•  lir
                      The   Life   (yc|e
                                of   a   (e||   Phone
 •   friends each have one—owning a cell phone
 ;'/  has become as common as having a tradi-
tional land-line in your home. More than 156 mil-
lion Americans now use cell phones—including
about 20 percent of American teens! In a way,
cell phones have become a necessity of everyday
life—we use them to call home when we're late,
make plans with friends, or get directions when
we're lost. But have you ever thought about how
cell phones are made and what happens to them
when you don't need them anymore?

Like any product, making a cell phone and its
parts uses natural resources and energy, which
can potentially impact the air, land, and water.
Understanding the life cycle of a product can
help you make  environmental choices about
the products you use, and how you dispose of
them. You can help minimize your environ-
mental impact of using a cell phone by:
   Materials  extraction
ell phone is made up of many materials.
general, the handset consists of 40 percen
tals, 40 percent plastics, and 20 percent
amics and trace materials.
      The circuit board (also called a printed
      wiring boardl. located in the handset, is the
      "brain" of the cell phone because it controls
      all of  its functions.

      Circuit boards are made from mined, raw
      materials including copper, gold, lead, nickel,
      zinc, beryllium, tantalum, coltan, and other
      metals. The manufacturing of these boards
      requires crude oil for plastic, and sand and
      limestone for fiberglass.  Many of these
      materials are known as "persistent toxins"
      and can stay in the environment for long
      periods of time, even after disposal.

      The liquid crystal  display (LCD) is a
      low-power, flat-panel display on the
      front  of your phone that shows
      information and images. It
      becomes opaque (hard to
      see through) when electrii
      current passes through it.
      The contrast between the
      opaque and transparent
      (see-through) areas forms
      visible characters.
                                             ^Keeping your phone longer. Choose
                                             your cell phone service provider carefully.
                                             Pick a phone with features you need and a
                                             style you like so you will keep it longer.
                                             Find ways to reuse or recycle your phone and
                                             accessories when you're finished with them.
                                             Many companies recycle or reuse cell
                                             phones—visit the "Resources" section of
                                             this poster for a list of suggestions.

                                            Follow the life-cycle diagram to learn more
                                            about cell phones, their parts, and their
                                            potential impact on the environment...
                                                 Materials Processing
                                                raw materials must be processed befor
                                               ifacturers can use them to make prod-
                                        chemicals in a processing plant to make
                                        Copper is mined, ground, heated, and treated
                                        with chemicals and electricity to  isolate the
                                        pure metal used to make circuit boards and
                                        batteries, The resulting copper pieces are
                                        shipped to a manufacturer where they are
                                        formed into wires and sheets.
Plastics and fiberglass are used to make the
basic shape of the circuit board, which is
then coated with gold plating. The board is
also composed of several electronic compo-
      nents, connected with circuits and
         wires (primarily made of copper)
                 soldered to the board and
                 d with protective glues
                        Approximately 20 percent
                         of American teenS (wore
                        jirlJ than boyi) OWM a cell
                        phone. By the wd of iocs,   LCDs are manufactured by
                        «ear|y two-thir* of a|| uj.  sandwiching liquid crystal
                          teeni will be wire|eSS!   between layers of glass or plastic.
     Various liquid crystalline substances, either
     naturally occurring (such as mercury, a
     potentially dangerous substance) or human-
     made, are used to make LCDs. LCDs also
     require the use of glass or plastic.

      The rechargeable battery is used to
      power the phone.

     Cell phones can use several types of batter-
     ies: nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium-ion
     (Li-Ion), nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd), or lead acid.
     Ni-MH and Ni-Cd batteries contain nickel,
     cobalt, zinc, cadmium, and copper. Li-Ion bat-
     teries use lithium  metallic oxide and carbon-
     based materials, all mined from the  earth.
                                       Batteries consist of two separate parts,
                                     called electrodes, made from two different
                                     metals. A liquid substance, called electrolytes,
                                     touches each electrode. When an outside
                                     source of electricity such as an outlet is
                                     applied, chemical reactions between the elec-
                                     trodes and the electrolytes cause an
                                     electric current to flow, giving batteries their
                                                          "juice" or power.
                                              By 200S, ce||
                                          phones will be discarded
                                          at a rate of More than
                                          115 Million phones each
                                          year, resulting in wore
                                            than esiooo tons
                                               of waste!
                                    "Sing Le« Stuff
Cell phone parts and the finished products
need packaging and transportation to get from
one place to another. Transportation by plane,
truck, or rail all require the use of fossil fuels
for energy, which can contribute to global
climate change.

While packaging protects products from dam-
age, identifies contents, and provides informa-
tion, excessive or decorative packaging can be
wasteful. Packaging
consumes valuable
natural resources,   w 198Sl about 340,000
such as paper       people  a^ ee|| phoites
(from trees), plas-   ftl the UHftftj 5^^- ;„
tic (from crude oil     2oo3,  More than Wo
in the earth), alu-      ^^ peop|e uia|
minum (from ore), or      ce|| photKj.
other materials, all of
which use energy to produce
and can result in waste. Some packaging, how-
ever, can be made from recycled materials.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ce|| phones are only
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   u£d for an average of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   18 north! before beixg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   replaeed-even though
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   they can function for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       h, Much longer.

                                                                                                                     ;tof nine basic pai
                                                                                                                     . its own life cycle:
                                                                                                        Circuit board/printed wiring board
                                                                                                        Liquid crystal display (LCD)
                                                                                                                                                                  The Nine Lives  of  a cell Phone
                                                                                                                                                                                        Plastic casing
                                                                                                                                                                                        Accessories (such as adapters, headsets,
                                                                                                                                                                                        carrying cases, and decorative face plates)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Between 1999 and 2«o3j
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2.5 Billion phone* were
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             collected to be recycled or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            reuSeJ, accountt^ for |e$S thaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             i percent of the Million! of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             phones retired or discarded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    each /ear.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This means tha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      switching cell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      phone companies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      can mean having
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to purchase a new
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      phone. One way to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      extend the useful life
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of your phone and prevent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      waste is to use the same company for continu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ing phone service. Always comparison-shop to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      be sure you get the service and phone that's
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      right for you.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      You can also  extend the life of your phone by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      taking care of it—protecting it from damage by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      storing it in a case, avoiding dropping it, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      keeping it out of extreme heat and cold and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      away from water and other liquids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           The use of rechargeable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           batteries in cell phones reduces the

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           posable batteries create. Be sure to fol-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           low the manufacturer's instructions for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           charging your batteries so you can
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           extend their lives as long as possible.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Unlike other countries, cell phone companies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in the United States sell their own phones,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        which are usually not interchangeable from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        company to company. Even though regulations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        now allow consumers to transfer their phone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        number to a new phone company, most com-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        panies have unique technologies in their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        phones that only work in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        their own networks.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Many organizations—including recyclers, chari-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ties, and electronics manufacturers—accept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             working cell phones and offer them to schools,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             community organizations, and individuals in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             need. Reuse gives people, who could not oth-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             erwise afford them,  free or reduced cost

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Plus, it extends the useful lifetime of a phone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Take-Back Programs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Many cell phone  manufacturers and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                service providers offer a "take-back" pro-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                gram. Under this system, manufacturers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                accept used cell phones and accessories

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                dispose of them  using systems designed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                to handle the specific types of waste cell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                phones produce.  Contact your
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                manufacturer by  using the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                information that came with your
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                phone or via the  Internet.
                                       Electronics recyclers are springing up every-
                                       where! Today, many stores, manufacturers, and
                                       recycling centers accept cell phones for recy-
                                       cling. While some electronics recyclers only
                                       accept large shipments, communities, schools,
                                       or groups can work together to collect used cell
                                       phones for shipment to electronics recyclers,

                                       Some rechargeable batteries can also be recy-
                                       cled, as several retail stores and some commu-
                                       nities have started collecting them. When
                                       rechargeable batteries are recycled, the recov-
                                       ered materials can be used to make new batter-
                                       ies and stainless steel products.

                                       Check the "Resources" section of this poster
                                       for a list of organizations that will accept your
                                       phone and accessories for reuse or recycling.
                                       You can also use the Internet or phone book to
                                       search for local contacts that recycle and refur-
                                       bish cell phones.

                                       By 2005, the rate at which cell phones are dis-
                                       carded is predicted to exceed 125 million
                                       phones each year, resulting in more than
                                       65,000 tons of waste! Cell phones that are
                                       thrown in the trash end up in landfills (buried in
                                       the ground} or incinerators (burned).  Because
                                       cell phones contain metals, plastics,  chemi-
                                       cals, and other potentially hazardous sub-
                                       stances, you should always recycle, donate, or
                                       trade in your old cell phone. It's free and easy.
                                       Don't throw it away! Phones that are thrown
                                       away waste energy and result in the loss of
                                       valuable resources.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Crank up the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               A major cell phone manufacturer recently developed a way to recharge cell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               phone batteries using "muscle power." This hand-powered device provides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               20 minutes of talk time after just three minutes of squeezing a hand-held
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               generator] Other new technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells and zinc-air
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and solar-powered batteries, are under development and might ultimately
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               replace current battery technology.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               These new alternatives will conser
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               natural resources  and reduce wast

       what   iS   a    Life   (yc|e?

