United States Environmental
    Protection Agency
Office of Policy
December 2011
                                 Partnership for Clean  Fuels and Vehicles:
                                 Evaluation of the Design and Implementation
                                 of the Lead Campaign
   Fact  Sheet
For more information on
completed evaluations at EPA
or the Evaluation Support
Division, visit the above link.

In 2002, the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) was launched at the World
Summit on  Sustainable  Development in Johannesburg, South Africa.  EPA is one of the
founding partners of the PCFV and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is
the Clearing-House  for the Partnership.  This voluntary, global,  public-private partnership
promotes the reduction of air pollution from vehicles in developing and transitional countries
through  promoting use of lead-free and  low sulfur fuels, and clean vehicles.  Since 2002,
nearly all of the 100-plus countries using leaded fuel at that time have since eliminated lead
from their fuel supplies.  PCFV's Lead Campaign to  remove lead from fuels catalyzed the
phase out of leaded fuel in many of these countries.  The six countries that  have yet to
eliminate lead from fuel are expected to do so within the next few years.
EPA  sponsored  this evaluation to identify and  examine lessons  from  the  PCFV's  Lead
Campaign that may be  transferable to other  existing or future international partnerships.
The evaluation focused  on the Lead Campaign's startup and  design, implementation, and
overarching insights that could inform other  partnership efforts.  The evaluation  did not
identify the benefits of  eliminating lead from fuel or the role (influence) of PCFV in the
elimination of leaded fuel, as these have been  studied previously  (UNEP, 2010; Tsai and
Hatfield, 2011).
This third-party evaluation consisted of a qualitative analysis of information on PCFV, results
of formal interviews, and  review of literature on voluntary partnerships.   This Fact Sheet
summarizes  the evaluation  findings.    The  full  evaluation  report  is  available  at:

PCFV Lead Campaign Startup and Design
Four factors supported a strong start and successful  implementation of the Campaign later
on: (1) preceding developments, such as  known public health  impacts for lead and existing
momentum  for change; (2) a  timely opportunity with support from senior leaders; (3) a
clear, measurable, and ambitious-yet-achievable goal; and (4) strong partnership design and
design process that fosters ownership and trust.
Lead Campaign Implementation
Lead Campaign  implementation has combined strong features: (1) multi-level, multi-angle
implementation strategy that covers key issues and engages key stakeholders; (2) partners
bring expertise  and commitment  through complementary roles; (3) modest yet focused
resource  investments;   and  (4)  addressing  challenges, adaptation, and learning  from

Relevance of Findings on Lead Campaign to Other Voluntary Partnerships
The evaluation found that core Lead Campaign strengths could also serve other partnerships, and that
there is an emerging set of design principles for successful voluntary partnerships that are consistent with
Emerging Partnership Design Principles that are Consistent with  PCFV
Several issue-specific factors  can inform design, implementation, and  ultimately  effectiveness  of a
voluntary partnership approach.  Considering these factors early on can help to maximize a partnership's
potential to  influence change  and avoid uncertainty,  misunderstanding, and  a lack of progress.  The
evaluators identified a set of emerging voluntary  partnership design principles that are consistent with
the Lead Campaign and PCFV more broadly. These principles are summarized here:
                            Emerging Partnership Design Principles
               Develop clear goals

               Build a strong core membership

               Thoughtfully design the
               partnership and utilize this
               process to engender buy-in and

               Make clear the power and
               authority of each partner

               Maximize voluntary and
               comprehensive participation
Ensure neutral management

Secure commitments for funding sufficient
to launch the partnership, while also
identifying long-term funding opportunities

Build in the ability to adapt and course

Empower sustained change in the field

Guarantee transparency and accountability
The  evaluators found  that  the  Lead Campaign's design features  are consistent with the emerging
principles for successful partnerships, noting that PCFV and the Lead Campaign evolved over time and as
such learned by doing rather than starting with  a comprehensive  partnership design template.  The
process of learning and adaptation, coupled with the exceptional suite of people involved, contributed as
much to the Lead Campaign's strengths as has the design itself.  Several preceding developments also
assisted, if not "empowered," the Lead Campaign from the beginning.  The evaluators believe  that the
potent combination of preceding developments,  sound  design, strong implementation strategy, and
exceptional partners have made the Lead Campaign an extraordinary example in the realm of voluntary

                                     FOR MORE INFORMATION
       The EPA Evaluation Report, Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles: Evaluation of the Design and
       Implementation of the Lead Campaign, December 2011, EPA-100-R-11-008, is available at:
       Tsai, Peter L and Thomas H. Hatfield. "Global Benefits from the Phase out of Leaded Fuel" Journal of
       Environmental Health, Volume 74, No. 5 December 2011.
       UNEP, 2010, "Outcome and Influence Evaluation of the UNEP Based Partnership for Clean Fuels and
       Vehicles," http://www.unep.org/transport/pcfv/PDF/leadphaseoutreport.pdf
       Information on the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles is available at: