PRELIMINARY SAMPLING SURVEY
                                             

                      WAUKEGAN AND ZION POWER PUNT SITES
                                                      o




                            October 9 and 10,  1969
                       U. S.  DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                     FEDERAL WATER QUALITY ADMINISTRATION
                          Lake Michigan Basin Office
                              Chicago, Illinois
                                 April, 1970
EPA 950-F-70-002

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Ijit^rodijction

       A preliminary sampling survey of the Commonwealth Edison

power plant sites at Waukegan and Zion was performed on October
                                          \
9 and 10, 1969.  The objectives of the study were (1) to determine

the species and number of benthic organisms at the two sites and

assess the effects of the heated discharge at Waukegan, (2) to

obtain radiological background data at Zion for both water and

sediments, and (3) to obtain temperature data at Waukegan to aug-

ment that collected in May 1968.

       The Waukegan plant is a fossil fueled steam electric

generator of 1086.7 megawatts capacity.  The Zion plant will con-

sist of two pressurized water reactors, each of 1050 megawatts

capacity, and is scheduled to begin operation in 1972,

-------
Summary.-



1.  Waukegan bottom samples within the thermal plume showed



    generally lower concentrations of pollution sensitive



    organisms,                            <



2.  Zion bottom samples contained a large number of both pollu-



    tion sensitive and pollution tolerant organisms.



3.  Dissolved oxygen levels were uniformly high at both sites,



4.  Temperature data at Waukegan was insufficient for more than



    a rough profile of plume shape,



5.  Radiological results are comparable to other analyses from



    stations across the United States and. reflect background



    conditions,



6,  More intensive study of the relationship between heat, benthic



    fauna, and scour at Waukegan is needed before definite con-



    clusions about thermal effects can be drawn.

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        Benthie samples were collected by means of  Pettersson



dredge.   The samples were washed through a, 30 mesh screen.  The



material  remaining on the screen was placed into a 16 ounce poly-



styrene jar containing enough formalin to effect a 10 percent



solution.



        Laboratory procedures for benthos followed  those outlined



in the  Water Pollution Biology Field and Laboratory Manual pre-



pared by  the Biology Unit, GLIRB Project, Department of Health,



Education and Welfare, February 1966,
       Tables 1 and 2 show the numbers of benthie organisms



collected during the Waukegan and Zion studies.  Figures 1 and 2



show the sampling pointsj Figures 6 and 7> the numbers of pollu-



tion sensitive organisms,



       Considerable numbers of pollution-tolerant and pollution



sensitive organisms were noted at all Zion stations.  In general,



numbers of organisms in the sampling area increased with depth




(Figure 7).



       In the Waukegan study, pollution sensitive organisms such



as seuds were found in generally lov/er quantities within the



thermal plume (Figures 3, k and 6),   No organisms were found at



stations 47 and 50, where average temperature increase is the



greatest,
                              - 3 -

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       Though the plume and benthos patterns at Waukegan are



similar, the data are too limited to allow certainty about ad-



verse thermal effects.  Field observations (Table 3) show a



large volume of fine sand at station 47, perhaps indicating un~



consolidated shifting sand which has covered the benthic organisms.



Gravel, noted at station 50, may indicate scouring due to cooling



water flow, wave interaction vdth the breakwater, etc.  Further



study of the relationship between heat and benthos at Waukegan is



needed and should include cores or Shipek Dredge samples to allow



better assessment of dynamical effects such as scouring, Additional




sampling south of Light "A" is needed to establish the influence of



the Waukegan Sewage Plant effluent,.

