PB94-780C38
            EPA MODEL CURRICULUM FOR
          TRAINING ASBESTOS ABATEMENT
                  PROJECT DESIGNERS
                         Student Manual
Georgia Environmental Institute
4501 Circle 75 Parkway. Ste C-3100
Atlanta, Georgia 30339
Produced under EPA Grant
 *CX816386-01
EPA Project Officer. Karen Hottman
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
401M Street. S.W.
Washington. DC 20460

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                       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This manual contains ideas, procedures  and information  which are  the
contributions of many individuals from a variety of disciplines. Information from
existing EPA guidance documents and other EPA asbestos course curricula
has been utilized where appropriate along with additional  information which
has not been previously included in these resources.  We are grateful to all of
those who have patiently worked toward improving our technology in the area
of asbestos hazard detection, evaluation and control. This multidisciplinary
effort is reflected in this course manual, not only by those who have assembled
the information, but also by those who have reviewed it.

We express sincere thanks to Karen Hoffman of the  EPA Office of Pollution
Prevention and Toxics. Her efforts as Project Officer greatly contributed to the
integrity of the document and made our task more enjoyable. We also express
our appreciation to Robert Jordan, PhD, of the EPA for his technical review and
support.

This manual is the result of a team effort by Individuals of The Environmental
Institute and  Diagnostic Environmental,  Inc. in Atlanta, Georgia and Gobbell
Hays Partners, Inc. (GHP)  of Nashville, Tennessee. GHP conceptualized and
developed the design laboratory/ workshop  portion of the course.  A special
thanks to Phyllis Gobbell,  Bill  Echols, Steve Hays and Ron Gobbell for their
innovative ideas and outstanding workmanship.

The Atlanta group developed Sections I-XII.  The following are recognized for
the excellent work and dedication to the effort:  Alan Agadoni, Bonnie Bonham,
Corlette Dennard, Tod Dawson, Bill Ewing, Rachel McCain, WIIDam Spain and
Michael Thompson.

We express  our gratitude  to Mr.  Lloyd Fox of Environmental Insurance
Management Services, Inc.,  Atlanta, Georgia for reviewing  and updating  the
section on Legal  and Insurance Considerations.

We also wish to acknowledge the following individuals and groups for  the
generous time and tenacious effort in providing technical review to portions or
all of the document.

Frank Bull                    Bull, Brown & Kilgo Architects, AIA,
                             Atlanta, Georgia

Herman Clark, Esq.            Clark and Justice, Marietta, Georgia

Stephen Connelly             Balsam Environmental Consultants, Inc.,
                             Salem, New Hampshire

Warren Friedman, PhD, CIH    U.S. General Service Administration,
                             Washington, D.C.

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Alan Galson
Bob Greene
Dave  Hogue

Lynn Lammer

Thomas Mitchell
Andy Oberta, CIH

David Pinzer, GET

Robert Repas

Dave Quillin
Jim Werner
Galson Corporation, East Syracuse. New York
GLE Associates, Tampa, Florida
Corporation for Environmental Management,
Indianapolis, Indiana
Midwest Asbestos Consultants,
Fargo, North Dakota
Memphis City Schools, Memphis, Tennessee
Environmental Consultant,
Brentwood, Tennessee
H+GCL Environmental Scientists and
Engineers, Boston Massachusettes
Robert J. Repas and Associates, Inc.,
Elyria, Ohio
John Deere, Waterloo, Iowa
M & O Abatement, East Hazel Crest, Illinois

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                              NOTICE
The National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) is the publisher of Asbestos
Abatement and Management in Buildings, Model Guide Specifications.  NIBS has granted
permission for portions of the second edition (dated  August  12, 1988) of that document
to he incorporated into the EFA sponsored  Instructors' Manual and Student's Manual of
the EPA Curriculum for Training Asbestos Abatement  Project Designers. Those documents
are used to train asbestos abatement designers.  An Introduction and Instructions for
Use and two new sections on removal of sheet and tile flooring were added to the NIBS
Guide in 1992. The portions of this document contributed by NIBS arc copyrighted by
the National Institute of Building Sciences and their  use for purposes other than
described in this  notice are prohibited.

It is very important that the portions of the  Guide included in this manual not be used
for purposes other than the training programs authorized by  NIBS.  This requirement is
for your protection. The Guide is designed  to be used as a comprehensive tool and the
instructions for its use and  the specification  sections contain important interrelated
information that  help protect workers, occupants, the public and the environment.  Such
protection may not be afforded if sections are used independently for asbestos abatement
design without the benefit of the information in  the Introduction and Instructions for
Use and other technical sections.

The Guide is not untcnded to be utilized for abatement projects in its unedited form.
Users (editors) of the Guide, should be knowledgeable in asbestos abatement design and
qualified by training and experience in such  work. Inappropriate use of the Guide could
result in improper asbestos abatement and serious liability exposure.

A copy of the NIBS Guide,  including computer useable forms, can be obtained from the
National Institute of Building Sciences, Publications Department, 1201 L Street, N.W.,
Suite 400,  Washington, D.C. 20005. Telephone (202) 289-7800, FAX (202) 289-1092.

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          EPA  MODEL  CURRICULUM  FOR TRAINING
       ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT PROJECT  DESIGNERS
                   TABLE OF CONTENTS

 I   Overview of Course Content and Objectives	1

II   Background Information	1
    A.     Introduction	1
    B.     Description of Asbestos	1
    C.     Asbestos-Containing Products	3
    D.     Common Types of ACM Involved in Project Design	5
    E.     Building Survey Protocol and Sample Analysis	9
    F.     Options tor Control	11
    G.     Summary	„	14
    H.     Review Questions	15

II   Asbestos Exposure and Its Effect on Health
    A,    Asbestos Exposure - The Route of Entry	1
    B.    The Respiratory System and Its Defense Mechanisms
         lor Asbestos	2
    C.    Asbestosis	4
    D.    Lung Cancer	6
    E.    Mesothelioma	7
    F.    Other Diseases  Associated with Asbestos Exposure	9
    G.    Recognition of Controversial Issues	11
    H.    Summary	13
    I.     Review Questions	14

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IV   Overview of Conducting an Abatement Project and
     Roles of Various Disciplines
     A.    Introduction	1
     B.    Role of Various Disciplines	1
     C.    Sequential Considerations for Conducting An Asbestos
           Removal Project	8
     D.    Summary	20
     E.    Review Questions	21

 V   Considerations In Designing Engineering Controls
     A.    Introduction	1
     B.    Containment of the Work Area	2
     C.    Removal of ACM - Confining and Minimizing Airborne Fibers	18
     D.    Wet Removal of Asbestos-Containing Material	26
     E.    Dry Removal Techniques	33
     F.    Cleaning Up the Work Area	34
     G.    Waste Disposal	42
     H.    Summary	46
     L      Review Questions	48

VI   Abatement In Occupied Buildings
     A.    Introduction	1
     B.    Factors to Consider In the Design Phase	2
     C.    Vertical Shafts	12
     D.    Fire Safety	16
     E.    Water Leaks To Floors Below Abatement Project	20
     F.     Logistical Considerations And Public Relations	20

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       GL    Summary	23
       H.    Review Questions	24

 VII    Protection of Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel
       A.     Introduction	1
       B.     Respiratory System	2
       C.     Respiratory Hazards	2
       D.     Categories of Respirators	4
       E.     Use of Approved Respirators and Components	10
       F.     Protection Factors	11
       G.     Respirator Fit Testing	15
       H.     Typical Respirator Use During Asbestos Response Actions	19
       L      Respiratory Protection Program	21
       J.     Protective Clothing and Other Protective Equipment	30
       K.     Putting Protective Clothing On	34
       L     Taking Protective Clothing Off	35
       M.     For Further Information	37
       N.     Respirator Program Checklist	37
      O.     Review Questions	43

VIII   Safety Considerations
      A.     Introduction	1
      B.    Electrical Safety	2
      C.    Scaffolding Safely	7
      D.    Ladder Safety	10
      E.    Walking and Working Surfaces	12
      F.     Fire Safety	13

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     G.    Emergency Procedures	16
     H.    Heat-Related Disorders	19
     L     Carbon Monoxide Hazards	22
     J.     Personal Protective Equipment	24
     K.    Hazard Communication Standard	25
     L     Review Questions	32

IX   Air Sampling Protocols, Requirements and Data Interpretation
     A.    Introduction	1
     B.     Purposes of Air Monitoring and Regulatory Requirements	1
     C.    Air Sampling Equipment	14
     D.    Analytical Alternatives	17
     E.     Data Interpretation	21
     F.     Qualifications of the Air Monitor and Project Monitor	25
     G.    Qualifications for Analytical Laboratory	26
     H.     Summary	29
     L      Review Questions	30

X   Lockdown and Replacement Materials
     A.     Introduction	1
     B.     Lockdown	1
     C.     Replacement	8
     D.     Hearth Effects of Substitutes	15
     E.     Summary	17
     F.     Review Questions	18

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     XI   Legal and Insurance Considerations
          A.     Introduction	1
          B.     Liability of Project Designers	1
          C.     Insurance Considerations for Project Designers	6
          D.    Types of Insurance Coverage	8
          E.    Contracts for Abatement Work.	11
          F.    Some Important Issues Related to Contract Specifications	13
          G.    Conclusion	26
          H.    Review Questions	27

    XII    Federal, State and Local Regulatory Requirements
          A.    Introduction	1
          B.    EPA Regulations	~	2
          C.    Consumer Product Safety Commission	20
          D.    OSHA Regulations	21
          E.    Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulations	30
          F.    State  and Local Regulations	39
         G.    Review Questions	40

   XIII   Design Workshop

   XIV   Field Trip

Glossary

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Appendices
         A,    Recommended Specifications and Operating Procedures for the
              Use of Negative Pressure Systems for Asbestos Abatement

         B.    Procedures and Equipment for Using A Glovebag

         C.    Breathing Air Systems
                                 Via

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                             Section I  - O/wviow of Court* Contort jnd Oty*c5v*s
        OVERVIEW OF COURSE CONTENT AND OBJECTIVES

 In accordance with the 1986 Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). the
 Environmental  Protection Agency (EPA)  promulgated regulations which  established
 training and examination requirements for various disciplines associated with asbestos
 hazard evaluation and  control in schools.   These disciplines include  inspectors,
 management  planners,  project designers,  abatement contractors/supervisors and
 abatement workers.  The training requirements also delineate the topics which must be
 included in the curricula for each discipline and the minimum number of days for each
 course presentation.

 EPA  established five regional university training  centers to serve as sources of the
 required training programs.  A mechanism was also established for  approving training
 entities. Currently, approval of training providers is conducted at the state level.  EPA also
 provided funding to develop model curricula for each of the disciplines which Includes a
 student manual, instructor's manual and visual aids.  These curricula are available from
 National Technical  Information Service (NTIS) at 704-487-4650. for a nominal fee.

 This student manual is the EPA model curriculum developed for asbestos abatement
 project designers.  As a matter of interest the portion of the Model Accreditation Plan (40
 CFR Part 763) that applies to project designers has been excerpted from the Thursday.
 April 30. 1987, Federal Register and included at the end of this section.  Thfe curriculum
 covers all the topics listed in the model accreditation plan with the exception that a design
 workshop has been substituted for a field trip. While  the model plan requires a  minimum of
 three days training  tor project designers, four days is recommended to adequately cover
the contents of this manual.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                               Section I - Cvwvww of COUTMI Content and ObfoctKfos
                                                                              Pag* 2
As with other EPA model curricula, there is  no mandatory prerequisite training  or
qualifications required for those attending this course. However, EPA recommended and
several states have established additional  qualifications for project designers such as
being a registered architect, engineer or certified  industrial hygienist Because there is no
EPA prerequisite, the  model curriculum provides background information on asbestos
including physical characteristics, uses and health effects.

A  review of the Table of Contents indicates this curriculum consists of twelve  additional
sections that will  be covered in lectures with slides and overhead transparencies; and a
design laboratory which will provide students with hands-on opportunity to design a project
by solving a series of design problems.  Study questions are provided at the end of each
section to help students focus on the most important  information and prepare for the
required exam.

There  are several advantages to  using an AH ERA accredited project designer for all
asbestos abatement projects. Furthermore, accredited designers are mandatory for some
projects.  For example, EPA/AHERA regulations 40 CFR 763.91  require accredited
asbestos project designers for the following projects in schools (grades K-12):

       •  'any maintenance activities  disturbing  friable ACBM, other than small-scale.
         short-duration maintenance activities';

       •  the response action for any major fiber  release episode.*

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                              Section I - Overview of Course Content and Objectives
                                                                             Pa0»3
 The Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Reauthortzation Act (ASMARA) which took effect
 on November 28, 1992, has extended the requirement for using an AHERA accredited
 project designer to design response actions in public and commercial buildings, as well as
 schools.

 These course materials are intended to help project designers generate and enforce
 written specifications and project plans which meet or exceed federal regulations  and
 other appropriate criteria.

 Written   specifications  are  necessary  to  ensure  a  successful  abatement
 project, regardless  of the size, and are necessary to establish the scope of work, set
 parameters for how the project is done, and set the criteria for determining when the work
 is completed. The specifications should help minimize at  least five potential problems
 which can be involved with asbestos abatement projects:  health, pubGcity, government
 regulations,  contract disputes and law  suits.   These potential problems cannot  be
 eliminated by merely  having the contractor comply with federal, state and local regulations.
 In some cases, more stringent criteria are needed to provide  adequate protection of the
 involved parties during the projects. The course material cites  several instances where
 this is the case.

 There are various types or styles of design specifications.  If the designer chooses to
 specify exactly how the  work must be set up, done and completed,  then they are called
 "means and methods"  style of specifications.  If the specifications state what must be
 accomplished, basic limitations of performance and criteria for measuring completion, then
they are called "performance" style of specifications. Furthermore,  specifications which
 list brand names are  called "proprietary" and those which  do  not  are  called

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                              Section I - Ovwvtow of Coura« Content vtd Otyecttvw
                                                                              Pa0»4
"nonproprietary." Each style has some advantages and  some disadvantages which are
presented as part of the notebook materials and lectures.  Most specifications are a mix of
several styles.

The objective  of  the  curriculum  is to provide students with fundamental technical
information related to asbestos abatement project  design that can be incorporated into
written specifications.   This information may  be augmented by  additional project
experiences and current events interjected by the presenters.  It is not presumed that a
three-  or  four-day  training program can  provide all of the  information or experience
necessary to correctly design an asbestos abatement project.  The  information In this
course will serve as a technical supplement on asbestos work practices to those who are
already designing projects and as a basic primer on design techniques for those who are
familiar with asbestos issues but have limited design experience.

Using the  Manual

There  is a glossary in  the Appendix of this manual which covers most of the important
terms and definitions.  Throughout the manual  these terms are underlined to remind the
reader they are in  the glossary.  Important words and  phrases have been highlighted in
bold print throughout the manual to help focus the reader's attention. Also, questions are
provided at the end of each section to provide a review of important information.

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SnUOENTMMiUAL
           AS8EST06 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
   Section I  - Ove«v»e» of Course Coolant and CbjscsVe*
                                         P«ge5
                       EPA Model  Accreditation  Plan  Requirements
                         or Asbestos Abatement  Project Designers
             C Abatement Project Designer*. A
           SUtt shall require that all persona
           seeking sccreditatioe as abatement
           project designers complete either • S-
           day abatement project designer training
           coum as outlined below or tht 4-dajr
           asbestos abatement contractor and
           supervisor's training COOTM that la
           outlined in the next sub-unit The 3-dajr
           abatement project designer training
           program (hall include lecture*.
           demonstrations, • Held trip, coant
           review, and a written examine Hoa. EPA
           recommend* the use of audiovisual
           materials to comptememt lectures, where
           appropriate.
             The 3-day abatement project designer
           training coarse shall adequately address
           the following topics:
             (a) Background information on
           asbestos. Identification of asbestos;
           examples and discussion of the uses and
           locations of asbestos in buildings;
           physical appearance of asbestos.
             (b) Potential health effects related to
           asbestoe exposure. Nature of asbestos-
           related diseases; routes of exposure:
           dose-response relationship* and the lack
           of a safe exposure level; the synergistic
           effect between cigarette smoking and
           asbestos exposure; (he latency period of
           asbestos-related diseases: a discussion
           of the relationship between asbestoe
           exposure and asbettosis, lung cancer.
           mesotheliosa. and cancer of other
           organs.
             (c) Overview of abatement
           construction prefect*. Abatement as e
           portion of a renovation project OSHA
           requirements for notification of other
           contractors on a multi-employer site (29
           CFR 1928.53).
             (d) Safety system design
           specification*. Construction and
           maintenance of containment barriers
           and decontamination enclosure systems;
           positioning of warning signs; electrical
           and ventilation system lock-out proper
           working techniques for minimizing fiber
           release entry and exit procedures for
           the work area; use of wet methods; use
           of negative pressure exhaust ventilation
           equipment use of high efficiency
           particulaU aerosol fHEPA) vacuums:
           proper clean-up and disposal of
           asbestos: work practices as they apply
           to encapsulation, enclosure, and repair;
           use of glove bags and a demoostraboo
           of glove bag use.
  (e) Field trip. ViaH an abatement site
or othet suitable building site, including
en-site discussions of abatement design.
building walk-through inspection, and
discussion following the walk-through.
  (f) Eaptoyve, personal protective
eqwpmeot. To include the classes and
characteristics of respirator types:
limitations of respirators; proper
selection, inspection, donning, use.
maintenance, and storage procedures;
methods for field testing	
facepieesMo-fac* seal (positive and
negative pressure fitting tests):
qualitative and quantitative fit testing
procedures: variability between field
and laboratory protection factors;
factors that alter respirator fit (eg,
facial hair* components of e proper
respiratory protection program:
selection and use of personal protective
clothin* use, storage, and handling of
 non-disposable de-thing: and regulations
 covering persona) protective equipment.
   (g) Additional safety hazards.
 Hazards encountered during abatement
 activities and how to deal with them.
 including electrical hazards, beat stress.
 air contaminants other than asbestos.
 fire and explosion  hazards.
   (h) Fiber aerodynamics and control.
 Aerodynamic characteristics of asbestos
 fibers; importance  of proper
 containment barriers; settling time for
 asbestos fibers: wet methods in
 abatement aggressive air monitoring
 following abatement aggressive air
 movement and negative pressure
 exhsusl ventilation as a dean-up
 method.
   (i] Designing abatement solutions.
 Discussions of removal, enclosure, and
 encapsulation methods: asbestos waste
 disposal
   (j) Budgeting/cost estimation.
 Development of cost estimates: present
 costs 01 abatement versus future
 operations and maintenance costs:
 setting priorities for abatement jobs to
 reduce coat.
   (V) Writing abatenent specifications.
 Means and methods specifications
 versus performance specifications;
 design of abatement in occupied
 buildings: modification of guide
 specifications to a particular building:
 worker and building occupant health/
 medical considerations: replacement of
 ACM with non-asbestos substitutes:
 clearance of work  area after abatement
 air monitoring for clearance.
Excerpted from 40 CFR Part 763. Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Proposed Rule and
Model Accreditation Plan; Rule. Federal Register. Vol. 52. No. 83. Thursday. April 30.1987.

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 STU06HT MANUAL                                               ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                       Section I - Overview of Course CoMBnt and Ofepctfcw
                                                                                             p.g.6

                       EPA Model  Accreditation  Plan Requirements
                         or  Asbestos Abatement  Project  Designers
                                   (1) Preparing abatement drawing*
                                 Use of as-built drawing* UM of
                                 Inspection photograph! and oa-tite
                                 reports; particular problems in
                                 abatement drawings.
                                   (m) Contract preparation and
                                 administration.
                                   (n) Legol/liabilitiet/deftnses.
                                 Insurance considerations: bonding; hold
                                 harmless clause*; use of abatement
                                 contractor's liability insurance dains-
                                 made versus occurrence policies.
                                   (o) Replacement Replacement of
                                 asbestos with asbestos-bee substitutes.
                                   (p) Rcie of other consultants.
                                 Development of technical specification
                                 sections by industrial hygjenists or
                                 engineer*, the multidisciplinary team
                                 approach to abatement design.
                                   (q) Occupied buildings. Special design
                                 procedures required in occupied
                                 buildings; education of occupants; extra
                                 monitoring recommendations:  staging of
                                 work to minimize occupant exposure:
                                 scheduling of renovation to minimize
                                 exposure.
                                   (r) Relevant Federal State. a,id local
                                 regulatory requirement. Procedures
                                 and standards, including:
                                   (1] Requirements of TSCA Title D.
                                   (2] 40 CFR Part 81. National  Emission
                                 Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.
                                 Subparts A (General Provu:ons) and M
                                 (National Emission Standard for
                                 Asbestos).
                                   (3) OSHA standards for permissible
                                 exposure to airborne concentrations of
                                 asbestos fibers and respiratory
                                 protection (29 CFR 1910.134).
                                   (4) EPA Worker Protection Rule, found
                                 at 40 CFR Part 703. Subpart C.
                                   (S) OSHA Asbestos Construction
                                 Standard found at 29 CFR 192&M.
                                   (s) Courte Review. A review of key
                                 aspects of the training course.
Excerpted from 40 CFR Part 763, Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Proposed Rule and
Model AccnxStation Plan; Rule.  Federal Register, Vol. 52, No. 83. Thursday. April 30.1967.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMEHT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                         S«c*an II - Background Information
                                                                           Pagsl

                      BACKGROUND  INFORMATION
 INTRODUCTION

 Many factors  must be evaluated before deciding to conduct an  asbestos  abatement
 project. This section is intended to provide the project designer with insight into a variety of
 asbestos-related  issues that  ultimately  influence  the  design  process.    These
 considerations range from  the  fundamentals of locating and  identifying asbestos-
 containing materials to the tasks of assessing the potential hazard and selecting the most
 appropriate response action.

 In schools,  the project designer will be coordinating efforts with the  local education
 agency's (LEA) designee who  Is responsible for short and long term management
 planning to control asbestos hazards. Although there is no regulatory requirement for a
 designated  asbestos coordinator in  commercial and  public buildings and industrial
 facilities, often a staff person has been appointed.

 DESCRIPTION OF ASBESTOS

Asbestos is a generic term which includes a number of fibrous minerals. The various types
of asbestos minerals occur predominantly in  metamorphic rock where they crystallize in
narrow veins as parallel bundles of tiny fibers. A fiber bundle may contain as  many as a
milion of the minute fibrils. When dispersed into the air. these fibrils may remain airborne
for several hours.  Three distinctive characteristics of asbestos fibers are apparent when
viewed  under  a microscope.  Asbestos fibers are  very small, they are much

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       AS86STOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                         Socfton II - Background Information
                                                                            Pago 2

longer than they are wide and there  Is a  noticeable variation In  diameter of
the  Individual  fibrils.
The different  types  of asbestos are  placed into two  mineralogic categories termed
serpentines and amphiboles. Minerals in these groups are distinguished by their chemical
composition and  their crystalline structure.  Serpentines and amphiboles exhibit
different physical  properties which are Important from a  project  designer's
viewpoint.  For example, the amphiboles do not wet as easily as the serpentines.
Therefore, it may be more difficult to  keep airborne  fiber levels down when removing
materials containing amphibole asbestos material.

The only fibrous asbestos in the serpentine group is chrysolite, sometimes referred to as
white asbestos. It comprises more than 90 percent of all the asbestos that has been used
in commercial products in the Unites Stales. The primary elements in chrysolite are silicon
and magnesium.  Chrysotile also usually contains impurities  of iron, nickel,  aluminum,
chrome and some other minerals. The chrysotile fibril is a spirally-wound hollow tube.  The
combination of fforils bound together gives the fiber the appearance of having curly split
ends.  Chrysotile fibers have high tensile strength and good spinnability but  are  not as
resistant to acids as the amphiboles.

The fibrous  asbestos minerals in the amphibole group  are  actinolite, amosite,
anthophyllite, croddolite and tremolite.  They are characterized by a wide variation in
chemical composition including calcium, sodium, aluminum, ferrous and  ferric iron.
Amosite  and  crocldollte,  sometimes referred to as  brown  and blue  asbestos,
respectively, are the only commercially significant varieties.  When compared to chrysotile
in appearance, amosite and crocktolite fibers are larger in diameter, solid as opposed to

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                         Soction II - Background Information
                                                                            Pago 3

 hollow and straight instead of curly.  The amphiboles are more resistant to acids than
 chrysotile and can withstand higher temperatures without breaking down.
 ASBESTOS-CONTAINING PRODUCTS

 To obtain  asbestos for commercial  use, asbestos ore  is extracted from  open pit or
 underground mines. The ore is crushed and the asbestos fibers are separated from the
 rock layers by vbrating screens and an air-lifting process.  The fibers are bagged in bulk
 for incorporation into various products  at manufacturing facilities or through on-site mixing.
 Asbestos-containing  materials which  are batch-mixed  on  the construction
 site,  such  as  structural flreprooflng, usually have  a wider variation  in
 percentage  of asbestos content  than  those  that  are  Incorporated  into
 manufactured products,  such  as  floor  tile.  The type of material and method of
 production  have a bearing on the  number of samples  that must be collected for a given
 suspect material in a building survey.

 The various types of asbestos have been incorporated into  an estimated 3.000 commercial
 products. The Inherent physical characteristics such as resistance to heat and chemicals.
 abrasion resistance, insulating capabilities and high tensile strength along with low cost
 and availability, resulted in the widespread use  of asbestos-containing materials (ACM).
Asbestos was commonly used on steam pipes and boilers of ships during the early 1900s.
 It was used widely in American ships  and shipyards in the 1940s and was expanded to
include sprayed-on insulation materials in the 1950-1970s.  Use of asbestos in the United
States did not begin to decline until the 1973-1978 bans by the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) on spray-applied and premolded friable buiding materials.

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STU06NT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                         S«cten II - Background Information
                                                                           P»g>4
Asbestos abatement project designers will be primarily involved with several common
asbestos materials that were incorporated into building products. These products can be
described in terms of use  such as fireproofing. thermal and  acoustical insulation,
decorative application, product reinforcement, and acid resistance.  For the purposes of
evaluating asbestos in buildings, the EPA has  defined three categories of asbestos-
containing building materials based upon application.

       •  SURFACING  MATERIALS - ACM sprayed or troweled on surfaces (walls,
         ceilings, structural members) for acoustical, decorative, thermal insulation or
         fireproofing purposes.

       •  THERMAL SYSTEM INSULATION  (TSI) - Insulation used to inhibit heat
         transfer or prevent condensation on pipes, boilers, tanks, ducts and various other
         components  of hot and cold water systems, and heating, ventilation, and air
         conditioning (HVAC) systems. This includes pipe lagging, pipe wrap; block,  batt
         and blanket insulation; cements and 'muds'; and a variety of other products such
         as gaskets and ropes.

       •  MISCELLANEOUS  MATERIALS  - Materials not included in the other two
         categories such as floor tile, ceiling tile, roofing felt, concrete pipe, outdoor siding
         and fabrics, sheetrock 'mud,' glazing putty, various mastic products and caulking
         products.   Frequently, nonbuilding  ACMs  such as material in  ovens and
         laboratory counter tops must be addressed in the project design.

The terms friable and nonfriable  are used to further describe the cohesiveness and
consistency of asbestos-containing materials.  Friable ACM,  when dry, can  be

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Section II - Background Information
                                                                             Pig»5
 crumbled or  reduced to powder by  normal  hand pressure.   Friable materials
 generally release fibers into the air more readily than do nonfriable materials.  However,
 many types of nonfrlable  ACM can become friable  and  release  fibers if they  are
 substantially broken, cut. driBed, sanded, sandblasted, crushed, pulverized, or abraded.

 COMMON TYPES OF ACM INVOLVED IN PROJECT DESIGN

 The materials most likely to be involved in an asbestos abatement design project are
 spray-applied fireproofing. acoustical plaster, ceiling tile, thermal system  Insulation, floor
 tile and associated mastic.  A brief discussion of these materials follows and a listing of a
 wide variety of asbestos-containing products is provided in Table 11-1.

 Spray-Applied  Fireproofing -   A  one-half to two-inch thick layer of friable asbestos-
 containing insulation was commonly spray-applied to the structural steel in a building to
 prevent buckling and collapse during a fire.  Sometimes it was also spray-applied  to the
 floor and roof decks.  Chrysolite,  In quantities of 1  to 95 percent (25 percent  on
 average), is  the  most  common type of asbestos found   In fireproofing
 Insulation.   Occasionally amoslte  or  rarely  crocldollte  were used.    Other
 materials typically used in conjunction with chrysotJle included  vermiculite. cellulose  ftoers,
 gypsum and binders such as calcium carbonate  and  portJand cement

 Asbestos-containing fireproofing was usually spray  applied to the structural steel before
the installation of other building components and may be located in hard-to-access places
such as elevator shafts, fresh-air ventilation shafts and beams covered up by duct work.
There Is usually overspray on everything that was present at the time of application.  It may
be on the inside of some electrical and/or air conditioning ducts if they were partiafly in

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STUDENT MANUAL
        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DES.ON
              Soction II - Background Information
place when the  fireprooling was applied.  Cverspray may be found on  exterior walls

behind insulation on gypsum board and finish materials. Asbestos-containing fireproottng

ranges from white to gray to brown as it was applied, but sometimes may be coated or

encapsulated with a dear or colored sealant
                                   TABLE 11-1
      REPRESENTATIVE LIST OF MATERIALS LIKELY TO CONTAIN ASBESTOS
  Asbestos Cement Insulating Panels
  Asbestos WaUboard
  Asbestos Insulating Panels
  Asbestos Chalkboards

  Roofing
     Asphalt Saturated Asbestos Felt
     Reinforced Asbestos Flashing
     Sheet
     Asbestos Base Felt
     Asbestos Finishing Felt
     Flashing
     Paint

  Sheet Metal Work
     Plastic Cement

  Membrane Waterproofing and
   Dampproofing
     Waterproofing
      Asbestos Base Felt
      Asbestos Finishing Felt
      Flashing
     Dampproofing

  Putty
  Fire Door Insulation
  Fire Dampers
  Flooring
     Asphalt Tile
     Vinyl Asbestos Tile
     Vinyl Sheet Flooring
     Backing
     Mastic
  Plaster

  Ceiling Tile
Insulation
   Thermal, sprayed-on
   Fireproofing

Paints
Textured Coatings

Taping Compounds

Elevators. Brake Shoes

Insulation, Plumbing
   Piping Insulation
   Pipe Gaskets
   Equipment Insulation

Insulation, HVAC
   Piping Insulation
   Boiler Block
   Breeching Insulation
   Boiler Wearing Surface
   Gaskets
   Duct-work Taping
   Flexible Fabrte Joints (vibration
   dampening cloth)
   Rue, Seam Taping

Cooling Tower. Baffles and FHI

Valve Packing and Rope

Laboratories
   Hoods
   Oven Gaskets
   Gloves
   Bench Tops

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           Swrfonll - Background kitomutton
 Acoustical Plaster - Acoustical plaster typically containing 10 to 30 percent chrysolite was
 commonly troweled or sprayed onto walls or ceilings for soundproofing.  The material is
 typically one-fourth to one-half inch in thickness, friable, and varies in color from white to
 gray. Acoustical material is usually accessible because it is used to reduce noise levels in
 frequently occupied areas such as hallways, auditoriums and cafeterias, but may also be
 inside electrical ducts, conduits and air conditioning ducts that were in place when the
 material was installed or  inside of walls.  Even In accessible locations where the
 acoustical ACM has been painted,  It Is still a friable material which would
 need to be addressed  upon renovation or demolition  and In the operations
 and maintenance program.

 Thermal  System  Insulation  -  Thermal system insulation (TSI) is the category which
 contains the largest amount of  ACM.  In commercial buildings and schools, most of the
 material is generally limited to closed, restricted access areas rather than offices or highly-
 used space. However, in  industrial facilities, accessible TSI is much more predominant
 The average percentage of asbestos in TSI ranges from 65 to 75 percent ft often contains
 crocktolite and amosite as  well as chrysotie.

 Insulation on thermal systems is typically wrapped with an outer canvas jacketing and may
 be  applied  as a  corrugated cardboard-type pipe wrap,  a  white chalky pipe wrap,
 cemantitious mud around pipe fittings, block insulation on boilers, white batt insulation on
 boiler breeching, or as black batt insulation inside ducts. On tanks and boilers there may
 be  layers of other materials such as wire mesh  sandwiched between  the  layers of
 insulation.  Removal of TSI may pose special problems if it is insulating high-temperature
 lines, high pressure lines, or lines containing toxic chemicals.  TSI used in  occupied
spaces such as insulation  on  exposed pipe risers in public areas is more accessible and

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                                                          Section II - Background Information
                                                                             Pag»B

may require additional surveillance and preventative maintenance to ensure the material
remains in good condition.
Floor Tlte and Mastic - Floor tile and the underlying mastic are generally considered to be
nonfriabie materials when they are in good condition.  These materials may need to be
abated, however, when damaged or as part of a larger renovation project.  Refer to the
discussion of the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) in
the section on Regulations for further information on regulated materials.

Relatively low percentages (10 to 15 percent) of asbestos were used in floor tile and floor
tile mastic.  The dimensions of the asbestos fibers that were used in floor tiles and  mastic
are sometimes too small to  be detected with a polarized light  microscope which is the
analysis prescribed in the EPA's Asbestos Hazard  Emergency Response Act (AHERA) and
National Emissions Standard for Hazards Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations.  A higher
resolution  transmission electron microscope (TEM) may be needed  In  order
to detect asbestos fibers In floor tile.  Vinyl cove base and cove base mastic are a
subset of this class of materials and are also candidates for TEM analysis.

Ceiling Tile - Chrysolite and amostte were occasionally used in various types and sizes of
celling tiles.  If asbestos is present, the percentage usually ranges  from 5 to 10 percent.
Other components include mineral wool and  cellulose.  Like floor tile, ceiling tile may
contain very smal fibers which cannot  be detected with the polarized light microscope.
Often the asbestos is  restricted to a specific layer in the ceiling tile.  It Is Important to
note  that  nonasbestos celling tile may  become  contaminated If It  Is  below
friable asbestos flreprooflng.

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 STUDENT MWUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                         S«c*on II - Background Infcxmition
                                                                            Pages

 BUILDING SURVEY PROTOCOL AND SAMPLE ANALYSIS
 Because the project designer will need to rely on and supplement  building survey data to
 develop written design specifications, an overview of how a survey is conducted, how
 samples are analyzed, and a brief discussion of data interpretation are presented here.

 A building survey for asbestos is conducted by determining where suspect materials are
 located, quantifying materials that  appear to  be the  same  (homogeneous
 materials), collecting a statistically reliable number of  random samples for each suspect
 material identified and assessing the potential each  material has for fiber release.  This
 process has been  formalized in the regulations for schools promulgated  under the
 Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) and the subsequent EPA curriculum
 for building inspectors.

 The  AHERA method of assessment and  prioritization incorporates the factors of current
 material condition and potential for damage into a decision-tree framework. The criteria
 evaluated for each functional space such as hallways, auditoriums and classrooms include
 the extent of deterioration, physical damage, water damage, accessibility, vibration and air
 flow.  Each  suspect material  found to contain asbestos is classified into one of three
 categories: significantly damaged, damaged, or good condition.  Then, depending on the
 accessibility  factors,  the confirmed ACM is assigned  a hazard ranking number, which
 corresponds to the degree  of risk posed by the ACM including the potential for future
damage.

Samples collected for EPA  compliance purposes are analyzed  for asbestos content by
polarized light microscopy  (PLM) using  the 'Interim  Method for the Determination of

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STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                         Section II - Background tnkxma&on
                                                                          PsgelO
Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples'' found at Appendix A to Subpart F in Title 40, Code
of Federal Regulations (CFR) Pan 763.  With this method, the presence of asbestos in a
sample is determined by optical mineralogy using a light microscope with polarizing filters.
Asbestos identification is achieved  by examining the structure of the fibers and optical
properties of  the sample.  Quantification is obtained either by visual estimation  or point
counting.  Results are reported as percent asbestos by type  (e.g., chrysolite. crockJoite).
Additional information such as other fibrous components in the sample and the  nonfibrous
sample matrix may also be obtained.

EPA  standards  define  a  material that  contains  one percent or greater
asbestos, as  asbestos-containing.  The  referenced EPA method   refers to
percent  by weight.  However, the  laboratory results  are actually reported as
percent  by area.  The analyst determines  the amount of asbestos present by
an areal  visual  estimation.  If  the analysis by  the standard PLM procedure
Indicates  less than 10 percent asbestos  is present, the NESHAP regulation
requires verification  of the percent asbestos by  point counting using PLM.
Point  counting is a  more precise quantification procedure and, generally, the reported
percentage of asbestos is lower by point counting than the standard method.

As discussed earlier, the limitation  to this analytical technique  is the  resolution of the
polarized fight microscope.  Even under optimum conditions, fibers less than 0.25 nm in
diameter cannot be detected by PLM.  The size of the asbestos ffoers incorporated into
some  materials, such as floor tile, may be too small to be detected by PLM.

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ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
      S*ctton II - Background Intormition
 STUDENT MANUAL
 OPTIONS FOR CONTROL

 Based on the  information from the building survey and laboratory analyses, a decision is
 made  on how to properly  handle asbestos-containing materials.  The options for
 controlling exposure to ACM are referred  to as response actions in the EPA AHERA
 regulations.  Response actions range from in-place management with an operations and
 maintenance (O&M) program if the material is in good enough condition, to removal if the
 material is severely damaged and cannot be repaired.  Building renovation, demolition or
 modernization  may also make ACM removal necessary.

 In-Place  Management - An operations and maintenance program is a formal set of
 standard  operating procedures to minimize asbestos exposure In the building. Two useful
 reference documents for asbestos operations and maintenance programs are the  EPA
 publication "Managing Asbestos  In Place - A  Building Owner's Guide to Operations and
 Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials", also known as the  "Green
 Book"; and  the National Institute of Bunding Sciences' "Guidance Manual:  Asbestos
Operations and Maintenance Work Practices".

The purpose of an operations and maintenance program is to dean up any asbestos-
containing dust or debris that may have been previously released,  maintain the ACM in
good condition, and  prevent inadvertent  disturbance to in-place  asbestos-containing
materials.  This is achieved through a series of program elements which include:

      •  Asbestos program manager appointment and training.
        Written, buHding-specific Operations and Maintenance Program,

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STUDENT fcMNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Section II - Background Information
       • Notification to building occupants, staff and outside vendors about the presence
         and tocation(s) of ACM.

       • Training staff on special work practices for handling or working around ACM,

       • Respirator, medical surveillance  and hazard communication programs,

       • Special maintenance procedures,

       • Special cleaning procedures,

       • Work order/permit system for outside vendors.

       • Periodic reinspection and recteaning,

       • Recordkeeping.

One of the measures for maintaining the material in good condition is repair which
involves limited replacement and/or patching.

Another control option, termed enclosure, involves the installation of an airtight (or nearly
airtight) barrier between the ACM and the building environment.  This measure has Bmited
applicability and is typically only used for small amounts of material on isolated columns or
beams.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Soctonll - Background Information
                                                                           Paeo13
 Another  option for in-place management is encapsulation of the material with a liquid
 that, after proper application, surrounds or embeds asbestos in an adhesive  matrix to
 prevent fiber release.  However, encapsulants are limited in their applicability  and may
 make eventual removal of ACM more difficult and costly.  For example, encapsulation
 should only be considered for ACM that is in good condition, not highly accessible, and
 granular or cementftjous.  If the material is not in good condition, the encapsulant may
 cause the ACM to delaminate.  Also, if fireproofing is encapsulated, the Underwriters
 Laboratory (UL) fire rating may be voided.

 Removal - If in-place management of ACM is not feasible or effective in protecting human
 health and the environment, the remaining control option is removal of the ACM. This
 option is often selected when renovation activities make it impossible to control  asbestos
 fiber release.  Partial removal of ACM in  an  area or on a floor-by-floor  basis may be
 performed in conjunction with activities such as wall relocation, sprinkler installation, and
 ceiling, light, or duct replacement From a building owner's perspective, the critical  issues
 which must be considered  in selecting any control option include the potential health  risk,
 legal liability,  regulatory  compliance,  economic factors and the  owner's long-term
 concerns.

 if the decision is made to  remove ACM, it is imperative that the project  be designed
 and  executed  properly to   protect the  safety and health  of workers and
 building  occupants,  to  avoid further  contamination  of  the building and  the
environment  and  to minimize  legal  liability.    This curriculum  provides  the
fundamental concepts which  will assist the project designer in  achieving this goal.  The
designer  must then  supplement these fundamentals  with a wide range of project

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STUOEHTUANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATE ME NT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Section II - Background Inkxmaton
                                                                             Page 14

experience and continue to remain current in the various technical and  regulatory issues
associated with asbestos materials.
SUMMARY

Asbestos abatement project designers must be familiar with a wide variety of asbestos-
related issues that impact the design process. They should know that the various types of
asbestos are minerals that are in a fforous form.  The fibers are very small and can remain
airborne for several hours. The different types  of asbestos exhibit different physical
properties which may affect the design strategy. Though asbestos was incorporated into
more than 3,000 products, asbestos abatement projects typically focus on spray-applied
insulation, acoustical plaster, thermal system insulation, ceiling tile, floor tile, and floor tile
mastic.  A project designer should be able to review buBding inspection data including the
survey  protocol and the  analytical methods  used to determine  if  the information is
adequate for design specifications.  Asbestos removal is one of  a  variety of options for
asbestos hazard control.  A good written project design accompanied by careful project
management are the Keys to  successfully removing asbestos  from a  facility without
contamination to the building or the environment.

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 STUOENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Section II - Background Wormarion
                                                                            Pago 15



                               REVIEW QUESTIONS
 1.     What are the relative sizes of asbestos fibers we are concerned about?
2.     Does it matter what  kinds  of  asbestos fibers will be involved  in a  planned

       abatement project? Why?
3.     Why can the percentage of asbestos vary in samples of the same material?
       List three examples of nonfriabfe ACBMs and give two actions which could make

       each friable.
5.     What analytical method is typically used for bulk samples? What are the limitations

      of this method for floor tile?

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STUDENT WKNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Sactonll - Background Wom«ton
6.     When must PLM point counting be used?
7.     List the response actions (control options) which EPA considers acceptable for
       friable ACBMs.
8.     Asbestos is
       A.     A man made fiber.
       B.     Mainly mined In the U.S.
       C.     Mainly mined in Germany.
       D.     A mineral fiber.
9.     Which type of asbestos fiber is from the serpentine group?
       A.     Amosite
       B.     Chrysotile
       C.     Actinolite
       0.     Crocidolite
10.   Asbestos has been used in an estimated	commercial products.
      A.     88
      B.     300
      C.     3.000
      D.     7.800

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STUDENT HWNUAL                                          ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                             SacAon II - Bacfcgroond Inkymation
                                                                                Pig* 17

11.    The three categories of asbestos-containing-builcSng materials as defined by EPA
are	
       A.     Surfacing, Thermal System Insulation, Miscellaneous.
       B.     Fireproof Ing.  Lagging, Surfacing.
       C.     Tiles, Thermal System Insulation, Surfacing.
       D.     Miscellaneous, Lagging, Tiles.

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STUOCNT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                           Socton 111 - Asbestos Exposure and lt» EHoct on Health
        ASBESTOS  EXPOSURE AND ITS  EFFECT ON  HEALTH

The detrimental effect on the health of people exposed to asbestos fibers has been well
documented.  Numerous studies have been conducted on laboratory animals and cell
cultures to investigate the specific  mechanism by which asbestos initiates or promotes
disease.  Similarly, studies of former asbestos mill workers and insulators have provided a
wealth of knowledge concerning the risk of disease among populations exposed to various
concentrations of airborne  asbestos fibers.  The results  of these  studies  have been
reviewed  and  analyzed by  scholars, government bodies and  research  groups in an
attempt to shed light on many of the questions that remain unanswered concerning the
health effects of asbestos exposure.

Most of the controversy  surrounding the health effects of asbestos exposure is focused on
low-level exposure to general building occupants such as school chldren and teachers.
There is little disagreement about  the detrimental effects  of occupational or high-level
exposures to asbestos fibers. To protect worker health, project designers and contractors
must focus on  methods  that reduce and control fiber levels inside the asbestos removal
area.   These engineering controls  are then augmented with protective  equipment to
minimize worker exposure to asbestos.

ASBESTOS EXPOSURE -THE ROUTE OF ENTRY

Like any hazardous  material, asbestos must first travel to the site where it can cause
disease.  The primary route of exposure for asbestos is  through the air. There have
been  reports of asbestos warts due to asbestos fibers becoming imbedded in the  skin;
however, this appears to be a rare occurrence. There is also some concern that excessive

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                             Socton 111 - Asbestos Exposure and IK Effect on Hearth
                                                                              Pago 2
 exposure to asbestos through ingestion, such as asbestos fibers in drinking water, may
 lead to an increased  rate of disease.  Again, however, this has not been proven to be a
 significant route of entry  leading to disease.  The greatest concern is exposure through
 Inhalation.

 THE RESPIRATORY  SYSTEM AND ITS DEFENSE MECHANISMS FOR ASBESTOS

 Since the primary route of exposure for asbestos fibers is through inhalation, it is important
 to review the respiratory system and gain a brief understanding of its defense mechanisms.
 As air is inhaled through the nose  or mouth it must  pass across membranes that are
 covered with a sticky mucous.   Very large particles of dust and fibers, which are often
 visible to the naked eye. are usually trapped at this point and are prevented from going any
 further into the respiratory system. Smaller particles will be carried further along into the
 air passageways, including the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles.

 The air passageways  have numerous turns and branches making it a turbulent trip for dust
 particles and fibers. These passageways are also lined with special cells that have hair-
 like projections into the cavities of the air passageways. These hair-like projections are
 called cilia and beat upward in a wave-like fashion.  They are also covered with a sticky
 mucous which  forms a layer across the surface of the air passageways. When particles of
dust and ffoers impact this sticky coating, they adhere and are propelled upward by the
cilia. Eventually the mucous layer with dust and ftoers imbedded in it is carried out of the
lung and into the back of the mouth where it is expelled as spft or swallowed.

The smallest dust particles and  fibers may travel through the air passageways and be
deposited into terminal air sacs called alveoli. The alveoli are depicted in Figure ///-/. The

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 STUDENT MANUAL
        AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
Section Dl - Asbestos Exposure and Its Effect on Health
                                  Pago3
                                                   Natal Cavrry

                                                       Pharynx
                                                           Main Bronchia
                                                            Pleural Cavity (the pleura conjiiu of the
                                                            membrane enveloping the lungs and
                                                            lining the che»t cavity)
     Alveol
                                                               Diaphragm
Figure II 1-1  Routes of inhalation and ingestion of asbestrform fibers are shown my smaJI
            arrows.  Mesothelial cells line the outside of the lungs and the pleura! and
            peritoneal cavities. Interaction of asbestos with these cells can result in either
            pleura! or peritoneal mesothelioma.  Adapted from Wagner, 1980.*

"Figure from  Asbestlform  Fibers.  Nonoccupational Health Risks.  National Research
Council, National Academy Press, Washington. DC (1984), p. 101.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                              Section III - Asbestos Exposure and ta Eftoct on H»aJth
 exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place inside the alveoli.  Oxygen from the
 inhaled breath diffuses  through the alveolar wall into a  network of capillaries.  Waste
 gases, likewise, diffuse out of the blood and into the alveolar space.  With the incoming air
 also comes dust, pollen,  and other particles such as asbestos fibers.

 When dust and asbestos fibers are deposited inside the alveoli they trigger a response.
 Large cells, called macrophages move across the surface of the air sac and engulf the
 invading parti de.  When  the partide is an organic material such as pollen, the macrophage
 effectively digests it When the partide is a mineral, such as silica (quartz) or asbestos, it
 cannot digest it.  The response often is to coat the  offending partide and effectively
 encapsulate it. Eventually, layer upon layer is built up to form scar tissue. This buildup of
 scar tissue in the lungs leads to a disease called asbestosis.

 ASBESTOSIS

 Asbestosis. or scarring of the lung was first described in England during  1907. It was the
 first disease recognized as linked to asbestos fiber exposure.  The alveolar wall thickening
 reduces the ability of the  lung to expand and contract normally. This results in a retracted
 or restricted lung with an inability to exchange oxygen and, to a lesser extent carbon
 dioxide in a normal manner.

The buildup of scar tissue in the lung occurs gradually over many years.  A worker
exposed to high concentrations of asbestos may not experience any overt symptoms for 10
to 30 years after the start of his or her exposure. The symptoms will gradually appear and
increase in severity.  These symptoms include shortness of breath, easy fatigue, mild

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                              Section III - Acbostos Exposure and Us Effect on Health
cough and weight loss.  Advanced  cases will  usually include obvious cyanosis, a blue
coloring of the mucous membranes visible in the mouth caused by the lack of oxygen.

These symptoms will continue despite the cessation of exposure and death may occur as a
result of infection such as pneumonia or influenza.

The increased scarring reduces the elasticity of the lung.  This makes it more difficult for the
heart to pump blood through the vessels in the lung. The added stress can  result in an
enlarged heart and in some cases may lead to a heart attack.

Annual medical examinations of workers exposed to asbestos fibers  are often conducted
to detect asbestosis. The physician will elicit a history of symptoms from the patient and a
documented  history of past asbestos exposure. The patient with clinical asbestosis will
exhibit crackling respiratory rales in the lower chest fields upon chest examination. A chest
X-ray will usually demonstrate  Interstitial  fibrosis. pleura!  plaques, or significant pleura I
thickening.  Interstitial  fibrosis,  or lung scarring, will appear as opacities predominantly in
the lower lobes of the lung. Pleural plaques are localized areas of fibrous thickening in the
chest cavity lining known as the pleura. Pleural  thickening  Is a diffuse fibrosis of the chest
cavity lining.The results of pulmonary function studies may show a restrictive defect  Other
indications include reduced blood oxygen and an abnormal diffusion study.  The definitive
diagnosis for asbestosis  is the  open lung biopsy, although this is an invasive procedure
and is  usually neither necessary nor desirable.

Patients  with clinical asbestosis should be immediately removed from any additional
exposure to airborne mineral dusts, including  asbestos.   Physicians may advise  their
patients to take specific steps to help prevent lung infections, to have annual X-rays to

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 STUDENT UANUM.                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMEffT PROJECT DESIGN
                                             S«cfeon III - Atbosto* Exposure and in Effw* on Hwhh
                                                                             Pago 6

 detect possible lung cancer early, and not to smoke cigarettes.  Unfortunately, once the
 fibrosis has occurred, the scarring cannot be reduced or removed.
 Asbestosls should only be a problem for asbestos abatement workers who fail to follow
 proper work practices and fail to wear their personal protective equipment including
 respirators.  It is incumbent upon the asbestos abatement designer to require that stringent
 respiratory protection measures be implemented on their projects.

 LUNG CANCER

 Lung cancer is the most common of the serious health effects associated with airborne
 asbestos fiber exposure.  It has been associated with asbestos exposure since the 1930s
 and is responsible for about 20 percent of the deaths of insulation workers who installed
 asbestos-containing materials in buildings.  Like  asbestosls. it appears that a  dose-
 response  relationship exists between asbestos exposure and lung cancer.  That is. the
 greater the total exposure to asbestos fibers, the greater the risk of developing lung cancer.
 The latency  period, however, is generally much longer for lung cancer.  From the time of
 first exposure to the onset of disease is often 20 to 40 years.

 The relationship among asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer has been
 well documented.  Workers exposed to asbestos who  do not smoke cigarettes are about
 five times more  likely to develop  lung cancer than their nonsmoking,  nonexposed
 counterparts. Workers who smoke cigarettes and are not exposed to asbestos are about
ten times more likely to contract lung cancer than people who do not smoke and are not
exposed to  asbestos.  However, workers who smoke cigarettes and are exposed to
asbestos are over 50 times more likely to get lung cancer than nonsmoking, nonexposed

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                             Sarton II - AstMBtoc Expowr* and IK Eftoct on Health
                                                                             Pag»7
workers.   The  relationship between smoking and asbestos exposure is  called a
synerglstlc effect since exposure to both greatly increases the risk of disease.  While
these statistics are based on the cancer incidence  among asbestos  insulation workers
many years ago, they reinforce the need to follow proper work practices to reduce worker
exposure during abatement projects.

Another purpose of the annual medical examination  among asbestos abatement workers
is the early detection of lung cancer.  Among the general population, about 75 percent of
the lung cancers are first discovered too late for successful treatment  However, In about
25 percent of the cases  surgical treatment is  possfcte.  Of these individuals, 40 to 50
percent are deemed •successful' with survival in excess of five years. For this reason, the
physician wiB usually order annual chest X-rays for older asbestos workers and may also
recommend additional tests for any asbestos worker who smokes cigarettes.

If lung cancer is detected, the most frequent therapy is surgery, if possible.  This may be
followed by cobalt radiation treatments.  In rare cases, chemotherapy is employed.  In ail
cases, follow-up medical surveillance is required.

MESOTHELIOMA

Mesothelioma is a very rare form of malignant cancer involving the membrane-like linings
of one or more body cavities.  If it occurs in the  lung cavity it is called mesothelioma of the
pleura. In the gut cavity it is termed mesothelioma of  the peritoneum. In rare cases it may
occur in the heart cavity, which is termed pericardia! mesothelioma. The mesothelial lining
of the lung is a very thin transparent membrane that lines the chest wall, doubles back
upon itself, and lines the exterior of the lung proper.  The lining of the chest wan is called

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                             Socioo III - Asbottc* Exposure and to EJtee* on H*atti
 the parietal pleura; the lining of the exterior lung surface is called the visceral pleura.
 These mesothelial linings are depicted on Figure 111-1.

 The relationship between mesothelioma and asbestos exposure became well known in
 the early 1960s. At that time the scientific community thought that any mesothelioma must
 be caused by asbestos exposure.  Today, it is recognized that  some other chemical or
 physical agents such as ethylene oxide and erionite may also cause mesothelioma.  The
 vast majority of cases, however, appear to be linked to asbestos exposure.

 Similarly to asbestosis and lung cancer, the latency period for mesothelioma is frequently
 30 to 40 years after the first exposure to asbestos. There are, however, many documented
 cases of  mesothelioma occurring with a shorter  or  longer  latency period.  Unlike
 asbestosis and lung cancer, there does not appear  to  be  a clear dose-response
 relationship between asbestos exposure  and the onset of mesothelioma.  Cigarette
 smoking does  not appear to have any additive or synergistic effect on the incidence of this
 disease among persons exposed to asbestos.  Exactly  how asbestos fibers are able to
 initiate mesothelioma in the pleura! cavity or the peritonium remains a mystery.

 Annual medical examinations  of  asbestos workers allow the physician to  detect a
 mesothelioma at  an early  stage of development.  Various therapies have been tried.
 including chemotherapy, radiation and  surgery, without success.  The  mesothelioma
 usually proves fatal within a year of diagnosis. A worker with pleura! mesothelioma will
 usually experience a sharp pain in one side of the chest, cough,  may be short of breath,
and often exhibits a loss of weight. Persons with mesothelioma of the peritoneum  will
usually have abdominal swelling, a cramping pain, and weight loss.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                            Section HI - Asbestos Exposure and Its Eltoct on Hoafth
OTHER DISEASES AND CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ASBESTOS EXPOSURE

MesothePoma. lung cancer and asbestosis are the three diseases most often associated
with asbestos exposure. Several other diseases and conditions are also more prevalent
among persons exposed to asbestos fibers.  These include pleural  plaques, pleural
thickening,  pleural  effusion,   kidney  cancer,  and  cancers   of   the
gastrointestinal tract.  The increased incidence of malignancies in the gastrointestinal
tract and kidneys lends some credence  to the theory that asbestos  exposure through
ingestion may be more serious than previously recognized.  Others  in the scientific
community think these increased rates of malignancies may be due to the translation of
asbestos fibers from the lung to other areas of the body.  The  exact cause again remains
unknown.

Pleural plaques are fibrous lesions that appear on the surface of the parietal pleura. They
are usually thin, about one-half to one inch wide, and one  to two  inches long.  They may
also be calcified, especially among older asbestos workers with a long history of exposure.
The pleural plaques usually first appear about 10 years after first exposure and continue to
enlarge  and  become more frequent over the next 20 to  50 years. A person with pleural
plaques usually experiences no discomfort or other symptoms associated with these
lesions.  They can be detected on chest X-rays and often serve as a marker for previous
asbestos exposure.  For this reason the physician may conduct additional tests designed
for the early detection of asbestosis and lung cancer.

Pleural effusion and pleural  thickening often occur among workers exposed to asbestos.
Pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity which may or may not be
associated with a sharp chest pain during  coughing, sneezing, or deep  breathing.  Pleural

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                              S«cton HI - Asbwtoc Expocuro and te Etoct on HoaMi
                                                                             Pig»10
 thickening results in a thickening of the parietal or visceral pleura, or both.  Studies to date
 have indicated that there is a dear relationship between the duration and magnitude of
 asbestos exposure and the occurrence of pleura!  effusion.  The magnitude of the dose
 does not appear as important a factor with pleura! thickening, but there does  exist a dear
 relationship between the  time since first exposure to asbestos and the occurrence and
 severity  of pleura! thickening.  In severe cases of pleura! thickening the asbestos worker
 will  have a reduced lung function or capacity and usually an elevated blood  carbon
 dioxide level.

 Treatment of patients with pleura! effusions is usually limited to rest and administration of
 pain killers until  the irritation  subsides.   The  fluid  may be  drained in very rare
 circumstances.   Only in  very rare  cases are patients suffering from severe pleura!
 thickening recommended for surgery to remove sections of the thickened pleura.  In most
 instances, patients are advised to live with the discomfort rather than  undertake a serious
 surgical procedure.

The  relationship between increased incidence of malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract
and  kidney and asbestos exposure is less clear, and pales in significance when  compared
to the increased incidence  of  lung cancer and  mesothelioma which results among
asbestos-exposed  workers.   From the  standpoint of  designing  asbestos abatement
projects,  it is reasonable to conclude that if sufficient protective measures are taken to
prevent or minimize the occurrence of asbestosis, lung  cancer and mesothelioma, then
adequate protection will be afforded for malignancies of the gastrointestinal  tract  and
kidneys.

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STUDEHT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                            Socfton III - Asbostos Exposure and Its Effect on Healtfi
RECOGNITION OF CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES

To this day many controversial issues remain surrounding the effects on health posed by
exposure to asbestos fibers.  These issues include the level of exposure capable of
causing  disease; the type and size of asbestos fiber that may be responsible for
disease;  and  various  theories describing how the  disease processes occur.
Disagreements on many of these issues exist even  among the most knowledgeable
scholars on the subject  It is important to recognize these controversies, but not necessary
to delve Into them in great depth in this course of instruction. It is equally important to
recognize that many of  the issues  are  academic as far as asbestos abatement project
designers are concerned due to the realities of such  projects, magnitude of asbestos
exposure, and current regulations.

One current topic of debate concerns the level of airborne asbestos exposure responsible
for  an increased incidence  of  disease.  The  controversy centers around exposures
experienced by routine  building occupants in facilities with friable asbestos-containing
materials.  Additionally,  there is significant debate over the magnitude and duration of
exposure experienced by custodial and maintenance workers in similar buildings. To fully
comprehend these debates one must understand all of the different diseases and have a
firm grasp of the scientific and medical literature which serves as the basis for the debates.
However, when designing  the asbestos abatement project, primary concern  is  the
protection of asbestos abatement workers and others in the vidnlty of the project. There is
little debate that possible exposures when performing an asbestos abatement project such
as removal of friable  pipe insulation can be  very  high and  consistent with past
occupational exposures of workers who installed these  same products.  Accordingly, the

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATE ME WT PROJECT DESIGN
                                             S#c*oo II - Artwka Exposure and tt» Effect on
 question of low-level exposure becomes a moot point for most asbestos abatement
 projects.

 A second major controversial topic centers about the mineralogic types of asbestos and
 their respective ability to cause disease. Again it is imperative that each type of disease
 and condition (e.g., lung cancer, mesothelioma, pleura! plaques) be considered in the
 context of each different type of asbestos (e.g., chrysotile, crocidoite).  For example, it may
 be that chrysotile Is less potent when compared to croctdolfte in causing mesothelioma. but
 may be  an equally or more potent source of fibrosls.  Again, from a  health-effects
 standpoint to the asbestos abatement project designer the issue is not a major one.  The
 current USEPA, OSHA and state regulations do not distinguish between asbestos fiber
 types.   Accordingly, regulations and  guidelines affecting worker protection,  most
 abatement practices, transport of waste generated, and waste disposal are the same for all
 types of asbestos.

 The third controversial issue mentioned here has to do with how asbestos fibers cause
 disease.  Some researchers support the view that long thin fibers are the most hazardous;
 others point out that short thick fibers may be equally as potent; and yet others profess that
 the size  may not be an important factor. Again, the controversies become easier to
 understand when each disease is considered separately rather than broad sweeping
 generalizations.  To overcome this dilemma, the asbestos abatement designer must rely
 on common sense.  Asbestos  workers who installed asbestos-containing materials in
buildings were  exposed to asbestos-containing dust and many developed asbestos-
related diseases.  The abatement of these  same asbestos-containing materials  from
buildings, if performed without proper protective measures,  would surely result in

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STUOEHT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEJyEKT PROJECT DESIGN
                                             S«c*on II - Asfcwtot Exposure and to Effect on HoaJth
exposures to asbestos-containing dust and workers would develop asbestos-related
diseases.

It is the purpose of this course to provide a brief understanding of the work practices and
procedures which will minimize asbestos exposure to asbestos  abatement workers and
others in the vicinity of asbestos abatement projects.

SUMMARY

Asbestos abatement project designers should recognize that asbestos is primarily an
inhalation exposure  concern.  When performing an asbestos abatement project the
exposures to airborne asbestos fibers may  be similar to that experienced by asbestos miP
workers  and insulation installers  in the  past.  It  is the designer's and contractor's
responsibility to minimize worker exposure through  proper design and execution of the
remove!  project. The three major diseases  associated with  asbestos exposure are
asbestosis. lung cancer and mesothelioma. All  of  these diseases take many years  to
manifest themselves, often  exceeding 30 or more  years.   Each of these diseases  is
debilitating, with lung  cancer often fatal, and mesothelioma always fatal.   Cigarette
smokers who are also exposed to asbestos are at a much greater risk of developing lung
cancer.  Other  diseases and conditions  that may occur among workers exposed  to
asbestos Include pleura! effusion and thickening, and malignancies of the gastrointestinal
tract and kidneys. Annual medical monitoring for asbestos abatement workers is required
in order to detect these diseases at an early stage.  If detected  early, treatment is often
effective for all diseases except mesothelioma. A properly conducted asbestos abatement
project should not put workers or others in the vicinity  of the project at a significantly
increased risk of developing these diseases.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                             Section 111 - AttMttoc Eiposm and to Effect on H»«»i
                               REVIEW QUESTIONS
 1.     Match the correct word with the correct term.

       	Asbestos Ingestfon            A.  Primary route of asbestos exposure
       	  Mesothelioma                B.  Scarring of the lung
       	  Alveoli                      C.  Usually treated with surgery
       	  Pteural Plaques              D.  Not a major concern
       	 Asbestosis                   E.  A very rare cancer
       	 Asbestos Inhalation           F.  Marker for asbestos exposure
       	  Lung Cancer                 G.  Terminal air sacs
2.     Which of the following are the three major debilitating diseases caused by asbestos
       exposure?

       A.     Asbestosis, Lung Cancer, Pleura) Plaques
       B.     Lung Cancer. Pleura! Plaques, Mesothelioma
       C.     Asbestosis, Lung Cancer, Mesothelioma
       D.     Scarring of Lungs, Asbestosis, Mesothelioma


3.     The relationship between  mesothelioma and  asbestos exposure became well
       known	?

       A.     during 1952
       B.     in the early 1960s
       C.     from 1976 to 1978
       D.     during 1982


4.     A worker heavily exposed to asbestos who also smokes cigarettes is how many
       times more likely to get lung cancer than a nonsmoker not exposed to asbestos?

       A.     5 times
       B.     10 times
       C.     15 times
       D.     greater than 50 times
5.     Which asbestos-related disease is always fatal?

      A.     Asbestos warts
      B.     Asbestosis
      C.     Pleura! plaques
      D.     Mesothelioma

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S'ODENT MANUAL                                      AS3ESTCS ABATE VIEM* PROJECT OESIGM
                                                       IV -• Ovorvinw of Asbestos
      OVERVIEW OF  CONDUCTING  AN ABATEMENT PROJECT
                AND ROLES OF VARIOUS DISCIPLINES

INTRODUCTION

This section provides an overview of the sequence of steps involved in an asbestos
abatement project from the planning stages through reoccupancy of the building space.
This information will serve as a framework for the more detailed discussions on specific
design elements in subsequent sections.

In the course cf deve'oping and implementing asbestos abatement specifications and
drawings, the designer may interface with a variety of disciplines. The building owner or
local education agency (LEA) may call upon the designer to assist in the selection of some
members of the abatement project team, such as  the contractor or air monitoring firm. A
brief discussion of the responsibilities and qualifications of these  various disciplines is
presented here so the project designer will understand their respective roles in executing a
successful abatement project.

ROLE OF VARIOUS DISCIPLINES

Once a decision has been made to conduct an asbestos abatement project, the next step
is to assemble  an abatement project team.  Some of the team members may serve in
an advisory capacity and some will have an active role. The team is multldlsclplinary
and, depending on the size and scope of the project, may include a project coordinator,
project designer, architect/engineer, industrial hygienist, safety professional, project
monitor, legal  counsel, an analytical laboratory, medical clinic,  contractor(s), and a

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     Section IV - Overview ol Astestoc Rwrxjva:
                                                                             Page 2
 transportation and disposal firm.  The size of the project team is related to the scope and
 complexity of the abatement project Not all of the various disciplines are needed on every
 project and some individuals or firms may  serve  multiple roles.   Through the project
 specifications, the project designer plays a  large role in  coordinating and defining the
 functions of other parties.

 Project Designer

 The project  designer often has  previous  training and experience  in architecture.
 engineering,  industrial hygiene, or construction management.  The project designer
 develops the  specifications for contracts and  provides working drawings and may specify
 reinsulation or replacement materials. The project designer may also be retained to assist
 In bid solicitation and contractor selection  and to assume day-to-day project management
 responsibilities.

 It is imperative that a project designer involved in asbestos abatement projects receive
 asbestos-related training and accumulate a wide diversity of  asbestos project design
 experience.  EPA regulations  now require project designers  to  be accredited
through  an  EPA-approved  training  course  In order  to  perform asbestos
 related design  work in public and commercial buildings as  well  as schools.
The designer must thoroughly understand all applicable regulations, safety procedures,
and state-of-the-art work practices and techniques that can be  applied to  an abatement
project

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STU00
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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        AS8£STO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                       S*cbon IV -
 Industrial HvQienist

 The industrial hygienist helps establish procedures for minimizing exposure to asbestos,
 trains workers, selects protective equipment, conducts air monitoring before, during and
 after the project, and addresses additional industrial hygiene concerns such as heat stress
 and  other  potentially toxic  materials  being  used on  the project  (solvents,  paints,
 encapsulants.  etc).  As with the architect/engineer, it is important that the industrial
 hygienist has specific asbestos-related training and project experience.

 Safety Professional

 An asbestos abatement project has all the safety hazards inherent to construction work
 plus the added facet of handling a toxic material.  A safety professional may be included on
 the project team of large or complex projects to address hazards unique to the project such
 as unusual  scaffolding requirements, work in confined spaces, fire safety, or energized
 electrical lines.  The contractor should also have safety expertise within his own staff to
 address routine safety  concerns as well as any that arise during the removal project.

 Project Monitor/Clerk of the Works

The project  monitor is  retained by the building owner or LEA and remains on site for the
duration  of  the project to ensure that work is being performed in accordance with the
written project specifications.  Some state regulations now require project monitors for
asbestos removal  projects.   The  project monitor is  responsible  for  extensive
documentation  and maintaining a  dally  log which  includes a quality  assurance
checklist for  contractor work procedures, a record  of site activity, dafly air monitoring results

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N
                                                      Section IV - Overview o4 Asbestos Removal
                                                                               Pago 5
and other project-related records.  Project monitors  also  conduct formal  approval
inspections at certain critical stages of abatement projects. The project monitor may collect
afr samples (if qualified) or this may be assigned to an independent testing firm.

The project monitor should have an in-depth understanding of proper work procedures,
safety practices  and  protective equipment,  as  well  as construction management
techniques.  Additional training in collection  and analysis  of air samples is  also  a
prerequisite if the  project monitor is performing this function.   The project designer must
ensure the project specifications dearly define the  authority and functions of the  project
monitor and independent testing firm if they are not the same entity.

Leaal Counsel

The legal counsel provides  necessary  legal advice concerning contracts, insurance,
statutory law, potential  liability and  documentation.  While it is ultimately the designer's
responsibility to ensure  that the  specifications comply with regulations, there is an added
advantage in retaining legal counsel that is versed  in asbestos-related issues and local,
state and federal statutes.

Analytical Laboratory

Laboratory analytical  results  provide information  about airborne fiber levels in the work
area and outside the work area both during and after abatement is completed. They are
used to make key  decisions about worker respiratory protection, the  safety of occupants,
and release of a work  area for reoccupancy.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                     ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                   Section IV - Ovwvtow of A&beckx
 The two most common techniques used for analyzing air samples are phase contrast
 microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEH). These methods
 are described in the section on air sampling requirements.  A person who performs PCM
 analyses on personal air  samples collected for compliance with  the Occupational
 Safety and Health  Administration (OSHA)  asbestos standard  must attend the
 National Institute of Occupational  Safety  and Health (NIOSH) 582  course (or an
 equivalent) for sampling and evaluating airborne ftoers. (This course is recommended for
 all PCM analysts.)  Laboratories  that  perform TEM analysis for clearance samples on
 school abatement projects are required to participate in the National Voluntary  Lab
 Accreditation  Program  (NVLAP) administered by  the National  Institute of
 Standards  and Technology (NIST).

 In addition to these requirements, NIOSH and  the American  Industrial  Hygiene
 Association (AIHA)  sponsor a voluntary  assurance/quality  control program for
 laboratories that perform PCM analysis.  It  is called the Professional  Analytical
 Testing (PAT) Program. A similar program for individual analysts, called the Asbestos
 Analyst Registry, is sponsored by AIHA. While participation in these programs does not
 assure competency and does not  mean the laboratory has  AIHA accreditation, it can be
 used, along with other criteria such as experience and laboratory management practice, to
 select a good laboratory.

 Medical Clinics

Workers  and other personnel  who enter asbestos abatement projects are  required to
undergo annual medical monitoring in accordance with the OSHA asbestos standard.  The
cost  of the  medical examination is bome by the employer. A physician  conducts  this

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     S«ct)on IV - Ovarvtow of AsbMto* Romoval
                                                                             P«gt7
medical screening and determines the capability of the individual to wear a respirator.
Most occupational health clinics and many family practices are capable of conducting the
necessary medical procedures.

Contractor

The contractor not only does the work, but can be a valuable resource to the designer on
removal and disposal techniques and logistics for performing the asbestos  removal work.
Some  asbestos contractors are qualified to install replacement materials while others
subcontract the work.  Contractors and supervisors who perform abatement in schools are
required to  be  accredited through  an EPA-approved course for abatement  project
supervisors and contractors.  Asbestos abatement workers must be accredited through an
EPA-approved course for workers.

An amendment  to the Asbestos School  Hazard  Abatement  Reauthortzatlon Act
(ASMARA)  mandates this same accreditation for  contractors and abatement workers
performing asbestos abatement projects In public and commercial buildings.  There often
are  additional  local  and  state licensing requirements.   In  addition  to  the statutory
prerequisites, other important qualifications for contractors include experience, amount of
equipment and other resources, effective medical  monitoring and respiratory protection
programs, and quality control procedures.  Establishing the qualifications/credentials of the
contractor is critical because the capabilities of the removal company are a key factor in the
success of the project.

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ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
 Section IV - Overview o( A&toctae Roroova
 STUDENT IUWNUAL
 Transportation and Disposal Firm

 The project designer must clearly  understand  all  local, state and federal  regulations
 concerning waste packaging.  In some municipalities and states the asbestos waste must
 be transported to the approved disposal site by a licensed waste transporter who is
 independent of the asbestos abatement contractor. In this case, the waste transporter must
 be retained by the building owner.  In some cases,  the transporter may be restricted by
 regulations or may not want the responsibility of  unloading the waste at the disposal site.
 Then, the asbestos removal contractor would need to coordinate with the transporter and
 perform this function.

 SEQUENTIAL CONSIDERATIONS  FOR CONDUCTING AN ASBESTOS REMOVAL
 PROJECT

 Although each abatement project is different and must be addressed  individually, there are
 some fundamental concepts that can be applied to most abatement work.  The steps
 involved in conducting an asbestos abatement project are organized into several broad
 categories as depicted in Figure IV- 1.

 Development of Contract Documents
The  technical specifications, drawings, and other documents such as those outlining
general and special conditions are collectively referred to as contract documents. They
are used by contractors to develop a bid and perform the work.  They are a legal
agreement  between the owner and  contractor  and define the role of all parties.  The
contract documents also serve as a permanent record of the work performed.

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STUDENT MANUAL
             ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
              S*cton IV - Ox^rvitw of Astoria* RwnovaJ
                                       Paged
                                    FIGURE IV-1
               SEQUENTIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONDUCTING AN
                          ASBESTOS REMOVAL PROJECT
              Development of Contract
              Documents
              Selection of Team and Project
              Startup Activities
              Worker Protection
              Containment of Work Area
              Removal
              Rnal Work Area Cleanup
              Post Abatement Activities
Review Existing Drawings
Review Survey Data
Supplement Survey Data
Design Project and Prepare Specifications

Pre-BkJ Meeting
Contractor Selection
Pre-Job Meeting
Issue Notification
Acquire Permits
Address Safety Concerns
Estabish Log Book

Medea) Exams
Respirators
Clothing
Training
Air Monitoring
Decontamination

Shut Down HVAC and Electrical
Pre-Cfean Surfaces
Protect Surfaces
Decontamination Unit
Loadout Area
EstaMsfi Pressure  Differential
Post Signs

Fiber Control Methods
AJrSampIng
Ongoing Cleaning
Waste Packaging and Disposal

HEPA Vacuum
Wet Clean
Visual Inspection
AJrSampIng

Reinsulation
Documentation/Recordkeeping
Renovation
Reuse of space

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     S*cflon IV - Cvtrvtow of A»b«to« Removal
                                                                            Pap 10
 Development of the contract documents begins with understanding the building owner's
 objectives, what materials the building owner wants removed, reviewing existing drawings.
 and reviewing the asbestos survey report. The designer supplements this information with
 a site visit and  fact-finding mission.  The extent of the follow-up investigation that the
 designer needs to do will depend on the scope and detail of the original inspection.  For
 example, a  school  inspecton conducted in accordance with AHERA  protocol would
 probably be more detailed than an asbestos inspection conducted as part of a preliminary
 environmental assessment for a commercial property.

 There  are  many  building-related  Issues  which  are critical  to the project
 designer that  are  not typically Included  In an asbestos Inspection report.
 These  items,  such  as contractor access, availability  of  power  and  water,  fire
 protection/emergency exits, etc., are discussed in more detail in the design lab portion of
 this course.  Once the designer has  a dear understanding of the scope of work, the types
 and  locations of asbestos-containing material to be removed, and the site conditions that
 will impact the performance of the work, the abatement design can be developed and put
 into written form.

 Selection of Team and Project Startup Activities

 Proper planning is critical to the success of an asbestos removal project. Before any work
begins, the team members must be selected, workers must be trained, authorities notified,
permits obtained,  equipment and supplies  procured,  and the laboratory and landfill
selected.  The project designer is typically involved in assisting the building owner with the
selection of other team members such as the contractor and project monitor.

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STUDENT tMNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATE VCKT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                      Section IV - Owvtow o« AstMOos Rwnowal
Pro-Bid Meeting - A  pre-bid meeting  and walk-through of the project  area with  the
contractor, consultants, and building owner's representative is very useful for  identifying
areas that need special attention, resolving Issues associated wtth work area isolation,  and
documenting preexisting conditions of the work.  Other issues which can be addressed at
this time include security of the area, parking and equipment storage, special tools and
equipment, air monitoring,  time constraints, special safety concerns, inadequate written
specifications and any other  unique issues associated with the project  The pre-bid
proceedings should be documented in written form and made a part of the bid documents.

Selection of Contractor(s) - The  project designer reviews bid submittals and,  in
conjunction with the bulking owner, selects the contractor to perform the work.

Pro-Job Meeting - The pre-job meeting is a foRow up to the pre-bid meeting to resolve any
remaining issues regarding  scheduling, access, security,  etc.

Notification - If the removal  involves more than 160 square feet, 260 linear feet, or 35 cubic
feet of regulated asbestos material or if  a building is being demolished, the EPA requires
notification of their NESHAP office at least 10 days before the project begins.  This is
generally considered to be  a dual responsibility of the building owner and the contractor.
More information about regulated materials and notification requirements is provided in the
section on Regulations.   There may be  additional  or more  stringent state or  local
requirements for notification, disposal permits,  building permits, required training and
licensing. For example, some states require notification of the appropriate agency  if any
asbestos materials are removed, regardless of the amounts.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESiG*
                                                       Section (V - Overview o» Asbmto* Romova:
 Documentation - The planning stage is also the time to establish a recordkeeping system
 for the project. The project designer should coordinate with the  project coordinator and
 legal counsel to specify items that the contractor needs to provide for the building owner's
 files such as the notifications, waste disposal documentation, training  records, proof of
 medical exams, daily air monitoring results,  etc.  The project monitor should also be
 required to retain documentation regarding contractor work procedures, safety procedures,
 daily activities and final air clearance samples  on the site.  This documentation is typically
 kept in a project log book which becomes part of the building owner's files at the end of the
 project

 Worker Protection

 The abatement contractor must  devote a  significant amount of  time and resources to
 worker protection issues before work begins.  The written  design   specifications
 should require the contractor to provide documentation of these activities.

 Respiratory  Protection  - It is an OSHA requirement that each worker is at all times
 provided with proper respiratory protection and  training on  its use, maintenance and
 limitations as well  as training on work practices.  The respirators provided must  be
 approved by  National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Mine
 Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) for protection in  atmospheres containing
 asbestos.  More information  about  respirator selection is provided in  the  section on
 Respiratory Protection and Protective Clothing.

The project designer may  need to consult with the industrial  hygienist to establish
appropriate levels of respiratory protection for various phases of the project  ft is generally

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     State* IV - Ovwvfew of Astetkx Rwrov*)
                                                                            Pag* 13
considered good practice to  use powered air purifying respirators (PAPR) or Type  C.
pressure-demand or continuous-flow, supplied-air respirators during the demolition  or
removal of asbestos.  When air-supplied respirators are used, the air must be cleaned of
any impurities to meet the requirements of Grade D breathing air. Ensuring that workers
receive quality breathing air is a major consideration for an asbestos abatement contractor.

Protective Clothing - OSHA requires that full-body protective clothing be worn  by those
who enter the work area.  Generally, disposable coveralls are used to drcumvent the
special handh'ng procedures that would be required for laundering contaminated clothing.
Some  contractors, however, elect to set up the necessary equipment for washing and
reusing protective clothing. The primary purpose of protective clothing is to keep gross
contamination off the body. The proper use of protective do thing, coupled with proper
decontamination procedures, including  thorough showering of the head  and body,
minimizes the chance that asbestos will  be transported out of the work area. Other
protective equipment may also be necessary to accommodate specific safety  hazards,
such as hard hats, and steel-toed boots.

Medical Examination - Every worker and anyone else entering a contained work area
once removal begins will need  to have a medical examination.   This  examination  is
specified by OSHA and includes a medical history, physical examination and pulmonary
function procedures.  Chest X-rays are taken at the discretion of  the physician. The
physician must also determine if the individual is physically fit to wear a respirator.  During
the examination, the physician is required to explain to the patient the multiplied risk  of
contracting King cancer which results from exposure to asbestos and smoking cigarettes.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     Section IV - Ovwview of Asbostos Removal
                                                                           Pago 14
 Training - Workers and supervisors must receive appropriate training before performing
 asbestos removal work.  If trie abatement project is being conducted in a school facility
 (kindergarten through 12th grade), the contractor and workers must be trained in
 accordance  with  the  accreditation requirements outlined  in the  Asbestos  Hazard
 Emergency  Response Act  (AHERA).  The Asbestos School Hazard  Abatement
 Reauthorization Act (ASMARA) requirements make this training also mandatory for
 asbestos abatement projects performed in  public and  commercial  buildings.   These
 include a mandatory training course for workers and supervisors. These courses must be
 conducted by training providers  that are accredited  by the EPA or a state  agency
 counterpart

 For aU projects, the OSHA training requirements outlined in the asbestos standard (29 CFR
 1926.58) apply. These requirements do not specify a number of hours but require certain
 topics to be included in the instruction to workers. OSHA requires the contractor to assign
 a competent person,  usually a foreman who has received a four- or Five-day  training
 course, to each abatement project.  In addition to  the  EPA and OSHA requirements
 discussed above, the training requirements of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard
 are also  applicable  to  personnel on  almost all asbestos removal projects. Many states
 also have training requirements which meet or exceed those imposed by federal statutes.

 Air Sampling - The contractor is required by the OSHA asbestos standard to conduct
 personal monitoring to determine worker exposure to airborne ffoer levels.  The air
sampling data is used  to determine the appropriate  level of respiratory protection  that
should be worn, and to document that fiber levels are being effectively controlled.

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ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT D€S1GN
 Section (V - Owvww ot A»t»rto« Removal
STUDENT UM*JAL
Containment of the Work Area

Decontamination Unit - The first task is to construct a decontamination unit at an entrance
to the work area. The  decontamination unit typically consists of a dean room, a shower,
and an equipment room (contaminated) with an air lock constructed between each room.
The air locks serve to minimize the flow of asbestos-containing dust out of the work area.
Curtained doorways  made from  polyethylene sheets are typically used to  separate the
rooms and form air locks.

Waste Load-Out Area  - A waste load-out area is often constructed adjacent to another
work area entrance or trie decontamination unit. It usually consists of a single storage area
for drums or bags and is joined to the work area with an  air lock.  Drums are cleaned
before transferring them to this chamber from the work  area.   When a  load has
accumulated, this room is sealed from the work area and then sealed to  an enclosed truck
on the other side. The bags or drums are then placed in the truck for transport to the
landfill.   While the truck is being loaded and unloaded, an EPA warning sign must be
placed on the outside of the truck.
Sealing Off the Area - Before any removal work begins, the work area must be sealed off
from all other areas to prevent migration of asbestos fibers. After shutting and sealing off
the air handing system, movable items are cleaned using appropriate procedures and
moved outside the work area All surfaces, with the exception of those covered with ACM.
are pre-deaned using wet wiping techniques and/or high efficiency paniculate air (HEPA)
vacuums. All openings to the work area including ducts,  doorways, windows, etc. are
sealed using polyethylene sheeting and tape. Items that cannot be removed from the work
area are covered in  place. All power inside the work area must be shut off and locked out

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 SnJD&fl MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                      Sscten IV - Owrvww of Aifewte Ramwal
                                                                             Paget6
 and then temporary lighting  is set up.  Floors and walls are  covered with at least two
 protective layers of polyethylene sheeting secured with tape.  These  procedures are
 discussed in detail in the section on Considerations In Designing Engineering Controls.

 Establish Air Pressure Differential - Once the area is sealed off. air filtration units equipped
 with HEPA filters are positioned to maximize the air movement in the work area. When the
 air filtration units are operating, the work area is under negative pressure with respect to
 the surrounding air.  With negative air pressure established,  air will leak  into rather than
 out of the work area if a barrier is torn.  All entrances to the  work area are secured to
 prevent inadvertent entry, but to allow for emergency exit   All entrances and exits are
 posted with the required OSHA danger sign (see Figure V-f in next section).

 Removal

 Before entering a contained work area, workers remove their street clothes  In the dean
 room of  the decontamination unit and don fun-body protective dothing and respirators.
 They then pass through the shower area and equipment room  into the work area.

 Wet Removal and Continuous Cleanup - Typically teams of workers are used to remove
 spray-applied fireproofing or acoustical ACM. Some of the workers will scrape and brush
 material from the substrate while others keep the material wet  and. as K is removed, place
 it in  impermeable bags for disposal.  A wetting agent is added to the water for better
penetration of the material being removed.

Air Sampling  - During removal, personal air samples are collected to determine workers'
exposure inside  the containment area.  Personal air monitoring is the contractor's

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STUOENTMANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     S«cton rv - Ovwtvww of Asbnka Rwnoval
regulatory responsibility.  Additionally, area air sampling is conducted each day outside
the work area as a check for fiber leakage out of the work area.  This sampling is not
required by law, but  is often conducted by a representative  of the building owner to
document effective containment ideally, sample results are available by the next day to
help determine if proper respiratory protection is being worn and if engineering controls
are effective.

Waste Disposal - The asbestos waste is typically double bagged or placed into fiber
drums and moved into the load-out area where  it is  held  until enough containers have
been accumulated for a trip to the landfill.  Waste is then transported to the landfill in an
enclosed truck. Workers who load and unload the truck should be wearing respirators and
protective clothing.

Detailed Cleaning - After the gross material has been scraped from the substrate,  the
remaining residue is removed with  a nylon bristle brush, scrub pads or an equivalent
abrasive material. Then the surface is wet cleaned to remove all remaining vtetoJe residue.

Final Cleanup

HEPA Vacuums and Wet Wiping - Once the removal is complete, the remainder of the
work area and all equipment are thoroughly cleaned using HEPA vacuums and wet wiping
techniques.  Next the  outer layer of polyethylene is removed from the floors and walls.  At
this point the sequencing of other clean-up activities and installing any replacement
materials may vary.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                       Sectoon IV - Overview o« Asbestos Removal
                                                                               Pap 18
 Visual Inspection of Substrate - The building owner's representative, who  may be  the
 project designer, industrial hygienist. or project monitor, generally performs an initial visual
 inspection of the substrate to ensure that all visbie residue has been removed.  A team
 approach to the inspection, which  includes a representative of the contractor and building
 owner, is the most effective way to find and resolve problems.

 Lockdown - If the substrate has been properly cleaned, the contractor receives approval to
 apply a water-based sealant to the surfaces where the asbestos has been removed.  This
 serves to lock down any remaining fibers that could not be seen.

 After the sealant has dried, the remaining layers of polyethylene are removed, leaving only
 the  critical barriers on the vents, doors and windows in place.   The contractor then
 performs additional wet wiping of all surfaces in preparation for final clearance air testing.

 Visual Inspection of Project Area - Once the contractor indicates the area is ready,  the
 building owner's representative performs a visual inspection of all surfaces in the work
 area.  If no visible  contamination is detected, final clearance testing is conducted using
 aggressive sampling techniques.

 Aggressive Air Sampling - The purpose of aggressive sampling is to create activity in  the
work area that would suspend any remaining fibers into the air. Once surfaces in the work
 area are thoroughly dry. the air testing firm directs the exhaust of leaf blowers  at all
surfaces, and then operates circulating fans and the air filtration units wh8e air  samples are
collected.

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STUOENT MANUAL.                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PftOJECT DBSJON
                                                      SocdonlV- Overview of Aatomloa Removal
The air samples are routinely analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to
determine the airborne fiber concentrations in the work area. The AH ERA regulation for
schools require this type of clearance testing.  Airborne fiber levels must be below 70
asbestos structures per square millimeter of filter area (typically equivalent to 0.01 to 0.02
structures per cubic centimeter of air) or statistically less than the concentrations  in the
outside make-up air that  is coming into the work area, tf the airborne fiber concentrations
In the work area do not meet one of these criteria, the contractor must redean  the area and
a retest Is conducted. More information is provided about clearance testing and alternative
clearance procedures for industrial and demolition projects in the section on Air Sampling
Requirements, Protocols  and Data Interpretation.

Protect Completion

Reuse of Space - After the area has met the final clearance criteria, replacement material
can be installed and other trades people can  enter the area to conduct further renovation
activities.  Typically a final walk-through is  conducted by  the  contractor and building
owner's representative to document the condition of the project area and  resolve any
punch 1st Hems before the contractor releases the space. A  punch list is a compilation of
work by the contractor which needs to be completed to achieve compliance with the written
specifications. In closing  out the project, it is critical that the building owner secures all the
required project documentation from the contractor and the project monitor.

Removal of Thermal System Insulation

The  methods for  removing thermal system insulation are basically the same as for
surfacing materials.  The material is removed in blocks or sections, depending on how it

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 STUOefT MANUAL                                        AS8EST06 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                      Sacfen IV - Overview of Mbmta* Removal
                                                                             Page 20
 was applied, and remaining material is scraped off the substrate.  For certain pipe lagging,
 a gtovebag may also be appropriate.   This technique allows asbestos-containing pipe
 insulation to be removed in a small enclosure with attached gloves that has been sealed
 around the pipe. It is a two-person operation with one worker removing the lagging and
 the other wetting the material  with a sprayer inserted into the bag.  Workers wear protective
 equipment and unauthorized personnel are prohibited from entering the area where
 removal is taking place.

 SUMMARY

 The asbestos abatement project designer may need to rely on the expertise  of a variety of
 disciplines to enhance the design and implementation of a  removal project.  A brief
 summary of these disciplines has been  provided in this section to familiarize the project
 designer with their various capabilities.

 A large  portion  of a project designer's responstoilrty involves proper planning and
 sequencing of asbestos removal activities. The written project specifications prepared by
 the project designer fully define  the scope and the requirements of the project.  The
 technical portion of  abatement specifications typically addresses project tasks in the
 following sequence: planning, worker protection, containment of work area, removal, final
 cleanup and project completion.  The technical aspects of worker protection, work area
 containment, removal and final  clearance are presented in  greater detail  in the following
sections.

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 STUOEHT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     Svcbon IV - Ovwww of Attesto* Removal
 REVIEW  QUESTIONS
 1.     From the following choices, choose the one discipline probably the best qualified to
       provide advice on the wording of contract requirements.

       A.    Asbestos Abatement Contractor
       B.    Legal Counsel
       C.    Industrial Hygienist
       0.    Safety Professional


 2.     Asbestos abatement project designers may have various backgrounds, experience
       and expertise. Which of the following would probably be the least helpful?

       A.    Industrial Hygiene
       B.    Architecture
       C.    Structural Engineering
       D.    School Board President
3.     Match the asbestos abatement project activity in the right-hand column with the
       project sequence in the teft-hand column.

       	Project Completion                        A,     Acquire permits
       	Worker Protection                        B.     Shut down HVAC
       	Project Startup                           C.     Medical exams
       	Work Area Containment                   D.     Visual inspection
       	Final Cleanup                            E     ReinsulatJon
4.     On a small project, the functions of some disciplines can be combined.  Which of
       the folowing should not be combined (i.e., remain separate)?

       A.     Project designer and project monitor
       B.     Abatement contractor and project monitor
       C.     Industrial hygtenist and safety professional
       0.     Buiklng owner and project coordinator


5.     Workers and  asbestos abatement  contractor supervisors should be properly
       trained.   Which  of the  following laws and regulations have specific training
       requirements for workers and supervisors?

       A.     OS HA
       B.     ASMARA
       C.     AHERA
       D.     All of the above have training requirements

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STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section V - Considttflibons in Designing Engineering Controls
   CONSIDERATIONS  IN  DESIGNING  ENGINEERING CONTROLS

INTRODUCTION

As discussed In  Section IV, an asbestos  removal project consists of several phases.
Phases which are directly  involved with  the  actual removal of the  material  include
containment  of the  work  area,  removal,  final cleanup and disposal.  This
section discusses the equipment, methods and procedures  used to minimize the
generation and migration of airborne fibers during these phases of the removal effort.
Collectively these measures are termed engineering controls.  Where appropriate, this
section also highlights elements  In the design specifications as they relate to the
engineering controls used in  each phase.

Typical engineering controls for asbestos removal projects include construction of  a
temporary barrier to confine fibers to the work area, establishing negative pressure inside
the work area with high-efficiency participate air (HEPA) filtration units, and wetting the
asbestos-containing material  (ACM) with amended water before, during and after removal.
Regardless of whether the design is a means and method specification, a performance
specification or a hybrid of the two,  the project designer must have a dear understanding
of these various engineering controls and how they can be modified to accommodate site-
spedfic conditions.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - Concid*ra6oro in Dnignng EngirtMring Control*
                                                                              Pag* 2

 CONTAINMENT OF THE WORK AREA
 Construction  of the temporary containment  barrier with polyethylene  sheets or
 8prayed-on strlppable coatings is one of trie most basic engineering controls.  The
 primary objectives of work area preparation are:
       • Preventing the migration of fibers outside the work area
       • Protecting the surfaces Inside the work area
       • Decreasing the difficulty of cleanup

 The sequence of tasks for work area preparation will vary with each site configuration, type
 of ACM, physical condition of the ACM, and design of the heating, ventilation  and air
 conditioning (HVAC) system.  For example, If the ACM is in poor condition and it is likely to
 be disturbed during work area preparation and if there is visible asbestos-containing dust
 that has settled onto surfaces, workers would need to wear personal protective equipment
 in the initial stages of work area preparation.  The following are general guidelines and
 considerations for preparing the  work area for asbestos removal. They may  need to be
 modified to address site-specific concerns.  These guidelines are most applicable  in
 situations where  spray-applied surfacing  ACM is  being removed.  Though the same
 concepts of containment apply  to thermal system  insulation (TSI) and  miscellaneous
 materials, modifications of preparation techniques will be necessary.  Appendix B contains
general procedures for removing TSI with a glovebag.

 Task 1: Post Danger Signs

 Generally,  one of the first things done when the contractor arrives  on site is posting of
danger signs and barrier tape to help keep unauthorized and unprotected people out of

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - Considerations n Designing Engineering Controls
                                                                             Pago 3
the work area.  OSHA requires that a danger sign such as the one shown in Figure V-1
be posted at each of the possible entry points into the abatement project  This would
indude the entrance to the decontamination unit and the exterior door of the waste loadout
area(s), as well as other entrances or exits.  Signs should be placed so they can be read
from a distance far enough away so that persons can avoid the area or take necessary
precautions.  These black, red and white sfgns can be obtained from asbestos abatement
supply companies.

Task 2: Test Stationary Mechanical Equipment

If  it  was  not already done during  the preconstruction  walk through, any equipment
remaining in the work area should be tested to determine if it is operational before being
unplugged and covered.  Any nonfunctioning equipment and pre-exsisting damage (i.e.,
cracked windows, marred walls, etc.) should be documented before abatement begins.
Pre-existing damage should be agreed upon by the contractor and owner's representative
before work begins.

Task 3; Isolate the HVAC System

The  HVAC system servicing the  area  is shut down  and  locked out and openings are
sealed to  avoid entrapment  of asbestos fibers throughout the building, contamination of
the HVAC system, and buildup of positive pressure in the work area. The project designer
has at least two important considerations with respect to the HVAC system.  The designer
must designate whether all or part of the duct work should be cleaned, removed, or left in
place.  The project designer may need to call upon an industrial  hygienist to assist in
determining rf there is asbestos contamination inside the duct work.  Sometimes asbestos-

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STU36NT MANUAL
   ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
S«c»on V - CoraidGfaboos m Designing Dvl"'*"nO Confrcte
    DANGER
 ASBESTOS
  CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE
       HAZARD
      AUTHORIZED
    PERSONNEL ONLY
   RESPIRATORS AND
  PROTECTIVE CLOTHI G
    ARE REQUIRED I
      THIS AREA.
         FIGURE V-1
     EXAMPLE OF SIGNAGE REQUIRED BY OSHA

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STVJ06MTIMNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OE&GN
                                          Section V - Conskferafioro m Designing Engineering Controls
                                                                              Pago 5
containing overspray  was  inadvertently sprayed  into open duct work during initial
construction. This overspray may be sporadic and difficult to detect without an extensive
and time-consuming inspection of the duct system.

In addition to specifying what should be done with the HVAC system in the work area, the
designer must also determine whether the HVAC must remain In operation for other parts
of the building.  If so, special procedures may need to be followed to  isolate the operational
system from the work area.  Often floors  in a high-rise building are  serviced by individual
units and it is simple to shut down and lock out the HVAC system on one floor without
affecting other  floors.  In other instances one large unit may service several floors and
measures must be taken to truncate or reroute the duct work. The system may then need
to be rebalanced to avoid over pressurization in the occupied portions of the building. The
building  owner's engineer or a mechanical  engineer needs to be  involved with any
modifications of the HVAC system.

Task 4: Critical Barriers

After the  HVAC system servicing  the work area has been shut down or rerouted, the
exposed vents, diffusers. grilles, and air  ducts inside the work area are cleaned with a
HEPA  vacuum, wet wiped, and covered and sealed with two layers of 6-mil polyethylene
and rinrtfopft  The first layer of polyethylene forms a critical barrier and is left in place until
final clearance air monitoring results indicate the area is ready for reoccupancy. In order to
leave this critical barrier in place, the second layer of polyethylene must be cut larger than
the first and taped so it  can be removed separately.

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 STXJOENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - Corauderabons in Dasigr*ng Enginwnng Controls
 In addition to the HVAC vents and ducts, critical barriers are placed over windows and
 doors not used for access. To make a more airtight seal, three-inch duct tape is used to
 cover the seams around the windows, then two sheets of 6-mil polyethylene are taped
 around the perimeter of the windows and doors.  Rigid barriers constructed of plywood or
 an equivalent may be needed to block off hallways or divide large rooms.

 Task 5: Conduct Initial Cleaning of Work Area

 Al objects and horizontal surfaces, with the exception of substrates covered with ACM.
 should be initially cleaned by wet wiping with amended water. Wiping with plain water is
 recommended for surfaces that may be damaged by the chemicals in amended water and
 delicate wood surfaces may need to be wiped with an  oil cloth. A technique  that is
 effective for removing surface contamination is wiping in one direction and folding the cloth
 over to expose a dean surface prior to making the next wipe.  Once an dean surfaces of
 the doth have been used it Is discarded as asbestos-containing waste.  A HEPA vacuum is
 useful for deaning  up  visible dust or  debris on surfaces prior to wet wiping.  Property
 trained workers performing  the initial cleaning should wear, at a minimum,  half-mask
 respirators and disposable suits.

 Task 6:  Remove Nonstationarv Items From Work Area

 The design specifications must clearly identify  what will be  removed from the work area
 and what will remain.   It is typically  best  to  remove  all  nonstationary items to avoid
contaminating the items and to allow better access for scaffolding and other equipment.
The specification should also make  It dear who  has the responsibility (owner or contractor)
to  remove nonstationary items. Typical items which would be removed from the work area

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          SocDon V - Considoralkxts in Oeeigning Engbeoring Controls
                                                                              Pag»7
include office equipment, office furniture, draperies, etc. A storage area for these items
should be designated in advance. In some cases the  storage area may not be convenient
to the work area and several hours are required to transfer the items.

If there is carpeting in the area, the designer must specify whether it will be removed and
disposed of as asbestos-containing  waste; cleaned and removed as non-ACM; or left in
place, cleaned with a  hot-water vacuum cleaner and covered with protective layers of
polyethylene.  The decision is influenced by the condition and age of the  carpet and the
degree of contamination. Studies have indicated that  a hot-water vacuum cleaner is more
effective than a HEPA vacuum for removing asbestos from carpets.

When feasible, disposal of contaminated carpet is preferable to cleaning it. Usually if the
carpet has been in place for a long time, the adhesive  and some of the carpet backing may
stick to the floor when  the carpet is taken up.  The adhesive may be difficult to remove,
requiring unanticipated additional time to prepare the area. A test should be conducted
before work begins to determine the degree of difficulty in removing the carpet and
underlying adhesive. Upon removal,  the carpet is rolled up, sealed in a layer of 6-mil
polyethylene and  disposed  of as asbestos-containing  waste. As a precaution, the carpet
can be cut up and/or defaced to prevent the possibility of reuse.  Worker's  performing this
task should mist the carpet  with amended water to a point when the carpet is damp. The
workers should wear protective clothing and respiratory protection.

The project designer should also provide guidance  on handling  draperies and  fabric-
covered furniture.  Unless there is evidence of heavy contamination, furniture is  usually
HEPA vacuumed  or cleaned with a hot-water vacuum.  Draperies can be disposed of as
asbestos-containing waste or carefully HEPA vacuumed and stored.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                            Soctton V - Consxtoflrions in Du&gning Engineering Concrete
                                                                                Pages
 Replacing or cleaning and storing the light fixtures is a site-specific decision that must be
 made by the building owner and the designer.  Often, light fixtures must be moved to
 access the ACM.  They can be detached, suspended with wire, cleaned and covered with
 polyethylene.   The  problem with  this approach  is  that water may  leak inside the
 polyethylene and the lights wil need to be recteaned.  Alternately, they may be removed,
 cleaned and stored outside the work area.  Building owners often elect to replace older
 light fixtures with  new energy-efficient  lighting equipment.  The ballasts in light fixtures
 installed prior to 1978 may contain polychlorinated biphenyls.  If PCB-containing ballasts
 are leaking  or are disposed of in  large  quantities,  they may be subject to  disposal
 regulations.

 If new fight fixtures are installed, the specifications should be dear about who will pay for
 the fluorescent tubes and  their installation. The light  fixtures are usually one of the last
 items addressed in work area preparation because the electrical supply must be  shut off.
 tagged and locked before the lights are disturbed. Also, if the lights are affixed to the ACM
 on the ceiling, it is likely that fibers  will be released while  the light fixture is being  taken
 down. For these reasons, it is best  to cover the floors and walls with polyethylene before
 disturbing the light fixtures.

 Task  7:  Cover and Sea/ StatiQQpry Ottfects

 After the surfaces have been cleaned and all nonstationary objects have been taken  out of
the work area, any remaining stationary items  such as water fountains, thermostats,
radiators, chalkboards, sinks, machinery, etc. are deenergized. as necessary, and covered
with separate layers of 6-mil polyethylene.  Each layer is securely taped  in an attempt to
form an airtight barrier around the object

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STUOENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PHOJECT DESIGN
                                           Section V - Considerations in Deaiontog Engineering Consols
Task 8: Deenenpize Electrical System

Once removal begins, the use  of amended water to saturate the ACM creates a humid
environment and wet,  slippery floors.  This increases the potential for a shock hazard. If at
all feasble, electrical  service to the project area should be shut off and the breaker box
should be locked and tagged.  However, the breaker box should  not be locked if it also
contains energized circuits for nonabatement areas.  Individual breakers may need to be
locked out

The designer should specify that the contractor provide temporary electrical service that is
equipped  with ground fault interrupters  from outside the work area.  It  is critical that
extension cords are positioned so that they will not  be  lying in water once the project
begins.

In some cases it will not be possfole to disconnect the electrical supply. For example, a
bus duct which supplies electricity to many areas of an occupied building and must remain
operational may run through  the work area. If the electrical system cannot be shut off, then
energized parts must  be insulated or guarded from employee contact and any objects that
are conductive. Switch gear, transformers, and electric bus ducts  often generate heat.  It
may be necessary to  construct  an enclosure around these items and provide dean, cool
air  to the enclosure for ventilation.  Electrical conduit is not water tight and will need to
have fittings caulked or sealed with vinyl tape or tape and polyethylene.

If electrical systems within the work area must remain energized, then wet removal is not
recommended because of the risk of fire or electrocution.  In accordance  with NESHAP
regulations, dry removal requires notification and consent by EPA prior to project startup.

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     AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
V — GonooMBOfis in OtAi0ntn0 E/i^n00onQ Con vote
 STUDENT kMNUAL
 Task .
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STUDENT IttNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                           Section V - CoraKferaiom in Designing EnginMring Controls
The layers of wall polyethylene are hung using a combination of nails and blocks of wood,
continuous furring strips, or adhesive and staples, and sealed with wide masking tape or
duct tape.  Duct tape alone Is not sufficient to keep the polyethylene In place
for the du  tton of the project.  These additional methods may cause some damage
to interior finishes and the contractor will need to  make minor repairs upon completion of
removal.

The second layer of 6-mll polyethylene is placed on the floor with the seams of the first and
second layers offset and extended just above the  first layer on the wall and attached with
duct tape.  Then, the second layer of 4-mil polyethylene is secured to the  wall just above
the first layer, extended to the base of the wall just beyond tie bottom of the first layer and
sealed with duct tape.  At this point there are two continuous layers of polyethylene
encasing the entire room except for the ceiling.  Because wet polyethylene  creates serious
sup and trip hazards, extra precautions are necessary for stairs or ramps. Masking tape or
thin wooden boards can be placed on top of the polyethylene to provide better friction.
Textured polyethylene has been effective in reducing slip hazards.

Although it is more expensive than standard polyethylene, fire-retardant  polyethylene is
preferable because of the added safety factors. It reduces the possibility of a fire starting
and spreading outside the containment area.  Its rough texture also reduces the potential
for slips and faBs.

Sp  yed-on strtppable coatings can sometimes be used as an  alternative to sealing
the area with sheet polyethylene. The latex/water based material te sprayed onto surfaces
with an airless spray pump to form a continuous, somewhat elastic barrier.  It is outside the
scope of this course to provide detailed instructions for applying strippable coatings and

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 STUDENT MM*IAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - Consxtofrfons in Designing Engineering Controte
 project designers are encouraged to contact manufacturers for information on job setup
 and procedural specifications.

 Propping an area with a strippabte coating is more complex than using polyethylene, but
 depending on the surfaces and project configuration, there may be distinct advantages.
 While it is not applicable to every job. it is an alternative method with which designers
 should be familiar.  The potential advantages compared to sheet polyethylene Include a
 faster application time, elimination of "rehang time" to keep sheet polyethylene in place.
 less contaminated waste to dispose of, less slippery floor surfaces,  and no ballooning
 effects.  The  potential disadvantages compared to sheet polyethylene include a more
 complex application method, some difficulty in removing the strippabie coating when the
 job is finished, and the presence of ammonia requiring combination high efficiency and
 ammonia respirator cartridges during installation.

 When spray polyethylene is used to prepare a containment area, sheet polyethylene must
 still be used to form critical barriers over windows, doors and other openings.  Then the
 spray polyethylene is applied over critical barriers.
     10' EstaNishin  A Decontamination Unit
Usually the decontamination unit is built while the work area is being prepped. There may
be a need to build the decontamination unit first so workers can use it during work area
preparation.

The OSHA  asbestos  standard (29  CFR 1926.58)  requires  the contractor to
provide  a  decontamination unit for  workers which consists of an equipment

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Sacten V - Co«v«idM«kon» in Owlgning EnglnMrtng Control
room,  a shower area and a  clean  room.  As an  additional precaution  it is
recommended to separate the rooms with airlocks.

The purpose of the decontamination  unit is to allow passage to and from the work area
during asbestos removal while minimizing migration of asbestos fibers to the outside.  The
design  of the decontamination station  may vary with each project  depending on the
physical constraints associated with  the faclity,  the crew sizes and the duration of the
project

A variety of materials can be used to build decontamination units on site including wood,
PVC and polyethylene.  Customized trailers and prefabricated units which can be moved
from one site to the next are also used as decontamination stations.

The decontamination unit is often bunt in  sections to allow for easy disassembly and reuse
(of  noncontaminated components) at other areas of the building or other job sites. A
typical unit built of wood might consist of  2" x 4' lumber for the frame, 1/4' to 1/2" plywood
or 6- or 10-mi polyethylene for the walls,  duct tape, staples and nails.

Two common layouts for a decontamination unit are provided in Figure V-2 and Figure  V-3.
The first layout shows  both the equipment room and the waste loadout  unit directly
adjoining the work area. An  alternative configuration is provided in  the second layout
which shows the waste loadout adjoining the equipment room of the decontamination unit.
This configuration can be used when a second opening into the work area is not available
or convenient.

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         STUDENT MANUAL
                                                                ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     Sector V - Con**fcra*on* in Designing Enginoonog Controts
                                       DECONTAMINATION AREA
WORK AREA
                      EOUPMENT
                      ROOM
               AJRLOCK    SHOWER   ARLOCK
                       CLEAN
                       ROOM
                                                           •  \   ,\
                                           •MSTEWATta
                                           R.T1UTKM
                          o
               \      \
                CURTAW DOORWAYS
WORK AREA
WASTE
LOAD-OUT
AREA
                                                             ENCLOSED TRUCK
        FK3URE V-2  Layout of d«conlaminalion unit with equipment room and wrast* loadoot unit openings dir«ctty into work area.
                                       DECONTAMINATION AREA
WORK AREA
                      EQUIPMENT
                      ROOM
               ^
               AIRLOCK

SHOWER
AIRLOCK ||    CLEAN
             ROOM
                 R.TMTOI
                                                   I    )
                                                   \^ J
               \      \
                CURTAN DOORWAYS
                   WASTE
                   LOAD-OUT
                   AREA
                                 A>«.OCK*MMP      ENCLOSED TRUCK
        FIGURE V-3  Layout 
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STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PflQJECT DESWN
                                         Sactkxt V - Conud*ndion* In Designing Enginoodng Controte
The functions of each of the components of a decontamination unit are descrfoed below
and procedures for entering and exiting the work area are provided in Table V-1. While
the specifications usually do not detail the dimensions of the decontamination unit, general
requirements such as numbers of chambers and airlocks should be included.  It should
also be emphasized that  a separate  waste  loadout area will be established and no
equipment  or  waste should be passed through the shower and dean room of
the  decontamination unit

Clean Room -  As  described In the OSHA standard (1926.58) the clean room is an
uncontaminated  room having facilities for the storage of employees' street clothing and
uncontaminated materials and equipment.  It is an area in which employees remove  their
street dothes, store them, and don their respirators and disposable protective clothing.
This room is where  workers  dress in clean clothes after showering.  Furnishings for the
clean room should include benches, lockers for dothes and valuables, and shelves for
storing respirators.  Extra disposable coveralls and towels can be stored in the dean
change room.

Shower Room - The shower is located between the dean room and the equipment room
and  is separated from each  of the two by an airlock (see  Figure  V-2).   Workers pass
through the shower room on  their way to the removal area and use the showers on  their
way out after leaving contaminated clothing in the equipment room. The  shower should
be  of a  pass-through design,  reducing the  chance of workers  tracking through  a
contaminated area on their way to the clean  room. Although most  job specifications
require only  a single shower  head, Installation of multiple showers may be time and cost
effective  if the work crew is large.  While there is no mandatory requirement, some
designers specify a minimum of one shower head per five workers. Coid and hot water

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STUDENT MANUAL
          ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
Section V - Conskteraions in Designing Enginoonog Controls
                                    TABLE V-1
                      SEQUENCE  OF PROCEDURES FOR
                   ENTERING  AND EXITING  THE WORK AREA
                      (To be used in conjunction with Figure V-2)
          ENTRY PROCEDURES
  IN THE CLEAN ROOM. WORKER:
   1. Enters dean room
   2. Removes dotNng. places in locker
   3. Puts on nyton swim suit (optional)
   4. Puts on dean coveralls
   5. If separate disposable foot coverings are
     used, these are put on
   6. Apples tape around ankles
   7. Inspects respirator, puts it on. checks fit
   8. Puts on hood over respirator head
     straps
   9. Puts on gloves and tapes around wrists
 10. Proceeds to equipment room
IN THE EQUIPMENT ROOM, WORKER.
11.  Puts on any adcftfenal clothing-boots.
     gloves, hard hat. etc.
12.  CoUects necessary tools and proceeds
     to WORK AREA
          EXIT PROCEDURES
  IN THE WORK AREA. WORKER:
   1. Brushes off contamination or uses a
     HEPA vacuum to remove debrts-a
     "buddy system* works wel
  BM THE EQUIPMENT ROOM. WORKER:
   2. Removes al doming except respirator
  3. Places disposable protective clothing in
     a bag ex bin
  4. Stores any other contaminated artides
  5. Proceeds to shower
  M THE SHOWER ROOM. WORKER:
  6. Washes respirator and soaks filers
     (without removing)
  7. Removes  respirator, washes with soap
     and water
  8. Places wet respirator filters just inside
     equipment room (without entering) for
     later disposal
  9. Washes swim suit (if worn)
 10. Thoroughly washes body and hair
                                           IN THE CLEAN ROOM, WORKER:
                                           11.  Dries off. dresses in dean coverals or
                                                street dothes
                                           12.  Cleans and dries respirator, instate new
                                                friers

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - Corttxferwton* in Dmtgnng Engineering Control
                                                                           Papol?
should be supplied with separate controls, and in ample capacity for each worker to have
at least a three-minute shower.  Local or state regulations can govern number of shower
units and requirements for providing hot water.

Shower  wastewater should  be  drained,  collected  and  filtered  through  a
system  before  disposal  Into  the  sanitary  sewer.   The lack of  adequate
accommodations for  filtration of shower water is a common problem  on abatement
projects.  A system containing a series of several  filters with progressively smaller  pore
sizes (100, 50, 5 micron) is recommended to avoid rapid initial clogging of the filtration
system by larger particles.  Also a holding tank for shower water helps avoid exceeding the
capacity of the filtration system.  Wastewater may need to be retained in sealed barrels or
containers and/or holding tanks for appropriate disposal. Some states, including Alabama.
Georgia, Maryland and  New Jersey  have written  regulations  for  handling shower
wastewater. The designer should consult local regulations.

Equipment Room - This area, also called the dirty change room,  is the contaminated area
where workers  remove their protective coveralls and where equipment, boots or shoes.
hard hats, goggles, and any additional contaminated work clothes are stored.  Workers
place disposable clothing such as coveralls,  booties and hoods in waste disposal bags
before leaving this area for the shower room.  Respirators are worn into the shower and
cleaned  with water before taking off.  The  equipment room usually requires cleanup
several times daily to prevent asbestos materials from being tracked into the shower and
dean rooms.

Airtocks- Airlocks are formed  by overlapping two sheets of polyethylene at  the exit to one
room  and two sheets at the entrance to the next room with at least three feet of space

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 STUDENT kMNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PftOJECT DESWN
                                          Section V - Consktoraoons in Designing Engineering Controls
                                                                           Page 18
 between the barriers.  There are various methods used for constructing airlocks including a
 hatch-type construction, a slit and cover design, or strip curtains such as those used on
 loading docks.  Airlocks must be constructed to effectively maintain negative pressure
 whie not inhibiting worker egress in an emergency situation. It is also critical to provide an
 alternate emergency exit from the containment area  to  comply with OSHA safety
 requirements and to protect the workers.

 Waste Loadoitf Area - The waste loadout area (separate from the decontamination unit
 and not used for personnel egress) is used as a short-term storage area for bagged waste
 and as a port for transferring waste to the truck. An enclosure can be constructed to form
 an  airlock between the exit of the loadout area and an enclosed truck (see Figure V-2).
 The waste loadout  area normally is equipped with water used to wipe off the exterior
 surface of the bagged asbestos waste or drums. Workers from inside the work area place
 containers of asbestos waste into the airlock between the waste loadout area and the
 truck. A different group of workers moves the waste from the airlock onto the truck.  The
 waste loadout area must have a locking door to prevent entry from the outside.

 REMOVAL OF ACM - CONFINING AND MINIMIZING AIRBORNE FIBERS

The primary  engineering controls  used  In the  removal  phase of an asbestos
abatement project are the use of amended water to wet the ACM and  the use
of HEPA filtration units to filter  fibers out of the air and establish a negative
pressure differential Inside  the work area.

Establishing an Air Filtration System - The OSHA asbestos standard  (29 CFR 1926.58)
states that "whenever feasible, the employer shall establish negative pressure enclosures

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - CortsidcrMtons In Designing Engineering Controls
                                                                            Pag«19
before commencing  removal, demolition  and renovation operations.*  Though the  EPA
does not have a specific requirement, it endorsed the concept of air  filtration systems as an
effective control technique on asbestos abatement projects In  the early 1980s.  Negative
air filtration  systems are  used on abatement projects not only  to meet regulatory
compliance but to accomplish several positive effects including:
       •  Containment of airborne fibers  inside the work area
       •  Dilution (by filtration) of tne  airborne fiber concentration in the work area
       •  Improved efficiency in final cleanup
       •  Improvement in worker comfort providing increased productivity

The containment system is a combination of  the physical  enclosure, the number and
placement of air filtration units and  the number and locations of make-up air inlet(s). A
variety of designs  have evolved for  establishing containment systems  for asbestos
removal.

One of the earliest systems is described in EPA's •Recommended Specifications and
Operating Procedures for the Use of Negative Pressure Systems  for Asbestos Abatement*
(Appendix A of this manual). This information was first published  in  a  1983 EPA Guidance
Document In this design, air filtration units are used to filter asbestos fibers out of the air
and exhaust it outside the work area, while pulling uncontaminated air into the work area
through the decontamination unit. The air is moved by centrifugal fans housed in steel.
fiberglass or aluminum "boxes.*  The air  is filtered through two  preliminary filters, and a
HEPA fitter, and then vented to the outside of the work area.

A variation of this concept is to recirculate the air by exhausting some of the air filtration
units inside the containment area.   A hard door instead of polyethylene  or vinyl flaps is

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 STUDENT UM*JAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Soctton V - Considerafiorts in Designing Engineering Controts
 used on the decontamination unit  Negative air is maintained by exhausting only enough
 air from the containment to overcome leakage.

 Another containment strategy involves  using  a HEPA-vent make-up air Inlet  device
 inserted in a solid door on the decontamination unit.  The louvered vent allows air to enter
 containment based on the demand of the air filtration units and the amount of negative
 pressure desired.

 Each of the containment systems discussed, and hybrids of these systems, have been
 demonstrated to be effective on asbestos  removal projects when the techniques  are
 properly appied. Some projects, depending on the  physical  parameters of the site,  may
 be better suited to one type of system.  The project designer is encouraged to become
 familiar with the various possibilities in designing containment systems and to collaborate
 with knowledgeable abatement contractors in developing the  best system for a particular
 site.

 The remainder of this discussion will focus on special problems or considerations related
 to using air filtration units that the project designer  may need to address in the design
 specifications.  These issues  include pressure differential across the containment barrier,
 number of air changes per hour, and potential for leakage of contaminated air through the
 air fltration units.

 Leakage of Contaminated Air-  In the event there is a leak in the  system, it has always
been the recommended practice to exhaust HEPA air  filtration units to the outside air rather
than back into another part  of  the  building.  In 1990  EPA published a  performance
evaluation of in-piace HEPA filtration systems at asbestos abatement sites that strongly

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PPOJECT DESK3N
                                          Secttxi V - ConsidoratortK in Designing Engineering Controte
                                                                             Pap 21
supports the necessity of this practice.  The study found that 16 percent of the 31 units
tested showed particle efficiencies lower than the American National Standards Institute
criteria for nuclear air cleaning systems of 99.95 percent with 0.7 - 0.8 um particles.  The
study suggested that the substandard performance may have resulted from damaged or
improperly installed HEPA  filters, from  leaks in the mounting frame,  or between the
mounting frame and the housing, all of which could cause the air to bypass the HEPA filter.

In an attempt to deal with this problem of potential leakage the designer should consider
specifying the following requirements:

       • Documentation from the contractor that each of the  HEPA filters used in  the air
        filtration  units on  site has been individually  tested and certified by the
        manufacturer to have an  efficiency of not less  than 99.97 percent when
        challenged  with  0.3 micrometer dioctyl  phthalate (OOP)  aerosol.  Each filter
        should be marked  with the name of the manufacturer, serial number, air flow
        rating, efficiency and resistance, and direction of test air flow.

       • A visual inspection of aO HEPA filtered units, once they are on site, for evidence of
        damage to  the  HEPA filter and evidence that the filter is properly seated in
        position.

       • Al HEPA filtration units must be exhausted to the outside air.

In most situations venting the HEPA filtration unit to the outside Is not a problem.  Windows
may have to be removed and wooden templates inserted or flexbte ducts may need to be
connected to a roof ventilation pipe.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                            Section V - CoraJdorationc in Designing Engineering Controls
                                                                               Page 22
 There will be rare occasions where no outside access is available adjacent to the work
 area and it is not feasible to run flexible or rigid ducting the necessary distance to access
 an outside vent.  In these  cases it  would seem  logical to test the  exhaust air for
 contamination but there  is not a quick, reliable method for testing the  efficiency of air
 fHtratjon units.  To representatively sample the  air being exhausted out of the  HEPA
 filtration unit for asbestos fibers, the air samples would have to be collected at the same
 velocity as the exhaust air.  This is termed isokinetic sampling and is not practical with the
 standard air sampling methods used on abatement projects.  Methods used in previous
 research studies require  the use of an aerosol generator and aerosol photometer which
 are not routinely available.  Area air samples could be collected in the vicinity (not directly
 in line) of  the exhaust air,  but even if the analyses of these  samples were done using
 transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which is currently the best available method, there
 is no validated technique  or established statistical reliability for this procedure.

 One design alternative, when exhaust air must be vented inside the building, is to exhaust
 it through a HEPA filtered unit into a sealed chamber,  and then exhaust the air from the
 chamber through  a second HEPA filtered unit.  This provides a second opportunity for
 filtration of the air before releasing it into the building.  With this configuration, care must be
 taken to avoid placing the chamber under positive pressure.

Another option that is available is utilizing a secondary wet filter system where air from the
 HEPA filtration system is forced  through a unit  with a water  reservoir before being
discharged into the building environment.  Ideally any fibers in the air are captured when
the air is diffused through the water. No test data is currently available for this system.

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STUOENT MANUAL                                       AS8CSTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N
                                          Section V - Considerations in Designing Engineering Controls
Again  It Is emphasized, H at all  possible, the  exhaust from HEPA filtered
units must be vented  to  the outside air to minimize  the potential for building
contamination.

Pressure Differential Across  the Containment Barrier — The  establishment of a slight
negative air pressure inside the work area using HEPA-filtered systems reduces the
potential for migration of fibers outside the work area. Standard practice in the industry
has been to establish a pressure differential between the work area and adjacent spaces
of 0.02 to 0.03 inches water gauge (w.g.). and maintain four air changes per hour.  Recent
studies have shown that pressure variations exceeding 0.02 to 0.03 inches of w.g. inside a
work area can be caused by changes in atmospheric pressure and wind velocities.  Some
states are considering a requirement  to Increase the  pressure differential  across the
containment barrier to 0.05  or 0.1  inches w.g. to allow for atmospheric variations.   If a
removal project is being conducted in an occupied building or in an area or time of  year
subject to wide variations in atmospheric pressure or wind velocity, the designer may need
to consider requiring a higher pressure differential.

It Is usually the responsibility of the air monitoring firm working for the  building owner to
measure and document the pressure differential.  Measurements can be  taken  with a
manometer.  Typically, instruments which monitor the pressure drop continuously are
connected  to strip chart recorders to provide continuing documentation of the pressure
differential.  Some instruments are equipped with an audible alarm to alert  the project
personnel of a severe pressure drop.  Measurements of the pressure differential should be
taken daiy from a number of locations around the perimeter of the project area.  Extensive
pressure monitoring serves  as a valuable tool in preventing fiber migration outside the
work area.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - ConEtdorattons in Designing Engineering Controls
                                                                             Page*
 Air  Changes Per Hour-There  is  not a direct  relationship  between  pressure
 differential and number of air changes per hour.  For example, in a  wind tunnel
 there may be many air changes per hour with no significant pressure drop between the
 inside and outside of the tunnel. Conversely, the more leak tight an area is, the easier it is
 to estabish a pressure differential.

 The recommended air change rate is based on  engineering judgement. As previously
 discussed, the industry standard has been four changes per hour. On projects where high
 airborne fiber concentrations are anticipated, there  may be a need to  increase the air
 changes per hour in an attempt to increase the filtration rate for asbestos  fibers.  The
 number of HEPA filtration units necessary to achieve the required air changes per hour
 can be determined by first calculating the total volume of the work area and then dividing
 this volume by the desired air change rate. This establishes the total volume that needs to
 be exhausted from the work area each minute.

   total cubic feet/minute (CFM) - volume of work  area (in cubic feet) + 60 minute/hour
                                                        number of air changes/hour

 Then the number of units needed for the work area is determined by dividing the total CFM
 by the rated capacity of the HEPA filtration unit.
   number of units needed       -       CFM	
                                capacity of unit (CFM)
The following example is provided for a work area that is 50 feet wide by 200 feet long by
10 feet high with an assumption that the available HEPA air filtration units have a nominal
rated capacity of 2000 CFM and the number of desired air changes per hour is 6.

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STUDENT WNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                           Socboo V - Conskfcirabons in Dosigrang Engnooony Controls
                                                                              Pago2S

    volume - 50 feet x 200 feet x 10 feet - 100,000 cubic feet
    total CFM - 100,000 cubic feet  + 60 minute/hour
                                 6 air changes/hour
    total CFM - 10,000 CFM
    number of units needed » 10.000 CFM    = 5
                            2,000 CFM
    number of units needed plus safety factor = 5 + (5 x .5) - 7.5 round to £

One potential problem in using this method for calculating the necessary number of HEPA
filtration units is the use of the manufacturer's specified nominal air flow rate. Tests on
HEPA units operating under field conditions indicate there  may be as much as a 50 to 60
percent reduction of actual air flow compared to the manufacturer's rating. Assuming the
filtration units are  operating at the manufacturer's specified nominal air flow  rates could
result  in actual  ventilation rates significantly below project design specifications.  The
project designer may want to consider adding a required safety factor in  the range of 25 to
50  percent more  units  than  the calculated number using the  manufacturer's rating.
Alternatively, on-srte testing of in-piace units should be conducted  to determine the actual
exhaust rate. The  designer should also require that extra exhaust units be available at the
job site to  replace  ones that malfunction.  One  extra unit for every five in operation is a
typical requirement

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 STUOEHT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - ConsKtofsetwnt In Designing Engineering Controls
                                                                           Pa0»26

 WET REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIAL
 Thoroughly wetting friable ACM prior to removing it is a key engineering control which
 serves two important functions:

       • Fewer fibers are separated from the material and released into the air as removal
         takes pi ace.

       • The ACM is usually easier to remove after it has been saturated.

 Recognizing these advantages, EPA regulations require (since  1973) that ACM be kept
 wet before, during and after it is removed until it is placed into the disposal containers.
 Improper wetting  of the material is  one of the most common citations associated with
 asbestos removal projects.

 The benefits of  wet removal can be further enhanced by adding  chemicals to
 the water that Increase Its ability to penetrate the  material.  These  chemicals
 are caBed wetting  agents or surfactants. Water to which these have been added te called
 amended  water.  Various  wetting agents are available which have been used in
 agriculture and fire fighting for many years. The type commonly used for asbestos removal
 contains 50 percent  polyoxyethylene  ester  and 50  percent polyoxyethylene ether.
 Typically, the spray mixture contains one part amended water and five parts water.

Amended water is most effective on materials containing chrysolite asbestos. It generally
is not as effective  with materials which contain  a high percentage of amosite or  crocidolite
asbestos because amphiboles as a  class are hydrophobic (lacking  affinity for water).

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - Considefafent In De&jpnng Engineering Contois
There are available alternatives including 'removal encapsulants" which are modified so
that they minimize fiber release but do not harden the ACM prior to removal. The project
designer will want to review documentation of all materials and supplies being used on the
project prior to start up as a means of ensuring the products being used are suitable for the
job.

Removgl Q( fflfflfr/fl Surfacing ACM

 If the work area has been properly prepared, removal is usually a straightforward process.
Some states are now  requiring an inspection of the work area by a state inspector before
removal activities  begin  to  ensure the work area has been  properly sealed, the
decontamination unit and HEPA filtration units are in place, and the proper equipment and
materials are on site.  A project designer may want to consider including  a requirement for
an inspection by the project monitor at this stage of the project if it is not a state or local
requirement.

The first step In the removal process  Is to thoroughly wet the ACM with a
low-pressure  mist of  amended  water, allow time for soaking action and then
saturate the material with a second application. If time allows, the ACM should  be
thoroughly saturated 12 hours in advance  of removal to allow for maximum penetration of
the ACM.  (Note:  The added weight of  the  amended water may cause the material to
delaminate prior to removal.  If the  ACM is on a suspended metal lath ceiling, there is
potential for collapse of the  ceiling due to added water weight. The integrity of the ceiling
supports should be checked prior to wetting the ACM.)

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 STUOEHTIyKNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESKJN
                                          Section V - Consxtonttons in Designing Engineering Cortoote
                                                                           Paga2B
 One of the most common insurance claims on abatement projects is water damage. Water
 damage te often caused when workers forget to shut off water to pressure spray hoses at
 the end of the day and a leak occurs overnight.  Application with large pumped systems or
 airless sprayers with high water pressure may result in leakage behind the barrier seals to
 the outside of containment.

 Removal of the celling material  Is generally carried out In  two stages by first
 removing the gross material and  then conducting a  detailed cleaning of the
 substrate.  Gross  removal is effectively  conducted with a three- or four-person team.
 Workers stand on mobile scaffolding or ladders  to scrape the material from the substrate.
 One or two workers on the floor, package the moist ACM in 6-mil polyethylene bags  or
 lined fiber drums before it has time to dry  out.  The ACtf must be bagged  and sealed
 continuously  and never allowed to remain on the floor overnight.  Allowing
 ACM to dry out will result  in high  fiber concentrations.  The material is collected  and
 bagged using equipment such as dust pans, snow shovels and push brooms constructed
 of rubber or plastic to minimize the damage to the polyethylene barrier. The crew that bags
 the material also repositions the scaffold as needed. For large removal operations it may
 be more efficient to designate a 'spray* person to walk from one area to the next, keeping
 the ACM on the ceiling and floor wet and misting the air to  maintain low airborne fiber
 concentrations.

 Bags containing waste are wet wiped, placed into another dean bag or placed into lined
fiber drums as they are placed into the waste loadout area.  Removing bags out of the work
area on  a continuing basis helps keep  the work area dear  tor easier access and
movement.

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                                                   ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESWN
                                         Stcton V - Consxtoratfons in Designing Engnooring Cootrote
                                                                           Pag* 29
After removing as much of the sprayed-on material as possfole with scrapers, crews begin
secondary removal.  During this phase workers use  a combination of brushing and wet
wiping to remove the remaining  residue.  Typical tools include various sizes of nylon
brushes, lint-free rags and a HEPA vacuum.  The difficulty of secondary removal depends
on the texture and configuration of the underlying surface.  Figure  V-4 illustrates some of
the common  types of ceiling  construction which include concrete, a three-coat plaster
system, suspended metal lath, concrete joists and beams, metal deck, corrugated steel.
and steel beam or bar joist.   One of the most difficult areas to access are  the grooves
formed at the junctions of the corrugated deck and beam.  It  is a tedious process using
small brushes to clean out these spaces. Rough, rusted and pitted surfaces can also be
very time consuming to decontaminate.  The design specifications should provide
a description of the type of substrate  In the  project area and  the criteria that
will be used to  determine  if the  substrate Is clean.

Also the specifications should specifically address ACM In areas that are difficult to access
such as elevator shafts, soffits, exterior beams, etc.  In some cases the designer may
specify encapsulation or enclosure in areas where ACM cannot be effectively removed or
where replacement material cannot be effectively installed.

Whle crews perform detailed  cleaning to remove an remaining residue from the ceilings.
workers use brooms,  wet/dry HEPA vacuums, wet rags and squeegees to dean ACM off
the polyethylene and  other stationary objects. When all visual contamination is removed
from the substrate, secondary removal is complete.  The next phase is final cleanup.

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     STUDENT! MANUAL
         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OE9GN
Sectxxi V - CorwidMriona in Daaigning Engineering Controls
                               Pago 30
              CONCRETE JOIST
         AND SEAM CONSTRUCTION
              wit* jstfsm
             Hit M INIUSBC If «CI
              ttl M JOIS1S M KIMS
  CONCRHE WAFRE SLAB CONSTRUCTION
                                                              V!
                     ISKSTIS ISUUIT
                     WfltM
        STEEL BEAM CONSTRUCTION
    WIITOBI
    aicsru
   SUSPENDED CEILING CONSTRUCTION
        ISKSIIS tsuui tf am M umiu mu. ura
Excerpted from Asbestos Exposure Assessment In Buildings, Inspection Manual, EPA.
October, 1982.
                                    FIGURE V-4

                     COMMON TYPES OF CEILJNG CONSTRUCTION

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STUDENT WNUAL                                       AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Swcftoo V - CoraKtoratons in Dewgrung Engrwwong Controls
Removal of Thennal System Insulation from Pipes. Boilers and Tanks

There is a wide variation in the types of asbestos-containing thermal system insulation
used on pipes, boilers  and tanks.   Pipes may be insulated with  preformed fibrous
wrapping, corrugated paper, chalky mixture containing magnesia, fiber felt and insulating
cement  (Note:  There are older materials labeled "magnesia" which contain asbestos and
new materials also labeled 'magnesia* which contain glass fiber rather man asbestos.)
Usually a protective jacket, which may also contain asbestos, made of paper, tape. doth.
metal, or cement covers the insulation materials.  Boilers and tanks may be insulated with
asbestos 'blankets* on wire lath, preformed block, or the chalky magnesia mixture which is
typically covered with  a finishing cement.  Different approaches are typically required for
removing  these asbestos-containing  materials  than  sprayed-on or troweled-on ceiling
insulation;  however, the same protective measures are used.  Careful handling and
packaging  is required in many cases  because of the metal jackets, bands, or wire
associated with the insulation materials.

Important considerations in developing  the  design specifications are the temperature,
contents and condition of the thermal system.  If at all posstoJe, high temperature lines
should be deactivated  before removal takes place. Removal from hot pipe requires special
protective equipment and procedures to  avoid damaging the pipe or injuring workers.  In
some industrial settings pipes may contain toxic  materials that could cause a serious skin
or Inhalation hazard if released due  to damage.  It is often difficult to determine the
condition of insulated tanks or pipes. Older systems may have rusted or corroded sections
that could  be easily damaged during removal.   This would result in  the release of the
contents of the pipe or tank into the work area.

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 STUDENT fcMNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                           Section V - Coraidorabon* r Designing Enginwring Control*
 Gtovebags, which can be sealed around sections of pipe to form •mini-containment areas"
 may be used in some situations for removing pipe insulation.  Insulated objects which are
 not readty accessible or are too large or hot for application of the glovebag technique, may
 require a full area enclosure with modified removal techniques.  Standard glovebags
 should not be used on pipes that are hotter than 150°F.   Procedures and equipment for
 using a glovebag are outlined in Appendix B.

 Because  insulation on pipes,  boilers and tanks may often contain as much as 70%
 asbestos and because areas where these materials are being removed are often confined,
 high airborne fiber concentrations may occur.  Also, these materials are more difficult to
 saturate with water because they are often covered with  an outer jacketing. They often
 contain amosite, which is not controlled as well with water as other types of asbestos. If
 these  situations cannot be controlled by higher air  flow rates and other engineering
 techniques, then Type C airline respirators are recommended for workers engaged in
 removal of asbestos from pipes  and boilers.

 Removal of insulation from pipes, tanks and boilers can be accomplished by two-person
 teams.  Cuts or slits are made in the insulation material, a spray nozzle is inserted, and the
 material is wetted to the extent feasible. One person cuts away the insulation and bags it
 while the other continuously sprays the material with amended water. Any metal bands or
 wire that are removed should be folded or rolled and placed in polyethylene to avoid injury
 to personnel.

 After the gross material is removed,  nylon brushes are  used to thoroughly dean the pipes.
 tanks or boilers.  (In cases when pipes are extremely hot, nylon brushes may melt and wire
brushes may be  the most feasible tool.) Particular care must be taken to dean the fittings

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DEStGN
                                         S«cton V - ConsKteraftons n Dwgning Engineering Cootrote
                                                                           Pag* 33

and joints where a cement-plaster type material has  been removed. After brushing, the
surfaces are wet wiped and the final cleanup phase begins.
DRY REMOVAL TECHNIQUES

Dry removal, which requires specific EPA approval, may be appropriate for some types of
asbestos-containing materials which have been previously encapsulated and will  not
absorb amended water. There are special conditions which may preclude the use of water
such as a room containing electrical supply lines which cannot be deenergized during  the
removal project,  hot steam pipes, below freezing weather, etc.  Dry removal  techniques
can be used successfully but require much skill and attention to critical details in order to
minimize airborne fibers in the workplace and to adequately confine all airborne fibers to
the workplace enclosure.  It Is very  Important that  all personnel use  maximum
personal protection  during  dry  removal  because of the constant  and high
potential for elevated airborne fiber levels.

The dry removal procedures selected for a given situation  must be carefully matched to the
existing work area conditions, the type of asbestos and the skill of the work force.  Adding
layers of enclosure  plastic,  adding airlock chambers  to the decontamination  units,
providing double or triple,  rigid primary barriers (in addition to several layers of primary
polyethylene), and increasing  the  number  of  negative  pressure  machines may  be
precautions that are required beyond the normal wet removal procedures.  These  added
confining and minimizing measures obviously add cost to the project It is always much
easier to control airborne fibers using wet techniques.   It is  recommended that all
reasonable and safe avenues  for wet removal be thoroughly explored before resorting to

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                                                    ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - Constderuwns in Deupreng Engmering Controls
 dry removal.  Dry removal requires EPA approval and approval is sometimes difficult to
 obtain.

 CLEANING UP THE WORK AREA

 Final cleanup of the work area begins when all visible ACM has been removed from the
 substrate.  Successful cleanup requires proper sequencing of tasks and attention to detail
 to avoid recontaminatjon of dean areas. Clean-up activities for thermal system insulation
 and miscellaneous materials may vary, but the strategy will remain the same. While the
 project  designer may  allow  the contractor to determine the most  effective  cleaning
 sequence,  there may be some specific requirements that the designer will want to include
 in the design specifications, such as time intervals between cleaning activities.

 One sequence for cleaning up an area after removing surfacing ACM is discussed below
 and shown in Figure V-5. This sequence is typical, but not inflexbte. Some model/master
 specifications, and even state regulations, may suggest or require a different approach.
 The area of most variability seems to be when to take down the inner and outer  layers of
 polyethylene.  In  the sequence discussed below, the first layer of polyethylene is taken
 down before the lockdown material is applied.

 An alternative sequence in which the lockdown material is applied while both layers of
 polyethylene are still in place is proved in Figure V-6.  This sequence is outlined  in the
American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1368,  "Standard Practice for Visual
 Inspection  of  Asbestos Abatement Projects.'  This procedure also provides  specific
guidance for conducting visual inspections of the substrate and the asbestos removal work
area prior to final clearance monitoring.

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    STUOPNT MANUAL
                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
              Soceon V - Cont«d»r*»on« in Oangntng Engineering Contrate
   CONTRACTOR
 INSPECTOR/CONTRACTOR     LABORATORY
  Complete removal of
  asbestos and surface
  residue
   FAIL
Clean and remove
equipment and first layer of
polyethylene from walls
and floors
                               Inspect for completeness
                               of removal
PASS
 Apply sealer to abated
 surfaces
 Clean and remove second
 layer of polyethylene from
 walls and floors
  Perform final area
  cleaning
  FAJL
                               Inspect for completeness
                               of cleanup
                                                 PASS
 Remove barriers and
 dismantle decontamination
 facilities
                                   Perform final air
                                   sampling
       PASS
                                    FIGURE V-5

     ONE SEQUENCE FOR CLEANUP AND CLEARANCE AT CONCLUSION OF PROJECT

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    STUOCNT MANUAL
                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                 V - Corwdoroftonc n Daugre"Q EngioMnog Control*
                                             Page 36
  CONTRACTOR
     INSPECTOR
LABORATORY
 Complete removal of
 asbestos and surface
 residue
 FAIL
                               Inspect for completeness
                               of removal
   Apply sealer to
   abated surfaces
PASS
Clean and remove plastic
from wads and floors
    Perform final area
    cleaning
                             FAl
FAIL
                               Inspect for completeness
                               of cleanup
                                                 PASS
Remove barriers and
dismantle decontamination
facilities
                                   Perform final air
                                   sampling
     PASS
                                    FIGURE V-€

           ALTERNATE SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY AT CONCLUSION OF PROJECT
   per ASTM E1368. 'Standard Practice for Visual Inspection of Asbestos Abatement Protects'
   (c) 1990. Andrew F. Oberta. PE. CIH

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STUOEKT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Socfon V - Consfcfenfions n Designing Engineering Controls
Conduct Visual Insoection of Substrate. Redoan tf Necessary

This  is  a  good  point  for the building  owner's representative and  the contractor's
representative to make sure that there is not residual material on the substrate from which
the ACM has been removed.  The contractor's representative is responsible for correcting
any of the deficiencies noted before beginning the next phase of work.

Remove Qross Contamination from Equipment and Potysflivtene

After the visual inspection  indicates the ACM has been totally removed from the substrate.
all visible material is cleaned from the exposed  layer of polyethylene and surfaces of
equipment Including scaffolding, ladders, extension cords, and HEPA filtration units.
Cleaning Is conducted by wet wiping and HEPA vacuuming.  Any equipment that is not
necessary to complete the project is thoroughly cleaned and taken out of the work area
through the waste toadout unit.

Remove Confa/n/flflffltf (^Yaf (ft Polyethylene from Walls

The next cleaning task involves taking down the  exposed layer of polyethylene from the
walls. Ideally, the polyethylene is lighdy misted with an encapsulant or lock/down" material
to minimize the release of airborne  fibers when the  polyethylene is disturbed.  The
polyethylene is first detached from the floor polyethylene at the base of the  wall and then
detached from the inner wall  layer at the top of the wall.  To minimize the  generation of
fibers, the polyethylene is then  folded inward to form a  compact bundle for bagging and
disposal. Any visible debris which leaked behind the exposed layer of polyethylene onto
the remaining layer is now removed with a HEPA vacuum and/or wet wiping methods.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATE ME NT PROJECT DESIGN
                                           Section V - ConsJdoralxxe in Designing Engraoring Controls
                                                                             Pago 36

 Remove Contaminated Laver of Potvethviene from Floors
 Next, the contaminated layer of floor polyethylene is removed in the same manner as the
 waH layer, while shifting equipment around as necessary to access the floor layer.  Any
 visible contamination which leaked through the remaining layer must be removed.

 Apply Lockdoutn Material to Substrate

 Though the substrate may appear to be visually dean, very small amounts of ACM may
 have become lodged in  pores, cracks or crevices that were inaccesstole. A lockdown
 material  is applied to the substrate to control  and minimize the amount of asbestos fiber
 generation thai might result from  this residual contamination.   The lockdown should
 not be used as a substitute for good cleaning practices.

 A variety of products  are available for locking down the substrate.  These lockdown
 products are usually applied  as sprayed-on liquid type sealants (alternatives for certain
 situations are latex paint and concrete sealant). It is important to select a lockdown sealant
 that is compatible with  the substrate to ensure that adhesion occurs  between  the two
 surfaces.  Also, consideration  must be given to compatibility with the replacement material.
 Other factors in selecting the lockdown material include toxidty, volatility, fire ratings. For
 example, the selected lockdown material is considered by Underwriter  Laboratories (UL)
 to be a component of the flreproofing system. It must  be tested and found to be compatible
with the replacement material or the UL rating on the replacement material could be void.

 Lockdown materials are typically applied with airless  sprayers.  It is good practice to use
color tinting when applying lockdown materials to  ensure that all areas of the substrate

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK*
                                          Soction V - Coo*Ktera»ons in Oocgnng Engineering Concrete
 have been covered.  One coat of locfcdown Is usually adequate to adhere any remaining
 fibers in place.  Additional coats may be warranted for cosmetic purposes,  and to be
 certain that all surfaces nave been coated.

 Remove Remaining Wan and FI         5 °f Polethylene
After the (ockdown material has been applied, the remaining layers of polyethylene on the
wafl and floor are removed and disposed of in the same manner as the first layers. Critical
barriers on windows, vents, etc. are left in  place.  If there is carpet in the work area
specified for removal, workers should lightly mist the entire carpet with amended water
before detaching it from the floor and rolling it up.  The carpet is then wrapped with 6- mil
polyethylene, sealed with duct tape and labeled for disposal.  If the carpet is not specified
for removal, at least one layer of polyethylene should remain in place to protect it from
contamination and damage.

Inspect and Clean Any Residual Debris

Once all layers of polyethylene have been removed (except critical barriers and floor poly
over carpet, if  necessary), the  area is closely inspected for any debris that may have
penetrated the final  layer of polyethylene.  Any debris found is removed with a HEPA
vacuum or wet-wiping technique to avoid recontaminating the area.

Wet Clean WaMs and Floors

The next activity is to HEPA vacuum and/or  wet clean walls and floors.  Workers begin
cleaning the areas farthest away from the negative air filtration units and use amended

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 STUDENT IMNLIAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESWN
                                          Section V - Corwidorafcorts in Designing Engineering Controls
 water to wet wipe all exposed surfaces except the substrate from which the ACM was
 removed. After the walls are wet wiped, the floor is mopped with a dean mop head using
 amended water.  The water is changed each time the mop is rinsed out and waste water
 from wet-cleaning activities Is dumped into the shower drain to be appropriately filtered or
 mixed with the removed ACM for cSsposal as asbestos contaminated waste.

 Wait Overnight - Repeat Wet-Wipe and Wet-Mop Procedures

 Because asbestos fibers can remain airborne for several hours once they are suspended
 into the air. a provision  for a "waiting period" between wet-cleaning procedures may
 improve cleanup.  The National  Institute of Building  Sciences (NIBS) Model Asbestos
 Abatement Guide Specification outlines a three-stage cleaning process.  Each cleaning
 procedure using rags and amended water or a HEPA vacuum is followed by a 24-hour
 period during which negative air filtration units remain running.

 This stage of the project is also a good time to change out HVAC filters that may be
 contaminated with asbestos dust.  The old filters should be wetted with amended water,
 removed and disposed of in the  same  manner as other asbestos-containing materials.
 Persons performing this task should wear respirators and protective clothing.  The owner
 normally installs the new filters at the end of the abatement project but this should be
 discussed and agreed upon during the initial planning of the project.

 Visual Irtsoaction/Recieafi H Ateoassa/v

The final visual Inspection Is conducted as a team approach  by the owner's
representative and contractor's representatives  after  the  work area surfaces

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STUDENT fcMNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                           Section V - Consktorabons n Dmiyvng Engineering Control*
are  thoroughly dry.  All surfaces and ledges, tops of beams, and all other hidden
locations are  inspected for visual contamination at this time.   A standard method for
conducting visual inspections in asbestos abatement work areas has been developed by
the American  Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM).  It is important that the project
specifications  clearly delineate how the visual inspection wUI be conducted so that all
parties are aware of the criteria and methods which will be used.  Areas which need to be
cleaned are documented and addressed by the contractor. After recJeaning. the inspector
and contractor's representative make a final walk-through  to assure the items listed have
been addressed.

Final Clearance Monitoring

After the area  passes visual inspection, and the contractor gives notification that the work
area is ready for clearance testing, aggressive clearance air monitoring is performed by a
testing company retained by the building owner. Criteria, protocols and data interpretation
for clearance monitoring are addressed in Section IX. If the first set of clearance samples
indicate airborne fiber concentrations in the work area are above  the specified 'clearance
level," the area is recteaned folowed again by clearance sampling.  The project designer
may consider specifying that the contractor pay for any additional clearance sampling that
is conducted after the initial testing.

After the area has been cleared for reoccupancy by unprotected personnel, the  HEPA
filtration units are shut down, the critical barriers are removed and remaining renovation
can be initiated.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATE MENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Saction V - Corw«ten*on* in Deei0ning Engineering Controls
 ClsanJnp Uo The Decontamination Unit

 The top layer of floor poly in the equipment room is removed at the same time the top layer
 of floor poly in the work area is removed, using  the same procedures.  This minimizes
 tracking contamination back into the work area. After cleanup is completed inside the work
 area, the polyethylene on the walls of the decontamination unit is lightly misted with
 amended water and folded inward.  Next the remaining layers on the floor are removed in
 the same manner and packaged with the other poly for disposal.  The walls are visually
 checked for contamination and wet wiped if necessary.  The decontamination unit can now
 be disassembled for transport

 WASTE DISPOSAL

 Waste Loadout Procedure

 The most effective method in a waste loadout procedure is to use two teams of workers: an
 inside team and an  outside team.  Wearing appropriate respirators and protective ckMhing,
 the inside team ensures that  the drums are properly packed, lids locked into  place and
 plastic bags removed from the outside of each drum before it is sent through  the waste
 loadout area and  into the enclosed truck.  (The plastic bags should then be placed in the
 next drum  for  disposal.)  It Is Important that no workers from  the Inside  team exit
the work area through the airlock.

 In cases where the drums are not being covered with plastic bags, the inside team assures
that each drum exiting the work area is free of any dust.  This may be accomplished by
inspecting and wet wiping every drum leaving the area

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       AS8EST06 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Section V - Conuctefatkxn in Dw^rang EnginMhng Controls
Wearing half-mask respirators and appropriate protective clothing, the outside team (In the
waste toadout area) posts themselves at the entrance to the work area  They receive the
drums into the toadout area from the inside team. Then, the outside team loads the drums
into the enclosed truck. Trucks must be posted with the NESHAP warning sign during
loading and  unloading of asbestos waste.  The  warning sign contains the following
wording:
                                    DANGER
                            ASBESTOS DUST HAZARD
                      CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD
                            Authorized Personnel Only

The entrance into the waste loadout area from the work area is secured to prevent any
unauthorized entry or exit

Drums must be  placed on level surfaces in the enclosed truck and packed tightly together
to prevent shifting and tipping. Under no  circumstances should containers ever be thrown
into the truck. Also, when moving the containers, hand trucks, dollies or pull carts should
be used.

To assure that the truck is properly enclosed,  the inside or "bed" area  is lined with two
layers of 6-mil polyethylene. First, the floor is completely covered with a 12-inch overlap of
each piece. The same method is used to  property secure the sheets of polyethylene to the
sides and top of  the truck.   This  not only ensures additional enclosure of asbestos-
containing waste,  but it also provides for easier dean-up operations.  It  should be noted
here that any debris or residue observed on containers or surfaces outside the work area

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                                                     ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OEStGM
                                           Socfcn V - Conskferabons in Designing Engneering Controls
                                                                              Pago 44
 resulting from disposal activities should be immediately cleaned by using HEPA-fiHered
 vacuum equipment and/or wet wiping, as appropriate.

 Other Forms of Asbestos-Containing Waste

 In any asbestos abatement project, not all of the waste material that needs to be disposed
 of will be loose  or broken apart. There are many cases in which  it will be necessary to
 dispose of materials such as asbestos-containing floor, wall or ceiling tiles, shingles, rugs,
 dtemantled items, etc.  This may include neatly banding together tiles or shingles, with care
 not to expose sharp edges or any other protruding objects that could possibly puncture the
 polyethylene enclosure. Once the materials are banded together, each bundle is wrapped
 in two layers of 6-mil polyethylene, secured  by duct tape, and labeled appropriately.  When
 this is complete, the bundles are neatly stacked in the truck so that tipping or shifting of the
 load is prevented.

 Transportation To The AstjftfitQfj-ContaJnlna Waste Disposal Site

 As work progresses, and to prevent exceeding available storage capacity on site, sealed
 and labeled containers of asbestos-containing waste are removed and transported to the
 prearranged disposal location.   Regulations may vary from state to state, but there are
 standard procedures  that must be followed in  any operation  involving asbestos waste
 disposal.   The  National Emission  Standard for Hazardous air Pollutants (NESHAP)
requires vehicles that are used to transport asbestos-containing  waste material to be
placarded with an  asbestos warning sign  during the loading  and unloading of waste.
 Disposal must occur at an authorized site in accordance with regulatory requirements of

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STUDENT fcMNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          S*c*on V - Contideratkxw in DMigning Engineering Controls
                                                                             Pag* 45

the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). NESHAP and applicable local guidelines, tt
is necessary to check with state officials on these requirements.
When transporting asbestos-containing waste to any disposal location, it is important that
the drivers of the vehicles be property trained In correct waste-handling procedures.  It is
also important that they not use excessive speeds or unusually rough roads to avoid load
slippage or tipping.  The driver will be responsible for retaining ail dump receipts, trip
tickets, transportation manifests, or other documentation of disposal.  These should then be
given to the building owner  for his/her records.   The waste  hauler  is responsible for
providing a copy of the NESHAP waste shipment record to the disposal site owners or
operators at the same time as the asbestos-containing waste material is delivered to the
disposal site.  The  Regulations section  provides additional  information about  waste
shipment records.
Once the asbestos-containing waste truck arrives at the landfll, the driver approaches the
disposal location as  closely as possible for  unloading  of  the waste materials.  The
asbestos-containing waste can be unloaded manually or by mechanical load dumping as
long as precautions are taken to prevent rupture of the impermeable containers.  In the
event a bag has been damaged, the material is repacked into another bag as appropriate.
The potential for rupture emphasizes the need to thoroughly wet the material before it is
placed in a disposal container.  It should be noted that the NESHAP requirement for *no
vistole emissions' applies to the landfill as well as the removal site.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEkCWT PROJECT DESIGN
                                           Ssctioo V — Cortsxtefstions in
 Personnel off-loading the containers should wear proper protective equipment which
 Includes disposable head, body and foot protection.  (Minimum respiratory protection
 requirements should include the use of half-face, air-purifying, dual-cartridge respirators
 equipped with high efficiency filters.)

 The NESHAP regulations require bags or drums to be placed intact in an excavated area
 and covered with a minimum of six inches of earth at the end of each working day.  These
 areas must be clearly marked to prevent future disturbance of the waste.

 Cleaning Up The Enclosed Truck

 During the last disposal trip to the landfill, after the truck has been emptied of all waste
 materials, the polyethylene lining the inside of the truck is misted with amended water and
 carefully removed. Good practice should include wet wiping the floor and walls of the truck
 at this time. Polyethylene removed from the truck interior and the protective dothing worn
 by workers conducting disposal are bagged  for disposal  and placed with the other
 materials at the dump site.

 SUMMARY

There are  a variety of engineering  controls used throughout  an asbestos abatement
project to minimize the generation of asbestos fibers. This section addresses  these
controls from the project designer's viewpoint, while presenting the various tasks  that a
contractor must perform to successfully prepare the work area, remove the ACM. dean the
work area and dispose of the waste material.  This information  is intended  to assist the

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STUDENT MANUAL                                          ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                            Section V - CortfKtervftOftS in Deigning Engnaartnj Control*
                                                                                 Pap 47



project designer in Identifying many of the critical technical issues which need to be


addressed in the development of the design specifications.

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STUDENTMANUAL                              _      ASBESTOS ABATEMEKT PROJECT DESIGN
                                          Stcfeon V — Concidoraftofts in DostprvnQ
 REVIEW  QUESTIONS
 1.     Where should the asbestos danger signs required for asbestos removal projects be
       posted?

       A.     Inside the work area at a height of 6 feet
       B.     At all entrances to the work area
       C.     At all entrances to, and exits from, the work area
       D.     At 50-foot intervals around the building

 2.     Which of the following te not part of the decontamination unit for asbestos workers?

       A.     dean room
       B.     Shower room
       C.     Waste toadout
       D.     Equipment room

 3.     Shower water may be disposed of as asbestos-contaminated waste  or filtered
       through a series of filers. The final filter should be what size?

       A.     500 micron filter
       B.     100 micron filter
       C.     50 micron filer
       D.     5 micron filter

4.     In the space provided below, discuss the difference between "air changes per hour"
       and "pressure differential.*  Does Increasing the number of air changes per hour
       always result in an Increase in the pressure differential?
5.      A thorough visual  inspection of the work area is conducted after cleaning is
       performed.  This visual Inspection focuses on  unremoved ACM, ACM debris and
       dust in the containment area.  Who is responsible for making the final decision
       whether the area fails the visual inspection?

       A.     The contractor
       B.     The building owner's representative
       C.     The EPA inspector
       0.     The building owner's representative and the contractor

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    Section VI - Abatement in Occupied Bufcfings
                                                                             Pagol

                 ABATEMENT  IN OCCUPIED  BUILDINGS
 INTRODUCTION

 Asbestos abatement procedures were initially developed for unoccupied, single-story
 structures typical of school facilities.  Some of trie earliest EPA guidance on asbestos-
 containing materials was directed specifically toward schools. These types of buildings
 offered many advantages to project designers  and contractors such as relatively simple
 building construction, extended shut-down periods and the ability to evacuate the building
 and inactivate HVAC and electrical systems.

 As the focus of asbestos abatement broadened to other types of commercial and industrial
 facilities, many of the containment and  removal techniques that were developed for
 schools needed to  be modified  to address more complex technical, architectural and
 logistical problems.

 In many structures, such as hospitals,  aviation facilities, and multitenant high-rise offices,
 the use of the  building precludes massive personnel relocation.  When the building must
 remain partially occupied, the ramifications of contaminating areas outside the work zone
 are potentially very expensive and time consuming from both technical and legal aspects.
 Although most projects do not involve extreme difficulties, there are many issues for
 consideration ranging from risk communication through procedural  decisions to economic
 evaluation.

 In the case of an occupied high-rise office building, contamination outside the work area
could require cleanup of several floors.  Extensive resources might be required to address

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    Section VI - Abatement in Occupied Buicfngs
                                                                             Pjg»2
the issue of potential exposure to unprotected people working on those floors.  The same
would apply to hospitals where contamination outside the work areas could impose some
extremely complex public relations issues.

Abatement procedures in occupied buildings are not only impacted by the increased risk of
contaminating occupied areas, but also the nature of the structures and the  operations
within.  Asbestos  fireproofing was commonly spray applied on a variety of structural
surfaces within a building.  These areas include structural beams, decks, columns, and
shafts, with associated overspray onto adjoining surfaces, conduit, piping and  duct work.
Overspray inside duct work may also be an area of concern. These locations are often
difficult to access when removing the asbestos-containing material (ACM).  Electrical and
heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems may need to remain operational.
There are shafts and floor penetrations to worry about; transport of equipment, personnel
and waste disposal present logistical difficulties; critical or sensitive equipment may need
to remain operational; and  the  building maintenance staff  may  require  access  to
equipment in the work area while abatement is in progress.

This section covers some  of the common problems associated with asbestos removal in
occupied  and high-rise buildings  and outlines some of the factors to consider in the
respective design solutions.

FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN THE DESIGN PHASE

Unprotected Peoofe May Be Exposed

One  of the most critical concerns associated with  abatement in occupied buildings is the
potential for exposure to building occupants if there should be a breach in the containment

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEtCWT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                      Section VI - Abatement in Occupied Buitfngs
                                                                               Pago 3
 barrier.  An added concern is entry, inadvertent or otherwise, by unauthorized personnel
 into the project area.  Monitoring can be conducted in the occupied areas to document
 airborne fiber concentration. However, by the time elevated levels are detected, the area
 and occupants within will have been exposed.  Prevention, by Including safeguards
 In  the abatement design and execution, Is the best  approach.

 The two primary  methods of confining fibers  to the  work area  are  construction  of
 containment barriers and use of HEPA-filtered air units  to create a pressure differential
 between the work area and  adjoining spaces.

 Containment Barriers - High-rise structures have features which are not typical In single-
 story buildings that make construction of the containment  barrier more difficult.  Floor
 penetrations for cable, pipe, shafts, and chases are generally present and wBI serve as a
 conduit for air and water if not sealed.  Also, many multistory buildings have a curtain wall
 construction which creates a perimeter space  that exists just inside the walls of the
 building. In this type of construction floor decks extend to within anywhere from a half inch
 to four inches of the exterior wall.  This space also needs  to be sealed or blocked off.
 Figure VI-1 demonstrates methods to contain a work area  having an exterior curtain wall.

 To  help reduce the risk of fiber migration in occupied buildings project designers  typically
 specify stricter methods of constructing and utilizing critical barriers than are used in empty
 buildings. Critical barriers as utilized on an asbestos abatement project are, as the name
suggests, essential or critical in  confining the elevated level of airborne asbestos fibers
generated during the removal process.  These  barriers are the last line of defense in
preventing the migration of ftoers into spaces direct/ adjacent to the removal work areas,
or more  importantly, in  preventing migration of fibers into any common air handling

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STVJOENTUANUAl                                    AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                               Sector) VI - Abatement in Occupied Bufcfngt
                                                                      PagM
                               FK3URE VI-1
                METHODS OF SEALING FLOOR PENETRATIONS
                BETWEEN FLOOR DECKS AND CURTAIN WALL

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STUDENT MANUAL
ASBESTOS ABATEMEKT PROJECT OEStOM
S*cton VI - AtelMTWrt in Occupied Bufcfcgi
                 RUBBER  ROOFING KKKBRANE
            FLOOR DUCK

                 FIREPROOFING
                   EXPANDABLE FOAM  SKA1.
                     EXTERIOR WALL
                    (CURTAIN WALL)
             FLOOR DECK
                  RUBBER ROOFING MEMBRANE
          FIREPROOFING  TO
            BE  REMOVED
          FIREPROOFING TO REMAIN
                      GYPSUM HOARD ENCLOSURE
                                 FIGURE VI-1
                 METHODS OF SEALJNG FLOOR PENETRATIONS
                  BETWEEN FLOOR DECKS AND CURTAIN WALL

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    S«c*on VI - AbclWTwnl a\ Occupied Buttngs
                                                                             PagoS

system(s) with the potential of contaminating the entire building or significant portions
thereof.
These barriers, which, in single-story unoccupied buildings are often constructed of simple
wood frames with polyethylene sheets attached  and sealed, serve a similar, but much
more important purpose in taD or occupied facilities.  A much more complicated system of
engineering controls must be utilized in these structures.  Some of these methods include
the use of solid wood barriers over which polyethylene sheets are applied. Also a double
solid barrier may be constructed in extremely sensitive areas.  Caulk and fire stop foam
can be used to effectively seal slab penetrations during the abatement process. It may be
difficult to identify floor penetrations that are no longer being used and have been covered
up but not tightly sealed.

Where curtain walls are present, if the space between the slab and wall is narrow (less
than two inches), foam may typically be used to fill the gap.  For wider gaps it will probably
be more effective to construct the critical barrier using a material such  as rubber roofing
strips that wii lay snugly up against the side of the wall and extend over the gap out onto
the floor. The barrier is then covered with layers of polyethylene to form the containment.
Seals installed between floors will often have to be removed at the conclusion of the
abatement project.
       Number Of Air Changes. Higher Pressure Differential - As an additional safety
measure for removal  projects in occupied buildings, the number of air changes per
hour may be Increased to as much as  ten or even twenty In  contrast to the
traditional  minimum  of  four  which  Is  relied  on  In  most  single-story
unoccupied projects.   With the  controlled  flow of make-up air, this number of air

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 STUDENT UANUAi.                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     Section VI - Abatement in Occupod Boltings
 changes within a totally enclosed, sealed off work area typically produces a differential
 ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 inches water gauge in the air pressure between inside the work
 area and outside the work area.  As discussed in Section V. this Increased differential is
 necessary  to overcome changes in environmental conditions.  High-rise buildings are also
 known to commonly produce a stack effect of air flowing upward which can create strong
 pressure imbalances on opposite sides of an  enclosure.   Additionally. HVAC systems
 which remain operational outside the work area may interfere with the negative pressure
 being maintained in the work area.

 This pressure differential, while working effectively to help contain contamination within the
 work area, also contributes to the need for added reinforcement when erecting critical
 barriers and enclosures around the work area.  Polyethylene must be affixed to the walls
 much more securely than  is required under decreased pressure differential conditions.
 Sprayable coatings may be required to help withstand the pressure differential.  Another
 problem of using HEPA-filtered exhaust units in  multistory, occupied buildings is obtaining
 locations for venting the exhaust to the outside.  Windows may have to be removed and
 replaced with wooden  templates  to  accommodate the  exhaust ducts.   Additional
 precautions must be implemented when removing windows at heights well  above street
 level to avoid injury to those below.

Once the project  begins,  the HEPA-filtered exhaust units will remain in continuous
operation.  The decision to require back-up power for these units will depend on site-
specific conditions  such as the likelihood of  power interruption and the likelihood of
contamination  outside the work area should power be lost.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     Section VI - AhatMnont in Occupied BuMogt
                                                                              Pip?
    Monitoring - While the single most reliable method of assuring barrier integrity is visual
inspection of barriers on  a regular basis  during  a project, air monitoring is usually
conducted around the perimeter as an additional means of documentation.  Presently, two
methods for analysis of these air samples are available:  phase contrast microscopy (PCM)
and transmission  electron microscopy (JEM). PCM analysis, if performed on site, can give
a quick indication of fiber concentration around the perimeter of the work area.  However,
PCM analysis can be misleading.  This analytical  method calls for the microscopist to
include all fibers,  within certain size limitations, to be reported on any particular sample.  It
does not count or detect  fibers that are less than 5 microns long or 0.25 microns diameter.
It does not differentiate between  asbestos fibers and other fibers such as carbon fliers,
mineral wool or glass fibers. This problem is especially evident when asbestos removal
takes place in conjunction with other normal construction activities.  TEM analysis, while
giving positive identification of asbestos fibers, cannot give immediate results on those
samples.  Consequently, any results of TEM analysis would be significantly after the fact
and posstoly too late to give warning or Indication of breaches of the enclosures.

Another method  sometimes used for testing the effectiveness  of  critical barriers and
enclosures is the fibrous aerosol monitor (FAM).  This apparatus can run continuously and
give a near real time approximate readout of fiber concentrations within the ambient air
around an  active  work site.  The FAM also relies  on PCM-type technology and.
accordingly, can provide  misleading information.  Another problem is the lag time of many
hours required for the FAM to register accurate low-fiber concentrations in the 0.01 -0.05
f/cc range.

To summarize, the selection of the most appropriate monitoring method wPI be influenced
by site-specific factors such as ongoing construction outside the abatement project and

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    Section VI - AbotofTwrt in Occupied BufcSngs
                                                                            Pa0*8
 accessfoil'rty to a TEM laboratory which affects turnaround time for complete results.  The
 project designer may need to consult with an industrial hygienist to determine the best
 method for the given site.

 Systems Running Through Work Areas Mav Need To Remain Operational

 In an occupied building, there may be systems running through the work area that cannot
 be shut down. Two common examples include the HVAC system and electrical bus ducts.
 There may also be critical or sensitive equipment located in the work area that must remain
 operational or cannot be removed.

 HVAC Issues - H Is always preferable to shut down the HVAC  system,  secure
 the work area and seal  the openings. A prepxoject evaluation and cost estimate will
 need to be conducted to determine if it is feasible to inactivate the HVAC or whether it must
 remain operational. Factors to consider include the configuration and zoning of the HVAC
 system, local dimatic conditions, length of anticipated down time, scope of the  project,
 stationary equipment  which might  require cooling,  and building  codes.   Another
 consideration would include the possibility of installing  localized temporary HVAC.

 If  the HVAC must remain  operational during removal, very stringent engineering,
 monitoring and  administrative measures are required.  One of the main concerns in
 keeping the HVAC operational and uncontaminated Is to maintain positive pressure in all
duct work, plenums and serviced occupied areas with respect to the abatement work area.
Adjustments must be  made, if necessary, to the mechanical system to produce a  positive
static pressure within the air handling system.  This modification Is comparable to blowing
up a balloon where the exhaust to the outside is restricted and air is forced into the system

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        AS8ESTO6 ABATED NT PROJECT DESiGN
                                                     Section VI - Abatement n Occupied Butkfngt
(i.e., the "balloon") by the operation of the supply fan.  The project designer may need to
enlist the help of a mechanical  engineer to develop procedures for pressurizing the
system.  Some of the general considerations are discussed below and Figure VI-2 is a
schematic diagram of this method.

One of the key issues is whether the HVAC system can operate on fresh air or whether
return air needs to be entrained via mixing dampers.  This need will be influenced by the
temperature of the outside air and the capacity of the HVAC system fans.  The colder the
weather, the greater the need for return air.

Where return air is required, it is  essential to make sure dampers  are adjusted and
operating property.  This may involve the installation of temporary adjustable dampers or
the addition of a manual control  system to existing dampers.  Where return air is not
necessary, mixing dampers can be temporarily sealed off with polyethylene and duct tape
to ensure air tightness.

Once the mixing dampers have been properly adjusted or sealed, the joints in the duct
work are seated with duct tape and the duct work is endosed in two layers of polyethylene.
The return fan is shut down and exhaust dampers are sealed, typically with  plywood and
caulking.

After the HVAC modification and adjustments have been made, a pressure monitoring
system needs to be established.   This  can be done by  installing rigid, leak-free  static
pressure tape with manometer, mechanical or electronic displays or automatic monitoring
instruments in the supply and return duct work.  Readings  from  these locations can be
compared to  a static line installed in the work area to determine the negative pressure

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STUDENT MANUAL
                                AS8CSTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                SocttnVl Abatement in Oocupod
                      EXHAUST


              'XXXXXV/XXXXXXXXXXXXX '///////////////.'/////
      f
'X.XX./XV.
       EXHAUST/
    TO SUPPLY xj
    DUCTS
                                         £  TORETURN
                                         C  PLENUM
                                                       / E^AUST
                       '////,  POSmVE PRESSURE
                              FIGURE VI-2
          DIAGRAM OF PRESSURE ZONES IN ASBESTOS ABATEMENT
                  WORK AREA WITH OPERATIONAL HVAC

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEME NTT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    Section VI - Abahmwnt in Oocupiod Buttings
                                                                            Pago 11

condition  relative to the duct work.  The return fan casing Is the most critical area for
monitoring.  If positive pressure is maintained here, the entire system is positive.
The system should be tested once it has been adjusted and pressure monitors have been
installed.  This test should be conducted once the negative pressure is established in the
work area, but before actual asbestos abatement begins.  The supply fan switch can be
turned to the manual "on" position. All seals on duct work should be checked with a smoke
tube and if return dampers are in use they can be further adjusted as necessary to achieve
the desired pressurization.

Air  sampling  should  be   conducted  at strategic points to  ensure  and
document the HVAC  system  Is not  becoming contaminated  with  asbestos
fibers. It may be desirable to collect a background settled dust sample from inside the
duct work  prior  to starting the system to make a qualitative determination about the
presence of asbestos in dust  Air sampling locations  should be selected in downstream
occupied areas serviced by the duct work.  Preferably these areas are relatively small.
such as offices.  Air flow patterns could be checked with  a smoke tube to determine the
best location  for placing air samples.  Background air samples should be collected at
these locations prior to removal and analyzed by the same techniques that would be used
for analyzing samples collected during removal.

In some projects, the use of a  fibrous  aerosol  monitor may be appropriate.   It has the
advantage  of providing a  near real time reading, and  can be  used as an effective
surveillance tool. Inside the work area, the RAM is effective in detecting rapid increases in
the airborne concentration.  This indicates the need for more stringent work practices. As

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    Sedton VI - Abatement in Occupied BuMngs
                                                                            Pago 12

 mentioned earlier it has the disadvantage of not distinguishing fiber types and being a
 relatively expensive instrument (~$10.000~$13.000).
 Operating Stationary Equipment - In addition to the HVAC system, other concerns inside
 the work area include items such as energized electrical bus ducts carrying high voltage
 electrical wiring for the entire building, cable trays, transformers, and other equipment that
 must  remain  operational and  needs  ventilation.    It  Is   reemphaslzed  that
 deenerglzlng  all  electrical equipment  servicing  the  work  area  Is  the
 preferred procedure prior to asbestos  removal.  If  this is not possible, then certain
 precautions and employee training are necessary. Dry removal  may be required.  Dry
 removal typically requires permission from regulatory agencies.  Ft may be possible to wrap
 conduit or ducts in polyethylene or rubber sheeting.  Another alternative is to  build an
 enclosure around  the equipment.  A portable air conditioning  unit might be  used in
 conjunction with negative air units to supply cool air to the equipment and evacuate warm
 air. These  alternative  approaches are site-specific and require extreme  care
 In design and  Implementation.

 VERTICAL SHAFTS

There are several  significant concerns associated with  performing abatement in tall or
occupied buildings which have existing interior vertical shafts. These include:

       1.     Cross contamination of occupied floors through vertical shafts;
      2.     Preexisting contamination  within elevator  shafts due to vibration  and air
             turbulence within the shafts;

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STUDENT kMNUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           VI - AbrtMiwot in Occupied Bulking*
       3.     Vacuum  and venturi effects wittiin elevator shafts  due to the piston-like
              motion of elevator cabs;
       4.     Proper methods of sealing off work areas located adjacent to, around or
              within shafts;
       5.     Effective  methods of relieving positive pressure within elevator shafts when
              relief ports are sealed or obstructed due to abatement work within the shafts.

Interior vertical shafts within tall  or occupied buildings have presented unique problems
during asbestos projects since removal work in  these structures first began.   Interior
vertical shafts are present in nearly all tall buildings.  These shafts are utilized most often
for elevators and numerous utility systems serving the building (i.e., electrical, plumbing,
and particularly ventilation systems).   Vertical shafts  are often  used for ducting  and
distributing  conditioned air throughout the building.  Furthermore, shafts  may be used
frequently for other purposes such as bathroom exhausts, dumbwaiters, mail drops and
trash chutes.

The purpose of vertical shafts within a structure is  to  make the  building's utilities  and
services available to aH  occupants in all spaces. Unfortunately, this efficient distribution of
building service can contribute to the problems associated with performing abatement in
these facilities.  As these services are distributed to the different levels of the building,
many voids are  created  in the  shaft walls at each level.   The  pipes, ducts, conduit.
horizontal shafts, etc. run  through the voids in the shaft walls and large volumes of air can
also pass through the wals around these service items.  The problem stems from the
vertical shafts traversing through occupied floors  and abatement work area floors alike.
providing a conduit for contamination  generated during the removal process to migrate to
occupied areas of the  facility.  This problem  is aggravated  and magnified by elevator

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     Secton VI - Abatement In Occupied Bulldogs
                                                                              Pago 14
 movement within a shaft.  The piston-like  movement of the elevator cab can  cause a
 vacuum or venturi effect and actually pull contaminated air into the shaft and distribute that
 contamination throughout the building.  A "stack effect*, or upward movement of air. can
 also occur in tall vertical shafts.

 Ideally, the solution to this problem would be to completely shut down all elevators which
 are in  shafts that penetrate  floors where asbestos  abatement  work area  is  being
 performed.  Realistically,  this would be impractical, due to the need to move occupants
 throughout the building.  Also, the elevators in high-rise buildings are often utilized to
 transport  abatement workers,  supplies and  packaged asbestos waste during a  removal
 project.  Due to the necessity  to keep some elevators and shafts in use during a project
 and the difficulty ensuring that all openings to a shaft are completely sealed, the potential
 for contamination on occupied floors adjacent to work area floors is real  and must be
 considered in the abatement design.  In some cases, it may be necessary to construct an
 exterior elevator for use by the  asbestos abatement contractor.

 Elevators that are not needed  for transporting personnel, equipment and asbestos waste
 from the work area should  be locked out so that they do not stop on floors where removal is
 taking place.  Critical barriers can then be constructed to isolate the elevator openings from
 the work area.

 One method of  isolation  involves sealing the elevator opening In the work area with
 polyethylene and plywood or gypsum board  and caulking.  Some situations may warrant
the need to form an air space at the elevator doors and pressurize the space with HEPA-
 fitered air so that it is at a pressure greater than that of the elevator shaft  The seal can be
constructed by first covering the elevator door with polyethylene and duct tape.  Then a

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STUDBfT HMNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJON
                                                     Section VI - Abatement in Occupied BuMngc
barrier constructed of gypsum board and metal studs or ptywood and wood studs can be
placed a minimum of three inches from the face of the door.  A small containment area is
formed between the barrier and door with 6-mil polyethylene and duct tape and the space
is pressurized with a ducted exhaust from a HEPA-filtered unit located outside the work
area.

In situations where the elevator must be used to transport workers into the work area, the
decontamination unit is usually constructed so that it adjoins the elevator. Provisions must
be made so that air is not drawn back through the decontamination  unit into the elevator
cab or shaft.  One design solution is to place a hard door between the dean room and the
airlock leading into  the shower.  The door would remain  closed whenever the elevator
doors were open.

Another problem that may need to be addressed in the abatement design is preexisting
contamination within an elevator shaft due to vixation and air turbulence caused by the
operation of the elevator.  These forces may have, over the years (typically 10-20 years),
dislodged ACM located within the shafts.  This situation is usually associated with friable,
sprayed-appJied materials used  for fireproofing.  Review of the building survey or  a
preproject evaluation of the elevator shafts should be conducted to  determine if there  is
asbestos-containing  fireproofing on exposed beams inside the shafts and if there is visual
contamination at the bottom of the shafts.  Prior to initiating removal  on any of the floors.
any visible debris at the base of the shafts should be removed  with a HEPA vacuum.

Another challenge regarding vertical shafts in tall, occupied buildings is  conducting
abatement within the shafts. Containment  of the work areas is of great significance within
an occupied  building because improper containment may  lead to significant airborne

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     Section VI - Abatement in Occupied 3u*cfcogs
                                                                                 15
 contamination. This contamination can migrate throughout a facility via shafts which pass
 through occupied areas.

 Once a work area involving an elevator shaft is sealed and enclosed, the enclosure may
 present another complication.  Relief ports which vent positive pressure from the shaft may
 be obstructed.  In many cases, elevators will fail to operate if the pressure relief ports are
 blocked. In other situations, air from within the elevator shaft will be forced out of the shaft
 through small openings, such as at doors which have not been completely sealed. Again,
 the potential for asbestos contamination is significant.

 If an entire shaft is being abated, typically the elevator will be locked out on each floor and
 doors will be sealed off by erecting  plywood and polyethylene on the shaft side of the
 doors. The floor and walls of the elevator pit will be predeaned and lined  with layers of 6-
 mil polyethylene and the cables will  be isolated where possible with polyethylene.  The
 method for accessing the material will be site specific  depending on the  configuration of
 the elevator shaft.  Single shafts are sometimes accessed by using the tops of the cabs as
 a working surface.  In shafts that accommodate more than one elevator, workers with safety
 lines attached will sometimes access the ACM from seats connected to cables in the shaft.
 Because of the numerous safety issues associated with  removing ACM from
 the  Inside of elevator shafts, the project designer may need to rely  on the
 expertise  of  a safety engineer when  developing the abatement  specification.

 FIRE SAFETY

Many of the engineering controls and  procedures used for asbestos removal projects may
affect the building's fire protection systems.   While fire safety is a concern on every

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    Socfen VI - Abatement in Occupied Bukings
asbestos removal project and is addressed in the Safety Considerations section of this
notebook, there are some  issues, such as maintaining operation of the sprinklers and
alarms, that are of even greater importance in occupied, tall buildings.

Fire Suppression Systems

The requirements for maintaining operational sprinkler systems inside the asbestos
abatement  area will vary depending on  state and local  codes.   It  is generally
recommended that  the sprinkler system remain operational or at least be  only shut off
during work activity. Care  must be taken not to obstruct sprinkler heads in a way that
would keep them from being effective.

If  the sprinkler  system is  not deactivated  there must be appropriate provisions  for
emergency shutott and water runoff in case the system is activated by something  other
than  a  fire.   One such  example would occur from someone inadvertently hitting and
knocking off a sprinkler head with a rolling  scaffold, ladder or other equipment  One
solution is to require a protective device such as a cage to be  installed around  each
exposed sprinkler head in  the work area.  Additionally, the contractor should have a
response plan posted which indicates the location of the shutoff  valve for  the sprinkler
system and workers  should be trained to respond to a major water leak.

Because of the potential for water to penetrate  floors below  and  spread asbestos
contamination, it is critical to keep water confined to the abatement  area.  Bags of
absorbent, squeegees and mops should be kept on site for dealing  with large quantities of
water.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                      Section VI - Abatement in Occupied Buitfngs
                                                                              Pago 18
 Smoke detectors and alarms may also be affected by abatement activities.  For example,
 some  smoke detectors are triggered by the opacity of light.  Dust will act  like smoke  in
 reducing the amount of light and trigger the alarm.  Also, most smoke detectors and tire
 alarms in buildings  are now required  by  code to have  a back-up  power supply.  As a
 precaution, the back-up supply should be tested before beginning abatement

 Attention should also be directed toward the presence and locations of fire doors.   Fire
 doors are often magnetized and activated by an electronic-type fusible link. If a fire occurs,
 the doors are triggered and automatically shut. Care should be taken not to interfere with
 the functioning  of the  fire  doors by obstructing  them with construction materials or by
 propping them open.

 One other preproject consideration  is to determine  if a halon fire suppression system Is
 being used within the project area.  Though it is  a remote possbility, if the halon system
 were activated in a small enclosed area, the oxygen could be dangerously depleted.

 Equipment and Materials

 A common safety measure built into  the project design is the requirement for the contractor
 to have fire extinguishers on site which have been tested and tagged within the last year.
 The general  rule of thumb is one  extinguisher for each 2,500 square feet of floor space. In
 addition to the pressurized-water (2.5-gallon) fire extinguishers, which are typically used, a
dry chemical fire extinguisher may  be  needed on site if stationary  electrical equipment
 must remain operational.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                   Section VI - Abatement n Occupied Bui 
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 STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                   Section VI - Abatement m Occupied Buikinjs
 As specifications are being developed, project designers will need to carefully review local
 and state fire codes.  Some codes for tall, occupied buildings stipulate that abatement
 cannot be conducted on two contiguous floors and that there must be at least five buffer
 floors between each floor where asbestos removal is taking place.

 WATER LEAKS TO FLOORS BELOW ABATEMENT PROJECT

 Besides the potential for a major water leak from damage to the sprinkler system, the water
 used inside the work area for wetting the ACM and showers is also of concern.  Water
 damage Is one of the most  common Insurance  claims on  abatement projects.

 The designer may require the contractor to take special precautions with showers and
 hose. For example, a sump-pump-type drainage system can be placed below the showers
 and aluminum pans placed under them to drain water to prevent a  leakage problem.  The
 designer may require the contractor to use time-controlled valves that automatically open
 and dose in concert with working  hours so workers can leave the project area without
 leaving  behind live water lines.   At a  minimum, procedures  should be In place
 which assure water Is turned off at the end of each shift  This may require the
 water shut-off be  located outside  the work area.  Specifications  may also require the
 contractor to use copper tubing instead of rubber hoses to hard plumb high pressure water
 lines.

 LOGISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

There are several logistical considerations associated with asbestos  removal in  tall.
occupied buildings that are often  not encountered with  single-story  structures that are not

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    Section VI - Abakxnofit in Occupied Birikfrxp
occupied. Since some of these considerations are closely tied to public relations issues.
The discussion below addresses both.

Inconvenience of Removal Activity

It is difficult to conduct an abatement project in an occupied building without posing some
inconvenience to the building occupants.  Measures which can be used to lessen the
impact of contractor personnel and equipment on site include:  a public relations effort to
Inform building occupants of the removal activity, establish at least a one-floor buffer zone
above and below the project area, work night shifts only, and phase  the work to
correspond with periods of lowest occupancy.

Experience  indicates that  projects typically  go  much  more  smoothly  when
affected building occupants  have  been  Informed.  A program for informing the
building occupants about the nature of the project  and  the engineering  controls and
monitoring  that are being  implemented should be completed  shortly after the  project
specifications are developed.  The proper means of informing the building occupants will
vary in each building and may range from a written notice to a meeting.  The information
should include key elements such as why the removal project is being conducted, where it
is being conducted, who is performing  the work, who is monitoring the work, what the
safety procedures  and engineering controls are, how long the project will take and  who
occupants should contact if they perceive there is a problem.  This information is  usually
developed  by building management in conjunction  with legal counsel.  The project
designer may be needed to help address specific questions from building occupants as
they relate to the specifications.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                     Secoon VI - Abatement in Occupied Bulking*
                                                                              Papa 22
 If it is feasible (in some locales it is mandatory), there should be at least one unoccupied
 floor above and below the abatement project (i.e., three floors total).  This not only provides
 a buffer zone In case there are inadvertent contamination leaks, but it also provides
 storage for the contractor's equipment and materials, and helps reduce noise transmission
 from the project area to the occupied spaces. Buffer floors also accelerate the project time
 line allowing the work crew to prepare the  next abatement area while removal is being
 completed on the adjacent floor.

 Another way to minimize the effects of the removal activity is to have the contractor's crew
 work night and weekend shifts.  This may or may not add extra expense to the project and
 may alleviate problems for the contractor such as parking and maneuvering equipment in
 congested areas during  weekdays.  There  may also be foreseeable periods during the
 year when building occupancy is expected to be lower such as major holidays or at the
 end of lease periods. Conducting abatement projects during these periods  would affect
 fewer building occupants.

 Transport of Personnel. Equipment and Asbestos Waste

An often-overlooked  but critical issue with respect to scheduling is the  transport  of
personnel, equipment and asbestos waste.  In many buildings there is a freight elevator
which can be designated for use by the contractor.  As long as the elevator remains  in
good working order, this is usually the best means of transport.  It is more difficult in those
buildings where a freight elevator does not access all floors.  Typically, one of the elevators
utilized by building occupants must then be designated for use by the contractor's crew.  It
is often  best to require in the design specifications that asbestos waste be removed from

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    Section VI - Abatement In Occupied Buttings
the project area after normal business hours. This reduces visibility, chance of exposure to
building occupants and is usually more convenient for the abatement crew.

Emergency Response Program

In addition to the emergency response program which has been discussed for fire safety,
there is also a need for contingency plans in the event of power failure, elevator problems,
shutdowns of negative pressure systems,  water  leaks, personnel injuries and natural
events such  as earthquakes or tornadoes. The contractor  should  be required to
develop and submit  these prior  to project startup.

SUMMARY

On a given project conducted in  a tall or occupied building there may be several additional
concerns not discussed in this section.  With  some of the concepts presented here in mind,
the project designer will need to carefully evaluate the building and communicate with
building management to fine tune the site-specific issues that are critical to the success of
the project

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 STUDENT UANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    Sedkm VI - Abatement n Occupied
 REVIEW  QUESTIONS
 1.     The most common insurance claim for damage resulting from an asbestos removal
       project is related to which of the following?

       A.     Water damage
       B.     Fire damage
       C.     Broken windows
       D.     Smoke damage

 2.     When an air duct passing through an asbestos abatement work area must remain
       operational,  the pressure inside the duct should be	the
       pressure in the work area.  (Fill in the blank).

       A.     the same as
       B.     tower than
       C.     higher than
       D.     one-half

 3.     An owner of a tall  office building is planning  to remove  asbestos-containing
       fireproof ing from several floors of the building as part of a scheduled renovation.
       When considering public relations, what approach would probably work best?

       A.     Publish a notice In the local newspaper for three consecutive days.
       B.     Notify affected building occupants of the project and precautions being
              taken.
       C.     Post asbestos danger signs at ail entrances and exits for the building.
       D.     Say nothing about the project until after completion to avoid a panic.

 4.     A transformer must remain operating in the mechanical room which is part of an
       asbestos abatement work area. Which of the following design techniques might be
       employed?

       A.    Wrap the transformer tightly with two layers of 6-mil polyethylene sheeting.
       B.    Create an enclosure around the transformer and pull air out of the enclosure
             with HEPA-filtered exhaust unit.
       C.     Do  not enclose the transformer to prevent heat build-up and spray it with
             cold water.
       D.    Create an enclosure around the transformer and blow cool clean air into the
             enclosure.

5.     Tall buildings usually have several vertical  shafts which can produce a "stack
       effect." A "stack effect" can be described as which of the following?

       A.     The emission of asbestos fibers from a smoke stack.
       B.     The downward movement of air in a vertical shaft.
       C.    The upward movement of air in a vertical shaft.
       D.    The stacking of HEPA-filtered exhaust units in vertical shafts to dean the air.

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STUOENTIMNUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                     Section VII - Protection of A«ba«>a« Abat»m«nt Propel Pvionnal
                                                                          Pagol

PROTECTION OF  ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT  PROJECT PERSONNEL
INTRODUCTION

Most asbestos abatement projects require the direct disturbance of asbestos-containing
materials, or the dust and debris  derived from  these materials.  Studies have
repeatedly  demonstrated  that  these  activities  almost always  result  In
significantly  elevated  airborne   asbestos  concentrations.   The  actual
concentration will  vary depending on the friability of the material, amount and type of
asbestos Involved, control measures employed, number of workers involved, volume of the
work area, and work practices  used.  When designing the asbestos abatement project all
of these factors are considered to minimize the generation of airborne asbestos fibers.
Such factors include wet cleaning methods and the use of local exhaust ventilation. These
are termed engineering controls.  Engineering controls are employed to reduce  the
airborne asbestos concentration to the lowest feasible amount  Respirators and other
personal protective equipment are then used to  further reduce exposure to the
asbestos abatement workers.  Personal protective  equipment  (e.g.,  respirators)
must not be considered a substitute for effective engineering controls.

Toxic substances include any material which can damage biological tissue.  However, for
a toxic substance to be hazardous  (I.e.. pose a risk), exposure must occur at the site where
damage is likely.  Toxic substances can enter the body in three ways:  (1) through  the
gastrointestinal tract, usually via  the mouth; (2) through the skin; and (3) through the
respiratory system.  Asbestos  fibers are not believed to pose a significant health threat
through ingestjon or skin exposure. They can. however, pose a  significant risk if inhaled
into the respiratory system.   Other chemicals which may be present in an asbestos

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 STUDENT UANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Protection of AsboOoK Abatement Project Personnot
                                                                            Pago 2
 abatement work area may have different routes of entry for which protection may be
 necessary.

 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

 The respiratory system is a gaseous (air) pump consisting of a series of airways leading
 from the nose and mouth down into the air sacs (alveoli) of the lung itself.  Within the
 alveoli, oxygen  and carbon  dioxide are  exchanged.  Trie main components of  the
 respiratory system, from top to bottom are fisted below.
       •  Nose and mouth
       •  Throat
       •  Larynx (voice box)
       •  Trachea (wind pipe)
       •  Bronchi (branches from the trachea)
       •  Bronchioles (smaller air passageways)
       •  Alveoli (terminal air sacs in the lung)
       •  Diaphragm and chest muscles

 RESPIRATORY HAZARDS

 Respiratory hazards are generally divided into two categories:  toxic contaminants and
oxygen  deficiency.   Generally, asbestos abatement projects do  not  pose oxygen
deficiency hazards. However, since there are projects and circumstances where it can be
a problem, oxygen deficiency must always be considered. For example, there could be an
oxygen deficiency problem while performing  abatement in steam tunnels, mechanical

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Protection of Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel
                                                                             Page 3

chases or boilers.  Failing to consider oxygen deficiency could result in a fatality on a
project
The normal concentration of oxygen  in air is 21 percent.  NIOSH defines an  oxygen
deficient atmosphere as below 19.5 percent oxygen at sea level. A concentration of 19.5
percent provides an adequate amount  of oxygen for most work assignments and includes
a safety factor. The safety factor is included because oxygen deficient atmospheres offer
little warning of the clanger.  When oxygen concentrations fall below 16 percent, decreased
mental  effectiveness, visual  acuity, and muscular coordination  occur.  When  oxygen
concentrations fall below 10  percent, loss  of consciousness may occur, and below
6 percent, death will result.

Toxic contaminants are a more common category of respiratory hazards encountered on
abatement projects.  These toxic contaminants are generally divided into two categories:
paniculate and gaseous materials (or a combination of the two). Asbestos fibers are an
example of the paniculate category and carbon monoxide is an example of the gaseous
category.  It is possible to have both of these hazardous substances, as well as others such
as organic vapors, in a work area at the same time.

The control of respiratory hazards typically involves three steps:
      •  Assessing the hazards
      •  Reducing or eliminating the hazards
      •  Providing respiratory protective equipment

The asbestos  abatement  project  designer should  assess  existing  hazards
known  to be present  In the Intended work area and  anticipate  others that are

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section VII - Protection ol Asbostos Abatement Project Poreonnel
 likely to arise during the project  For example, airborne asbestos fibers should be
 anticipated for any asbestos removal project.  Organic vapors might also be anticipated
 from spray adhesives or floor tile mastic remover, and if surfaces are to be painted after the
 removal project.  Through a well-designed project, some of the respiratory hazards can be
 eliminated or reduced.  For example, an electric heater rather than a propane heater will
 eliminate  the  possibility  of  carbon  monoxide  in the work  area from  the propane
 combustion. Since it is usually not feasible to engineer out all hazards, workers and others
 at the job site must be  made aware of possible hazardous conditions.  Lastly, respiratory
 protection will almost always be specified on asbestos abatement projects.   The type of
 respirator chosen for use is critical to assure that adequate protection is provided.

 CATEGORIES OF RESPIRATORS

 There are two broad categories of  respirators.  These are air purifying and  supplied air
 respirators. in each category there are many different types of respirators (i.e., powered air
 purifying, gas masks,  pressure demand supplied air respirators, etc.).  Many of the
 respirators available are not appropriate for protection against asbestos since they are
 designed for a specific contaminant, such as chlorine gas.

 Air Purifying Respirators

These respirators remove the hazardous contaminant from the breathing air before it is
inhaled.  They consist of a soft rubber faceptece and a replaceable filter or cartridge.  Two
major subcategories of air purifying respirators are the mechanical filter type and the
chemical cartridge type.  The mechanical filter variety  is designed to protect against
paniculate contaminants such as asbestos. The chemical cartridge type protects against

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Secfcn Vfl - Proxaton of Atbe«os Abnament Preset Personnel
                                                                              PigiS
gaseous contaminants such as solvent vapors. Each respirator assembly is approved for a
particular contaminant; care must be  taken in choosing the appropriate  unit.  High
efficiency filters designed for asbestos are typically  purple or magenta in color (Figure VII-
1). These fitters are designed to remove 99.97 percent of the particles 0.3 micrometers or
greater in diameter.

Air purifying respirators remove limited concentrations of air contaminants from the
breathing air, but do nothing to improve (of change)  the oxygen content Thus, they can
only be used in atmospheres where there is enough oxygen and where air contaminants
do not exceed the specified range of the respirator and cartridge.  Often, however, this is
adequate protection when propping the asbestos abatement work area, performing final
cleanup  (wipe downs), or during gkwebag removal projects.  During gross removal and
gross cleanup, a different category of respirator may be used to provide greater protection
for the worker; the supplied air respirator

Air purifying respirators are further categorized based on their degree of face coverage.
The half mask respirator (Figure VII-2) covers half the face; from the bridge of the nose
to  under the chin. A full face respirator (Figure VII-3) covers the face from the forehead
to  under the chin.  The more extensive coverage provides a better fit and a higher degree
of  protection.

Some air purifying respirators depend upon inhaling by the workers to draw atmospheric
air through the respirator filter of cartridge where it is  decontaminated.   Hence,  they are
referred to as negative pressure respirators.

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     STUCerr MANUAL
                                                     VD —
                                                AS8CSTO6 ABATEICNT PfOdECT OEStQN
                                                  ot Aab
         CASKET     FILTER
                  CAKTRIDCE
            ^
?A1VE
  1'JBBEX
FACtPlECE
                               AII7LOW
                              AI1TLOW
          HLTER
FILTtl    KATERIAL
BOLDEX
    Figure VIM.  Typical High Efficiency
                  Filter
                                 Figure VI1-2.  Typical Half-mask
                                               Respirator
   Figure VH-3. Typical Full-Facepiece
                 Respirator
                                       Figure VI1-4. Example Powered Air-
                                                     Purifying Respirator

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STUDENT MANUAL                                         AS8CSTCK ABATEMENT PROJECT D6SJGN
                                        Section VII - Protection of Asbmtos Abatement Project Peraonrwl
                                                                                Pago?

Powered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPRs)
Another subcategory of air purifying respirator is the powered air purifying  respirator
(PAPR) shown in Figure VIM.  It uses similar types of cartridges and filters as negative
pressure  air purifying  respirators to clean  the air.   PAPRs.  however, are  positive
pressure devices which employ a portable, rechargeable battery pack and blower to
force contaminated air through a filter or cartridge where it is  filtered and supplied to the
wearer's breathing zone.  PAPRs are available in both tight-fitting and loose-fitting
styles.  A tight-fitting respirator relies on  a tight fit of the facemask to seal to the face.
Loose-fitting respirators include hoods and helmets and must  be positive pressure types.
An advantage of using a powered air purifying respirator is that it supplies air at a positive
pressure within the faceptece. helmet, or hood so that arty leak is usually outward.

Supplied Air Respirators

Supplied air respirators are used in conjunction with an airline to provide breathing air
from a  source outside the work area.  This  type of respirator is often  referred to as  a
Type C or airline respirator.   Supplied air  respirators are further divided  into several
categories described below.

Demand  Tvoa Airline Respirators - These respirators provide air to the worker only when
the worker inhales.  Accordingly, they are not considered positive pressure respirators.
Demand respirators  are onty available  as tight-fitting respirators with  a half or full
facepiece.

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 SnjO&n UANUAL.                                        AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT D63WN
                                        Section VII - Protection o< Asbestos Abatement Project PorsonmH
                                                                                Pag»8
 Continuous Flow Airline Respirators - These respirators provide a  constant flow of
 breathing air to the worker at a rate of at least four or six cubic feet per minute (CFM).  Four
 CFM is necessary for tight-fitting respirators and  six CFM for loose-fitting types.  The
 minimum airflow requirements are intended to provide air to the worker faster than his
 breathing rate. They may be half mask or full facepiece respirators, helmets or hoods, and
 be tight fitting or loose fitting to the face.

 Pfessure Demand Type Airline Respirators - These respirators have a regulator which
 maintains a constant positive pressure within the facepiece.  Accordingly, it is very difficult
 for a worker to breathe at a rate faster than the incoming air. Pressure demand respirators
 are only available in tight-fitting models with a half or full facepiece.

 Regardless of which type of supplied air respirator is used, the breathing air must meet
 minimum specifications required by the Occupational Safety  and Health Administration
 (OSHA) Respiratory Protection  Standard (29 CFR 1910.134).  The minimum allowable
 specification is caHed Qrada D breathing air.

 Grade D breathing air is the minimum quality for use in suppled-air respirators.  The grade
 D breathing air specifications are established by the Compressed Gas Association  and
 incorporated into the OSHA respirator standard by reference. Table VII-1 summarizes the
 requirements for grade 0 air.

One problem with supplied air  respirators is the possible loss of air supply while inside the
work area.  The OSHA regulations require  that  a backup air  supply be available in the
event of compressor shutdown.   However, this does not provide any safeguard against
loss of air if the airline is severed or disconnected.  For this reason, the National Institute for

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SnJOefTkMNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Protection of Mbaxtot Abatement Project Pononrwl
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that a backup be available on the
worker. This may take the form of a backup short-term air supply  bottle, or more
commonly a backup high efficiency filter to be used in the event of air loss (Figure VII-
5).  For a detailed discussion of breathing air systems, see Appendix C.
                                  TABLE  VIM
                 GRADE D BREATHING  AIR REQUIREMENTS
       Oxygen                     19.5-23.5 percent
       Carbon monoxide (co)          10 parts per mitton. maximum
       Carbon dtoxde (002)           1.000 parts per rrtHton, maximum
       Condensed hydrocarbons (oi)   5 miigrams per cubic meter, maximum
       Objectionable odors           None
       Water vapor                 Not specified; however, moisture should not be
                                  permitted to interfere with the proper functioning
                                  of the co scrubbing device
Self Contained Brsathho Apparatus fSCBA)

The self contained breathing apparatus, or SCBA, Is another form of supplied air respirator
(Figure VII-6). The SCBA system does not rely on an airline but incorporates an air tank
carried by the worker, such as those used by fire fighters.  The SCBA will normally provide
30  minutes to an hour of breathing air, making it unsuitable for asbestos abatement
workers.  However, it  is sometimes used by project designers and inspectors since it
permits  the individual access to areas beyond the reach of airlines.  The SCBA is only
available as a tight-fitting respirator operated in the demand or pressure demand mode.

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 STUDENT fcKNUAL
             ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
Section VH - Proi»c*an of A«b««m Ab«»m«nt Project Pmomwl
                                     Pag* K>
                           REGULATOR
                           BACZUF
                           FILTER
                            AIR LIKI
                                                                       All TAMK
Figure VII-5.  Supplied-Air Respirator with   Rgure Vlt-6. Self-Contained Breathing
            Back-Up Filter                           Apparatus
 USE OF APPROVED RESPIRATORS AND COMPONENTS
 Any respirator used on an asbestos abatement project must be approved.  The federal
 agencies that approve respirators are the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
 Health (NIOSH) and the  Mine Safety and Health Administration  (MSHA).  The approval
 label should accompany each respirator when purchased. At the top of the approval label
 will be listed contaminants for which the respirator is approved or in what atmosphere the
 respirator may be used.  The approval label will also list limitations for that specific make
 and model of respirator.  NIOSH publishes annually a list of all approved respirators In a
 publication titled NIOSH  Certified Equipment List.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section W - Protection of A»tmto« Abatement Project Pvraonntri
                                                                             Pagoll
An individual make and model respirator may have more than one approval depending on
which fitter element is Installed.  For example, one type of full face air purifying respirator
may be approved for asbestos fibers when the high efficiency filters are installed, and also
be approved for organic vapors when the organic vapor cartridges are installed.  The
approval number for each respirator is always preceded by the letters 1C* which stands
for tested and certified.'

The approval remains valid as long  as  the  respirator contains all its original parts or
replacement parts from the same manufacturer intended for the specific make and model
of respirator. For example. H a headstrap is broken and replaced with a headstrap from a
different manufacturer, the approval is no longer valid.  For air supplied respirators, the
approval includes the airline  and  regulator as well.  Accordingly, respirators of one
manufacturer cannot be connected to  the airline of another manufacturer. In most cases,
each manufacturer uses a slightly different connecting mechanism to prevent this from
occurring.

PROTECTION FACTORS

No respirator totally  eliminates exposure to  airborne contaminants.  However,
some respirators provide greater protection than others.  In order to compare the protection
provided by different respirators it is necessary to understand the concept of protection
ffldois* A protection factor is an index of the degree of protection afforded by a particular
category of respirator. The protection factor is determined by measuring the concentration
of a contaminant inside and  outside the respirator simultaneously.  By dividing  the
concentration measured outside the respirator by the concentration measured inside the
respirator, the protection factor is obtained. Technically the term  is fit factor; however, In

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Pmmcton at Asbatfca Abafcrrxnt Profrct P«raoone<
the field of asbestos abatement it has always been termed protection factor.  To avoid
confusion, the term protection factor will continue to be used here.  The term protection
factor to often abbreviated "PP."
              PF" Concentration outside the respirator
                  Concentration inside the respirator
The higher the PF number the greater the protection afforded by the respirator. The lowest
number possbte is 1 since this would mean the concentration of the airborne contaminant
is the  same inside and  outside the respirator.  A protection factor of 10 indicates the
respirator will reduce the concentration of the airborne contaminant by a factor of 10. Put
another way, the concentration of the contaminant inside the respirator will not exceed
1/1 Oth the concentration outside the respirator, assuming a proper fit of the respirator to the
face.

Research is continuously conducted to determine the protection factors of new respirators
and Improved versions of older models.  Accordingly, the number assigned to a particular
class of respirators may  change based on new information.  For example, the protection
factors referenced in the 1986 OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58) were quickly
out of date when NIOSH  published the latest PF values a year later.  While the OSHA PF
values remain the legal minimum, designers may wish to apply for more current NIOSH PF
values. The most current PF values are listed in  Table VII-2 along  with a suggested
maximum use concentration for each category of respirator.

The protection factor  depends greatly on the fit of the mask to the wearer's
face.  Accordingly, the protection offered by any one respirator will be different for each
Individual person.  Further, the protection  constantly changes depending upon the
worker's activities and  even shaving habits.   When a worker laughs or coughs  inside a
respirator, the protection factor will decrease since the mask will not fit as well during

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STUDENT MANUAL
              ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
Section VII - Protection of Asbestos Atettmont Project Personnel
                                      PtgoU
TABLE VII-2
                  RECOMMENDED  RESPIRATOR  SELECTION
                   FOR PROTECTION  AGAINST  ASBESTOS
RESPIRATOR
SELECTION
Hal mask air purifying
with HEPA Filters
Fufl facepiece air purifying
with HEPA filers
Powered air purifying (PAPR)
loose-fitting helmet or hood,
HEPA filter
Powered air purifying (PAPR)
ful facepiece. HEPA fitter
Suppled air. continuous How,
toose-f tting helmet or hood
Suppled air. continuous flow.
ful facepiece + HEPA escape
Ful facepiece suppled air.
pressure demand + HEPA
escape
Ful facepiece suppled ak.
pressure demand, with auxiliary
SCBA, pressure demand or
continuous flow
OSHA
PF
(1986)
10
50
100
100
100
100
1.000
>1.000
NIOSH
PF1
(1991)
10
50
25
50
25
50
2.000
10.000
SUGGESTED
MAXIMUM USE
CONCENTRATION*
0.1 f/cc
0.5 f/CC
0.25 f/CC
0.51/CC
0.25 t/cc
05 f/cc
10 f/CC
>10f/CC
      NOTES

      1.  These protection factors represent the most current state-of-the-art practice.

      2.  This value represents the maximum fiber concentration outside the respirator to maintain
         exposure inside the respirator below 0.01 fibers/cc. (It was calculated using the more
         conservative PF value between OSHA and NIOSH, assuming concentration inside the
         mask  * 0.01 f/cc).

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STUDENT MANUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section VII - Pnxxaton of *M**ttat Abatiitum Profrct P«nonn»l
laughing or coughing.  Similarty. the worker who forgets to shave one morning will not
receive as much protection that day since the mask will not fit as wen to the face.

RESPIRATOR FIT TESTING

The assigned protection factor can only be assured if the respirator fits properly.  Individual
workers have different facial features that make fit testing necessary. The OSHA asbestos
standard  (29 CFR 1926.58)  and the OSHA respiratory protection  standard (29 CFR
1910.134) both require that employers fittest each employee when a negative pressure
respirator is issued.   Fit testing is  not  required to be performed for positive pressure
respirators  unless there is a possibility that the respirator will  be  used in a negative
pressure mode.  For example, a tight-fitting powered air purifying respirator may lose its
battery charge and only operate as  a negative pressure respirator.  In  this instance the
respirator should be fit tested with the battery disconnected to simulate this occurrence.

Fit testing is required when the respirator is first issued and every six months thereafter.
The reason  for continued fit testing is due to the possibility that a worker may have gained
or lost sufficient weight to change facial size and affecting the respirator fit. Initial fit testing
will need to  be repeated whenever an employee changes the make, model or size of
his/her respirator. At the time of initial fit testing, the employer must have available at least
five sizes of respirators from at least two manufacturers. For example, trus would include
sizes small,  medium, and large from manufacturer A; and sizes small/medium and
medium/large from manufacturer B. Under the provisions of the OSHA asbestos standard,
employees retain  the right to request  a powered  air purifying respirator in  lieu of a negative
pressure respirator. It is the employer's duty to provide the PAPR upon request without
cost to the employee.

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 STUOEHTIyMNUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                         Section VII - Protectwn ot Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel
                                                                                Pap* 16
 The  weak  link  In  respiratory  protection  Is the seal of the respirator  to the
 face.  Anything that interferes with the facial seal wfll reduce the protection provided.  It is
 for this reason thai chewing gum and tobacco are not permitted when respirators are worn.
 For tight-fitting respirators there should be no facial hair along the line of contact between
 the respirator and the face. Individuals wearing respirators requiring a tight seal to the face
 should be clean shaven.  Mustaches and short sideburns are usualy permitted since they
 do not interfere with the facial seal. Temple bars on glasses will interfere with the seal in
 full facepiece respirators.  Most manufacturers oner eyeglass inserts for their respirators
 which allow prescription lenses to  be worn inside the respirator. For many years OSHA
 prohibited the wearing of contact  lenses inside a full facepiece respirator.  In light of a
 recent study, OSHA has lifted the  prohibition on gas permeable and soft contact lenses.
 OSHA  is considering issues surrounding hard  contact lenses but currently still prohibits
 their use inside full facepiece respirators.

 There are two categories of fit testing that can  be  performed  for negative pressure
 respirators.  They are the qualitative fit test and the quantitative fit test.  The qualitative fit
 test is a pass/fail test used to determine the fit of respirators having an assigned protection
 factor of 10 or less.  This simple type of test is designed to determine if there is more than
 10 percent leakage around the facepiece. Quantitative fit testing is used to measure the fit
of the  respirator wtth each worker by measuring the concentration inside and outside the
respirator with a test substance.

Qualitative Fit Testing

During fit testing, the respirator straps must be property adjusted in accordance with the
manufacturer's directions and should be as comfortable as possible.  Overtightening the

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Protoctan of Aibmto* Abatement Project P«r*oooo4
straps wiU sometimes reduce facepiece leakage, but trie wearer may be unable to tolerate
the respirator for any length of time. The facepiece should not press into the face and shut
off Wood circulation or cause major discomfort. At the time of respirator selection, a visual
inspection of the fit should always be made by a second person.

Once a  respirator  has been selected and  no visual leaks  are evident, a negative
pressure check and positive pressure check are performed  by the wearer.  These
simple procedures are described below.

Negative Pressure Respirator - For this check, the wearer closes off the inlet of the filters or
cartridges by covering them with the  palms of the hands or by squeezing  the breathing
tube so that air cannot pass through,  inhales so that the facepiece collapses slightly, and
holds his/her breath for about ten seconds.  If the facepiece remains slightly  collapsed and
no inward leakage of  air is detected, the respirator passes the  test. This test can only be
used on respirators with tight-fitting  facepleces.   Its potential drawback is that hand
pressure can modify the facepiece  seal and cause false results.

Positive  Pressure Respirator Check  - This check is similar in principle to the negative
pressure check.  It  is conducted by closing off the exhalation  valve of the respirator and
gently exhaling into the facepiece. The respirator fit is considered passing if moderate
positive pressure can be built up inside the facepiece without evidence of outward air
leakage around the facepiece.

If the respirator selected fails to  pass these simple checks, the fit  testing  should not
proceed further.  Instead, another size or another brand should be  donned and these tests
repeated. Alternatively, it may only be necessary to adjust the straps on the  respirator and

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 STUDENT UMtJAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESKJN
                                       Sactxxi VII - Protection of AjteMos Abatement Propel Pereonnrt
 repeat the tests.  Once the wearer has successfully passed the negative and positive
 pressure fit checks, the actual fit test may be conducted.  The OSHA standards permit
 qualitative fit testing for half  mask air purifying respirators.  Quantitative fit testing is
 required for full face air purifying respirators.

 The actual qualitative fit-test method chosen is at the discretion of the employer as long as
 it is one of the three specified in Appendix C of the OSHA asbestos standards (29 CFR
 1910.1001 or 29 CFR  1926.58).  The procedures must follow those in this appendix
 whether Irritant smoke, Isoamyl acetate, or saccharin is chosen as the test agent
 The irritant smoke test is summarized below.

 Irritant Smoke Test - H the previous tests have been passed, the irritant smoke test may be
 administered.  It can be used for both air purifying and supplied air respirators when  used
 in a negative pressure mode (i.e. high efficiency backup filter).  However, an air purifying
 respirator must have high efficiency filters. The test substance is an irritant smoke. Sealed
 glass or plastic tubes with substances to generate this smoke are available from safety
 supply companies.  When the tube ends are broken and air passed through them with a
 squeeze bub, a dense irritating smoke is emitted.

 For the test the respirator wearer enters a test enclosure (a dear suspended plastic bag is
sufficient) and the irritant smoke is sprayed/squeezed into a small hole punched in the bag
near the respirator wearer's head.  The wearer is asked to perform a series of exercises
including head turning, jogging in place and speaking as specified in Appendix C of the
OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58).

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STXJOENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Pro«»Ooo ol *Jb»ifca Abatement Project Ptnonml
                                                                             Pap 19

Quantitative Fit Testing
Quantitative fit testing provides an actual measure of the fit of a particular make and model
of respirator for each individual. Historically, this was performed using a test chamber filled
with a test atmosphere such as com oil, mineral oil or sodium chloride.  A specially outfitted
respirator which aOowed for sampling the air inside the mask was worn by the worker. The
air inside and outside the respirator was sampled and analyzed to determine the percent
leakage around the facepiece.  More recently, test devices have become avaflabte which
will measure the concentration of particles inside and outside  the respirator on the actual
respirator used by the worker.  Regardless of which method is used, an actual protection
factor is determined for each Individual for each respirator issued.  Since the quantitative fit
test is more sensitive, it is capable of measuring protection  factors higher than 10.  If the
measured protection factor  exceeds 10  times the  assigned protection  factor for  the
category of respirator being tested, only the assigned value times  10 may be used.
Accordingly, the highest protection factor possfcte for a half mask air purifying respirator is
100; and for a full facepiece air purifying respirator is 500.

TYPICAL RESPIRATOR USE DURING ASBESTOS RESPONSE ACTIONS

Table VII-2 can be used to select which respirator is appropriate for the asbestos-related
activity  if the  airborne  asbestos  fiber concentration can  be reasonably predicted.
According to OSHA,  H  historical data are not  available to accurately predict what  the
worker's  exposure will be on an asbestos abatement project the workers must wear air
suppled  respirators until personal sampling results are available which will allow the level
of protection to be downgraded.  Historical air  sampling data must include personal air
samples collected under nearly identical conditions, including work practices, type of ACM

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 STUOEHT IMNUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section VII - Protection of Asbestos AbalBmant Project Personnel
 abated, number of employees, and employees' level of training.  OSHA has also stated
 that air supplied respirator usage must be resumed if conditions at the job site change that
 would be reasonably expected to  result in a significant increase in worker exposures to
 airborne asbestos.  For example,  the removal of acoustical plaster from the celling  of a
 school is expected to  take two months.  Workers are expected to wear air supplied
 respirators (if no historical data is  available) until personal air samples demonstrate  that
 the control methods are effective in  reducing  exposures to a level where less protective
 respirators would be allowed.  The workers may use the less protective respirators  until
 conditions at the job site change, such as when an area of acoustical plaster to be
 removed  has a heavy  coat of paint preventing  effective wetting of the material to be
 removed. At this point the workers would have to go back to using the more protective air
 supplied respirators.  The process of evaluating the personal exposure samples  is then
 repeated.

 OSHA also permits personal air sampling to be waived if air supplied respirators are worn
 by the workers, for example,  on short (one- to two-day) projects.  The rationale is the
 project will be over by the time results of the personal air monitoring samples are available
 to be evaluated.

As a rule of thumb, air purifying respirators are usually used during minor repair activities;
glovebag removal projects; during  preparation of a work area where asbestos-containing
dust debris or material will be disturbed; for use during asbestos waste loading and
unloading; and during final cleaning activities at the conclusion of an asbestos abatement
project. Air supplied and, more particularly, pressure demand air supplied respirators may
be used during gross removal and gross dean -up activities.

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STUDENT fc/KNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJGN
                                      Sacfton VII - Pretocfen ol AstwtkM Abafctrunt Project P*nonn*l
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM

Any employer who  requires or permits employees to wear a respirator  must
have a written respiratory protection program. This is required by OS HA in both of
their asbestos standards and their respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134). The
written respirator program establishes standard operating procedures concerning the use
and maintenance of respiratory equipment  In addition to having such a written program,
the employer must also be able to demonstrate that the program is  enforced and updated
as necessary.

The OSHA regulations spell out what must be included in a written program. Those items
are discussed below with special emphasis on applications to work performed by asbestos
abatement personnel.

An effective resp^ator program, as adapted from A Guide to Respiratory Protection for Ihe
Asbestos  Abatement  Industry.  USEPA/NIOSH publication  EPA-560-OPTS-86-001
(September 1986). should include:

      1.     A written statement of company policy, including assignment of individual
             responsibility, accountability, and  authority for required activities of the
             respiratory protection program.

      2.     Written standard operating procedures governing the selection and use  of
             respirators.

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STUDENT UHNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Soctton VII - PRMBCfefl of Asteefc* Aba»m«m Propel Ptnortnrt
                                                                             Pap 22

       3.     Respirator selection (from NIOSH/MSHA approved and certified models) on
             the basis of hazards to which the worker is exposed.
       4.     Medical examinations of workers to determine whether or not they may be
             assigned an activity where negative pressure respiratory protection is
             required.

       5.     Employee training in the proper use and limitations of respirators as well as
             a way to evaluate the skill and knowledge obtained by the  worker through
             training.

       6.     Respirator fit testing.

       7.     Regular cleaning and disinfecting of respirators.

       8.     Routine inspection of respirators during cleaning, and at least once a month
             and after each use for those respirators designed for emergency use.

       9.     Storage of respirators in convenient dean and sanitary locations.

       10.    Surveillance of work area conditions and degree  of employee exposure
             (e.g.. through air monitoring).

       11.    Regular Inspection and evaluation of  the continued effectiveness of  the
             program.

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STU06NT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       S«cbon VII - Protocton of Asboctos Abatement Project Personnel
                                                                            Page 23

All of the above Items are required by OSHA if employees wear respirators during work.
            a Policy
Every  employer should prepare a dear concise policy regarding the use of respirators by
their employees when performing asbestos abatement activities for asbestos.  This policy
should serve as the guiding principal for the preparation, implementation, and enforcement
of an effective respiratory protection program.

Designation of a Program Administrator

A respiratory protection program administrator must be designated by name. This
person  is responsible for implementation of, and adherence  to, the provisions of  the
respiratory protection program. It is usually a  good idea to also designate a person who is
responsible for enforcement of the procedures at each  job site.  Procedures should also be
outlined for enforcement of the program.  Enforcement procedures  and the development of
the program as a whole should be done in conjunction  with, and input from, the employees
and/or their representatives.

Sel&ction and Use of Respiriitnrv Protection Equipment

Respirators used shall be selected from those approved by the Mine Safety and Health
Administration (MSHA)  and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and  Health
(NIOSH) for use in atmospheres containing asbestos fibers. A NIOSH-approved respirator
contains the following:   an  assigned identification number associated with each  unit; a
label identifying the type of hazard  for which the  respirator is designed, additional

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 STUOefT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATCMEKT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Sackon VII - Protocoon of Asbestos Abatement Protect Perj
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S7U06NT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Protection of Aeboctoe AbMBtnant Projoct Pmonnot
by a qualified individual to ensure that the employee understands the limitations, use. and
maintenance of respirator equipment

Paspir^tor Fit Tasting

One of the most Important elements of an effective respirator program is fit testing. The
OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1910.1001 and 1926.58) and the OSHA  respirator
standard (29 CFR 1910.134) require  that the  fit of respirators be determined  when the
respirator is issued and every six months thereafter for all negative pressure respirators.
Procedures for fit testing should be  addressed  in the written respirator program.   A
discussion of fit testing is  induded elsewhere in this section.

Cleaning and Disinfection of Respirators

Whenever feasible, a respirator  should be reserved  for the exdusive use  of a single
individual.  Following  each use, the respirator should be cleaned  and disinfected. The
following procedures can  be  used to dean a respirator

      •  Wash with  a detergent or a combination  detergent and disinfectant, in warm
         water using a brush.

      •  Rinse in dean water, or rinse once with a disinfectant and once with dean water.
         The dean water rinse is particularly  important because  traces of detergent or
         disinfectant  left  on  the mask can cause skin  irritation and/or damage  respirator
         components.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section VI - Prottctoo ot Asbestos Abatement Project Pcrtomol
                                                                              Page 26

       •  Air dry on a rack or hang; position the respirator so that the facepiece rubber will
         not dry misshapened.  Respirators should not be hung  by the rubber facepiece
         and equipment/supplies should not be stacked on top of  respirators.
Routine Inspection
Inspection of the respirator is an important, routine task. H should be performed by the user
before and after each use. The following items should be checked, at a minimum.

Air Purifying Respirators (half mask and full facepiece} - Rubber facepiece should be
checked for:
       •  Excessive dirt
       •  Cracks, tears, or holes
       •  Distortion from improper storage
       •  Cracked, scratched or loose-fitting lens
       •  Broken or missing  mounting clips

Headstraps should be checked for
       •  Breaks or tears
       • Loss of elasticity
       • Broken or malfunctioning buckles or attachments
       • Excessively  worn serrations of the  head  harness  which might  allow the
         facepiece to slip

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STUDENT HMNUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section VII - Protection of Asoostos Abatement Project Pomnne<
Inhalation valve, exhalation valve, should be checked for:
       •  Missing or defective valve or valve cover
       •  Detergent residue, dust particles or dirt on valve seat
       •  Cracks, tears or cfstortion in the vatve material or vatve seat

Filter elements should be checked for:
       •  Proper filter for the hazard
       • Approval designation (TC....ID*...)
       •  Missing or worn gaskets
       • Worn threads
       • Cracks or dents in filter housing

Powered Air Purifying Respirators - Check facepiece. headstraps, vatve and breathing
tube, as for aU air purifying respirators (see  above).  Check for proper airflow into the
facepiece with the  manufacturer-supplied flow meter.  Be certain the battery is property
charged before use.

Hood or helmet if applicable, check for:
       • Headgear suspension  (adjust property for wearer)
       • Cracks or breaks in faceshiekJ (replace faceshteld)

Supplied Air  Respirators - Facepiece.  headstrap,  and valves should be checked as
specified above. In addition, the following checks should be performed:

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                                                     ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Suction VII - Protection of Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel
                                                                             PegeZB
 Breathing tube should be checked for:
       •  Cracks
       •  IvSssing or loose hose damps
       •  Broken or missing connectors

 Hood, helmet or suit should be checked for:
       •  Headgear  suspension
       •  Cracks or breaks In face shield
       •  Rips and torn seams

 Air supply systems should be  checked for:
       •  Breaks or kinks in air supply hoses and end fitting attachments
       • Tightness of connections
       • Proper setting of regulators and valves (consult manufacturer's
         recommendations)
       • Correct operation of air  purifying elements, and carbon monoxide and high-
         temperature alarms
       • Carbon monoxide monitor calibration and function
       • Water  separator and drain function
       • Cooling device operation
       • Filter function

Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)

      •  Consult manufacturer's  literature for  specific  inspection  and maintenance
         procedures.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Profcoon ot Aibmto* Aba»m«nt Prepct Pwvxwwl
                                                                             Pag029

Repair
At some point any respirator will need replacement parts or some other repair.  OSHA
requires that the person who repairs respirators be trained and qualified.  It is important to
realize that respirator parts from different manufacturers are not interchangeable.  NIOSH
approval is invaidated if parts are substituted

Respirator Storsps

Proper storage is very important  The law requires that respirators be protected from dust,
sunlight, heat, extreme cold, excessive  moisture, and damaging  or contaminating
chemicals.  When not in use, the respirator should be stored  in a clean, convenient.
sanitary location.

Surveillance of Working Conditions

The employer must provide adequate surveillance of the employee's working conditions to
be certain the respirator selected provides adequate protection.  In the case of asbestos
abatement, this includes a determination if other hazardous airborne contaminants, such
as resilient flooring mastic remover or encapsulant might  be encountered for which the
respirator chosen  is not adequate.   The surveillance also  includes air monitoring  to
estimate the asbestos exposure. This provides the needed information to determine if the
respirator chosen affords sufficient protection to the individual.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Protected o< AtbMtot Ab*»m«nt Preset Pareoond
                                                                            Page 30

 Resoirator Proaram Evaluation and Rocordko&oina
 The respirator program shall be evaluated at least annually with program adjustments, as
 appropriate, made to reflect air sampling or other evaluation results.  Compliance to the
 aforementioned points of the program should be reviewed; respirator selection; purchase
 of approved equipment; medical screening of employees; fit testing; issuance of equipment
 and associated maintenance; storage, repair and inspection; appropriate surveillance of
 work area conditions.

 Attention should be given to proper recordkeeping. Records which should be kept include
 names of employees trained in respirator use. documentation of the care and maintenance
 of respirators, medical reports of each respirator user, possible airborne concentrations of
 asbestos fibers during work* and any problems encountered during projects with regards
 to respiratory equipment  A cneckist for self evaluation of a respiratory protection program
 is included at the conclusion of this section.

 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND OTHER PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

The primary  reason  that protective  clothing is worn by  the workers is to keep gross
amounts of asbestos-containing dust and debris  off the body, out of the hair, and from
beneath fingernails.  The combined use  of protective clothing  and  proper
decontamination  procedures  will  greatly  reduce  the  amount  of asbestos
taken out of the  work area.  Protective clothing will also reduce the chance of rashes
and discomfort caused by the material being removed. In addition to asbestos, frequently
these materials contain fibrous glass, mineral wool, and binders such as Portland  cement.

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STUDEHT AMNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section VII - Protection ol Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel
Each of these materials can be skin irritants. Reports In the literature have also found that
workers with prolonged contact with asbestos may develop asbestos "warts".

Protective clothing on asbestos abatement projects consists of coveralls, foot covering,
head covering, and gloves.  Ideally, the foot and head coverings should be attached to
the coveralls.  This eliminates the need to tape  the openings between the garments. Tight-
fitting bathing suits are often worn beneath the coveralls. Nylon suits work well as they are
easily rinsed off in the shower.

The protective clothing most often  used  is of a disposable type.  However, nondisposable
protective clothing is sometimes used on large projects.  When nondisposable doming is
used It is most often laundered inside the work area.  Wastewater is drained to a holding
tank and filtered along with the shower water; or it may be used to wet asbestos-containing
materials.  The dryer exhaust may be ducted to  an inlet of a HEPA-filtered local exhaust
unit to remove the hot air from the work area. If an outside laundry is used, stringent OSHA
regulations must be followed  regarding packaging, labeling, notification,  etc.   The
remainder  of this section, particularly  instructions on donning protective clothing  and
disrobing, pertain to the use of disposable protective clothing.

Protective dothing does not include street clothes, T-shirts, blue jeans, sweat bands, knee
pads and socks.  If any of these items are used inside the work area, they  must remain
there until the job is completed and disposed of as asbestos-contaminated waste unless
laundered as described above. Jewelry, such as  rings and watches, should not be worn in
the work area.

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 STU06KTIMMUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        S*c*on VII - Prefecfen at Aibntca Abatement Preset Paraonnri
 Other protective dotting/items such as hard hats, gloves, and safety shoes/boots should
 remain in the work area for the duration of the project  Upon project completion, items that
 cannot be cleaned may be placed  in a plastic bag, labeled as containing asbestos, and
 taken to the next project If safety shoesAxxrts are not used,  it is wise to have workers wear
 some form of proper foot protection with nonskid sotes. These  remain In the work area and
 are disposed of at the end of the project as asbestos-containing waste.  It is a good idea to
 have each worker mark his or her boots  and hard hat with  his/her name with permanent
 ink,

 To summarize, listed below are items normally worn by asbestos abatement workers.
       •  Disposable coveralls, disposable foot covering, disposable head covering
       •  Nylon swim suit
       •  One-piece rubber steel-toed safety boots, or other  shoes with nonskkd rubber
          soles
       •  Hard hat (as required )
       •  Gloves (cotton, or as required for the work performed)
       •  Eye protection (not necessary if  full facepelce respirators are used)

The disposable coveralls, foot, and  head  coverings are available from many sources and
of several materials.  Good quality coveralls, with foot and head covering attached, usually
cost about  $3.00 each when purchased In quantity.  Separately,  the coveralls cost
approximately $2.00, head covering about $0.35, and foot covering about $0.50 per pair. It
is important to realize that many  "bargain' prices may not be  a bargain  at al.  The less
expensive coveralls often use  less material.  Accordingly, coverals marked "XL" may be
too small  for many workers. Be sure to check the construction of the coveralls as well.
Double stitching on seams wll last longer,  but cost more.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VU - Protection of Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel
                                                                             Ptge33
Under the provisions of the OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58) the contractor
(employer) must have a "competent person' on site.  One of the duties of the competent
person is to routinely inspect the integrity of the protective clothing worn by the asbestos
abatement workers. Severely torn clothing should be replaced. Small rips or tears may be
repaired with duct tape.

A common problem on asbestos abatement projects is a failure by contractors to purchase
enough coveralls for the project Each worker must use a new coverall (and foot and head
covering  if not attached) each time he/she enters the work area.  Assuming two breaks and
a lunch  period, four coveralls will be needed each day by each worker.   Additional
coverafts are usually needed for authorized visitors (architect industrial hygienlst, etc.) and
to replace some that are torn to the point  of being unusable.  As a rule of thumb, the
contractor may estimate the number of suits needed to a project by the following formula.

       5  x number of workers x project duration (days)« number of coveralls needed

As an example, a project lasting 46 days using a crew of 8 workers and 1 job foreman wil
need the following  number of coveralls (estimated).

       5x9 people x48 days = 2,160 coveralls

Accordingly, the contractor should order 87 cases (25 per  case) of coveralls for the project
The  prudent contractor would purchase 100 cases to allow for sufficient surplus. When
purchasing coveralls, large and extra large sizes should be purchased. These can always
be made  to fit smaller employees.

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STUOEHT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMEKT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Protection of Asbestos Abatomont Project Personnel
                                                                             Papo34

PUTTING PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ON
Protective dothing Is put on in the dean room of the decontamination unit before entering
the work area. The following sequence should be used.

       1.     All street dothes,  including  undergarments are removed and stoned in a
             dean,  convenient location.  Bins or lockers work well for this. It is usually
             wise to have a lockbox or  other means  to protect valuables.  This will
             discourage employees from bringing wallets, rings, keys, etc. into the work
             area.

       2.     The nylon swim suit is put on.

       3.     The disposable coveralls are put on.

       4.     If separate disposable foot coverings are used, these are put on.

       5.     Ankles are taped to  take up slack in  the suits and  reduce  the  chance of
             tripping, (tape pants over foot coverings, if separate).

       6.     The respiratory equipment is inspected, put on, and fit checked.

       7.     The hood or head covering is put on over the respirator head straps.

       8.     Worker passes through  airlocks  and shower to contaminated equipment
             room.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Pio»c>on of Acboctoc Abatement Project Personnel
       9.     Boots are put on over the disposable foot coverings (or safety shoes, as
             required).

       10.    Gloves are put on (cotton gloves are usually worn although leather gloves
             should be used for handling metal lath).  The sleeves are taped  over the
             gloves using duct tape.

       11.    Other protective equipment such as hard hats and safety glasses (H a half-
             face respirator is used) are put on.

One person should remain outside the work area at all times.   It should be his/her
responsibility to ensure that each person entering the work area has the proper protective
clothing.

Once inside the work area, no employees, or others, should be permitted to leave without
going through the decontamination sequence unless it is an extreme  emergency.  A
common problem is employees "stepping our for a drink of water or supervisors 'stepping
In' the work area to deliver a message or piece of equipment.  These activities defeat the
purpose of the protective equipment and the decontamination sequence.

TAKING PROTECTIVE CLOTHING OFF

Whenever an employee or other person leaves a work area for any reason, he/she must
go through the decontamination sequence.  This sequence should include the following
steps.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Protecfcon ot Astoecttx Abatement Prof** PwsonrxH
       1.     Remove all protective garments and equipment (except respirators) in an
              area immediately outside the shower on the contaminated side.  An area
              should be designated for this purpose and kept as free as possible of
              asbestos-contaminated material.  All disposable clothing should be placed
              in plastic bags inside a drum and labeled as asbestos-containing waste.

       2.     The person  should then dean reusable protective equipment such  as
              boots/shoes, safety glasses, hard hats, etc.

       3.     The person  should then  proceed to the  shower still  wearing  his/her
              respirator.  While showering, the person should be sure to wash his/herself
              and his/her respirator.  Used respirator cartridges may then be discarded in
              a plastic bag located at the shower.  When using a PAPR. be sure to follow
              the manufacturer's instructions to protect the motor and battery pack from
              water damage.

       4.     The person should then proceed to the clean room; dry off; dress in his/her
              street clothes; and disinfect, dean, and inspect his/her respirator.

Asbestos abatement projects  are frequently conducted in boiler rooms or  other areas
where heat stress may be a concern.  The wearing of fun-body protective dothing can
reduce the cooling capacity of the body since evaporative cooling is reduced.  Disposable
protective dothing is available in "breathable" and "nonbreathable" varieties.  A
breathable fabric will reduce the symptoms of heat stress in hot environments and provide
for greater worker comfort  It should be noted, however, that some fabrics are so thin
(almost transparent) that  its  protective  value  has been questioned.   The asbestos

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                      Section VII - Pro»c*on o( Aitestn Atettmtnt Pnpct
abatement project designer should evaluate available protective clothing and select the
product most applicable to the individual project.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

The USEPA and NIOSH jointly prepared and published a document titled, A Guide to
Respiratory Protection for the Asbestos Abatement Industry (Publication EPA-560-OPTS-
86-001, September 1986 revision), which provides valuable  information concerning the
use and Imitations of respirators on asbestos abatement projects.  A checklist from this
publication has been  reproduced at the end of this section.  The asbestos abatement
project designer should be familiar with the requirements of the OSHA asbestos standard
(29 CFR 1926.58) and the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134).  The
latest versions of these regulations are Included in the appendices of this notebook.

Some state,  county and municipal regulations may have  additional, more stringent
requirements  affecting  worker protection on asbestos abatement projects.  These
regulations should be reviewed when designing the project since they frequently change.

RESPIRATOR PROGRAM CHECKLIST

In general, the respirator program should be evaluated at least annually with program
adjustments, as appropriate, made to reflect the evaluation results.  Program function can
be separated into administration and operation.

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STUDENT fcWNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section VII - Protection of Asbwtos Abatement Project Personnel
                                                                              P*go38

Program Administration
          1.  Is there a written policy which acknowledges employer responsfeflity for
             providing  a  safe  and  healthful workplace  and assigns  program
             responsibility, accountability and authority?

          2.  Is program responsibility  vested  in one individual who is knowledgeable
             and who can coordinate al aspects of the program at the job she?

          3.  Can feastole engineering controls or work practices eliminate the need for
             respirators?
          4.  Are there written procedures/statements covering the various aspects of the
             respirator program, including:

             • designation of an administrator;
             • respirator selection;
             • purchase of approved equipment;
             • medical aspects of respirator usage;
             • issuance of equipment;
             * fitting;
             • training;
             • maintenance, storage and repair;
             • inspection;
             • use under special conditions; and
             • work area under surveillance?

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 STUDENT lyMNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N
                                       S«cten VII - Protocten of AsbestM Abatonwnt ProfKt Pcraorvvl
 Program QPftffltfCY?

 1.     Respiratory Protective Equipment Selection and Assignment:

 	   •   Are work area conditions and employee exposures property surveyed?

 	   •   Are respirators selected on the basis of hazards to which the employee is
              exposed?

 	   •   Are selections made  by individuals knowledgeable  of proper selection
              procedures?

 	   •   Are only approved respirators purchased and used; do  they provide
              adequate protection  for the  specific hazard and concentration of  the
              contaminate?

 	   •   Has a medical evaluation of the prospective user been made to determine
              physical and psychological abiity to wear the selected respiratory protective
              equipment?

	   •   Where practical, have respirators been issued to  the users for their
              exclusive use, and are there records covering issuance?

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STUDENT MMJUAL                                          AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N
                                         Section VII - Protector* of Asbostoe Abanxnent Project Personnel
                                                                                Pa0o40

2.     Respiratory Protective Equipment Fitting
           •   Are the users given the opportunity to try on several respirators to determine
              whether the respirator they wll subsequently be wearing is the best fitting
              one?

           •   Is the fit tested at appropriate intervals?

           •   Are those users who require corrective lenses properly fitted?

           •   Are users prohibited from wearing contact lenses when using respirators?

           •   Is the facepiece-to-face seal tested in a test atmosphere?
              Are workers prohibited from entering contaminated work areas when they
              have facial hair or other characteristics which prohibit the use of tight-fitting
              facepieoes?
3.     Respirator Use:
          •   Are respirators being worn  correctly (i.e.. head covering over respirator
              straps)?

          •   Are workers keeping respirators on all the time when necessary?

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                         Section VII - Protoctian of Asboctas Abatement Protect Personnel
                                                                                 Pago 41



 4.     Maintenance of Respiratory Protective Equipment:





       Cleaning and Disinfecting:





 	    •   Are respirators cleaned and disinfected after each use?





 	    •   Are proper methods of cleaning and disinfecting utilized?





 5.     Storage:





 	    •   Are respirators stored in a manner so as to protect them from dust sunlight.


              heat, excessive cold or moisture, or damaging chemicals?





 	    •   Are respirators stored properly in a storage facility so as to prevent them


              from deforming?





 	    •   Is storage in lockers and tool boxes permitted only if the respirator is in a


              cany ing case or carton?





 6.     Inspection:





	    •   Are respirators inspected before and after each use and during cleaning?





	    •   Are qualified individuals/users instructed in inspection techniques?

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STUDENT MWUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESWN
                                        Section VII - Protocfcn ol Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel
                                                                             Page 42
	   •   Is  respiratory protective equipment designated as  'emergency use*
              Inspected at least monthly (in addition to after each use)?

	   •   Is a record kept of the inspection of 'emergency use' respiratory protective
              equipment?

7.     Repair:

	   •   Are replacement parts used in repair those of the  manufacturer of the
              respirator?

          Special Use Conditions:

	   •   Is a procedure developed for respiratory protective  equipment usage in
              atmospheres immediately dangerous to We or health?

	   •   Is a procedure developed  for equipment usage for entry into confined
             spaces?

8.     Training:

	   •  Are users trained in proper respirator use, cleaning and inspection?

	   •  Are users trained in the basis for selection of respirators?
             Are users evaluated, using competency-based evaluation, before and after
             training?

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 STUDENT IfMNLML                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OESGN
                                       Section VII - Protection ot Acboetoe AbMtment Project Peraonmt
                                                                             Pap 43



 REVIEW  QUESTIONS
 1.     Using the letter corresponding to each type of respirator listed below, arrange the
       respirators with the first one being the most protective and the last one offering the
       least protection.

       a.     half mask air purifying respirator                  1	

       b.     supplied air pressure demand type               2	

       c.     fun facepiece air purifying type                   3	

       d     PAPR loose-fitting hood type                     4	
2.     Describe the difference between a qualitative respirator fit test and a quantitative

       respirator fit lest, ____^^^^___^_^_______^^___^^_^^______^_^^^^___^__
3.     Estimate the concentration of asbestos inside the respirator of a worker if the results
       of personal air sampling are 4 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cm3) and the worker is
       wearing a half mask air purifying respirator equipped with high efficiency cartridges.
       List eight elements of a respiratory protection program required by OS HA.

       1	    5	

       2	    6	

       3	    7	

       4	    8	
5.     Describe the protective clothing ensemble typically worn by asbestos abatement

       workers.	

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK*
                                                           Section VIII - Safety Conckiofafons
                                                                              Page)

                        SAFETY  CONSIDERATIONS
INTRODUCTION

Effective safety management begins in the planning stages of the abatement project.
Experience indicates that It is less costly and more efficient to prevent hazards rather than
react to accidents or incidents. Though the abatement contractor te directly responst>ie for
the safety and health of the worker, the designer can incorporate many safety features into
the specifications that will assure a smoother and safer project

The project designer must first be aware of the potential hazards that are associated with
an asbestos removal project. Once the hazards are identified. then measures can  be
specified where possible to eliminate the hazards by redesign or substitution of equipment
or procedures that are unsafe. If the hazard cannot be eliminated, the next approach is to
reduce tt by isolating it, guarding against it. or diluting rt.  To protect against hazards that
cannot be eliminated or reduced, the design specifications  must then require  the use of
specific protective equipment, work practices and/or related safety training.

The procedures used in a typical abatement project, such as sealing the work area, using
wet methods, working at heights on ladders and scaffolding, and shutting down building
systems, add new dimensions to the task of providing a safe working  environment.  This
section  will identify  and address various hazards associated with these tasks including
electrical shock,  falls from  scaffolding,  ladders, walking  and working surfaces, fire,
emergency procedures, heat-related disorders, carbon monoxide poisoning, and the need
for body protection and hazard communication. The effort spent to incorporate these safety
considerations into the project design is as important  to the success of the project as the

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 STUDENT UMflJAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           Section VIII • Satoty Coondwttxw
                                                                              Pag»2

 effort spent in designing engineering controls to confine and minimize fibers in the work
 site.
 The project designer should indude a clause in the specification requiring the contractor to
 notify the building owner's representative when a hazard is identified. The contractor is
 required to take appropriate corrective actions to protect the asbestos abatement workers.
 Contractors should also be required to  comply with the OSHA general construction safety
 regulations, specifically requiring a 'competent person* [29 CFR 1926.32(f)] be on site, and
 the need for an accident prevention program [29 CFR 1026.20{b) (2)].

 ELECTRICAL SAFETY

 Electrical shock Is  one of the most common hazards, and one  that  gives the
 least warning.  Incorrect wiring, improper grounding, and lack of proper  shielding results
 in over  1,000 workers each year being electrocuted nationwide.  Many of these fatalities
 result from contact with just 120 volts alternating current (a.c.).

Three factors determine the severity of electrical shock. These are:
       • The amount of current flowing through the body,
       • The path of the current flowing through the body,
       • The time the current is allowed to flow through the body.

These factors vary greatty.  The path of the current depends upon the points  of contact
Most often the path is from the hands, through the body, and out the feet  The amount of
electrical resistance determines,  in part, the amount of current flow.   Moist skin or damp
conditions greatly reduce electrical resistance and  significantly increase a person's risk of

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           Section VIII - Safety Conakferationc
                                                                              Page3

serious injury if he comes in contact with a current source.  In addition to the obvious shock
potential, many deaths result from falls after a nonfatal electrical shock.
During the design phase, potential electrical hazards to the workers should be identified
and, where possible, eliminated or, at a minimum, guarded or isolated. The more common
hazards are discussed below.

Identification of Wiring Faults In the Buffeting

Wiring faults in the building include open ground paths, reverse wiring polarity, and hot
neutral wires.  These common faults can easily be identified with a volt/ohm meter or with
plug-in type circuit testers and should be  corrected prior to project  startup. This  is
particularly important if these circuits wil be  used to provide power inside the work area.
Any wiring faults identified should be corrected by a qualified electrician prior to their use.

Uninsulated or Exposed Energized Wiring or Equipment

Asbestos  removal projects are often part of renovation or remodeling projects. Overhead
lighting is usually removed for cleaning.  Equipment or machinery may have been moved
out of the area before the removal job with wiring left in place.  Damaged equipment or
electrical fixtures  may need to be repaired. All of these things create potential sources  of
contact with the energized electrical circuits.  When possible, the project designer should
require that circuits that win not be used during removal efforts be turned off and locked
out.  Wiring  and   electrical  connections  should  always  be  considered
energized  until  tested  and proven otherwise.  Unenclosed wiring junctions in

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 STUXNTUAMJAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           Section VIII - Safety ConstdtfMio**
 overhead areas should be addressed by the project designer since these are a particularly
 likely point of contact for removal workers.

 Asb&stos Abatement Protect Where the Building Remains Occupied

 Electrical circuits or service panels that are located inside the removal  area and that
 service other parts of the building can present a challenge to the project designer. Sealing
 transformers or control boxes may not be possible due to heat buildup. If this situation is
 encountered, an alternative design will need to be developed  which will allow for air
 circulation around these units.  Dry removal may be necessary to avoid a potential serious
 shock exposure.  Additionally,  where this situation  is encountered, all  breakers and
 switches must be clearly labeled in case power must be secured to other areas of the
 buflding during the removal project When  a dry removal is necessary, approval by local
 NESHAP authorities is necessary to avoid citation  for falure  to use wet  methods.  An
 alternative written plan must be submitted  by the contractor to NESHAP authorities for
 conducting the removal

 Providing Power to the Wor^Area

 Providing power to the work area can create hazards not normally associated with building
 systems.  Since OSHA considers abatement projects subject to the construction industry
 safety and health standard (29 CFR 1 926). there are special requirements for supplying
 temporary power to extension cords, portable electrical tools, electric air sampling pumps,
 electric equipment, and portable electrical appliances.  This may be done by supplying
power through  ground fault circuit  interrupters (GFCI1 or having  an assured equipment
grounding program in effect

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STUDENT UIVNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          S«cten VBI - Safety
An assured equipment grounding conductor program requires regular inspection (usually
monthly or more often if needed) of all tools, cords, and electrical devices with written
documentation maintained (29 CFR 1926.404(b)j.  Since it is very difficult to document
compliance with an assured equipment grounding conductor program, it is best to require
the use of GFCIs.  The required use of GFCIs to protect circuits provides the safest and
most feasible  power source available since  any significant current leakage will trip the
circuit (see Figure VIII-1). These devices prove most effective when placed as  near as
possible to the "toad" and kept out of areas of high humidity.  However, high-quality
commercially avaBabte GFCIs are  now on the market that work in both high- and low-
humidity environments.
        on Abatement Projects
Common electrical devices on abatement projects that present potential hazards and need
to be addressed in the project specifications are lights, HEPA vacuum cleaners, negative
air systems, drills, saws, heaters, sump pumps and, often, radios.  All of these should be
inspected regularly for damage, proper grounding, and integrity of insulation.

When possible, nonmetalic tools should be specified for vacuuming or scraping to prevent
a possfcte shock if wiring is cut or contact is made with energized equipment  Specifying
insulated handles on metal scrapers is another option.  Hard rubber or plastic scrapers,
while more difficult to find, perform well for removal.  Wooden or fiberglass ladders reduce
or eliminate a ground path if a worker contacts an energized circuit. Wiring should be
elevated, when feasbte, to keep it away from water on the floor, to avoid damage from foot
traffic and scaffolds, and to keep it from being a trip hazard.

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STUDENT MANUAL
                          ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                               Soction VUI - Satety Coraxferrtora
TWO BASIC  FORMS  OF
GFCI  DEVICES
Circuit Breaker
Type
Rating Label
                     Trip Indicating Handle For
                     Identification of Faulty
                     Circuits
                     Push to Test Button to
                     Insure Proper Operation

                     Wiring
Line End Connection
                                         Ampere Rating
                                         Reinforced Case
Ground Trip
Receptacle Type
Meld Yoke
                     Receptacle Stots
                     Red Band for Positive Trip.
                     Indication
                                         •Wiring
                                         Push to Test and Reset
                                         Controb to Insure
                                         Operation

                                         Reinforced Case
                              FIGURE VIIH
                   TWO BASIC TYPES OF GFCI DEVICES

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           Section VIM - Safety CoowdBcttone
                                                                              Pag.7
When designing plans to reduce or eliminate electrical hazards, the project designer
needs to make sure that the plan complies with OSHA's lockout/tagout standard (29 CFR
1910.147). This standard requires that all potential sources of energy, whether liquid, gas,
electrical, or mechanical operations, be locked by the person performing the work, and that
person is the only  one with the keys to unlock the device.  Additionally, a tag must be
attached to serve as a warning sign or label to other workers in the area. If energy sources
are required to be disconnected by the contractor, the project specifications must require
the contractor to follow proper lockout/tagout procedures.

SCAFFOLDING SAFETY

Most asbestos abatement projects wifl involve the use of scaffolding. Proper setup, regular
inspection, and basic maintenance should not be overlooked.  In many removal projects,
manually-propelled mobfle scaffolding provides  a convenient and efficient work platform.
OSHA standard 29 CFR 1926.451 requires that when free-standing mobile scaffolding is
used, the height shall not exceed four times the minimum base dimension (usually the
width).  This  requirement is based on the fact that scaffolding easily tips.  Figure VIII-2
ilustrates a simple method to estimate a reasonable amount of force  necessary to tip a
scaffold.

Since relatively little force is required to tip a scaffold, it becomes important to make sure
that wheels on mobile scaffolds move freely, are lubricated and are  in good repair.  If
rented scaffolding is used, all components must  be inspected prior to accepting it  All
components such as  cross bracing, railings,  pin  connectors, planking or scaffold-grade
lumber must be available before the units are assembled.  Workers should be careful to
keep debris bagged and  obstacles off the floor where mobile scaffolds will be used.  If a

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 STUDENT MANUAL
                                                          ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                                Soctxxi VIII - Safety
  Where:
  B  • hekjhl from floor to
  f   - force required to upset scaffold
  W  » weight of scaffold and worker
  A  - Jbalf the width of the scaffold

  Example:
  B  - 14 feet
  f   -X
  W  . 199 to. (scaffold)
     + 17Sb  (vyofintQ
     - 374 bs.
 A   .  1foot

 Force to upset - 26.7 ba
CIV.*6
     X- (374x1)/ (14)
     X.26.7bs.
        •     fo[mul!,is a" estimated way to obtain a reasonable idea of the force
needed to upset scaffolding.  Many variables need to be considered in addition to
uiose illustrated.)
                                     FIGURE V\\\-2
                             SCAFFOLD UPSET FORMULA

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STUDENT tMNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMEKT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           Socbon VIII • Safely Conwdarabons
                                                                              Pngo9
wheel catches debris on the floor when the unit is moved, additional force w'NI be required
to move it  This additional force may be all that is needed to tip the unit  Caution should be
used when using mobile scaffolding on sloping floors, such as an auditorium.

Guard rails (42 inches in  height) should always  be installed on scaffolding  used for
abatement projects. Workers are usually looking up while working and  can easily step off
the edge  of an unprotected scaffold.   OSHA requires that guard  rails  be used when
scaffolding is over 4 feet tall and is less than 45 inches wide. Any time scaffolding is 10
feet or higher, toe boards must also be in place.  No guard rails are  required when
scaffolding is less than four feet taU, although it is a good recommendation.

Additionally, scaffolding must, at a minimum, meet the following requirements:

       •  When guard rails are required, midrails (21 inches high) are also  necessary.

       •  Upright  supports should be positioned at intervals  no greater than eight feet
         apart.

       •  If, due  to the  configuration  of the work area, people  must  routinely  pass
         underneath the scaffolding, then a screen (number 18 gauge  wire one-half inch
         mesh or equivalent) is required from toe board to midrail.

      •  The scaffolding must be designed to support four times the maximum load that
         will be placed on the scaffolding.

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STUDENT UANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           Section VIII - Satoty Considerations
       • Planking used on a scaffolding must be scaffold-grade lumber and extend past
         the sides by at least 6 inches but less than 12 inches, unless it is secured to the
         frame.

       • Scaffolding must be equipped with a ladder to reach the working platform.

As with the other areas of hazard identification and accident prevention, when there is a
need for scaffolding, the project design should specify the use of required devices and do
so in the safest manner possfote.

LADDER SAFETY

Ladders, as well as scaffolding, are some of the most commonly used pieces of equipment
on an asbestos removal site.  To assist the project designer, the following list of  ladder
safety rules or hazard-elimination ideas are presented.  These ideas should be considered
when developing plans to incorporate safety into the project design.

      •  Ladders with broken, missing or defective parts are prohbtted.

      •  Ladder feet must be on a substantial base.

      •  Work area at top and bottom of ladder must be kept dear.

      •  No job-made ladders are allowed.

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STUDENT MWNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           Sadton VIII - Safety Considerations
                                                                             Pa0eli

       •  Metal ladders are prohibited near electrical equipment and Dnes (within 10 feet).
         Wood or fiberglass ladders should be selected to avoid electrical hazards.
         Ladders shall be used at pitch of four to one (one foot out for every four feet of
         elevation) or secured to prevent displacement during use.

         Ladders shall not be  used In a horizontal position as  scaffolding, platform or
         walkboard.

         Only one  person per ladder  is allowed and the person must always face the
         ladder when going up or down.

         An attendant is required in high-traffic areas.

         A worker  must not climb higher than the third rung from the top on a straight
         ladder or the second step from the top on stepladders.

         Wood ladders shall not be painted.

         Ladders must always be inspected before use.

         Stepladders should only be used when fully open.

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STUDENT M»NUAL
ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
      Saction VIII • Sofoty Considerations
                        Pago 12
WALKING AND WORKING SURFACES

The National Safety Council estimates that there are over 250,000 disabling injuries in
work-related falls each year.  Over 40 percent of the injured workers are employed in the
construction industry.  Reducing the potential for slips, trips, and falls is a challenge in work
areas that are sealed with polyethylene and kept damp to reduce airborne fibers. This
results in very slick surfaces.  Disposable  booties are a potential trip hazard; air and
electrical cables also create trip hazards.  All of these conditions create potential worker
hazards even before removal begins.

Some of these walking and working surface hazards can be eliminated by using the
following guidelines:

      •  When designing a project consider the height of the work to be done, equipment
         to be used, and possible trip hazards.  Inspect the walking and working surfaces.

      •  The use of disposable booties may be impractical in many removal situations.
         They may come apart and create a serious trip  hazard. Seamless rubber boots,
         slip-on shoes or safety shoes with nonskid soles may be worn over the booties,
         or in place of the booties.
         Require the contractor to minimize water on floors.  Wet polyethylene is very slick
         and water increases the risk of electrical shock.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Section VH1 • Safety Corekferafene
       •  Develop designs calling  for placement of airlines and electrical  cords in
         positions that do not cause them to run across travehvays. When possible have
         these Ines and cords suspended off the walking and working surfaces.