   Wave you ever considered where the products
   you use every day come from, or what
   happens to them when you finish using them?
Do you know how each of the products you use
impacts the environment?

Just as living things are born, get older, and die,
products also complete a life cycle. Each stage of a
product's life cycle can affect the environment in
different ways. Some products, such as cell
phones, have many different components, each of
which has its own life cycle in addition to the  life
cycle of the composite product. The stages of a
product's life cycle usually include:

"Design. A product's design can influence each
 stage of its life cycle and in turn the environment.
 Design affects which materials will be used to
 manufacture a product. For example, cheaper
 materials are often less durable, which means
 the product will have a short useful life. Product
 design can also prevent waste in many ways.
 Products can be designed with modular compo-
 nents that can be easily replaced so that the
                :t does not have to be thrown
                 inly one piece breaks. Items
                 :antto!asta longtime can
                   avoid trendy designs so
                            they are not
                                           "Materials Processing. Once materials are
                                             extracted, they must be converted into a form
                                             that can be used to make products. For exam-
                                             ple, paper is made from trees, but the wood has
                                             to undergo several different processes before
                                             we can use it.

                                           * Manufacturing. Products are made in facto-
                                             ries and require a great deal of energy to create.
                                             The manuiacturing process can also produce
                                             pollution, Many products require the use of
                                             packaging as well, to prevent spoilage, damage,
                                             contamination, and tampering.

                                           "Packaging & Transportation. The use of
                                             packaging can protect products from damage
                                             and provide product information. However, pack-
                                             aging consumes valuable natural resources and
                                             when used excessively can be wasteful, Some
                                             packaging can be made from
                                             recycled materials.
                                             Finished products art
                                             transported in trucks,
                                             planes, and trains to differei
                                             locations where they are sold. All of these
                                             forms of transportation burn fossil fuels, which
                                             can contribute to global climate change.
"Materials Extraction. All products are made
 from materials found in or on the earth. "Virgin
 or "raw" materials, such as trees of ore, are

 process that can create pollution, use large
 amounts of energy, and  deplete limited natural
 resources. Making new products from material
 that have already been used (recycled mat

 need to take from the earth.
                                           "Use. The way products are used can impact the
                                             environment. For example, products that are
                                             only used once create more waste than prod-
                                             ucts that are used again and again.

                                           "Reuse/Recycling/Disposal. Using a product
                                             over and over again prevents the need to create
                                             the product from scratch,  which saves
                                             resources and energy while also preventing pol-
                                             lution. Recycling or re-manufacturing products
                                             also reduces the amount of new materials that
                                             have to be extracted from the earth. Throwing a
                                       ils)    product away means that  it will end up in a land-
                                             fill or incinerator and will not be useful at
options for RfttSc f Recycling
"Collective Good
  Collective Good refurbishes donated cell phones
  uses them to pravice aflirdsole wireless servict
  throughout the Caribbean and Latin America.
"Cellular Telecommunications & Inl
 Association (CTIA}
 CTIA is an international assoc
 telecommunications industry.

"Charitable Recycling
 Charitable Recycling Program encourages the don
 tion of used cell phones.

"Plug-in to eCycling Program

 organizations,  is helping consumers of electronic
 products tap into a network of recycling opportuni
                                            "National Recycling Coalition's (NRC's)
                                             Electronic Recycling Initiative
                                             NRC's Electronics Recycling Initiative promotes the
                                             recovery, reuse, and recycling of obsolete electronic
                              x the wireless   Life Cycle web SiteS
"ReCellular, In

                                             This program provides information on life cycle
                                             environmental impacts of products.

                                            "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
                                             Green Engineering Program
                                             This program advocates designing products with theii
                                             entire life cycle in mind.

                                            "United Nations Environment Programme,
                                             Life Cycle Initiative
                                             This web site provides information about products
                                             and service? wc-r ncn TTI-D Lie cycle.
  Corporation (RBRC)

  RBRC is a nonprofit, public service organization that
  recycles rechargeable batteries.

"The Wireless Foundation
  Established by CTIA, this foundation is involved with
  several programs that use wireless communications

  and teachers more effective.
                                            "How5tuffWorks.com, Inc.
                                             w w w. h o wstuff w o rks. c onVcel l-phone.htm
                                             This web site provides a straightforward and easy-
                                             to-read discussion of the technical componenis of a
                                             cell phone and the technology that makes it work.