-------
. Winthrop Harbor
 Water Tower
                  ZION  NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
                   Sampling Stafions-Oct.8,1969
                    Lake Michigan Basin Office
 From Zion 7.5 Mlnuto Quadrangls Map
                                                               6
                                                  42-2r.B' \V
                                                  er-47.e' w
                                                     1
24'
 \
                                                              1
                                                           7
                                                           o
                                                                        N
                                                       Intake Well   /
                                                                           5
                                                                           O
                                                                    FIG, I

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Lake Michigan Basin'Of fice/ F.v'PCA                    Ref:  Figure 1
1819 W. Pershing Road                               Date: 1-26-70
Chicago, Illinois 60609                             Page 1 of 2 Pages
Biology Unit
                     Table  1
                     BIOLOGICAL DETER1OTATIONS, BENTJUC FAUNA
                     Sample Source:   Zion Study - Thermal Pollution
                 -  -  Study Period:    10-8-69

                       Results Expressed in Numbers of_Organisms
                                   per Square Meter*
LI'BO #
Station
Det)th of St^t^'on
Date of Collection
Date of Analysis
Oligochaeta
(_sludgevorms )
Sphaeriidae
(fingernail claras)
Tendipedidae
(bloodworms )
Hirudinea
^leeches)
Pulmonata (lung
breathing snails)
Isopoda
(aquatic sovbugs)
Nernatoda
(roundvorms )
Amphipoda
(scuds)
Mysidacea
(opossum, shrinro )
Prosobranchia (gill-
breathing snails)
Turbellaria
(f latvorms )
Unionidae
(unionid clams )
Ephemeroptera
(mayfly larvae)
Cladocera
(water fleas)


Total
5139
3
18'
10-8-69
1-20-70
2490
270
30




260



-

*


3050
5140
4 '
235'
10-8-69
1-20-70
2400
330





1380








4110
5141
5
30.5'
10-8-69
1-13-70
350
390
10

20


1730

.
-





2500
5142
6
14. 5 '
10-8-69
1-20-70
6020
190
	 10




100








6320
_5143
7.
24.5' J
10-8-59 ""
1-14-70
70






1690

10






1770
Methods Reference:                         Preservative
Remarks :  "^Numbers of ^organisms collected times ten.
                                                          Formalin
-LM30 Form  8/U/69

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Lake Michigan Basin -Office/ FWPCA                   Kef:   Figure 1
1819 W. Pershing Road                               Date:  1-26-70
Chicago, Illinois 60609                             Page 2 of 2 Pages
Biology Unit
                     Table  1
                     BIOLOGICAL DETBRJ'CENATIONS, BENTHIC FAU1IA
                     Sample Source:   Zion Study -  Thermal  Pollution
                   -  Study Period:    10-8-69

                      Results Expressed in Numbers of_Organisms
                                   per Square l^eter
LM30 #
Station
Det>th of Station
Date of Collection
Date of Analysis
Oligochaeta
(_slud^eworris )
Sphaeriidae
(fingernail clams )
Tendipedidae
(bloodworms )
Hirudinea
(jleeches)
Pulmonata ( lung
breathing snails )
Isopoda
(aquatic s ovbugs )
Nematoda
(roundvorns )
Amphipoda
(scuds )
Mysidacea
(opossum shrinro)
Prosobx-anchia (gill-
breathing snails)
Turbellaria
(flatvorms )
Unionidae
(unionid clams )
Ephemeroptera
(mayfly larvae)
Cladocera
^vater fleas)
Hydrazoa

Total
51U
8
11'
10-8-69
_ir5i=2Q_
8900
30
50




20



*

*


9000
5U5 ..
9 "
20'
10-8-69
1-15-70
290
70'
10
- .
10


290






90

770
1 5H6
10
25'
10-8-69
1-19-70
	 35P
740
10




3180

10 .
-





4290
5147
11
10'
IQrSr^-
1-21-70
170
40
120




110








340






















Methods Reference:

Remarks:
Preservative   Formalin
 LM30 Form 8/h/69

-------
Like Michigan Basin 'Office,' F.vPCA
1819 W. Pershing Road
Chicago, Illinois 60609
Biology Unit
                                                     Ref:    Figure  2
                                                     Date:   1-26-70
                                                     Page 1 of 2  Pages
                     BIOLOGICAL DETERMINATIONS, BENTHIC  FAUNA
                     Sample Source:  Waukegan  Study  - Thermal  Pollution
                    -Study Period:   10-9-69

