United States
      Environmental Protection
           Technical Fact Sheet-
1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)
                                         May 2012
                                                     TECHNICAL FACT SHEET - 1,2,3,-TCP
 At  a Glance

 *  Colorless to straw-colored liquid.

 *  Not found in nature - completely man-

 *  Not likely to sorb to soil and has low
     solubility in water. In the pure form,
     likely to exist as a dense nonaqueous
     phase liquid (DNAPL).
 *  Exposure occurs from industrial
     settings or hazardous waste sites.

 *  EPA has classified TCP as "likely to be
     carcinogenic to humans" and lists an
     oral reference dose (RfD) of 4 x 103
     milligrams per kilogram per day

 *  State of California recognizes TCP as
     a human carcinogen. Short-term
     exposure may cause eye and throat
     irritation; long-term exposure led to
     kidney failure in mice.

 *  Federal maximum contaminant level
     (MCL) not established. State of Hawaii
     has established a state MCL of 0.6
     micrograms per liter.

 *  Numerous methods are available for
     detection, including gas
     chromatography, mass spectroscopy,
     and liquid-liquid extraction.

   Remediation technologies available to
     treat TCP contamination in ground
     water and soil include granular
     activated carbon (GAC), soil vapor
     extraction (SVE), and others.
      This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
      (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides
      a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP),
      including physical and chemical properties; environmental and health
      impacts; existing federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment
      methods; and sources of additional information.

      TCP is a contaminant of interest to the government, private sector, and
      other parties. It is recognized by the State of California to cause cancer
      and is a known toxin. The State of Hawaii has established a state
      maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.6 micrograms per liter (ug/L). This
      fact sheet is intended for use by site managers and other field personnel
      in addressing TCP contamination at cleanup sites or in drinking water

      What is TCP?	

      : TCP is a chlorinated hydrocarbon (Stepek 2009).
      < Synonyms include allyl trichloride, glycerol trichlorohydrin, and
         trichlorohydrin (OSHA2011).
      > TCP is exclusively a man-made chemical, typically found at industrial
         or hazardous waste sites (Dombeck and Borg 2005; TOSC 2004).
      > TCP has been used as an industrial solvent, as a cleaning and
         degreasing agent, and in the production of pesticides (DHHS 2011;
         TOSC 2004).
      > TCP is currently used as a chemical intermediate in the creation of
         other chemicals (including polysulfone liquid polymers and
         dichloropropene), and in the synthesis of hexafluoropropylene. In
         addition, it is used as a crosslinking agent in the creation of
         polysulfides (DHHS 2011).
      > TCP is typically found at industrial or hazardous waste sites.
 United States
 Environmental Protection Agency
              Office of Solid Waste and
              Emergency Response (5106P)

EPA 505-F-11-008
       May 2012

  Technical Fact Sheet - 1,2,3-TCP
                         Exhibit 1:  Physical and Chemical Properties of TCP
               (ATSDR 1992; DHHS 2011; Dombeck and Borg 2005; IRIS 2009; OSHA 2011)

CAS Number
Physical Description (at room temperature)
Molecular weight (g/mol)
Water solubility (mg/L)
Boiling point (C)
Vapor pressure at 25C (mm Hg)
Specific gravity
Octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow)
Soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient (log Koc)
Henry's law constant (atm mj/mol)

Colorless to straw-colored liquid
1,750 (slightly soluble)
1 .98 to 2.27 (temperature dependent)
1.70 to 1.99 (temperature dependent)
3.43 x10'4
          Notes: g/mol - gram per mole; mg/L - milligrams per liter; C - degrees Celsius; mm Hg - millimeters of mercury;
          atm m3/mol - atmosphere-cubic meters per mole.
What are the environmental impacts of TCP?
   TCP is not likely to sorb to soil based on its low
   soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient;
   therefore, is likely to leach from soil into ground
   water (TOSC 2004).
   TCP will sink to the bottom of a ground water
   aquifer because its density is heavier than water
   (TOSC 2004). Therefore, TCP in pure form is
   likely to exist as DNAPL (Stepek 2009).
TCP evaporates from surface soil and water
(ATSDR 1995).
When in the atmosphere, TCP is subject to
photodegradation, with a half-life of 15 days
(ATSDR 1995).
TCP is unlikely to become concentrated in
plants, fish, or other seafood because of its low
bioconcentration factor (BCF is about 9.2)
(ATSDR 1992, 1995).
What are the health effects of TCP?
    Exposure occurs through vapor inhalation,
    dermal exposure, or ingestion (DHHS 2011).
    Exposure is most likely to occur near hazardous
    waste sites where TCP was improperly stored or
    disposed of, or at locations that manufacture the
    chemical (ATSDR 1992, 1995).
    EPA has classified TCP as "likely to be
    carcinogenic to humans" (IRIS 2009).
    The Health Effects Assessment Summary
    Tables (HEAST) identifies an oral cancer slope
    factor of 7.0 per milligrams per kilogram per day
    (mg/kg-day) (EPA OSWER 1997).
    The EPA Integrated Risk Information System
    (IRIS) lists an oral reference dose (RfD) of 4 x
    10~3 mg/kg-day and an inhalation reference
    exposure (RfC) of 3 x 10~4 milligram per cubic
    meter (mg/m3) (EPA IRIS 2009).
The oral slope factor for carcinogenic risk is 30
mg/kg/day (IRIS 2009).
TCP is recognized by the State of California as a
human carcinogen (State of California 2007).
Animal studies have shown that long-term
exposure to TCP may cause kidney failure,
reduced body weight, and increased incidences
of tumors within numerous organs (DHHS 2011;
IRIS 2009; Stepek 2009).
Short-term exposure through inhalation of air
with a TCP concentration of 100 milligrams per
liter (mg/L) can cause eye and throat irritation
(ATSDR 1995) and can affect concentration and
muscle coordination (Stepek 2009).

 Technical Fact Sheet - 1,2,3-TCP
Are there any federal and state guidelines and health standards for TCP?
   No federal MCL has been set for TCP. The
   State of Hawaii has established a state MCL of
   0.6 |jg/L (Hawaii Department of Health
   Administrative Rules 2005).
   The California Department of Public Health
   (DPH) has established a notification level of
   0.005 ug/L for drinking water based on a 1 in
   10~6 lifetime excess cancer risk and a final public
   health goal of 0.0007 ug/L (DPH 2006; OEHHA
   The Occupational Safety and Health
   Administration (OSHA) has established a
permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 mg/L
(OSHA 2011).

The National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended
exposure limit (REL) of 10 mg/L (60 mg/m3) and
an immediately dangerous to life and health
(IDLH) level of 100 mg/L (DHHS 2011).
The American Conference of Government
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has set a
threshold limit value -time-weighted average
limit (TLV-TWA) of 10 mg/L (DHHS 2011).
What detection and site characterization methods are available for TCP?
   EPA Method 8260B, based on gas
   chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS)
   for solid matrices (Stepek 2009).
   EPA Method 504.1, based on microextraction
   and GC, for ground water and drinking water
   (EPA ORD 1995a; Stepek 2003).
   EPA Method 551.1, based on liquid-liquid
   extraction and GC with electron-capture
   detection, for drinking water, water being
   treated, and raw source water (Stepek 2009;
   EPA 1990).
EPA Method 524.2, based on capillary column
GC/MS, for surface water, ground water, and
drinking water in any stage of water treatment
(EPA ORD 1995b; Stepek 2009).
California DPH method, based on liquid-liquid
extraction and GC and purge and trap GC, for
trace-level detection in drinking water (DPH
2002a, 2002b).
What technologies are being used to treat TCP?
   Treatment technologies for ground water that
   are available for remediation of chlorinated
   hydrocarbons include pump and treat,
   permeable reactive barriers, in situ oxidation,
   biodegradation, and dechlorination by hydrogen
   release compound (Stepek 2009).