       •  Require that debris be minimized on floors by continuous cleaning.

       •  Require the  contractor to keep equipment, tools, and associated Items dear of
         main travetways.

FIRE SAFETY

Fire prevention must be given  a  high  priority  during the  design  phase.  The
wood and polyethylene materials used on asbestos removal sites increase the potential for
fires and risk to human Bfe. The project designer will need to be concerned with fire safety
features such as alarm systems, travel distances, exits, and emergency lighting.

A predesign survey of the project site should first be conducted to determine potential fire
hazards, sources of ignition, hot spots, location of fire suppression systems, and  locations
of current exits. The survey data is then correlated to the number of workers that will be in
the area, the square footage of the containment area, and the  types of combustible or
flammable materials that will remain in the  project area.  This information  will allow the
project designer to include fire safety procedures that  will reduce or eliminate the chance
of fire in the containment area.

Untreated polyethylene has a combustion temperature of approximately 150 degrees to
170 degrees.  Polyethylene will start to bum slowly and pick up speed as  more heat is

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEME NT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Section Wl - Safely Consideration*
                                                                           Page 14
generated. It gives off heavy black smoke as a combustion by-product  The flame spread
is slow and steady as the combustion process continues.  As an additional concern,
thermal decomposition may produce toxic gases.  The respirators worn by asbestos
removal workers generally will not adequately protect them from the smoke and toxic
gases produced. Because of this combustion threat, designs should require polyethylene
sheeting to be kept away from heat sources such as transformers, steam  pipes, boilers,
and equipment that will be heated during the removal phase.  In  some situations It
may be   necessary  or required  to  specify  the  use  of  flre-retardant
polyethylene.

The project designer should  consult OSHA,  the  National Rre Protection Association
(NFPA), and local fire  code requirements before sealing off an  area  and blocking
entrances  and exits.  For example, a poorly-written contract specification might require
"one means of egress through a property designed decontamination system';  however, a
better and more correct design would require alternative emergency exits and all on-site
personnel entering the work area to be famiiar with these exits.

Some additionaJ fire safety procedures that may need to be incorporated into the project
design are outlined below:

      • Specifications must require all sources of ignition to be removed. Gas and other
        fuel sources must be cut off and pilot lights in boilers, heaters, hot water tanks.
        and compressors extinguished.

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STUDBfTlyMNUAI.                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           S«c6on Vttl - Safety Considerations
       •  Specifications should identify 'hot spots.' Quite often design specifications may
         require draping equipment instead of sealing it off to prevent overheating (i.e.,
         computers, terminal boards, switch panels, transformers).

       •  Require the cutoff of supply to steam lines, electric  and steam heaters, and
         radiators.  Do not permit the polyethylene to lie against hot surfaces.

       •  Specifications must require the marking of exits from work area and posting
         directional arrows when exits are not visible from remote work areas.  This can
         easily be done using duct tape or indelible marker on polyethylene walls and
         barriers.  It is recommended that half of these directional arrows be placed close
         to the ground to assist workers who may  be crawling in smoky conditions to
         escape a fire.

       •  Specifications should require that trash and debris be kept to a minimum (e.g..
         tape, polyethylene, bags, lumber).

       •  If the work area te large and many workers are present, several emergency exits
         may need to be included in the project design.  Choose exits that are  locked from
         the outside but  can be opened from the inside.  A daily inspection must be
         conducted to ensure secondary exits are not blocked.  Many local codes address
         these issues.

       •  Lighting of exits and exit routes should be included in the project design.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        AS86STOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           Section VUI • Safety Conodtrabom
       •  The project designer must be alert to the potential flammable vapors in industrial
          areas (solvents such as naphtha, toluene, xylene, etc. during the design phase).
          This is especially critical in industrial vacuuming operations where vacuum
          motors are not explosion proof.  Compressed air vacuums may be required.

       •  Specifications should require a nearby telephone be available at all times for
          notification of authorities in an emergency.

       •  A retractable blade knife should be readily available at each emergency exit for
          use in cutting polyethylene sheeting.

 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

 OSHA 29 CFR 1926.24 requires that every job site have a fire protection and prevention
 plan. This plan must cover procedures to be used in case of fire, which includes heavy
 smoke conditions, power failure, air supplied respirator compressor failure, accidents, and
 worker injury.

 The contractor wiH need to establish a system for alerting workers of an emergency that will
 require evacuation of the asbestos containment and work area.  A compressed air horn
 provides an effective alarm that can be heard and does not rety on a power source.  All
 persons  entering the containment and work area must be  familiar with the  evacuation
 alarm signal and all primary and secondary exits. A simple floor plan of the work area
 must be posted near the work area entrance to familiarize persons entering the site with
the location of exits, fire suppression equipment, and emergency telephone numbers (see
 Figure VM-3).

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     STUDENT MANUAL
                   AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                        Soctioo VBI - Sato?
                Project Address:
                Project Phone f:
   5555 Any Industrial Drive, Any Suburb, GA
   333-3333
EMERGENCY   «-
       EXIT
                          LAB
                                                         OFFICES
                      SHIPPING
                          BOILER ROOM
                      LOAD-OUT
                                                             RECEIVING
                                                         o   o
                                                      DECON
                                             PRIMARY
                Ambulance:
                      Fire:
                    Police:
                              Emergency Phone Numbers
333-9999
911 or 303-5555
911 or 303-6666
Suburb General Hospital
Suburb County Fire Dept.
Suburb Police Dept.
                                 FIGURE VIIK3
         FLOOR PLAN OF WORK AREA SHOWING EXITS, EMERGENCY TELEPHONE
                         NUMBERS, PROJECT ADDRESS.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          S^Gbon VIII - Safety Cormdfntxn
                                                                            Pap* 18
Additional considerations in the development of an emergency plan include:

       •  A description of the manner in which emergencies will be announced.

       •  Emergency escape procedures and emergency escape routes.

       •  Procedures for workers who must  remain to operate critical  operations which
         may take time to shut down.

       •  Procedures to account for aO workers after evacuation.

       •  Rescue and medical duties and responsibilities.

       •  Before beginning  the project, provisions should be made for prompt medical
         attention in case of serious injury or other medical emergency.

       •  Some local codes  may require that the project designer or contractor notify local
         emergency services of the type of operations (i.e., asbestos removal) that are on
         site.

      •  Names and/or job titles of  people  to be contacted for additional  emergency
         information.

      •  A list of the major job-site fire hazards.

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STUDENT IMNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Sacbon VII - Safety ComJd»«flon»
       • Names and/or job titles of people responsbte for maintenance of fire prevention
         and fire suppression equipment.

       • Names and/or job titles of people responsible  for the control of  fuel source
         hazards.

       • Posting local fire department and rescue squad telephone numbers.

       • The contractor needs to make sure that workers understand that the emergency
         hazard becomes more immediate  than the asbestos hazard, and workers may
         need to violate polyethylene barriers.  This can  be covered in the  written and
         posted emergency action plan.

       • Specifications should require that a monitor be outside at all times and trained in
         fire watch and emergency procedures. This person should also be trained in first
         aid and in the treatment of heat stress.

HEAT-RELATED DISORDERS

As explained in Section VII covering personal protection, the OSHA asbestos standard  for
the construction industry  requires that al workers who are exposed to asbestos at or above
the action level,  or who  are required  to wear a negative pressure respirator, be given a
complete physical examination.  The main objective of the examination is to determine
whether the employee  is medically qualified to wear a respirator while  performing
abatement activities.  The examining  physician or clinic must additionally be aware that
respirators may be worn under hot. adverse conditions. During warm months, or in hot

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Section VIII • Safoly Corektorrfons
                                                                            Page 20
 environments, heat exhaustion and heat stroke are serious hazards faced by workers,
 particularly (nose not acdimated to the heat

 For projects conducted in hot environments, design  specifications should require the
 contractor to develop and submit a plan that will reduce  or eliminate heat-related
 disorders.  Each of the disorders and techniques for prevention are discussed below.

 Hest Exhaustion

 Symptoms:
       •  Fatigue, weakness, profuse sweating,  normal temperature, pale clammy skin,
         headache, cramps, vomiting, fainting

 Treatment:
       •  Medical alert
       •  Remove worker from hot area
       •  Have worker lay down and raise feet
       •  Apply cool wet cloths
       •  Loosen or remove clothing (remove disposal suit)
       •  Allow small sips of water or salt replenishment beverage if victim is not vomiting

 Heat Stroke

Symptoms:
       •  Dizziness, nausea, severe headache, hot dry skin, confusion, collapse, delirium.
         coma, and death

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STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                        Saeion VIII. Safety Conttdmbons
                                                                         Pag* 21
Treatment:
      •  Medical emergency
      •  Remove worker from hot area
      •  Remove clothing
      •  Have worker lay down
      •  Cool the body (shower, cool wet cloths)
      •  Do not give stimulants

NOTE:  The major  difference In symptoms between heat exhaustion and heat
stroke  Is  that  with  heat  exhaustion the person  Is pale  and sweating
profusely; and with heat stroke, the person  Is very hot, red, and has dry skin
due to lack of sweating.

The prevention and causes of both heat-related disorders are as follows:

Prevention:
      •  Frequent breaks away from the neat
      •  Increase fluid intake
      •  Allow worker to become acclimatized to heat
      •  External cooling (vortex cooling, ice vests)
      •  Reduce caffeine intake
      •  No alcohol
      •  Breathable protective dothing
      •  Increased air movement

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATElueNT PROJECT DESON
                                                          Section VIII - Safely Contkteralions
                                                                            Page 22
 Causes:
       •  High temperature
       •  High humidity
       •  Low air movement
       •  Hard work
       •  Not enough breaks away from the heat
       •  Insufficient fluid intake
       •  Full-body clothing
       •  Worker not acclimated to heat

 Other measures that can be implemented to reduce heat-related disorders include the use
 of air-supplied cooling vests  (available with high-pressure supplied air systems), an
 increase in number of  HEPA filtration units to Increase air flow, and scheduling work at
 night when temperatures are cooler.

 CARBON MONOXIDE HAZARDS

 When supplied-air respirators are in  use, it is important that an  outside monitor who is
 familiar with the  airline  system  remains close by to correct problems associated with the
 breathing srir.  Carbon monoxide poisoning is perhaps  the  most important of these
 problems.  Carbon  monoxide exposure problems could develop  if  an outside source of
 carbon monoxide such  as a truck exhaust is drawn into the air intake of the compressor
supplying breathing air,  or if  it contaminates  the makeup air being drawn into  the
containment area.   Both of these problems should be taken care  of during the design
phase by requiring  the compressor intake to be elevated 10-15 feet and/or prohibiting
vehicles from idling near the decontamination unit

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STUDCNT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK5N
                                                         Socboo VUI • Safety Comxtermbons
                                                                           Pag* 23

It is important to note that the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are similar and may
be confused with those of heat-related disorders.  The symptoms, common sources, and
allowable fimits for carbon monoxide are outlined below.
Symptoms:
       •  Dizziness, nausea, headache, drowsiness, vomiting, collapse, coma, and death
         (note similarity of symptoms to heat-related disorders)

Sources:
       •  Oil lubricated compressor
       •  Internal combustion engine
       •  Open flame and fire
       •  Unventedgas
       •  Kerosene heaters

Description of Carbon Monoxide:
       •  Colorless, odorless and tasteless

Limits:
       •  10 parts per million (ppm)  (Grade D breathing  air for airline  respirators,
         maximum allowable concentration)

       •  50 ppm  (OSHA permissible exposure limit time-weighted average over eight
         hours)

       •  500 ppm (OSHA short-term exposure limit - 15 minutes)

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ASBESTOS ABATEMENT P9OJECT DESIGN
      Socbon VUI • Safety Corektorabons
STUDENT MANUAL
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

While the enforcement of proper use and wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE)
is the direct responsibility of the employer, the project designer may need to recommend
certain types of PPE on particular projects.  When the project designer recommends or
requires that PPE be used, it should also be required to be maintained in sanitary and
reliable condition necessary to protect workers from hazards which could cause injury or
illness.

When addressing personal protective equipment for asbestos removal personnel,  the
following guidance should be used.

      •  Recommend work gloves as part of PPE to workers exposed to asbestos. This is
         particularly important when  metal lath, suspended ceiling grids, and other
         materials are being removed. The OSHA asbestos standard requires full body
         covering.

      •  Scrapers, retractable knives, wire cutters, chisels and other sorts of bladed tools
         are frequently used and can cause injuries.  Recommend tools with insulated
         handles.
      • Many puncture and cut wounds occur when removing metal lath or cutting duct
        work. Recommend the use of good work practices and PPE and have a first aid
        kit available.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJGN
                                                         Section VIII - Satoty Ccnstdorations
                                                                          Pago 25

       •  OSHA requires that protective hard hats be worn on a job site where there is
         exposure to falling objects, electric shock or burn.
       •  Recommend the wearing of nonfogging face shields or goggles for operations
         involving potential eye injury.  Full-face respirators are most effective  (if
         nonfogging).

       •  Where possible, design work so workers do not have  to reach extensively
         overhead.  Get them up to the job.

       •  Recommend that workers use proper lifting methods.

       •  Recommend the use of the "buddy system" for lifting and moving heavy objects.

       •  Recommend the use of hand  carts or  rolling pallets when  possible.  Keep
         manual material handling to a minimum.

       •  Recommend proper footwear for the hazards that are  present on the job site,
         Including steel toed shoes, if necessary.

HAZARD COMMUNICATION STANDARD

The hazard communication standard, also known as the right-to-know rule, covers both
general industry and the construction industry.  It was promulgated by OSHA in August
1987 as 29 CFR 1926.59 and 29 CFR 1910.1200.  The purpose of this standard is  to
ensure that the hazards of chemicals or materials used in the workplace are identified and

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 S7VJOEKT UMJUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Socbon VHI - Safety Conskfciatkxw
 that this information,  along with Information on protective measures and procedures, is
 passed on from manufacturer to employer to employee.  Elements required under this
 standard  include a comprehensive written hazard communication  program,  labeling of
 hazardous materials, employee training,  and maintaining material safety data sheets
 (MSDS).

 Employers are required to inform affected workers about hazardous chemicals or materials
 to which they are exposed on  the job site. This notification is done through a written
 program,  maintaining material  safety data sheets,  maintaining labels, and conducting
 worker training on these items.

 The project designer must be aware that exposure to hazardous materials can occur in a
 number of tasks associated with asbestos removal work.   Examples include spray
 adhesives, surfactants, encapsulants, paints, products used for lockdown of fibers, mastic
 removers,  materials left in the work area by the building owner  and, of course, the
 asbestos.  The project designer should require the contractor  to document that there is a
 program in place, that workers  have received  training  on possible  hazards and
 precautions, and that the correct MSDS have been obtained for hazardous chemicals
 being used on site.

All  hazardous chemicals used  on the job  site  must have material safety data sheets
available which  indude all health  hazard  exposures as well as  physical hazards and
emergency procedures (see Figure VI 11-4). The material safety data sheets must be
accessible to all workers during any working time which includes all three shirts  as
applicable.  Material safety data sheets are available from manufacturers, suppliers of
products and from owners of buildings where  hazardous materials are handled in the

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STUDENT! MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          Section Vin - Safety Coraktorrions
removal area.  The project designer should coordinate with the contractor since  the
contractor may fall under the umbrella of hazard communication programs of the budding
owner who works with the on-site hazardous chemicals or materials.

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STUDENT MANUAL                               ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                               Section VIII - Safoly Considerations
                                                             P8002B



               MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
                /.  PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION
Trade Name:                               Manufacturer's Name:
Spray Poly                               MPT Products Company
                                         350  Main  Street
                                         Atlanta, Georgia  30303


Date Prepared:                              Emergency Telephone Number
February 2, 1993                          1-800-555-1212
       //.  HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS INFORMATION
                     CAS
Ingredient:             Number:       Percent:     TWA:       STEL
Ammonium  Hydroxide  1336-21-6    0.2        50 ppm    35 ppm
      ///.   PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Boiling Point:                               Specific Gravity (H2O+1):
100°C                                   1.09

Vapor Pressure (mm Hg.):                      Melting Point
760 (3> 100°C                              0°C

Vapor Density (AJr=1):                         Evaporation Rate (Butyl Acetate):
.63                                      1

Solubility in Water:
Dlsperslble

Appearance and Odor
Milky white liquid, mild ammonia odor, Ph 8.5 - 9.5.
                            FIGURE VIM
                    MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

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STUDENT MANUAL                                    ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                    Section VIII • S*tay Conskteralkxw
                TV.  F/KE AND EXPLOSION DATA
                                              Flammable Limits
Rash Point (Method used):                         LEL:        UEL:
N/A                                           N/A        N/A

Extinguishing Media:
Water or Foam.

Special Fire Fighting Procedures:
None

Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards:
Combustible by-products - oxides of carbon.
                   V.  HEALTH HAZARD DATA
Route(s) of Entry           Inhalation:         Skin:              Ingestion:
                           X

Health H  ards (Acute and Chronic):
Irrl  tton  of the respiratory tract.  Testing completed by the MPT Consulting
Company, Marietta, Georgia, states an exposure  level of greater than 11
ppm of ammonia during product application without air movement

Carcinogenicity           NTP.     (ARC Monographs:     OSHA Regulations:
                        No            No                  No

Signs and Symptoms of Exposures:
Ammonia - burning eyes, runny nose, coughing and possible chest pain.

Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by Exposure:
Impaired pulmonary  function.

First Aid Procedures:
Eye contact
Wash eyes Immediately with large amounts of water and seek medical
attention.
Skin contact:
Wash with soap and water all  areas of body contacted by product.
Inhalation:
Remove to fresh air and seek  medical attention If symptoms persist
Ingestion:
Seek  medical attention.

                               FIGURE V1IM
                       MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

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STUDENT MANUML                                   ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                   Soctton VIII • Safety CotwktomtkxK
                                                                  Pago 30
                     VI.   REACTIVITY  DATA
Stabifty:                                     Conditions to Avoid:
Stable                                      None

Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid):
None

Hazardous Polymerization:                      Conditions to Avoid:
Will not Occur                               None
 	VII.  SPILL OR LEAK PROCEDURES	

Precautions in case of spiH or leak:
No special  requirement*.  Spills or release should be diked to prevent
spreading.  Allow material to dry then strip film. Rush with water, larger
spills can be coagulated with 0.3% calcium chloride or spills should be
absorbed with sand or porous  Inorganic material and  then collected for
disposal.

Waste Disposal:
In accordance with local regulations for disposal of non-hazardous waste.
         VIII.  SPECIAL PROTECTION INFORMATION
Protective Equipment:
Ammonia or HEP A/Ammonia piggyback respiratory equipment  depending on
regulations.
Goggles or face  shield If splashing.
At end of work period, and before eating, wash with soap and  water all areas
of body In contact with this product.

Ventilation:
If TWA or STEL is  exceeded.
                              FIGURE VIIM
                      MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

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STUDENT MANUAL                                 AS8ESTO8 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                 Section VIM - Safety CotwKtoratkxK
                                                                Page 31
                 XL   SPECIAL  PRECAUTIONS
Waste Disposal Method:
In accordance with local regulations for disposal of non-hazardous waste.

Shipping, Handling and Storage:
No special  requirements.
Note:  This USDS Is for example and educational purposes only and
should not be used as a specific USDS on any asbestos abatement
project.  The sole purpose Is for general guidance in what may be
contained In a USDS.
                             FIGURE VIIW
                     MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

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 STUDBfT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                           Section VIII - Safety Considerations
                                                                             Page 33



 REVIEW  QUESTIONS
 1.     Which of the following wiring faults often appear in buildings?

       A.    Open ground paths
       B.    Reverse wiring polarity
       C.    Hot neutral wires
       D.    All of the above
2.    Fire extinguishers must be present on every asbestos abatement project As a rule

      of thumb, now many should be available?

       A.     One for every worker
       B.     One per 2500 square feet of floorspace
       C.     Two per floor
       D.     Three inside the work area, two outside the work area, regardless of size
3.     A *OFCr is  a device used to reduce  electrical hazards.   GFCI  stands for

       	. (fill  in the Wank)



4.     Which of the following are symptoms associated with heat stroke?

       A.     sweating profusely with pale skin
       B.     blue coloration of the mucous membranes
       C.     hot. red and dry skin
       D.     moist skin and heavy breathing



5.     When using  a straight ladder,  the  worker should climb  no higher than the

       	rung from the top.

       A.     second
       B.     third
       C.     fourth
       D.     fifth

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STUOEKT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                Section IX - Ax Samping Protocol. Requirements and DoU> Interpretation
           AIR  SAMPLING  PROTOCOLS,  REQUIREMENTS
                      AND  DATA  INTERPRETATION
INTRODUCTION

Design specifications should contain specific air monitoring requirements for the asbestos
removal project.  The sampling and analytical  methods that will  be used during
various project phases, and the  acceptable  fiber levels associated with each
activity must be clearly stated  In  the  specifications.  This  section covers the
application of air  monitoring for abatement projects, regulatory requirements and
procedures for good practice, how air samples  are  collected, the various analytical
techniques, and interpretation of laboratory data.  Qualifications for the air monitor and the
analytical laboratory are also discussed.

PURPOSES OF AIR MONITORING AND REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS

Air sampling involves drawing a known volume of air through a filter and analyzing that
filter for the presence of asbestos fibers. The filter is housed In a plastic cassette which is
attached to a sampling pump with flexible tubing.  The sampling pump can  be  either
electric (plug in)  or battery powered and is calibrated to draw a known volume  of air
through the filter material over a given period of time, usually expressed In liters of air per
minute (Ipm).

Two basic air sampling methodologies are area and personal monitoring. Area samples
are collected with a pump, tubing and filter cassette (called  the sampling train) at a
stationary location four to six feet above floor level.  Personal samples are  collected in the
same manner as  area samples, except the pump is hung from a belt  around the worker's

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATE ME NT PROJECT DESIGN
                                  Soct-on IX - Ar Swiping Protect*. Roquirerwnis and Data tnwprotaban
                                                                              Page 2
 waist and the filter cassette is attached, pointing downward, to the worker's lapel or collar.
 The samples are collected from within the breathing zone (as close to the nose and mouth
 as possible) of an individual, but outside the respirator.

 In relation to asbestos hazard identification and control during removal projects,  air
 monitoring can be used for:

       1.    occupational exposure  measurement
       2.    abatement  surveillance
       3.    abatement clearance testing

 Before  the  removal  project begins, air sampling  may  be conducted  to  determine
 background concentrations.  This is particularly important if there are locations outside the
 contained work area, but within the building, where there are suspected or  known
 asbestos-containing materials or other fibrous  materials which may be interpreted  as
 asbestos.

 During the project, air monitoring is used as a quality assurance tool to determine if
 engineering controls are effective to assess worker exposures and to document whether
 fibers are being contained in the work area. At the completion of the removal project  air
monitoring is used in conjunction with a  thorough visual inspection to  determine if the
standards for reoccupancy have been met.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJOJ
                                 Sccbon IX - Air Sampling Protocote, Roqjirwnants and Data Interpretation
Occupational Exposure Measurement

The  Occupational Safety and  Health Administration  (OSHA)  requires  the
asbestos  abatement contractor  to conduct personal  air  monitoring  for
workers Inside the abatement area.  Since this is the responsibility of the employer.
specific requirements for personal  air monitoring are usually not included in the contract
documents between the abatement contractor and the building owner.  The contractor may
have a trained employee  who collects the personal samples and submits  them to  a
laboratory, or an air monitoring firm may be retained to conduct personal monitoring.

Exposure levels are measured by sampling the air in the breathing zone of workers who
are conducting  various types of activities such as scraping, bagging  and spraying. For
OSHA   compliance  the  samples  are  analyzed   by  a  phase   contrast
microscope.  Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) will be discussed in more detail  later in
this section.  The analytical results are compared to the following OSHA limits.  (It should
be  noted that these limits are subject to changes In the regulation.   Currently
there Is a proposed  regulation which would lower the PEL to 0.1  flbers/cc for
certain  activities).
               QSHAUmtt               Fiber Concentration       Exposure Duration
       Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)  0.2 fibers/cubic centimeter (cc)        8 hours
       Action Level (AL)               0.1 fibers/cubic centimeter (cc)        8 hours
       Excursion Limit (Eg             1.0 fibers/cubic centimeter (cc)       30 minutes

Each limit has  associated  worker  protection requirements that must  be invoked  if it is
exceeded. The key limit for asbestos abatement work from a regulatory standpoint is the
permissible exposure  limit (PEL).   Workers must be provided respirators with a high

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 STUOENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                  Section IX - Air Samping Protocol*. Reojuirenwnts and Data >nt*pnta6cin
                                                                             Pag>4
 enough protection factor to keep their exposures below 0.2 fibers/cc inside the respirator.
 However,  It Is  recognized as  good practice  and  has  been taught In EPA
 curricula  for a number  of years  that 0.01 flbers/cc, not 0.2 flbers/cc, should
 be the limit for  the  level Inside the  worker's respirator (see  the  discussion  In
 Section VW-Protectlon  of Asbestos  Abatement  Personnel).  The requirements
 triggered by the action level and the  excursion limit include continued air monitoring, a
 medical surveillance program, worker training, and documentation.  Since all  of these are
 performed in association  with an  abatement project anyway, these limits  are more
 pertinent to the maintenance personnel and various tradesmen who are also covered by
 the OSHA Standard for the Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926.58} or the EPA Worker
 Protection Rule (40 CFR Part 763 Subpart G).

 The employer must conduct initial, representative monitoring  at the startup of each
 abatement project. This has generally been interpreted as sampling at least 25 percent of
 the workers that are conducting various removal tasks - i.e., scraping, wetting, bagging.
 Personal monitoring must be conducted on a daily basis unless the workers are wearing
 supplied air respirators; or unless the contractor submits data (for OSHA approval) from a
 previous job which is nearly identical to the current project, and the  data indicates fiber
 concentrations did not exceed the action level.  If the daily air monitoring results indicate by
 statistically reliable measurements that exposures  are below the action  level, then the
 contractor can stop daily monitoring.  Monitoring must resume if a different type of ACM is
 encountered or if work  conditions change  in any way.  The  employer  must notify affected
 employees of the monitoring results as soon as they are received from the laboratory.

While the collection and interpretation of personal air sample results is not the regulatory
or legal responsibility of the building owner or the owner's representative, some designers

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STUOerr MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                 Section IX - Air Samping Protocol. Raqukwrwnti and Data I
may elect to require the contractor to submit personal sampling results to the project
monitor.  The monitor can then compare the airborne fiber levels to the protection afforded
by the respirators being used to determine if the contractor is  in compliance with the
regulations  or the project specifications.  Additionally, personal monitoring can be
performed by the owner's representative to evaluate fiber control effectiveness, and results
can be shared with the contractor.

Abatement Surveillance

To  check for potential fiber  leaks during the  removal  phase, stationary area
air  samples are  usually collected from strategic locations around the outside
perimeter of the containment area.  Potential leakage points where sampling should
be conducted include the clean side of the containment barriers separating the work area
from occupied parts of the building, and just outside the dean room of the decontamination
unit.  If the removal project is being conducted In  a multistory building, area samples
should generally be colected from  floors above and below the abatement activity.  The
results of these area samples  are compared to the  background and previous shift
concentrations that were measured In the same locations before the project began.
Usually this concentration is below 0.01 f/cc by PCM.  PCM is used for abatement
surveillance because sample results can  be obtained quickly  and sudden  increases in
fiber concentration  would indicate a  potential problem.

There  is currently  no  regulatory requirement for conducting abatement  surveillance
monitoring outside the  containment area.  It is considered good  practice and is usually
specified to be conducted by an air monitoring firm representing the building owner. The
contractor may elect to conduct abatement surveillance monitoring if the specifications do

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 STUDENT UW*ML                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PftOJECT DESIGN
                                  Sactiofl IX - Air Sampling Protocols. Requiromonls and Data Interpretation
 not designate this activity.  The specifications should Indicate what action will be
 taken  If  concentrations that  exceed  background  levels or  some other
 decision criterion,  such as  0.01 f/cc,  are  detected outside the containment
 barrier. In order to use outside air monitoring data as an effective surveillance tool, the
 data  must be available within a few  hours after sample  collection.   Ideally, a  field
 microscope is set up on site and the building owner's representative collects and analyzes
 the samples. A percentage of the filters that are read in the field (typically 10 percent) are
 then sent to a laboratory that participates in a nationally recognized QA/QC program for a
 quality control check.  Refer to the discussion of laboratory and microscopist qualifications
 at the end of this section.

 Area air samples can also be placed  In  locations  outside the building during
 the abatement  project to  detect leakage  of fibers from  the  work site.  Typically.
 pumps are placed at doors or windows near the exhaust of the negative air filtration units,
 and at the waste loadout area. Care must be exercised to ensure that outside samples are
 not overloaded with dust or other debris.  Also, filter cassettes placed too  close to the
 exhaust stream of the negative  air filtration units will not  give a meaningful  indication of
 fiber leakage from these units.  Samples should either be collected  isokinettcaly, which
 demands special sampling equipment and a greater degree of expertise, or placed about
 6-10 exhaust duct diameters downstream from the exhaust unit where fibers are more
 likely to be captured by the sampling apparatus.

 In  addition to outside  perimeter  samples, specifications may  stipulate  the
collection of  area samples  Inside the  containment  area during abatement
This is typically done when there are building occupants elsewhere in the buOding. Two to
three samples with a minimum 600 liters of air each day are usually adequate to index

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                 Section IX - Ar Swnptng Pro****. Requirements and Data taxprotabon
                                                                            P«g»7
airborne fiber  concentrations  inside  the  work area.   A  radical increase in area
concentrations would signal that work practices need to be adjusted from one day to the
next.  The design specifications may contain a "stop work" clause If a certain
fiber  concentration Is exceeded In the  work area.  For example, 0.5 f/cc by PCM
may be defined by the designer as the level which cannot be exceeded inside the work
area for a particular type of project  If area air sampling indicates  fibers are being
generated at concentrations above this level then the contractor may be required to stop
work and review wetting procedures,  number of air changes per hour, and housekeeping
procedures in an effort to lower fiber counts.  This serves as an additional safeguard for
preventing contamination outside the  containment barrier. H Is Important to note that
the "stop  work" decision criteria  will vary greatly depending on the type  and
percent of asbestos present, the friability  of the  material,  the ability of the
material to absorb  water and nature of the project

Abatement Clearance Testing

The regulations promulgated by EPA for schools in accordance with the Asbestos Hazard
Emergency Response Act of 1986 (40 CFR 763. Subpart E) outline specific requirements
for clearance testing  of abatement projects.  Currently, there are  no federal  regulations
which  require clearance testing  in  public and commercial buildings.  Many  project
designers elect to apply the protocol  outlined by regulations for clearance in schools to
public and commercial building because it is considered as the current industry standard
and there is published guidance for using the procedures.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT D6SON
                                  Section IX - Ak Sampino Protocols. Requirements and Data Intopratabon
                                                                              Pages

 Visual Clearance Inspection
 The   project  specifications  should  clearly  require   a  thorough  visual
 Inspection of  the work area  by the  building owner's representative  prior  to
 final  clearance  air sampling.   Generally,  the owner's representative  and the
 contractor's representative conduct a walk-through to closely check for evidence of visible
 debris on surfaces, in comers and dfficult-to-access places.

 There is a procedure for performing a visual inspection published  by the American Society
 for Testing and Materials (ASTM) entitled Standard E 1368. Standard Practice for Visual
 Inspection  of  Asbestos Abatement  Projects.  The specifications should Indicate this
 procedure will be used, outline an alternate procedure or have the inspector submit the
 visual inspection procedures that will be used in writing to the contractor prior to project
 setup.

 After  each area has passed visual inspection it is common practice for the contractor to
 apply a sealant to the newly exposed surfaces and the inside of the containment barrier to
 lockdown any invisible fibers.  Reference the section on  lockdown  and replacement
 materials.

 AHERA Protocol tor Clearance Testing - Once the work area has passed visual inspection
 criteria, then clearance air sampling  can be performed to estimate the concentration  of
residual fibers.  The AHERA procedures for final clearance air sampling, analytical
sequence and  clearance level requirements for asbestos abatement projects conducted in
school buildings are outlined in  Tables X-1 and X-2.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                          ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                    Section IX - Air Samping Protocols. Roqulromonts and Data Interpretation
                                                                                  Pag»9
                                      TABLE X-1
                            AHERA SAMPLING PROTOCOL
SAMPUNQ ORGANIZATION
    •  Must have written qualty control procedures and documents which verify compf ance.
    •  Sampling  must be  performed  by qualified Individuals  completely independent of  the
      abatement contractor.
SAMPUNQ EQUIPMENT
    •  Commercially available cassettes must be used.
    •  Loaded cassettes must be prescreened to assure they do not contain elevated background
      levels.
    •  Fitter meda must be  mixed celutose ester having a pore size less than or equal to 0.45 urn or
      polycarbonate having a pore size  less than or equal to 0.4 um.
    •  The ooMection filter is  placed in series with a 5.0 urn back-up filler and support pad.
    •  Reloading of cassettes is not permitted.
SAMPLE COLLECTION
    •  Conduct thorough visual inspection prior to samplng.
    •  Cn1icalwortq)lace barriers over windows, doors, vents, etc. remain in ptace.
    •  Perform teak check on sampfng train.
    •  Calbrate pumps before and after  each use.
    •  Pump flow rate of 1-10 Iters per minute for 25 mm cassettes (proportionally higher for large
      olameter filers).
    •  Isolate pump vtoration from fitter cassette.
    •  Orient cassette 45° downward from horizontal
    •  dearly label al samples.
    •  Maintain log of al pertinent samping data.
    •  Use aggressive sampfng techniques.
    •  Collect a minimum of 13 samples:
      - 5 per abatement area
      - 5 per ambient area  (where "make-up air comas from")
      - 2 field blanks (1 near entrance to work area; 1 at ambient sfte)
      -1 seated blank
    •  Cofect a minimum of 1,199 Hers with a 25 mm cassette or 2.799 fters wflh a 37 mm cassette.
    •  Turn sample cassette upright before turning pump off.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                  Section IX - A» Samping Protocol*, ftoqwrwrwrtts and Data IntrprwMion
                                    TABLE X-2
                SEQUENCE FOR ANALYZING CLEARANCE SAMPLES
                     IN ACCORDANCE WITH AHERA PROTOCOL
 SEQUENCING
    •  Cdect at least 13 samples.
    •  Analyze at least 5 inside samples.
    •  If greater than or equal to 1 .199 Iters of air sampled for 25 mm cassettes, or 2.799 Iters
      of air for 37 mm cassettes, area passes if arithmetic mean is less than or equal to 70
      asbestos structures per square mifmeter of filler area.
    •  If less than 1,199 Hers (2.799 Iters for 37 mm cassette) of air sampled, or H greater than
      70 s/mm2. analyze 3 blanks.
    •  If arithmetic mean of blanks Is greater than 70 s/mm2. terminate analysis, identify and
      eirrinate source of contamination, colect new samples.
    •  If arithmetic mean of blanks  Is less than 70 s/mm2, analyze outside  samples and
      compare with Z-test on the logarithms of the inside and outside levels.
           N Z-test results are less than or equal to 1 .65. response action is complete.
           If Z-test results are greater than 1.65. rectean and resampte.
The  AHERA  protocol  requires  that   analyses  be   performed  with  a
transmission  electron microscope unless  the project Involves less than 160
square feet or 260 linear feet of asbestos-containing  material.  Phase contrast
microscopy can be used to analyze clearance samples from the smaller projects.

For TEM analysis a minimum of thirteen samples are collected with at least five from the
abatement area, five from where the make-up air comes from, two field blanks, and one
sealed blank. Samples are  collected by aggressive air sampling techniques which involve
physically or mechanically agitating the air in the work area during the sampling process.
There is a nonmandatory aggressive  sampling  protocol provided in Appendix  A of the
AHERA regulations.  This procedure provides for using the exhaust of a one-horsepower
leaf blower to sweep floors,  ceilings,  walls and other surfaces in the work area to dislodge
any residual fibers.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                      AS86STOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                 Soction IX - Air Sampling Protocols. Requirements and Data tntorpretabon
                                                                           Pag* 11

Stationary fans are placed in locations which will  not interfere with air monitoring
equipment  Pan air is directed toward the ceilings to keep any dislodged fibers airborne
and at least one fan is used for each 10.000 cubic feet of work site.
The purpose of final clearance  air sampling  using aggressive techniques Is
to produce a "worst case" scenario.  The procedure is designed to sample asbestos
in the  air and on surfaces through reentrainment.  If the  work area passes the final
clearance level in this "worst case" environment, then the likelihood of airborne asbestos
fiber levels above the clearance level when the area is reoccupied is remote.

The AHERA protocol for the large removal projects is designed so that samples can be
analyzed in stages in order to possibly avoid the expense of analyzing all thirteen. The
sequencing of analyses is outlined in Table X-2.  In order to utilize the phased analyses, at
least 1,199 liters of air must be sampled with 25 mm cassettes, or 2,799 liters of air must be
sampled when 37 mm cassette are used.  Initially, the five samples (minimum) collected
from inside the removal area are analyzed by TEM.  If the arithmetic mean of the five
samples  Is less  than 70  asbestos  structures  per square  millimeter  (70
s/mm2) of  filter area, the area passes and can be opened for reoccupancy  by
unprotected personnel.  The 70 s/mm2  criterion is  considered to be the filter
background  leveMhe  concentration  of structures per square millimeter of  filter than is
considered statistically indistinguishable from the concentration measured on the blanks
(filters through which no air has been drawn).

If the arithmetic mean of the five inside samples exceeds 70 s/mm2, then the next step is to
analyze the two field  blanks  and the sealed blank to determine if the blanks  are
contaminated, or if  there  is  some contamination being  introduced in  the sample

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                  Section IX - Air Sampfing Protocols. Requirvnwncs and Data lo>arpr»afloo
                                                                            Pap 12
 preparation.  If the blanks are contaminated, then the source of contamination must be
 eliminated and resampling must be conducted.

 tf the blanks are not contaminated, then the next step is to analyze the five samples
 collected outside the work area and perform a statistical procedure termed the Z-test on the
 logarithms of the inside and outside sample concentrations to determine  if there is a
 significant difference between the inside and outside concentrations. If the Z-test indicates
 there is no significant difference, then the area passes the clearance criteria and can be
 reoccupied.   If the Z-test indicates  the ambient area samples  are significantly  less
 contaminated with asbestos fibers than the samples from inside the removal area, then the
 contractor must redeem the work area and resampling must be conducted. Additional
 information  regarding the Z-test is provided in the EPA publication 'Guidelines for
 Conducting the AHERA TEM Clearance  Test to Determine Completion of an Asbestos
 Abatement Project" (EPA 56CV 5-89-001).

 The purpose of the Z-test is to make an allowance for projects that are conducted in areas
 that may have elevated concentrations of asbestos in the ambient or make-up air that is
 being pulled inside the removal area.  An example of this might be the illegal demolition of
 a nearby building which contains ACM, or the concurrent performance of an activity with
 PCM clearance controls (e.g.. operations and maintenance work).

 Experience in using this protocol since 1987 indicates that most of the time if the inside
samples fail the initial screening test of 70 s/mm2. then the Z-test is usually failed also.  For
this reason, many  contractors and  designers prefer to reclean the  work area  tf
the first round of  testing  Indicates levels are above 70 s/mm2.  It is common for

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PBOJECT DESIGN
                                  Section IX - Air Swnping Protocols. Roquirwnento «r*d Data Interpretation
the project designer to specify that the contractor will bear the cost for additional testing. If
final clearance is not achieved during the first round of testing.

As mentioned previously, the AH ERA protocol allows PCM to be used for clearance testing
of small removal projects (less than 260 linear feet or 160 square feet). The procedure for
small projects involves collecting only five samples from the  inside of the removal  area.
Samples are collected using aggressive  sampling techniques and approximately 3.000
liters of air should be collected for each sample.  If any one of  these five samples exceeds
0.01 fibers per cubic centimeter by PCM (NKDSH Method 7400), then the work area must
be recleaned and resampled.  This  concentration is  generally considered the limit of
detection of PCM area samples  in an abatement project and is, therefore, issued as a
clearance level.

Other Sampling and Analytical Protocol - While the AH ERA  protocol must be used for
abatement projects in schools, and it is generally recommended for use in commercial and
public buildings, there are some  situations in which  the designer may need to consider
other options. Some examples are provided here to illustrate the point The designer may
want to further consult with an industrial hygienist when developing specifications for these
types of projects.

Two examples of removal projects that may have different clearance criteria are a building
that is going to be demolished (never reoccupied) after the ACM has been removed and a
buikSng in an industrial complex that is older and large amounts of ACM have been  used
throughout the complex.

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 STUDENT IMNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PPOJECT DESIGN
                                  Section IX - Air Samplng Protecote. ftequrwrwrtR and Data Interpretation
                                                                            PagaU
 For nonschool buildings that are not going to be  reoccupied, a clearance criteria of
 0.01 f/cc  by PCM is commonly used.  The logic for using PCM instead of the more
 stringent TEM analysis is that the building will not be reoccupied and the 0.01 f/cc by PCM
 is not likely to significantly contribute to ambient air contamination when the building ts
 demoBshed.

 In an older industrial setting that contains large quantities of damaged ACM, it may not be
 feasble to achieve 70 s/mm2 by TEM if only portions of the ACM are going to be removed
 at one time.  The  designer may need to collect data on background levels in areas
 adjacent to the planned project to assist in selecting the clearance criteria.

 AIR SAMPLING EQUIPMENT

 A brief overview is presented here to familiarize the project designer with the types of air
 sampling equipment used on abatement projects.

 Sampling Pumps

 Pumps used for collecting asbestos fibers are typically categorized as either high-volume
 pumps which are generally electric (plug in), or low-volume (personal) pumps which are
battery powered.  High-volume pumps are usually calibrated to draw up to ten liters of air
per minute through the filter and are used for area air samping. Since  being able to detect
low concentrations of airborne asbestos fibers relies, in part, on sampling large volumes of
air, high-volume pumps are  useful for sampling In environments where low levels of
airborne asbestos are expected (e.g., following the cleanup of an abatement project).

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESX3N
                                  Section IX - Air S«npEng Protocol. Reqdnnmntt and Dan I
Battery-powered or personal sampling pumps are small, light-weight pumps encased in a
hard plastic sheD.  These pumps are usualy calibrated to draw 1 .0 to 2.5 liters per minute
through the filter when used to index worker exposure  (or potential exposure, when
wearing a respirator) to airborne asbestos fibers.  The pumps are worn on the worker's belt
and the cassette filter, which is connected to the pump with flexible tubing, is placed in the
breathing zone of the worker.
Fitters
Mixed cellulose ester (MCE) is the primary type of filter material that is used to sample
airborne asbestos fibers.  MCE filters consist of cellulose strands bound together in a web
called tortuous pore" and display a  very  irregular surface when observed under
magnification. The MCE fitter media is available in various pore sizes and diameters. For
personal sampfing a 25 mm diameter filter with a 0.8 jim to 1 .2 um pore size may be used.
For clearance testing in accordance with the AHERA protocol, a 25 mm or 37 mm diameter
filter may be used but the pore size must be 0.45 um for an MCE filter.
All filters are housed in a sampling cassette which includes a cap with a plug extension
cowl or retainer ring, the fiter, the MCE diffuser. a support pad, and a cassette base.
Figure X-1 details a typical sampfing cassette figuration. The entire cap is removed when
sampling for asbestos fibers.

Pump Calibration

The calculation of air sampling results are dependent, in part, on the total volume of air
sampled.  The volume of air sampled is the flow rate of the sampling pump (liters of air per

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 STUDENT MANUAL
                                                  ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                 Section IX - AJf S*rplnQ Protocol. Roquirvfneflts wxJ Data lrrtwpf»tt>on
                                   FIGURE X-1
                 TYPICAL SAMPLING CASSETTE CONFIGURATION
                                            Intel Plugj
                                            CasseneCap  |
                                             Extension Cowl
                                                   or
                                              Retainer Ring
                                              0.4 |un pore PC filter or
                                              0.45 Jim pore MCE filter
                                          j  5 \un MCE Diffiiser
                                             Support Pad
                                                    B&se
                                          -{OudetPlug |
Reprinted from Federal Register Vol. 52. No. 210, Friday, October 30,1987.

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STUDENT IMNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJGK
                                 Section IX - Air Swnping Protocols. R»qutoMTwns and Data Inttrprmabon
                                                                            Pag* 17
minute, or Ipm) multiplied by the time (in minutes) the pump ran. Accurate calibration of the
pump flow rate, then, is very Important in the calculation of sample results.  The EPA and
OSHA require that sampfing pumps be caltorated before and after each use, and it is good
practice to maintain these calibration records together with other sampling data.

Although not always practical, a primary calibration standard is the best way to determine
the flow rate of a sampling pump.  A primary calibration standard is one that is known to
have the highest degree  of accuracy and repeatability when  determining a pump's flow
rate. Typically, a one liter flow bubble buret or automated soap bubble meter is used as a
primary calibration standard for air sampling  pumps.   From this, a rotameter can be
calibrated and taken into the field to caltxate each sampflng pump before and after use.

It  I* Important to  ensure  that  persons performing air monitoring  are routinely
calibrating  their sampling  pumps.  Regular requests for calibration data, or requiring
this data to  be  included in reports of  sample results, are two ways to help maintain the
technical and legal validity of sampling data. The designer may want to specify that pump
calibration records be submitted as part of the project documentation.

ANALYTICAL ALTERNATIVES

The primary analytical techniques  used  for analyzing airborne fibers collected on a filter
are:   phase contrast microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy  (SEM), and
transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The  fibrous aerosol monitor (FAM)  is an
instrument which can be used in the field to obtain an index  of airborne fiber levels.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT REJECT DESIGN
                                  Section IX - Air Samplng Protocols. Requirements and Data Interpretation
                                                                            Pap IS
 Appications of each of these methods (PCM, SEM, TEM and FAM) in the  analysis of air
 samples for asbestos are discussed below.

 Phase ftantrast Microscopy

 Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) is a technique using a light microscope equipped to
 provide enhanced contrast between the fibers collected and the background filter material.
 Samples for analysis by PCM are collected on either a 25 mm or 37 mm mixed cellulose
 ester (MCE) filter with a 0.8 to 12 micrometer pore size. Filters are then prepared by either
 a liquid chemical solution or an  acetone vapor that renders  the filter material optically
 transparent. The filter Is then examined  under a positive phase contrast microscope at a
 magnification of approximately 400 times. Fibers are sized and counted using a calibrated
 reticle fitting into the microscope eyepiece. PCM  is inexpensive ($15 to $25 per sample)
 and can be performed on the job site in a few hours.

 Phase contrast microscopy is frequently  referred  to as the light microscopy method,  the
 filter membrane method, or the NIOSH method.  PCM is the analytical method specified in
 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration  (OSHA) asbestos standards.  PCM was
 first used to monitor asbestos workers' exposure in asbestos product manufacturing or
 mining operations.   Using  this method the  analyst  does  not Identify what
 materials the fibers  are composed  of,  and only  counts those fibers longer
 than  five micrometers  and wider than  about  0.25 micrometers.  Because of
 these Pmitations. analysis by PCM typically provides only an index of total concentration of
airborne fibers  in  the environment monitored.  As the proportion of the airborne fibers
which are less than 0.25 micrometers in  diameter increases (e.g., nonindustriai settings
such as asbestos abatement projects), PCM becomes a less reliable  analytical tool.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                 Section IX - AJT Swnpbng Protocol. Rsquirvrrwnts a*>d Data tntorprMUion
                                                                           Pago 19
There are three primary fiber counting methods for phase contrast microscopy.  NIOSH
P&CAM 239 is the original method which was implemented for estimating airborne fiber
concentrations.  The NIOSH 7400 method is an improved version  of P&CAM 239 which
provides for a  more  reliable limit of detection.   P&CAM 239 is no longer used  for
compliance monitoring.  The OSHA reference method (ORM) is specified in OSHA
Asbestos Standards and contains modifications to the procedures outlined in the NIOSH
7400 method for use in determining personal exposures.

Transmission Electron Microscopy

Transmission electron microscopy  (TEM) is a technique which focuses an electron beam
onto a thin sample mounted in the microscope column (under a vacuum).  As the beam
transmits through the sample, an  image resulting from varying density of the sample is
projected onto a fluorescent screen.  Air samples for TEM analysis can be collected on
either mixed cellulose ester or polycarbonate filters.  Filters may be prepared using the
direct transfer technique which allows for the transfer of a carbon-coated replica of the filter
material (with embedded fibers and particulates, etc.)  onto a copper grid suitable for TEM
analysis.  Alternatively, the indirect preparation technique may be employed. The uses
and limitations  of each technique are  more fully described in  the EPA  publication,
"Comparison of  Airborne  Asbestos  Levels Determined by  Transmission  Electron
Microscopy (TEM) Using Direct and Indirect Transfer Techniques," EPA publication 560/5-
89-004, Washington, DC, 1990.

Several methods exist for the  preparation and analysis of air  samples by  electron
microscopy.  Most significant are the mandatory and nonmandatory TEM methods set forth
as appendices to 40 CFR 763, Subpart E (AHERA regulations).  These methods are to be

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 STUOEWT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                  Section IX -tor Samping Protooote. Requirements and Otla Intorprotttion
                                                                           Pago 20
 used, with restrictions, for analysis of final clearance air samples on school abatement
 projects.  Other methods include the NIOSH 7402. and the EPA Level I, II and III (Yamate
 method).  Depending on the method used,  preparation of the sample can take as long as
 24 hours (or more) and analysis can take several hours to a day  or more.  However.
 standard preparation and analysis time for AHERA clearance samples is now in the range
 of 12 hours or less.  As the number of laboratories with TEM capability continues to
 increase,  the cost and turnaround time has gone down.  Costs for TEM analysis typically
 range from about $150 to $400 per sample.

 Scanning Electron Microscopy

 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a technique which uses a  finely focused electron
 beam on  the sample surface to generate an image of the surface shape. A magnified
 image is produced on a viewing screen. Air samples for SEM filter counting are collected
 on a mixed cellulose ester or a polycarbonate filter with a 0.45 micrometer pore size.  The
 cost is about $150 to $300 per sample and may require several days to obtain results.

 SEM  can identify large fibers by morphology (physical appearance) and elemental
 analyses when  equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system.  Fibers which
 are 0.05 micrometers in diameter are about the  smallest that can be detected  using SEM
 under optimal conditions.  This method has fiber  identification problems with thin fibers and
 flat, piaty particles that display poor contrast. Also, there is  no standard protocol for this
 method.   Currently, SEM provides somewhat better  Information than PCM
analysis, but the  method cannot be used  to  conclusively  Identify or quantify
asbestos. SEM is not routinely used for air monitoring associated with asbestos removal
projects.

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STUDENT MMJUAL
Fibrous Aerosol Monitor
                  AS8EST06 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
Section IX - Air Samping Protocoto. Raqummnd and Data bttvprotalion
                                          Papa 21
The fibrous aerosol monitor (FAM) is an instrument which uses laser light and electrical
field technologies for a  near real-time analysis of the fiber content of the air.  The
instrument provides a continuous  measurement, with direct readout of the number or
concentration of airborne  fibers. It has a flow rate of about 2 liters per minute. The FAM
can be used in conjunction with a strip chart recorder to provide a record of air quality
conditions.  Typically used as an Indicator  of airborne fiber level* rather than a
precision  testing  device,  the RAM's more  useful function Is to alert personnel
to any sudden elevation of the area fiber count.  If the FAM is used on a project it
should be used in conjunction with other traditional air sampling techniques and not in
place of them.

This instrument does not distinguish fiber types and cannot discriminate between fibers
and certain particles that  have  sufficient  shape  irregularities to  possess  fiber
characteristics. The FAM does not detect fibers less than 0.5 micrometers in diameter.
Laboratory tests indicate FAM concentration readings are generally within ± 25 percent of
the optical membrane filter count. Also, in order to obtain accurate low level (0.01
flbers/cc) readings It is necessary to operate the FAM for long periods (1000 minutes);
even though the FAM will register these levels after one minute.

DATA INTERPRETATION
With the use of various analytical methods for asbestos sample analysis which  have
different counting protocol and different analytical  reporting  units, it can be difficult to
understand what the results mean.  No attempt is made here to interpret air monitoring

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                   Section IX - Air Sampftng Protocol. R^yaxmaoo tnd D«u lm*prmt»ori
 data with  respect to health  effects because  many more  years of  medical and
 epkJemiological research wilt probably be required  before this is clearly understood.
 However, a discussion of the reporting units and the definitions of a fiber as used in the
 different counting protocols should help the designer better understand the limitations and
 the usefulness of the data.

 As discussed earlier, the OSHA standard which  covers  worker exposure monitoring
 requires analyses of these personal  samples to be  conducted  by phase contrast
 microscopy.  The counting protocol requires the analyst to only count those fibers that are
 at least three times longer than they are wide, and that are at least five micrometers long
 (approximately 1/5000 of an inch). The OSHA permissible exposure  limit (PEL) of 0.2
 fibers/cc Is somewhat difficult to visualize.  It can also be expressed as 200,000 fibers per
 cubic meter of air.  Another way to understand the 0.2 fioer/cc PEL is to visualize the size of
 a 10* x 10'  room with a 10' ceiling.  If this room had an asbestos fiber concentration of 0.2
 fibers/cc, there could be over 5,000.000 fibers in the room.

 The AHERA protocol defines a fiber differently than the OSHA protocol.  The analyst is
 required, using transmission  electron microscopy, to count asbestos structures that have a
 length to width ratio of at least 5:1 and to count any asbestos structures that are longer than
 0.5 microns.  Structures are classified as fibers, bundles, dusters or matrices as illustrated
 in Figure X~2. Another difference is that the AHERA clearance level of 70 s/mm2 is based
 on the number of fibers per filter area. The OSHA PEL is expressed as an airborne fiber
concentration (fibers/cc).

White an entire course could be devoted to understanding analytical techniques and data
interpretation, this short overview has been presented to help illustrate the complexity of

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   STUDENT MANUAL
                  AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
Section IX - Air S«np«no Protocols, ftequtmments and D«ta iMMpfBtabon
                                        Pao»23
                                    FIGURE X-2
       COUNTING GUIDELINES USED IN DETERMINING ASBESTOS STRUCTURES
Count as 1 fiber; 1 Structure; no intersections.
Count as 2 fibers if space between fibers is greater than width of 1 fiber
diameter or mir-ber of intersections is equal to or less than 1.
Count as 3 structures if space between fibers is greater than width of 1 fiber
dimeter or if the mnber of intersections is equal to or less than 2.
Count bundles as 1 structure;  3 or more parallel fibrils less
than 1 fiber diameter separation.

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 STUDENT (MANUAL
                       ASBESTOS ABATE ME WT PROJECT DESIGN
     S«cttoo IX - A* Samptng Protocol*. Requirements and O«ta IntorprMMkxi
                                               Pag* 24
                              FIGURE X-2 (Continued)
Count clusters as 1 structure;  fibers having greater than or equal to
3  intersections.
                                                                      \
                                           ~7
                                                                           \
                                                 \
Count iratrix as 1 structure.
DO NOT COWT AS
   Fiber protrusion
   <5:1 Ascect Patio
No fiber protusion
                                                      Fiber protrusion
                                                      <0.5 micrcmeter
                                <0.5 micrcneter in length
                                <5:1 Asocct. Ratio
Reprinted from Federal Register. Vol. 52. No. 210, Friday, October 30, 1987. p. 41867.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DEStGN
                                  SKtton IX - Air Samplng Protocol. Requirement* and Data Inlwpnrttbon
data interpretation and the need to exercise caution.  It should be apparent that PCM data
cannot be interchanged with TEM data and that the counting protocol has direct effect on
the analytical result

QUALIFICATIONS OF THE AIR MONITOR AND PROJECT MONITOR

The terms air monitor and project monitor have commonly been used interchangeably. For
the purposes of the discussion on qualifications, the air monitor will be defined as the
individual who collects air samples and reports the analytical results.  The project monitor
has a greater  responsibility  which may  include acting  as  the building owner's
representative  to  perform quality assurance on  the  contractor's work, construction
management and visual clearance prior  to clearance sampling. The project monitor may
also serve as the air monitor or may interact with the air monitor.

There are currently no federal requirements for certification or licensing of individuals or
firms that conduct air monitoring or project monitoring on asbestos abatement projects. A
few states do have requirements for training and experience.  The following are provided
as minimum guidelines for designers who are developing specifications for  projects in
states that do not have provisions for air monitoring or project monitoring personnel.

Air Monitoring Personnel

      •  Should have current training certificate from an EPA Model Accreditation Course
         for Asbestos Abatement Project Supervisors or Designers.

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   -^N- VIANUAL                                       AS3ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                 Sooon IX - Air Satisfing Protocols. Rcqurcmontr. and Data Intcuprotatior
                                                                           Page 26

       •  Should have  attended  and  passed  exam in the  National  Institute  for
         Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 582 course  for Air Sampling  and
         Analytical Techniques (or equivalent).

       •  Should have on-the-job training under the supervision of an experienced air
         monitor.
 Project Monitoring Personnel

       •  Should have current training certificate from an EPA Model Accreditation Course
         for Asbestos Abatement Project Supervisors or Designers.

       •  Should have construction management experience and knowledge of reading
         blueprints, specifications and contract documents.

       •  Should have on-the-job training under the supervision of an experienced project
         monitor.

QUALIFICATIONS FOR ANALYTICAL LABORATORY

The  AHERA regulations outline  quality assurance/quality  control  procedures for
laboratories that  perform TEM analysis of clearance samples collected  on school
abatement projects.  It is recommended that design specifications for nonschool buildings
also impose these requirements on the laboratory performing analyses. They include:

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                  Section IX - Air Samptng Protocols. Requirements and Data Interpretation
       • Participation in the  National  Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program
         (NVLAP) administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology
         (NiST).

       • Perform quality control/quality assurance procedures in accordance with AH ERA
         protocol (Table X-3).

For laboratories performing phase contrast microscopy (PCM), qualifications of each
analyst should include:

       • Satisfactory performance In the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program
         sponsored by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
         and/or satisfactory performance in the Asbestos Analyst  Professional Registry
         Program sponsored by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA).

       • Successful completion of a 40-hour training course in air sampling and analysis
         (NIOSH 582 or equivalent.)

In addition to these quality assurance/quality control programs, laboratories may also be
accredited by the AIHA  Laboratory Accreditation Program.  This provides  additional
assurance  that the  laboratory  exercises good  general laboratory practices and
recordkeeping procedures.

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 STUOENT MANUAL
                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                     Section IX - Air Samping Protocols. Raquremenls and Data InterpraMbn
                                                               Page 26

                       TABLE X-3
SUMMARY OF LABORATORY DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES*
UntOoandbn
Sample receiving
Sample custody
Sample preparation












Calculator* and data
reduction
Olfllaty Gorit0' Crtack
Review ol receiving report
Review of chain-of-custody record
Suppees and roegonts
Grid opemng size
Spsoal daan area monitoring
L^oratoryb**
Plasma etch blank
Muleple preps (3 per sample)
• • 11 n in • nC r ti • rl
Mgnment cnecK
MagnKcaeon catoraaon wkh tow and Ngh
EOS calibration by copper ine
Laboratory blank (measure of deanflness)
nepkatt counting (measure of precision)
Duplicate analysis (measure of
Known samples of typicat materials (working
mta n rim rrW \
etanOawCK)
Analysis of NBS SHM 1875 ancVtar RM 8410
(measure of accuracy and comparaMily
Data entry review (data vafidatfon and
measure of completeness)
Record and verity P eteoun diffraction
pattern of ssrucDjre
Hand calcutaion of automated data
reduction procedure or independent
Frequency
Each sample
Each tarn pie
On receipt
20 operangs/20 gricMot of
1000 or 1 openincy»amc*»
After cleaning or service
1 per pre isriea or 10%
1 per 20 samples
Each sample
Each day
Each day
Each month or after service
WoeMy
Daly
Prop 1 per series or 10% read 1
per 25 samples
1 per 100 samples
1 per 100 samples
Traning and for comparison
w* unknowns
1 per analyst per year
Each sample
1 per 5 samples
1 per 100 samples
Conformanca
Fjcoftctfltian
95% completa
86% complete
Moot specs or
reject
100%
Meet specs or
reject
Meet specs or
reanalyze series
75%
One wati cover of
squares
Each day
Each day
96%
96%
95%
1 Meet specs or
reanalyze series
I.SxPoiaaonStdl
Oev.
2 1 Pokson Std.
Oev.
100%
t.SxPoisaonSki
Oev.
96%
80% accuracy
85%
                recalculation of hand-catcUatod data
Reprinted from Federal Register. Volume 52, No. 210, October 30,1987, P. 41892

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                  Section IX - A» Sampling Protocol. R»quir»m«ntt vtd Data IntwpfMrion
                                                                              Pag* 29

SUMMARY
Sampling and analytical techniques provide one quantifiable method for determining if the
design specifications are being executed properly.  There are a variety of sampling and
analytical techniques  and the appropriate ones must be selected to collect data that is
representative of the environment being sampled.  Project designers must have a general
understanding of the various sampling and analytical techniques employed. They should
also understand  the  limitations  of the data  that is generated by each procedure to
recognize potential weaknesses and strengths in the design specifications.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                  S«cton IX -Mr Sonptng Proton*. Requirements and Ottm trUorpfBttaon
                                                                           Pip 30



 REVIEW  QUESTIONS



 1.     What is the difference between a personal sample and an area sample?
2.     What are three applications for air monitoring during removal projects?
3.     What are the three current OSHA exposure limits?
4.     What is the recommended worker exposure limit discussed in the course manual?
5.     Who has the responsibility for conducting personal air monitoring for abatement
       workers?
6.    What are the primary differences between transmission electron microscopy and
      phase contrast microscopy?
7.     What is the AHERA clearance level and to what bufldings does it apply?

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STUOENTUWNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                 Section IX - Air Sampfing Protocofc, Ftoquir*m*ntt and Data bttNptvtabon
                                                                           Pago 31

8.     When is a visual inspection conducted to determine if ACM removal is complete
       and who conducts it?
9.     Describe a situation in which clearance by TEM might not be appropriate.
10.    How often should sampling pumps be calibrated?
11.   WhattsFAM? For what is it used?
12.   Whteh analytical method reports results in structures/mm2?
13.   What is NVIAP?
14.    In what areas does the NIOSH 582 course provide instruction?

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 STUO6KT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                Section X - Locfcdown and Replacement Maieriate
            LOCKDOWN  AND REPLACEMENT MATERIALS

 INTRODUCTION

 The use of asbestos in products manufactured in the United States has declined sharply
 since the mid-1970s when federal, state and local agencies began instituting regulations
 to restrict human exposures to airborne asbestos fibers.  This trend  culminated in 1989
 when the  USEPA  issued a ban and phase-out rule which proposed a timetable for
 eliminating the manufacture of  most asbestos-containing products.  The ban was recently
 overturned by  a  federal court (reference the regulations section).   However, the
 replacement of asbestos-containing building products with asbestos-free substitute
 materials remains an important issue for asbestos abatement project designers. They are
 usually responsible for specifying a  replacement material that will adequately serve the
 same function as the ACM that  is being removed.

 This section will review design considerations, materials and methods involved  in the
 replacement of asbestos products which are  removed from buildings.  First a detailed
 review of the lockdown procedure which is used to trap any remaining  nonvistole asbestos
 fibers on a substrate prior to the application of replacement materials will be discussed.
 This will be followed by a discussion of the types and features of commonly used asbestos
 substitutes in building products.

 LOCKDOWN

 Lockdown  Is  the  procedure of applying  a protective coating or  sealant  to a
surface  from  which  all   visible asbestos-containing  material  has  been

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT! PROJECT DESIGN
                                                 Soc*on X - LocXdown and Rcplao«noo( Matortalc
removed.  Its primary function is to control and minimize the amount of airborne asbestos
fiber generation that might result from any remaining material that cant be detected during
visual inspection. Lockdown is different from  encapsulation which is the appBcation of a
liquid bridging or penetrating encapsulant to  asbestos-containing material that has not
been removed.

Depending upon the surface  structure and texture  of the substrate,  or the adhesive
strength of the asbestos-containing material to the substrate, there will  always be some
residual fibers left behind after gross removal has taken place. Even when the substrate is
smooth and appears clean there could still  be invisible asbestos fibers present  The
lockdown procedure is the standard means of assuring that any remaining asbestos fibers
are "locked" in place. Because a lockdown involves coating the substrate with a virtually
impermeable barrier, it must also be designed with the subsequent replacement materials
in mind.

Lockdown Design

Prior to  lockdown  design and  before any  asbestos is  removed, it is  essential  to
characterize the substrate. Some of the most common materials found as  substrates in
buildings include cement, corrugated sheet metal, metal beams, wire  mesh,  metal piping,
plaster  'brown  coat," wallboard and wood.  These materials each have different
characteristics pertaining to surface structure and texture which affect the ability of other
materials to bond to  them. For example, cement substrates are often porous  and pitted
(many small grooves or  depressions on the surface).  This  uneven surface is  extremely
difficult to clean for two reasons.  First, the pits in the surface may have become filled with
asbestos-containing material when it was originally sprayed or troweled on  the surface.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  Socboo X - Lockdown and Fteptic«m«fK MrorMfe
Secondly,  when the material  is scraped  away during  removal, asbestos-containing
materials will be packed tightly into these grooves or pits.  Most of the material can then be
removed through tedious brushing; however, some fibers will remain.

Some substrates are imposstole to reach without demolishing the structure.  An example of
this is fireproofing which was applied to structural members before installing a curtain wall
exterior.  In this case, it may not be possible to completely remove the fireproofing wedged
between the  beams and the curtain wall before lockdown.  In this  event, the only option
may be to  encapsulate the material that cannot be removed and construct a permanent
physical enclosure to isolate  the material from the accessible ACM during removal and
prior  to lockdown.  When material is  left in place it is a good practice to apply  visible
warning labels in each area.

A  variety of  products can be used for locking  down the substrate.  These lockdown
products are usually applied  as sprayed-on liquid-type sealants (alternatives for certain
situations are latex paint, encapsulating solutions, and concrete sealant).  Caution should
be used so that the lockdown material does  not present an  additional  hazard  during
application and anticipated  use/conditions.   Contractors should obtain all  available
information on the substance (i.e., toxlcity.  volatility, fire ratings).   Material Safety Data
Sheets (MSDS) are a good source of information.  These sheets should be available from
both  the  manufacturer  and distributor of  the material.   Under OSHA  "Hazard
Communication* requirements, contractors are required to train their employees so that
they understand and know how to use the  material safety data sheets.  All information
should be obtained and evaluated prior to beginning the project.

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STUDENT MMJUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                 Secton X - Lockdown and Replacement Materials
                                                                             Page 4
Many lockdown materials are not fire rated (they may actually be more flammable than me
substrate) and thus could greatly reduce or eliminate the fire rating of some replacement
materials. For instance, the substrates of some buflding systems such as pipes, flues and
boilers have high temperature requirements (over 250 degrees) which could exceed some
lockdown material specifications. A designer should consult with the manufacturer of the
Jockdown material regarding any heat limitations.

Another consideration is the compatibility of the lockdown material with the substrate. It is
important to ensure that  adhesion occurs between the  two surfaces (substrate and
lockdown material)  and.  In  some  cases,  three  surfaces  (substrate, lockdown. and
replacement or reinsulation).  For example, latex paint may work well in locking down a
porous concrete surface, whereas it would not be acceptable for use on metal piping since
It would peel and crack.  It is recommended that a field test application be conducted on a
small portion of the substrate prior to widespread use to determine whether the  lockdown
and replacement products will perform as desired.  It is essential to determine compatibility
between lockdowns and replacement materials. Noncompatible materials may void  UL
ratings and manufacturers' warranties.

Another  good,  recommended practice is to use color tinting when applying  lockdown
materials. This will make  it easier to visually check that all areas of the substrate have
been covered with  the lockdown substance.  One coat of lockdown substance will  usually
be adequate to prevent the  generation  of airborne residual fibers.   In  some  cases.
additional coats may  be needed for cosmetic purposes.  Also, if the lockdown material is
being applied to metal substrate surfaces, it may be most advantageous to apply one fairly
heavy coat of primer to act as both a lockdown material and corrosion inhibitor, regardless
of whether or not reinsulation is taking place.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DEStGN
                                                 Socfon X - Locfcdown and FtopUaomort MafcrWs
                                                                             Pago 5

 Lockdown Methods
The lockdown procedure begins after gross  removal and dean ing of the asbestos-
containing material is complete. The recommended method for brushing or cleaning a
substrate after gross removal has taken place is to use a nylon brush.  This will aid in
getting to fibers that may have become lodged in grooves or crevices in the  substrate
surface.   Wetting  of the substrate should also take place while this brushing is being
performed since the chance of airborne  fiber  generation is still present.  Use of wire
brushes is discouraged since it is suspected that wire tends to break down  larger asbestos
fibers or  fiber bundles into fibrils of minute size which are easily dispersed throughout the
surrounding air.   The  use of wire brushes  can  generate high fiber  counts in  the
containment area.  Heavy fiber dispersion can also make final cleaning very difficult  In
either case, wire or nylon brushing will generate  airborne fibers to some degree.

Once this brushing is completed, a final cleaning  of the substrate and work area should
take place in  order to ensure that all loose residual fibers  are  eliminated. It may be
necessary to wipe  some surfaces with a lint-free rag and dusting agent once it has dried.
The use  of cleaning fluids or solvents which leave a residual 'film* on the substrate is
discouraged.  Some chemicals interfere with the adhesive properties  of lockdown
materials. When in doubt, check with the manufacturer of the products.

After the  substrate has completely dried,  a  thorough inspection must be conducted for
visible residual contamination,  It is Imperative that this  Inspection Is conducted
by  the building owner's representative and that application  of the lockdown
material  Is done  ONLY AFTER  the substrate Is found to be visually clean.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMEKT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  Soctfcfl X - Lockdown and Ffeptecamont Manriak
Once the substrate has passed visual inspection a lockdown material can be appBed.  The
use of  double layers of polyethylene on the walls and floors during preparation of the work
area will result in greater efficiency at this stage since the inside layer can be removed
after the initial lockdown application takes place.  This reduces the amount of detailed
cleaning.

Workers performing the lockdown operation should wear disposable protective dothing
and respirators suitable for asbestos and organic vapors (if applicable) because the area
is  still  considered contaminated.  Respirators  which provide protection  against both
asbestos fibers and organic vapors may be needed if the lockdown material contains
volatile  organics in  liquid form when being applied; however,  many lockdown materials
currently available are water based and are considered to present very little, if any,
respiratory hazard.

When planning a lockdown operation, It is Important to follow a logical sequence of events.
One sequence that has been proven to work in the field is outlined below:

       1 .     Complete removal of asbestos-containing material from the substrate.

      2.     Collect as much of  the asbestos-containing waste material as possfcte and
             transport it  out of the work area enclosure according to appropriate asbestos
             waste-handling procedures.

      3.     Clean all visible debris by  HEPA vacuuming and wet wiping.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                Secton X - LocfcJown »xJ Rtpteewrwrt M**riafc
                                                                           Paa.7

      4.     Conduct a visual inspection of the work area enclosure for any remaining
             visible debris and reclean  If necessary.
      5.     Only  after  the work area  has passed  Inspection  for  asbestos-
             containing  debris and the asbestos waste containers  are  completely
             removed from the enclosure,  one fairly heavy coat of lockdown sealant
             should be spray applied to the substrate.  At the same time, the  inside layer
             of  polyethylene  should  be misted with a  coat of lockdown  material.
             Lockdown materials should be applied using an airless sprayer.

      6.     After the lockdown material has dried (time is dependent on type of material
             and the manufacturer's recommendations), the inside layer of polyethylene
             on  the walls and floor of the enclosure should be  removed,  treated as
             asbestos-containing waste and transported out of the work area.

      7.     At  this point, with the final (outside) layer of polyethylene still  In
             place, a second, more comprehensive  visual  Inspection should
             be  conducted  to  locate  asbestos  materials that have penetrated
             to  the second  layer of polyethylene and visible accumulations  of
             dust on surfaces.  If asbestos contamination is detected, additional HEPA
             vacuuming and wet-wiping of all surfaces in the enclosure wiP take place at
             this time.  If desired, a second lockdown misting can  be performed on the
             inside  of the second layer to seal In any residual asbestos ftoers.

      8.     If additional lockdown has been performed on the final polyethylene layer of
             the containment barrier,  sufficient drying time  should be allowed before

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SmjDBfT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROOECT DESIGN
                                                S«c*or. X - Locfcdown Md FfcplanmwW Mttwilk
             proceeding.  At this point, preclearance monitoring may be conducted to
             determine if any airborne fibers are  remaining.  In  the event these air
             sample results indicate the work area is still contaminated, another round of
             cleaning and locKdown should be conducted.  The second layer may be
             taken down and disposed of as asbestos-containing waste if preliminary air
             sample results indicate an acceptable clearance level.

       9.     While special items such as doors, windows, and HVAC systems remain
             sealed (critical barriers), conduct  final clearance air monitoring  using
             aggressive sampling techniques.

Once the lockdown sealant has been applied and after the final clearance  monitoring has
taken pJace, the next step may be to reappty an adequate substitute replacement material.
To avoid conflicts between parties involved in the project, the designer should remember
the  importance of proper  sequencing  and  scheduling  of the  removal/lockdown/
replacement  process.  Either  this  sequence should  be  outlined In the project
specifications or the contractor should  be required to  submit his sequencing
plan for approval by the project designer.  The  designer  may also specify that the
replacement contractor is ultimately responsible for reviewing and accepting the condition
of the substrate prior to application of replacement materials.

REPLACEMENT

Increasing  asbestos regulation  and  health  concerns have created  a new branch  of
materials science to develop and improve asbestos replacement materials.   There are
many products that have  been used or are being experimented with as  substitutes for

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                 S*c*xi X - Lockdown and RoptocOTWrt Mctorute
 asbestos.  Some substitutes have been used for years and some perform better than
 asbestos counterparts.  Each of these materials has special qualities which make it a
 suitable replacement material for asbestos in certain cases.  The difficulty lies in the fact
 that none of these materials alone can  be as universally applied for as many different
 functions as asbestos was. Many substitutes are more expensive, do not perform as well
 and are not as durable as asbestos products.  There are also concerns about the
 health risks  possibly associated  with some asbestos substitutes.  Therefore, it
 is imperative that the selection of substitute materials be an important consideration during
 the  design of an  asbestos  abatement  project.  The  individual who  is specifying
 replacement material(s), should have the capability to investigate and recommend various
 types of asbestos substitutes.  This person should be very familiar with the chemical and
 physical properties of the various materials available and  which materials are most
 compatible with the building structure; specifically, the acoustics and fire ratings.  The
 designer specifying replacement materials may need to consult a mechanical engineer for
 specifying  replacement of thermal system insulation or an industrial hygienist, for
 information regarding  potential health hazards or safety problems.  The actual design of
 the asbestos replacement operation should be conducted by an individual who has formal
 training or knowledge  In pertinent  aspects of state and  local building  codes and
 knowledge of the particular replacement material application.

 Replacement Materials

The  use of asbestos in building products was primarily due to  its properties of  heat
 resistance, reinforcing strength and chemical resistance. Its performance and low cost led
to widespread use  in buildings in  fireproof ing.  cement  panels, thermal insulation,
acoustical treatment, flooring and adhesives, among others.  Many materials have been

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STUDENT MANUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                   Section X - Locfefcmm and Ropteoomont Materials
                                                                              Pap 10

developed as substitutes for asbestos.  These materials can be generally classified into
three categories:
       1.      Man-Made Mineral  Fibers  - including glass  fibers  (fibrous glass or
              fiberglass), mineral wool, glass wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibers
              (RCFs);

       2.      Synthetic Materials - including carbon fibers, aramid fibers, polypropylene
              fibers and  metallic fibers;

       3.      Natural Materials - including minerals (perilte, vermiculite,  mica, talc) and
              organics (cellulose fibers, vegetable pulp).

The above substitutes have a wide range  of performance characteristics. For instance,
minerals,  mineral wool and refractory fibers are characterized by good heat resistance
whereas cellulose and many synthetics are not.  The air pockets in celluose do make ft a
good  insulation material.  Aramid fibers,  carbon fibers  and steel fibers are used for
reinforcing strength while minerals must be  reinforced.  The synthetics are  highly chemical
resistant but cellulose is  not.

There is also a wide range of costs for the substitutes. The costs of raw minerals, cellulose,
glass wool and mineral wool are comparable with asbestos. The price of  synthetics such
as aramid fibers and carbon fibers  can be  many times the cost of asbestos.  Beyond the
price  of  raw materials,  the price  for substitute products  relative to asbestos  is also
increased in many cases by costly manufacturing requirements.

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STUDENT UANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OeSGN
                                                  Section X - Locfcdown and Roptaoamwtt Mttvbfe
                                                                            Pap»11
Traces of asbestos have been found in some products which are sold as 'asbestos-free*
substitutes.  It is recommended that the project designer should research manufacturer's
standards for determining asbestos content and seek documentation which provides
assurances that a  product does not contain asbestos. Bulk Sampling and analysis (PLM
or TEM) could be used as a final quality assurance measure to detect for the presence or
absence of asbestos in replacement materials.

Despite these roadblocks, many replacement materials  have  been established as
technically and economically viable substitutes for asbestos products. While it is true that
no  one substitute is available as a  universal substitute for asbestos, alternatives  are
available depending on the desired use. A general discussion of the types of substitutes
available for the more common asbestos-containing building products is provided below.

Sorav-Aoolled  Materials - Spray-applied asbestos-containing  materials were used for
fireproofing. thermal and  acoustical insulation,  condensate  control, and  decorative
purposes. Since the focus of many asbestos removal projects has  been on spray-applied
asbestos-containing materials, several substitutes have been developed as replacements.

Replacements  used  for  thermal insulation  often  contain mineral  wool, exfoliated
vermiculite, treated cellulose (with boric acid)  for fire resistance, or glass fibers.  Some
products contain  a combination  of these substitutes.   In  some  instances, it may be
necessary to  replace asbestos-containing fireproofing on steel  support beams with
asbestos-free  fiber-reinforced cement boards.  Cement boards  will often consist of
minerals reinforced by glass or cellulose fibers.

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STUOEKT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  Svcton X - Locfcdown and Reptaoonwnt Materials
                                                                             Page 12
Numerous options exist for replacement of spray-applied acoustical insulation.  Acoustical
treatments, usually used on ceilings, absorb some sound which limits the amount of sound
reflected from a surface.  Spray-appPed cellulose, mineral wool, fibrous glass and pertite
(a porous volcanic mineral) are often used.   Sound-absorbing fibrous glass boards,
frequently covered with a fabric, may also be used. A suspended acoustical ceiling, or waB
assemblies  utilizing cellulose and/or mineral wool panels, can also be employed.  The
designer should always consider the suitability of the appearance of the  replacement
design.  If a spray-applied  material is used,  a sample should be requested from the
manufacturer to demonstrate the texture and final appearance of the material.

When considering alternatives to spray-applied asbestos-containing materials, be sure to
ask. 'Is the material necessary?'  The building codes determine whether the structure
should be protected with some type  of fireproofing or left unprotected. Square footage,
height of the building, and the type  of building use are evaluated to determine  the fire
rating of materials  specified for construction. In accordance with these codes, the need for
fireproofing  may have been efiminated by changes in the  occupancy use applied to the
building over its life history.  For example, a building used for large assemblies may now
be used only for small assemblies, an educational facility may have been  converted to
business offices, or a factory/industrial site may have been converted to storage.  Also,
there are instances where  building owners  have had their building fireproofed  even
though  the  codes did not require it and replacement of these materials would not be
necessary.   An alternative may be the  installation of a sprinkler system in lieu of
fireproofing. depending upon occupancy use.

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 STUDENT IMNUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT 06SX3N
                                                   Sector X - Locfcdown and R«ptoc»m*m MMwUto
                                                                              Pag* 13
 Asbestos-containing decorative sprays, once removed, may be replaced with a coat of
 paint or a decorative (textured) plaster.

 Thermal  System Insulation - Numerous alternatives to asbestos-containing  thermal
 system insulation are  available.   The choice  of substitutes  is usually based on  the
 temperature of the pipe to be covered. Foam rubber, cork or fibrous glass are often used
 on cold water pipes and air conditioning lines.  The  purpose of this covering is often  for
 condensate control rather than insulation.

 Fibrous glass and asphalt-impregnated paper are frequent substitutes for hot water pipe
 insulation where temperatures are not extreme.  Insulation of high-pressure steam lines.
 however,  usually requires the use of refractory fibers, cellular glass or reinforced calcium
 silicate.  The reinforcement  fibers  used may be mineral wool or another nonasbestos
 substitute.

 Asbestos Cement P[pducts - The majority of the asbestos stiB in use in the United States
 goes into manufacturing cement asbestos products, such as pipes and  mill board. Several
 substitutes are available for these asbestos-containing products. Glass-reinforced plastics
 can be used in place of asbestos  mill board but do not possess the fire resistance of
 asbestos mill board and  may give off toxic fumes during combustion.

When glass-reinforced cement was first introduced, there were problems with the Portland
cement degrading the glass fibers.  New high-zirconia. alkali-resistant glass fbers have
greatly reduced this problem.  The price of the asbestos-free cement pipe and mil board is
near the price of traditional asbestos-containing cement products.

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STUDENT MKNUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESGN
Metal and plastic (PVC) pipes have been available for many years.  These are suitable
substitutes for asbestos cement pipe in most instances.  Large diameter pipes require
more support than plastic can otter. For this reason, steel-reinforced cement and welded
steel pipe is often used.

In summary, alternatives are now available for practically all uses where asbestos cement
products were once the only choice.

Roofing - Asbestos-containing roofing felts are frequently replaced by glass fiber mats
impregnated with bitumen.  Research continues in this area  since the  glass  fiber
replacements are inferior to asbestos from  the standpoint of fire resistivity.  Other options
are  organic  bituminous felts which contain cellulose or other organic  fibers and
elastomeric rubberized membrane roofing.  However, these materials do not have the heat
or chemical resistance of asbestos and are not considered durable.

Flooring - Asbestos-containing floor tile has been replaced by vinyl tile which is reinforced
by glass or mineral wool.  Unfortunately, these tiles generally do  not have the strength,
wear resistance or nonslip surface of asbestos tiles.  Some manufacturers offer flooring
products which have eliminated fiber reinforcement through the use of advanced polymers.
The asbestos backing of sheet flooring has been replaced by sheeting reinforced with
glass or mineral fibers.

Adhesives - Notable exceptions to the abundance of replacement building products are
the adhesives,  sealants and mastics commonly used in construction.  Many floor tile
adhesives, roofing repair compounds, window putties and other such products used today
contain  asbestos.  The unique properties of cohesion, adhesion, elasticity and durability

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ^ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  Socftofl X — Locfatown wid Rcpteownvnt Mtferats
                                                                             Page 15
offered by asbestos in these materials have frustrated manufacturers' attempts to find a
viable substitute.  Some asbestos-free products are available; therefore, a project designer
should look carefully at the performance specifications of these products and consult with
manufacturers  regarding the suitability of asbestos-free replacement materials. Bulk
sampling and PLM and/or TEM analysis of replacement mastics, adhesives. and sealants
may be specified by the project designer to confirm these materials are nonasbestos-
con tain ing prior to application.

HEALTH EFFECTS OF SUBSTITUTES

A valid concern held by many persons choosing asbestos substitutes is whether  the
substitute may also pose potential health hazards.  Most of our knowledge on the health
effects of asbestos comes from research that  was conducted only during the  last sixty
years.  While much has been learned, there are still uncertainties regarding exactly how
asbestos fibers cause disease.  Health risk information based on reliable data  for many
asbestos substitutes is inadequate or nonexistent.   Fortunately, much  of  the  recent
lexicological research on asbestos has provided some insight into the potential  health
effects of fibrous substitutes. Based on this research, some general conclusions about  the
risks of fibrous asbestos substitutes can be made:

       •  Fibers of the same size range and shape as commercial asbestos should  be
         considered as potentially harmful;

      •  The most durable fiber types are the most harmful;

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                 Section X - Locfcdown and Ftop*ac*m*rt Matarufc
       •  The size and durability of the fibers will depend on, among other things, the
         intended use. method of manufacture and chemical composition;

       •  Smoking increases the risk of disease in workers exposed to fibers;

       •  When available  for a specific application, the use of  nonfibrous substitutes
         should be strongly considered.