                                            "Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)

                                             A trade association for the electronics industry,

                                             nies are incorporating environmental attributes in
                                             electronic products.
                                                                                                                         Hand-Held  Hunt
                                                                                                   Whether at school, home, or out running
                                                                                                   errands, people use hand-held electronic
                                                                                                   devices everywhere they go. Take an infor-
                                                                                              mal survey to find out who uses the following
                                                                                              items in the various locations you visit during a
                                                                                              single day, This activity will illustrate how many
                                                                                              people own and use cell phones and their acces-
                                                                                              sories. You may discover interesting trends in  who
                                                                                              is buying and using cell phones and their acces-
                                                                                              sories in your community!
                                                                                                                                          Consider whether the people
                                                                                                                                          are kids, teenagers, or adults ,
                                                                                                                                          and whether they are mal'
                                                                                                                                          or female. For example,
                                                                                                                                          spend a half-hour at the mall and
                                                                                                                                          identify how many people in each category are
                                                                                                                                          using the items listed below. Perhaps adult men
                                                                                                                                          use belt clips more than younger women.  Is that
                                                                                                                                          true? Find answers to these questions, and turn
                                                                                                                                          your results into a graph or chart.
                                                                                                                        Many people use a cell phone headset while they are driving or walking
                                                                                                                        around to keep their hands free. Most models of headsets can be reused
                                                                                                                        when you buy a new phone.
                                                                                             Be|t c|ip:
                                                                                                                         Some people buy belt clips to
                                                                                                                         y donating your belt clip wher
                                                                                                                                                   y cell phones while not in use. Reusing
                                                                                                                                                   u are finished using it prevents waste,
                                                                                                                        Decorative face plates can be trendy and fun, but you don't need them to

                                                                                                                        ucts you don't need. If you do buy face plates, donate unwanted ones to a
                                                                                                                        charity or swap them with your friends instead of throwing them away.
                                                                                                                         Cell phones have a lot of the same parts as hand-held video game
                                                                                                                         consoles and portable CD players, including speakers, circuit boards, and
                                                                                                                         LCDs. Old or broken consoles and players can also be reused or recycled
                                                                                                                         when no longer wanted.
                                                                                                                    The  Big  Debate:
                                                                                                                         Recycle,  or  Dispose?
                                                                                                   What are some of the end-of-life options for cell phones? List the 0
                                                                                                   the pros and cons of each.
                                                                                                  Pros                                    CouS
                                                                                                                                         :; ax. oca authorities have to say about end-of-life
2.  Find out what cell phone manufacturer
    options for cell phones.
       Conduct Internet research or call a company that produces cell phones. Find out what it conside
       to be the useful life of a cell phone. Ask what the policy is for accepting its cell phones back for
       recycling or re manufacturing.
       Find out what your teachers do with their cell phones at the end of their useful life.
       Contact a local  recycling center and ask it if accepts old cell phones.
       Contact a cell phone recyder to learn about its recycling practices and what products are made
       from recycled cell phones.
       Contact your local waste management agency and ask what its policy is regarding discarded
       cell phones.

3-  After conducting this research, write a summary of your findings, including who you contacted, the
    date, and what information you obtained. Or, present the results to your classmates and discuss what
    you view to  be a good end-of-iife choice for cell phones.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               (opponents  (rotfword
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               word$  fro*  the  wi$e
                                                                                                                                                                                                   . ,se the following clues about the differ-
1 . The battery, the LCD, and the 	
board create 98 percent of a cell
phone's environmental impacts.
4. Cell phones that are thrown away
waste energy and result in the loss
of valuable 	 .
7. Each part of a cell phone must be
	 and transported, which
requires energy and often creates
9. Some facilities will recycle 	 .
batteries when they can no longer
be reused.
10. Cell phones are actually not phones
at all but sophisticated two-way
11. LCDs are a low-power, flat panel
display made by sandwiching liquid
	 between layers of glass
or plastic.
1 . Circuits and wires on a circuit board ar












3 primarily made from





                                                                                                                                                                                             2.   Ni-MH and Ni-Cd batteries contain nicka . cobalt, cadmium	
                                                                                                                                                                                                 to be  mined and processed, which creates pollution and waste.

                                                                                                                                                                                             3.   Many cell phone parts can be removed from the phone and

                                                                                                                                                                                             5.   Batteries consist of two separate parts, called	.

                                                                                                                                                                                                 'lastics and	. are used to make the basic shape of a circuit board.

                                                                                                                                                                                                 Crude oil is combined with natural gas and chemicals to make	,
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Math  Activity  i:  (e||  ph