                      Results Expressed in "Numbers of_ Organisms
                                   per Square l-Jeter*
LMBO #
Station
Dentil of Station
Date of Collection
Date of Analysis
Oligochaeta
( sludgevorras )
Sphaeriidae
(fingernail clams)
Tendipedidae
(bloodworms )
Hirudinea
(jLeechj2j3_)
Pulinonata (lung
"breathing snails )
Isopoda
( aQ uat i c s ovbus; s )
Neraatoda
(roundvorms )
Amphipoda
(scuds)
Mysidacea
(opossum shr irn-o) 	
Prosobranchia (gill-
breathing snails)
Turbellaria
(flatworms)
Unionidae
(unionid clams )
Ephemeroptera
(mayfly larvae)
Cladocera
_(yater fleas)


Total
51^8
46
	 	 51
__!C^9_r62L
__1=6=IO


90




20



-

i


110
5149
47 -
11'
10-9-69
1-6-70
















0
I . 5-150
48
8.5'
10-9-69
1-12-70


10




10

..
-





20
5151
6
8'
10-9-69
1-12-70


30




50








' 80
5152
50
8'
10-9-69
1_12_70
















0
Methods Reference:                         Preservative ^_Formali.n
Remarks:  ^Number of organisms collected times ten. __ _____ _
 LMBO Form

-------
Lake Michigan Basin 'Office^  F.v'PCA                    Ref:   Figure  2
1819 W. Pershing Road                                Date:  1-26-70
Chicago, Illinois 60609                       -      Page  2 of 2 Pages
Biology Unit
                     Table  2
                     BIOLOGICAL DETERMINATIONS, BENTffEC FAUKA
                     Sample Source:  Waukegan Study - Thermal  Pollution
                    - Study Period:   10-9-69

                       Results Expressed in Numbers of_ Organisms
                                   per Square Mjeter
LM30 # 
Station
Det>th of Station
Date of Collection
Date of Analysis
Oligochaeta
(sludgewornis )
Sphaeriidae
(fingernail claras)
Tendipedidae
(bloodworms )
Hirudinea
(_leeches)
Pulraonata (lung
breathing snails )
Isopoda
(aquatic sovbuejs)
Nematoda
(roundworms )
Amphipoda
(scuds )
Mysidacea
(opossum shriKvo )
Prosobranchia (gill-
breathing snails)
Turbellaria
_f latworms )
Unionidae
(unionid clams )
Ephenieroptera
(mayfly larvae)
Cladocera
_(water fleas)


Total
5153
9
15'
10-9-69
1-12-70







90





*


90
5154
10 '
24'
10-9-69
1-7-70
880
600
40

. 60


1650

240






3470
5155
12
23'
10-9-69
1-8-70
3670

100

290


1410

42Q
-





5890
5156
13
27'
10-9-69
1-7-70
2080
137
110

90




210






4120






















Methods Reference:

Remarks:
Preservative   Formalin
 LMBO For.-n  8/L/69

-------
Plant
                                                 N
(
/
/
12'
! 
f
P P !
0 2000 4000
1 I 1 1 i FEI
            Light "C1
 WAUKEGAN POWER PLANT
Sampling Stations-Oct.9,1969
 Lake  Michigan Basin Office
                                            FIG. 2

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        'EMPERATURE STUDY "WAUKEGAN STATION 'APRIL !963
      400        800'




Commonwealth Edison Data
     1200
         1600
2000
2400
2800
FIG.3
Is BELOW SURFACE

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COMMONWEALTH
EDISON PLANT
                  Lih1 "C"

                WAUKEGAN POWER PLANT
                 Surface Isotherms In C
                      May 22,1968
               Lake  Michigan Basin  Office
                                                       i
                                                      -J MILE
                                                        FIG. 4

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      ROUGH TEMPERATURE PROFILE  IN C
      WAUKEGAN POWER  PLANT-Oct.9,1969
            Lake Michigan Basin Office
             Station     Station
              No;47      No.6

               Oil.I	(12.4^0 11.8  II.
                     12
                         11.6
                         Station   Light
                          No.48   "B"