Asbestos substitutes were developed because they  possessed properties similar to
asbestos. Therefore, it is  not a surprise that some types of the three main categories of
asbestos substitutes are suspected of health risks similar to asbestos.  Man-made mineral
fibers, such as glass wool, that have fibers in the same size range as asbestos fibers
appear to cause some of the same harmful effects. The durability of these fibers varies, but
workers in the rock or slag wool industry have developed lung cancers with similar latency
periods as asbestos (more than 30 years). Synthetic organic fibers are usually bigger than
the asbestos fiber size range, but some of the newer and more durable fibers break into
smaller fibers when  abraded.  There are also concerns about toxic fumes released during
the combustion of synthetics.

The natural organic fibers are not considered a problem in themselves, but they  can
release bacteria and fungal spores during processing which can cause illness and lung
scarring.  This problem is  controlled by wet processing and other dust control methods.
Minerals  such as  talc and  vermiculile have been found to be contaminated by naturally-
occurring amphibote asbestos fibers such as tremolite and actinolite.  In any event, the
substitute chosen should be  Investigated  to minimize the  chance of simply
replacing one potentially harmful material  with another.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PRDjeCT DESK3N
                                                  Section X — Locfcttown end Roptaoovntnt Ktaimflte
                                                                             P»g»17

SUMMARY
The practice of locking down the substrate is a critical step in the cleaning sequence of
asbestos removal procedures. It can aid in minimizing the regeneration of asbestos fibers
left on the substrate after removal, which will in turn help to make the area acceptable for
reoccupancy more quickly.  Additionally, asbestos abatement designers are often called
on  to specify replacement operations once  asbestos-containing materials are removed
from a facility.  This section provides some basic information about available substitutes
which the project designer will need to augment with research on specific products.   It is
essential that the designer have a thorough understanding of how and why asbestos was
used in certain cases and which products may serve as the best substitutes.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                      AS8CSTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESKJN
                                                 Secfcn X - locfcdown and Reptacsment Material
REVIEW  QUESTIONS
1.     Lockdown is a procedure of applying a protective coating or sealant to a surface
       from which an visible asbestos-containing material has been removed.  What is a
       lockdown's primary function?
2.     Contractors  and building  owners  should obtain  all available  information on
       locfcdown substances. What document(s) would be a source of this information?
3.     It is important to ensure that what three components or surfaces are compatible
       when choosing a lockdown product/material?
4.     Why would a color be added to a lockdown?
5.     A lockdown  is applied to an area only after what activity is performed by the
       building owner's representative?
6.      What material is universally applied as a replacement for asbestos, and why?
7.     When referring to man-made mineral fibers, what does RCF stand for?
8.     Why is it important to research •asbestos-free" replacement materials?
9.      Regarding thermal system insulation (TSI), the choice of replacement materials is
       usually based on what?

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                 Sacton XI - Legal and Insurance Conaidenrtons
                                                                           Pag»1

              LEGAL AND INSURANCE  CONSIDERATIONS
 INTRODUCTION

 Since an asbestos abatement project designer typicaDy acts as a representative of the
 building owner, he or she should be familiar with the legal liabilities that may be incurred
 by the building owner as well as those associated with designing the project.  This section
 will review the areas  of potential liability  and insurance considerations for  project
 designers, cover related insurance and bonding issues and discuss some of the important
 legal aspects of contracts for asbestos abatement work.

 LIABILITY OF PROJECT DESIGNERS

 Project designers face liability and litigation issues due to the critical role they play in the
 asbestos management  and control process.  The design documents outline the primary
 methods for performing the work and protecting human health and the environment.  If a
 problem such  as  migration  of fibers outside the work area occurs in connection with
 performance of the work, as a result of poor design specifications, the project designer may
 be liable for any resulting injury or damage.

The  project  designer  should  be  concerned  with three  areas  of potential
 liability:  contractual liability, tort liability and  regulatory  liability.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                   Section XI - Legal and Insurance Considerations
                                                                               Pagc2

Contractual Liability
Contracts are complex legal documents and must be carefully reviewed and understood.
Legal advice may be necessary. The project designer may be liable for breach of contract
if the contract requirements are not property performed.  There are several project design
issues relating to potential contractual liability that must be addressed.

Project Scooe - A scope of work which clearly states the services that will be
provided by the project designer to the facility owner Is essential.  Care must
be taken to define the services to be performed and area(s) of the facility that are involved.
It is also important to define the responsibilities of the facility owner.

Work conducted on Fixed-Fee Basis - The fee to be charged for services must be
specified in  the contract.  Design work for asbestos abatement is often conducted on a
fixed-fee basis.  Under this scenario, if unanticipated conditions such as the discovery of
asbestos in  the ceiling tile (previously unreported) increases the amount of design work.
the designer would be liable for conducting that work within the fixed fee.  One method of
avoiding this is to include language in the contract which provides for additional funding if
the work, as a result of unanticipated conditions, turns out to be significantly different than
the original scope of work.

Schedule for Dellverables/Tlme for Performance - The timing  of the completion of
construction  documents can be of great concern to a school district or commercial building
owner and the subject of breach-of-contract action or  liquidated damages.   If school
officials or facility operators have a timetable by which  they must solicit bids  from

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STUOCMT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  S«cton XI - L*gaf and Inturmc* Conudwtbora
                                                                             P.0.3

contractors or apply for federal or state funding, the completion of the project design and
associated documents becomes an important contractual consideration.
Reliance on Previous Survey Results - The extent of reliance  on previous survey
results Is another area in which the building owner and project designer should have a
clear contractual understanding. Typically, the designer will need to supplement the
survey data with additional samples, confirmation of  material quantities and building
dimensions.  The facility owner/operator may want to save  money  in the short term by
economizing on obtaining additional services; however, such practices could  cause legal
problems for  the  project designer later  if the  original  survey was inadequately or
improperly performed.

Inherent Requirements  Placed on Licensed  Individuals - In those  states or
localities  which  require  asbestos abatement  design to  be conducted by a licensed
architect or engineer, or a professional of a specific designation, the designer should be
aware of a variety of inherent contractual requirements.  For example, regulated architects
and  engineers are  required to  comply wrth building  codes  to retain  this license.  If a
designer  provided  specifications for asbestos abatement  design  and renovation but
neglected to Incorporate code requirements, he or she could be contractually liable to
correct the omission. This could be a significant expense depending  on the size  of the
project.  In addition, the contract will generally require that the designer be properly
licensed.  Failing to  do so may require that design documents be approved by the properly
licensed professional at the expense of the designer.

Requirements for State-oMhe-Art Protocols - Contract language which should  be
approached with caution includes the requirement for "best practices* or "state-of-the-art"

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                   Section X) - Legal and Insurance ConsktofafcxiB
 protocols for project design.  These requirements must be defined. As an example, if a
 designer specified clearance after removal of ACM by phase contrast microscopy instead
 of transmission  electron microscopy because the building owner did not want to pay the
 added cost, this must be documented in the contract; otherwise, the designer could be
 involved in a dispute over asbestos-related property damage or a breach -of -contract action
 by the  building owner for failing to adhere to the contractually-required standard of
 performance.

 Indemnification Clauses - Many contracts contain  provisions requiring that the project
 designer  Indemnify  the owner for liability  arising out of the  performance of the
 professional services.  Indemnification clauses are highly complex and may be subject to
 differing interpretations in various states.   It is important for every contract to be reviewed
 for such clauses and that the scope of the indemnity be  carefully  defined  to avoid
 unintended liability for the designer.

 Tort fNeoliaence) Liability

 The second area of liability concerns the project designer's  failure to perform his or
 her work  In  accordance  with  the  standards of the profession.  If such failure
 occurs and persons are injured or property is damaged as a result, the project  designer
 may be sued in "tort." A tort is a legal wrong. The breach of a legal duty is often termed
 "negligence."  Negligence can arise from the project designer failing to property include
 methods in the specifications to protect the building structure and finishes or the people
within the building from harm.  Three examples will illustrate the potential problem.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  Section XI - \jfget and kvuranoe Coftstdoralions
                                                                              Pago 5
Exampte A - The designer is retained to develop written specifications to remove sprayed-
on surfacing material in a gymnasium. The specifications call for placing only one layer of
4-mil polyethylene over the hardwood floor; as a result, in the course of removal the
polyethylene  leaks and the floor is severely damaged by water.  In this case the designer
could be accused of negligence for improper design of the system to contain the water.

Example B -The design contract requires the development of written specifications to
remove sprayed-on surfacing material in a multi-story building. The specifications neglect
to address proper isolation of the high-rise elevators;  as a result, fiber contamination
occurs on  floors above and below the work area.   The designer could be accused  of
negligence for a design that did not prevent fiber migration.

Example C-The designer is contracted to provide architectural and engineering services
to property remove ACM in a single-story  structure. The written specifications require the
placement of two layers  of fire-rated sheetrock over entrances and exits except the
decontamination unit.  If  a fire occurs and  people  are injured, the designer could be
accused of negligence for improper containment construction.

It is also important to note that compliance with regulations, although mandatory, is not a
defense  against negligence, if industry standards are more stringent.  Regulations are
minimum requirements.

Regulatory Liability

The  last area of project designer lability  concerns noncompllance with federal, state
or other regulations.  A first area of concern is compliance  with  project designer

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESiQN
                                                   Section XI - Legal and Insurance Comtdantotm
 accreditation requirements.  Not only must the project designer take an EPA-approved
 course and pass an examination, but he or she must also comply with state regulations for
 certification.   For example, In some states,  project designers are also required to be
 registered architects or engineers, or certified industrial hygtertsts.  In addition, regulations
 under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act, for example, carry severe penalties
 for noncompliance. including potential criminal liability.  In  the event that regulations are
 violated, the project designer may be subject to fines or penalties from various regulatory
 authorities.

 INSURANCE CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROJECT DESIGNERS

 Obtaining professional liability insurance is the normal method for a  professional such as
 an asbestos  project designer to secure protection from possible litigation  arising from
 negligence in performing  his or her professional activities.  Insurance is a risk-shifting
 mechanism to provide protection against catastrophic liability.

 Many owners require that all professionals involved in asbestos-related work  have liability
 insurance in order to  have some financial security for significant claims that may arise.
 Under certain state and  local  laws,  general  liability  Insurance In specified
 amounts Is  often required.

 A related aspect of risk shifting is the presence of indemnification clauses in  the contract.
whereby the professional is obligated to indemnify and defend the owner (and vice-versa)
against claims brought against the owner arising out of the professional's work. Insurance
may not always protect against this type of liability.  At the same time, however, project
designers need such insurance to  protect themselves against claims which  can be

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STUDENT KWNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                   Section XI - Legal and Insurance Conudoraiof»
                                                                              Pago 7
financially ruinous, and to provide for legal defense of any claims. While work done in
accordance with the applicable industry standard of care, the contract documents and
applicable regulations may ultimately shield the project designer from liability,  the
assumption of defense of a legal action by the insurance carrier,  or the dient (building
owner) who indemnifies the designer, is a significant benefit

It is obvious that insurance adds to the project designer's cost of performance and thus is
eventually paid by the owner, either on a pro-rata basts or, in many cases, dollar for dollar.
Due to the expense  of liability insurance,  many owners have  considered dropping
insurance requirements and many consultants have performed work without insurance.

The relative unavailability of professional liablity insurance in the recent past has resulted
in some asbestos professionals purchasing insurance without paying adequate attention
to whether risks  are covered or the strength or credibility of the carrier. Similarly, owners
are accepting insurance certificates  without analyzing  the coverage  being offered.
Changes in the  type  and scope of coverages offered by  the insurance industry must,
therefore, be  analyzed carefully to accomplish  the goal of insurance.   Rather than
protection against liability, insurance for some has become a "license to work*  in the
asbestos  industry.  However, insurance products have  become more available  for
professional activities and should be investigated.

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 STUDENT MANUAL
 TYPES OF INSURANCE COVERAGE
  ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N
Sodton XI - Legal and tounroa Consktorations
                           Pag»8
  rors antf Omissions
 Asbestos abatement  project designers will  normally  look  for professional  liability
 Insurance, also known as Errors and Omissions (E&O) Insurance to protect them
 against  negligence  In  the  performance  of  their  professional  services,
 Including developing the  specifications and drawings.  The mistake may take the
 form  of an inadvertent error (i.e., miscalculation of  area  square footage),  or  an
 unintentional omission (i.e., leaving an area that needs to be abated, such as a soffit, out of
 the design specifications).  E&O coverage is written  for specific professions.  Many
 professionals (architect, engineer, designer, etc.) have E&O coverage to protect them for
 their specific professions; however, asbestos-related professionals  may have difficulty
 obtaining  appropriate coverage due to the great risk for  loss in their activities.  If E&O
 insurance is desired by the asbestos professional, the coverage  must  be carefully
 examined, from a coverage, limits and cost perspective.

 GenetaLLlabilitv
General liability insurance is another type of coverage that project designers need. It is
intended to serve as protection for events that occur during development and execution of
the project specification that do not involve pollution liability.  These can include slips and
falls, and nonpollution property damage. The drawback to this type of Insurance Is
that it will  likely contain a  pollution or  asbestos  exclusion, rendering the
policy essentially Ineffective  for asbestos-related claims.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  Section XI - Legal end Inmrwxj* Con*fcfertton>
Coverage Issues

It is important to understand the difference between general liability and professional
liability insurance from a coverage basis also.  In the past, general liability insurance has
been written on  an "occurrence" basis.  Under such a policy, if an incident "occurs"
while the policy  is in  force,  coverage Is afforded even If the actual claim  Is made
some years  later and even  If the  Insured Is no longer Insured by  the same
carrier.  As a result of the writing of this type of coverage, insurance carriers must defend
claims brought years  after companies are no longer insured by the carrier.   Particularly
with the  long latency period  of asbestos-related disease, occurrence coverage can result
in great losses to carriers who have not received premiums over a period of  time.  As a
result, several years  ago carriers  began adding exclusions to existing general liability
policies for asbestos-related  third-party claims and even changed the coverage form from
"occurrence" to "claims made" for both consultants (designers) and contractors as well.

As contrasted with general liability coverage, professional liability coverage has historically
only been written on a "claims made' basis.  Thus, E&O coverage for asbestos design
consultants,  as  well  as  architects, engineers, attorneys,  accountants and medical
professionals, will most likely be on a "claims made" basis and it may be difficult to obtain
appropriate coverage.

Under  a "claims made"  policy,  coverage  Is  provided for  claims that  are
brought while  the policy  Is  In  force.   In  certain  situations, a daim may also be
brought during an extended ("tail") reporting period after the policy has expired, which may
require an additional premium.  In switching coverage to a new insurance carrier, it Is also
possible to request 'retroactive* coverage for unknown claims prior to the new  policy.  For

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                         AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                   Section XI - Legal tnd Irvurwtc* Corarierttons
 many risks, the difference between occurrence and claims made  coverage  is not
 significant since the liability-causing event is obvious, and claims are generally asserted
 shortly after the event occurs. However, injury caused by the release of fibers from an
 asbestos abatement project may not be detected for 20 to 40 years afterward. Thus, daims
 made coverage may not respond in such cases if (1) the insured changes insurance
 carriers before a claim is made, or (2) the carrier or insured terminates coverage under a
 policy, or (3)  the  carrier later  withdraws from the market before a  claim  is  filed.
 Nevertheless, it is likely that professional liability coverage in the future will continue to be
 written on a claims made basis,  and thus the insured must understand what is actually
 being purchased and whether the carrier wiH continue to service this market

 In addition to coverage issues, it  is mandatory that the insured read and understand the
 exclusions in its policy.  All  exclusions,  conditions and  definitions must be carefully
 analyzed.  For example, a general liability policy written for an asbestos project designer
 which includes a "pollution exclusion," excludes coverage  for any personal injury or
 property damage caused by a broad list of substances known  as 'pollutants."  Generally,
 asbestos is included on the list for project designers and, consequently, the policy provides
 no coverage for asbestos risks. Some professional liability policies require certain types of
documentation, or certain professional  accreditations.   All  policy  terms must be
understood.

 In addition to obtaining Insurance for professional liability, a designer may work with the
owner in developing insurance specifications for the contractors performing the  work.
Care must be taken in assuming this responsibility, since this is often excluded in the E&O
policy.  There are several  important considerations  in making an analysis of available
insurance coverage  or in specifying same:

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STUDENT HKNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N
                                                  Section X) - Laga! and Irwurarae ConsktocMlont
       1 .     True  "occurrence"  coverage la available.  However, the terms of the
             policy  must be  reviewed carefully.   Some 'occurrence' policies have
             conditions or exclusions that negate coverage, or have "sunset* clauses
             which terminate coverage one, two or five years after the policy ends.  The
             name of the policy makes no difference.

       2.     The insurance certificate is only evidence of coverage; it provides relatively
             little  information of benefit to an owner or professional consultant  The
             policy itself must be reviewed.

       3.     The Insurance carrier must be very carefully evaluated.  Does the carrier
             understand the industry and is it committed to writing proper coverage?
             Again, the policy terms are important.

CONTRACTS FOR ABATEMENT WORK

Though the contract for the  abatement work is between the building owner and the
contractor, the designer is often involved  in the solicitation of  bids and selecting the
contractor. Some of the more  important contract issues with which the designer may be
involved are discussed below.

Typos of Contract Documents

Once a building owner has decided to begin an asbestos abatement program, the owner is
faced with many practical questions.  One of the first of these relates to contract documents.
Great care must be used in the selection of contract documents and clauses, since this will

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  Sacfeon XI - LtgaJ and bvurano* Comidwuions
 define the legal  relationship and responsibilities of the owner and contractor.   The
 American Institute of Architects (AIA) has developed a number of standardfced agreements
 for construction, but nevertheless advises users of the important legal consequences of
 these documents.  One typical contract used for abatement work is AIA 101, Owner-
 Contractor  Agreement Form  - Stipulated  Sum, a four-page  document which
 typically contains the name of contracting parties, the contract amount, the start and
 completion date and other general  data.   Other  standardized  forms also exist.
 Accompanying Form  AIA 101 is AIA 201, General  Conditions of the Contract for
 Construction.   This  is  a 19-page document  which contains  general contract
 requirements, sometimes erroneously referred to as "bolter-plate* language. Form AIA 201
 has been around  for many years. Its clauses have been frequently litigated and lawyers
 and facility owners are familiar with the normal interpretation placed on the language in
 AIA 201 . This provides for a degree of certainty, which is desirable. Of course, disputes do
 arise  under these clauses,  and the contract must be tailored to  the specific project.
 However, it may be easier for legal counsel and the facility owner and contractor to resolve
 differences  under familiar  contract language than  in the unknown areas of  a job
 specification on an asbestos abatement contract. Contract documents are covered in  more
 detail in the design workshop portion of this manual.

 The third document that will typically be  included, or referenced to, in  an asbestos
 abatement contract  is  the project manual or project specifications. Regardless of
 the size of the Job,  or whether It Is public or private, a written set of project
 specifications  Is a  must  for  any  asbestos  abatement  project.   Project
specifications will vary  in the  amount of detail provided  and the format, from one designer
to the next No two should be exactly alike because the specifications must be adapted to
the site parameters.  The fact that these project specifications are  site  specific and

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                 Socton XI - 1*04 and Insurmca Concfcferattvw
therefore have not been subject to the  interpretations placed on  the standard
specifications,  makes  careful attention to  and interpretation  of asbestos  abatement
specifications critical   Frequently, design professionals give very strict interpretation to
these clauses  and are much  less permissive than in the interpretation of specifications
involving less hazardous activities.

SOME IMPORTANT ISSUES RELATED TO CONTRACT SPECIFICATIONS

Description of Work

One of the most Important Items In the written specifications Is the  work description.
Typically, if an  entire building is involved, the work description may not be a significant
problem. However, if a contractor is being asked to remove asbestos  in only a segment of
a floor of a building, for example, a serious abatement problem may exist.  When the
plastic barrier is removed, will  the "dean air* still be dean? Another problem is Illustrated
by the Job where the contractor was asked to remove friable material from beams over a
dirt basement  in a commercial  building.  The specifications  did  not call  for barrier
protection for the dirt  The contractor, fully in compliance with the specifications,  removed
the asbestos; however, in the process, it contaminated the dirt. The result  was that a
second abatement effort was required  for the removal of several inches of dirt in the
basement  This cost, quite unnecessary, was the result of inadequately prepared
specifications.  Of course, drawings are of great assistance in properly defining  job
boundaries and the scope of the specifications.

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 STUDENT HMNUAL
 Furniture. Fixtures and Equipment
  ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
Section XI - Lftgai and Insurance Consfctorafons
                          Pago 14
 Another issue that frequently arises is that of furniture, fixtures and equipment.  Most
 asbestos abatement projects require the removal and then  reinstallation of furniture,
 fixtures  and equipment.  The owner  should make  a realistic  assessment of
 whether salvaging of such Items, particularly fixtures, Is  feasible. The age and
 condition of the furniture and equipment must be assessed.  It will  only promote contractual
 disputes for  the owner to insist that a  contractor remove and  reinstall fixtures  and
 equipment which will be damaged or destroyed by the very process.  The owner  and
 project designer should not expect to engage in a "backdoor" renovation of the  facility, at
 the contractor's expense, by placing specification requirements on the contractor which are
 unattainable.

 Site Security
Site security is  another  issue that should be specifically addressed.  An unsecure
asbestos  abatement site  can  have  grave  legal  Implications.  Of course, any
construction site can be dangerous, but  an  unmonitored asbestos abatement site is
particularly hazardous. The issue of whether  security must be maintained on a 24-hour
basis is also one which must be addressed. Again, this is an area where  more attention
must be given if only one area of a building is being abated while  other areas are
occupied.  If an entire building can be  isolated, security is a much  easier  process.
Certainly, the regulatory warning signs required by OSHA are important; however, these
should be viewed as a minimum warning and  further warnings or security are frequently
necessary.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N
                                                  Section XI - Legal and Ineurano* Corwidorrfom
Equipment Selection

Each owner must participate,  if only through  his  project designer, in equipment
requirement decisions on an asbestos abatement project. The decision about the number
of air filtration devices, what type of respiratory protection equipment is required, what type
of dothing is sufficient, what number of HEPA vacuum units are necessary  and other
similar equipment requirements is very important to the success and safety of the job.
From  a  technical  and  legal  standpoint,  It  can  be effectively argued that
"state-of-the-art" equipment should  be employed.  OSHA and EPA requirements
again should be viewed as minimal requirements.  If one is not going to employ •state-of-
the-art* technology, that decision must be justified.

Insurance Protection for the Building Owner

A  major issue for asbestos abatement contractors, as well as design professionals, is
insurance.  At present, the insurance 'crisis* is easing and contractors who have not been
able to obtain liability  insurance now have it more readily available.  From the owner's or
contractor's perspective, it is first important to understand what the insurance requirements
are. The first issue Is who must be protected. Generally speaking, the owner will want to
require protection for itself and its employees, the contractor and  its employees, and third
parties.  This will  mean that the owner will wish to be an additional  insured  under the
contractor's policy and to be furnished a certificate of insurance as well.  It is important that
the certificate of insurance  specify the types of  coverage afforded.  However, since the
certificate  of insurance is only evidence of coverage,  it is not complete and the owner
should request a copy of the contractor's insurance policy. This  is particularly  true since
asbestos and pollution exclusions can appear  in such policies. The owner's legal or

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  Sodton XI - legal and Insunmoo ConciderMons
                                                                            Paptie

 insurance advisors  can play an important role  in ensuring that  proper coverage is
 obtained.
 Insurance must protect the insureds from both bodily injury (to persons) and property
 damage claims.  While this is standard in general liability policies, bodily injury and
 property damage claims may be excluded due to an exclusion of coverage for asbestos- or
 pollution-related claims. Therefore, the owner must be sure that H is protected from the real
 hazards presented by asbestos abatement  Of course, it is necessary to insure against the
 normal construction  hazards as well, with general liability coverage.

 Another important point is to determine the length of time the insurance will be in force.
 CJearty. the insurance should be in force during the contract  However, it is most important
 that coverage continue after the contract is completed.  "Completed operations" coverage
 ensures that if the contractor fails to completely abate the asbestos problem and the owner
 initially fails to discover the contractor's oversight the owner will nonetheless be protected
 if a claim arises after completion.  Also related to this issue is the need to determine
 whether the insurance is "claims made"  or "occurrence" coverage. These  concepts were
 covered earlier in the  discussion on insurance for the project designer.  Generally
 speaking,  the  owner   needs  general  and  asbestos  liability  Insurance
 coverage  for  both  bodily  Injury  and property  damage  risks,  completed
 operations  coverage and,  of course,  workers' compensation coverage which
compiles with  the  laws of the state where the work Is to be done.  Coverage for
specific  activities, such as transportation, should also obtained.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMEMT PROJECT DESKS*
                                                  Section XI - Legal and Inturano* Conckferationc
                                                                            P«gol7

Bonding
While some facility owners are now requiring bonds from professional firms, bonding is
usually required only from the contractor, and the project designer's interest in this topic is
that of the building owner's.  The requirement for bonding is generally included in the
contract documents.  The project designer, in conjunction with legal counsel, may be
called upon to provide guidance on the types and amounts of bonds that are necessary for
the project.   Traditionally, two  types of bonds have been required in  the construction
industry to protect the owner or lender against the contractor's financial default:

       •  Payment Bonds - under which a surety company agrees to pay for labor and
         materials supplied to a project in the event the contractor fails to do so; and

       •  Performance Bonds - under  which a  surety company  agrees to complete
         performance of a project if the contractor fate to do so.

Abatement contractors who have had their Insurance  cancelled or not renewed experience
difficulties in  obtaining bonding.  Bonding companies  rely  on  the financial ability of the
principal (the contractor) to respond to claims under payment and performance bonds.  If a
contractor is not insured against catastrophic liability,  the financial  underpinnings of the
company can be weakened  and  the bonding company becomes apprehensive over
issuing bonds.  In  a similar  vein, lenders are reacting adversely to the problems of
insurance and bonding of such companies.  Lenders  are advising  contractors who find
themselves In such positions that lines of credit will not be renewed for the same reasons
given by the bonding companies.

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 STUDENT hMNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                   Secton XI - Logaf and Insurance Coroxtorafcns
                                                                             Pa0oiS
 In the recent past, the difficulty encountered  by asbestos abatement contractors in
 obtaining bonding was severe.  For reasons similar to those which caused the asbestos
 abatement Insurance crisis,  many contractors were unable to obtain sufficient bonding
 and. in some cases, any bonding. In  addition to the general underwriting concerns about
 the contractor's financial and technical ability to  perform the work, another reason some
 bonding  companies were unwilling to write bonds for asbestos abatement work relates
 directly to liability insurance problems.   Because  the  abatement  contract often has
 requirements for the contractor to obtain and maintain certain liability insurance coverage
 on the project, the bonding companies fear that If the contractor has insurance problems.
 such as improper coverages or cancellation during the policy period, the potential loss that
 may otherwise be  covered by liability insurance might be covered  by  the  contractor's
 performance bond.  Though insurance and bonding are easier to obtain  now than in  the
 late 1980s, the expense remains relatively high and careful attention must be paid to  the
 quality of coverage obtained, as discussed earlier.

 While the traditional concepts of bond underwriting may  not be applicable to project
 designers, it is nevertheless useful to understand them. The primary considerations of  the
 bonding  company in determining whether to bond  a contractor are the  ability of the
 contractor to perform the work and the contractors financial  ability. A proven track record
 of successfully-completed projects,  without ensuing litigation, is very helpful to the
 contractor in demonstrating  to the bonding company its  ability to  perform the work.
 Financial stability is important not only  with respect to the contractor's ability to  perform the
work, but also its ability to satisfy its indemnity obligation to the  bonding company in the
event a loss Is suffered under the bonds.  Unlike insurance, a payment or performance
bond gives the bonding  company the right to recover contract balances if losses are
sustained by it under the bond. A somewhat more intangible, yet important factor, is the

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STUDEHT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DEStQN
                                                  Sodion XI - Legal and Insurance CorakfcwatonB
                                                                            Pap 19
contractor's good character. Despite satisfactorily proving all of these items, however, a
contractor may still not be able to obtain sufficient bonding in today's market  In such
events, an owner may waive or refuse bonding requirements or arrange other contractual
mechanisms to assure payment or performance.

There  are  numerous legal considerations involved  in the evaluation of insurance and
bonding coverage. The cost of insurance for asbestos abatement is significant, and if such
expense Is going to be undertaken, the coverage obtained should be satisfactory. While
there are  no easy solutions in  this decision-making  process,  it is mandatory that
contractors, consultants and owners undertake to become knowledgeable purchasers of
insurance.

The shift in the types of coverages written for the contracting industry from occurrence to
claims made, and the difficulty in  obtaining bonds have placed greater emphasis on the
contractor's commitment to the performance of work in a quality manner, the carrier's
commitment to continuing to insure asbestos abatement contractors, and the quality of the
carrier's  coverage and insurance program in  general.  This makes the  process  of
purchasing Insurance more complicated, but a  thorough review  of the considerations
outlined  above  will greatly assist the  contractor,  consultant or owner in making a
knowledgeable choice.

Supervision and Training

The heart of any asbestos abatement project is not the equipment, although the equipment
is important, or the physical project requirements, although they are  vital too. The heart of
the project is the care and skBI exercised  by the workers who remove the asbestos-

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N
                                                  S*cten XI - Lagal and Imunno* CoraidKttons
 containing materials. If this occurs in a professional manner, the owner can expect a good
 result If the work is sloppy, good equipment will not save the job.

 From the owner's perspective. It is vital that the contractor's project superintendent be an
 experienced asbestos abatement worker.  He or she must have had experience on various
 projects and under various conditions.  The owner should require documentation of the
 experience. It will behoove the owner to check on the quality of the preceding projects.
 The superintendent is the key to the work.

 Many projects are  sufficiently extensive to require a project superintendent and  foreman.
 The latter person typically will be in the containment area actually supervising the workers
 while the superintendent may be in and out of the area at various times.  If a foreman is
 required, he or she should also be experienced and able to instruct the workers on site
 and personally supervise actual  preparation, removal and clean-up activities.   It  is
 desirable to contractually require that both  of these positions be filled by  qualified
 individuals.

 If the  removal project is being conducted in a school, abatement workers and supervisors,
 as well as inspectors, management planners and project designers, must be trained  In
 accordance with  AHERA regulations.   Under  regulations  promulgated  by  the
 Asbestos In Schools  Hazard  Reauthorlzatlon Act (ASMARA), AHERA training
 requirements are being  extended  to  commercial and  public buildings.  When
those regulations  come  into effect, it will not only be recommended, but a regulatory
requirement, that asbestos abatement workers and supervisors receive training from an
approved training provider and pass the required exam.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       AS8E5TO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  Sccton XI - U0a) and Insurant* ConridBfrions
                                                                            Page 21
From a legal standpoint  it is critical that records be kept to document that training was
given to each worker.  The facility owner, via the project specifications, can reserve the
right to inspect these records and retain copies.  In fact, the owner may wish to maintain a
complete file on all workers who worked on the project This will avoid the problem of the
contractor going out of business later and an asbestos daim arising by an employee
against the owner many years thereafter based on an alleged failure to warn.
The facility owner needs to maintain permanent records on all phases of the
project, from Inspection, to design and  through abatement  It is  not enough to
maintain these records for a few years.  Asbestos disease latency periods  may extend 30
or more years beyond the work date.  These records should be stored and maintained
permanently. The required records should be specified in the project specifications, and
responsibilities for development and maintenance of records dearly defined.

Adequate Time for Job Performance

One of the most difficult problems in asbestos abatement work is that of time. Once the
owner has decided to conduct an asbestos abatement program, he is virtually always in a
hurry. Many programs are specified with very snort time limits of two to five  days, and work
often must be performed at night, or on weekends or holidays.

To avoid contractual disputes, it is desirable for the owner to specify enough time to allow
the project to be completed in a competent manner. Questions of access to the site, other
contractors who  may be working or  waiting for notice to proceed, and  the  owners'

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESKSN
                                                  Socton XI - Lagal and Insurance ConoktoroDons
                                                                            Page 22
 employees  presence at the site must be considered.  Generally speaking, qualified
 abatement contractors will begin work quickly once they are notified to proceed.  Owners
 are frequently critical of late starts that can result in late finishes.  It may, therefore, be in the
 owner's interest to provide  some liquidated damages for a  late start as a means of
 emphasizing to the contractor that the start date is important  However, most frequently this
 issue is addressed by completion date requirements and liquidated damages for failing to
 complete the work on time. At the same time, owners are frequently guilty of not providing
 the site at the time specified, or delaying the work themselves, or changing the scope of
 work.  This may result in difficulties for the contractor in completing this project or with
 scheduling other work.  The resolution Is to cooperatively come up with a time
 for  the project which  will  be realistic  both  In  length  and  In  calendar
 placement for the owner and the contractor. The project designer must bring his or
 her experience to bear on this issue.

 As to delay damages, many owners choose to use liquidated damages as a vehicle to
 make sure that contractors finish the job in the time specified. If extensive renovation work,
 following removal, or other important use of the facility is  contemplated,  liquidated
 damages may not suffice to cover the actual damages.  In these instances, owners may
 find that they are limited to damages which are less than that to which they are entitled.
 However, liquidated damage provisions are intended for use  where the actual computation
 of damages is not possble.  Most courts wifl enforce liquidated damage provisions on the
 basis that the reason for specifying liquidated damages  is the uncertainty of calculation of
actual damages.  The amount of liquidated damages must be determined on a reasonable
basis, since bonding companies will often limit the daily amount that can be imposed on
the contractor.

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STUDENT MANUAL
  ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
Socboo XI - Legal and Insurance Conadarafere
                          Pap 23
         of Asbestos-Contain'tna Waste
Another important issue is that of materials handling and disposal. The asbestos material
must be properly containerized, labeled, and shipped to an approved dump site.  The
contract or specifications should specify each item with particularity.  The owner should
obtain a copy from the contractor of the waste shipment record or manifest required by the
EPA NESHAP. This document must be given to the landfill operator by the waste hauler.
The owner must receive a copy from the landfill operator within 35 days after the waste is
received.  This provides a means for the owner to verify the waste arrival at the landfiH. it
will be desirable to have  an inventory of the drums  or bags to compare to the waste
shipment record.  This kind of attention to detail will eliminate possible claims of improper
toxic substance dumping.  The disposal site must also be chosen carefully, depending on
the character of the waste (solid/liquid, asbestos/other hazardous substances, etc.). It Is
also prudent to make sure that the materials are property  unloaded  and handled at the
disposal site.

Selection of Qualified Contractors
Another problem peculiar to public work is the requirement that the public authority accept
the lowest bid, or lowest responsible bid. The owner must  determine the best way to
satisfy this requirement and stHI engage qualified asbestos abatement contractors.  One
method of addressing this problem is to determine whether the applicable laws permit the
public agency to prequallfy contractors. Prequalification requirements can consist of
various criteria.  These may Include experience either with asbestos abatement
or  with the particular type  or size of  project  being  bid, training, formal
education (for Instance, attending  seminars),  Insurance, bonding, and a Job

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 STUDENTMAMUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N
                                                   Section XI - L«94 and tnturance ConeidaraOone
 Inspection.  A public agency must determine the best way to hire a contractor and still
 comply with its legal obligation  to accept the lowest bid, or the lowest "responsible'' or
 lowest 'responsive' bid, under applicable law.

 Frequently, an asbestos  abatement contract may be coupled with other renovation or
 reinsulatJon work.  It is virtually always necessary to have some replacement materials or
 structures for the asbestos-containing materials or structures that are removed. A decision
 must be made whether to have the asbestos abatement contractor function as the general
 contractor, or as a subcontractor under the general contractor in charge of the entire
 project.  The general contractor  is responsible for coordination of the various trades that
 may be involved. In a particularly hazardous project,  it may be necessary to contractually
 require some training of other trade workers regarding the dangers of asbestos or of the
 asbestos removal. Certainly, conferences of the trade superintendents throughout the job
 is desirable and strict security is most important in a job of that type.

 Using a general or prime contractor with an asbestos  abatement subcontractor does raise
 several issues. A problem can arise if the asbestos abatement subcontractor is unable to
 complete the work or is thrown off the job for some reason. In most instances, the prime
 contractor will not be qualified to complete the work himself.  In these instances, the owner
 may wish to reserve the right to select a substitute asbestos abatement subcontractor using
 the same criteria used in the original selection. Another issue that can arise is the ability of
 the general contractor to obtain adequate insurance and bonding for asbestos abatement
work.  Most often, these activities are excluded from the general contractor's insurance and
 bonding  programs.  This  may necessitate  using the abatement contractor as a prime
contractor, or having separate contracts for abatement and renovation work.

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STUDENT MANUAL
Cleanliness of the Job Site
  AS8EST06 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
Section XI - Legal and Imuranc* ContxtonOtom
                         Pape2S
One final note is that of the completion of the job by clearance testing.  The contract
should  contain a combined  requirement  of clean surface* and achieving
clearance  air standards, as well as specifying  the  methods to be used.  Itis
possible to have acceptable air monitoring results within the abatement area, and still have
dangerous levels of asbestos-containing materials present within the facility.  It is important
to require that all surfaces in the work area be dean upon visual inspection, prior to
clearance testing.  Therefore, the owner  or his representative must be sure that the
contractor has thoroughly removed and cleaned up all material, and that the airborne
asbestos  fiber concentrations  meet the clearance standards  established in the
specifications and applicable  regulations,  utilizing  the specified procedures  (e.g..
aggressive sampling, PCM vs. TEM analysis, etc.).

Protect Manaoer and Air Monttorlna Personnel
The qualifications and integrity of the project manager or air monitoring professionals are
vital.  They should be qualified and experienced.  There have been a few instances of
falsified  tests  reported.   An  Important  consideration  Is to  have  project
management  and  air  monitoring  performed  under  a  separate contract
between the  owner and the project  management or  air monitoring firm. An
owner does not normally want to have a turnkey* contract where his abatement contractor
supplies the project management and the air monitoring, unless the owner has separately
determined the qualifications of the project management or air  monitoring firm being
engaged by the contractor.  In school  buildings covered by AHERA regulations,  an
independent firm is required to conduct clearance testing. Other laws must be consulted

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 STU)6KT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PftOJECT DESIGN
                                                   Socttxi XI - Legal and Insurance Conefcteretons
 as weH.  The owner may wish to have the project management or air monitoring paid for as
 part of the abatement contract; however, this must be weighed against obtaining his own
 project management or air monitoring contract with a separate firm or person.  A number of
 owners seek to save money by having the contractor take either progress samples or even
 clearance samples,  using the contractor's employees.  Since  air  monitoring data is so
 critical in determining  proper performance and  perhaps  defense of any claim, this
 procedure is discouraged.

 CONCLUSION

 The project designer and owner must be aware of legal and insurance issues involved
 with abatement work.  Contractual issues are particularly important  since the project
 designer must be concerned not only with its contract but often in developing the contract
 and project requirements between the owner and contractor. The project designer must be
 careful to avoid areas where he or she  is not trained or experienced, so as to avoid being
 held liable to the owner.

 Both legal and insurance  issues are complex.   The project designer and owner should
 work with legal counsel and insurance advisors who  are experienced with asbestos
 abatement work.  This  will help avoid problems before, during and after the asbestos
 abatement  project
Note:  The remarks contained in this section are. by nature, general and do not attempt to specif icaly
explore the law of any state. Moreover, these remarks are not intended to constitute a specific legal
opinion on any asbestos abatement project. The sole purpose of these remarks is for the general
guidance of those invoked in asbestos abatement work.  Specific legal advice should be obtained
from competent legal counsel.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                  Section XI - U04 and Incuranot
REVIEW  QUESTIONS

1 .     What are the three areas of potential  liability for an asbestos abatement project
       designer?
2.     What type of liability is associated with failing to perform work in accordance with
       skills of the profession?
3.     What type of protection does general liability insurance provide?
4.     What is the difference between •occurrence* and "claims made* liability insurance?
5.     Name the types of contract documents typically used for asbestos abatement
       projects.
6.     Is "state-of-the-art" technology always imperative when designing an asbestos
       abatement project? If not, give an example of when a lesser degree of technology
       might be more prudent.
7.     Traditionally, what two types of bonds have  been required in the construction
       industry to protect owners or landlords against the contractor's [financial] default?
8.      For removal  projects being  conducted  in  schools,  abatement workers  and
       supervisors as well  as inspectors, management planners and project designers
       must be trained in accordance with what regulations?

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STUDENT ANNUAL                                       AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT OEStQN
                                                  Section XI - Lugai and Incuranoa Comdwmtons
9.     How long should a building owner maintain records of an abatement project?
10.    Liquidated damage clauses are often used in abatement contracts by whom and for
       what reason?
11.    Prequalfication of contractors is helpful for what purpose?
12.    Should air sampling be solely used to evaluate the completion of an abatement? If
       not. what should supplement the air sampling?
13.     IdeaBy, who should the air sampling professional be under contract with during an
       abatement project?

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STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section XII - Federal. State and Local Rogutattxy Requirements
                                                                           Paool

  FEDERAL, STATE AND  LOCAL REGULATORY  REQUIREMENTS
INTRODUCTION

The federal agencies which oversee regulations pertaining  to asbestos-containing
materials (ACM) include  the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Department of Transportation (DOT), the
Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).  This section will focus on the
EPA.  OSHA and DOT regulations which have the greatest impact on the design and
execution of an abatement project.   This section will conclude with a discussion on
common variations between federal, state and local regulations.

The EPA traditionally has jurisdiction over issues that affect air. water and land. Following
this trend for asbestos, there arc EPA  regulations which focus on minimizing the release of
asbestos fibers  into the environment and accreditation of  the work force. For asbestos-
related issues.  EPA also  regulates schools.  These regulations  require  inspection,
assessment and control of ACM In schools conducting kindergarten through twelfth grade
classes.  OSHA regulations focus on worker health and safety issues including procedures
for  performing work, established permissible exposure limits for asbestos workers, and
requirements for protective equipment when working with ACM.  DOT regulates  the
packaging and  shipping of asbestos-containing  materials including waste generated
during an abatement project.  States,  counties and cities promulgate  and enforce a wide
range of asbestos regulations which must be as stringent as the federal regulations,  and
which also must be incorporated into the abatement project design.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section XII - Federal. Sate and Local Rugvtobxy Requirements
                                                                           Page2

 EPA REGULATIONS
 The primary EPA asbestos regulations are listed and briefly summarized in Table XII-1.
 The most important regulations, from a project designer's perspective, are covered in more
 detail in the following section.
                                  TABLE  XIM
            LISTING OF PRIMARY  EPA ASBESTOS REGULATIONS
       USEPA National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
          (NESHAP) Asbestos Regulations. 40 CFR 61, Subpart M.
       USEPA Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools:  Final Rule and Notice.
          40 CFR Part 763. Subpart E.
       USEPA Friable Asbestos-Containing  Materials in Schools; Identification
          and Notification. 40 CFR  Part 763. Subpart F.
       USEPA Regulations Governing Asbestos Abatement Projects (Worker
          Protection). 40 CFR 763. Subpart G.
       USEPA Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools:  Model Accreditation
          Plan, 40 CFR Part 763.
       USEPA Asbestos Ban and Phaseout Rule. 40 CFR Part 763. Subpart I
          (Remanded to EPA by U. S. Court of Appeals on October 18,1991).
This section will also discuss the Asbestos Information Act of 1988. P. L 100-577, that
required former and current manufacturers and processors of asbestos products to submit
information identifying their products to the EPA.

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

The National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for asbestos
were promulgated under section 112 of the Clean Air Act in 1973 and have undergone a

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PflOJECT DESJGN
                                        Section XII - Federal. State and Local Rogutekxy Requirements
number of revisions, the latest on November 20, 1 990.  The standards potentially apply to
all buildings including school and nonschool structures, and emphasize procedures for
minimizing emissions of asbestos fibers into the environment.  With respect to asbestos
demolition and renovation activities, the NESHAP regulation addresses the  following
topics:
       •  Applicability
       •  Notification requirements
       •  Asbestos emission control procedures
       •  Standards for insulating materials
       •  Waste disposal requirements for owners/operators
       •  Standards for operators of active disposal sites
       •  Requirements for operations that convert asbestos-containing material into
         nonasbestos material

Concerning abatement projects, the important NESHAP areas to consider are applicability.
notification requirements, asbestos emission control procedures, and ACM waste disposal
practices  and records.   In some regions the administration  of  NESHAP has  been
delegated to the state level, in which case the regulation may be more stringent or the
interpretation and enforcement may vary from  the federal authorities.  In any case, the
NESHAP  administrator is a federal or state  authority with  primary responsibility for
regulation of asbestos abatement associated with building demolition or renovation.

Applicability - The revised  NESHAP regulation added or amended some definitions which
are key to understanding the applicability of the regulations.  These include the following:
       "Regulated asbestos-containing material (RACM)"  means (a) Friable
       asbestos material; (b) Category I nonfriable ACM that has become friable;
       (c) Category I nonfriable ACM that will be or has  been subjected to sanding.
       grinding, cutting, or abrading; or (d) Category II  nonfriable ACM that has a

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 STVOtNT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XII - F*dafa<. State and Local Regulatory RoquirormHrts
                                                                            Pago4

       high probability  of becoming or has  become crumbled,  pulverized, or
       reduced to powder by the forces expected to act on the  material in the
       course of demolition or renovation operations regulated by this subpart.

       "Renovation" means altering a facility or one or more facility components in
       any way.  including the stripping or removal  of  RACM  from a facility
       component.

       "Demolition" means the wrecking or taking  out of  any load-supporting
       structural member of a facility together with any related handling operations
       or the intentional burning of any facility.

       "Category  I  nonfriable asbestos-containing  material (ACM)" means
       asbestos-containing packings, gaskets, resilient floor covering, and asphalt
       roofing products containing more than one percent asbestos as determined
       using  the method specified in Appendix A, Subpart F. 40  CFR Part 783.
       Section 1, Polarized Ught Microscopy.

       "Category  II nonfriable ACM" means any material, excluding Category I
       nonfriable ACM, containing more than one percent asbestos as determined
       using  the methods specified in Appendix  A. Subpart F. 40  CFR Part 763.
       Section 1,  Polarized Light Microscopy that, when dry.  cannot be crumbled,
       pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure.

       "Friable asbestos material' means any material containing  more than one
       percent asbestos, that, when dry, can  be crumbled pulverized, or reduced to
       powder by hand pressure.

       •Adequately wet* means to sufficiently mix  or penetrate with liquid to prevent
       the release of particles.  If visible emissions are observed coming from the
       material, then it is not adequately wet.  However, lack of visible emissions
       alone is not sufficient evidence of being adequately wet.

       "Visible emissions" means any emissions which are visually detectable,
       without the aid of instruments, coming from RACM or asbestos-containing
       waste  material.
Before conducting  a renovation or  demolition activity,  building owners  or

operators  must thoroughly Inspect the facility or part  of the facility where the

activity  will  occur  for  the  presence  of asbestos,  Including  friable,  and

Category I and Category  II  nonfriable ACM.



If a facility contains  the following amounts of RACM,  it is subject to NESHAP regulations for

demolition and renovation activities which disturb the ACM:

       •  260 linear feet (80 linear meters)

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XII - Federal. State and Local Regulatory Roquromorts
                                                                             PagoS

       •  160 square feet (15 square meters)
       •  35 cubic feet (1 cubic meter)
       •  Combined additive amount during a calendar year equals or exceeds any of the
         above amounts
For demolition projects that wilt not involve more than the stated amounts of material, the
only action that is required is notification.  Notification  must be given to the NESHAP
administrator prior to building demolition.  For renovation projects that disturb less than
the stated quantities, NESHAP does not apply.

Notification Requirements - The facility owner or contractor performing the demolition or
renovation project must notify the NESHAP administrator in writing. The notification can be
delivered by U. S. mail, commercial delivery service or hand delivery.  Notification must be
postmarked or delivered ten days before renovation, demolition or any other activity begins
that would disturb ACM.

For combined additive renovations projected to occur in the  coming year, notification must
be postmarked or delivered ten days before the end of the calendar year preceding the
year during which the work will be done.  For emergencies, notification must be given as
soon as possible but no later than the following working day.

NESHAP  notification requirements are  extensive, including the following:   name and
address of the building owner or manager; description and  location  of the building;
estimate of the approximate amount of friable ACM present in the facility; scheduled start
and  completion dates  of  ACM removal;  description  of planned  removal methods;
procedures to be used to comply  with the  requirements of this  regulation; and name,
address and location of the disposal site.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       S*ctk>n XII - F*dara). Sato and Local Ftegutetxy Raqwrwnwtts
                                                                           Pago 6
It should be  noted that specific  notification requirements may vary depending  on  the
interpretation  of NESHAP requirements by a state or region. Therefore, a designer should
contact the local NESHAP administrator for detailed instructions. An example notification
form is provided in Figure XI1-1.

Asbestos Emission Control Procedures - Regulated asbestos-containing material
must  be  removed  from a facility  before  any  demolition  or renovation
activities  occur  that would  break up,  dislodge or  similarly  disturb  the
material.

The following  exceptions are allowed during demolition and renovation:
       • Category I nonfriabte ACM that is not in poor condition, is not friable and will not
        be subjected to sanding, grinding, cutting or abrading  does not  have to  be
        removed

       • ACM that is on a facaity component and is encased in concrete or other  similar
        material and is adequately wet when exposed does not have to be removed.

       • ACM that was not accessible before testing and was not discovered until after
        beginning the demoition or renovation project does not have to be removed.
        (ACM exposed during  demolition or renovation must be treated as ACM waste
        material and kept adequately wet at all times until disposal.)

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   STUDENT MANUAL
                                                            Aseesros ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                               Socbon Xfl - F*d»ral. S«to and Load Regulatory Ffequrvrwnts
                                                                                        Pag.7
P
  Operator Preset  t
                              Poitnark
C*t« R«cviv«d
                                                                            Hoc if ic at. 100 t
  I.   TYPE OP NOTIFICATION <  O-Or.?ln«l  • - •*,!•*<]  OC*»c*ll«d |i
  II.  FACILITY INFORMATION  I  :o«atlfy owner. n»n i il  contractor. t/td oih«r «p*r*tor )
   OWNER NAME:
    C.tyi
                                              H;
                                                                lipi
    Cor.tcr: i
   REMOVAL CONTRACTOR:
    Ajdrrm
                                                                lipi
    ConLicn
                                                                Tvll
   OTBCS OPC.X».TO^i
    Clt/i
                                                St«t«i
                                                                tlpt
    Con'.ict:
                                                               Tell
  III.  TYPE OP OPERATION  (
                                  o-Order^
                                               ••H«mov«t ion
j  IV.  IS ASBtSTCS P.^ISEKT?  ( T«»/»o )
  V.   FACILITY DESCRIPTION <  Is
                                                       •nd floor or room *«Kb*r )
    Citji
                                                               Coontyi
    tit* Uoc*tto«i
           Si;«i
                                  t  at rtoorsi
                                                                   la
    Pr««**t o*»i
                                                Prior U*«i
  VI.  PROCEDURE, IHCI.UDINC ANALYTICAI. HETBOP.  IF APPROPRIATE,  USED TO DETECT THS PRESENCE
      OF ASBESTOS MATERIAL:
  VII.  APPROXIMATE AMOUNT  Or
       ASSESTO3, i::CLi
    ?  T«-.«x>ry : AC-« itot. ••K>«vd
    ). C«l«,cr» ;i ACM Nut *r*ov«
-------
  STUDENT MANUAL
                                                          AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                             Section XU - F«doral. State and toe* Regirfalory Rcqu
  X.  DESCRIPTION OF PLAWKTD DEMOLITION OR REWOVATIOH WOK*, AND KETBOO(S)  TO BE OSES I
  XI. DESCRIPTION OF  WORK PRACTICES ASO ENGINEERING CONTROLS TO BE USED TO PREVENT
      EMISSIONS OP ASBESTOS AT THE DEMOLITION AND REttOVATIOM CITE:
  XII. HASTE TRANSPORTER  II
   Addrcaa
CUT-
&tatn
Contact Per torn
»1P,
T*i*pAOWI
       WASTE TRANSPORTER 12
Cityi ~"
f.alci
Contact Prr«oni
lip.
T»lep.v><"» i
  XIII.   WASTT DISPOSAL SITE
   CltTi
  XIV.   IP DEMOLITION ORDERED BY A COVEJUtMIHT ACTKCT. PLEASE IDENTin THE AGENCY BELOW:
   §t« of Order  (»w/DO/Tlli
                                                                iivi/DO/rT)i
  XV. FOR EMUtCENCY RENOVATIONS
   C«t« *nd Hour of n*rq«*er (>w/oc/tTii
            o!
                                xv«nt>
            o!
  XVI. DESCRIPTION Of PROCEDURES TO BE  FOLLOWED  IM THE EVENT TBAT UKEXPECTED ASBESTOS IS
      FOUND OR PREVIOUSLY WONFKIABLE ASBESTOS KATERiAL BECOMES CRW1BLED. PULVERIZED,
      OR REDUCED TO POWDER.
  XVI.  I CERTIFY TBAT AN INDIVIDUAL TRAINED  IN THE PROVISIONS OF THIS RZ3ULATIO8 (O CFR
       PART 41. S'.-BPART M)  WILL 3E  ON-SITE CURING THE DEMOLITION OR RENOVATION AKO EVICCNC
       THAT THE R£QUIK£D TRAINING HAS  BEEN ACCOMPLISHED BY THIS PERSON WILL BE AVAILABLE
       FOR INFECTION DCKING NORHAL BUSINESS HOURS.  (Rnquirod 1 year after promulgation)
                                                    of
                                                                             (D«tt)
J XVII. I CESTIJ'Y THAT THE A3OVE  INTORKATION  IS CORRECT.
                                          (Sigr.At.ur* of owe*r/operator)
                               FIGURE XII-1 (CONTINUED)
                   NOTFICATKON OF DEMOLfTION AND RENOVATION
      FEDERAL REGISTER, VOLUME 55, NO. 224, TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20,1990

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STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XII - F«doral. Stato and Local Rogutawy Ftoquiromonts
                                                                            Page 9
       •  Category II nonfriable ACM that has a low probability of becoming crumbled.
         pulverized or reduced to powder during demolition or renovation does not have
         to be removed.  If a Category II nonfriable ACM is damaged and becomes friable
         during demolition or renovation, then it must be removed.

Building  components covered with  ACM can be  removed in sections  as long as all
exposed  RACM is kept adequately wet during cutting or disjoining operations and lowered
to ground level without disturbing the  ACM. The ACM on the components can be wrapped
and sealed in a leak-tight material such as 6-mil polyethylene or stripped in a contained
area using appropriate work practices.

RACM must be kept adequately wet during removal operations and carefully lowered to
the ground floor.  Material being stripped or removed more than 50 feet above ground must
be transported via leak-tight chutes or containers. Exceptions from wetting ACM because
of damage  to electrical equipment or other systems must be obtained  in writing from the
NESHAP administrator.  If the RACM is being removed from a  work  area with freezing
temperature conditions. It does not have to be kept wet. However, temperatures must be
recorded at the beginning, middle and end of each work day. These temperature records
must be maintained for two years.

In addition to these control procedures, there is a requirement that there must be a foreman
or management-level person trained  in  the provisions of NESHAP on  site  during
renovation or demolition activities. This person must receive refresher training every two
years and evidence that the required  training has been completed must be posted on site
and available  for inspection by the EPA or delegated agency. Training topics must include
applicability of the  NESHAP regulation, notification, material  identification, emission

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                         Secbon XII - Fodoral. Stato and Local Regulatory Roquromoftts
                                                                             Pago 10
 control procedures for removal and demolition, waste disposal work practices, reporting
 and recordkeeping, and asbestos hazards and worker protection.  EPA will recognize valid
 accreditation of an AHERA asbestos abatement contractor/supervisor as satisfying the
 asbestos NESHAP training requirements.

 ACM Waste Disposal Practices and Records -The NESHAP regulation explicitly slates
 that no visible emissions shall be generated to the  outside air during the  collection or
 disposal of asbestos-containing waste material.  The RACM must be adequately wetted
 prior to removal and sealed or wrapped in leak-tight  containers while it is still wet.  The
 containers holding asbestos waste  must be  labeled in accordance  with  OSHA
 requirements [29 CFR 1926.58 (k)(2)].  If the containers are transported off the facility site,
 they must be labeled with the name of the waste generator and the location  at which the
 waste was generated (see also DOT labeling requirements).

 All regulated asbestos-containing waste  material must be deposited as soon as practical
 by the waste generator at a site that meets EPA requirements for operation as  a disposal or
 conversion facility. Owners and operators must maintain waste shipment records similar to
 the example in Figure XII-2 including generator, local NESHAP administrator, quantity of
 waste,  disposal site operator and location, date of transport, transporter, and certification.  If
 the generator does not receive a signed  copy of this record back from the waste disposal
 facility within 35 days, the generator must attempt to determine the status of the shipment.
 If the paperwork has not  been received within 45 days, the generator must report the
 situation to the local NESHAP administrator.   The  NESHAP regulation also Imposes
 several requirements on operators  of disposal facilities which are not covered in this
discussion.

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   STUDENT HMNUAL
           ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PfWOECT DESIGN
S*e4on XII - F*dMl. StM* «nd Local FUgutotory Requirements
Generator |
1. «crk site narcc
2. Operator's na.te
3. ..aste disposal
sailing address
location
ana nai 1 ing address
Owner's nane
ana acdress
site (WOS) name,
, and physical site
Owner's
telephone no.
Operator's
telephone no.
WDS
phone no.
•l. Narr.e, and acdress of responsible agency
5. Description of

materials


6. Containers
No. Type


7. Total quantity
m3 (yd3)


        Special  handing instructions and additional  information
|    9.   CURATOR'S CERTIFICATION:  1 hereby declare that  the  contents of this
        consignment are fully and accurately described  above  by proper shipping
        name  and are classified, packed, narked,  anc labeled,  and are in all
        respects in proper condition for transport by highway according to
        applicable international and government regulations.
        Printed/typed nane & title
     Signature
Month  Day  Year
    10.  Transporter 1  (Acknowledgment of receipt of materials)
       frintea/typea name & title

       Address and telephone no.
     Signature
Month  Day  Year
    l\.  Transporter 2  (Acknowledgment of receipt of  materials)
        Printed/typec name & title

        Address  and telephone no.
     Signature
Month  Day  Year
    12.  Discrepancy indication space
    13.  Waste disposal site
        owner or operator:  Certification of receipt  of asbestos materials
                           covered by this manifest  except  as  noted in item 12.
>/l
Pri
ntea/typec
name
&
t
itle
Signature
Month
Day
Year
                                   FIGURE XII-2
                            WASTE SHIPMENT RECORD
       FEDERAL REGISTER. VOLUME 55, NO. 224, TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20,1990

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section Xll - Federal. State and Local Regutuory Raquiremonls
 flans - It may be of interest to the project designer to note that NESHAP banned certain
 applications of asbestos-containing materials from 1973 to 1978 as follows:
       1973 - spray-applied insulating materials
       1976 - pre molded insulation (thermal system insulation), if friable
       1978 - spray -applied decorative materials

 EPA Regulations Regarding Asbestos In Schools

 Several important legislative and regulatory actions have affected how public education
 agencies manage and respond to asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in schools.  The
 1982  'Schools Rule* in 40 CFR Part 763 required all schools to conduct inspections for
 friable ACM and to notify workers and parents of its location. Congress provided federal
 funds, in the form of loans or grants, to schools to control ACM through the Asbestos
 School  Hazard Abatement Act (ASHAA)  in  1984.   In the 1986 Asbestos Hazard
 Emergency Response Act (AHERA), Congress required EPA to promulgate regulations
 which further addressed the identification, evaluation and control of ACM in schools.  The
 AHERA regulations, 40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E, became effective December 14, 1987.
 ASHAA was  reauthorized in  1990 as  the Asbestos School Hazard  Abatement
 Reauthorization Act. or ASHARA, which extended the availability of federal funds to
 schools through  1996.  This Act  also  requires extension of accreditation and
training requirements which were originally Intended for work  In  schools to
Include Inspectors, designers, contractor supervisors and abatement workers
performing asbestos-related work  In public and commercial buildings.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Secbon XII - Fwterti. Stttt «xl Locrt Regulatory B*quifwn*ntt
                                                                          Pap 13

AHERA Regulations
Local education agencies (LEA) affected by AHERA were required to perform inspections
to identify friable and nonfriable ACM, evaluate the condition of the ACM and develop a
management plan outlining a control program. Trie  initial inspection and management
plan requirements were to have been completed by May 9.  1989.  All public and private
nonprofit elementary and secondary schools must comply with AHERA, and each LEA
must have  a designated  person  to  coordinate inspection,  management planning,
operations and maintenance, and  response actions. The AHERA regulations supplement
but do not supersede any requirements of OSHA or NESHAP.

Below is an  AHERA overview for  the asbestos abatement project designer on a topic-by-
topic basis.  The requirements  which are not likely to directly  affect designers are
condensed.   If performing other  asbestos-related tasks  in a school building, one must
acquire  a much more thorough understanding of AHERA regulations than this summary
provides.

Inspection - AHERA requires accredited inspectors, those who have  successfully
completed an EPA-approved course, to identify all asbestos-containing building materials
(ACBM) in the school and certain exterior materials.  AHERA divides ACBM into  three
categories-surfacing material, thermal  system insulation,  and miscellaneous.   The
inspector must determine friability by touching all suspect ACBM.

Sampling and Analysis - LEAs can assume any or all suspect material is ACM. Otherwise,
a minimum of three to seven samples is required for characterizing different-sized areas of
surfacing material. Thermal system insulation requires three samples and one for patched

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                       Section XII - Federal. State and Local Regulatory Requirements
                                                                          PageW
 areas. Although the inspector must estimate the quantity of suspect ACBM to determine
 the correct number of samples, this number may or may not be reliable for design
 purposes.  Sample analysis is  by polarized  light microscopy and must be done by a
 laboratory which is certified by the National Voluntary Lab Accreditation Program (NVLAP),
 directed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).  If any one sample
 of a material is determined to be greater than one  percent asbestos  using AHERA
 methodology, then the material is ACM. The designer should always check the laboratory
 results in the inspection report to determine if further surveying, sampBng and analysis are
 necessary prior to abatement design.

 Assessment - An AHERA inspection report should assess the condition of ACBM found.
 The assessment  should determine if the condition is good, damaged,  or  significantly
 damaged; the potential for future damage; and preventive measures which could be taken.
 Remember that  conditions may have changed  since an initial AHERA inspection in 1987-
 1988 or subsequent reinspections. which is another reason for carefully reviewing data
 prior to developing a specification.

 The Management Plan - The management plan is a dynamic document which rates the
priority of response actions to the condition of the ACBM found, describes the response
actions to be implemented, and is updated as actions occur. The management plan takes
risk of exposure, cost of response, and LEA budget into account in recommending how to
control and manage ACBM. The main criterion is that the response  action must protect
human health and the environment.   The  LEA is responsible  to implement the
management plan  in a timely manner.

-------
STUDENT KMNUAL                                       AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XII - F«d»fri. State and Coed Regulatory
Notification - LEAs must notify the parent-teacher organization and school workers of the
availabiBty of the management plan for their inspection.

Training - Custodial and maintenance employees who work in school buildings where
ACBM is present must be properly trained, and the LEA must notify short-term workers,
such as telephone and electric workers, of the location of ACBM. Additionally, inspectors.
management planners, response workers and supervisors, and project designers must all
receive EPA-accredited training.  Project specifications should include the requirement that
property trained and accredited personnel be used, and should require documentation of
all certifications.

Response Actions  -AHERA defines five response actions which LEAs can employ.
Removal, encapsulation,  enclosure, repair, and operations and  maintenance are all
allowed in certain situations.  Damaged or significantly damaged thermal system insulation
ACBM must  be repaired and maintained in undamaged condition. If  repair is not possible.
then material must be removed.  This is the most stringent AH ERA response requirement.
OSHA and NESHAP regulations must also be followed during school asbestos response
actions.  Enclosure,  encapsulation, removal,  and  responses to  major fiber  release
episodes in schools  must all be designed by an accredited project designer.

Clearance  Monitoring -AHERA defines specific clearance requirements for school
response actions. These are discussed  in detail in the section on  air sampling. Using
transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, clearance can be achieved two ways.
Either (1) the average of five air samples taken inside the project  area is less than 70
structures per square miHimeter, or (2) five air samples taken inside and five samples taken
outside the project area are not significantly statistically different as  determined by the Z-

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 STUDENTMANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N
                                        Section XII - Federal, Stato and Local Regulatory Fteqwfwnorts
                                                                           Page 16
 test and the average of three field blanks is less than 70 s/mrn2. PCM dearance is onty
 allowed for projects which do not exceed 160 square feet or 260 linear feet of ACBM. In
 this case, fiber concentration for each of five samples must be less than or equal to 0.01
 fibers per cubic centimeter.

 Periodic Surveillance and Reinsoection - The rule requires periodic surveillance  and
 reinspection to monitor asbestos-containing  materials left in schools. Periodic surveillance
 requires checking these  materials every six months  to determine  if its condition has
 changed since the last inspection  or surveillance.  In addition, schools must have an
 accredited inspector  relnspect and reassess the condition  of  remaining asbestos-
 containing materials every three years  and determine  if  the condition  of the material
 requires new response action activity.

 Many AH ERA  requirements are considered  "state of the art" for the industry and as such
 are employed  in work outside schools.  There is no current law requiring inspections and
 management  plans for public and commercial buildings.  However,  1990  ASHARA
 included a requirement  that EPA write regulations to  extend  the AHERA training
 requirements to cover asbestos work in public and commercial buildings. Prior to the
 ASHARA deadline of November 28,1992, EPA's Office of Prevention. Pesticides and Toxic
 Substances published Interim  Guidance  on ASHARA  Requirements.   In  a  letter
 accompanying  the document, EPA explained that they would not be able  to fully address
significant ASHARA issues by the statutory deadline. However, the guidance document
stated that after November 28, 1992, all persons inspecting for asbestos or designing or
conducting response actions in public  and  commercial buildings shall be accredited in
accordance with AHERA training requirements. EPA interpreted "public and  commercial

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STUDOn MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Secton XJ1 - Fadwal, State and Local Ragubtory Raqummants
                                                                            Pa0*17

buildings* to exclude schools, apartment buildings of fewer than ten units and single-family
homes. Additional clarification and revision of the regulations are expected from EPA.
 Worker Protection Rule

Certain employees of state and local governments are not covered under the OSHA
worker protection standard (29 CFR 1926.58) discussed later in this section. The purpose
of the EPA Asbestos Abatement Projects; Worker Protection; Final Rule is to extend the
OSHA worker safety guidelines to these government employees, especially those who
perform asbestos abatement work. The Worker Protection Rule. 40 CFR Part 763 Subpart
Q, became effective March 27.1987. and Is currently under revision.

When enacted, the rule was essentially  the same as the OSHA regulations in 1987. It
provided for an exposure limit, exposure monitoring and recordkeeping. regulated areas.
worker protection devices and facilities, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and
notification requirements.  However, the  rule has not been amended as have the OSHA
standards  on  multiple occasions since  1987.   Thus,  there are  currently many
discrepancies. Some of the most important differences are listed below.

'Employer' Definition - In order to protect state and local government employees, the rule
states that 'employer'  means  the public department, agency,  or entity which hires an
employee.  The term includes, but is not limited to, any state, county, city, or other local
government entity which operates or administers schools, a department of health or human
services, a Ibrary, a police department, a fire department, or similar public service agency
or office.

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STUD6HT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEUCKT PROJECT DESIGN
                                         Section XI! - Federal. Sato and Local Regulatory Requirements
                                                                              Page 18
Notification - Under the Worker Protection Rule, an employer must notify the appropriate
EPA Regional Asbestos Coordinator in writing at least ten days before starting abatement
work.  The exceptions to this are emergencies, in which case notification is required within
48 hours, and projects involving abatement of less than three linear feet  or three square
feet of asbestos-containing material.  Also, if NESHAP notification (which is required for
demolition and renovation projects which disturb asbestos-containing material) is made
ten days before work begins, and the NESHAP notice clearly states that some of the work
will be performed by employees covered under the rule, then additional notification of the
Regional Coordinator is not required.

Excursion Limit - Section 763.121 (c) states a permisstole exposure limit (PEL) of 0.2 fiber
per cubic centimeter of air (fibers/cc). on  an eight-hour  time-weighted  average basis.
However, there is no excursion limit written in the worker protection rule as there is in the
current OSHA standard.   In  the  OSHA standard, the excursion limit is  a short-term
exposure limit of one fiber  per cubic centimeter average over a 30-minute time period.

Small  Projects - Section  763.121  (eX6)(H)(iii)(B) provides employers no exception for
small-scale, short-duration projects in  the (e) Regulated Areas  requirements.  (Currently,
this still resides in Appendix B of AHERA.) The Worker Protection Rule contains no parallel
to Appendix Q of the OSHA standard for regulating such activities. Appendix  Q describes
several types of small-scale, short-duration projects and the appropriate safety  measures
and engineering controls for use during these types of projects.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Soobon XII - f+donl. Stato nod loori Rogutetery Requirements
San fl/irf Phasfiout Rule
The EPA published Asbestos: Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in
Commerce Prohibitions; Rnal Rule in the Federal Register on July 12, 1989. The purpose
was to 'prohibit, at staged Intervals, the future manufacture, importation, processing, and
distribution in commerce of asbestos in almost all products." Commonly known as the Ban
and Phaseout Rule, this section of 40 CFR 763 became effective August 25, 1989, except
for the information collection requirements which  have not yet been approved.

However, on October 21, 1991, a Federal Appeals Court sent the rule back to EPA and
effectively suspended the rule except for those products which were out of production prior
to July 12,1989.  The court held that the  EPA did  not properly consider less burdensome
alternatives to banning the products in these stages. Specifically, the court maintained that
the EPA did not evaluate the toxidty of likely alternatives to asbestos-containing products.
As of this writing, the EPA Is considering Its response to this ruling.

For information  purposes, the following is a summary of many of the products that would
have been affected in each stage of the Ban and  Phaseout Rule:

       Stage 1:  Felt products, corrugated and  flat A/C  sheet, floor  tile, and
                clothing;
       Stage 2:  Original equipment drum brake  linings and disc brake pads,
                clutch facings, automatic transmission  and other friction
                components,  and beater-add and sheet gaskets (except in some
                industrial uses);
       Stage 3:  Roof  and other coatings, paper products, brake blocks, after-
                market brake linings and pads, and A/C pipe and shingles.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XII - Fedarai. State and Local Regulatory Raquhwncnts
 The rule stated dates by which manufacturers of each of the three categories of asbestos-
 containing products must provide labels, cease production, and end distribution.  It also
 provided that exemptions may be granted by the EPA only in very limited circumstances.

 CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION

 Proper sampling and assessment of waDboard and joint compound has been a topic of
 interest in the asbestos abatement industry.  There is insufficient research concerning the
 types and concentration of asbestos in such  materials.  EPA has cited some firms for not
 sampling these materials during AH ERA inspections.  For these reasons, it is Important to
 review a ban of asbestos  in joint patching compound by the Consumer Product Safety
 Commission (CPSC).

 The CPSC  banned  "consumer patching compounds containing  intentionally  added
 asbestos" with regulations  published in 16 CFR 1304 in December 1977. The regulation
 defines consumer patching compounds as "those  that are customarily  produced or
 distributed for sale to or for the personal use, consumption or enjoyment of consumers in or
 around  a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or
 otherwise." The ban  on manufacturing took  effect January 16, 1978, and the ban on all
 affected products took effect June 11, 1978.

 Merely labeling products for industrial use only would not exdude them from the ban, so
the CPSC wrote a broad  definition tor consumer patching compound.  However, the
definition  of  "intentionally-added asbestos"  did  have an exception-"Whenever  a
manufacturer finds out that the finished product contains asbestos, the manufacturer win be

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XU - Fodoral. Stato and Local ftegutatxy Requirements
                                                                           Page 21
considered  as knowingly using a  raw  material containing asbestos,  unless the
manufacturer takes steps to reduce the asbestos to the maximum extent feastole."  The
nature and extent of the steps were not in the rule.

Whatever the reason, joint compounds which contain over one percent asbestos have
been found in building construction completed nearly ten years after the ban took effect
This issue, along with future industry and regulatory decisions, is important to consider in
evaluating survey results.

OSHA REGULATIONS

OS HA has the  legislated obligation to issue  and enforce regulations which protect the
safety and health of workers.  This is  done  by setting minimum standards with which
employers must comply. Project designers need to design projects so that there can be fun
compliance with OSHA regulations. However, merely meeting OSHA regulations will not
be adequate for protecting workers in some  cases.  OSHA has acknowledged that
some risk remains for workers at the current PEL Thus, the project designer may
choose to write  and enforce more stringent specifications in order to protect workers from
safety and health hazards and to protect the building owner and project designer from
legal liabilities.

The official enforcement of OSHA standards  for a project will be performed by either a
federal or state OSHA office and its enforcement officers.  About half of the states and
territories have OSHA programs and  the other half have federal  OSHA programs.
California. Indiana, North Carolina, and Iowa are examples of states with OSHA programs.
Missouri, New Jersey, Georgia, and Mississippi are examples of states with federal OSHA

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        SoefeA XH - Federal. Stato and Local Rogutatory Requtotmente
                                                                            Page 22
 programs. Federal and state OSHA regulations and enforcement are usually similar, but
 often not identical State regulations are not permitted to be less stringent than the federal
 regulations.  Regulatory interpretation and enforcement emphasis may vary some from
 state to state, and from inspector to inspector, in both state and federal enforcement states.

 Both the state program states and the federal program states have similar regulations with
 which the project designer should be familiar. These federal regulations include:
       •  29 CFR 1926.58 Asbestos Standard
       •  29 CFR 1926.59 Hazard Communication Standard
       •  29 CFR 1910.134 Respiratory Protection Standard
       •  29 CFR 1926 General Safety and Health Requirements

 A summary of these OSHA standards follows.  However, project designers  should also
 obtain, study and follow the complete OSHA  standards as they appear in the Code of
 Federal Regulations (CFR).  It should also be  noted that the OSHA standard is currently
 under revision.

 29 CFR 1926.59 Construction Asbestos Standard

 SCOPS and Application -OSHA  has two specific  asbestos standards-1926.58 and
 1910.1001.  The 1926 standard is intended for all asbestos control  activities (including
operations and maintenance) since  they  are  judged by OSHA to be construction and
maintenance actions regardless of the type facility in which they are performed.  The
1910.1001  is  a general industry standard  for  those companies  still manufacturing
asbestos-containing products such  as brake shoes and pads.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                         Section XII - Fwtoral. Saw and Local Regulatory Raqutraments
                                                                            Pap 23
Alf Limits - There are currently three limits for asbestos filers in air. The lowest air limit is
the action level (AL) of 0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc) measured over an eight-hour
time-weighted average (TWA).  Exceeding the AL only requires the employer to:  continue
air monitoring, offer initial and  annual asbestos training, offer an asbestos medical exam
after 30 days of exposure above the AL during a calendar year, and keep certain records.

The other two air limits are a permissible exposure limit (PEL)  of 0.2 f/cc as an eight-hour
TWA  and an excursion limit (EL) of 1.0 f/cc measured over the 30 minutes of maximum
exposure for each employee monitored.  If either the PEL or EL limits are exceeded,  then
the following are added to AL requirements: appropriate respirators and clothing must be
furnished and used as listed  in the standard; a regulated  area must be established.
contained, and placed under negative pressure (if feastole); a "competent person" must be
present at all work times to supervise the regulated area and the persons who enter and
exit it; eating, drinking, smoking, makeup,  and  chewing gum must be prohibited in the
regulated area; "Danger" signs  (red. black and white in color with OSHA-required wording)
must  be posted at all possbie  entrances into the regulated area; other employees in the
area must be informed of the regulated area and its significance; any feasible engineering
and work practice  controls must be implemented to reduce  airborne fiber levels; a
decontamination area consisting of a dirty equipment room, shower area, clean room, and
storage facilities must be established for employees, equipment and supplies entering and
exiting the regulated area; and multiple records must be kept

At the time of publication of this manual, OSHA is proposing new exposure limits.

Communication Among Employers -  This allows the other employers to train their
employees in the proper actions around the regulated area.  It also informs the other

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJGN
                                        Stefan XII - Fodwal. State and local Regulatory Requirements
                                                                            Pap 2*

 employers of chemicals being used for the project so they can incorporate the chemicals
 into their hazard communication program as appropriate.
 Regulated Areas - These are required when either the PEL or EL are exceeded.  Activities
 in these areas must be supervised by an OSHA-defined  asbestos 'competent person."
 Asbestos 'Danger signs with required wording must be posted at all possible entrances.
 The area must be contained and placed under negative pressure, if feasible; acceptable
 respirators and clothing must be worn in the area; smoking, drinking, chewing gum, using
 makeup, and eating must be prohibited in the area; all feasible engineering controls and
 work practices must be used to reduce airborne fiber levels; and a decontamination setup
 must be established.

 Exposure Monitoring - Regardless of whether  workers are  wearing  respirators,
 representative air samples must be collected and analyzed according to Appendix B of the
 standard lor an employees who might be exposed above one of the three air limits (AL,
 PEL, and EL).  According to the  OSHA Field Operations  Manual (FOM), at least seven
 hours of sampling must be performed on each employee being checked for the eight-hour
 limits.  Additionally, if there is any possibility of the EL being exceeded for an employee, a
 short-term sample (30-45 minutes) must be collected on  that employee during his/her peak
 exposure  for comparison to the 30-minute  EL.  The OSHA FOM allows as few as 25
 percent of the workers in  each work category to be monitored.  However, the employees
with the expected highest exposures should be included in the  25 percent monitored.
Appendix B requires the samples to  be  read by a person having passed the NKDSH 582
course or equivalent.   OSHA compliance air samples  must be analyzed with  a phase
contrast microscope.  Then, once the air monitoring results are received, they  must be
posted or given in writing to al affected employees as soon as possible.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Snctioo XII - Fodon*. S»» and Local RoguteKxy Requirement*
 Methods of Compliance - If the PEL or EL is being exceeded, then one or more of the
 following must be used to the extent feasible to reduce employee exposure below or as
 dose as possible to the PEL and EL:  local exhaust ventiation wrth HEPA filters; general
 ventilation systems; HEPA vacuum cleaners; containment and isolation; wet or chemical
 methods; and prompt cleanup and disposal  in leak-tight containers.  Certain work practices
 such as ACM removal with compressed air are prohibited.

 RBsoiratorv Protection - Respirators must be used by all employees who  would be
 exposed above the PEL or EL.  Only respirators approved by NIOSH for the contaminant
 (such as asbestos) can be used. Then the respirators must be maintained and used within
 the limits of the approvals.  A written respirator program must  be generated and followed
 according to 29 CFR 1910.134
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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XI - FvdoraJ, Stale and Local Roguluory Requirements
                                                                            Pages
 falling equipment, then other appropriate protective equipment (i.e. steel-toed shoes) must
 be provided and worn. Asbestos-contaminated protective clothing must be used, handled.
 cleaned, and/or disposed of in specified ways to prevent dispersion of the asbestos into
 areas outside the regulated area.  Protective clothing and equipment must be cleaned,
 repaired or replaced to maintain effectiveness.  Contaminated dothing and  other items
 being taken out of the regulated areas must be transported in sealed impermeable
 containers and  must  be appropriately labeled.   Laundries that are sent contaminated
 dothing must be notified.

 Hygiene Facilities and Practices  - When employees are exposed above the  PEL or EL,
 the employer must establish a decontamination area for the employees.  It must be
 adjacent and connected to  the regulated area. The decontamination area must at least
 include a dean room,  shower area, and dirty equipment  room, in that order, leading from
 the outside to the project area.  The dean room must have lockers or other  appropriate
 storage containers  for each  employee's  street dothing.   The shower must indude a
 combination of hot and cold water in accordance with the referenced 29 CFR 1910.141
 standard. The dirty equipment room must be outfitted with impermeable, labeled bags or
 containers for disposing or containing asbestos-contaminated dothing and supplies. The
 asbestos competent person for the regulated area must ensure that employees enter and
 exit the regulated area by correctly using the decontamination area. Even at exposures
 below the AL, the employer must ensure that employees do not smoke in work  areas
where they are occupationaJty exposed  to asbestos because of  activities in the work area.
Communication nf jJazards to Employees — The employer must train all employees who
are exposed to airborne fiber concentrations above the AL.  Those employees must be
trained at the time of initial assignment and at least yearly thereafter.  No specific duration

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STUOEKT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OESXSN
                                        Section Xn - F*dwtf. Stato and Local Ragutetory Re
is given for the training program, but it must cover: recognizing asbestos and ACM; health
hazards; the synergistic relationship between asbestos and smoking in producing lung
cancer; the potential benefit of a stop smoking program and the name, address and phone
number of at least one such local program which is available; the importance of necessary
protective controls to minimize exposure including, as appropriate, engineering controls,
work practices, respirators, housekeeping procedures, emergency procedures, and waste
disposal procedures; the use and meaning of the "Danger* signs and labels; proper use
and limitations  of  respirators;  and the  components and  reasons  for the medical
surveillance program. All training materials must be available to the employees without
cost and, if requested, to an OSHA or NIOSH representative.

Housekeeping - Al vacuuming equipment used must have HEPA filters.  Asbestos waste,
scrap,  debris,  bags, containers, equipment, and asbestos-contaminated clothing
consigned for disposal must be collected and disposed in sealed and impermeable bags
or containers which are properly labeled.

Medical Surveillance - The employer must provide a medical surveillance program for all
employees prior to their wearing respirators or if they are exposed above the Al or EL for
more than 30 days per year. The exams must be by or under the supervision of a loensed
physician and must be provided at reasonable time  and place without cost to the
employee.  The exams must include a medical and work history using questionnaires from
Appenolces D of the standard and a physical examination with special emphasis directed
to the respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems; a chest X-ray at the
discretion of the physician; and a pulmonary function test.  These exams must be made
available annually.

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PflOJECT DESIGN
                                         Section XII - F*
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STUDENT MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XII - Pectoral. State and local Rogutetory
29 CFR 1929.5$ f-lazard Communication Standard

General -This standard is often called the Federal Right-to-Know Regulation; Employee
Rkjht-to-Know, or Haz Com.

Scope - It applies to hazardous chemicals in a work area that an employee might be
exposed to while performing his or her job.  Each employer must include all hazardous
chemicals to which his/her employees may be exposed, Including those belonging to other
parties,  regardless of the origin.

Required Program Elements - The program must include: a site-specific Kst of hazardous
chemicals; a material safety data sheet (MSDS) at the site for each hazardous chemical on
the site-specific list; leaving the labels on  the containers as  they  came  from  the
manufacturer or distributor; documented employee training concerning the program and
safe handing of the chemicals; and, a written program kept on site for each project

29 CFR 1910.134 Respiratory Standard

General - Four sections of this OSH A General Industry Standard for Respirators. 1910.134
(b), (d), (e) and (f). are incorporated into 29 CFR 1926.58 (h) and made mandatory by
reference. The specific requirements are presented in the Respiratory Protection section of
the notebook.  The requirements include a complete written and implemented respirator
program and air quality specifications.

