOTA	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.ndhealth.gov/WM/Brownfields/	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.ndhealth.gov/wm/UndergroundStorageTankProgram/	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.nd.gov/ndins/special/petroleum-tank-release-compensation-fund/

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NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
State brownfields website:
    •   www.deq.gov.mp/section.aspx?seclD=8
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.deq.gov. mp/article.aspx?seclD=7&artlD=45
State LIST fund website:
    •   n/a
OHIO
State brownfields website:
    •   www.epa.ohio.gov/derr/SABR/sabr.aspx
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Depends - sites with petroleum contamination that
is not from USTs are allowed in VAP.
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.com.ohio.gov/fire/bustmain.aspx
State UST fund website:
    •   www.petroboard.com/
OKLAHOMA
State industrial/hazardous brownfields website:
• www.deg.state.ok.us/lpdnew/brownfindex.html
State Oilfield (and Petroleum Storage Tank (PST)) brownfields website:
• www.occeweb.com/og/brownfields.htm
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program?
Yes
State PST/LUST program website:
• www.occeweb.com/ps/aboutpst1 .html
State PST fund website:
• www.occeweb.com/ps/aboutpst1 .html
OREGON
State brownfields website:
    •   www.deg.state.or.us/lg/cu/brownfields/
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.deg.state.or.us/lg/tanks/index.htm
State UST fund website:
    •   n/a
PENNSYLVANIA
State brownfields website:
    •   www.depweb.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/communitY/ocrlgs/10305
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt?open=514&obilD=589769&mode=2
State UST fund website:
    •   www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/communitY/storage tanks/14098/financial assistance/589764

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PUERTO Rico
State brownfields website:
    •   www.gobierno.pr/JCA/Servicios/EmergenciasAmbientales/
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? n/a - list under development
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://www2.pr.gov/Directorios/Pages/lnfoAgencia.aspx?PRIFA=014	
State LIST fund website:
    •   n/a	

RHODE ISLAND	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.dem.ri.gov/brownfields/	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.dem.ri.gov/programs/benviron/waste/topictan.htm	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.dem.ri.gov/ustboard/index.htm	

SOUTH CAROLINA	
State brownfields website:
    •   www.scdhec.gov/environment/lwm/HTML/brownfields.htm	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.scdhec.gov/environment/lwm/html/ust.htm	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.scdhec.gov/environment/lwm/html/ust.htm	

SOUTH DAKOTA	
State brownfields website:
    •   http://denr.sd.gov/des/gw/Brownfields/Brownfields.aspx	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://denr.sd.gov/des/gw/tanks/TankSection.aspx	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.state.sd.us/drr2/reg/prcf/index.htm	

TENNESSEE	
State brownfields website:
    •   http://tennessee.gov/environment/ust/brownfields.shtml	
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes	
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.tennessee.gov/environment/ust/	
State UST fund website:
    •   www.tennessee.gov/environment/ust/fund reimburs.shtml

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TEXAS	
State industrial/hazardous/UST brownfields website:
    •   www.tceq.state.tx.us/remediation/bsa/bsa.html
State Oilfield brownfields website:
    •   www.rrc.state.tx.us/environmental/environsupport/brownfield/index.php
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.tceq.state.tx.us/nav/permits/pst cert.html
State LIST fund website:
    •   www.tceq.state.tx.us/permitting/review/reimbursement/index.html
State Oilfield fund website:
    •   www.rrc.state.tx.us/environmental/plugging/statemanagedcleanup.php
UTAH
State brownfields website:
• www.environmentalresponse.utah.gov/
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program?
Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
• www.undergroundtanks.utah.gov/
State UST fund website:
• www.undergroundtanks.utah.gov/pst fund. htm
VERMONT
State brownfields website:
    •   www.anr.state.vt.us/dec/wastediv/SMS/brownfields-home.htm
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.anr.state.vt.us/dec/wastediv/ust/home.htm
State UST fund website:
    •   www.anr.state.vt.us/dec/wastediv/ust/home.htm
VIRGINIA
State brownfields website:
• www.deg.state.va.us/brownfieldweb/
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Depends - if not regulated
under another program
State UST/LUST program website:
• www.deg.state.va.us/tanks/
State UST fund website:
• www.deg.state.va.us/tanks/reimbrs.html

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VIRGIN ISLANDS
State brownfields website:
    •   www.dpnr.gov.vi/dep/brownfields.htm
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.dpnr.gov.vi/dep/tanks.htm
State LIST fund website:
    •   n/a
WASHINGTON
State brownfields website:
    •   www.ecY.wa.gov/programs/tcp/brownfields/brownfields hp.html
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.ecY.wa.gov/programs/tcp/ust-lust/tanks.html
State UST fund website:
    •   www.plia.wa.gov/ust/index.htm
WEST VIRGINIA
State brownfields website:
    •   www.dep.wv.gov/dlr/oer/Pages/default.aspx
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.dep.wv.gov/WWE/ee/ust/Pages/default.aspx
State UST fund website:
    •   n/a
WISCONSIN
State brownfields website:
    •   http://dnr.wi.gov/org/aw/rr/
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   www.commerce.state.wi.us/ER/ER-BST-HomePage.html
State UST fund website:
    •   http://commerce.wi.gov/ER/ER-PECFA-Home.html
WYOMING
State brownfields website:
    •   http://deg.state.wy.us/volremedi/index.asp
Are petroleum brownfields included in brownfields program? Yes
State UST/LUST program website:
    •   http://deg.state.wy.us/shwd/stp/
State UST fund website:
    •   n/a

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