                           I | r> o  11-1 eO
10.5 fl-10.8 10.6'
   10.8

   10:7


   10.4


   10.3


   10.3
                                                         VERTICAL PROFILE
                                                         BETWEEN LIGHT "A"
                                                         AND LIGHT "B"
                     .6  MILE-
Light   /
 "A" A BREAKWATER
   '9.87	'10.5


    '    10.3
    10
               11.4
11.6
                                     SURFACE CONTOURS
                                                               FIG. 5

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     TABLE  3



FIELD OBSERVATIONS

Site
Waukegan









Zion









Station
6
9
10
12
13
46
47
48
50

3
4
5
6
7
8
9'
10
11

Depth
8
15'
24'
23'
2?'
5'
11'
8.5'
8'

18'
23.5'
30.5'
14.5'
24.5'
10'
20'
25'
10'

Bottom

Sand
Sand
Fine Sand
Fine Sand
Fine Sand
Fine Sand.
Sample '
Sand
Fine Sand,
Gravel

Fine Sand
Fine Sand

Fine Sand
Med. Sand
Fine Sand
Fine Sand

Fine Sand
Bottom
TjgmjDerajvure
9.7C
9.6C
9.9G
9.9C
9.0C
Large 9.5C
10.3C
9.5C
Av. *= 9.9C
8.5C
8.1C
8.5C
8.0C
8.0C
9.0C
8.5C
8 C
9 C

7.4
7.6
7.4
7.3
7.3
7.6
7.2
7.3
7.6

7.5
7.5
7.5
7.6
7.4
7.6
7.5
7.5
7.6

(Wor
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal

Normal
Normal

Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
Normal
                Av. =  8.4C

-------
       Surface and depth temperatures were taken at Waukegan



on October 9 1969 with a Yellow Springs Instrument Company Model



43TD Tele-thermometer, Serial No. 6026.  (Calibration was performed



in the laboratory and found to be accurate to within  0.3eG.  A



weighted probe was used to obtain temperature profiles,.  Another



probe was hand held at the stern of the boat to obtain surface



temperatures while underway.  At the time of sampling, air tempera-



ture was 13 degrees centigrade, winds were SSE and about 20 knots,



waves were about 3 feet.



       Gale warnings prevented the crew from performing most of



the intended temperature measurements.  Several depth profiles



and surface runs v/ere obtained, however, on a line between



lights A&B (Figure 2).  A diagram of an admittedly "rough" tempera-



ture profile is given in Figure 5 for the cross-section between



lights A&B.

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                                    10'
    Plant
                                                 tf-
                                                     KILE
                                                   FEET
     WAUKEGAN  POWER PLANT
NumbersOf Pollution Sensitive Organisms
     Lake Michigan Basin Office
             Oct. 9,1969
                                                 FIG. 6

-------
   ,Y/inthrop Harbor
    Water Tower
                     ZION NUCLEAR  POWER PLANT"

                 Numbers Of Pollution Sensitive Organisms

                       Lake  Michigan Basin Office

                                Ocf.8,1969
                                                                            N
9 ZicnV/ater
   Tower
                                                                               0

                                                                               1730
       o
       L_
1000
 I
                  2000
                   I  FEET
    From Zion 7.5 Minuts Quadrangle Map
                                                                        FIG. 7

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Dissolved Oxygen



       Dissolved oxygen  levels  were determined for bottom waters




at each one of the Waukegan  and Zion stations.  Values were




uniformly high and showed  no effects of the thermal discharge.