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 STUDerr MANUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XII - Fedora). State and Local ffegutatory Roqufewnents
                                                                           Pa0*30

 29 CFR 1926 General Safety and Health Recuirements
OSHA has specific and applicable construction standards for a variety of other safety and
health considerations which must be complied with, including:  scaffolds, walking/working
surfaces, ladders, electrical, lockout/tagout, and confined space entry. Many of these are
covered in the section on Safety Considerations.
                       LIMITATIONS OF OSHA STANDARDS
     The OSHA  standards, like  most government standards,  are  intended  to
     establish minimum levels of protection for the employees.  For asbestos, OSHA
     has acknowledged that its standard does leave significant risk to workers.  In
     some cases, the project designer may consider writing specifications which are
     more stringent than  the OSHA standards. Good examples of candidates for
     tighter job specifications are: requiring employees to wear respirators and
     protective clothing at trigger levels lower than or other than the PEL and EL;
     using respirators which protect to a level lower than the OSHA allowed level of
     0.2 f/cc inside the  respirator; and  requiring guard rails on all scaffolds
     regardless of the height
•DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (DOT) REGULATIONS'

The  U.S Department of Transportation (DOT) administers  the  regulations for the
transportation of hazardous materials which are found in CFR Title 49. Parts 171 through
180.  These hazardous materials regulations  (HMR) apply  to the transportation of

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STUOENTMANUM.                                      AS8£STO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESCN
                                        S«cbon XII - Fwdwml. State and Local Regulatory teqursmenls
                                                                           Pag* 31
hazardous materials, including asbestos, in commerce. The main requirements covered in
theHMRare:
       •  Classifications of Materials
       •  Packaging
       •  Shipping
       •  Hazard Communication

All of these requirements are relevant to the design of asbestos projects.  Recent changes
to the regulations require that both the past and current law as H pertains to abatement
design be reviewed in this section.  It Is  Important for the reader to note that the
newly revised regulations are  still undergoing  Interpretation.  With time, It Is
likely  that  the practical  Implementation of these  regulations with  respect to
asbestos-containing materials will become more clear.  The discussion provided
here is meant to point out some  of the more significant changes and when they are
projected to come into effect The reader will need to seek additional clarification on exact
requirements for labeling, placarding, etc. as these requirements become effective.

On  October 1, 1991. regulations that significantly revised the HMR took effect.  These
revisions were published in the Federal Register on December 21, 1990, as 49 CFR Part
107, et a!..  Performance-Oriented Packaging  Standards;  Changes of Classification,
Hazard Communication. Packaging and Handling Requirements Based on UN Standards
and Agency  Initiative; Final Rule. Depending on interpretation, the new regulations may
significantly  change the classification, packaging, shipping and hazard communication
requirements for asbestos.

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 STUDENT UWJUAL                                       AS8ESTO6 ABATEMEHT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XII - Fwfcratf. SMt w>d Locd Ftogufatory FfcquirNTWfts
                                                                           Pag* 32
 Since the regulations became effective, the DOT has issued revisions to the HMR and has
 indicated that more are likely. A recent significant revision was published in the Federal
 Register on October 1, 1992.  Written requests  to the DOT for clarification of specific
 asbestos issues in the HMR have also been made, but no official responses have been
 noted as of this writing. Further, the effective dates for many of the requirements are
 phased over the next few years which has deferred the impact of the rule. The previous
 DOT asbestos regulations took more than a year of interpretations and revisions before
 they were officially interpreted by the DOT and adopted by the asbestos abatement
 industry.

 This section will first review the previous DOT asbestos regulations. This will be followed
 by a review of the significant changes to asbestos regulations in the revised  HMR.

 Previous DOT Regulations

 The last substantive change  to the HMR for asbestos was published in  1986.  These
 regulations were later revised and full adherence  to the requirements were delayed  until
 January 1, 1988.  Those regulations  listed  friable asbestos as  a  Class 9 hazardous
 substance with a reportabte quantity (RQ) of one pound. Two shipping descriptions in the
 hazardous materials table (HMT) applied to asbestos:
      •  Asbestos. ORM-C
      •  Hazardous substance, solid, n.o.s., ORM-E

The  Asbestos, ORM-C  classification was referred to  as 'commercial value asbestos*
because  of exceptions found in  173.1090 of the HMR which excluded "manufactured
products—whose commercial  value is not dependent on their asbestos content.' DOT

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                                                    ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Socbon XII - Ftdofal. Stata and loot ftogutattry Raqubomonts
designed this classification for refined asbestos which was used to make products and not
for asbestos-containing products or asbestos abatement waste.

For regulation of asbestos debris and waste from abatement projects, DOT directed the
industry to use the Hazardous Substance, Solid, N.O.S. (not otherwise specified), ORM-E
classification.  The identification number for  this classification was  NA9188.   This
classification  required that any  single container  (bags or drums) of material which
exceeded the RQ (one pound) be labeled and transported in closed trucks or dumpsters.

Revised Regulations

Material Classification -The most obvious revision to the HMR is the proper shipping
names that are found in the HMT. In the December 1990 Final Rule, DOT eliminated the
former classifications and listed two new descriptions:
       •  Blue asbestos (croddolite) or Brown asbestos (amosite,  mysorite)
       •  White asbestos (chrysotjle, actJnolite, anthophytlite, tremolite)

On October 1,1992. DOT published a revision of the Final Rule which designated the  Blue
or Brown asbestos  and White asbestos shipping names for international use and created a
new generic Asbestos shipping name for domestic transportation of aH forms of asbestos in
the United States.  The  identification number for domestic Asbestos is NA2212.  The
following  review will  concentrate  on the  requirements of the  domestic Asbestos
classification.  Al forms of asbestos  are Class 9 hazardous materials.  The RQ for friable
asbestos remains one pound.

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 STUD6KT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                         Soction XII - Fedora!, State and Local OsguUtory Roqurwnenls
                                                                            Pag034
 As with  the previous HMR, there are exceptions to the rules.   Nonfrlable asbestos
 continues to be excepted and is not subject to the requirements of the HMR. The HMT also
 lists a nonbulk quantity packaging exception in 173.216.  While the issue of 'commercial
 value" was dropped, this exception does exclude. "Asbestos which is immersed or fixed in
 a natural or artificial binder material (such as cement plastic, asphalt, resins or mineral
 ore), and manufactured products containing asbestos....' ft would seem that manufactured
 products containing asbestos which are friable would not be excepted from  the nonbulk
 quantity packaging requirements.

 Exceptions notwithstanding, the revised HMR includes a series of new requirements and
 restrictions.  The following paragraphs will review the packaging, shipping  and hazard
 communication requirements which  pertain to the design of asbestos abatement projects.

 Packaging Requirements - One  of the major goals of the new HMR was to  update  and
 improve  the packaging requirements.  DOT discarded the previous practice of directly
 specifying the packaging for  each material  type and instead instituted two new concepts:
 packing groups and performance-oriented  packaging standards (POPS). Each material
 classification is assigned to packing  groups I. II or III  based  on the  level of hazard
 associated with transporting  the material.  Packing group I is the most  restrictive, while
 packing group III is the least restrictive.  Asbestos is in packing group III.

There are extensive "performance" guidelines for packing group III POPS in the HMR, but
these do not appear to apply to  asbestos  because of two packaging exceptions in the
 HMT, which are based on the weight of material in each container. Remember, nonfriabie
asbestos and friable asbestos less than the RO are already excluded  from regulation
under the HMR.

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STUDENT MANUAL                                        AS86STOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                         Section XII - Federal. State and local Ftegutoiory Roquromonts
The first packaging exception found in  173.4 is for small quantities of Class 9 (asbestos)
materials.  This exception stales a small quantity of material is excepted from other
packaging  requirements (i.e., packing group) If it meets certain specified POPS criteria.
First, there must be no more than one ounce of material per container and the entire
package must not exceed 29 kg (64 pounds). While this will not apply to bags of asbestos
waste from abatement projects, it could apply  to the shipment of bulk samples collected
prior to designing a project.  Second, each container must be constructed of plastic,
earthenware, glass, or metal wtth a minimum thickness of 0.2 mm (0.008 inch). Sample
container lids must be held  in place  with wire, tape, or other positive means.  Each
container must be secured inside the package with cushioning.  Finally, once samples are
contained,  specified package testing requirements  must be certified to have been met
before shipment

The second exception to packaging regulations appfies to friable asbestos waste before it
is transported by a waste hauler. The weight of the material in each container is again the
determining factor.  Because each container  of asbestos waste will exceed the small
quantities exception in 173.4, it is instead subject to the exception for nonbuik quantities as
found in the already referenced 173.216.  Nonbuik  quantities are defined as a RQ less
than 30 kg  (66 pounds). According to this exception, friable ACM must be transported in
rigid, leak-tight packaging such as fiber drums or hopper-type motor vehicles. Bags of
asbestos material must be dust and sift proof.

There are other noteworthy packaging issues in the HMR which could apply to an asbestos
abatement  project  One issue is the packaging requirements for mixtures of hazardous
materials.  Assume that during the abatement project, a contractor removes both asbestos-

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 STUDENT MANUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJGN
                                         Section XII - Fwtorat. State and Local Rogotafcxy Ftequiranwnis
                                                                             Pap* 36
 containing floor tile and mastic. A liquid mastic remover is used to remove the mastic.  The
 mastic remover is classified as a hazardous material According to the HMR, if more  than
 one hazardous material is combined, then the total material is classified according to the
 highest applicable hazard class. Therefore, if mastic remover is combined with asbestos,
 then the classification could be different and a whole new set of regulations for the higher
 class of hazard would have to be followed.

 During the course of the abatement project, a contractor may want to reuse some of his
 fiber drums.  This packaging will have  to be inspected to ensure that it continues to
 conform with the  requirements of the rule prior to reuse.  In addition, it may not be  reused
 unless it is free from incompatible  residue, rupture, or other damage which reduces its
 structural integrity. The new HMR also states that plastic packaging (plastic bags) may not
 be reused at all.

 Shipping - After the samples or asbestos  waste are packaged, the shipper must select an
 appropriate carrier.  Just as the packaging regulations vary depending on the weight of
 material, the regulations for shipping differ depending upon the material classification.   Up
 to 200 kg of asbestos can be sent on board passenger or cargo aircraft or rail car.

 It  is the shipper's responstoHity to determine  what materials are being shipped, prior to
 shipment. This is not possible In the case of bulk sample shipment because the samples
 are being shipped in order to determine what the asbestos content is. Without  any
 knowledge of what the samples do or don't contain, the "worst case" must be assumed. In
other words, if the shipper thinks that there is  asbestos in the samples, then the shipper
must assume that asbestos is In the  samples.  The asbestos content assumed to be in the
samples should be based upon past experience and professional judgment.

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                                                    ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                        Section XII - Federal, StaJo and Local Regulatory Raquirarrwrts
                                                                            Page 37
Hazard Communication  Requirements - Prior to abatement the designer wiB need to
incorporate the new HMR into the project specifications for enforcement during the project
An updating of specifications to incorporate  the  new  hazard communications  and
transportation requirements will be in order.   It should be noted that while the HMR is
effective October 1, 1991, compliance with the hazard communication requirement for
Class 9 materials is not mandatory unti October 1, 1993.

The revised  HMR Includes changes to the shipping papers,  marking, packaging,  and
transportation requirements.  There is a transition  period for complying with  the new
shipping paper and label requirements.  On preprinted labels  and shipping papers, the
HMR requirements must  be  complied with no later than October 1, 1992.  It should be
noted that there  are exceptions to the marking and labeling requirements for limited
quantity (less than 66 pounds) shipments.

The HMR states  that it is unlawful to tamper with any of the required markings or to
misrepresent the material being transported.  Strictly speaking, only asbestos, asbestos-
containing  materials, or asbestos-contaminated materials can be put into prelabeled,
premarked bags.  Storage of other items, such as decontaminated respirators, extension
cords and towels in these bags will be unlawful.

The shipper is still required to prepare shipping papers for the asbestos being transported.
As required by current regulations, the shipping description, name of the shipper, and an
emergency response telephone number wHI continue to be required.   The revised HMR
requires that the shipping description now include the  proper shipping name, hazard class,
identification number, packing group, and total quantity of material.  Furthermore, "RQ"

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 STUDENT WNUAL                                        ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESGN
                                         Section XII - F^dorrf. Stile aod Local FtegutMory R0quir>m«nts
 must be included at the beginning of the shipping description. The certifications that have
 been required by current regulations on shipping papers have not been changed and must
 still be included.

 The shipper must mark packages greater than 66 pounds that contain asbestos. One
 change In the HMR is that packages are to be marked with the consignee's or consignor's
 name and address except when the material is transported by highway only and wil not be
 transported from one motor carrier to another.  In addition, the new HMR requires that
 packages must now be marked with the proper shipping name  and identification number
 for the material contained in it  Material that is authorized for transportation must have the
 proper label with new specifications for the colors, design, durability, location, and printing
 acceptable for the labels.

 In addition, bags of asbestos material that are transported in closed motor vehicles are to
 be loaded by and tor the exclusive use of the consignor and unloaded by the consignee."
 This means that a contractor who removed the asbestos must load it onto the vehicle and
 that the person who transports the material must unload it

 If nonfriabte asbestos is the only waste being transported, the shipment is not subject to the
 requirements of the  HMR. This would include materials such as Transite, floor tile, resitent
sheet flooring, and roofing materials. These materials are those classified in the NESHAP
regulation as Category I and II nonfriabte materials. According to the NESHAP regulation,
these asbestos-containing materials could possibly be left in place during the demolition of
the building.  Therefore, it appears that  this final rule parallels the revised NESHAP
regulation and that construction debris will not be regulated under the new regulation even
though this debris could contain asbestos.

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STU06NTMANUAL                                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PflOJECT DESIGN
                                          Section XII - Federal. State and Local Regulatory Requirements
                                                                               Page 38

STATE AND LOCAL REGULATIONS
States, counties, cities and localities are often permitted and choose to have and enforce
standards different from the federal standards and from each  other's standards.  For
example, state standards can usually be different from federal standards as long as they
are at least "as effective as' the federal standards.

The following are some of the areas for which states, counties, cities, and localities choose
to have and enforce standards different from the federal standards:  certifications  and
licenses for  contractors, consultants, inspectors, air monitoring specialists and project
designers; NESHAP trigger limits and notification periods; project notifications and fees;
and not automatically accepting people certified in other states.  Examples of differing state
and local requirements at the time of writing include:  not being able to enter an abatement
area  in New York City unless you have their "Limited Waste Handlers"  license;  being
required to have a Florida asbestos contractor's or consultant's license to direct work there;
and being required to be a licensed state asbestos abatement contractor or licensed state
asbestos roofing abatement contractor to perform work on asbestos-containing roofs in
Georgia.  Many other states and cities have  their own versions of differing regulations or
interpretations. Furthermore, those regulations and interpretations are subject to additions
and updates.

Thus, all project designers, consultants, and  contractors need to learn the state and local
regulations of the area in which the project is being planned.  Then they must comply with
the most stringent of all the applicable regulations while the project Is being performed.

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 STUDENT UWJUAL                                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT D6SK3N
                                        Section XII - Fwtorrf. State and Local Rogutetory Rcquwnonts
 REVIEW  QUESTIONS


 1.     What are the requirements for building inspections in the NESHAP regulations?
2.     When was the last ban imposed on spray-applied fireproofing?
3.     According to AH ERA, when must a LEA retain an accredited project designer?
4.     What is ASMARA and what does It stipulate regarding training requirements?
5.     What asbestos product did the CPSC ban in 1978?
6.     List at least four OS HA standards that apply to asbestos abatement projects?
7.    Name at least three locations/activities where OSHA requires asbestos 'Danger"
      signs to be posted or placed?
8.     What  Is the reportable quantity for friable asbestos as stated  in  the  DOT
      regulations?

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SECTION XIII Design Workshop

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STUDENT                                              ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                          S«cton XIII-1 • Infrodurton to Lab
                                                                           Page 2
                         1.   INTRODUCTION TO LAB
      In this first session of the design laboratory,  your instructor(s) will explain the
concept of the design laboratory and dearly outline what will be required of you during
the remainder of the course.
      The sections in your manual correspond to the sessions into which this course
is  divided. Copies of the material used for discussion are included in your manual,
under the appropriate section.  Also included for your benefit are a list of objectives for
each session, and in some cases, study questions which will help you review the main
points  from the lectures.  These questions will be  helpful in preparation  for the
examination at the end of the course.

Learning Objectives;
      1.     Understand philosophy of  lab.
      2.     Understand structure of lab.
      3.     Understand objectives of lab.
      4.     Understand deliverables required of each workgroup.

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Exhibits

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                                            OBJ  CT1V
Use of —



     Guideline Specifications



     Drawings



     Drawing Indexes



     Details



     Contracts, Pay Requests



     Cost Estimates

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                                                RESOURCES
Av il  blel formation:



     Physical Data of Facility



     Existing Drawings



     Slides of School



     Survey Data



     Management Plan



     School District Objectives
Work Materials:



     Abatement Drawings



     Replacement Drawings



     Abatement Specifications



     Replacement Specifications



     Contracts for Construction and Administration



     Cost Estimates

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                           IMPORTANT
Copyrighted materials in this manual have been reproduced by
permission from the National Institute of Building Sciences and the
American Institute of Architects. AIA permission Is granted under license
#94043. The copyrighted materials in this manual cannot be used for any
other purposes than education/training. Information regarding the
purchase of the NIBS Model Guide Specifications Asbestos Abatement in
Buildings, AIA MASTERSPEC, or AIA Documents can be obtained by
calling the telephone numbers provided below.
National Institute of Building Sciences
1201 L Street, N.W., Suite 400
Washington, D.C. 20005
(202) 289-1092
American Institute of Architects
Office of the General Counsel
1735 New York Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C.  20006
(202) 626-7391
                                /i

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STUDENT                           ASBESTOS ABATCMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                  Section XIII-1 • Ir.troducacn to Lab
1. Introduction to Lab
    Learning Objectives of Introductory
    Chapter
    Exhibits

    •  Resources for Conducting
      Laboratory Exercise

    •  Objectives of Laboratory

-------
                            DESIGN  LABORATORY

                            TABLE  OF CONTENTS
1.   Introduction to Lab
      Learning Objectives of Introductory Chapter
      Exhibits
      •   Resources for Conducting Laboratory Exercise
      •   Objectives of Laboratory

2.   Problem  Presentation
      Learning Objectives and Study Questions
      Exhibits
      •   Physical Data for Hypothetical AHERA School
      •   Inspection Report for Asbestos-Containing Materials
      •   Management Plan

3.   Design Issues
      Learning Objectives and Study Questions
      Exhibits
      •   Critical Design Decisions

4.   Drawings
      Learning Objectives and Study Questions
      Abatement Drawing Exhibits
      •   Floorplans for AHERA Elementary School
      •   Example Index of Abatement Drawings
      •   Example Abatement Detail Drawing
      Replacement  Drawing Exhibits
      •   Example Index of Replacement Drawings
      •   Example of Replacement Detail Drawings
      Drawings Workshop

5.  Specifications
      Learning Objectives and Study Questions
      Exhibits
      •   Examples from National Institute of Building Sciences Model Guide Specifications
      •   Examples from MASTERSPEC Replacement Specifications
      •   Example Project Manual Table of Contents
      Specification Workshop
      •   Portions of NIBS and MASTERSPEC Specifications for markup

-------
6   Contracts and Administration
      Learning Objectives and Study Questions
      Exhibits
      •   AIA Document B141 - Standard Form of Agreement between Owner and Architect
      •   AIA Document A101 - Standard Form of Agreement between Owner and Contractor
      •   AIA Document A201 - General Conditions of the Contract for Construction
      •   AIA Document G702 - Appfication and Certificate for Payment
      Contracts and Administration Workshop

7.   Cost Estimates
      Learning Objectives and Study Questions
      Exhibits
      •   Considerations for Preparing Cost Estimates
      •   Example Abatement Cost Estimating Forms
      •   Example Abatement Cost Estimates
      Cost Estimate Workshop

8.   Group Presentations
      Learning Objectives

9.   Instructors Design Lab Summary
      Learning Objectives
      Exhibits

-------
                                       LIST OF  DELIVERABLES


1.  List of  field data needed

2.  List of  assumptions

3.  List of  abatement drawings

4.  Description of each sheet

5.  Layout  of  each  sneet

6.  Edited  abatement specifications (four sections)

7  List ol  replacement drawings

8  Description cf each sheet

9  Layout  of  each  sneet ^ana-drawn)

10. Edited  replacement specifications  (four  sections)

11. Contracts

12. Cost estimates

   a.  A/E fee for total  pro;ect including construction observation (one oerson
      observing luii-tme), abatement design, and  replacement design

   b.  Air  monitoring fee

   c.  Total constructicn cost

      •  abatement

      •  renovation

   d.  Total project  ccst - items a-»-b + c

-------
STJCCNT                         ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PHOJEC'DESIGN
                               Sec-jo-i XIII-2 • Pofcte-n P-ewniatwr
                                         Page!
2. Problem Presentation
   Learning Objectives and Study
   Questions
   Exhibits

   • Physical Data for Hypothetical
     AHERA School

   • Inspection Report for Asbestos
     Containing Materials

   • Management Plan

-------
S'UCr.N'                                            AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                       Section Xlil 2 • Problem Presentation
                       2.   PROBLEM PRESENTATION
Learning Objectives:
      1.    Divide into workgroups.
      2.    Understand hypothetical design problem: "AHERA School".

Study Questions:
      1.    What are the benefits of using an interdisciplinary approach to asbestos
            abatement?
      2.    What is the role of the designer in regard to the management plan?
      3.    Why  should asbestos abatement  projects be designed, not left to a
            contractor to select the best method?

-------
Exhibits

-------
                                               PHYSICAL DATA

 Name of property: AHERA Elementary

 Location:       Comer of Elm Street and Wilson Avenue
                Lonesome Plains, USA

 Owner:    Lonesome Plains School District

 Dates of Construction:     1924 original building;  1962 addition

 Square Footage:     1924 basement             7,200 SF
                     1924 first floor              7,200 SF
                     1924 second floor           7,200 SF
                     1962 first floor              7.200SF
                     1962 cafeteria              4.050 SF
                     1962 second floor           8,200 SF

 Mechanical Systems:

      1924 building - low pressure steam boiler and radiators

      1962 addition - hot water boiler and finned tub radiation, cafeteria
                     served by package unit air conditioner

     Window unit air conditioners in some classrooms

 Roofing:   1924 - Original slate roof

           1962 - Original 3-ply built-up roof and 1974 cover with 4-ply
                     built-up roof system

 Major Renovations:   1974 Installed acoustical tile lay-in ceiling in admini-
stration offices, cafeteria, kitchen and library; New carpet in administration
offices and library; and Original ceilings left in place above new ceilings.

Elevator:  Installed in  1962 addition

Windows:  1924 - Wood double hung
          1962 - Aluminum frame

Ceilings:  1924 - Acoustical plaster on wood lath
          1962 - Acoustical plaster on metal lath
               - Sheetrock in all toilets

-------
                                             PHYSICAL DATA
CODE COMPLIANCE:
School Board will authorize abatement/renovation designer to petition local
building official for variances for compliance with current codes.  Items
requiring confirmation and/or clarification are noted below:

          -manner of new fireproofing or re-spray.

          -windows in walls between classrooms and corridor (as indicated
               in slide presentation).

          -electrical system does not require upgrade.

          -no sprinkler system.

-------
                                              PHYSICAL DATA


SCHEDULE:

                    JuneS: last day of school

                    June 6-14:  move out/store furniture

                    June 15: begin abatement

                    July 1 -9: administration offices at school closed for
                               July 4th holiday

                    August 15:  abatement/renovation complete

                    August 16-31: move in/re-occupy

                    September  1: first day of school

Administrative offices of school will remain  in  operation during  summer
months, except as noted above. Offices cannot be relocated to on-site trailer,
and toilet facilities of the school must remain available for use. (Single unisex
toilet will be acceptable.) Telephone, fax, computer link, and air conditioning
must remain in full operation.

-------
                                              PHYSICAL DATA
RENOVATION PROGRAM (following abatement):
The School Board has issued the following general guidelines regarding
replacement materials for renovation:

          -Paint all areas damaged by abatement.

          •New flooring material will be similar to existing type.

          -Boiler and heating system will continue to operate; replacement/
               upgrade are not part of this project.

          -New acoustical lay-in ceiling tile and new lights will be installed
               throughout. (Power system is adequate to install new
               lighting.)

          -Consideration will be given to new systems, etc., if designer's cost
               trade-off study indicates budget will allow purchasing new.

          -Roof is in good condition; no repairs needed.

-------
      AHERA ELEMENTARY
           SCHOOL

      Lonesome Plains School District
        Lonesome Plains, USA
INSPECTION FOR ASBESTOS-
   CONTAINING MATERIAL
         December 1, 1989
          Job No. 89032
 ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
       State City, USA

-------
       APPENDIX VI


    Results of Polarized Light
Microscopy Bulk Sample Analyses

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   KrasCty,U.SA
DateRaoeHvd: 9-20-89

Protect Nvw AHERA Elementary School

Client: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AH ERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA401

Sample Type:  1924 boitef ins Jatkxi

Sample Description: White chunky matenai
DaleAnetyzBd: 9-25-89
Deteof Sample: 8-14-89

Cfant 1.0. Na: 89032-001
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotile
      2.    Amosite
      3.    OockJolite
      4    Anthophyfltte
      5.    Tremolite/Actlnolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2
           3.
           4.
           5.
70%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Celulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fbers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovfte/Vermlcuilte)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
30%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   Kama* Cty. USA
OateRecafead: &-20-69

Protect Harem: AHERA Elementary School

COant Urasorne Ptalns School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA402

Sample Type:  1962 boiler insUatton

Sample Description: White, fibrous
Data Analyze*  9-25-99
Date of Sample: 8-14-69

CQent I.D. No.: 89032-002
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    ChrysotUa
      2.    Amosite
      3.    CroadoJrte
      4    AnthophyUite
      5.    Tremolite/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.
            5.
35%
B.    NON^SBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
65%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SBMCES
                                  Karma Oy.U-SA
                                 Bdk Satiate Amrvrii
DateRecatoed: 9-20-89

ProtectName: AHERA Elementary School

Client:  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AH ERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA403

Sample Type: Plp« insulation

Sample Description: Air cell
QtfaAntfyzad: 9-25-89
DcteofSampiK 8-14-89

Client 1.0. No.: 89032-003
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotie
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crocriome
      4.    Anthoprryttlte
      5.    Tremolite/Actlnolrte
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
50%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Celulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermicuiite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
40%
 5%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.USA
                                  Bdk SamrJa
Datertecafcwi: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Otont Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Bementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA404

Sample Type: Pfpe insulation

Sample Description: White, chunky material
Date Analyzed: 9-25-89
Date of Sample: 8-14-89

dent ID No.: 89032-004
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysolite
      2.    Amosite
      3    Crocidolite
      4    Anthophyllte
      5.    Tremolite/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
70%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wooo fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovtte/Vermtcufitd)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
30%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  Kama* Cty. USA
Data Rawed. 9-20-89

Project Nam* AHERA Bementary School

Client:  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA405

Sample Type: Pipe insulation

Sample Description: White, fibrous
0*0 Analyzed: 9-25-89
Date of Sample: 8-14-89

CBent I.D. No.: 89032-005
      ASBESTOS MINERALS
B.
1.
2.
3.
4
5.
ChrysotJle
Amosite
Crocidollte
Anthoprtyllle
Tremolite/Actlnolite
NON-ASBESTOS
6.
7.
8
9.
10.
11.
Celulose (paper /wood fibers)
Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
Binders
Mica (Muscovite /Vermculite)
Quartz
Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT

           1.
           2.     65%
           3.
           4.
           5.
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             6.
                                                             7.
                                                             8.
                                                             9.
                                                             10.
                                                             11.
                35%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                         .Cty.U-S-A.
OataRec*«d:  9-20-89

Project Nam: AHERA Elementary School

Client Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA406

Sample Type: Pipe joint Insulation

Sample Description:  Whtte chunky material
QateAnatyzad: 9-2S-89
Date of Sample 8-14-69

Client I.D. No.: 89032-006
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysotile
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Crocidollte
      4.    AnthophyUtte
      5.    Tremollte/Actlnolrte
            ESTIMATED PERCENT
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.
            5.
90%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermtoulite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
10%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  Btrfk Samie AnBtafai
QateReoetod: 9-20-89

Project Namac AHERA Elementary School

Otent:  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No,:  BSA407

Sample Type:  Pipe insutadon

Sample Description: White chunky material
    Anatyzad: 9-25-S9
Data of Sample: S-14-69

CflentLD.Na: 89032-007
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotie
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Crocidollte
      4.    Anthophylllte
      5.    Tremoiite/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.
            5.
60%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    C«ilu*ose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           a
           9.
           10.
           11.
40%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KamwCty.U.SA
Date Receded: 9-20-89

Prafect Name AHERA Elementary School

(Sent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location:  AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory ID. No: BSA408

Sample Type: Pipe joint Insulation

Sample Oeecripbort White material
Date Analyzed: 9-25-69
DataofSampte: 8-14-89

CBent I.D. No.: 89032-008
     ASBESTOS  INERALS

     i.    ChrysotHe
     2.    Amosrte
     3.    Crocidolite
     4.    AnthophyUite
     5.    Tremollte/Actlnolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
85%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Celukwe (paper /wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mtea( usoovite/VermiciJfce)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
15%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SBMCES
                                   Kare»Cty. U.SA
 Dale Receded: 9-20-89

 Preset Name: AHERA Elementary School

 atone Lonesome Plains School District

 Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

 Laboratory ID. No,: BSA409

 Sample Type: Pipe joint insulation

 Sample Descnpdon:  While fibrous
QgtoAneJyzad: 9-25-69
Dele of Sample: 8-14-89

Otont I.D. No.: 89032-009
      ASBESTOS MWERALS

      1.    ChrysotUo
      2.    Amosrt*
      3.    Cfoadollte
      4.    AntnophyHlrte
      5.    Tremolfte/Aciinoiite
           ESTIMATED PERCEKTT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
75%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/VemnculiJe)
      10.   Quartz	
      11    Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
25%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.U.SA
             9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Bementary School

Client Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Bementary School

Laboratory I.D. Ho.: BSA410

Sample Type: Ptpe foint InsUation

Sample Description: White chunky
                                                  DateAnatyzad: 9-25-89
                                                       of Sample: 8-14-69

                                                  dent I.D. No.: 89032-010
     ASBESTOS MINERALS

     1.    Chrysotie
     2.    AmosJte
     3.    Croddolife
     4.    Anthophyllrte
     5.    Tremolrte/Actinotae
                                                              ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                              1.
                                                              2.
                                                              3.
                                                              4.
                                                              5.
                                                                   70%
B.    NONVkSBESTOS

     6.    C0I Jose (paper /wood fibers)
     7.    Glass/Mineral Woo Fibers
     8.    Binders
     9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Vermicume)
     10.   Quartz
     11.   Others
                                                             ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             6.
                                                             7.
                                                             8.
                                                             9.
                                                             10.
                                                             11.
                                                                   30%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KmasCty.USA
             9-20-89

Project Nam* AHERA Elementary School

CSent  Lonesome Rains School District

Survey Location:  AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory ID. No.: BSA411

Sample Type: Acoustical plaster

Sample Description: White, fluffy material
DatoAmryzetfc 9-25-83
Date of Sampler 8-14-69

CIlenM.D. No.: 89032-011
      ASBESTOS MINERALS
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Chrysotle
Amos it*
Ooodolite
Anthophyllite
Tremotoe/Acttnolite
NOW ASBESTOS
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Cellulose (paper /wood fibers)
Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
Binders
Mica (Muscovrte/Vermculite)
Quartz
Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT

           1.     15%
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             6.
                                                             7
                                                             8.
                                                             9.
                                                             10.
                                                             11.
                60%
                25%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                         I Cay USA
             9-20-99

Project NamK AHERA Elementary School

CUenc Lonesome Plains School Dbtrtct

Survey Location: AH ERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA412

Sample Type: Acoustical plaster

Sample Description: White, fibrous
Dot* Analyzed: 9-25-99
Dote of Sample: 8-14-89

CUenM.D. No.: 89032-012
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotte
      2.    Amos*e
      3.    Crocidolite
      4.    Anthophytlrte
      5.    Tremoirte/Aclinolfte
            ESTIMATED PERCENT
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.
            5.
20%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Celuiose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovtte/Verrrucuiite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
            ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
20%
60%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KaneaBCty.U.SA
Data Recefead: 9-20-69

Project Nam* AHERA Bementary School

COant:  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. Na: BSA413

SamplaType: Pipe insulation

Sample Oescnpttorr White chunky material
Date Anaryzad: 9-25-89
OataofSan^le: 8-14-89

Otent I.D. Na: 89032-013
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      i.    Chrysotrte
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Crocidolrte
      4.    AnthophyUite
      5.    TremoKe/Actinoiite
           ESTIMATED PEHCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
60%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Vermeulrte)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           a
           9.
           10.
           11.
40%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.USA
DafteRecefead: 9-20-69

Protect Name: AHERA Elementary School

Cfant Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA414

Sample Type:  Pipe joint Insulation

Sample Description:  White chunky material
Dtt» Analyzed: 9-25-69
Dote of Sample: S-14-89

CUent I.D. No.: 89032-014
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotile
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Cfocxlolfte
      4.    AnthophyUrte
      5.    Tremolite/ActinoMe
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
85%
B     SON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Celulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte.A/ermtculfle)
      10   Quartz 	
      11   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
15%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.U.SA
Data Received: 9-20-89

PfOjectNarnK AHERA Elementary School

COert Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA415

Sample Type: Plaster brown coat

Sample Description:  Ught tan cememitious
Date Analyzed: 9-25-89
Dote of Sample: 8-14-89

Cleat IJ5. No.: 89032-015
      ASBESTOS MINERALS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Chrysotile
Amosite
Crocidolrte
Anthoprtylite
Tremolite/Actinolite
NON-ASBESTOS
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11
CeHulose (paper /wood libers)
Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
Binders
Mica (Muscovite /Vermjculite)
Quartz
Others
           ESTMATED PERCENT
                                                             1.
                                                             2.
                                                             3.
                                                             4
                                                             5.
                                                             ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             6.
                                                             7.
                                                             8.
                                                             9.
                                                             10.
                                                             11.
                99%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  Kmtt Cty. USA
Dtfe Received: 9-20-89

Protect Nam* AHERA Bementary School

CSent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA416

Sample Type: Plaster brown coat

Sample Description:  Light tan cemerttnious
Dafc» Analyzed:  9-25-69
Date of Sample: 8-14-89

COentl.D. Na: 89032-016
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      i.    ChrysotHe
      2.    Amosde
      3.    Crcodolite
      4     Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremoirte/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4
           5.
 1%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6     CeltJose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
99%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                         iCty.U.SA
DateRecetad: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Client: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AhCRA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.:  BSA417

Sample Type: Acoustical piaster

Sample Description: White, fluffy material
Dale Analyze* 9-25-89
Data of Sample: 8-14-89

Client I.D. No.: 89032-017
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotile
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Croodotite
      4    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremolite/Actlnome
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4
           5.
35%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Gltss/Mlneral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Verrmculite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
20%
45%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   KwwsCty.U.SA
Dtfaftocafeari: 9-20-S9

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

COent  Lonesome Ptains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No.:  BSA418

Sample Type:  Acoustical piaster

Sample Description: White, fibrous material
Oat* Analyzed:  9-25-89
Dote of Sample: 8-14-89

Otert I.D. No.: 89032-018
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotle
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Crocidolrte
      4    Anthophyllrte
      5.    Tremolrte/Actirtolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
15%
      NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Vermiculrte)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
65%
20%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KamwCty.U.SA
QeleReoitoBd: 9-2049

Prafact Name: AHEflA Elementary School

CHart  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory ID. No.: BSA419

Sample Type:  Plaster brown coat

Sample Description:  Light tan cememitious
OBtoAnatyzad: 9-25-89
Data of Sample: 8-14-89

CUeril.D. Ma: 89032-019
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     ChrysoMe
      2.    Amosxe
      3.    Crocidolite
      4     Anthophyllrte
      5.    Trwnollte/Actinolrte
           ESTIMATED PERCENT


           2
           3.
           4.
           5.
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Gtoss/Mineral Wool Fibers
      a    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/VerTTttcuHe)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
99%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  Km*aCty,U.SA
Date Reowvwt 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Bementary School

dent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA420

Sample Typec Plaster brown coat

Sample Oescnption:  Light tan cementrtious
QateAnatyzad: 9-25-89
Date of Sample: 8-14-89

CBent LD. NOJ 89032-020
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotile
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Croodolrte
      4     Anthophytiite
      5.    Tremolite/Actinoiite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT

           1.     
-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   KmMCty.USA
Date Receded: 9-20-89

Project Nairn: AHERA Eementary School

CQant: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA421

Sample Type: 3ipe joint insulation

Sample Description: White chunky material
            : 9-25-89
Dale or Sample: 8-14-69

CBent I.D. No.: 89032-021
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1      Chrysotile
      2.     Amosite
      3.     Ocodolite
      4      Anthophyflite
      5.     Tremolite/Actinoiite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.
            5.
65%
B.    NON.AS8ESTOS

      6.     Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.     Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      3.     Binders
      9.     Mica (Muscovrtc/'Vermiculite)
      10.    Quartz	
      11.    Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7
           a
           9.
           10.
           11.
35%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.U.SA
DateReoafced: 9-20-89

Project Nam*: AHERA Elementary School

Ctent- Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA422

Sample Type: Pipe joint Insulation

Sample Description: White chunky material
OetoAnetyzad: 9-25-89
Data of Sample: 8-14-89

Client 1.0. No.: 89032-022
      ASBESTOS MINERALS
B.
1.
2.
3.
4
5.
Chrysotie
Amosne
Croctddite
Anthophyllite
Tremotite/Actinoitte
NON-ASBESTOS
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11
Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
Binders
Mica (Muscovrte/Vermiculrte)
Quartz
Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT

           1.
           2.     70%
           3.
           4.
           5.
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             6.
                                                             7.
                                                             8.
                                                             9.
                                                             10.
                                                             11.
                30%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   KmatCty,U.SA


                                  Bdk Sample Anarvsto
DataRecatoad: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Cflent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Bementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No.:  BSA423

Sample Type:  AcousticaJ plaster

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                        DBteAnafyzad: 9-25-89
                                        DM* of Sample: 8-14-89

                                        CSent 1.0. No.: 89032-023
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysotde
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    CrocidcJrte
      4     Anthopriyflite
      5     Tremolite/Actinolrte
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4
                                                   5.
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6     CeUidose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11    Others
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                   6.
                                                   7.
                                                   8.
                                                   9.
                                                   10.
                                                   11.
60%
40%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
                             ACE ANALYTICAL SBMCES
                                 KmnCty.USA


                                 BtJk Samrie
DateReoatoad: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

C»ent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA424

Sample Type: Acoustical plaster

Sample Description:      White cnunky material
    Analyzed: 9-25-69
Date of Sample: 8-14-89

Otert I.D. No.: 89032-024
      ASBESTOS MWERALS
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Chrysolite
Amostte
Crocidome
Anthopnylite
Tremolite/Actinolite
NON-ASBESTOS
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Cellulose (paper /wood fibers)
Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
Binders
Mica (Muscovrte/Vermiculite)
Quartz
Others
     ESTIMATED PERCENT

           1.      1%
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
     ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             6.
                                                             7
                                                             8
                                                             9.
                                                             10.
                                                             11.
                99%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   Karon Cty, USA
Data RecefeBd: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Olart: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.:  BSA425

Sample Type:  AcousticaJ plaster

Sample Description: White fluffy
             9-25-69
D«to of Sample: 8-14-69

OJentl.D. No.: 89032-025
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      I     Chrysotfe
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    CrocidoJite
      4.    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremoiite/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
 1%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscoviie/Vermiculite)
      10    Quanz	
      11    Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
99%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  Kna>Cty,U.SA
Date Rooafrod: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Eementary School

Otent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA426

Sample Type: Acoustical piaster

Sample Description: White fibrous
Dat»A«*yzact 9-25-69
(Me of Sample: 8-14-69

Giant ID. No.: 89032-026
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysotde
      2.    Amostte
      3.    Croctfolrte
      4.    Anttiophyllite
      5.    Tremolile/Actinciite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             1.
                                                             2.
                                                             3.
                                                             4
                                                             5.
                  1%
B.    NON-AS8ESTOS

     6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
     7.    Gtass/Mineral Wool Fibers
     8     Binders
     9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculfte)
     10.   Quartz 	
     11    Others
                                                             ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             6.
                                                             7.
                                                             8.
                                                             9.
                                                             10.
                                                             11.
                 99%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
Data ReceiwBd: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Client Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA427

Sample Type: Spray-applied fireproofing

Sample Description: Brown fibrous material
DatoAnalyzad: 9-25-89
Date of Sample: 8-14-69

CBent I.D. No.: 89032-027
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      i.     Chrysotile
      2.     Amosrte
      3.     Oocidolite
      4     Anthophylllte
      5.     Tremolrte/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4
           5.
35%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.     Cellulose (paper /wooo fibers)
      7.     Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.     Binders
      9     Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.    Quartz	
      11.    Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
20%
45%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
Date Received: 9-20-89

Project Name: AH6RA Bementary School

CSent lonesome Rains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. Na: BSA428

Sampte Type  Spray-applied fireproofinq

Sample Description:  Brown fibrous material
DatoAnaryzed: 9-25-88
Data of Sample: 8-14-69

CHentl.D. No.: 89032-028
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotile
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Croodoiite
      4.    Anmophyllite
      5.    TremoJrte/Actinoiite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5
35%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    CeflUose (paoer/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
20%
45%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL S8MCES
                                   KamwCty.U.SA
Data Received: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Eementary School

Client:  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA429

Sample Type: Spray-applied hreproofing

Sample Description: Brown granular material
Dote Analyzed: 9-25-89
DataofSampte: 8-14-89

Okrtl.D. No. 89032-029
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysodle
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crocidolrte
      4.    Anthophytlite
      5.    Tremoiae/AcJinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCEhfT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
40%
      NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Celulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite /Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
20%
40%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.U.SuA.
             9-20-89

Prefect Name AHERA Elementary School

CBent: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location:  AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA430

Sample Type; Spray-applied fireproofing

Sample Description: Brown fibrous
DtteAnatyiMt 9-2S-89
Dote of Sample: 8-14-89

CUent I.D. Na: 89032-030
      ASBESTOS MINERALS
B.
1.
2.
3.
4
5.
Chrysotde
Amosrte
Crccidolite
Anthopnyllite
Tremolite/Actinoiite
NON-ASBESTOS
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
Glass/ Mineral Wool Fibers
Binders
Mica (Muscovite /Vermiculite)
Quartz
Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT

           1.     30%
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             6.
                                                             7.
                                                             8.
                                                             9.
                                                             10.
                                                             11.
                35%
                35%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   Ktf»ttCty.U.SA
                                  Bit
DoteRecervKi: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Otert: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA431

Sample Type:  Spray-applied lireoroofing

Sample Description: Brown /gray fibrous material
CMe Analyzed: 9-2S-89
Date of Samp** 8-14-89

Cflent ID. No.: 89032-031
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.     Chrysotde
      2.     Amosrte
      3.     Crcodolrie
      4.     Anthopfiyllite
      5.     Tremolite/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
35%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9    Mica (Muscovite/Verrruculrte)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
20%
45%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.U&A.
Data Recatoed: 9-20-89

Pra^act Name: AHERA Elementary School

Client Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHEHA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA432

Sample Type: Spray-applied fireproofing

Sample Description: Brown granular material
D*B Analyzed: 9-25-89
Date 01 Sample: 8-14-89

CHent 1.0. No.: 89032-032
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysorte
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crocidolfte
      4     Anthopnytlite
      5.    Tremolrte/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
45%
      NON^ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
20%
35%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                           MJ.SA
OateReceiwed:  9-20-89                               CM*AnafyzB* 9-2S-69

Project Name: AJHERA Elementary School

COant  Lonesome Plains School Dfetnct

Survey Locator AHER A Elementary School              Data of Sample: 8-14-89

Laboratory ID Na: BSA433                           Oiert ID Ho.:  89032-033

Sample Type: Spray-applied lireproding

Sample Description: Brown, loose, granular material




A.    ASBESTOS MINERALS                                     ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                             1.    35%
                                                             2.
                                                             3.
                                                             4
                                                             5.


8.    NON-ASBESTOS                                          ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                             6
                                                             7.
                                                             8.    20%
                                                             9.    45%
                                                             10.
                 	                   11.


Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Chrysotde
Amosfle
Crocidolite
Anthophyllite
TremolJte/Actinoi.ie
NON ASBESTOS
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Celulose (paper /wood fibers)
Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
Binders
Mica (Muscovite /Vermculite)
Quara
Others

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                         Cty.OSA
DateRflcefeod: 9-2Q-S9

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Client: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.:  BSA434

Sample Type:  Acoustical piaster

Sample Description: White fibrous
Data Analyzed: 9-25-89
Date of Sample: 8-14-69

Cfienl 1.0. No.: 89032-034
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      i.     ChrysotHe
      2.     Amosrte
      3.     Croctdolite
      4.     Antnophyllite
      5.     Tremolite/Actinoirte
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
 1%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.     Cellulose (papor/Mood fibers)
      7.     Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.     Binders
      9.     Mica (Muscovite;VermioJrte)
      10.    Quartz 	
      n.    Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
99%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   Kara»Cty.U.SA
              9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Cflert:  Lonesome Plains School District

Suvey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA435

Sample Type: Acoustical plaster

Sample Description: White fibrous materai
DrtB Analyzed: 9-25-89
Date of Sample: 8-14-89

Otert I.D. Ma: 89032-035
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysotile
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Occidolrte
      4     Anthophyilite
      5.    Tremoiite/Actlnoiite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
 1%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    CeDulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovne/VenncJrte)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
99%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   Kanee.Cty.USA
            :  9-20-89

Protect Name: AHERA Elementary Schod

CUent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA436

Sample Type: Floor Ue. green

Sample Description: Green granular ti!e material
Dete Analyzed: 9-25-89
Date of Sample:  8-14-89

CQent I.D. No.: 89032-036
      ASBESTOS (MINERALS

      1     ChrysotHe
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Croodolrte
      4.    Arthopnyilite
      5.    Tremolite/Actinolite
            ESTIMATED PERCENT
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.
            5.
 2%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8    Binders
      9    Mica (Muscovite/Verrniculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
            ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
95%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  Kansas Cfty, U.SA
 0*0Rec*fcad: 9-20-89

 Project Nam* AHERA Elementary School

 Caere  Lonesome Plains School District

 Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

 Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA437

 Sample Type: ROOT Ue. brown. 9" x 9"

 Sample Description: Brown granular
DtfaAneJyzad: 9-2S-89
DtfeorSampte: 8-14^9

CUert ID. Na: 89032-037
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     ChrysotiJe
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Croddoirte
      4.    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremolite/Actinoiite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
 1%
B     NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovtte/Vermicuiite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
99%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
D*0Rec*feKi: 9-20-89

Project Nam* AHERAElementarySchod

Cfent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. Na: BSA438

Sample Type: ROOT tile, yellow

Sample Description: Yellow chunky me material
DeteAnrtyzad: 9-25-89
Detaof Sample: 8-14-89

Cflent I.D. No.: 89032-038
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    ChrysoUe
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crocidolhe
      4    Anthophyllite
      5    Tremolfle/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4
           5.
 2%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mtea (Muscovrte/VermicJite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
95%
 3%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                            &U.SA
                                  BufcSamtoAnatvsia
Date Received: 9-2O-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary Schod

dent  Lonesome Plains Schod District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.:  BSA439

Sample Type:  ROOT tile, green. 9* x 9*

Sample Description; Green, granular material
Date Analyzed: 9-25-89
Oat* of Sample: 8-14-39

OtentID No. 89032-039
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotile
      2.    Amosae
      3.    CrockJotrte
      4     Anthopnyilite
      5.    Tremolrte/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
 3%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PEHCEhTT
           6.
           7
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
97%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KmmwCty.U-SX
                                  Bdfc 8amoto AneJvah
DateRecsMxt 9-20-69

Project Maim: AHERA Elementary School

CUent  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA440

Sample Type:  Floor tile, black, 9* x 9'

Sample Description:  BlacK. granular
DtfaAnalyzKt 9-25-89
Date of Sample: 8-14-89

COent I.D. No.: 89032-040
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysotde
      2     Amosrte
      3     Crocidolite
      4     AnthophyUite
      5.    Tremolite/Actinol;te
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4
           5.
 1%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cflflulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/VermicUite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
99%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
OtteReoatod: 9-20-89

Preset Name: AHERA Elementary School

dare  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: SSA441

Sample Type:  Pipe insulation

Sample Deacnptton: White, chunky
             9-25-89
DataofSampte: 8-14-89

Cttert I.D. No.: 89032-041
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      i     Chrysotile
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Cfcodolite
      4     Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremolite/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4
           5.
60%
      NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Vcrmculite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
40%
Notes.

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KeneeftCty.U&A.
Date Received: 9-20-89

Protect Name: AHERA Bementary Schod

CBent Lonesome Plains Schod District

Survey Location: AHERA Bementary Schod

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA442

Sample Type: Pipe insulation

Sample Description: White chunky material
Date Analyze*  9-25-89
Date of Sample: 8-14-89

CUent I.D. Na: 89032-042
      ASBESTOS  INERALS

      1     Chrysotile
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crociddite
      4.    Anthophyil.le
      5.    Tremdrtc/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
50%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper /wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wod Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.      lea (Muscovrte/Vermtculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
50%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KwwaCty.U.SA
Data Beoetad: 9-20-89

Propel Nairn: AHERA Bementary School

Client  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Bementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA443

Sample Type:  Pipe insulation

Sample Description: White fibrous
D*B Analyzed: 9-25-69
Oat* of Sample: 8-14-69

(Sent I.D. No.: 89032-043
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotile
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Croodolrte
      4.    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremolrte/Actinoiite
                                                              ESTIMATED PEnCENT
           V
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
                                                                    40%
B.     NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Ceiulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Vermeuirte}
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
                                                              ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                              6.
                                                              7
                                                              8
                                                              9.
                                                              10.
                                                              11.
                 60%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  Bitfk Samcte Anatvsta
Dale Received: 9-20-89

Prefect Name: AHERA Elementary School

Client: Lonesome Rains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No,:  BSA444

Sample Type:  Pipe insulation

Sample Description: White chunky
DeteAnetyzad:  9-25-69
Data of Sample: 8-14-89

Client 1.0. Na: 89032-044
      ASBESTOS   INERALS

      1.    Chrysotile
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crocidolite
      4     Anthophyilite
      5.    TremcJite/Actlnolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.
            5.
65%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.      lea (Muscovrte/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11    Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
35%
Notes.

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                            f.USA
Data Recetod: 9-20-89

Prefect Name: AHERA Bernentary Schod

Client  Lonesome Rains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary Schod

Laboratory ID. No.: BSA445

Sample Type: Pipe joint insulation

Sample Oescnptton:  White fibrous
DateAnatyzBd: 9-25-89
Date of Sample: 8-14-89

Client I.O. No.: 89032-045
      ASBESTOS (MINERALS

      1.    Chrysolite
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Crcoddite
      4.    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremdrte/Act indite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
45%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wod Fibers
      8    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovtfe/VermicuUe)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
55%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KanMBCty.USA
DaleReoarvad: 9-20-89

Project Nam* AHERA Elementary School

atone Lonesome Plains School District

S**vey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory t.D. No.: BSA446

Sample Type: Flue

Sample Description: Gray cementitkxis
DrttAnrtyzod: 9-2S-Q9
Date ot Sample: 8-14-89

Client I.D. No.: 89032-046
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotle
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Oocidolite
      4.    Antnophylirte
      5.    Tremolite/Actinoiite
           ESTIMATED PERCEMT
           1.
           2
           3.
           4
           5.
65%
B.     NON-ASBESTOS

      6     Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7     Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8     Binders
      9.    Mtea (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7
           8
           9.
           10.
           11.
35%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   Kansas Cty.U.SA
QateRecatoad: 9-20-89

Project Name AHERA Elementary School

Client  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory ID No.:  BSA447

Sample Type:  Rue

Sample Description: Gray cementitious
DateAnatyzad: 9-25-89
Data of Sample: 8-14-89

Client ID Na: 89032-047
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      i.    Chrysotde
      2.    Amosfte
      3     Crocxjolite
      4     Antnophyflite
      5.    Tremolite/Acti.Tolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2,
           3.
           4
           5.
45%
      NON ASBESTOS

      6    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      3.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovde/Vermicdite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
55%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  Kama* Cty. USA
                                    tSanrie Afrtvsfe
Date Received: 9-20-69

Protect Name: AHERA Elementary School

den: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location;  AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory ID. No.. 8SA448

Sample Type: Mot water tank

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                             DataAnatyzad: 9-2549
                                             Dace oi Sample: 8-14-89

                                             OJentl.D. Na:  89032-048
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotde
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Croodolrte
      4    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremolrte/Actinoirte
                                                        ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                        1.
                                                        2.    70%
                                                        3.
                                                        4
                                                        5.
B.
NON^SBESTOS

6.     Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
7.     Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
8.     Binders
9.     Mica (Muscovite/Vermiajlite)
10.    Quartz 	
11.    Others
ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             6.
                                                             7.
                                                             8.
                                                             9.
                                                             10.
                                                             11.
      30%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                         i CXy. US A
                                  BtJk Samoto AraivsiB
Date Receded 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

OJent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory ID. No.: BSA449

Sample Type: Floor tile • 9* x 9* blue

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                        DetaAnaryzad: 9-25-89
                                        Date of Sample: 8-14-89

                                        COertt I.D. No.: 89032-049
      ASBESTOS (MINERALS

      i.     Chrysotiie
      2.     Amosite
      3.     Crcodolrte
      4.     AnthophyllJte
      5.     Tremolrte/Actinolite
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   5.
3%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cell Jose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                   6.
                                                   7.
                                                   a
                                                   9.
                                                   10.
                                                   11.
97%
Notes:
Mastic material negative

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KlfMttCty.U.SA
                                  BdtcSamdeAnafvsfe
Oats Received:  9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Bementary School

CUenL Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I D. No : BSA450

Sample Type: Carpet mastic

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                        Data Analyzed: 9-25-69
                                        Data of Sample: 8-14-89

                                        Cflent I.D. No.:  89032-050
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysotle
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crocdolite
      4.    AnthophyllKe
      5.    Tremolite/Actinol.le
                                             ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   5.
      NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper /wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Vermicdite)
      10    Quartz 	
      11    Others
                                             ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                   6.
                                                   7.
                                                   a
                                                   9.
                                                   10.
                                                   11.
90%
10%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   Kansas Cty. USA


                                   BtJk Sarnie Anehnfe
Data Received: 9-20-89

Project Name: AH ERA Elementary School

Cflert:  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.:  3SA451

Sample Type: Carpet mastic

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                         Data Analyzed: 9-25-99
                                         Data of Sample: 8-14-89

                                         Client I.D. No.: 89032-051
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      i.    ChrysoUe
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Crocidolite
      4.    Anthophylirte
      5.    Tremolite/Actinolite
                                              ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                    1.
                                                    2.
                                                    3.
                                                    4.
                                                    5.
B     NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovtfe/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz	
      n.   Others
                                              ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                    6.
                                                    7.
                                                    8.
                                                    9.
                                                    10.
                                                    11.
90%
10%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SBMCES
                                  Kama* Cty. USA


                                  Bufc Sanmte Anarvsfe
DateReceMK* 9-20-89

Project Name: AH ERA Elementary School

dent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location:  AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. Ho.: BSA452

Sample Type: ROOT tile, green

Sample Description: Green, granular tde material
DtteAnatyzed: 9-25-89
Oatao*Sample:

Olent 1.0. No.: 89032-052
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysotile
      2.    AmosJte
      3.    Crocidolite
      4.    Anthophyllrte
      5.    Tremolite/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT


           2.
           3.
           4
           5.
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Venniculrte)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
95%
 3%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.U.SA
DateRecetact 9-20-39

Project Name AHERA Bementary School

Cfant  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Loc^ton: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA453

Sample Type:  Floor tile, green

Sample Description: Green, granular tile material
                                        Dtf» Analyzed: 9-25-89
                                        OrtB of Sample:  8-14-89

                                        CUent LD. No.: 89032-053
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotile
      2.    Amosite
      3.    CrocWoirte
      4.    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremolite/Actinolite
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT



                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   5.
      NOW ASBESTOS

      6.    CellUose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Vermiculrte)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
                                                  ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                  6.
                                                  7.
                                                  8.
                                                  9.
                                                  10.
                                                  11.
95%
 3%
Notes:
Mastic matenai negative

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                         iCty.USA
Dote Recede* 8-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Cnant Lonesome Plains Schod District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA454

Sample Type: Floor tUe. black. 9" x 9"

Sample Description: Black, granular
DetBAneryzfid: 9-2S-89
Date of Sample: 8-14^89

Client I.D. Ma: 89032-054
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotile
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Crocidoiite
      4.    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremolite/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT


           2.
           3.
           4
           5.
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    CeHulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Rbers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite /Vermiculiie)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6
           7
           8.
           9
           10.
           11.
97%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  Kama* Cty. USA


                                  B«*k Sanwte Arrtvsfe
QeJeReceiwad: 9-2O-89

Prefect Name: AHERA Elementary Schod

Cflent:  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Bememary School

Laboratory I.O. No.: BSA455

Sample Type:  Floor tKe. black. 9' x 9*

Sample Description: Black, granular
                                        Data Analyzed: 9-25-69
                                        Dote of Sample: 8-14-89

                                        Otert I.D. Na:  89032-055
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      i.    ChrysotHe
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crocidolite
      4    Anthophyllite
      5    Tremolite/Actinoiite
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT



                                                   Z
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   5.
B.    NONVtSBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Ffcers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Vermcuirte)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                  6.
                                                  7.
                                                  8.
                                                  9.
                                                  10.
                                                  11.
97%
Notes:
Mastic material negative

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.U.SA
OateRecwvad: 9-20-69

Protect Name: AHERA Elementary School

dart: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory l.D. No.: BSA456

Sample Typo: ROOT trie. yeUow

Sample Description: Yelow. chunky tile material
OMe Analyzed: 9-25-89
DateafSampte: 8-14-89

Client 1.0. No.: 89032-056
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      i.    Chrysotde
      2.    Amosrte
      3     Crocidolite
      4.    Anthoprtylite
      5     Tremolite/Actinolrte
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
2%
B.     NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    CeUiJose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite.A/ermtculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
95%
 3%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SBMCES
                                  Kara* Cty. USA
Data Recetod: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

CBart:  Lonesome Plains School District

Swvey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No.: 8SA457

Sample Type: ROOT tile, yellow

Sample Description. Yellow, cnunxy tile material
             9-25-88
DaiaoiSampte: 8-1^89

OJert I.D. No.: 89032-057
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Cnrysotte
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crcodolrte
      4    AnthophyHite
      5.    Tremdite/Actinolrte
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1.
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
2%
B.    NON-AS8ESTOS

      6.    Celulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Vermicidtte)
      10.   Quara 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
95%
 3%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   KmMCty,U.SA
Data RecaivKt: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

COent: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory ID. No.:  BSA458

Sample Type: Floor tile, green

Sample Description: Green, granular trie material
            :  9-25-89
Date of Sample: 8-14-89

Qlent I.D  Na: 89032-056
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysotile
      2.    Amosrte
      3     Croctdolrte
      4     Anthoprryiiite
      5.    Tremdite/Actinolite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT


           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Verrrwculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
95%
 3%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KenswCty. U.SA


                                  Bulk SamrJe Arrtvste
DateRecafeKi: 9-2O-89

Project Name: AHERA Bementary School

COent:  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.:  BSA4S9

Sample Type:  Acoustical ceding tile

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                        DrttAnarynd: 9-2549
                                        Date of San*** 8-14-89

                                        Olent 1.0. Na:  69032-059
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      i.    Chrysolite
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crocidolite
      4.    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremotoe/Actinolrte
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   5.
B.    NON-AS8ESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    MJca (Muscovrte/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11    Others
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                  6.
                                                  7
                                                  8.
                                                  9.
                                                  10.
                                                  11.
60%
40%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.U.SA
             9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Bernentary School

Giant Lonesome Plains School District

Suuey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory ID. No.: BSA460

Sample Type: Acoustical ceiling trie

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                       DoteAnrfyzad: 9-25-89
                                                     8-14-89

                                       CSent I.D. No.: 89032-060
      ASBESTOS MINERALS
8.
1.
2.
3.
4
5.
Chrysotte
Amostte
Croadolite
AnthophyUrte
Tremotite/Actinol ite
NON-ASBESTOS
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
CelUose (paper/wood fibers)
Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
Binders
Mica (Muscovite/VermicuJite)
Quartz
Others
                                                  ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                  1.
                                                  2.
                                                  3.
                                                  4.
                                                  5.
                                                  ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                             6.
                                                             7.
                                                             8.
                                                             9.
                                                             10.
                                                             11.
                                                        60%
                                                        40%
Notes:
No asbestos deteciea

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.U.SA
Date Received: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

dent  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. Na:  BSA461

Sample Type: Acoustical ceding Me

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                        0*»AnrtyzBd: 9-2S-89
                                       Dtfa of Sample: 8-14-89

                                       Client 1.0. Na: 89032-061
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysotile
      2.    Amosrie
      3.    Croctdolrte
      4.    AnthophyHite
      5     Tremdrte/Actmolite
                                                  ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                  1.
                                                  2.
                                                  3.
                                                  4.
                                                  5.
8.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    CeBUose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovfle/VermicuJite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
                                                  ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                  6.
                                                  7.
                                                  &
                                                  9.
                                                  10.
                                                  11.
60%
40%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                            /.U.SA
DataRecervwt 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

dent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA462

Sample Type: Acoustical ceding tde

Sample Description:  White chunky material
                                        Date Analyzed: 9-25-89
                                        Date of Sample: 8-14-89

                                        Client I.D. No.: 89032-062
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotie
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crcodolite
      4.    Antnophyllite
      5.    Tremolrte/Actmolite
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   5.
8.    NON^SBESTOS

      6.    Cefldose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermicuirte)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                   6.
                                                   7.
                                                   8.
                                                   9.
                                                   10.
                                                   11.
60%
40%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
                               ACE ANAL
                                   KmttCty.lL&A.
                                  Biik Samte Anriwsfa
              9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Bementary School

OtenL  Lonesome Plains Schod District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary SchooJ

Laboratory ID No.:  BSA463

Sample Type: Acoustical ceiling trie

Sample Description: White chunky materal
                                        DiteAnafynd: 9-25-69
                                        Date of Sample: 8-14-89

                                        OienMD. No: 89032-063
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotlle
      2.    Amosite
      3.    CrocJdolrte
      4.    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremolrte/Actinoiite
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   5.
8.    NON.ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral WooJ Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                   6.
                                                   7.
                                                   8.
                                                   9.
                                                   10.
                                                   11.
60%
40%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        tCty.USA
                                  BtJk Sttrato Anarvsfe
Data Received: 9-20-69

Project Name AHERA Elementary School

Otent Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory ID. No.: BSA464

Sample Type: insulation debris

Sample Description: White chunky material
QtfeAneJyzad: 9-2S49
OateofSimple: 8-14-69

CJtert I.D. No.: 89032-064
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysotle
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Croodolite
      4.    Anthophyliite
      5.    Tremoiite/Actinoiite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1
           2.
           3.
           4.
           5.
70%
B.    NON-ASSESTOS

      6.    CelJose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermcuiite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
30%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  Btft Sanwia Anrtoto
 OoteReceivad: 9-20-89

 Protect Mama: AHERA Bementary School

 Otert Lonesome Plains School District

 Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

 Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA465

 Sample Type: Insuiattondebns

 Sample Description: White cnunky material
DrteArah/zad: 9-25-89
Date of Sample 8-14-89

Otent I.D. No.: 89032-065
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotite
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Oocidolite
      4.    Antnophyllite
      5.    Tremolrte/Actinoiite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           1
           2.
           3.
           4
           5.
70%
B.    NONWkSBESTOS

      6.    CelliJose (paper/wood libers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mtea (Muscovite/Venrocutrte)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
30%
Notes:

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                        iCty.USA
                                  BJk Satiate AnarvgiB
Data Recervad: 9-20-89

Prafact Name: AHERA Elementary School

Client: Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory 1.0. Na: BSA466

Sample Type:  insulation debris

Sample Description: White chunky material
DeteAraiyzad: 9-25-S9
Dale of Sample: 8-14-89

Cflent I.D. No.: 89032-066
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotde
      2.    Amosite
      3.    Crocidolrte
      4.    Anthophyllrte
      5.    Tremolrte/Actinciite
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
            1.
            2.
            3.
            4.
            5.
70%
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
           ESTIMATED PERCENT
           6.
           7.
           8.
           9.
           10.
           11.
30%
Notes:

-------
                               ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   Kma»Cty,U.SA


                                  BtaV Samde AnafvRfe
Data Received: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Client  Lonesome Rains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA467

Sample Type: Acoustical plaster (at wall)

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                        DataAneiyzad: 9-25-89
                                        Dale of Sample: 8-14-89

                                        Client ID. No.:  89032-067
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotte
      2    Amosite
      3    Croctdolite
      4    Anthophyllite
      5    Tremoiite/Actinoiite
                                                    ESTIPUIATED PERCENT

                                                    1
                                                    2
                                                    3.
                                                    4
                                                    5.
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6     Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7     Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8     Binders
      9     Mica (Muscovte/Venriculite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                   6.
                                                   7.
                                                   8.
                                                   9.
                                                   10.
                                                   11.
60%
40%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   Kansas Cty.U.SA
Dote Received: 9-20-89

Project Name: AHERA Elementary School

Client Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.:  BSA468

Sample Type:  Acoustical plaster (at wall)

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                        DataAnafyzad: 9-25-89
                                        Data of Sample: 8-14-89

                                        CSent 1.0. Ma: 89032-068
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1     Chrysolite
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Croadolite
      4     Anthophytiite
      5     TremoJite/Actinolite
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                   1.
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4.
                                                   5
      NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cellulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/Vermtcultte)
      10.   Quartz 	
      11.   Others
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                   6.
                                                   7.
                                                   8.
                                                   9.
                                                   10.
                                                   11.
60%
40%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                  KmnCty.USA


                                  Ri4k Samia Anrfvafa
Dale Received: 9-20-89

Prefect Name: AHERA Elementary School

Otent  Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School

Laboratory ID. No.:  BSA469

Sample Type:  Acoustical piaster (at wai)

Sample Description: White chunky material
                                        Q** Analyzed: 9-25-89
                                        Date of Sample: 8-14-89

                                        CUentl.D. Na:  89032-069
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysolite
      2.    Amosrte
      3.    Crocdolite
      4    Anthophyllite
      5.    Tremoiite/Actinoirte
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                   1
                                                   2.
                                                   3.
                                                   4
                                                   5
B.    NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Cefluiose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovite/VermicUite)
      10.   Quartz	
      11.   Others
                                                   ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                   6.
                                                   7
                                                   8
                                                   9
                                                   10.
                                                   11.
60%
40%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
                              ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES
                                   KmnCty.U.SA
Date Received: 9-20-89

Protect Name: AHERA Dementary School

Cttant Lonesome Plains School District

Survey Location: AHE^A Elementary School

Laboratory I.D. No.:  BSA470

Sample Type: Acoustical plaster (at wall)

Sample Description: Whrte cnunky material
                                        Date Analyze* 9-2S-68
                                        Date of Sample:  8-14^89

                                        Client I.D. No.: 89032-070
      ASBESTOS MINERALS

      1.    Chrysotde
      2.    Amosite
      3    Crocidolite
      4    Anthophylite
      5.    Tremolite/Actinolitc
                                                    ESTIMATED PERCENT

                                                    1.
                                                    2.
                                                    3.
                                                    4.
                                                    5.
B.     NON-ASBESTOS

      6.    Celulose (paper/wood fibers)
      7.    Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers
      8.    Binders
      9.    Mica (Muscovrte/Verrmculrte)
      10    Quartz 	
      11    Others
                                                    ESTIMATED PERCENT
                                                    6.
                                                    7.
                                                    a
                                                    9.
                                                    10.
                                                    11.
60*
40%
Notes:
No asbestos detected

-------
         Management Plan
              for

  AHERA Elementary School
Lonesome Plains School District
    Lonesome Plains, USA
         SUBMITTED BY:
 Management Planners, Limited
        State City, USA

   AHERA Certification Number XXOII
         December 1,1989

-------
                                        MANAGEMENT PLAN


Ab  t m nt Alternatives

1.    REMOVAL

     Advantages:

     a.    Eliminates asbestos source

     b.    Eliminates need for special operations and maintenance
          program

     c.    Eliminates potential for future fiber release


     Disadvantages:

     a.    Replacement with substitute material may be necessary

     b.    Porous surfaces may also require encapsulation

     c.    Improper removal may raise fiber levels in air

     d.    Generally the most expensive


2.    ENCAPSULATION

     Advantages:

     a.    Reduces asbestos fiber release from material

     b.    Does not require replacement of material

     c.    Initial cost may be lower than removal

-------
     Disadvantages:

     a.   Asbestos source remains and must be removed later

     b.   If material is not in good condition, sealant may cause material
          to delaminate

     c.   Periodic reinspection required to check for damage or
          deterioration

     d.   Encapsulated surface is difficult to remove and may require
          costly techniques for eventual removal

     e.   Further fiber release is possible if encapsulant is damaged


3.    ENCLOSURE

     Advantages:

     a.   Reduces exposure outside the enclosure

     b.   Initial costs are lower than removal

     c.   Usually does not require replacement of material


     Disadvantages:

     a.   Asbestos source remains and must be removed later

     b.   Fiber release continues behind the enclosure

     c.   Fibers released during construction of enclosure

     d.   Long-term cost could be higher than removal

-------
                                        MANA(
Management Plan Response for AHERA Bementary

     All spray-applied and trowel-applied asbestos-containing material,
     thermal systems insulation and asbestos-containing floor tile -
     Remove

     All spray-applied and trowel-applied asbestos-containing material
     which is inaccessible for removal - Enclose

     Surfaces from which asbestos material has been removed  -
     Encapsulate for lockdown of surfaces only

-------
                 Lonesome Plains School District


           Objectives for Asbestos Abatement
                   of AHERA Elementary
1.    Meet AHERA Management Plan as submitted by Management
     Planners, Ltd.

2.    Install no asbestos-containing material in renovation work.

3.    Notify School District of any other suspect asbestos-containing
     material encountered in renovation.

4.    School office to remain occupied during the abatement of the non-
     administrative areas of the school.

-------
STUC6NT                            ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                     Secson Xlll-3 • U«^fi IMU«
3. Design Issues
    Learning Objectives and Study
    Questions
    Exhibits

    • Critical Design Decisions

-------
                                                   ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                             Swcton XII.-3 - Dwign lvsuo*
                                                                           PagoS
                            3.   DESIGN  ISSUES
Learning Objectives:
      1.    Understand philosophical decisions 1hat the designer must address.
      2.    Understand critical design decisions that the designer must address.

Study Questions:
      1.    List  and explain some  critical  design decisions that  are typical for
            asbestos abatement projects.
      2.    Why is rt important to list critical design decisions at the beginning of the
            project?
      3.    What are the phases of design?  Of the total project?
      4.    Explain why details are a necessary part of the design process. What are
            examples of details that would  be important to show on an abatement
            design project?

-------
Exhibit

-------
                            CRITICAL DESIGN DECISIONS






Removal of fireproofing



Removal of acoustical plaster material only or removal of lath



Pipe insulation removal by glovebag or removal during gross removal work



Removal of floor tile



Boiler room and pipe tunnel in same work area or separate areas



Number of contiguous work areas



Keep and clean light fixtures or dispose of and replace



Keep cafeteria air conditioner or dispose of and replace



Renovate building to code or replace what removed



Replace acoustical plaster ceiling or use  other type ceiling



Repaint entire school or touch-up damaged areas



Install floor tile or use other type floor covering



Remove library books or protect in-place



Remove school furnishings or store on-site

-------
STUDENT                       ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OESJCN
                                Soctton XIIM - Drawing
4. Drawings
   Learning Objectives and Study
   Questions
   Abatement Drawing Exhibits
   • Floorplans for AHERA Elementary
     School
   • Example Index of Abatement
     Drawings
   • Example Abatement Detail Drawing
   Replacement Drawing Exhibits
   • Example Index of Replacement
     Drawings

-------
                          AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OESJGN
                                 Section Xlli-4 Drowrintgs
                                        Page 2
  Example of Replacement Detail
  Drawings
Drawings Workshop

-------
                                                  ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN
                                                                  X. 1-4 - Drawings
                                                                        Pago 3
                                 4.   DRAWINGS
Learning Objectives:
      1.    Understand abatement drawings.
      2.    Understand replacement drawings.

Study Questions:
      1.    Prepare a typical list of drawings for asbestos abatement.
      2.    What is  a designer's  library of details and procedures and how is it
            useful?
      3.    Under what conditions should you separate the abatement contract from
            the  replacement  contract?  When would rt be  appropriate to include
            abatement and replacement in the same contract?
      4.    What are some considerations that must be addressed when separating
            abatement from replacement?
      5.    What is the purpose of drawings?  What role do drawings play in the total
            design presentation?

-------
Abatement Drawings
      Exhibits

-------
                                       -  ~r
•- ' m^^f "~^M^f  f^^^M *" "^rfl
- -  T       I—
•* i _. ••  r~* ••  •  I
dilL^UL
                                       vr~-i-r
   •a-
'. |:s'
                .*JUl
                   ^JU*
                            =p^-r   r "IF *
                          •    "        - R"'-
                             , 	  -	J  •• N —
               •>••»«
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
                       .A.    I ^	rL_pL
                          •'.:••    '««•*»  \
                          • t ^"   
-------
CD
8
•
        a-
                           E--5HRI
                        m I
If
«.t
                             ll 3)I80@^ER

-------


-------
                                                    EXAMPLE
               Index of Abatement Drawings






          Title Sheet



AA-1      Location plan, Index of Drawings



AA-2      General notes, Legend, Abbreviations



AA-3      Procedures. Details



AA-4      Site plan



AA-5      Basement floor plan



AA-6      First floor plan



AA-7      Second floor plan



AA-8      Third floor plan



AA-9      Photographs - Basement



AA-10     Photographs - First and second floors



AA-11     Photographs - Third floor

-------
                                ABATEMENT DETAIL
                                         EXAMPLE
PREMANUFACTUREO GLOVE BAG
6-MIL POLYETHYLENE
  ACM
  HEPA
  VACUUM
MAINTAIN NEGATIVE AIR
PRESSURE WITH A  HEPA
FILTERED VACUUM
USE VACUUM TO REMOVE  AIR
FROM BAG AFTER INSULATION
REMOVAL

 GLOVE  BAG  DETAIL
                                AJR TIGHT SEAL FORMED BY
                                NYLON STRIPS

                                INSULATION TO BE REMOVED
                                NO CLOSER  THAN 6" FROM
                                END OF GLOVE BAG
                                POCKET FOR TOOLS
 WORKER AND AREA TO BE
 TOTALLY ISOLATED
 FROM  POTENTIAL
 FIBER RELEASE

 WORKER TO WEAR
 RESPIRATORY AND
 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
 THROUGHOUT OPERATION
 D DETAIL
NOT  TO  SCALE

-------
                       ABATEMENT DETAIL
                                EXAMPLE
                          >ew cone. FLL
                            /	DCKT. CONC.

*•»•*• 'A- '*••'
/•::•• ":••: -jT
/ 1
' . ' ''.'-.''
/
*• • • • * • •*•«." .r
D '""'."'-. • w
. Q >.•« •:•«•;.'• » j
          r 2-     /
        W STL. t	l
        4^4" EXP. /WCHORS
        ONE 0 EA. CORNER
        OF 9 	
DETAIL
NTS

-------
                            ABATEMENT DETAIL
                                      EXAMPLE
           ASBESTOS CONTAINING
           JOINT MATERIAL


           NON-ASBESTOS INSUL

           PIPE
                             PIPE

                 NON-ASBESTOS INSUL

                ASBESTOS CONTAINING
                    JOINT MATERIAL

NOTE: REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS
CONTAINING MATERIAL
AT JOINTS TO INCLUDE
THE REMOVAL OF NOT
LESS THAN 6' OF
FIBERGLASS INSULATION
BEYOND THE OUTER
EDGE OF JOINT MATERIAL.
CUT FIBERGLASS LEAVING A
STRAIGHT.EVEN EDGE.

PIPE  JOINT   DETAIL
  DETAIL
NOT  TO  SCALE

-------
  ABATEMENT DETAIL
         EXAMPLE
                       CONTINUOUS CARBON-
                       MONOXIDE MONITORING
                       DEVICE FOR OIL
                       LUBRICATED COMPRESSOR.
                       THIS DEVICE SHALL HAVE
                       A GAUGE


                         GAUGE
RECEIVING DEVICE LOCATION
TO BE AWAY FROM ALL
BUILDING AND
ENGINE EXHAUSTS
UNCONTAMINATED
AIR  IN
   COMPRESSOR
   UNIT

   SIZE SHALL BE
   ADEQUATE TO
   SERVICE
   RESPRIATORY
   SYSTEM
AIR
COOLED
AFTER
COOLER
                             TO RESPIR-
                             ATORY
                             SYSTEM
               COMPRESSED
               AIR PURIFIER
               RESERVE OF 20
               MINUTES OF AIR
               PER  PERSON
               PRESSURE -
               REGULATOR
               W/ GAUGE
COMPRESSOR  SYSTEM

-------
                                         EXAMPLE
1. ALL SHEETING TO BE
   6 MIL. POLYETHYLENE.
2. SECURE TOP EDGE OF
   SHEET »1 ALONG TOP
   EDGE OF OPENING.
3. SECURE SHEET •! ALONG
   ONE VERTICAL SIDE OF
   OPENING.
                 EXISTING
                 OPENING
4. SECURE TOP EDGE OF
   SHEET »2 ALONG TOP EDGE
   OF OPENING.

5. SECURE SHEET *2 ALONG SIDE
   OF OPENING, OPPOSITE OPENING
   SIDE  OF SHEET *1
                 EXISTING
                 OPENING
 6. SECURE SHEET 3 ON OPPOSITE
   SIDE SHEET  2 ALONG THE SAME
   VERTICAL EDGE AS SHEET »1
       VERTICAL SEAL
       (TYP.)
SHEET

SHEET »2

SHEET »3
       PLAN VIEW
NOTE: MIN. 8oz. WEIGHT TO BE SECURED
     TO THE OPENING CORNER OF EACH SHEET.
                                    EXISTING
                                    OPENING
   CURTAIN    DOORWAY

-------
Replacement Drawings
       Exhibits

-------
                                                      EXAMPLE
              Index of Replacement Drawings






          Title Sheet



A-1       Location plan, Index of Drawings



A-2       General notes, Legend, Abbreviations



A-3       Site plan



A-4       Basement floor plan



A-5       Details of basement enclosures



A-6       First floor plan



A-7       Second floor plan



A-8       Third floor plan



A-9       Finish schedule, Finishes notes



A-10      First floor reflected ceiling plan



A-11       Second floor reflected ceiling plan



A-12      Third floor reflected ceiling plan



A-13      Ceiling details. Roor covering details, Lighting cove details

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                         REPLACEMENT DETAIL
                                     EXAMPL
                NEW GRID
EXIST1NC GRD
                              EXISTING GRD SYSTEM   -PAJWT)
                      MEW ACOUSTICAL CELMG PANEL
                      NEW CQUNG SUPPORT ANCLE
                      NEW ACOUSTICAL W*J. SYSTEM
                      EXISTING WALL
                      EXISTING WOOD  TRJM t FRAME
                      TO. BE REWORKED AS REQUIRED FOR
                      NSTALJLATtON Of NEW ACOUSTICAL WALL
                  WALL DETAIL  6
                     BAND ROOM
DETAIL
SCALE: 1/2" ' 1'-0"

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                         REPLACEMENT DETAIL
                                       EXAMPLE
                          3 5/8" 20 GA. STL. STUD
                          LATER*. BRACE • V-0" O.C..
                          ATTACH TO STRUCTURE ABOVE
                          6" 20 GA. STL. STUDS «
                          W" O.C.. ATTACH TO STRUCTURE ABOVE


                          5/8" GYP. BO..EXTEXD  6" ABOVE
                          FINISHED CEILING. TYP.

                          ACOUSTIC TILE 1
                          SUSPENSION SYSTEM
                   TYPICAL
                   BULKHEAD
DETAIL
SCALE: 1"  - 1'-0"

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                       REPLACEMENT DETAIL
                                   EXAMPLE
                           EXISTING CEJLJNG GRID (RE-PAINT)
                           NEW  ACOUSTICAL CEUNG PANELS
                     PAJNT TNS AREA OF WALL
                     AS FEATURE STRIPE
                     (DOWN TO SECOND MORFOR
                     oOiNT 8ELOW CEILING)
                     EXISTING CMU WALL
                 FEATURE  STRIPE
DETAIL
SCALE: 1/2"  -  1'-0"

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Drawings
Workshop

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                           AS8ESTOS A3A7EMEM PROJECT DESIGN
                                Section XIII 5 • Spocilicnaoro
                                       Page!
5. Specifications
   Learning Objectives and Study
   Questions
   Exhibits

   • Examples from National Institute of
     Building Sciences Model Guide
     Specifications

   • Examples from MASTERSPEC
     Replacement Specifications

   • Example Project Manual Table of
     Contents

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                         ASBESTOS ABAItVENI =ROJECT DESIGN
                              Sector. Xlll-b - Speo'tcaSors
Specification Workshop

• Portions of NIBS and
  MASTERSPEC Specifications for
  markup

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Sa.OEVT                                            AS8CSTOS ABATEMENT PFOJECT DES:GN
                                                           SscJtor. Xlll-5 - Speclicawxs
                                                                         Page 3
                           5.   SPECIFICATIONS
Learning Objectives:
      1.     Understand main concepts of specifications.
      2.     Understand the use of guideline specs for abatement.
      3.     Understand the use of guideline specs for replacement.

Study Questions:
      1.     What  are  the  two major  philosophies  used  to  write  contract
            specifications? Define each.
      2.     What do you  call a spec that dictates the exclusive use of a specific
            product manufacturer and product model number?  What do you call the
            opposite kind of spec?
      3.     What are the  advantages and disadvantages of using means/methods
            specs for asbestos abatement?
      4.     What are the advantages and disadvantages of using performance specs
            for replacement?
      5.     Name two producers of guideline specs.
      6.     When abatement  and replacement are included in one package, how do
            you determine which contractor to act as general?
      7.     What is the purpose of specifications? What is the role of specifications
            in the total design presentation?

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        Exhibits:

Abatement Specifications
          NIBS

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                           IMPORTANT
Copyrighted materials in this manual have been reproduced by
permission from the National Institute of Building Sciences and the
American Institute of Architects. AIA permission is granted under license
f94043. The copyrighted materials In this manual cannot be used for any
other purposes than education/training. Information regarding the
purchase of the NIBS Model Guide Specifications Asbestos Abatement in
Buildings, AIA MASTERSPEC, or AIA Documents can be obtained by
calling the telephone numbers provided below.
National Institute of Building Sciences
1201 L Street, N.W., Suite 400
Washington, D.C. 20005
(202) 289-1092
American Institute of Architects
Office of the General Counsel
1735 New York Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C.  20006
(202) 626-7391

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Second Edition
Asbestos Abatement & Management in Buildings
Model Guide Specifications
              ABSTRACT
                           Mational Institute of
                           BUILDING SCIENCES

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In 1986 the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) first published the document. Asbestos Abate-
ment and Management in Buildings, Model Guide Specifications, as a resource for persons interested in
asbestos abatement in buildings.  In 1988 NIBS rcpuhlishcd the Model Guide The 1988 edition contains
numerous re\ iiions ami several new sections which enahle users to deal with the requirements of A HERA
and to benefit from advancing technology and procedures developed ov er the past two years. This guide
was developed in response to a national nee;! for authoritative advice and guidance in the design and
execution of abatement of asbestos-containing building materials (ACM) in the following four categories of
activity:

       ':) maintenance and  repair      2) encapsulation       3)enclosure   4) removal

A number of user groups are expected to benefit from the direct use of this information. Of'primary-
interest to design professionals (architects, engineers, and cm ironmcntal consultants), building owners, and
abatement contractors, this document provides an outline of important information on specifying asbestos
abatement and main'criance and repair of ACM in buildings Regulatory agencies may also find valuable
information in the Model Guide Specifications. It is expected lhat, o\ er time, a more consistent approach
to asbestos abatement pro: eels ".ill evolve through the proper use of thi.i guidance material

As a consensus document, the Model Guide Specifications rctlcct the concerns, viewpoints, and agree-
ment of the more than eighty-five members of the Institute s Asbestos I ask Force who contributed their
time, know ledge, and effort to define up-to-date model procedures that may be used to achieve quality and
consistency in asbestos abatement work. Refinements to materials prepared b> the Institute's contractor
were made through a series of highly technical review sessions and written correspondence. Finally, the
document was accepted by written ballot by the Task Force. The following concepts and content are
incorporated in the Model Guide Specifications:

A.  Basic Asbestos Abatement Design Principles include: 1) isolation of airborne contamination, 2)
    isolation of wa:crbome contamination; ?) protection of room surfaces; 4) worker protection; 5)
   regulations and standards; 6) testing; 7) wet removal; 8) disposal; 9) encapsulation; and 10)
   enclosure.