   TCP in water can be removed using GAG
   (Dombeck and Borg 2005; Molnaa 2003).

   TCP in soil may be removed by SVE
   (TOSC 2004).
Treatment for TCP in ground water has been
successful using ultraviolet (UV) radiation and
chemical oxidation with potassium
permanganate (Dombeck and Borg 2005;
Stepek 2009).

A laboratory-scale oxidation process (HiPOx)
using ozone and hydrogen peroxide has been
used for removal of TCP from ground water
(Dombeck and Borg 2005).
Where can I find more information about TCP?
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
   Registry (ATSDR). 1992. "Toxicological Profile
   for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane." Atlanta, Georgia:
   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
   Public Health Service.
   ATSDR. 1995. ToxFAQs - "1,2,3-

   California Department of Public Heath (DPH).
   2002a. Determination of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane
in Drinking Water by Continuous Liquid-Liquid
Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry. Available on-line at

 Technical Fact Sheet - 1,2,3-TCP
Where can I find  more information about TCP? (continued)
    DPH. 2002b. Determination of 1,2,3-
    Trichloropropane in Drinking Water by Purge
    and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass

    DPH. 2007. Drinking Water Notification Levels
    and Response Levels: An Overview.

    California Office of Environmental Health Hazard
    Assessment (OEHHA). 2009. Announcement of
    Publication of the Final Public Health Goal for
    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane in Drinking Water.

    Dombeck, G., and C. Borg. 2005. "Multi-
    contaminant Treatment for 1,2,3
    Trichloropropane Destruction Using the HiPOx
    Reactor." Reprinted from the Proceedings of the
    2005 NGWA Conference on MTBE and
    Perchlorate:  Assessment, Remediation, and
    Public Policy with permission of the National
    Ground Water Association Press. Copyright
    2005. ISBN #1-56034-120-3.

    Hawaii Department of Health Administrative
    Rules. 2005. Rules Relating to Potable Water
    Systems. Page 20-14. Available on-line at

    Molnaa, Barry. 2003. "1,2,3-TCP: California's
    Newest Emerging Contaminant" PowerPoint
    Presentation,  ENTECH 2003.

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA). 2011. "OSHA/EPA Occupational
    Chemical Database." Web site accessed
    November 4.

    State of California. 2007. "Chemicals Known to
    the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive
    www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65 list/files/0601

    Stepek, 2009. "Ground Water Information Sheet
    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)." State Water
    Resources Control Board (SWRCB), Division of
Clean Water Programs, Ground Water Special
Studies Unit.

Technical Outreach Services for Communities
(TOSC). 2004. "Hazardous Substance Fact
Sheet 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)."
Western Region Hazardous Substance
Research Center Oregon State University.
February. Available on-line at

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
(DHHS). 2011. "Substance Profiles Report on
Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition." Public Health
Service, National Toxicology Program.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
1990.  Method 551.1, Determination of
Chlorination Disinfection Byproducts,
Chlorinated Solvents, and Halogenated
Pesticides/Herbicides in Drinking Water by
Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Gas
Chromatography with Electron-Capture

EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).
2009.  "1,2,3-Trichloropropane (CASRN 96-18-
4)." www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0200.htm.

EPA Office of Research and Development
(ORD). 1995a. Method 504.1, 1,2-
Dibromoethane (EDB), 1,2-Dibromo-3-
chloropropane (DBCP), and 1,2,3-
Trichloropropane (123TCP) in Water by
Microextraction and Gas Chromatography.
National Exposure Research Laboratory.

EPA ORD. 1995b. Method 524.2, Measurement
of Purgeable Organic Compounds in  Water by
Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry. National Exposure Research

EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency
Response (OSWER). 1997. "Health Effects
Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST) FY
1997 Update." EPA 540-R-97-036-PB97-
Contact Information
If you have any questions or comments on this fact sheet, please contact: Mary Cooke, FFRRO, by phone at
(703) 603-8712 or by email at cooke.maryt@epa.gov.