The data are as follows:








Zion Station     P^._i2_JlZi   /Sat.  Waukegan ^Sta.tipn    22_ilLJSsZi
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
9.6
9.8
9.75
9.8
9.6
9.8
9.7
10.3
9.9
81.2
82.1
82.4
81.9 '
80.2
83.9
82.0
86.
84.7
6
9
10
12
13
46
47
48
50
9.8
9.9
9.7
9.7
9.7
10.15
9.85
9.6
9.3
88.9
86.1
84.2
84.8
.84.8
86.8
85.3
84.7
80.5
                             , - 6 -

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Rad io ac ti vity


       Gross Alpha and Beta activity were determined  at the


Lake Michigan Basin Office from nine surface water  samples ob~
                                          
-------
 Lake Michigan Basin Office, FWPCA
 1819 V. Pershing Road
 Chicago, Illinois 60609
 Radiochemistry Unit
                                             Ref:   Figure 1
                                             Date: 10-26-69
                                             Page  1  of 3  Pages
Table
RADIOCHEMICAL DETERMINATIONS
Sample Source:  Lake Michigan, Zion, Illinois
Study Period:   10-8-69
LMBO #
5139
Station
3
i

 - -- -
5140



5141






4 '



5




Station
Depth, m
o












Sample
Depth, m
0









Collection
Date
10-8-69









i
Analysis
Time6, Date
j
1410 '10-20-69



1430



1500


! i
i I

Time
1355

\
!












Sample
Type
S.S.
S.S.
D.C.
D.S.
S.S.
1 S.S.
\







D.S.
D.S.
S.S.
S.S.
D.S.
D.S.

Parameter
Measured













Error
Activity  E~_
.7
1.8
2.0
5.7
.6
.8
1.5
4.4
.5
.8
1.7
3.8

yj
.4
1.2
1.1
1.9
Units
PCi/1 :
,
\
\
AJ
1.1
.8
1.7
.3
1.1
1.0
1.8









Methods Reference: GLR Radiochemistry Manual

Calibration Standard:  90Sr
LMBO Form Q/h/&9
                     ' Sampling Method:  Sampler

                      Instrument Used:  LB - II

-------
 liake Michigan Basin Office, FhTCA
 1819 W. Pershing Road
 Chicago, Illinois 60609
 Radiochemistry Unit
                                             Ref:  Figure 1
                                             Date: . 10-26-69
                                             Page  2  of 3  Pages
Table
RADIOCHEMICAL DETERMINATIONS
Sample Source:  Lake Michigan,-  Zion,  Illinois
Study Period:   10-8-69
.
LMBO #
5142



5143



5144
1


I
Station
6

^

7 '



8




Station
Depth, in
Sample
Depth, m
o I o
Collection
Analysis
Date i Time! Date | Time
10-8-69
1 1
1 I
i 1




i


















1330



j
J1345









1310


!

i
10-20-6$
(
! .









!










Sample
Type
S.S.
o o*
D.S.
D.S.
S.S.
S.S.
D.S.
D.S.
S.S.
S.S.
D.S.
D.S.

Parameter
Measured













Error
Activity  E-,,-
.4
.9
.9
1.8
O
.8
.8
y;
3
1.1
.7
1.6
.3
1.1
.7
1
4.4 | 1.8
.2
.5
1.0
2.9

.2
1.1
.7
1.6
	
Units
PCi/1




i



i
,


Methods Reference:  GLR Radiochemistry Manual

Calibration Standard:   90Sr
LKBO Form B/k/6?
                      Sampling Method:  Sampler

                      Instrument Used:  LB - II

-------
 Lake Michigan Basin Office, FWPCA
 1819 W. Pershing Road
 Chicago, Illinois 60609
 Radiochemistry Unit
                                             Ref:   Figure 1
                                             Date:  10-26-69
                                             Page  3  of  3 Pages
Table
RADIOCHEMICAL DETERMINATIONS
Sample Source:  Lake Michigan, Zion, Illinois
Study Period:   10-3-69
LMPO ft
5145



5146


!
5147




, Station
9

V

10"

Station
Depth, m
0





1

11










Sample
Depth, m
0




'







Collection 1 Analysis
Date
10-8-69


Time? Date
1545


\






1325



1715

j
j
i

10-20-69
'



Time





i











Sample
Type
S.S.
s.s.
D.S.
D.S.
S.S.
s.s.
D.S.
D.S.
s. s.
s.s.
j D.S.


D.S.