    I.  Isolation of Airborne Contamination: During asbestos abatement operations that disturb ACM.
       the work area will be contaminated by airborne asbestos fibers. The balance of the building
       must be protected from this contamination. This is accomplished by sealing all points of
       entrance to the work area, and maintaining the work area at an air pressure lower than that of
       surrounding areas (above and below as well as adjacent to)

   2.  Isolation of Water Borne Contamination: Water with a wetting agent added (amended water)
       are normally used to wet asbestos containing materials before removal. Non-asbestos materi-
       als, including baps and drums being removed from the work area for disposal are decontami-
       nated by washing. Work areas are misted with amended water to reduce air borne fiber  levels,
       and workers shower when leaving the work area. 'I his extensive use of water on an asbestos
       abatement project results in considerable possibility for contamination of the building outside
       the work area by contaminated water. Where a removal encapsulant is used for wetting  of
       materials the situation will be somewhat ameliorated. However, ever, in  this instance there  is
       typically considerable water used on an abatement project with the atlendanl concern with
       water borne contamination.

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 3   Protection of Room Surfaces: Asbestos abatement projects, particularly removal projects.
    develop a considerable amount of contamination inside the work area. This contamination can
    be in the form of air bomc fibers, dusu debris, wet slurry or a combination of these forms of
    contamination.  Accordingly, the surfaces of the room need to be protected from this contami-
    nation.

 4.  Worker Protection: Protection of the worker is the responsibility of his employer, the Contrac-
    tor. Great care must be used in writing a specification to avoid transferring this responsibility
    to the Owner. Building Owners conducting asbestos abatement in their buildings with their
    own employees  assume similar responsibilities for their workers.

 5.  Regulations and Standards.  Applicable regulations and standards should be made a pan of the
    specifications for the work to assure the contractor is responsible to comply w ith their adminis-
    trative, technical, and other pro\ isions. Further, regulations emanating from the federal, state,
    and local governments having jurisdiction change rapidly. Many state and federal regulations
    are identified in  the NIBS guide, however, the designer is responsible to research the extent
    and impact of such laws and  regulations, especially at the state and local levels of government.

6.  Testing: Ty pically, both the  Owner and C'ontractor conduct air mon::oring during an abatement
    project:

    a.  Owners often sample and analy/c the air inside and outside the work area throughout the
       work to insure that the building outside the work area remains uncontaminated. This
       sampling will normally be carried out in a different manner than and have nothing to do
       with the air sampling required by OSHA forthe Contractor's respiratory protection plan.

    b.  Contractors  are required by OSHA to sample the air in the breathing zone of his workers to
       demonstrate the adequacy of respiratory protection provided for workers

7.   Wet removal: The asbestos-containing building material to be removed is saturated with
    amended water or a removal encapsulant and hand scraped from its substrate.

8.   Disposal: Material which has been removed must be taken out of the work area through an
    equipment decontamination unit which is different from the personnel decontamination unit.
    This material is then land filled in accordance w ;ih HPA KESHAP regulations

9.   hncapsulation: Encapsulation involves either binding the constituents of an asbestos-containing
    material together and to their substrate (penetrating encapsulant), or coating it with a tough
    flexible or hard coatine (bridging encapsulant)  This process is intended to greatly restrict or
    prevent fiber release

10.  HncInsure: Knclosing an asbestos-containing installation can be accomplished by sealing it
    behind a permanently constructed barrier.  This barrier could be constructed of gypsum dry-
    wall, tongue and groove plywood, concrete, masonry, metal or ether materials  The construc-
    tion is made as airtight as possible.  The use of enclosure is most appropriate  if there is no need
    to obtain access into the enclosed area. I hese Guide Specifications provide guidance on the
    use of gypsurn dry wall systems for such an enclosure; although other systems such as wood.
    concrete, concrete, and masonrv can be used.

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B.  lnlroduilkLQ.aPiUjlStOtQ.ii.ons forJL;se: A comprehensive new 80 page section of the guide contains
    information to help practitioners utilize the Guide Specifications effectively and efficiently. The
    section:

    1.   Explains asbestos abatement and management in the context of the content and organization of
        contract documents and the roles and relationships of the participants in the process with
        emphasis on the owner, designer, and contractor.

    2.  Outlines and explains the design of an asbestos abatement project—the decisions that must be
        made and the rationale for making those decisions.

    3.  Describes the basic elements of the construction and operation of buildings, insofar as it affects
        the abatement of certain asbestos containing building materials.

    4.  Describes how to assemble and contract with a qualified design team

    5.  Explains how to develop, organize, and coordinate contract documents, and what each should
        contain.

    6.  Describes how to develop and coordinate a bidding package, including where to obtain and
        how to use standard forms.

    7.  Includes helpful hints on how to pre-qualify contractors for negotiated and bid contracts—what
        information to ask for and how to evaluate it.

    8.  Provides helpful procedures for negotiating and bidding contracts.

    9.  Outlines and explains how to administer contracts from receipt of bids to project close out.

    10.  Includes a brief abstract of each section in the guide specifications.

C.  Contract Documents:  In order to organize the information conveyed to the contractor hired to
    perform construction work by contract, the construction industry has developed a system to catego-
    rize the various types of responsibilities of both the contractor and the owner. The parts of this
    system, known as contract documents, are:

                     Owner Contractor Agreement
                     General Conditions (of the Contract for Construction)
                     Supplementary and Other Conditions
                     Technical Specifications
                     Contract Drawings
                     Addenda (changes made before bids are received)
                     Modifications (changes made after award of the contract)

    The NIBS Model Guide Specifications are intended to assist designers in the development of the
    technical specifications needed for asbestos abatement and management work. Information in the
    introduction to the NIBS document also provide gu:dancc on how to coordinate the  specifications
    with the other pans of the contract.
                                             4

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D   NIBS' Model Guide Specifications: The Model Guide Specification. Asbestos Abatement and
    Management in Buildings is a compilation of thirty-four guide specification sections which can
    Se used a-; a manual to assemble technical project .specification sections for:

                      - Removal of Asbestos-Containing Materials
                      - Hncapsulation of Asbestos-Containing Materials
                      - Enclosure of Asbestos-Containing Materials

    In addition, the Model Cmidc Specifications can be used ;o prepare the specifications necessary to
    define the maintenance and repair portions of an asbestos management and control program which
    arc appropriate for an outside contractor to cam* out. These sections arc identified in the Guide.
    SpiaJOiations under Maintenance of Asbestos-Containing Materials. Also, requirements can be
    developed through use of this document for conduct of these types of work by the building owner's
    forces as well.

    1.   Format: Sections in the Model Guide Specifications are arranged according to the Construc-
       tion Specification Institute's "Mastcrformat" which has become the standard for presentation of
       specification material in the construction industry. "Masterformat" organizes specification
       material into sixteen divisions which correspond to related construction activities Sections
       further break down the work of each division to correspond to the work accomplished by
       common trades, thus facilitating organization of the work into subcontracts.

       Most asbestos abatement activities arc defined in Division  1. General Requirements, which
      contains temporary facilities, quality control testing, and administrative requirements. Specifi-
      cation sections for remov al operations are described in Division 2. Site Work, as specialized
      demolition work Sections on encapsulation o;"asbeslos-conta:ning architectural finishes and
      gypsum drywall enclosure systems are included in Division 9, Finishes, as they constitute
      specialized interior finish work. Repair and encapsulation of pipe insulation and lagging arc
      located in Division 15, Mechanical.

   2.  Section Organization: The Model Guide Specifications organize each section into the Con-
      struction Specifications Institute (CSI) three part format. This format includes:

      a.  Part I (icncral: includes such information as a description of the work in that section.
          identification of related contract documents, required submittals, inter-sectional coordina-
          tion (related work specified elsewhere), and identification of referenced standards.

      b.  Part 2 Products (products, equipment, or materials): specifies items physically provided by
          the contractor through the use of specific prescriptive or performance provisions or through
          reference to standards or other criteria

      c.  Part 3 Kxcculion: defines requirements to be followed b\. the Contractor in actually earn-
          ing out the work, including sequencing of the work with requirements of other sections and
          special requirements for methods which can be described or incorporated by reference to
          installation standards.

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    3.  Compatibility with "MASTKRSPE-X"'*": To facilitate coordination of the Model Guide Speci-
       fications with other building renovation needs, its format is compatible with
       "MASTKRSPKC." '• a subscription guide specification service published by the American
       Institute of Architects (AIA).  'MASTERSPEC" is a series of specification sections written in
       a uniform format which can be used to develop a project specification by selecting and editing
       the appropriate sections from over 130 sections available. Because this service is wideh used
       by architects and engineers, the Model Guide Specifications have been made compatible with
       "MASTKRSPF.C," so they can readily be used to develop consistent and coordinated specifica-
       tions for related work such as reinsulation or re-fireproofing. Also, they are more easily
       coordinated with the standard contract document forms published by the AIA and the Engi-
       neers Joint Contract Documents Committee (EJCDC).

       The (iuide Specifications can also be used with other commcrciall) available guide specifica-
       tions systems such as "SPECTEXT""" published by CSI. or with guide specifications devel-
       oped and maintained by government agencies and required to be used for their projects.

    4.  Advisory Notes: In the text of the technical sections of the Model Guide Specification notes
       are included to provide additional guidance to the user. These notes must be deleted after
       preparing the project specifications. The following is an example of the format and style of the
       no:cs:
                                NOTES ARF. ALWAYS PRINTED FN CAPITAL LETTERS AND ARE
                                INDENTED Jl.ST AS THIS PARAGRAPH IS PRINTED.  AFTER
                                EDITING Till: GUIDE TO SI  II PROJICT NEEDS. ALWAYS DK-
                                i.irn  THESE xon-.s BEFORE PRINTING PROJECT SPECIFICA-
                                TIONS.

E.  Using :he Model  Guide Specifications: In writing project specifications, the Asbestos Abatement
    ami Management in Buildings, Model Guide Specifications is used by selecting the sections
    appropriate for the project and editing each to meet the project's needs. Some sections are neces-
    sary for any type  of abatement project.  Other sections contain specific requirements and will be
    appropriate only  for certain types of abatement work. The appropriate sections are selected from
    the "Master Table of Contents" to form the basis for the specifications for removal, encapsulation,
    enclosure, or maintenance and repair

F.   Following is a complete table of contents for the NIBS Model Guide Sp.e.cj fixations:

MASTF.R TABLE OF CONTENTS OF ALL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS SKCTIONS

DIVISION 1 - GENER Al  RFOMRFMF.NTS

       01013 Summary of Work - Asbestos Abatement
       01028 Application for Payment - Asbestos Abatement
       01043 Project Coordination - Asbestos Abatement
       01046 Cutting & Patching  - Asbestos-Containing Materials
       01091 Definitions and Standards - Asbestos Abatement
       01092 Codes, Regulations, and Standards - Asbestos Abatement
       01301 Submittais

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        01410 Air Monitoring - Test Laboratory Sen ices
        01503 Temporary Facilities - Asbestos Abatement
        015 H Temporary Pressure Differential & Air Circulation System
        01526 Temporary Enclosures
        01527 Regulated Areas
        01528 F.ntry Into Controlled Areas
        01529 Small-Scale Short-Duration Work
        01560 Worker Protection - Asbestos Abatement
        01561 Worker Protection - Repair & Maintenance
        01562 Respirator. Protection
        01563 Decontamination Units
        01601 Materials and Equipment - Asbestos Abatement
        01632 Product Substitutions - Asbestos Abatement
        01701 Project Closeout - Asbestos Abatement
        01711 Project Decontamination
        01712 (leaning & Decontamination Procedures
        01713 Project Decontamination - Microfibcrs
        01714 Work Area Clearance

DIVISION 2  - SITE WORK

        02061 Building Demolition - Asbestos Abatement
        02062 N'on-Asbestos Demolition
        02063 Demolition of Asbestos Contaminated Materials
        02081 Removal of Asbestos-Containing Materials
        02082 Removal of Asbestos-Contaminated Soil
        02084 Disposal of Asbestos-Containing Waste Material
        02085 Resilient Floor Covering Manufacturers' Recommended Work Practices
        02087 Resilient Flooring Removal - Asbestos Abatement

DIVISIONS- FINISHES

       09251  Gypsum Dry wall - Asbestos Enclosure
       09805 Encapsulation of Asbestos-Containing Materials

DIVISION 15 - MECHANICAL

        15254 Repair of Insulation and Lagging

(i. Specification Sections: The following describe the above specification sections needed to specify
   the different types of work required for an abatement or maintenance and repair project.  The
   sections are presented in a chronological order according to typical sequencing of the work

   A.  General and Administrative Requirements: arc set forth in sections:

        1.  01013 Summary of Work- Asbestos Abatement: Identifies the scope of the project,
          primary conditions of the contract, lists the specification sections applicable, identifies the

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       asbestos containing materials subject to the contract work, and sets forth procedures related
       to Contractor's use of the premises, site, existing buildings, and equipment such as eleva-
       tors.

    2.  01028 Application for Payment - Asbestos Abatement: Sets forth administrative proce-
       dures for Contractor s payment requests.

    3.  010-43 Project Coordination-Asbestos Abatement: Sets the responsibilities for notifica-
       tions and other special reports, supervisory personnel, contingency plans, and related
       suhmittals. I>etails the required qualifications of supervisory personnel. Describes coordi-
       nation meetings.

    4.  01091 Definitions and Standards - Asbestos Abatement: Defines important general and
       technical terms and positions related to the work, identifies drawing symbols and abbrevia-
       tions, and identifies the applicability of and methods for referencing standards.

    5.  0130; Submittals: Sets forth the requirements and procedures for coordinating, schedul-
       ing, and submitting shop drawings, product data, samples, mock-ups, and other informa-
       tion. Issues addressed include review times, action to be taken, subsequent submissions,
       distribution of copies, and record keeping.

    6  01632 Product Substitutions - Asbestos Abatement: Describes procedures to be used and
       basis for determining if the contractor will be allowed to substitute alternative products or
       procedures. Includes definitions of key terms, procedures, quality assurance, submittals.
       product delivery, storage and handling, product compliance, general product requirements,
       and installation.

    7.  01701  Project Closeout:  details administrative closcout procedures for the project once
       abatement work is complete.

B.  Abatement Work: requirements are set forth in the following sections:

    1.  01092 Codes, Regulations, and Standards - Asbestos Abatement: sets forth many govern-
       mental regulations and industry standards which arc adopted by reference and made a part
       of the contract (specifications). Notices and permits which must be made to or obtained
       from governmental authorities before start of work are also to be identified in this section.
       Some guidance documents developed by public and private organi?ations to assist asbestos
       abatement are also listed in this section.

                  This section requires the addition of requirements (criteria such as codes.
                  regulations, and referenced standards) specific to the project location. In order
                  to assure all such governmental  requirements are noted, the Owner and the
                  Owner's consukants must identify and understand the requirements to assure
                  inclusion of all pertinent provisions and to assure coordination of the technical
                  specification requirements with applicable laws and regulations.

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    2.  01410 Test I aboratory Services: describes air monitoring by the Owner to insure that the
        building beyond the work area remains unconlaminated  Also sets forth action levels that
        may result in a stop work order or other action Air monitoring to determine required
        respirator) protection is the responsibility of the Contractor.

    3.  01503 Temporary Facilities -Asbestos Abatement: sets forth the support facilities needed
        such a.s electrical and plumbing connections for the decontamination unit, storage and
        staging areas, and office space for the Project Administrator.

    4.  01513 Temporary Pressure Differential and Air Circulation System: sets forth the proce-
        dures to set up the differential air pressure machines and ventilation of the work area.

    5.  01526 Temporary Enclosures: details the requirements for the sheet plastic barriers
        isolating the work area and decontamination areas from the balance of the building.

    6.  01560 Worker Protection - Asbestos Abatement:  describes the equipment and procedures
        for protecting workers against asbestos contamination and other asbestos-related work
        place ha/ards except for respiratory protection

    7.  01562 Respiratory Protection: establishes procedures and equipment and sets minimum
        requirements for protection against inhalation of airborne asbestos fibers.

    8.  01563 Decontamination Units, explains the setup and operation of the personnel and
        material decontamination units.

    9.  01601 Materials and Equipment - Asbestos Abatement: Sets forth general requirements
        for material & equipment to be incorporated in the project.

C.  Asbestos Removal Work Procedures: arc described in the following specification sections:

    1.   01046 Cutting and Patching - Asbestos-Containing Materials: sets basic requirements for
       cutting, drilling, abrading, or otherwise penetrating ACM and related requirements for
        local exhaust, wetting, and sealing edges of asbestos-containing materials.

    2.  02061 Building Demolition -Asbestos Abatement: Sets forth requirements for asbestos
       abatement work in preparation for building demolition. Describes procedures for removal
       of entire systems and assemblies with associated asbestos-containing materials.

    3.  02062 Non- Asbestos Demolition: Describes the removal of non-asbestos containing
       materials which are related to the asbestos abatement work.

    4.  0206.1 Demolition of Asbestos-Contaminated  Materials: Sets forth requirement for re-
       moval of non-asbestos containing materials that arc contaminated with asbestos; and
       subsequent cleaning, and disposal as non-asbestos waste.

    5.  02081 Removal of Asbestos-Containing Materials: Addresses submissions and regulatory
       requirements, product material and equipment quality requirements, and related execution
       of the work.
                                          9

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    6.  02082 Remo\al of Asbestos-Contaminated Soil: Covers procedures for wet and dry soils.

    7.  0208'! Disposal of Asbestos-Containing Waste Material: Addresses requirements for
       notices and submissions, physical requirements for vehicles (enclosed trucks, etc.), and
       handling of bagged waste at the disposal site.

    8  02085 Resilient Flooring Removal-Resilient Floor Covering Manufacturers' Recom-
       mended Work Practices:  Work practices for the removal cf asbestos and non-asbcstos-
       containing resilient floor covering materials using r.on-aggrcssive methods for v\hich
       historical data are available about airborne fiber levels generated during use of these
       practices.

    9.  02087 Resilient Florring Removal-Asbestos Abatement: Covers aggressive methods for
       the removal of resilient floor covering by the use of machinery

I).  Hnclosure Procedures: Masonry, metal panels, wood, and plastic can and have been used for
    enclosure. If any of these materials are used, the appropriate section should be added to the
    specification. Gypsum drywall enclosures are described in section:

    1.  09251 Gypsum Drywall  Asbestos Fnclysures: Sets requirements for materials and proce-
       dures used, erection methods, and variations in standard drywall practices appropriate ("or
       asbestos related drywall enclosures.

H.  Encapsulation Procedures: arc described in the following sections:

    1.  09805 Kncapsulation of Asbestos-Containing Materials:  Describes special materials.
       safety procedures and submittals. quality control practices, and worker protection.

    2.  15254 Repair of Insulation and I agging: describes repair of insulation on pipes and other
       equipment using procedures that involve primarily bridging encapsulants and fabric rein-
       forcing or plastic jackets.

F.  Decontamination of the Work Area: after completion of abatement work, is described in the
    following sections:

    1.  01712 Cleaning and Decontamination Procedures: set forth procedures to be used on
       contaminated objects and rooms which are not pan of an abatement work area.

    2.  01711 Project Decontamination:  describes the sequence of cleaning and decontamination
       procedures during removal of the sheet plastic barriers isolating a work area.

    3.  01713 Project Decontamination - Microfitxrs: describes the special procedures required to
       clean an area of contamination by asbestos fibers too small to seen with an optical micro-
       scope.

    4.  01714 Work Area Clearance: describes the analytical methods used to determine if the
       work area has been successfully cleaned of contamination.

                                         10

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    (i.  Repair and Maintenance: procedures are specified in the following sections. GencralK these
        involve activities where asbestos fibers arc collected at the point of generation so that enclosure
        or'an area with plastic barriers is unnecessary:

        1   01 527 Regulated Areas:  Includes procedures for preparation of the work area for small-
           scale short-duration uork such as maintenance activities, entry into controlled areas,
           cleaning and decontamination.

        2.  01561 Worker Protection - Repair and Maintenance: Intended for work in areas with fiber
           counts below 0.02 fibers per cubic centimeter.  Training, medical examinations, worker
           protection requirements and protective clothing arc defined as arc the procedures for their
           use.

        3.  01528 Kmry Into Controlled Areas: Covers entry into areas where asbestos-containing
           materials could be disturbed, such as above ceilings where fircproofing is present, and
           other controlled areas.

        4.  01529 Small-Scale Short-Duration Work: Ik-fines limits for "small areas" of ACM. other
           sections with which the work is to comply, and product requirements. Sets forth proce-
           dures to be used for maintenance activities. Describes mini-enclosures, glove bags and
           specific procedures for preformed pipe insulation, job molded  plaster fitting insulation,
           pipe hangar or other brackets installation in fireproofmg, and removal of small areas of
           fircproofing or architectural finishes.
In order to provide the most useful tool to designers and others in need of this technical information, the
Institute has published the Model Guide in several formats  It is available in loose leaf format in three
ring binders, softbound. and in magnetic media for IBM and compatible micro-computers.  The
magnetic versions are available in WordPerfect. Word Star. Microsoft Word, Mullimalc. Displaywritc
and ASCII. Please note that the magnetic media must be purchased with the printed copy and cannot
be purchased separate!}. Hie Asbestos Abatement and Management in Buildings, Model Guide
Specifications is copyrighted publication by the National Institute of Building  Sciences

For funhcr information about the NIBS' Asbestos Abatement and Management in Buildings,
Model Guide Specifications, contact:

                         The National Institute of Building Sciences
                                  Publications Department
                               1201 I. Street. N.W.. Suite  400
                                  Washington. IXC. 20015

                          (202) 289-7X00     MX. (202) ?.8'MO<;2
                                             11

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Asbestos
Publications
Now
Available
from the
       National Institute of
       BtBLDNGSOENCES

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      ASBESTOS ABATEMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN BUILDINGS;
      MODEL GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS, Second Edition
        NOW INCLUDES:
          New Comprehensive
          Introduction and
          Instructions for Use

          Two New Sections on
          Resilient Flooring
          Removal
The second edition of MBS* ASBESTOS
ABATEMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN
BUILDINGS; MODEL GUIDE SPECIFICA-
TIONS continues to be one of the most widely
used technical documents on abatement and
maintenance and repair of asbestos-containing
materials in buildings. It is an essential tool
for design professionals, contractors, and
building owners. In addition, it is rccogni/ed
as an effective tool for organizations providing
training in asbestos abatement and manage-
ment procedures.

In 1988. NIBS updated the GUIDE SPECIFI-
CATIONS to include requirements resulting
from new federal regulations and provisions
for new products, equipment and procedures.
and refinements in existing practices for asbes-
tos abatement, maintenance and repair. In
1991. NIBS developed two new sections on
removal of non-friable asbestos-containing
flooring materials and a new "Introduction and
Instructions for Use" to facilitate more effec-
tive use of the GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS.

Regulations and standards promulgated by the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and
the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) set responsi
bilities  for building owners, contrac-
tors, designers, and others involved
in the asbestos work.  The GUIDE
SPECIFICATIONS Is coordinated
with relevant provisions from
AHERA. NESHAP. and the OSHA
Construction Rule for abatement
contracts between owners and
abatement contractors.
NIBS had distributed more than 5000
copies of the MODEL GUIDE SPECIFI-
CATIONS since it was first published in 1986.
The 550 pages in the current edition include
provisions for new products, equipment and
procedures, and refinements in existing prac-
tices for asbestos abatement and maintenance
and repair.  More than 100 leading technical
experts in the field contributed to this consen-
sus document
        Millions o
     are being spc
    on removing,
  other-wise contn
   containing mat
buildings, industrr
schools, and othe
by the public and t
  Those carrying 01
V    should be usi
     current and b
       technical c
                                                                          These pul
                                                                          puter disk
                                                                          DOS bast
                                                                          processor
                                                   mumR

-------
              GUIDANCE MANUAL:  ASBESTOS OPERATIONS &
              MAINTENANCE WORK PRACTICES
 ollars
 annually
 naging or
 ng asbestos-
 als in office
 lants, housing,
 iildings owned
i private sector.
 these actions
 the most
f available   /
 dance.
NIBS1 GUIDANCE MANUAL: ASBESTOS
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE WORK
PRACTICES is a technical procedures manual
which provides detailed guidance to owners,
asbestos program managers, and to asbestos
operations and maintenance (O&M) workers for
managing asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in
buildings. NIBS developed this document in
 cooperation with the Environmental Protection
    Agency (EPA) and the General Services
      Administration (GSA).
         The O&M MANUAL addresses three
         different types of ACM found in
          buildings:

          •Surfacing ACM which are sprayed
         or troweled on ceilings, walls, and
         structural members.
       Thermal System Insulation (TSI) which
     can be found around pipes, ducts, boilers,
  and tanks.

•Miscellaneous ACM such as ceiling and floor
tile, roofing felts and shingles, and wall board
systems.
cations are also available with com-
tes for use on MS-DOS and PC-
 microcomputers in several word
formats. See order form for details.
In order to present a full range of information, the
O&M MANUAL provides guidance on the design and
validation of O&M programs, checklists for asbestos
program managers and O&M workers, detailed
descriptions of 26 general O&M procedures and 57
specific work practice activities. It lists tools and
equipment, special procedures applicable to each
work practice, the appropriate number of workers to
carry out each task, and the responsibilities of each
worker. The O&M MANUAL addresses three differ-
ent levels of precaution which may be warranted by
specific building conditions.

The value  of this O&M MANUAL is in its presenta-
tion of a range of guidance for common operations
and maintenance procedures, which enables owners to
efficiently meet applicable regulations and the desired
levels of protection in varying building conditions.

One hundred and  eighty of the nation's leading
experts in building construction and asbestos abate-
ment issues gave their advice and guidance in the
development of this 350-page consensus document
                                              A companion to EPA's "Managing Asbes-
                                              tos In-Place: A Building Owner's Guide to
                                              Operations and Maintenance Programs
                                              lor Asbestos-Containing Mateirals" (a.ka.
                                              The Green Book') which provides guid-
                                              ance on how to organize and structure
                                              O&M programs.

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             ^      ,,.,,,    ORDER FORM
             >.rilonal Institute of
             BUILDING SCIENCES
             1201 L Street, NW. Suite 400
             Washington. DC 20005
             (202) 289-7800 Fax (202) 289-1092
                                                                       $25 •& t*t*t
Qiy.





Description , M^
Asbestos Abatement & Management ic Buildings. tiiunn
Model Guide Specifications. Hardcopy only , » i J n.uu
Asbestos Abatement & Management in Buildings. * i rn nn
Model Guide Specifications with disket*s* * W
Not Meiie Your
Pn:e • Pnce
$145.00

$19500 !
Practices. Hardcopy Only I I !
1 1
NIBS GudaDce Manual: Asbestos O&M Work .$150.00 $175.00
Practice* with diskettes* |

Dtdnct S25 wHf* ordering ta£.^um *>bjM lo iiMnxKil OOL Coaua STSS Py*)icux>« UtpMtocM la non lafimuo*. M*J «nat»rt»i) aOc fora
md>p*ya««k>NlBS lUtfyarf nt« kc bdk urtm «« «»uUbU. ciU fc« d.«*dt

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MODEL AS
SECT
               ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
                                                  August  12,  1988
          1960 - WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT

          THIS  SECTION  IS  INTENDED  FOR  LARGE  SCAT.E  ASBESTOS
          ABATEMENT PROJECTS INVOLVING REMOVAL, ENCAPSULATION, OR
          ENCLOSURE WHEN  THERE IS CONSIDERABLE DISRUPTION OF THE
          MATERIAL  BEING ENCLOSED.   FOR MAINTENANCE  AND REPAIR
          WORK   AND  FOR   ENCLOSURE  PROJECTS  THAT  LEAVE  THE
          ASBESTOS-CONTAINING   MATERIAL   (ACK)  RELATIVELY
          UNDISTURBED  USE  SECTION 01561.  ANY REVISION  OF THIS
          SECTION SHOULD  BE CARRIED OUT WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF A
          CERTIFIED   INDUSTRIAL  HYGIENIST   OR  OTHER  QUALIFIED
          OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SPECIALIST.
          THIS  SECTION  DOES  NOT  ADDRESS  THE  SUBJECT OF  HEAT
          STRESS.  THIS IS A COMMON PROBLEM ON ABATEMENT PROJECTS
          IN HOT ENVIRONMENTS.  WHERE REQUIRED SPECIFIC PROVISION
          FOR PROTECTION AGAINST  HEAT STRESS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED
          FOR THE SPECIFIC PROJECT AND INCLUDED IN THIS SECTION.

PART 1 - GENERAL

RELATED DOCUMENTS;

Drawings  and  general provisions  of Contract,  including  General
and Supplementary  Conditions and other  Division-1 Specification
Sections, apply to work of this section.


DESCRIPTION OF WORK:

This section describes  the  equipment and procedures required for
protecting  workers  against  asbestos  contamination  and  other
workplace hazards except for respiratory protection.
RELATED WORK SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE:                     W

Respiratory Protection;   is specified in Section 01562.
WORKER TRAINING;
                                                    •"a^
          STATE OR LOCAL REGULATIONS  COULD  HAVE A MORE STRINGENT
          REQUIREMENT.

AHERA  Accreditation;    All   workers  are   to  be  accredited  as
Abatement Workers as required by the  AHERA  regulation  40 CFR 763
Appendix C to Subpart  E,  April 30,  1987.

          DELETE THE FOLLOWING  IF NO  STATE  OR  LOCAL REQUIREMENT.
             WORKER PROTECTION  - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT     01560 - 1
   Copyright (c)  1988,  National institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL$AffBE6TOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988
          REVISE AS  REQUIRED TO CORRESPOND  WITH APPLICABLE CODE
          OR REGULATION.

State  and  Local  License;     All   workers  are   to  be  trained,
certified and  accredited as  required  by state  or  local code or
regulation.

Train, in accordance with 29 CFR 1926, all workers in the dangers
inherent in handling  asbestos and  breathing asbestos dust and in
proper work procedures and personal and area protective measures.
Include but do not limit  the topics covered in the course to the
following:

          EDIT  FOLLOWING AS REQUIRED  TO COMPLY  WITH  STATE  OR
          LOCAL  STANDARDS.     TOPICS   LISTED  ARE  THE  MINIMUM
          REQUIRED FOR ADEQUATE TRAINING.

     Methods of recognizing asbestos

     Health effects associated with asbestos

     Relationship between smoking  and  asbestos in producing lung
     cancer

     Nature  of  operations  that  could  result   in  exposure  to
     asbestos

     Importance  of  and  instruction  in  the use  of  necessary
     protective  controls,  practices  and procedures  to  minimize
     exposure including:

          Engineering controls
          Work Practices
          Respirators
          Housekeeping procedures
          Hygiene facilities
          Protective clothing
          Decontamination procedures
          Emergency procedures
          Waste disposal procedures

     Purpose,  proper  use,  fitting,  instructions, and limitations
     of respirators as required by 29 CFR 1910.134

     Appropriate work practices for the work

     Requirements of medical surveillance program

     Review of 29 CFR 1926
              WORKER PROTECTION -  ASBESTOS ABATEMENT    01560 - 2

   Copyright  (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL A33g£TdS  ABATEMENT GUIDE  SPECIFICATION       August 12,  1988

          •ure Differential Systems
      ?ork practices  including hands  on or  on-job  training

     Personal Decontamination procedures

     Air monitoring, personal and area

                         FOLLOWING   IS  INTENDED  FOR   ABATEMENT
                         PROJECTS.    THIS  SECTION   MAY  REQUIRE
                         REVISION IF USED IN SPECIFYING  WORK  FOR
                         OTHER  TRADES  (EG.   ROOFING,  FLOORING).
                         SOME  INDUSTRIES  ARE NOT  FAMILIAR WITH
                         OSHA  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  ASBESTOS.   SOME
                         INDUSTRY  GROUPS   MAY  HAVE   DEVELOPED
                         OBJECTIVE DATA SATISFACTORY  TO OSHA THAT
                         OBVIATES   THE   NEED   FOR    MEDICAL
                         EXAMINATIONS.


MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS:

Provide medical examinations for all workers  who nay  encounter an
airborne  fiber  level of 0.1 f/cc  or greater for  an  8  hour Tine
Weighted Average.  In the absence of specific airborne  fiber data
provide medical  examinations for all workers who will  enter  the
Work Area  for any reason.   Examination shall as  a  nininura meet
OSHA  requirements as   set   forth  in  29  CFR 1926  In   addition,
provide  an  evaluation  of  the  individuals   ability  to  work  in
environments capable of producing heat stress in the  worker.


SUBMITTALS;

Before  Start  of  Work:    Submit the  following  to   the Owner's
Representative  for  review.    Do not  start work   until  these
submittals  are  returned   with  Owner's  Representative's action
stamp indicating  that the  submittal  is returned for  unrestricted
use.

                         FOLLOWING  IS  REQUIRED   IN   SCHOOLS   AND
                         GOOD PRACTICE IN GENERAL.

AHERA Accreditation:   Submit copies  of certificates  from an EPA-
approved  AHERA  Abatement  Workers   course  for  each  worker  as
evidence  that  each  asbestos Abatement Worker  is accredited  as
required by the AHERA Regulation 40 CFR 763 Appendix C  to Subpart
E, April 30, 1987.

                         DELETE  THE   FOLLOWING  IF NO  STATE  OR

             WORKER  PROTECTION  - ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT     01560  - 3

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National Institute of  Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
                                                  August 12, 1988
Stat
be
                         LOCAL REQUIREMENT.   REVISE  'AS  REQUIRED
                         TO  CORRESPOND WITH  APPLICABLE  .CODE  OR
                         REGULATION.

        _  Jocal  License;   Submit evidence that  all  workers fiave
        irfed,certified and accredited  as  required  by  state  or
       ode or regulation.

	  ificate Worker  Acknowledgement;    Submit  an  original  signed
copy of th« Certificate of  Worker's  Acknowledgement  found at the
end of this section, for each worker who is to be at the  job site
or enter the Work Area.

                         DELETE THE FOLLOWING IF THE AHERA COURSE
                         CERTIFICATION IS RETAINED.
         Progr
                   Submi ti^couVse ou trifle of) the worjeer tra^tnin
                           timevcourse was giLea^-'name and
Report from Medical Exaaination;  conducted within last 12 months
as part of compliance with OSHA medical surveillance requirements
for each  worker  who  is  to  enter the  Work Area.  Submit,  at  a
minimum,  for each worker the following:
     Name and Social Security Number

     Physicians  Written   Opinion   from
     including at a minimum the following:
                                            examining   physician
          Whether worker has any detected medical conditions that
          would place the worker at an increased risk cf material
          health impairment from exposure to asbestos.

          Any recommended limitations on the worker cr on the use
          of personal protective equipment such as respirators.

          Statement  that the  worker  has been  informed by  the
          physician of the results of the medical examination and
          of any medical conditions that may result from asbestos
          exposure.

     Copy  of  information  that  was  provided  to  physician  in
     compliance with 29 CFR 1926

     Statement that  worker  is able  to wear and use  the  type of
     respiratory protection proposed for the project, and is able
     to work  safely  in an environment  capable  of  producing heat
     stress in the worker.
             WORKER  PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT     01560 - 4

   Copyright (c) 1988, National  Institute of Building Sciences

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  MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
          >^v
         * "  Certifications;    Submit certification
                                           firm
Nota
of
August 12, 1988

  signed   by  an
notarized that
 cf the  abatement  contracting firm  and
 measurements, medical  surveillance,  and worker training
are being kept in conformance with 29 CFR 1926.
  PART 2 - EQUIPMENT

  PROTECTIVE CLOTHING;
                           REQUIREMENTS  FOR SPECIAL CLOTHING  SUCH
                           AS   COVERALLS   OR  SIMILAR  WHOLE   BODY
                           CLOTHING,  HEAD  COVERINGS,  GLOVES,   AND
                           FOOT  COVERINGS  AND  OTHER   PROTECTIVE
                           CLOTHING   ARE   DELINEATED   IN  OSHA
                           REGULATIONS.    THE  NEED  FOR  PROTECTIVE
                           CLOTHING   IN  EXCESS   OF   THESE
                           REQUIREMENTS SHOULD BE  REVIEWED WITH  A
                           SAFETY  CONSULTANT  AND  EDITED  FOR   THE
                           SPECIFICS OF THE PROJECT.
  Coveralls;  Provide disposable full-body coveralls and  disposable
  head covers, and require that  they  be worn by all workers  in  the
  Work Area.  Provide a sufficient number for all  required  changes,
  for all workers in the Work Area.
                           FOLLOWING  IS  MORE  APPROPRIATE  WORKER
                           PROTECTION  IN  ENVIRONMENTS  WITH  HOT OR
                           COLD HAZARD TO WORKER.
 . Coveralls;   Provide  cloth full -body pjsoveralls  and hats,  require
A that they be worn by  all  workers  in "tnfe^fcorR Area.  Require that
  workers  change out  of  coverall  in  the Equipment  Roon  of the
  Personnel Decontamination Unit.   Dispose of coverall as asbestos
  waste at completion of all work.

                           FOLLOWING IS  APPROPRIATE IF WORKERS ARE
                           TO  BE  WORKING  IN  UNHEATED ENVIRONMENTS
                           DURING COLD WEATHER
  Cold
  removed
  Dispose
    l wor
                           MUCH  OF  THE  FOLLOWING  IS  RUDIMENTARY
                           WORKER   PROTECTION   REQUIREMENTS,  BUT
                           PROTECTION BEYOND  RESPIRATORS  AND PAPER
                           SUITS IS  FREQUENTLY NOT  CONSIDERED FOR
               WORKER  PROTECTION  - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT
                                                        01560 - 5
     Copyright (c)  1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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 MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

                          ABATEMENT   PROJECTS.     REVIEW  THE
                          FOLLOWING WITH  A SAFETY  CONSULTANT AND
                          EDIT FOR THE SPECIFICS OF THE PROJECT. '"

 Boots V^S)^frfrov ide  work   boots  with   non-skid  soles,  and  where
 requiMW^^ry  OSHA,  foot  protectives,  for  all  workers.   Provide
 bo
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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

               protection  as  required  by the most stringent OSHA
             standards  applicable  to   the   work.  The  following
            are minimums  to  be  adhered  to  regardless  of  fiber
         the Work Area.

     time Work Area is entered remove  all street  clothes  in the
Changing Room  of  the  Personnel  Decontamination Unit and put  on
new disposable coverall,  new  head cover,  and a clean respirator.
Proceed through  shower room  to  equipment room and put on work
boots.
DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES ;

Require   all  workers  to  adhere   to   the  following  personal
decontamination procedures whenever they leave the Work Area:

Type  C  Supplied   Air   or   Powered  Air-Purifvina  Respirators;
Require  that  all  workers  use  the  following  decontamination
procedure  as a  minimum  requirement whenever  leaving the  Work
Area:  t
   * A
     When exiting  area,  remove disposable  coveralls,  disposable
     head covers,  and disposable  footwear  covers  or boots in the
     equipment room.

     Still wearing respirators, proceed to showers.  Showering is
     mandatory.     Care   must   be  taken  to  follow  reasonable
     procedures  in  removing  the  respirator  to   avoid  asbestos
     fibers while showering.  The following procedure is required
     as a minimum:

          Thoroughly wet  body  including  hair and  face.   If using
          a  Powered  Air-Purifying Respirator  (PAPR) hold blower
          unit above head to keep canisters dry.

          With respirator still  in  place  thoroughly  wash body,
          hair,   respirator  face  piece,  and  all parts   of  the
          respirator except the blower unit and battery pack on a
          PAPR.    Pay particular  attention to seal  between  face
          and respirator and under straps.

          Take a  deep  breath,  hold  it  and/or  exhale  slowly,
          completely wet hair,  face, and respirator.  While still
          holding breath,  remove respirator and hold it away from
          face before starting to breath.

          Carefully wash facepiece of respirator inside and out.

          If  using PAPR:  shut  down  in  the  following  sequence,

              WORKER  PROTECTION  -  ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT     01560 - 7

   Copyright  (c)  1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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               work   area,   worker  will  HEPA  vacuum   disposable   suit   starting
              moving   to   feet  to  remove   all  debris  before  entering   equipment
material to be removed inside work araa before entering equipment room

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MODEL ASBESTOS MTCElfeNT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

                     inlets to  filter cartridges,  then/turn off
                 unit  (this sequence  will help keep debris which
               'collected  on  the   inlet  side  of  filter -.from
             lodging and contaminating  the outside of the unit).
            oroughly wash blower unit and hoses.   Carefully wash
          battery pack  with  wet rag.   Be  extremely  cautious of
          getting water  in battery pack  as this  will  short out
          and destroy battery.

          Shower completely with soap and water.

          Rinse thoroughly.

          Rinse shower room walls and floor prior to exit.

          Proceed from  shower to  Changing Room  and  change into
          street clothes or into new disposable work items.

Air  Purifying-Negative  Pressure Respirators;   Require  that all
workers use the  following  decontamination procedure as a minimum
requirement whenever  leaving  the Work  Area with  a half  or full
face cartridge type respirator:

     When exiting area,  remove disposable  coveralls,  disposable
     headcovers, and disposable  footwear covers  or boots  in the
     Equipment Room.

     Still wearing respirators,  proceed to showers.  Showering is
     mandatory.     Care  must  be   taken  to  follow  reasonable
     procedures in  removing the respirator and  filters  to avoid
     asbestos fibers while showering.   The following procedure is
     required as a minimum:

          Thoroughly wet body  from neck down.

          Wet hair  as thoroughly as possible without  wetting the
          respirator  filter  if  using  an  air  purifying  type
          respirator.

          Take  a deep  breath,   hold  it  and/or   exhale  slowly,
          complete  wetting of  hair,  thoroughly wetting  face,
          respirator  and  filter   (air  purifying  respirator).
          While still holding breath,  remove respirator and hold
          it away from face before starting to breath.

          Dispose of wet filters from air purifying respirator.

          Carefully wash facepiece of  respirator  inside and out.

          Shower completely with soap and water.

             WORKER PROTECTION  - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT    01560 - 8

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National  Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
                   oroughly.
August 12, 1988
                 shower  rooro  walls  and  floor prior to exit.

              from  shower to Changing Room  and change  into  street
         Lhes  or  into new disposable  work  items.

                         FOLLOWING   DESCRIBES  USE   OF   A
                         DECONTAMINATION  UNIT  CONNECTED TO  A Work
                         Area   AS   A  REMOTE  SHOWER   FOR   MINI-
                         ENCLOSURE  WORK  THAT  MAY  BE  GOING  ON
                         ELSEWHERE IN THE BUILDING.
Reirote
d econfcara i na t i on
cannrot  ga
en^er  Deo/ontami/fation
Room  to
completed
                         SHOWERING  IS  SOMETIMES NOT REQUIRED  FOR
                         CONTAINMENT PROJECTS.   IN  THIS  CASE,  USE
                         DECONTAMINATION   PROCEDURES   OF  SECTION
                         01561.
Within Work Area:
Require that  workers  NOT eat,  drink, smoke, chew tobacco  or  gum,
or  apply  cosmetics  in  the Work  Area.    To eat,fLcfeau^. drink
cn>ok»,  workers  shall follow the  procedure  described above  ,then
dress in street clothes before entering the non-Work Areas  of  the
building. To  dhtuJ or smoke.  ~i~b loa.c.c.0,  Work**'* must   /e
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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988

CERTIFICATE. WFVWORKER'S ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
             W
       Ss^.\  '
PROJEC
        ADDRESS
CONTRACTOR'S NAME
WORKING WITH  ASBESTOS  CAN BE DANGEROUS. INHALING ASBESTOS FIBERS
HAS BEEN  LINKED WITH VARIOUS TYPES OF  CANCER.   IF YOU SMOKE AND
INHALE  ASBESTOS FIBERS  THE  CHANCE  THAT  YOU WILL  DEVELOP LUNG
CANCER IS GREATER THAN THAT OF THE NON-SMOKING PUBLIC.

Your  employer's contract  with the Owner  for the  above project
requires that:  You be supplied with the proper respirator and be
trained in its use.  You be trained in  safe work practices and in
the  use of  the equipment found  on  the  job.     You  receive a
medical examination.   These  things are to have been  done at no
cost to you.

RESPIRATORY  PROTECTION:    You  must    have been  trained  in the
proper use of respirators, and informed of the type respirator to
be used  on the  above  referenced project.   You must  be given a
copy of the  written respiratory protection manual issued by your
employer.  You must be equipped at no cost with the respirator to
be used on the above project.

TRAINING  COURSE:   You  must have  been trained  in  the dangers
inherent in handling  asbestos and  breathing asbestos dust and in
proper work procedures and personal and area protective measures.
The  topics   covered   in  the  course  must  have  included  the
following:

     Physical characteristics of asbestos
     Health hazards associated with asbestos
     Respiratory protection
     Use of protective equipment
     Pressure Differential Systems
     Work practices including hands on or on-job training
     Personal decontamination procedures
     Air monitoring, personal and area

MEDICAL EXAMINATION;   You must have  had a  medical  examination
within the  past 12 months at  no cost to you.   This examination
must have included:  health history,  pulmonary function tests and
may have included an evaluation of a chest x-ray.
              WORKER PROTECTION  -  ASBESTOS ABATEMENT   01560 - 10

   Copyright  (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
                                                August 12,  1988
By  signing
Owner of
your
the
   d Name
           his document  you are  acknowledging  only that  the
              iding you are  about to work  in  has^advised you. of
            training  and  protection relative to yoilr employer,
                                 _Social Security No_

                                     Witness
          WORKER PROTECTION  -  ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT   01560 - 11

Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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        Exhibits:

Replacement Specifications
      MASTERSPEC

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
          MASTERSPEC
       8/87
SECTION 09250  - GYPSUM  DRYWALL
PART
Typist
                                         THIS  SECTION  USES  THE
                                         TERM "ARCHITECT".  CHANGE
                                         THIS TERM AS NECESSARY TO
                                         MATCH  THE  ACTUAL  TERM
                                         USED TO  IDENTIFY  DESIGN
                                         PROFESSIONAL  AS  DEFINED
                                         IN   THE   GENERAL   AND
                                         SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS.
                                                     "a/1
          and general  provisions of  Contract,   including  General
      Supplementary   Conditions  and  Division   1   Specification
Sections, apply to this Section.
SUMMARY :

Extent  of  each  type of  gypsum drywall  construction  reg^iire is
indicated on Drawings.

This  Section  includes   the   following   types   of  gypsum  board
construction:

                                         ADJUST  LIST BELOW TO SUIT
                                         PROJECT.

     Steel framing members to  receive gypsum  board.

     Gypsun  board screw-attached  to  steel  f raraing^
     Gypsun  board  nail-attached  to  wood  framing  and  furring
     members.
     Gyp*uta  boajrtin bonde
      asortcVsubst
                                         DELETE  BELOW IF SPECIFIED
    GYPSUM  DRYWALL
   kin i «.:•:••«< io t?:>.:e JM ttJ Bn
         :- !:• 'm-p •t^::.:t=M
         : he- ?* c:r,n« :na
09250 - 1

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                       MASTERSPEC
8/87
                                         IN   DIVISION-9
                                         "TILE."
                                                  SECTION
                                         LIST  ONLY  MATERIALS   IN
                                         THIS  PROJECT   WHICH  THE
                                         READER MAY  EXPECT TO FIND
                                         IN THIS  SECTION.   VERIFY
                                         THAT  LISTED SECTIONS  ARE
                                         INCLUDED  IN THIS  PROJECT
                                         SPECIFICATION  AND THAT
                                         THEIR   TITLES   ARE
                                         CORRECTLY INDICATED HERE.
        ugh O
                     ruuJ Tiuooeoi
                                         ABOVE  AND  BELOW  ARE
                                         MASTERSPEC NSV SECTIONS.
Gypsu
heathina
speoafiei in DivJ

G/psurc  Eheatating
Divisio
  section
                                                        n
                                         DELETE   BELOW  IF  GLASS
                                         MESH   MORTAR   UNITS
                                         INCLUDED  IN   TYPES  OF
                                         CONSTRUCTION  INCLUDED IN
                                         THIS SECTION.
     GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                       >•< ul "
                           ftp:*.
                                  "o '.•!»«•
                                           09250 - 2

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
                MASTERSPEC
      8/87
             Construction Terminology:  Refer to ASTM  C  11  and  GA
         definitions of  terms  for gypsum  board construction not
   ferwise defined in this section or other referenced  standards.
SUBMITTALS;

Product  data
specified.
from  manufacturers  for  each   type   of   product
QUALITY ASSURANCE;

                                        DELETE  BELOW IF NO  RATED
                                        ASSEMBLIES.

Fire-Resistance Ratines:   Where indicated, provide materials  and
construction  which arc  identical  to  those of  assemblies  whose
fire resistance  rating has been determined per ASTM  E 119 by  a
testing  and  inspecting  organization  acceptable  to  authorities
having jurisdiction.

                                        DELETE   BELOW   IF   NOT
                                        APPLICABLE  TO  ASSEMBLIES
                                        INDICATED.      INDICATE
                                        RATING,  TESTING   AGENCY,
                                        AND  TESTING   AGENCY'S
                                        DESIGN  DESIGNATION  ON
                                        DRAWINGS.

     Provide  fire-resistance-rated  assemblies identical to  those
     indicated  by  reference  to GA  File  No's,  in  GA-600  "Fire
     Resistance Design Manual"  or  to design designations  in U.L.
     "Fire Resistance  Directory"  or in listing  of other  testing
     and agencies acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction.

Single Source  Responsibility;   Obtain each type of gypsun  board
and related joint treatment materials from  a single manufacturer.
DELIVERY. STORAGE. AND HANDLING;
     GYPSUM  DRYWALL
          St 5 * f.
          ifi' Pwr
          •WC M e*U
                                   o? ::i «rs
                                 ty -.ir-t-
09250 - 3

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA         MASTERSPEC                8/87
           >
            erials  in  original  packages,  containers  or  bundles
           rand   name   and  identification  of  manufacturer   or
       materials   inside  under  cover  and  keep   them   dry   and
    :ected  against  damage from weather,  direct sunlight,  surface
contamination, corrosion, construction  traffic and other causes.
Neatly stack gypsum boards flat to prevent sagging.

Handle  gypsum  boards  to prevent  damage  to  edges,  ends,   and
surfaces.  Do not bend or otherwise damage aietal corner  beads  and
trim.
PROJECT CONDITIONS;

Environnental  Conditions.   General:     Establish  and  maintain
environmental  conditions  for  application  and  finishing  gypsum
board   to   comply  with  ASTM  C   840   and  with  gypsum  board
manufacturer's recommedations.

Minimum Room Temperatures;   For nonadhesive attachment of gypsum
board to framing, maintain not less than 40 deg  F  (4 deg C) .  For
adhesive attachment  and  finishing  of gypsum  board  maintain not
less than  50 deg F (10 deg  C)  for  48 hours prior to application
and continuously thereafter until drying is complete.

Ventilate building spaces to remove water not required for drying
joint treatment  materials.   Avoid  drafts during dry, hot weather
to prevent materials form drying too  rapidly.
PART 2 - PRODUCTS
MANUFACTURERS:

Available   Manufacturers:     Subject  to   compliance   with
requirements,  manufacturers  offering   products   which  may  be
incorporated  in  the Work  include,  but  are  not  limited  to,  the
following:

                                       ^RETAIN    ABgVE   FOR
                                                        OR  BELOW
                                        FOR  SEMIPROPRIETARY
                                        SPECIFICATION.   REFER TO
                                        DIVISION-1   SECTION
    GYPSUM DRYWALL       ^ £^-VT^T,,1^:,^           09250  -  4
                         «oi :*. *t*ttt to-rr-t c«:vV »»-r

-------
Copyright 1987, AIA
      MASTERSPEC
      8/87
                                      "PRODUCTS
                                      SUBSTITUTIONS."
                                    AND
          adfincr and Furrina:
       Lck Steel Framing Co.
       Industries,  Inc.
    Ld  Bond Building Products Div., National  Gypsum Co.  Incor,
  Inc.
  Marino Industries Corp.
  United States Gypsum Co.

                                     DELETE  ABOVE OR  BELOW IF
                                     NONE.
 Gr
            tallyc C
           Rolliila >fills
 Gypsum Boards and Related Products;
                                     MFRS.  LISTED BELOW MARKET
                                     PRODUCTS   NATIONALLY;
                                     INSERT REGIONAL  MFRS  IF
                                     DESIRED.    NOT  ALL  MFRS
                                     OFFER   FULL   RANGE   OF
                                     RELATED  PRODUCTS.
 Centex  American Gypsum Co.
 Domtar  Gypsum Co.
 Georgia-Pacific Corp.
 Gold  Bond Building Products Div,
 United  States Gypsum Co.
              National Gypsum Co,
                                     CERTAIN   PROPERTIES   OF
                                     PRODUCTS    MAY    BE
                                     SPECIFIED   IN   SUBSEQUENT
                                     ARTICLES   BY  SELECTING  A
                                     "DEFAULT"  REQUIREMENT
                                     WHICH  APPLIES  UNLESS
                                     EXCEPTIONS ARE  INDICATED
                                     HERE  OR ON THE  DRAWINGS.
                                     THESE    DEFAULT
                                     REQUIREMENTS    ARE
 GYPSUM DRYWALL
HI S f. j«B:rjt« t» ft»;;.:j tr( «.'
tj«r IT-,li»t to t..a
09250 - 5

-------
     Copyright 1987, AIA
                     MASTERSPEC
                                                           8/87
                                          QUALIFIED BY  THE PHRASE,
                                          "UNLESS   OTHERWISE
                                          INDICATED."       IF  NO
                                          EXCEPTIONS ARE ALLOWED OR
                                          KNOWN   TO  EXIST,   THEN
                                          DELETE  THIS  PHRASE.   IF
                                          ALL  INDICATIONS  ARE  ON
                                          THE DRAWINGS  RETAIN ONLY
                                          THE   "AS   INDICATED"
                                          REQUIREMENT.
\>TEEL FRJ
 G COMPONENTS FOR SUSPENDED  AND FURRED CEILINOS
        :O;
                                          DELETE THIS.
                                          SUSPEND]
                                          CEILING'
                                           *TICLE IF NO
                                           OR   FURRED
    iral ;
materiais
Provide
nd sizes,
                      omponents  which  comply .X/ith
                      unless otherwise indicated.
ASTM  C  754 for
                                          )ELETE  ANY  COMPONENTS
                                          BELOW NOT  REQUIRED.
                                                            IF   NO
                                                           HANGERS
                                                     DIRECTLY   IN
                                                     VERIFY  SAFETY
                                                      REVIS E   AS
                                                       OR  INSERT
                                                     1C    LOAD
                                          REQUIREMENTS  AND NAMES OF
                                          ACCEPTABLE PRODUCTS.
                              DELETE   BELOW
                              CONCRETE   OR
                              EMBEDDED
                              CONCRETE.
                              FACTOR;
                              REQUIRED
                              SPECIF
 Concrete  Inserts:  Thserts  designed  for attachment  to  concrete
 forms   and   for /embedment  \n  concrete,   fabricated   from
 corrosion-resistant materials, w\th holes or loops for attachment
 of hanger viresi  and  capability \p  sustain,  without  failure,  a
 load equal  to/3  times  that imposed  by  ceiling construction,  as
 determined  from  testing   per  ASTH^ E  488,   conducted  by  an
 independent/testing laboratory.
 Wire for/Hangers and Ties;
 soft temper.
                   ASTM  A  64\. Class  1 zinc  coating,
                                         USUAXLY   RETAIN  ABOVE
                                         WHICHNCOVERS  8  THROUGH 16
                                         GAGE  WIRE.    DELETE  ABOVE
     GYPSUM  DRYWALL
                BT'S a i.-xuri i: -•?>*;< nt «:• Kit
                t»or "trr ii;:- lir '.-IN- -tfn:.'.: *
                                                    09250 - 6

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                       MASTERSPEC
      8/87
                                         AND  RETAIN   BELOW   WHI
                                         REQUIRED   BY
                                         BUILDING   CODE   QK   BY
                                         LOADING.
Hand
      >Mild   steel,   zinc   coated  or  protected   with
            :iVe  paint.
                  Mild  steel,   zinc  coated  or  /protected   with
rusJ
utive paint.
Angle-Type  Hana<
wide,  formed  fri
complying with  AS'
connections and  5/ll
                               DELETT' BOTH OF ABOVE  AND
                               RETAIN   BELOW   FOR
                               E X>C E PTIONAL   UPLIFT
                               RESISTANCE.

             Angles  with  leg*' not  less  than  7/8  inch
            0.0635   inch  thi^fx  galvanized  steel  sheet
            A  446,  Coating  /Jesignation G90, with bolted
            inch diameter >K>lts.

                               DELETE    BELOW   IF
                               SUSPENSION  SYSTEM  LIMITED
                               TO  GRID   SUSPENSION
                               SYSTEM.
Channels;   Cold-rolled  st
base  (uncoated)  metal anoT 1 /'.
rust-inhibitive  paint, a-nd  as
                       0.0598 inch  minimum thickness  of
                       inch wide flanges,  protected  with
                     follows:
     Carrying  Channel^;   2 inch\s  deep,  590 Ibs  per 1000  ft.,
     unless otherwis/e'  indicated.

                                         DELETE   ABOVE  OR   BELOW
                                         UNLESS BOTH REQUIRED AND
                                         LOCATIONS   OF    EACH
                                          INDICATED ON DRAWINGS AND
                                           JALIFYING  PHRASE  FOR
                                         EXCEPTION  IS  CHANGED TO
                                              E INDICATED."
     Carrying  Channels;   1-1/2  inch deep, 47^
     uiyfess otherwise  indicated.
                                       Ibs per  1000  ft.,
                                         DELETE  BEl£>W  IF FURRING
                                         CHANNELS LIMJTED TO STEEL
                                         STUDS,  RIG\D   FURRING
                                         CHANNELS,   OR\ RESILIENT
     GYPSUM DRYWALL
                        '•(•«!.« MJ M* ».1
                        t.-~i- :tjr»«t
                      "iw» tkt ::?)• ft
09250 - 7

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                                MASTERSPEC
       8/87
     Furring
     unless
                                         CHANNELS
                                         COMBINATION.

               lannels;    3/4  inch  deep,  300  Ibs  per
               tervise indicated.
                                                           0 R
          ft.,
bent
                 Furring Channels;  ASTM C 645,  withflange edges
              deg and doubled  over  to form 3/16  inch  minimum lip
                   thickness of base  (uncoated)  nv«:al  and minimum
          tol 1 ows :
     Thickp^ss:
     Thicknt
     Thickne;
                 0.0179 inch, unless otherwise  indicated.
                 0.0329 inch, unless otherwise  indicated.
                 As indicated.

                                        'RETAIN   ONE   DEFAULT
                                        REQUIREMENT    FOR
                                        THICKNESS  AND DEPTH  FROM
                                        CHOICES  ABOVE  AND  BELOW
                                        OR   DELETE   AND  EITHER
                                        INSERT  OTHERS  OR  RETAIN
                                        "AS   INDICATED"   AND
                                        INDICATE ON  DRAWINGS.

     Depth;  1-5/8 inched/unless otherwise  indicated.
     Depth;  2-1/2 inchesy\unless otherwise  indicated.
     Depth;  3-5/8 inched/ \nless otherwise  indicated.
     Depth;  As indicated.

    L  Rigid  Furring/Channels; \ASTM C  645,  hat-shaped, depth  of
           and  nirvdfinum  thickness  of  base  (uncoated)   metal  as
7/8  inch,
follows:
     Thicknejss;
     Thickness;
     Thickness;
                                        RETAIN   ONE  REQUIREMENT
                                        BELOW.


                 0.0179 inch, unless otherwise indicated.
                 0.0329 inch, unless otherwise indicated.
                 As indicated.


                                        REFSR TO  MFRS1  TECHNICAL
                                        L I T\E RAT U RE    FOR
                                        LIMITATIONS  IN  USE  OF
                                        THEIR \ESILIENT  FURRING
                                        CHANNELS\    USG  ADVISES
                                        AGAINST   WSE  OF  THEIR
                                        PRODUCT  BENEATH  FLEXIBLE
                                        FLOOR JOISTS>
    GYPSUM  DRYWALL
                          RIIS ft M?en.t< M rtttttf.i tH Mil Sa
                          tMf "tr^.tut* te t^^kn T;^«(«! :•
                          -;•/ s? :>!im< **t lit n?w- 9*m
09250

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
                                MASTERSPEC
8/87
       ResiLlgtV Furring  Channels;    Manufacturer's^x^tandard
                   to  reduce  sound  transmission,  copjJiying  with
             or material,  finish and widths of  face/and fastening
                   to form  1/2  inch  deep channe^xof  the following
          g-Le   Configuration
                                  Assymetr'lc-shaped  channel  with
            onnected to a  single flang
-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
         MASTERSPEC
                                                           8/87
                                         ABOVE AND  BELOW.   DELETE,
                                         RETAIN   OR    REVISE
                                         EXCEPTIONS  OR RETAIN  "AS
                                         INDICATED"   IF   BOTH
                                         DEFAULT  AND  EXCEPTIONS
                                         DELETED.
               -5/8  inches,  unless otherwise indicated.
               • inehea xlieie iniUualed,	
                  ?h
th
                               dieatc.
              3-1/a  inches wheie. iiKliuaLeil.
              i  D/o  imjiiui; wtitim imili'aUMi.
              Ac indicated
                                         RETAIN   ONE  REQUIREMENT
                                         ABOVE AND BELOW.
     Thi
       -gravmr!—Mjiidma ani. typu,  aajmnbin, fihrin
 Corrosion-resistant  steel   sheet  complying  with  ASTM
         thickness  of  base   (uncoated)  metal   of  0.03;
designfe trfntou od w) ttrt
  tipc."
  mwJ t«
                                                    09250 -  10

-------
    Copyright  1987,  AIA
                    MASTERSPEC
                                    8/87
                                         ABOVE  AVAILABLE FROM 1ISG
                                         AND  DALE  OF MFRS  LISTED,
                                         BELOW AVAILABLEPKOM DALE
                             AND  GOLD
                             ABOVE  OR
                             IF   TH^RD
                             RETAHfED.
                                                            RETAIN
                                                     LOW  OR  BOTH,
                                                      REQUIREMENT
      Double-Li
      Ionfiguration;
      Cot
            Hat-sjxtped  channel,  with  1-1/2
connected to  fringes by  double slotted  or
 is  (webs).
tration;   EitheXone indicated above.
                                         BELOW AVAILABLE IN DEPTHS
                                         OF  1,   1-1/2,   2,  2-1/2,
                                         AND   3   INCHES.     USG
                                         ^PRODUCT HAS SLOTTED WEB.

 7-Furring Members';    Manufacturer's  standa*Xd  zee-shaped furring
 memberswithshotted  or nonslotted web,  fabricated from hot-dip
 galvanized  sfceel  sheet  complying  with  ASTnv  A  525,  Coating
 Designation/660; with a minimum base  metal  (unoqated) thickness
 of  0.0179 ./inch,  face  flange of 1-1/4 inch, wall-attachment flange
 of  7/8 inch,  and of  depth required to  fit  insulat^pn thickness
 indicaJKed.
 Fasteners;   Provide  fasteners  of type,  material, size, Oorrosion
 resistance,  holding power and other properties required to\fasten
 ;teel  framing  and  furring   members   securely  to  substrates
 involved;  complying  with the  recommendations of  gypsun dryw^ll
jnanufacfur"*"'  *"*• "ppH"""'
 GYPSUM BOARD;

 General:    Provide  gypsum board  of  types  indicated  in maximum
 lengths  available to minimize end-to-end joints.
                             DELETE   BELOW    IF
                             THICKNESSES   FOR   ALL
                            ^APPLICATIONS SPECIFIED OR
                             INDICATED   ON  DRAWINGS^
                            TTS   I NCH
                             EXCLUDED
                             POSSIBLE
                             TO MFRS'
                                                       THICKNESS
                                                   BELOW  TO  AVOID
                                                   MISUSE.   REFER
                                                   RE COMMEN DATIONS
    GYPSUM  DRYWALL
                                        09250 - 11

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
                           MASTERSPEC
8/87
                                        FOR  PROPER  USE   OF   3/8
                                        INCH THICKNESS.

                   r6vide gypsum board  in thicknesses  indicated,
                otherwise  indicated, in  either 1/2  inch or  5/8
                esses  to comply with ASTM  C 840 for application
                support spacing indicated.
Gypsum (ftaj/jiboard;  ASTM C 36, and as follows:
                                        DELETE  TYPES  BELOW  NOT
                                        REQUIRED.  INDICATE  ON
                                        DRAWINGS   FIRE-RESISTANT
                                        TYPES   OCCUR.    SEE
                                        EVALUATION SHEETS.
     Type:
       Regular, unless otherwise indicated.
       Foil-hag)	1 whinn. iiidiiuHLa.	
     Type;  Type X for fire-resistance-rated assemblies.
Edges;  Tapered.
          Taparo<
                                        SELECT   ONE
                                        REQUIREMENT BELOW.
                                       (rounded
                                                       EDGE
     prrf i 1
                                        RETAIN OR  REVISE DEFAULT
                                        REQUIREMENT   BELOW.
                                        DELETE, RETAIN OR REVISE
                                        EXCEPTIONS OR  RETAIN "AS
                                        INDICATED"    IF   BOTH
                                        DEFAULT   AND  EXCEPTIONS
                                        DELETED.   REFER  TO  MFRS '
                                        LITERATURE    FOR
                                        LIMITATIONS ON USE OF 3/8
                                        INCH THICKNESS.
     Thickness
     Thicknefcs
    /frhickne^cji

     Available   Products;     Subject   to   compliance   with
     requirements, products which may be incorporated in the Work
     where Type X gypsum wallboard  is  indicated include,  but are
     not limited to,  the following:
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                              09250 - 12
                          to SMH

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                           MASTERSPEC
8/87
                                         RETAIN   ABOVE   FOR
                                         NONPROPRIETARY  OR  BELOW
                                         FOR   SEMIPROPRIETARY
                                         SPECIFICATION.   REFER TO
                                         DIVISION-1   SECTION
                                         "PRODUCTS    AND
                                         SUBSTITUTIONS."
     Pro
                                         BELOW REPRESENT  PRODUCTS
                                         WHOSE FIRE  RESISTANCE IS
                                         GREATER THAN  EACH  MFR'S
                                         STANDARD   TYPE   X
                                         WALLBOARD.    RETAIN  ONLY
                                         PRODUCTS OF MFRS RETAINED
                                         UNDER 1ST ARTICLE OF PART
                                         2.

           'Gyprock  Fireguard  'C1  Gypsum Board";  Dorotar Gypsum Co.
           'Fire-Shield  G" ;  Gold  Bond  Building  Products  Div. ,
               National Gypsum  Co.
           'SHEETROCK  Brand FIRECODE  'C'  Gypsum Panels";  United
               States Gypsura  Co.

                                         DELETE   BELOW   IF   NO
                                    MULTI-
                                    APPLICATIONS.
                                    BOARD   NO
                                    MANUFACTURED
                                    GOLD BOND.
                                                        LAYER
                                                        ASTM C 442
                                                         LONGER
                                                       BY  USG  OR
                  ar
                                               :ioni
gypsuitf
    e  backing  board   is  not  available  from  nanuj
    illboard, ASTM C 36, and as  follows:
                                                               :er,
                                            ?TE  TYPES  BELOW  NOT
                                        'REQUIRED.   INDICATE   ON
                                         DRAWINGS    WHERE
                                         FOIL-BACKED  AND  TYPE  X
                                         BOARDS OCCUR.
Type;
Type;
Type;
            Regulaj?
-------
    Copyrightrtl987, AIA
                    MASTERSPEC
              8/1
         to/
              Manufacturer's standard.
                                         DELETE   ABO\
                                         EDGE  DESCRI!
                                         PRODUCED
                                         MATERIAy
                                         AVAILABII/ITY.
                                            OR  BELOW.
                                           D BELOW ONLY
                                           ASTM  C  442
                                               VERIFY
     Edges;
    lare,  non-tapered;  or V-tongue $md groove.

                             RETA/N  OR  REVISE  DEFAULT
                             REQUIREMENT   BELOW.
                             DELETE,  RETAIN OR  REVISE
                             EXCEPTIONS  OR RETAIN  "AS
                              NDICATED"   IF   BOTH
                            'DEFAULT  AND  EXCEPTIONS
                             DELETED.  REFER  TO  MFRS'
                             LITERATURE    FOR
                             LIMITATIONS ON USE OF  3/8
                             INCH THICKNESS.
     Thickness;
     Thickness:
     Thickness;
     Thickness;
     1/2 inch, uHl ess/otherwise
     5/8 inch wheVe /ndicated.
     3/8 inch wherVindicated.
     As indicated..
indicated.
Water-Resistant  Gvpsoin  Backing   Board:
follows:
                             DELETE   BELOW  IF  GLASS
                             MESH   MORTAR   UNITS
                             EXCLUSIVELY  SPECIFIED AS
                             BASE  FOR  TILE.  PRODUCT
                             BELOW  NOT  SUITABLE  FOR
                             CEILING APPLICATIONS.

                                 ASTM   C   630,  and  as
                                         RETAIN   TYPE   OR  TYPES
                                         BELOW REQUIRED.  INDICATE
                                         ON  \DRAWINGS   WHERE
                                         FIREYRESISTANT   TYPE
                                         OCCURS A
     Type;
     Type;

tegular, unless otherwise  indicated.
Type X for fire-resistance-rated assenfelies.
                                         RETAIN OR  REVISE DEFAULT
                                         REQUIREME N\   BELOW
                                         DELETE,  R£TAIN\OR REVISE
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
             M-S i ».••«!.•« •: nt'ttJU
             ttts: PWTI.U •:• "v tiff -
             T«il :: »n -t: s-rr -.t »;
                                      t w* 1 1
       09250 -

-------
   Copyright  1987, AIA
                                MASTERSPEC
                                                     8/87
                                        EXCEPTION  OR
                                        INDICATED"
                                        DEFAULT
                                        DELETED.
                 5/8 inch, unless otherwise indica
                 1/2 inch where indicated.
                 As indicated.
                                        BELOW' SUITABLE ONLY  FOR
                                        SOPTITS   INDIRECTLY
                                        EXPOSED TO  WEATHER.   SEE
                                          RS '   LITERATURE   FOR
                                          MITATIONS.
                                      C 931,  with manufacturer's
                                    s indicated below:
Exterior Gypsum
standard edges,
            Soffit Board;   AS
              type and thickne
                                        DELETE  TYPES  BELOW  NOT
                                        REQUIRED.
                        ess otherwise indicated.
                         re->cesistance rated assenblies.
            Regular, u
            Type X for
Typg:
Type:
                                        RETAIN
                                        BELOW.
                                        AVAILABILITY
                                        AND   DESIRED
                                        FROM  SELECTED  MFRS  FOR
                                        BOTH  REGULAR  AND  TYPE  X
                                        BOARD.   1/2  INCH  THICK
                                        TYPE   X   BOARD  NOT
                                        AVAILABLE FROM  GOLD BOND
                                        AND USG.
                     inch,
                     inch,
                                            indicated.
                                            indicated.
Thicknes
Thickness:
unless
unless
otherwise
otherwise
                                        DELETE THIS ARTICLE IF NO
                                        GLASS  MD6H MORTAR  UNITS
                                        OR   IF  XPECIFIED   IN
                                        ANOTHER SECTION.
Proprietary backing units  with  glass mesh fiber mesh
                                                   09250 - 1
                                                       THICKNESS
                                                       VERIFY
                                                      OF  PRODUCT
                                                       THICKNESS
                                                        inforcing
    GYPSUM DRYWALL

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                                MASTERSPEC
                  8/87
 id water  resistant  coating on  both  faces,  complying
following requirements:
                sum  Panels;   Gypsun
                   and manufacturer's
                  ating on  both faces
                   48  inches wide  by  96
                      ft.
                                      core
                                      pro
                                                               the
                                         PRODUCT
                                         BELOW ARE
                                         ORDER AS  N,
                                         AT END  OF
                                         CORRELAT
                                         RETA IN/ED
                                         CORRESPOND
                                                          IPTIONS
                                                          IN  SAME
                                                       D  PRODUCTS
                                                      IS  ARTICLE.
                                                     DESCRIPTIONS
                                                      BELOW   TO
                                                      WITH  NAMED
                                         PRODU
                                                 RETAINED.
    ith glass  fiber nesh
   ietary water and vapor
 abricated  in  panels 1/2
inches long, and weighing
     Cement-Coated PoVtland Cement  Panels:   High density portland
     cement  surface  ^coating  on /both   faces   and  lightweight
     concrete  core  composed  of/portland  cement  and  expanded
     ceramic aggregate; Vabricared in  panels  7/16  inch  thick by
     36 inches wide by  36\ A3,/or 60,  64, or  72  inches long; and
     weighing 3.2 - 3.8 lbs\p$rr sq. ft.

     Vinyl-Coated  Portland/Cement Panels:    Core  formed  in  a
     continuous  process  f/om Aggregated  portland  cement  slurry
     and  reinforced  v
     embedded  in both
     textured;  fabrice
     inches wide by
     Ibs per sq. ft.
                           vinyl-coated  woven  glass  fiber nesh
                        iriaces,\with  one face  smooth and other
                       'ed  in  panels  1/2  inch  thick and  by  36
                         60, and  7\ inches long;  and weighing  3
Available  Products';    Subject  to corop\iance  with  requirements,
glass  itesh morta/ units  which may  be  incorporated in the  Work
include, but are/not limited to,  the  following:

                                         RE T\IN   ABOVE   FOR
                                         NONPR6PRIETARY   OR  BELOW
                                         FOR   S\£MIPROPRIETARY
                                         SPECIFICATION.   REFER  TO
                                         DIVISIOW^-1   SECTION
                                         "PROD i:\ T S    AND
                                         SUBSTITUTIONS

Products;   Subject  to compliance  with requirements, provide  one
of bhe following products:
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                         M J •. i.tX'
                         it;:- Cm
                         •re :e sf.i :
                                • n.t4*t t?l
                               y ly
                                                   09250 - 16

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
                 MASTERSPEC
8/87
     "Wonder-Board"
     "Durock
                                   USG Industries.
ASTM C
Edge Trim  for  Interior Installation;   Comply with
the following:
          rbead formed  from  zinc alloy, with flanges knurled  and
         orated or of fine-mesh expanded netal.
     Steel Edge trim, formed from galvanized steel, types per  Fig.
     1 of ASTM C 840 as follows:

                                        RETAIN  TYPES   REQUIRED
                                        FROM CHOICES BELOW.

          **LC" Bead, unless otherwise indicated.

                                        REVISE BELOW IF BULL  NOSE
                                        REQUIRED.
                                        BELOW HAS NO BACK FLANGE.
          "U" Bead where indicated.
     Plastic   Edge  Trim:
               Manufacturers   standard  rigid  or
     semi-rigid PVC moldings  shaped to provide resilient contact
     of gypsum board edges with other construction; friction-fit,
     or pressure-sensitive adhesive mounting.

     One-Piece Control Joint; Formed with perforated face flanges
     connected by vee-shaped slot, 1/4 inch wide by approximately
     7/16 inch deep  and covered with  removable tape,  fabricated
     from the following material:

                                        RETAIN  ONE BELOW.   GOLD
                                        BOND  RECOMMENDS  EXTRUDED
                                        VINYL.    USG  ONLY  OFFER
                                        ZINC.
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                    09250 - 17
                          r. PtnMx- ta
                          N MtctM HT

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                                MASTERSPEC
       8/87
          Roll-formed zinc.
          Extruded  vinyl.
          Either  roll-forned zinc or extruded vinyl.
                                         IF   BELO-W   RETAINED
                                         IN DIC A'T E   PROFILES
                                         REQUIRED EITHER  HERE  BY
                                         INSERTS  OR ON DRAWINGS.

     Aluir.inun EdgeSTrin;  Where  indicated,  provide  manufacturer's
     standardextrubed  aluminum edge/trim of  profile shown  or
     referenced  by manufacturer's  arandard product  designation,
     fabricated  from  aluminum  allpy 6063 T5 complying with ASTM B
     221, finished  as follows:
  _
Metal — (J6Pnejri&5           e
                                       Exterior  Ceilings;
               O^and  the  following:
             ae trim  formed  from zinc  alloy,  type "LC
            of ASTM  C  840  unless otherwise indicated.
                              Anodized
           (choffiically  cleaned;  chemical  etch,
          mi* minimum  thick clear anodic  coatn
                                         BELOW IS AN EXAMPLE ONLY,
                                         OTHER FINISHES  AVAILABLE
                                         INCLUDING COLOR  ANODIZED
                                         AND   BAKED   ENAMEL
                                         FINISHES,    INSERT   IF
                                           QUIRED.
                                              h:     AA-C12C22A42
                                                medium natte;  0.7
                                                      HER
                                        INSERT
                                        ACCESSOR
                                        INCLUDING
                                        COLUMN   FORMS
                                        EDGE   TRIM   FOR
                                        COLUMNS,  ETC.
         TRIM
         HERE
      EFORMED
        CURVED
         ROUND
GYPSUM BOARD JOINT TREATMENT MATERIALS;

General:  Provide materials complying with ASTM  C  475,  ASTM C 840,
and  recommendations  of manufacturer  of  both  gypsum board  and
joint treatment materials for the application indicated.

                                        GLASS-FIBER-MESH  TYPES
                                        WITH  OR WITHOUT  PRESSURE
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                        »M h
                        •\y.-. PfmsiM kr blhr
                        ^m tt K'l -rt ttm ft cenr.
09250 - 18

-------
Joint Tape; Pap
    Copyright 1987,  AIA         MASTERSPEC                8/87
                                        SENSITIVE   ADHESIVE
                                        BACKING   ARE   ALSO
                                        AVAILABLE   BUT  ARE  ONLY
                                        APPROVED  BY MFRS FOR  USE
                                        WITH    SELECTED
                                        SETTING-TYPE   JOINT
                                        COMPOUNDS.

                  reinforcing tape, unless otherwise indicated.

                                        DELETE   BELOW   IF   NOT
                                        APPLICABLE.

           _ .sure  sensitive or  staple-attached open-weave glass
           reinforcing  tape with compatible joint compound where
           aended  by  manufacturer  of  gypsum  board  and  joint
     treatment materials for application indicated.

                                        EXAMPLES  BELOW  ARE   THE
                                        USUAL   RANGE   OF PRODUCT
                                        CHOICES.   BEFORE EDITING
                                        BELOW,  FIRST EDIT  PART  3
                                        ARTICLE    "FINISHING
                                        DRYWALL"  TO   DETERMINE
                                        WHICH   COMPOUNDS   TO
                                        RETAIN  FOR FINISH SYSTEMS
                                        REQUIRED.      SEE
                                        EVALUATION  SHEETS   FOR
                                        CONSIDERATIONS  INVOLVED
                                        IN   SELECTING   JOINT
                                        COMPOUNDS.

Setting-Type  Joint Compounds:    Factory-prepackaged,  job-mixed,
chemical-hardening powder products formulated for uses indicated.

                                        RETAIN    APPLICABLE
                                        REQUIREMENTS   BELOW.
                                        SETTING  TIMES  OF CERTAIN
                                        SETTING-TYPE   JOINT
                                        COMPOUNDS MAY  BE ADJUSTED
                                        WHICH   COULD   AFFECT
                                        QUALITY  OF  PERFORMANCE.
                                        "BELOWTSINTENDED  TO
                                        LIMIT SELECTION  TO THOSE
                                        WITH   LONGER  SETTING
                                        TIMES.     REVISE   OR
                                        COMPLEMENT  WITH PRODUCT
                                        NAMES   IF  PRODUCTS  WITH
    GYPSUM DRYWALL        >£,'££*'^G^.SV          09250  -  19
                          ~.r tt rf; ~tc •-•«• •_•«

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
      MASTERSPEC
       8/87
                                         SHORTER   SETTING   TIMES
                                         ACCEPTABLE.

     Where se£mngftype  joint compounds are  indicated for use as
     taping/^nicrskopping compounds,  use  formulation for each which
     develop*' greatest  bond strength and crack  resistance and is
              e with other  joint  compounds  applied over it.
       >rvT"pref ill ing   gypsum   board  joints,   use  formulation
           nended by gypsum board manufacturer for this purpose.

     For filling joints and treating  fasteners of water-resistant
     gypsum  backing  board behind base  for  cerair.ic  tile,  use
     formulation  recoxmended  by  gypsum  board  manufacturer  for
     this purpose.

Drying-Type  Joint  Compounds:   Factory-prepackaged  vinyl-based
products   complying   with   the  following  requirements   for
formulation and intended use.

     Ready-Mix Formulation;   Factory-prefixed  product.

                                        DELETE ABOVE OR  3ELOW OR
                                        RETAIN   BOTH   IF  EITHER
                                        ALLOWED  IN   FINISHING
                                        REQUIREMENTS IN PART 3.
                                        RETAIN  BELOW EITHER  BOTH
                                        TAPING   AND   TOPPING
                                        COMPOUND   OR  ALL-PURPOSE
                                        COMPOUND  OR  ALL   3   TO
                                        CORRELATE  WITH  FINISHING
                                        REQUIREMENTS IN  PART 3.

     Taping compound  formulated  for embedding tape  and  for first
     coat  over  fasteners  and  flanges  of  corner  beads  and  edge
     trim.

     Topping compound formulated  for  fill   (second)  and  finish
     (third) coats.
      jppi
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
n$ n Mtko ;K k iry»fctt ITJ at !wj
W* Pi-wan v torn, rt.-Mict»
••-•fl » ef.i -n "»• rfe C*JT- ;« c*tt!
09250 - 20

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                           MASTERSPEC
                                                   8/87
MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS;

General:     Provide  auxiliary  materials   for  gypsum  drywall
construction  which  comply  with  referenced  standards  and  the
recommendations of the  manufacturer  of the gypsum board.

                                         DELETE   MATERIALS  BELOW
                                         NOT  APPLICABLE   TO
                                         PROJECT.
Tormina ti

Gypsum Board Screws:
                   s  to

    	ASTX  C 1002.

  Beard Hailoi  AM'H C sin~.—•
Asphalt Folt;	ASJM  D  220,  Typo I  (Ht
Concealed  Acoustical   Sealant;     Nondrying,   nonhardening,
nonskinning, nonstaining,  nonbleeding,  gunnable sealant complying
with requirement specified in Division-7 section "Joint Sealers."
                     y  confining
                  setting
                 without
                                         RETAIN   ONE  REQUIREMENT
                                         FROM 3 BELOW.
Mi:
             Fiber
                   F i b e r s^fllaliii f a c t u r ed-^from>g 1 a s s
leral  Fiber^Tvoe; t  Fibers manuCactAU'ed from bias:
     >(ineraJ
           3er Type:
                      jers manufactured from
                                         AVOID  USE   OF  MATERIAL
                                         BELOW FOR BELOW-GRADE OR
                                         OTHER  POTENTIALLY  DAMP
                                         LOCATIONS;   USE  EXTRUDED
                                         POLYSTYRENE  OR   OTHER
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                         M S i ijxritt •: n>t3.;f mt ui
                         •»>;1 Pr-nreur- T '
                         !".f M iKt VI 'r»fi :
                                               09250 - 21

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                    MASTERSPEC
8/87
                            CLOSED  CELL
                            INSTEAD.
                                                        INSULATION
Thermal  Ins
          Material indicated below,  of thickness and
 ^tbids formed by Z-furring members:

 Mineral  Fiber Blanket Insulation;
blanket  insulation  produced  by  c;
            of  type described below with the]
         ly with ASTM C 665 for Type I  (blankj
          g); and as follows:
                                                   nfaced  mineral
                                                    ining  nineral
                                    setting resins to
                                   s without membrane
          Min
          slagJ
          Mineral Fiber
          Mineral\Fiber
                            RETAIN   ONE  REQUIREMENT
                              :OM 3 BELOW.