Parameter
Measured













Error
Activity  E^r.
.3
.8
.6
4.9
.3
0
.7
1111 y;
.3
1.1
.6
1.8
.2
1.0
.6
i .
4.5 1 1.8
0.
.8
.5
3.3

0
1.1
.5
1.7

Units
PCi/1


j



;





Methods Reference:   GLR Radiochemistry Manual.

Calibration Standard:  90Sr
LKBO Form 8A/69
                     ' Sampling Method:   Sampler

                      Instrument Used:   LB - II

-------
Appendix


Radioactivity Analyses by
National Field Investigations Center
Cincinnati, Ohio

-------
         OHIONAl FORM NO. 10
         MAY 1J42 EDITION
         CSA ffM* Ul CfW 101-11.4
         UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT
       U. S. Department of the Interior
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
  5555 Ridge Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio   4p213
TO     ! Jacob D. Dumelle                                    DATE: January 26,  1970
        Director, Lake Michigan Basin Office
        Great Lakes Region, FWPCA, Chicago, IL
FROM   : R. J. Velten, Chemist
        Nat'l. Field Investigations Center, FWPCA  *
                                                        and H-3 in "the water samples are compara-
        ble to other analyses from stations collected across the continental United
        States,  and reflect the fallout patterns.  Normal Sr-90 concentrations vary
        from non-detectable to about  2  pc/1 in'our surface waters.  Tritium levels are
        reported to 2000 pc/1 and generally run from 200 to 1500 pc/1,  except in waters
        associated with the nuclear industries releasing tritium in their wastewaters.
                   Buy US. Savings Bonds Regularly on the Payroll Savings Plan

-------
JDDumelle  -  1/26/70
Cesium137 levels are generally less than Strontium-90 concentrations since
these two radionuclides are produced nearly equally in fissioning and have
nearly equal half-lives.  However, Cesium-137 can be absorbed by suspended
matter, and thus can be removed to some degree from solution.

The uranium and total alpha radium data represent radionuclides naturally
present in the environment.  The total alpha radium data include Ra-223,
Ra~22U, and Ra-226.concentrations.  If these radium daughters are not sup-
ported by their respective parents, the concentrations would reflect only
Ra-226 levels because of the short half-lives of Ra-223 and Ra-224 - 11.7
and 36 days, respectively.

Further data on the concentration of Sr-90 and CS-137 in "the sediments will
follow as soon as necessary laboratory equipment is received.

-------
 OPTIONAL fORM HO. 10
 MAY 1?62 E01TIOM
 O$A F?MR (41 CFW 101-11.4
 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT
 Memorandum
                                             U. S. Department  of the Interior
                                           Federal Water Quality Administration
                                        5555 Ridge Avenue,  Cincinnati, Ohio  ^5213
                                                  DATE: April 21, 1970
        Jacob D. Dumelle,  Director
TO     : Lake Michigan Basin Office, GLR,FWQA,USDI
        Chicago, Illinois
        Attn: Howard B.  Zar^   Oceanographer
FROM   : Milton W. Lammering,  Chief y^^fe^.
        Water Quality Engineering Sec.,
        NFIC, FWQA                            :      s
SUBJECT: Radioactivity Data for Sediment Samples - Vicinity of  Zion Nuclear Power Plant
Cesium-137 concentrations in bottom sediment samples collected in the vicinity
of the Zion power station are tabulated below.  For each sample, the strontium-
90 concentration was less than 0.1 pCi per gram dry weight.
Location

  69-3
  69-^
  69-5
  69-6
  69-7
  69-8
  69-9
  69-10
  69-11
                                       Kumber
                                        5139
    Cesixxm-137
(pCi/g dry weight)

   < 0.12

     0.12^0.02

     0.13+0.05

   < 0.15

     0.12+0.03

     0.13+0.04.

     0.19+0.05

     0.30+0.05

     0.18+0.03
  Error team is the counting error at the  one sigma level.


These data represent the completion of work on the Lake Michigan samples.
          Buy US, Savings Bonds Regularly on the Payroll Savings Plan

-------