                    Fibers/Manufactured from glass or
                   Fibers manufactured from glass.
                   Fibers manufactured from slag.

                            RETAIN ABOVE OR BELOW FOR
                            INSULATION   BETWEEN
                            Z-FURRING   MEMBERS.
                            DELETE   BOTH   IF   NO
                            Z-FURRING   MEMBERS.
                            REVISE  IF  OTHER  TYPES OF
                            INSULATION   MATERIALS
                            DESIRED.     VERIFY  CODE
                            COMPLIANCE OF  BELOW WITH
                            AUTHORITIES   HAVING
                            JURISDICTION.
     Extruded  Pol
                       Thermal  Insulation:
 Rigid,
     cellular  theirtnal  insulation with closed  cells and integral
     high density  skin;  formed  by rt^e  expansion  of polystyrene
     base resin/in an extrusion processvto comply with ASTM C 578
     for Type TV; with a flame spread ami smoke developed ratings
     of, respectively, not more than 25 and 450 per ASTM E 84.

                                        R E T\I N   BELOW    IF
                                        SEPARATELY  APPLIED  VAPOR
                                        BARRIER\ REQUIRED   OVER
                                        WOOD   FRAMING  AND   ITS
                                        INSTALLATION IS SPECIFIED
                                        IN THIS SECTI*
Polyethylene Vapor Retarder;
aferroeance rating as follows:
                  ASTM D  4397,  thickness and
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                   :**. > i-.e t*.
                                       09250 - 22

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
                   MASTERSPEC
                                                  8/87
     4.0 mils, 0.19 perms.
Glas
 ,  0.13  perms.

Mortar  Unit Finishing  Materia.
                                        DELETE  ABOXE  OR BELOW OR
                                        REVISE.
comp
                                          Tape  and  joint
s a\ recommended by glass mesh mortar unit manufacturer.
TEXTURE FINISH^MATERIALS;
Prlraer:  Of type reconum
Polystyrene  Aqqreqat
standard  proprieta/ry  produ
aggregates  for   Spray  appl
characteristics of/25 per ASTM E

Available  Produces;    Subject to
polystyrene
Work include,
                                        DELETE   THIS   ENTIRE
                                        ARTICLE  IF  NO  TEXTURE
                                        FINISH OR  IF SPECIFIED AS
                                        WORK  OF ANOTHER SECTION
                                        SUCH  AS   PAINTING  OR
                                        SPECIAL  COATINGS.   BELOW
                                        IS  JUST ONE EXAMPLE  OF
                                        SEVERAL   PRODUCTS
                                        AVAILABLE.
                 by manufacturer of texture finish.
                     for  Ceilings;     Manufacturer's
                       formulated  with   polystyrene
                     ition,   with  surface  burning
                         and in texture indicated.
of the following products:

  /  "IMPERIAL  QT  SPRAY  Medium Texture  Finish";
          Gypsum Co.
                         rapliance  with  requirements,
    egated finishes which,, may be  incorporated  in the
    t  are  not  limited  to, \he  following:

                              TAIN   ABOVE   FOR
                              1PROPRIETARY  OR  BELOW
                            FO"fc   SEMIPROPRIETARY
                            SPECIFICATION.  REFER  TO
                            DIVPeiON-1   SECTION
                            "PR  O\D U C T S    AND
                            SUBSTITUTIONS."
Products;   Subject  to compliance with  requirements^  provide one
                                       United  States
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                   TT.s ,;
                   •tttft *
                   —.? It t
                      m»:-:.:t »tt «; tet
09250 - 23

-------
     Copyright 1987, AIA
        MASTERSPEC
       8/87
                     SPRAY Coarse  Texture
              . ySpray MediujiH
                 >ray Medium";  Gold Bond  Building
            lational Gypsum  Co.	
                             Thited  States

                  Building  Products  Div.,

                                      Div.,
 PART 3 - EXECUTION
 EXAMINATION;

                                          REVISE   BELOW  TO   SUIT
                                          PROJECT   CONDITIONS  AND
                                          CONSTRUCTION.

 Examine  substrates  to  which dryvall  construction attaches  or
 abuts,   preset   hollow  metal   frames,   cast-in-anchors,  and
 structural  framing,  with Installer  present,  for  compliance with
 requirements  for  installation tolerances  and  other  conditions
 affecting  performance  of drywall  construction.   Do not  proceed
 with  installation  until  unsatisfactory   conditions  have  been
 corrected.
 -PREPARATION.
 Ceili
 suspension
 systems  to
 provisions /have
 Banner  tha
/required tovs«p'port ceili
                                          DELETE THIS ARTICLE IF NO
                                          STEEL   FRAMING   FOR
                                          CEILINGS OR PARTITIONS.
                                   ceiling
                                         DELETE  BELOW
                                         DEVICES NOT
                                         SPECIFIED
                                         SECTIONS.
                                at  spacing
                              IF ANCHORAGE
                               USED OR  IF
                               IN   OTHER
                       installation
                       with o
     GYPSUM DRYWALL
"?„' i'""7'** " I*'**' fit Ml Brv
TX-. "cnt,^. fc, ...-ma, .^c-,^
•--•/ if :'.'**{ -'t~ n: -.-.i
09250 - 24

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
      MASTERSPEC
       8/87
                                         DELETE  BELOW   IF  NO
                                         SPRAYED-ON   FIREPROOFING
                                         OR  IF NOT APPLICABLE.
                on firepro^ftTyr  is  applied
              iling  ruprters   (
             ed-on fireproofi
          ravide  continuous  u
                        o.c.
mupn  firepr
construction
INSTALLATION OF STEEL FRAMING. GENERAL;

                                        DELETE THIS ARTICLE  IF  NO
                                        STEEL FRAMING.

                                        ASTM  C   840   INCLUDES
                                        REQUIREMENTS    FOR
                                        INSTALLATION THAT ARE NOT
                                        INCLUDED  IN ASTM C 754.

Steel  Framing  Installation Standard;   Install  steel  framing  to
comply  with ASTM  C 754  and  with  ASTM C  840  requirements  that
apply to framing installation.

Install  supplementary  framing.   blocking  and  bracing   at
terminations in  the work and  for  support of fixtures,  equipment
services, heavy trim, grab bars, toilet accessories, furnishings,
and  similar construction to  comply  with  details  indicated and
with  recommendations of  gypsum board  manufacturer,  or if  none
available,  with  "Gypsum  Construction  Handbook"  published  by
United States Gypsum Co.

                                        INDICATE   ISOLATION
                                        DETAILS   ON  DRAWINGS  OR
                                        INSERT   DETAILED
                                        DESCRIPTION HERE.

Isolate steel framing from building structure to  prevent transfer
of loading imposed by structural movement,  at locations  indicated
below to comply with details shown on Drawings:

     Where  edges  of suspended  ceilings abut  building  structure
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
fcns <\ j.ttf :te to Ttttxt nt «: 9-
     to* Ir *,-•*•
     ri for •* c
09250 - 25

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                                MASTERSPEC
8/87

                     at  ceiling  perimeters  or  penetration   of
                elements.
             rtition and wall  framing  abuts  overhead  structure
                                        RETAIN  BELOW  ONLY   IF
                                        DETAILS   PROVIDED   ON
                                        DRAWINGS;   OTHERWISE
                                        DESCRIBE   CONNECTION
                                        REQUIRED IN DETAIL.

          Provide  slip or  cushioned type joints  as detailed  to
          attain lateral support and avoid axial loading.

Do  not  bridge building  expansion  and control  joints  with  steel
framing  or  furring  members;   independently  frame   both  sides  of
joints with framing or furring members or as indicated.
                                        DELETE THIS ARTICLE
                                        SUSPENDED  AND
                                        CEILINGS.
                                        DELETE  BEL0W IF  NO WOOD
                                        FRAMrXG   (CEILING
                                        JOISTS/BEAMS,  STUDS,
                                        ET
Screw furring n
                  ers to wood framing.
Secure hangers  to "structural  supp*brt by  connecting  directly to
structure where  possrtjle,  otherwise  connect  to cast- in concrete
inserts or other anchorage devices or fasteners as indicated.
                                        DELETE BELOW  IF NO METAL
                                        DECK.
     Do not attachxangers to netaXdeck tabs.

     Do not a$£ach hangers to metal robC deck.
                                        D E"lSET E   BELOW    IF
                                        POWDEKN^CTUATED FASTENERS
                                        ACCEPT ABI
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                                   09250 - 26

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
                                MASTERSPEC
8/87
condu
Keep
     Do not^itach hangers to  underside of  concrete slabs /with
                 ted fasteners.

             ct  or suspend steel  framing  from ducts,  z&pes or
condu
          ers  and braces  2  inches clear  of  ducts';  pipes and
                                        REVISE RZLOW TO INDICATED
                                        SPECIFIC  TYPE  OF HANGER
                                        IF DIFFERENT FROM HANGERS
                                        USED/TO SUSPEND FRAMING.
Swav-brace suspended steel framing with hangers used for support.
Install  suspended
                           framing  components  in  sizes  and  at
spacings indicated butXnot  less  than^chat required by referenced
steel framing installation standard.,

                                        BELOW  IS  AN EXAMPLE OF A
                                        DEFAULT   REQUIREMENT.
                                        DELETE   IF  SIZES  AND
                                        SPACING   INDICATED  ON
                                        DRAWINGS   OR  REVISE  IF
                                        OTHER  SIZES  AND SPACING
                                        REQUIRED  TO SUIT PROJECT
                                        CONDITIONS.
     Carrying  Channels  (Main  Runner;
     center.
                                           1-1/2  inch,  4  ft.  on
     Rigid  Furrvna Channels  fFurring  Members);    16  inches  on
     center.

                                        RET\ IN    ABOVE   FOR
                                        PARALLEL-ATTACHED  SINGLE
                                        LAYER \l/2  OR  5/8  INCH
                                        THICK  &PSUM  WALLBOARD,
                                        O R    B >£  LOW    FOR
                                        PER PEN DI Oil LAR-ATTACHED
                                        BOARD  \O F    SAME
                                        THICKNESSES .\ REVISE  FOR
                                        OTHER THICKWfSSES   AND
                                        DOUBLE LAYERS.
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                                   09250 - 27

-------
     Copyright 1987,  AIA
                                MASTERSPEC
       8/87
             Purring  Channels  (Furring  Members);
                                                    24  inches
                                         TOLERANCES   B^LOW   ARE
                                         BASED  ON TH0SE  SPECIFIED
                                         IN  ASTM-XC   636   FOR
                                         ACOUSTICAL  CEILINGS.

 Installation  Tolerances;  Install steel  .Craning  components  for
 suspended  ceilingtT  so  that  cross  fdrring  members   or  grid
 suspension  members TUTC  level to wi>Kin   1/8  inch in  12  ft.  as
 measured both  lengthwise on each member and transversely between
 parallel members.
Wire-tie  or  clip furring
structural supports as i
                                ers to  main runners  and to  other
                                         DELETE  BELOW  IF  NO  GRID
                                         S USPENSION   SYSTEM
                                         INCLUDED   IN   PART   3  OR
                                           FLOWED.

 Grid  Suspension System;   Attach  perimeterNwall  track or  angle
 where  gr i.^  suspension  system  meets   vertical   surfaces.
 Mechanically  join  main  beam and  cross  furring^ members  to  each
 other ana butt-cut to fit into wall track.

                                         FRAMING  FOlNfiELOW  SHOULD
                                         BE DETAILED ONN0RAWINGS.
 EOT exterior soffits provide cross-bracing and additional
/Indicated or reqqjred to resist wind uplift.	
                                                           framing
 INSTALLATION OF STEEL FRAMING FOR WALLS AND PARTITIONS;

                                         DELETE THIS ARTICLE  IF NO
                                         STEEL  FRAMING  FOR  WALLS
                                         AND PARTITIONS.

 Install runners (tracks) at floors, ceilings and structural  walls
 and  columns  where   gypsum  drywall   stud  system  abuts   other
 construction.

      Where studs  are installed directly  against exterior walls,
      install asphalt felt strips between studs and wall.
     GYPSUM DRYWALL
                          V $ ft tft t-jt; •>
                                    , ft) j* -»B
                                    ;,"t:.r c:
09250 - 28

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
      MASTERSPEC
       8/87
                                         BELOW   IS   BASED   ON
                                         RECOMMENDATION  IN  GA-216
                                         FOR ALL  FRAMING. ASTM C
                                         840  REQUIRES  ONLY  THAT
                                         FRAMING  AND  SUBSTRATES
                                         BE  INSTALLED  SO  THAT,
                                         AFTER  GYPSUM  BOARD  HAS
                                         BEEN   INSTALLED,   THE
                                         FINISHED SURFACE  WILL BE
                                         IN AN EVEN  PLANE.  DELETE
                                         BELOW   IF   ASTM  C   840
                                         REQUIREMENT ACCEPTABLE.

         ion Tolerances;   Install each  steel  framing and furring
       so  that fastening surface  do  not vary more  than 1/8  inch
      lane of  faces of adjacent  framing.

    >nd partition framing  full  height  to  structural  supports or
substrates above  suspended ceilings,  except where  partitions are
indicated  to  terminate at suspended  ceilings.   Continue framing
over  frames   for  doors  and  openings  and  frame  around  ducts
penetrating  partitions  above  ceiling  to  provide  support  for
gypsum board.

                                         RETAIN  ABOVE WITH  BELOW
                                         OR REVISE  TO MAKE  BELOW
                                         DEFAULT  REQUIREMENT  AND
                                         ABOVE  THE  EXCEPTION;  OR
                                         DELETE  BOTH   IF   NOT
                                         APPLICABLE   (SUCH  AS  NO
                                         SUSPENDED CEILINGS).

Terminate  partition  framing   at  suspended  ceilings  where
indicated.

Install  steel  studs  and   furring   in sizes  and  at  spacings
indicated  but not  less  than  that required  by  referenced  steel
framing installation standard.

                                         BELOW  ARE   EXAMPLES  OF
                                         DEFAULT  REQUIREMENTS.
                                         RETAIN   APPLICABLE
                                         REQUIREMENTS  OR  REVISE.
                                         DELETE   IF   SIZES   AND
                                         SPACING  INDICATED  ON
                                         DRAWINGS.

     For single laver construction;   16 inches on center.
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
HIiS 4 ii*e-6H'.: us•otox tii tH iti
IX*. fa--OK- "v *••?•«
m*a :•> ticii'.ti •
-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                                MASTERSPEC
                  8/87
                                         DELETE ABOVE OR  BELOW OR
                                         BOTH    IF    THIRD
                                         REQUIREMENT   RETAINED.
                                         REFER TO TABLE 4  IN ASTM
                                         C 754.
In
        steel  studs so that  flanges  point in the same direction
       sum  boards can be  installed  in the direction opposite  to
        the flange.

  Sine door openings to comply with details indicated, with GA-219
and  with  applicable  published  recommendations of  gypsum board
manufacturer.  Attach  vertical  studs at jambs with screws either
directly  to  frames or  to  jamb  anchor  clips  on  door  frames;
install runner track  section  (for  cripple  studs)  at  head and
secure to jamb studs.
RETAIN
SUSPENSION
                                                     BELOW
                                                     CEILINGS
                                                               I F
                                        CAPABLE  OF  WITHSTANDING
                                        DOOR  OPENING AND  CLOSING
                                        FORCES.     QUALIFY   TF~
                                         'XCEPTIONS .

     Extend  vertical  jamb  studs  through  suspended  ceilings  and
     attach to underside of floor or roof  structure  above.

                                        INSTALLATION OF   FRAMING
                                        FOR  ABOVE   AND  BELOW
                                        SHOULD BE FULLY DETAILED.

Frame openings  other  than  door openings  to  comply  with  details
indicated, or  if none indicated, in same  manner as required  for
door openings;  and install framing below sills of openings  to
match framing required above door heads.
                                             place with Z-furring
     Erect insulation
     members spac
                         ches on center.
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                          PtT«tw« Ir br.tr ft or:
                          i at:latt -w n, t,,r'
                                                   09250 - 30

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    Copyright 1987,  AIA
           MASTERSPEC
       8/87
                 \
                 jxterior corners, securely  attach narrow  flanges
             Ingr  members  to wall with concrete stub na^ls, screws
              for masonry  attachment,  or powder-driven  fasteners
            24 inches on center.

         Exterior corners,  attach wide  flange  of/furring  members
         wall  with  short  flange  extending  beyond   corner;  on
     adjacent wall  surface,  screw attach shortr flange of  furring
     chanVel to web of attached channel.  Start from this  furring
     channel with standard width  insulation/panel and  continue in
     regulair manner. At  interior corners, /space second member no
     more th\n 12 inches from corner and sfut insulation  to fit.

                                        DELETE   BELOW    IF
                                        POLYSTYRENE   INSULATION
                                        BOARD   SPECIFIED
                                        EXCLUSIVELY  FOR   THERMAL
                                        INSULATION.

     Until  gypsum boaxd  is  installed  hold insulation  in place
     with 10  inch staples fabricated from  0.0625 inch  (16 gage)
     diameter  tie  wire\ and /inserted  through  slot  in  web  of
     member.
                          \7
                                        DELETE   BELOW   IF   NO
                                        SEPARATELY  APPLIED VAPOR
                                        RETARDER  REQUIRED.    DO
                                        NOT   INSTALL   BEHIND
                                        WATER-RESISTANT   BACKING
                                        BOARD.

Install  polyethylene  vapor  retarder  on  interior   of   framing
members of exteric
requirements:
insulated walls \o comply with the  following
     Extend vapor  retarder to extremiti<
                       of exterior  insulated
                       ids  in  in  insulated
     walls  anal  to  cover  miscellaneous
     substrates,  including those  which ha\e  been  stuffed with
     loose thermal insulation.

     Seal /vertical  -joints  in  vapor retarders\ over  framing  by
     lapping not  less than  2  wall  studs.   Fasten\vapor retarders
     to/framing  at  top, end,  and  bottom edges,  *t perimeter of
     wadl openings,  and  at  lap joints;  space fasteners 16  inches
     on center.

     Seal joints in vapor retarder  caused by  pipes, Vonduits,
     electrical  boxes  and   similar  items  penetrating;  vapor
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
     *';$ a *n-.
     •tt»f.
     r.f t»
09250 - 31

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    Copyright 1987, AIA
MASTERSPEC
8/87
                                             retarder  immediately
                                                             other
APPLICATION AND FINISHING OF GYPSUM BOARD. GENERAL;

Gypsum  Board Application  and Finishing  Standard:
finish gypsum board to comply with ASTM C 840.
Ins
                      Install and
Install
Locate  exposed  end-butt joints  as  far from  center  of walls and
ceilings  as possible,  and stagger  not less  than 24  inches in
alternate courses of board.
Inst
Install  wall/partition  boards  in  manner  which  minimizes  the
number of end-butt joints or avoids them entirely where possible.
At stairwells and similar high walls, install boards horizontally
with end joints staggered over studs.

Install exposed qypsua board with  face  side out.   Do not install
imperfect, damaged  or damp boards.   Butt  boards  together  for a
light contact at edges and ends with not more than 1/16 inch open
space between boards.  Do not force into place.

Locate  either  edge  or  end   Joints over  supports,  except  in
horizontal  applications where  intermediate  supports or  gypsum
board  back-blocking  is  provided  behind  end  joints.   Position
boards  so  that like edges abut,  tapered  edges against  tapered
edges  and  mill-cut or  field-cut  ends  against  mill-cut  or
field-cut ends.  Do  not  place  tapered edges against  cut edges or
ends.  Stagger  vertical   joints  over different studs  on  opposite
sides of partitions.

Attach gypsuro board to steel studs so that  leading edge or end of
each board is attached to  open (unsupported)  edge  of stud flange
first.
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                              .-rt:i?
                   09250 - 32

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    Copyright 1987,  AIA
MASTERSPEC
8/87
Attach  gypsum   board   to  supplementary  framing  and   blocking
provided for additional support at openings and cutouts.

                                        DELETE BELOW  IF  NO  HOLLOW
                                        METAL  DOOR   FRAMES   IN
                                        STEEL-FRAMED  PARTITIONS.
                                        LOCATION   REQUIREMENTS
                                        SPECIFIED   WITH
                                        INSTALLATION   OF  TRIM
                                        ACCESSORIES.

Form control  joints  and expansion joints at locations  indicated,
with  space between  edges  of  boards,  prepared to  receive trim
accessories.

Cover  both faces  of  steel stud  partition framing  with gypsum
board in concealed spaces  (above ceilings, etc.), except in  chase
walls which are braced  internally.

     Except where  concealed application is indicated or required
     for  sound,   fire,  air  or  smoke  ratings,  coverage  may   be
     accomplished  with scraps of  not less than 8  sq.   ft.  area,
     and  may  be  limited  to not  less than  75 percent of full
     coverage.

     Fit gypsum board around ducts, pipes, and  conduits.

     Where partitions intersect open  concrete coffers,  cut gypsum
     board  to fit profile  of  coffers and allow 1/4  to  1/2 inch
     wide joint for sealant.

Isolate  perimeter  of  non-load-bearing  drywall  partitions   at
structural  abutments.   Provide  1/4  inch  to 1/2  inch   space  and
trim edge  with  "U" bead edge trim.   Seal joints with  acoustical
sealant.

                                        BELOW   TS  FEAST BT.E  ONLY
                                        WITH  WOOD  FRAMING WHERE
                                        FIRE   RATINGS   ARE  NOT
                                        REQUIRED.   DELETE  FOR
                          Tf!$ a MUj-~.tr; K tfrwitt M u I
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                    09250 - 33

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
                  MASTERSPEC
              8/87
                                        METAL-FRAMED
                                        DRYWALL.
                                            GYPSUM
         uding
siur  boarjd  o^ydr
 tructio
    ct io
y  mknuf
"floirg
rcommended
 rani
              rated  drywall   construction   is  indicated,   seal
           on  at  perimeters,  control   and  expansion  joints,
           d  penetrations with a  continuous  bead  of  acoustical
         ncluding  a bead  at  both  faces  of partitions.   Comply
           C  919  and manufacturer's  recommendations  for location
          trim,   and  close  off sound-flanking paths  around  or
         construction,   including   sealing  of  partitions  above
acoustical ceilings.
                                        USUALLY  DELETE  BELOW  IF
                                        CEILING  HAS  VERY  LITTLE
                                        ATTENUATION VALUE.
     /acou
Space  fasteners  in gypsun  boards  in accordance  with  referenced
gypsum  board  application  and   finishing   standard   and
manufacturer's recommendations.
METHODS OF GYPSUM BOARD APPLICATION;

Single-Layer Application;   Install gypsum wallboard as follows:

                                        DELETE BELOW IF NO GYPSUM
                                        DRYWALL CEILINGS.

                                                      it Inn boarrl
     On partitions/walls apply gypsum board  vertically  (parallel
     to framing) ,  unless  otherwise indicated, and provide  sheet
     lengths which will minimize  end joints.

                                        DELETE   BELOW   IF   NOT
                                        APPLICABLE   OR   DESIRED.
                                        SEE EVALUATION SHEETS.
                      J'Sfi'5
                                                    arP*T
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
            iv it M
                                       , .{
       09250 - 34

-------
    Copyright  1987,  AIA
                          MASTERSPEC
                                                     8/87
                                        DELETE   BELOW  IF
                                        Z-FURRING MEMBERS.
                                                          NO
                          applv^ypsiim board^i*«"bically
                               jointsV_^*6cate  echta-XSints ov
   \
 n  "dry"  areas  install  gypsum  backing  board  or wallboaTd
wvthtaperededges  taped and  finished  to produce  a  flat
surface.
     At
      lowers.   tubs   and  siuilar  "wet"
                                             areas,/ install
water-resistant gypsum backing  board to comply  wTth  ASTM C
840 andNreconunendations of gypsum board manufacturer.

                                   DELETE A^CVE  OR BELOW OR
                                   BOTH  IF  BELOW  SPECIFIED
                                   IN  plVISION-7  SECTION
                                   "TIJ
At  showers,  tubs  and\ similar "wet  a]
                                         install glass  mesh
mortar  units  and  trea\  joints  to  comply  with  manufacturer's
recommendations for type\f application indicated.

Double-Layer Application;   tnstaVl  gypsum backing board for base
layer and gypsum wallboard fotvface layer.
                             /\
                                        DELETE  NEXT  REQUIREMENT
                                        IF  NO  GYPSUM   DRYWALL
                                        CEILINGS.

     On ceilings  apply/base layer  prror to application  of base
     layer  on  walls/partitions;   applV  face  layers  in  same
     sequence. OffSOT  joints between layXrs at  least  10  inches.
     Apply  base  layers  at  right  angles\ to  supports  unless
     otherwise indicated.

                                        REVISE\ BELOW  IF   WALL
                                        CONDI T\O NS   PERMIT
                                        E C O N O M I OsA L   USE   OF
                                        HORI20NTAL\APPLICATION
      fPSUM DRYWALL

                                              09250 - 35

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                                MASTERSPEC
8/87
                                         OF   BAS£^-"LAYER   AND
                                         LAMINATED  ATTACHMENT  IS
                                         METHOD USED.

     On   parbi±.ions/walls  apply  base''  layer  and  face  layers
     vertically^-fjiarallei to  framing)  with joints  of  base layer
     over  supports^va^id  face  layer  joints  offset  at  least 10
     inches wifch base  ra^r jo>fits.

                                         DELETE   BELOW   IF   NO
                                         Z-FURRING MEMBERS.

                     Ambers  apply base lltyer vertically  (parallel
            ling) /-and  face  layer  either veiy^ically  (parallel to
                   horizontally  (perpendicular\to framing)  with
     ve~M*tt it: i- ti
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                                    09250 - 36

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
MASTERSPEC
8/87
                                         RETAIN   ONE
                                         FOLLOWING.
                         OF   THE
       isten  both  base   layers  and  face  layers  separately  to
      supcorts with screws.
                                         ABOVE AND
                                         FOR   ME'
                                         SUPPORTS
                                         REQUISPED
                     fLOW  SUITABLE
                        OR   WOOD
                    ABOVE  METHOD
                    FOR   CERTAIN
                                              •RESISTANCE
                                              JLIES.
                            RATED
                  'layers witnxscrews and/face  layer  with  adhesive
      and s6£pNiftraentary fastenei

         :ertj base  layers  to  wood .Supports  with  nails and  face
           'with adhesive and  supplementary fasteners.

                                          VNSERT   SPECIFIC
                                           aUIREMENTS  (IF  KNOWN)
                                         FOKV  THE  PARTICULAR
                                         SUBSTRATE OF THE  SYSTEM.

 Direct-Bonding to Substrate;   Where gypsum boar& is indicated to
 be directly  adherexT to  a substrate  (other  than\ studs,  joists,
 furring members yor  base layer  of gypsum  board\  comply  with
 gypsum  board  manufacturer's  recommendations,   anov  temporarily
 brace or fasten gypsum board  until  fastening  adhesive\has set.

 Exterior Soffits  and  Ceilings;    Apply  exterior gypsum  soffit
 board perpendicular to  supports, with end joints staggered  over
 support*'.    Install  with  1/4  inch  open  space where boards  abut
 other/construction.

      Fasten with  cadmium-plated screws,  or  with galvanized  or
	a1urninun nails  where supports  are nailable.	


 INSTALLATION OF DRYWALL TRIM  ACCESSORIES;

 General;   Where  feasible, use the  same fasteners to anchor  trim
 accessory  flanges  as  required to  fasten gypsun  board  to  the
 supports.      Otherwise,   fasten   flanges  to   comply   with
 manufacturer's recommendations.

                                         THE   FOLLOWING  ARE  ONLY
                                         EXAMPLES   OF  "UNIVERSAL"
     GYPSUM DRYWALL
                   09250 -  37

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    Copyright 1987, AIA
                    MASTERSPEC
               8/87
                                         SCOPE DEFINITIONS  FOR THE
                                         USE  OF  TRIM.   REVISE AS
                                         DESIRED   OR  SHOW   BY
                                         DRAWING DETAILS.

Install corner  beads at external corners.

Install  metal  edoe  trim whenever edge  of  gypsum  board  would
otherwise  be exposed or  semi-exposed,  and  except where  plastic
trim  is indicated.    Provide type with  face  flange  to  receive
joint  compound except where  "U"  bead  (semi-finishing  type)  is
indicated.
     Ins
     ab
bijtnll  *k
  "LC"  bead where  drywall  construction  is  tightly
  to  other  construction  and   back  flange  can  be
d to  framing or supporting substrate.
   K" b
                      d wh
kci-fed t
-i
          e of  trim,.
          uLL
            hoard  ii
     Install   U-type  trim  where  edge   is  exposed,  revealed,
     gasketed, or  sealant-filled (including expansion joints).

                                         DELETE   BELOW   IF  NO
                                         EXTERIOR  BOARD OR JOINTS
                                        "ARE   REQUlRFD   TO  BE
                                         FINISHED.
Ins
Install  plastic  edge  trim  where  indicated  on  wall  panels at
juncture with ceilings.

Install  control   -Joints  at  locations   indicated,   or  if  not
indicated,  at  spacings  and  locations  required  by  referenced
gypsum board application and finish  standard,  and approved by the
Architect for visual  effect.

                                         DELETE   BELOW   IF   ZINC
                                         CONTROL JOINT REQUIRED.
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
               tTU ti ».;•:•(.•*« K i«r::.:i M ut MI
               KPT*, frr-^.niy. •» '.-i* rt*e:.rr««
               tax M otu-ce N:- :•» t:?f
        09250 -  38

-------
    Copyright  1987,  AIA
                               MASTERSPEC
                                8/87
FINISHING OF DRYWALL;

General:    Apply  joint treatment  at  gypsum board  joints  (both
directions);  flanges  of  corner  bead,  edge  trim,   and  control
joints;    penetrations;  fastener  heads,  surface  defects  and
elsewhere as required to prepare work for decoration.

Prefill
setti
           iy  Joints  and rounded or beveled  edges,  if any, using
           ie joint compound.
        Int  tape at joints  between gypsum  boards,  except where
       cessories are indicated.
   csh
       interior gypsum wallboard  by applying the following joint
compounds in 3 coats (not including prefill of openings in base),
and sand between coats and after last coat:
                                        RETAIN  ONE  COMBINATION
                                        FROM   CHOICES   BELOW,
                                        LISTED  IN  SEQUENCE  OF
                                        HIGHEST  QUALITY   RESULTS
                                        PER    USG   "GYPSUM
                                        CONSTRUCTION  HANDBOOK."
                                        CORRELATE   PRODUCTS
                                        REFERENCED  BELOW  WITH
                                        THOSE  RETAINED IN  PART 2.
                                        SEE EVALUATION SHEETS.
     Embedding and First Coat; Setting-Type Joint Compound.
     Fill (Second) Coat:  Setting-type joint compound.
     Finish  fThird)  Coat;  Ready-mix  drying-type  all-purpose or
          topping compound.
     Embe
               and Fir
                                    ose
               ping c
              condl  .goat
              ing compound
                 A\	C
     EmbeddJjKT
      m
compounjd.
(Second
                  compound

                 nd  First
                   Coa
Job-mix
                               dryingxtype topping compound.
/inish (Thir\n Ctfat: Job-mixe^ drY>ng-type toppingVeompound.
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                                   09250 - 39

-------
    Copyright 1987, AIA
                            MASTERSPEC
                                                          8/87
                and First C
          compcfund
        nish   (
                    First Coat:
          compound.
                                                              joint
                                                               fill
    s to p;
     and  f
ound horde
after finis
     Paifitii
      ras dri\
                                                                 ts
                                     USG  RECOMMENDS  PAINTING
                                     ENTIRE   SURFACE   OF
                                     EXTERIOR  GYPSUM  SOFFIT
                                     BOARD AFTER THIRD COAT OF
                                     JOINT COMPOUND HAS DRIED.
                                     CORRELATE WITH DIVISION-9
                                     SECTION   "PAINTING"  OR
                                     INSERT REQUIREMENT HERE.

          of  exte£i«pr'""gyp!lum  soft'Af^-bustKd after^rtnTsn\coat
                 :cified  intDiyi»r6n-9 Secrioflr-*rPainting.

                                     DELETE  BELOW  IF   NOT
                                     DESIRED    OR    NOT
                                     APPLICABLE.     V-JOINT
                                     BACKING   BOARD  USUALLY
                                     DOES NOT REQUIRE TAPING.
Base_f_or  Acoustic
                            Where gypsufflj board  is
     fbr adhe>i^ely-applJied acoustical/ tile,
-coat conipollnd treatment}—*«*fm3Ut sandi
                                                       ed as
                                                           and
                               »tf~n* fe-
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                         DELETE  ABOVE  OR  BELOW.
                                         SEE   EVALUATION   SHEETS
                                         BEFORE    EDITING.
                                         RECOMMENDATIONS   DIFFER
                                                09250 - 40

-------
    Copyright 1987,  AIA
                MASTERSPEC
8/87
                                        BETWEEN   MFRS.     TILE
                                        INSTALLATION   STANDARD
                                        REQUIRES  JOINTS   TO
                                        TREATED  WITIT  TAPE  AND
                                        COMPOUND./  BELOW  IS
                                        RECOMMENDATION OF UNITED
                                        STATES GtfPSUM CO.
         urer
       feed in
 Backing  Board  Base  for  CeLfamj^c  Tile;    Finish
 water-resistantbacking ^ooardwith  tape  and
joint  compound  to  comply  with   gypsum  board
  recommendations   and/installation  standards
 'ision-9  Section "Till
PajTTial  Finishing: \  Onit  third  >efoat  and sanding  on concealed
drywall constructionXwhich  is indicated for drywall finishing or
which requires finishiha to achieve fire-resistance  rating, sound
rating or to act as air ar sm-oKe barrier.
APPLICATION OF TEXTURE	
                       /       \
                                        DELETE  THIS  ARTICLE  IF
                                        NONE   OR  SPECIFIED  IN
                                        ANOTHER  SECTION.    SEE
                                        DEVALUATION SHEETS.

Surface Preparation  and Printer:   PrepareNand  prime  drywall and
other   surfacesin  strict   accordance  with  texture   finish
nanufactur«r/s  instructions.    Apply primer  Xo all  surfaces to
achieve texture finish.

Finish A|:i
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                    09250 - 41

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    Copyright 1987, AIA
                    MASTERSPEC
8/87
END
ON 09250
    GYPSUM DRYWALL
                                 e>: fcr
                                        09250  - 42

-------
                                                     PROJECT MANUAL
                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                    EXAMPLE
INDEX TO PROJECT MANUAL


                DIVISION AND SECTION
DIVISION
NUMBER
DIVISION 0 - CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS

     00020      Invitation to Bid
     00100      Instruction to Bidders. Kentucky Dept. of Education
     00110      Prohibition   Against   Conflicts   of   Interest.   Gratuities  and
                Kickbacks
     00130      Pre-8id Conference
     00300      Form of Proposal. Kentucky Department of Education
     00410      Bid Bond
     00420      Bidders Qualification Form
     00500      Contract Agreement Kentucky Department of Education
     00510      Indemnification Agreement
     00520      State Application tor Certification
     00530      10 Day Notification Form
     00620      Performance   and   Payment   Bond.   Kentucky   Department   of
                Education
     00700      General Conditions. Kentucky Department of Education
     00810      Supplemental General Conditions
     00850      Index to Drawings
DIVISION 1 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

     01010      Summary of Work • Asbestos Abatement
     01014      Work Sequence
     01030      Alternates and Alternatrves
     01035      Additional Project Procedures
     01040      Coordination
     01041       Project Coordination
     01043      Project Coordination - Asbestos Abatement
     01045      Cutting and Patching
     01046      Cutting and Patching • Asbestos Abatement
     01091       Definitions and Standards - Asbestos Abatement
     01092      Codes and Regulations - Asbestos Abatement
     01200      Meetings
     01312      Warranty of Work After Final Payment
     01313      Schedules. Reports. Payments
     01315      Aftidavt of Compliance
     01340      Shop Drawings. Product Data. Samples and Schedule of Values
     01380      Construction Photographs
     01410      Air Monitoring - Test Laboratory Services
                            INDEX TO SPECIFICATIONS -1

-------
                                                       PROJECT    ANUAL

                                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS
      01503       Temporary Facilities                                    EXA   PLE
      01513       Negative Pressure System
      01526       Temporary Enclosures
      01560       Worker Protection • Asbestos Abatement
      01562       Respiratory Protection
      01563       Decontamination Units
      01632       Products and Substitutions • Asbestos Abatement
      01701       Project Ctose-Out
      01711       Project Decontamination
      01712       Cleaning and Decontamination
      01714       Work Area Clearance
DIVISION 2 - SITE WORK

      02060      Building Demolition
      02061      Bulding Demolition • Asbestos Abatement
      02081      Removal of Asbestos-Containing Materials
      02082      Removal of Asbestos-Containing Soi
      02083      Enclosure of Contaminated Earth
      02084      Disposal of Asbestos-Containing Waste Materials
DIVISION 6 • CARPENTRY

     06100      Rough Carpentry


DIVISION 9-FINISHES

     09250      Gypsum Dry Wall
     09510      Acoustical Ceilings
     09520      Acoustical Wall System
     09900      Painting


DIVISION 15 - MECHANICAL

     15010      Mechanical General Provisions
     15250      Mechanical Insulation


DIVISION 16 - ELECTRICAL

     16000      General Electrical Requirements
     16070      Electrical Connections for Equipment
     16110      Raceways
     16120      Wires and Cables
     16135      Electrical Boxes and Fittings
     16190      Supporting Devices
     16500      Lighting Fixtures

                            INDEX TO SPECIFICATIONS - 2

-------
Specifications
  Workshop

-------
Abatement Specifications
         Exhibit

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

SECTION OlOld r SUMMARY OF THE WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMET
          general  provisions  of Contract,  including  General and
Suppementary  Conditions,  and  other  Division-1  Specification
Sections, apply to work of this section.

                         THE VARIOUS  PARAGRAPHS  IN THE FOLLOWING
                         ARTICLE SHOW SEVERAL DIFFERENT  METHODS
                         OF  SUMMARIZING  THE CONTRACT WORK  AND
                         PROJECT SCOPE.   SELECT  THE PARAGRAPH OR
                         COMBINATION   OF   PARAGRAPHS   THAT  MOST
                         ACCURATELY  SUMMARIZES   THE  WORK  AND
                         REVISE AS NECESSARY.  DELETE UNNECESSARY
                         PARAGRAPHS.

PROJECT/WORK IDENTIFICATIQN;

                         THE FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPH  IS THE SIMPLEST
                         METHOD OF SUMMARIZING CONTRACT WORK.  IT
                         BRIEFLY IDENTIFIES  THE  PROJECT  BY NAME
                         AND LOCATION  AND IDENTIFIES  THE OWNER'S
                         REPRESENTATIVE.   THIS TYPE PARAGRAPH IS
                         OFTEN  USED  AS   A   LEAD  PARAGRAPH  IN
                         COMBINATION  WITH   OTHER  METHODS  OF
                         SUMMARIZING THE WORK.

General;  Project  name  is	 as shown on
Contract   Documents   prepared   by  Owner's   Representative,
	   Drawings  and   Specifications   are  dated
Contract  Documents:     Indicate  the  work  of the  Contract  and
related requirements  and conditions that  have  an impact  on the
project.  Related  requirements and  conditions that are indicated
on  the  Contract  Documents  include,  but  are  not  necessarily
limited to the following:

                         THE  FOLLOWING  IS A  LISTING  OF  SOME  OF
                         THE MORE COMMON  CONTRACT PROVISIONS AND
                         NON-CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS THAT  MAY  BE
                         SHOWN ON CONTRACT  DRAWINGS OR MENTIONED
                         IN THE SPECIFICATIONS.   EDIT  THE LIST TO
                         CONFORM TO  PROJECT REQUIREMENTS,  ADDING
                         NEW  ELEMENTS   WHERE  NECESSARY.
                         REQUIREMENTS  FOR   EACH   ITEM  IN  THE
                         LISTING MUST BE  DESCRIBED ELSEWHERE  IN

              SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT     01013 - 1

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

                         THE  CONTRACT  DOCUMENTS,   USUALLY" AS  A
                         SEPARATE ARTICLE  IN THIS  SECTION. //"XDD
                         APPROPRIATE  CROSS   REFERENCES   WHERE
                  \      SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE.

              e codes and regulations.

             and permits.

         (ting  site  conditions  and  restrictions on  use of  the
      site.

      Work performed prior to work under this Contract.

      Alterations and coordination with existing work.

      Work to be performed concurrently by the Owner.

      Work to be performed concurrently by separate contractors.

      Work to be performed subsequent to work under this Contract.

      Alternates.

      Allowances.

      Pre-negotiated equipment/material orders assigned as work  of
      this Contract.

      Pre-purchased material/equipment for Contract,  with purchase
      price included in the Contract Sum.

      Pre-purchased  subcontracts   for  the   Contract,  with
      subcontract amounts included in the  Contract Sun.

      Requirements  for   partial  Owner  occupancy   prior  to
      substantial completion of the Contract Work.

                         REVISE   THE  FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPH  TO
                         REFLECT THE  MANNER IN  WHICH  DOCUMENTA-
                         TION  FOR  THE   PROJECT  HAS   BEEN
                         ESTABLISHED.     NOTE  THAT   BIDDING
                         REQUIREMENTS HAVE  BEEN OMITTED.

Summary bv References;   Work of  the Contract can be summarized by
references  to  the  Contract,  General  Conditions,   Supplementary
Conditions,   Specification  Sections,  Drawings,  addenda  and
modifications to the Contract Documents  issued  subsequent to the
initial  printing  of this  project manual  and  including but not
necessarily  limited to  printed material  referenced  by  any of

              SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT      01013 -  2

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MODEL ASBBSTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988

              of  the  Contract  is  also  unavoidably  affected or
           by governing regulations, natural phenomenon including
          conditions  and   other   forces  outside  the   contract
      fnts.

                         THE  FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPHS   CONSTITUTE A
                         MORE  DETAILED  DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  WORK
                         THAN THE PRECEDING PARAGRAPHS.

Abbreviated  Written  Summary;    Briefly  and  without  force   and
effect upon  the  contract documents,  the work of the Contract  can
be summarized as follows:

                         THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS ARE ONLY  SAMPLE
                         TEXT, WHICH  MUST BE  REWRITTEN FOR  EACH
                         PROJECT  (OR  THE PRECEDING  PARAGRAPH  AND
                         THOSE THAT  FOLLOW SHOULD  BE DELETED AS
                         UNNECESSARY).

The  work  includes  the removal   (encapsulation,  enclosure)  of
asbestos-containing  naterials according  to  the  requirements of
the following specification sections in the sequence  indicated:

General  and  Administrative Requirements:   are set  forth in  the
following specification sections:

     01013 Summary of the Work - Asbestos Abatement
     01028 Application for Payment
     01043 Project Coordination - Asbestos Abatement
     01091 Definitions and Standards - Asbestos Abatement
     01301 Submittals
     01601 Materials and Equipment - Asbestos Abatement
     01632 Product Substitutions
     01701 Project Closeout - Asbestos Abatement

Abatement  Work;    requirements are  set  forth in  the  following
specification sections, listed here  according to the sequence of
the work:

     01092 Codes, Regulations and Standards - Asbestos Abatement:
     sets  forth  governmental  regulations and  industry  standards
     which are included and incorporated herein by  reference  and
     made  a  part of  the specification.   This  section  also  sets
     forth those notices and permits which are known to the Owner
     and which either must  be  applied  for and received, or which
     must be given to governmental agencies before start of work.

     01503 Temporary Facilities - Asbestos Abatement:  sets forth
     the  support   facilities  needed   such   as  electrical   and
     plumbing connections  for the decontamination unit and office

              SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT      01013  - 3

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

     space for^ne*vProject Administrator.

     01526 ^Qaporary Enclosures:   details the  requirements for
     the/£hs& ''plastic  barriers  isolating the work area from the
                the building.

           Test Laboratory Services:  describes air monitoring by
     Owner so that the  building  beyond  the work area will remain
     uncontaainated.     Air  monitoring  to  determine  required
     respiratory  protection   is  the  responsibility  of  the
     Contractor.

     01563  Decontamination  Units:     explains  the  setup  and
     operation  of the  personnel   and  material  decontamination
     units.

     01513 Temporary Pressure  Differential  and Air  Circulation
     System:     sets   forth  the  procedures  to  set  up  pressure
     differential isolation and ventilation of the work area.

     01560 Worker Protection -  Asbestos Abatement:   describes the
     equipment  and  procedures   for protecting  workers  against
     asbestos contamination  and other  workplace hazards  except
     for respiratory protection.

     01562 Respiratory  Protection:  sets forth the  procedures and
     equipment   required   for  adequate  protection  against
     inhalation of airborne asbestos fibers.

Asbestos Removal Work Procedures;  are described in the following
specification sections:

     01046 Cutting and Patching - Asbestos-Containing Materials
     02061 Building Demolition  - Asbestos Abatement
     02062 Non-Asbestos  Demolition
     02063 Demolition of Asbestos-Contaminated Materials
     02081 Removal of Asbestos-Containing Materials
     02082 Removal of Asbestos-Contaminated Soil
     02084 Disposal of Asbestos Containing Waste Material

                         THE TWO  FOLLOWING SECTIONS  ARE  BEING
                         DEVELOPED AND WILL BE SENT TO PURCHASERS
                         OF  THESE   GUIDE  SPECIFICATIONS  WITHOUT
                         FURTHER ACTION  BY THE PURCHASER.

     02085 Removal  of  Interior  Non-Friable  Asbestos-Containing
     Materials
     02086 Removal  of  Exterior  Non-Friable  Asbestos-Containing
     Materials
              SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT      01013 - 4

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National  Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

                         FOLLOWING INDICATES GYPSUM DRYWALL AS AN
                         ENCLOSURE METHOD.   MANY OTHER MATERIALS
                         COULD BE  USED,  SUCH  AS  MASONRY,  METAL
                         PANELS,  ETC.   IF THESE MATERIALS ARE TO
                         BE  USED THE  APPROPRIATE SECTIONS  FROM
                         AMERICAN   INSTITUTE   OF  ARCHITECTS'
                         "MASTERSPEC,"    CONSTRUCTION
                         SPECIFICATIONS  INSTITUTE'S  "SPECTEXT,"
                         OR OTHER APPROPRIATE GUIDE SPECIFICATION
                         SHOULD BE USED.

       re Procedures;  are described in the following:

     '09251 Gypsun Drywall - Asbestos Enclosures

 Encapsulation Procedures;  are described in the following:

     09805 Encapsulation of Asbestos-Containing Materials
     15254 Repair of Insulation and Lagging

Decontamination of  the Work  Area;   after completion  of abatement
work is described in the following sections:

     01712 Cleaning and  Decontamination Procedures:   sets forth
     procedures  to   be  used  on  contaminated  objects and  rooms
     which are not part of an abatement work area.

     01711 Project  Decontamination:   describes the  sequence  of
     cleaning  and  decontamination  procedures  to  be  followed
     during  removal of  the  sheet  plastic barriers  isolating  a
     work area.

     01713 Project  Decontamination  Microfibers:   describes  the
     special  procedures   required   to  clean  an  area   of
     contamination  by asbestos  fibers  too small  to  be seen with
     an optical microscope.

     01714 Work Area Clearance:   describes the analytical methods
     used  to determine  if  the work area has  been  successfully
     cleaned of contamination.

     01701  Project Closeout:  details  the closeout procedures to
     end the project once  abatement work is  complete including
     final paperwork requirements.

Repair  and  Maintenance;     procedures  are  specified  in  the
following  sections.  Generally  these  involve  activities  where
asbestos fibers are collected at the point of  generation so that
enclosure of an area with plastic barriers is unnecessary:


               SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT     01013 - 5

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE  SPECIFICATION      August 12,  1988

     01527 Regulated Areas
     01529 Small-Scale Short-Duration Work
     01561 Worker  Protection -  Repair and Maintenance
     01562 Respiratory Protection
     01528 Entry Into Controlled Areas

                         THE FOLLOWING  IS  ONLY SAMPLE TEXT WHICH
                         MUST  BE REWRITTEN  FOR EACH  PROJECT OR
                         DELETED AS UNNECESSARY.

                    are being  issued  for bid  to  perform work at
                will  follow the work of this Contract.   Separate
           rk can  be summarized as follows:

        Placement of sprayed-on  fireproofing.
      Replacement of suspended acoustical ceilings.
     Replacement of lighting and associated wiring.
     New HVAC system including ductwork, diffusers and grills.
     New temperature controls  reusing  existing pneumatic lines.


PLAN OF ACTION;

Submit  a  detailed  plan  of  the procedures  proposed for  use in
complying with  the requirements of this specification.   Include
in the plan the location and layout of decontamination areas, the
sequencing of asbestos work, the interface of trades involved in
the performance of work, methods to  be  used to assure the safety
of  building  occupants and  visitors to  the site,  disposal  plan
including  location of  approved disposal  site,  and a  detailed
description of  the methods  to  be employed  to control pollution.
Expand upon the use of portable HEPA ventilation system, closing
out of the building's HVAC  system,  method  of removal to prohibit
visible emissions  in work area, and packaging of removed asbestos
debris.  The plan  must be approved  by  the  Owner's Representative
prior to commencement of  work.

INSPECTION;

Prior to commencement  of  work, inspect areas  in which  work  will
be  performed.     Prepare  a  listing  of  damage  to  structure,
surfaces,  equipment or of  surrounding properties which  could be
misconstrued as damage  resulting from  the  work.    Photograph or
videotape   existing   conditions   as   necessary  to   document
conditions.   Submit to  Owner's Representative  prior to  starting
work.
POTENTIAL ASBESTOS HAZARD:


               SUMMARY OF  WORK  -  ASBESTOS ABATEMENT      01013 - 6

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

The disturbance  or dislocation  of  asbestos-containing materials
may cause asbestos  fibers to  be  released into  the building's
atmosphere, thereby creating a potential health hazard to workmen
and  building  occupants.     Apprise  all  workers,  supervisory
personnel, subcontractors  and consultants who  will be at the job
site  of  vthe  seriousness  of  the   hazard and  of  proper  work
procedureaywh^Lch must be followed.

Where Jan  Jthe  performance  of   the work,  workers,  supervisory
          /subcontractors, or consultants may encounter, disturb,
          ise function in the immediate vicinity of any identified
         -containing   materials,   take  appropriate  continuous
          as  necessary  to  protect all building  occupants from the
potential hazard of exposure to airborne asbestos.   Such measures
shall  include  the procedures and methods  described  herein,  and
compliance  with  regulations  of  applicable  federal, state  and
local agencies.

STOP WORK;

If  the   Owner,   the   Owner's  Representative,   or  the  Project
Administrator presents a  written stop work order immediately and
automatically  stop  all   work.    Do  not  recommence  work  until
authorized in writing by Owner's Representative.

                         INFORMATION ON ASBESTOS TYPE AND CONTENT
                         IS IMPORTANT FOR THE CONTRACTOR TO KNOW.
                         THIS HELPS  THE CONTRACTOR  ESTIMATE  HOW
                         WELL THE MATERIAL WILL WET AND HENCE HOW
                         DUSTY THE  WORK IS  LIKELY TO BE.   THIS
                         AFFECTS  THE  TYPE   OF   RESPIRATORY
                         PROTECTION  REQUIRED  AND  MAN-HOURS  OF
                         EFFORT NEEDED FOR REMOVAL.
ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS;

The  following  asbestos-containing  materials  are  known  to  be
present at the worksite.  If any other materials are found, which
are suspected of  containing  asbestos,  notify immediately Owner's
Representative.

                         INSERT   A   LISTING   OF   ALL
                         ASBESTOS-CONTAINING  MATERIALS  EXPECTED
                         TO   BE  ENCOUNTERED  AT   EACH   WORK
                         LOCATION.   INCLUDE  THE TYPE  AND PERCENT
                         OF  ASBESTOS-CONTENT  FOR  EACH  SPECIFIC
                         BUILDING  MATERIAL  TO  BE  ABATED.    THE
                         "OTHER"  COMPONENTS"  MAY  BECOME  IMPOR-
                         TANT   IN  BUILDING  CLEARANCE.     THIS

              SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT      01013 - 7

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
                                           August  12,  1988
                         INFORMATION CAN HELP A LABORATORY IN ITS
                         ANALYSIS OF AIR SAMPLES.

                         IT  WOULD BE  HELPFUL  IF  A  COPY OF  ANY
                         SURVEY  REPORTS COULD BE  MADE  AVAILABLE
                         FOR REVIEW BY  THE  CONTRACTOR AT THE  SAM-
                         LE LOCATION AS THE CONTRACT  DOCUMENTS.

                         THE  FOLLOWING  IS  AN EXAMPLE  OF   THE
                         PRESENTATION  OF   INFORMATION  NEEDED.
                         REVISE AS REQUIRED TO SUITE  PROJECT.
Item
                  Other
                  Content
                                                   Components
BOI
INSULATION
Boiler:
     Surface Coat

     Base Coat

Boiler Breeching:
     Surface Coat
     Base Coat

Water Storage Tank:
     Surface Coat
     Base Coat
                  95% to 100% Chrysotile

                  60% to 65% Chrysotile
                  75% to 80% Chrysotile
                  75% to 80% Chrysotile
                  60% to 65% Chrysotile
                  60% to 65% Chrysotile
Rock Wool,
Refractory Binders
Refractory Binders
Gypsum Plaster
Refractory Binders
Refractory Binders
Refractory Binders
PIPE INSULATION;
Air Cell

Plaster Fittings,
Valves, Roof Drain
Bodies, etc.
                  45% to 50% Chrysotile

                  30% to 35% Chrysotile
Cellulose

Rockwool,
Gypsum

Plaster
ARCHITECTURAL SURFACES
Troweled-on
acoustical plaster
                  9%  to 10%  Chrysotile
Sand, Gypsum,
Plaster
               SUMMARY OF WORK  - ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT     01013 - 8

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12, 1988
FIREPROOFING
Spray«d-onx=x—v>         25% to 30% Chrysotile    Vermiculite,
fireproofn&r  /                                   Gypsum
           PSE OF PREMISES;

                         THE  FOLLOWING  ARTICLE IS  AN  EXAMPLE OF
                         SPECIFIC  REQUIREMENTS  RELATING  TO  THE
                         CONTRACTOR'S  USE   OF  THE   PREMISES.
                         PROVISIONS  SIMILAR   TO  THESE  ARE
                         NECESSARY WHEN THE PROJECT INVOLVES WORK
                         ON  AN  EXISTING  OCCUPIED  BUILDING  OR
                         SITE.

                         RETAIN   THE  FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPH  WHEN
                         PROJECT  IS  ON A VACANT  SITE OR  IN AN
                         UNOCCUPIED  BUILDING  BEING  RENOVATED
                         REVISE   AS   NECESSARY  BY  ADDING
                         REQUIREMENTS  TO  SUIT  SPECIAL  PROJECT
                         REQUIREMENTS.

General;   During the  entire construction period  the  Contractor
shall  have  the  exclusive  use of  the premises  for construction
operations,  including full use of the site.

                         DELETE   THE  PRECEDING  PARAGRAPH  AND
                         RETAIN  THE FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPH  IF  THE
                         SITE  IS  TO   BE  ACCESSIBLE   TO  OTHER
                         PARTIES, OR IF PORTIONS  OF AN EXISTING
                         BUILDING  BEING   RENOVATED ARE  TO  BE
                         OCCUPIED BY THE  OWNER OR OTHERS DURING
                         THE  CONSTRUCTION  PERIOD.    REVISE  AS
                         NECESSARY   TO  SUIT  SPECIAL   PROJECT
                         REQUIREMENTS.

General;  The  Contractor shall limit his  use of  the premises to
the worfc indicated,  so as to allow for Owner occupancy and use by
the public.

                         MODIFY   THE  FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPHS  AS
                         NECESSARY   TO  SUIT  SPECIAL   PROJECT
                         REQUIREMENTS.

Use of  the  Site;   Confine  operations at  the site to  the areas
permitted under  the Contract.  Portions of the site beyond areas

               SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT     01013 - 9

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988

on which  work is indicated are not to  be disturbed.  Conform to
site rules  and  regulations  affecting  the work  while engaged in
project construction.

                         THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS ARE EXAMPLES OF
                         SPECIAL PROJECT REQUIREMENTS.  MODIFY AS
                         NECESSARY TO  SUIT PROJECT  OR  DELETE IF
                 .        UNNECESSARY.

     Keep/^EE^isting  driveways and entrances  serving the  preaises
            ^nd  available to the  Owner and his  employees at all
              Do not  use these areas  for parking  or storage of
          fals.

        'not  unreasonably  encumber  the  site  with  materials or
     equipment.  Confine stockpiling of materials and location of
     storage sheds to the areas indicated.  If additional storage
     is necessary obtain and pay for such storage off site.

     Lock automotive  type vehicles,  such as  passenger  cars and
     trucks   and  other   mechanized   or  motorized  construction
     equipment,  when parked  and  unattended,  so  as to  prevent
     unauthorized use.   Do not leave  such vehicles or equipment
     unattended  with  the  motor  running  or  the ignition key in
     place or accessible to unauthorized persons.

                         RETAIN  AND   MODIFY  THE  FOLLOWING
                         PARAGRAPHS  WHEN  THE  WORK  INVOLVES  AN
                         EXISTING  OCCUPIED   BUILDING.     DELETE
                         THIS PARAGRAPH IN OTHER CASES.

Contractor's  Use of  the  Existing Building;   Maintain   existing
building  in  a  safe  and weathertight  condition throughout  the
construction  period.    Repair  damage  caused  by  construction
operations.     Take  all   precautions  necessary  to  protect  the
building and its occupants during the construction period.

                         THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS ARE EXAMPLES OF
                         TYPICAL  PROVISIONS   THAT  MIGHT   BE
                         ENCOUNTERED WHEN WORK IS PERFORMED ON AN
                         EXISTING OCCUPIED BUILDING.   THEY PLACE
                         SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS ON THE CONTRACTOR'S
                         USE OF THE  PREMISES.  DELETE UNNECESSARY
                         PROVISIONS.    ADD  NEW  PROVISIONS  OR
                         AMPLIFY THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS TO SUIT
                         PROJECT REQUIREMENTS.

     Keep public areas such as hallways, stairs,  elevator lobbies
     and toilet rooms free from accumulation of waste, rubbish or
     construction debris.

              SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT     01013 - 10

   Copyright  (c)  1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
 August 12, 1988
     Smoking  or open  fires will  not  be permitted  within  the
     building enclosure or on the premises.

                         COORDINATE THE FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPH  WITH
                         OTHER DIVISION-1  SECTIONS ON  TEMPORARY
                         FACILITIES.   MODIFY AS REQUIRED  TO  SUIT
                         PROJECT.
Toilet Room
                                  on  the
floor designated
               by  the  Contractor's  personnel,  use  of  existing
             /Within the  building,  by  the  Contractor  and  his
            el, will not be permitted.

                         COORDINATE THE  FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPH  WITH
                         DIVISION-1  SECTION   ON  TEMPORARY
                         ENCLOSURES  AND  DIVISION-14  SECTION  ON
                         ELEVATORS.    MODIFY  THE  PARAGRAPH  AS
                         APPROPRIATE TO SUIT PROJECT.   DELETE IF
                         PROVISIONS ARE INCLUDED ELSEWHERE,  OR IF
                         THE PROJECT DOES NOT  INVOLVE THE USE OF
                         ELEVATORS.

Use  of Existing  Elevators;   Except  for  the  Freight  Elevator
(Elevator No.	),  use of elevators by  the  Contractor will not be
permitted.   The Contractor will  be permitted to  use  the freight
elevator  for temporary  freight service and the transportation of
construction  personnel  during  the  construction  period.    This
elevator  must also be  available  to  the Owner  at  all times;
coordinate   freight  elevator  usage   with   the   Owner's
Representative.  Provide protective pads  for  the elevator cab and
other  appropriate  protective  measures for the car and  entrance
doors  and  frames.   During asbestos abatement  activities the car
is to  be protected  as  set forth  in the Division 1 Section  on
Temporary Enclosures.
OWNER OCCUPANCY;
                         THE  FOLLOWING  ARTICLE  CONTAINS  SAMPLE
                         PARAGRAPHS  THAT  DESCRIBE  REQUIREMENTS
                         NECESSARY  FOR  OWNER  OCCUPANCY  OF  THE
                         PREMISES  DURING  THE  ENTIRE  PERIOD  OF
                         CONSTRUCTION, OR PARTIAL OWNER OCCUPANCY
                         OF  COMPLETED   CONSTRUCTION   PRIOR  TO
                         SUBSTANTIAL COMPLETION.

                         RETAIN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH  WHEN THE
                         OWNER WILL OCCUPY THE  ENTIRE  PREMISES
                         DURING   CONSTRUCTION.    MODIFY   AS
                         NECESSARY TO SUIT PROJECT REQUIREMENTS.
              SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT
      01013 - 11
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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988


Full  Owner Occupancy;   The Owner  will  occupy the  site  and the
existing  building  during  the  entire  period of   construction.
Cooperate  fully  with  the  Owner  or  his  representative during
construction  operations to minimize conflicts and to  facilitate
Owner usage.   Perform  the  work  so as not  to  interfere with the
Owner's operation.

                         RETAIN  THE FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPH WHEN THE
                         OWNER WILL OCCUPY COMPLETED PORTIONS OF
                         THE   BUILDING   PRIOR  TO   SUBSTANTIAL
                         COMPLETION.  MODIFY AS NECESSARY TO SUIT
             >           PROJECT REQUIREMENTS.

         )w/ier Occupancy;   The Owner reserves  the right to place
             equipment  as necessary in areas  of  the building in
        til   asbestos  abatement   and  project  decontamination
            have  been  completed,  and to  occupy  such  completed
       prior   to   substantial   completion,   provided  that  such
ocvSp'ancy does not substantially interfere with completion of the
work.  Such placing  of equipment and partial occupancy shall not
constitute acceptance of the work or any part of the work.

                         IF   THE   WORK   INCLUDES  GENERAL
                         CONSTRUCTION  BEYOND ASBESTOS ABATEMENT,
                         REFER  TO  A.I.A.   SERVICE     CORP.
                         "MASTERSPEC-BASIC" SECTION  01010,  CSI'S
                         "SPECTEXT" OR   OTHER  COMPETENT  GUIDE
                         SPECIFICATION  FOR  SPECIFIC FORMAT  AND
                         LANGUAGE.

SUBMITTALS

Before the  Start  of  Work;   Submit the following to the  Owner's
Representative  for  review.     Do   not begin  work  until  these
submittals  are returned  with   Owner's  Representative's  action
stamp indicating  that the submittal is returned for unrestricted
use or final-but-restricted use.

     Plan  of  Action;   Submit as  a written report  in the  same
     manner as product data.

     Inspection;  Report on inspection carried out as required by
     this  section.    Include  copies of  all  photographs,  video
     tapes, etc.  Submit in the same manner as  product data.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS  (Not Applicable)

PART 3 - EXECUTION (Not Applicable


               SUMMARY OF WORK -  ASBESTOS ABATEMENT     01013 - 12

   Copyright  (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL
ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
           ION - 01013
August 12, 1988
              SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT    01013 - 13



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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988


SECTIQNyfflJ&il - TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES
PART,
ROTATED DOCUMENTS;
Drawings  and general  provisions  of Contract,  including General
and  Supplementary  Conditions and  other  Division-1 Specification
Sections, apply to work of this section.
SUBMITTALS;

Before  Start  of  Work  submit  the  following  to  the  Owner's
Representative  for  review.    Do  not   begin work  until  these
subraittals are returned  with the Owner's Representative's action
stamp indicating that  the  submittal is  returned for unrestricted
use.

          DELETE FOLLOWING  IF STRIPABLE  COATINGS  ARE  NOT  TO BE
          USED.

Stripable Coatings;  Submit following:

     Product description including major components and solvents.

     Test   report  on   ASTM  E84   test   of  surface   burning
     characteristics.

     Manufacturer's installation instructions.  Indicate portions
     applicable to the project  and  selected assemblies where the
     manufacturer offers alternatives.

     Material Safety Data Sheet:  Submit the Material Safety Data
     Sheet,   or equivalent,   in  accordance  with  the OSHA Hazard
     Communication  Standard  (29 CFR  1910.1200)  for  stripable
     coating material  proposed  for use  on the work.   Include a
     separate  attachment  for each sheet  indicating  the specific
     worker  protective  equipment  proposed  for  use  with  the
     material indicated.

Spray Cement:  Submit  following:

     Product description including major components and solvents.

     Manufacturer's installation instructions.  Indicate portions
     applicable to the project.


                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES                01526-1

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National  Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988

     MaterialvEatetv Data Sheet:  Submit the Material Safety  Data
              i^ equivalent,in accordance  with the  OSHA Hazard
              ition  Standard  (29 CFR 1910.1200)  for spray cement
              /proposed  for use on the work.   Include a  separate
                 for each  sheet indicating the  specific worker
            :iv«  equipment proposed  for  use  with  the   material
          ited.

Sheet Plastic;  For fire retardant plastic submit test reports on
NFPA 701 t«st.

Signs;  Submit saaplea of signs to be used.


PART 2 - PRODUCTS


SHEET PLASTIC;

          EDIT  THE  FOLLOWING  LIST  TO ELIMINATE THOSE  TYPES OF
          PLASTIC NOT USED.

          FOLLOWING IS MOST  LIKELY TO  BE  FOUND ON THE JCB IN THE
          ABSENCE OF A MORE SPECIFIC REQUIREMENT.

Polyethylene  Sheet:   A single  polyethylene film  in  the largest
sheet size  possible to minimize seams,  4.0 or  6.0  nil  thick as
indicated, clear, frosted, or black as indicated.

          FOLLOWING  IS  A GOOD GENERAL   PRECAUTION  AND SHOULD
          ALWAYS BE USED  IN AREAS WHERE  THERE  COULD BE EXITING
          DIFFICULTIES IN  CASE  OF  EMERGENCY (WORK AREAS ABOVE OR
          BELOW GRADE  OR  INTERIOR  SPACES WITH  LIMITED  EXITS) OR
          THERE IS HOT EQUIPMENT OR A POTENTIAL FOR FIRE, SUCH AS
          IN  A BOILER  ROOM.   FIRE  RETARDANT SHEET PLASTIC IS
          CONSIDERABLY MORE EXPENSIVE THAN STANDARD PLASTIC.

Polyethylene  Sheet:    Provide  flame-resistant  polyethylene   film
that  conforms to  requirements set  forth  by  the  National   Fire
Protection  Association  Standard 701,  Small Scale  Fire  Test for
Flame-Resistant  Textiles  and  Films.     Provide  largest   size
possible to minimize  seams,  4.0 or 6.0 mils  thick as indicated,
frosted or black as indicated.

          REINFORCED  PLASTIC  SHOULD   BE  USED  IN   EXTERIOR
          APPLICATIONS WHERE THE SHEET IS EXPECTED TO BE  STRESSED
          BY WINDS OR IN ANY LOCATION WHERE HIGH SKIN STRENGTH IS
          REQUIRED.    FOLLOWING IS AN  EXAMPLE  OF  LANGUAGE WHICH
          CAN BE USED.  EDIT TO SUIT PROJECT REQUIREMENTS.
                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES                01526-2

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12,  1988
                                                          . \
Reinforced  Polyethylene Sheet:    Where  plastic sheet  constitutes
the only barrier between the work area and the building  exterior,
provide  translucent,  nylon  reinforced  or   woven  polyethylene,
laminated,  flame resistant,  polyethylene film that  conforms  to
requirements  set   forth  by   the  National  Fire  Protection
Association  Standard  701,  Small  Scale  Fire Test   for Flame-
           extiles  and Films.   Provide  largest size possible  to
minimtre\>seains,  4.O or 6.0 mil  thick  as indicated,  frosted  or
         indicated.
          COA/TINGS;
          DELETE  THIS  ENTIRE SUB-SECTION  IF STRIPPABLE COATINGS
          (SPRAY PLASTIC) IS NOT TO BE USED.

          STRIPPABLE COATINGS ARE  RELATIVELY NEW MATERIALS WHICH
          ARE  DESIGNED TO ADHERE  TO  SURFACES SUCH  AS  WALLS AND
          CEILINGS AND THEN  BE  REMOVE BY PEELING OFF.  CARE MUST
          BE  EXERCISED  IN   SELECTING  FINISHES  TO  RECEIVE THIS
          TREATMENT.   SUBSTRATES  WITH A  LOOSE  FINISH  CAN LOSE
          PART  OF THE FINISH  WHEN  THE  COATING IS  PEELED OFF.
          THE  MATERIAL MAY NOT   PEEL  CLEANLY  FROM  TEXTURED
          SURFACES, FABRICS OR CARPET.

          STRIPPABLE COATINGS PLASTIC ARE  EFFECTIVE IN CLEANING
          MANY   SURFACES   AND   MAY   FACILITATE   PROJECT
          DECONTAMINATION.

          IT IS A WISE PRECAUTION  TO  TEST THE STRIPPABLE COATING
          ON  THE  SUBSTRATES  INVOLVED  IN  THE  PROJECT  DURING
          DESIGN.

S^rippable Coatings;  Provide strippable coatings in aerosol cans
or premixed for  spray  application  formulated to  adhere gently to
surfaces and remove  cleanly  by  peeling off  at the completion of
the work.

Provide only water-based latex materials.

Provide  materials  manufactured  for  the  specific  application
required.

     Wall coating: designed to be easy to remove.

     Floor  coating:    designed   to provide  a tough film  which
     resists spread of water beneath plastic layer.

     Window coating:   recommended  by  the manufacturer for use on
     windows.   Supply materials  that are designed to be stable on

                      TEMPORARY  ENCLOSURES                01526-3

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National  Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

     glass in sunlight and resist the transmission of ultraviolet
     radiation.


Fire  Safetyr^V >Provide  materials  that   meet   the  following


              or while being installed:

             not create combustible vapors,

          Rave no flash point

          Are not noxious

          Department of Transportation category of non-flammable.

     When dry, material must have a  Class A rating as a building
     material and meet the  following requirements when tested in
     accordance with ASTM  E-84:

          Flame Spread no greater than 20

          Fuel Contributed 0

          Smoke Developed no more than 110


Deliver materials  to the job  site  in  unopened,  factory-labeled
containers.

Available   Manufacturers:     Subject  to   compliance   with
requirements,  manufacturers  offering   products   which  may  be
incorporated  in  the work include,  but  are  not  limited  to,  the
following:

                         RETAIN ABOVE FOR NONPROPRIETARY OR BELOW
                         FOR   SEMIPROPRIETARY  SPECIFICATION.
                         REFER TO  DIVISION-1  SECTION  "PRODUCTS
                         AND SUBSTITUTIONS."

Manufacturer:   Subject  to compliance with  requirements,  provide
products of  one of the Following:

                         THE  FOLLOWING  IS  A  LIST  OF  FIRMS
                         BELIEVED TO MANUFACTURE THIS  PRODUCT.
                         NO   MANUFACTURERS   HAVE    BEEN
                         INTENTIONALLY  EXCLUDED  AND  NO  ATTEMPT
                         HAS   BEEN   MADE  TO  EVALUATE   THESE
                         PRODUCTS.    ADDITIONAL   SUPPLIERS  MAY

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES                01526-4

   Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988

                         EXIST.  PRODUCT LITERATURE SHOULD BE USE
                         TO EVALUATE THESE PRODUCTS AND TO VERIFY
                         THAT  LISTED  PRODUCTS  COMPLY WITH  THE
                         SPECIFICATIONS  AND  MEET   PROJECT
                         REQUIREMENTS.     VERIFY  THAT   PRODUCTS
                         INDICATED ARE  STILL  BEING MANUFACTURED.
                         EDIT OR  ADD TO THE  LIST AS APPROPRIATE
                         TO THE PROJECT REQUIREMENTS.

                                             Spray Poly

               S, LA 70189-0799
MTSCEHArfEOUS MATERIALS;
Duct  Tape:  Provide duct  tape in 2"  or 3" widths  as indicated,
with  an adhesive  which  is  formulated  to stick  aggressively to
sheet polyethylene.

Sprav Cement:   Provide spray  adhesive  in aerosol  cans  which is
specifically  formulated  to  stick   tenaciously  to   sheet
polyethylene.


PART 3 - EXECUTION
SEQUENCE OF WORK:

Carry  out work  of  this section  sequentially.   Complete  each
activity before proceeding to the next.


GENERAL;

Work Area:   the  location where asbestos-abatement  work occurs.
It is  a  variable of the extent of work of  the  Contract.   It may
be a portion of  a room,  a single  room,  or a complex of rooms.  A
"Work Area" is considered contaminated  during the work,  and nust
be isolated from  the  balance  of the  building,  and decontaminated
at the completion of the asbestos-control  work.

Completely isolate the Work Area from other parts of the building
so as  to  prevent asbestos-containing  dust or debris  from passing
beyond  the isolated  area.    Should  the  area   beyond  the  Work
Area(s)  become  contaminated   with  asbestos-containing  dust  or
debris  as a   consequence of  the  work,   clean  those  areas  in
accordance  with  the  procedures  indicated  in  Section  01711.

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES                01526-5

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

Perform  all  such required  cleaning  or  decontamination  at  no
additional cost to owner.

Place  all tools,  scaffolding,  staging,  etc,  necessary for the
work in the area  to be  isolated  prior to completion of Work Area
isolatiom. V

      ^<>
         all  removable  furniture   that  has  been  designated
                   by   the   Contract   Documents  or  owner ' s
      ¥ntative.   Also  remove  uncontaminated equipment,  and/or
     ries  from  the   Work  Area   before   commencing  work,   or
    jletely cover with two (2)  layers of polyethylene sheeting, at
   ist 6 mil in thickness, securely taped in place with duct tape.
Such furniture and equipment shall be considered outside the work
area unless covering plastic or seal is breached.

Disable  ventilating  systems   or any  other system  bringing  air
into or  out of the Work Area.   Disable system  by disconnecting
wires,  removing  circuit  breakers,  by  lockable  switch  or  other
positive means that will prevent accidental premature restarting
of equipment.

Lockout power  to Work Area  by  switching off all  breakers serving
power or lighting circuits  in work area.   Label  breakers with
tape over breaker with notation "DANGER circuit being worked on".
Lock  panel  and  have  all  keys  under  control  of  Contractor's
Superintendent of Owner's designated Representative.

Lockout  power to  circuits  running through  work  area  wherever
possible by switching off all  breakers or  removing fuses serving
these circuits.    Label  breakers   with  tape  over  breaker  with
notation "DANGER circuit being worked on".   Lock  panel  and have
all keys under control  of contractor's superintendent or owner's
designated representative.   If circuits cannot  be shut  down  for
any  reason,  label  at  intervals  4'-011  on  center  with  tags
reading,  "DANGER  live  electric circuit.   Electrocution  hazard."
Label circuits in  hidden locations but which  may  be affected by
the work in a similar manner.

Inspection  Windows;    Install  inspection   windows  in  locations
shown on the plans or as directed  by the Owner's Representative.
Each  inspection  window  is to have  a  24" X 24"  viewing  area
fabricated  from  1/4" acrylic  or polycarbonate  sheet.   Install
window with  top at  6 '-6"  above  floor height in a  manner that
provides unobstructed vision  from  outside  to  inside of  the Work
Area.   Protect window from damage  from scratching,  dirt  or  any
coatings used  during  the work.   A sufficient number of windows
are to be installed to provide observation  of all portions of  the
Work  Area  that  can  be  made visible  from  adjacent  areas.
Inspection windows  that  open  into uncontrolled  area are  to be

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES                 01526-6

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION       August 12,  1988

covered with a removable plywood hatch  secured by lock  and  key.
Provide keys to Owner's Representative for all  such locks.

EMERGENCY EXITS;

Provide  emergency  exits and  emergency  lighting  as  set  forth
below:

Emergency ExitA;\  At each existing exit  door from the Work  Area
provide the .tejjlpWinQ means for emergency exiting:
                  door so that it is secure  from outside the Work
              permits exiting from the Work  Area.

          "outline  of door on Primary  and Critical Barriers with
          lescent paint at least 1" wide.  Hang a razor knife on a
     string  beside   outline.     Arrange  Critical  and  Primary
     barriers  so  that they  can be  easily  cut with  one  pass of
     razor  knife.    Paint  words "EMERGENCY  EXIT"  inside outline
     with luminescent paint in letters at least one foot high and
     2" thick.

                         FOLLOWING ARE VERY  GENERAL AND SHOULD BE
                         REVISED   FOR  SPECIFIC  PROJECT
                         REQUIREMENTS.    IT  MAY  BE  POSSIBLE  TO
                         USE  EXISTING BUILDIMG  EXIT  LIGHTS  AND
                         EMERGENCY   LIGHTING.     IF  SO  REVISE
                         FOLLOWING   TO  REQUIRE   CONTINUED
                         OPERATION   AND  PROTECTION  OF   THIS
                         EQUIPMENT.

     Provide lighted EXIT sign at each exit.

     Provide battery-operated emergency lighting that switches en
     automatically in the event of a power failure.
CONTROL ACCESS;
                         THE FIRST STEP  IN AN ASBESTOS ABATEMENT
                         PROJECT IS  TO ISOLATE THE  AREA  SO THAT
                         ONLY TRAINED WORKERS CAN ENTER AND LEAVE
                         THROUGH A CONTROLLED ENTRANCE.

                         THIS SUBSECTION  DESCRIBES  THE  MEASURES
                         NECESSARY TO  ACCOMPLISH  THIS ISOLATION.
                         THE  ISOLATION IS  ACCOMPLISHED ONLY  AT
                         THE COST  OF EASE OF ACCESS AND  EXITING
                         FROM THE BUILDING.
                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES                01526-7

   Copyright (c)  1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SEMI*?CATION      August 12, 1988

                         IT  I^VERY POSSIBLE THAT  THE WORK AREA
                                   COULD EFFECT EMERGENCY EXITING
                               >RTIONS OF THE BUILDING BEYOND THE
                                     IT MAY BE NE!Z£S~SARY TO CLOSE
                              THESE  PORTIONS  OF THE/./BUILDING TO
                           ?OID A LIFE SAFETY HAZARD FOR OCCUPANTS
                         OF THESE AREAS.

                         THE FOLLOWING  COULD  AFFECT EXITING FROM
                         THE  BUILDING  AND   CERTAINLY  AFFECTS
                         EXITING  FROM  THE   WORK   AREA.     THIS
                         CHANGE IN  EXITING SHOULD  BE REVIEWED TO
                         INSURE THAT IT DOES NOT  VIOLATE  LOCAL
                         BUILDING CODES  OR THE ANSI  LIFE SAFETY
                         CODE.   IT  MAY  BE  NECESSARY TO CONSTRUCT
                         TEMPORARY EXITS.  THERE  MAY BE SPECIFIC
                         BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS GOVERNING THE
                         LAYOUT AND CONSTRUCTION OF THESE EXITS.

                         ON INDUSTRIAL SITES WHERE THE ACTIVITIES
                         OF  ALL   PERSONS   IN   THE  AREA   ARE
                         CONTROLLED  IT  MAY  BE  UNNECESSARY  TO
                         CONTROL  ACCESS BEYOND  THE  ERECTION  OF
                         WARNING SIGNS.

Isolate the Work Area to prevent entry by building occupants into
Work Area or  surrounding  controlled areas.   Accomplish isolation
by the following:

                         FOLLOWING ARE  EXAMPLES  EDIT AS REQUIRED
                         BY PROJECT SPECIFICS.

                         CHAINING EXIT DOORS IS A CLEAR VIOLATION
                         OF EXITING  REQUIREMENTS  OF ANY BUILDING
                         OR LIFE SAFETY CODE.   USE FOLLOWING ONLY
                         IF ALTERNATIVE EXITING IS PROVIDED .

                         IF  DOORS  MUST  BE  CHAINED  SHUT  SUCH
                         SPECIFIC DOORS  SHOULD BE CALLED OUT OR
                         LABELED ON DRAWINGS.

Submit  to  Owner's  Representative   a  list of doors and  other
openings that must be secured  to isolate Work Area.   Include on
list notation if door or opening is in an indicated exit route.

     After  receiving  written  authorization  from  the  Owner's
     Representative  lock  all doors  into Work  Area,  or,  if  doors
     cannot be  locked,  chain shut.   Cover any  signs that direct
     emergency exiting, either outside or inside of Work Area, to
     locked doors.   Do not obstruct doors  required for emergency

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES                01526-8

   Copyright  (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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  Af
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

     exits from Work Area or from building.     v

                         FOLLOWING  IS  APPROPRIATE   WHERE  NON-
                         COMBUSTIBLE  CONSTRUCTION  IS XSEQUIRED.
                         IN  SOME CIRCUMSTANCES,  SUCH AS  SMALL
                         CLOSURES IN  ONE  STORY BUILDINGS,  LESS
                >         EXPENSIVE  WOOD  CONSTRUCTION  MIGHT  BE
                         SUBSTITUTED

            receiving  written  authorization  from  the  Owner's
           entative: construct partitions  or  closures across any
           ig into Work Area.   Partitions are to be a  minimum of 8
          high.

                         CHOOSE ONE  OF THE THREE BELOW AND DELETE
                         THE OTHER TWO.   MAKE SELECTION BASED ON
                         LOCAL   FIRE  SAFETY   AND   BUILDING
                         REGULATIONS.

          Fabricate partitions  from  3-5/8",  25 gage  metal  studs
          with 1/2" gypsum board on both  faces.  Brace at  4'-0"
          on center.

          Fabricate partitions  from  2X4 wood studs  with  1/2"
          plywood  on both faces.   Brace at 4'-0" on center.

          Fabricate partitions  from 2X4 wood studs  with  1/2"
          plywood  on both  faces.   Brace at 4f-0H on  center.  Use
          only fire retardant treated  wood.
                      DELETE  FOLLOWING
                      PARTITIONS.
                                            IF  NO   FABRIC   TYPE
  Fabric-type  folding  partitions:     provide  temporary
  partitions  across  fabric-type  folding  doors  or  partitions
  into Work Area.

                      REVISE FOLLOWING AS REQUIRED  TO PROVIDE
                      SECURE  LOCKING  OF  SPECIFIC  PARTITION
                      INVOLVED.    DELETE IF  NO  RIGID FOLDING
                      PARTITIONS ARE USED.

  Rigid-type  folding  partitions:   remove  operating bar  and
  latch  on  clean  side  of  folding partitions.   Fasten  down
  operating lever with  hook and chain or other  secure  device
  on Work  Area side.   At  completion of  all abatement  work
  reinstall bar and latch and adjust for proper operation.

                      DELETE THE FOLLOWING  IF  THERE ARE  NO
                      ELEVATORS.    REVISE   AS  NECESSARY  FOR

                   TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES                01526-9

Copyright (c)  1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988

                         PROJECT SPECIFICS.   ELEVATOR LOCKOUT  IN
                         MANY  INSTANCES  IS  ACCOMPLISHED  BY THE
                         OWNER  RATHER THAN  THE CONTRACTOR.    IN
                         HIGH  RISE  BUILDINGS  MORE  DETAIL  WILL
                         FREQUENTLY BE REQUIRED.  COORDINATE  WITH
                         SECTION 01013 THAT DESCRIBES THE OWNER'S
                         AND CONTRACTOR'S USE OF ELEVATORS.

     ModJ&ryX^levator controls  to prevent elevators from stopping
     at^ptojs  in  Work  Areas.   This work  is  to be performed  by a
           fied elevator technician.

                         FOLLOWING  IS  EXAMPLE  LANGUAGE TO  USE
                         WHERE DOORS  THAT ARE NEEDED FOR EXITING
                         MUST BE SECURED.   REVISE AS APPROPRIATE
                         OR DELETE IF THERE ARE NO DOORS INTO THE
                         Work  Area.    A DETERMINATION  SHOULD  BE
                         MADE ABOUT EXITING REQUIREMENTS FROM THE
                         Work  Area.     THE  FOLLOWING SHOULD  BE
                         EDITED AS APPROPRIATE TO PERMIT ADEQUATE
                         EXITING  AND  MINIMIZE  THE  NEED  FOR
                         REPLACEMENT OF LOCKSETS.

     Replace passage sets on doors required for exiting from  Work
     Area  with temporary locksets  for duration  of  the project.
     Use entry type  locksets that  are key lockable from one  side
     and always operable  from  inside.  Install locksets with key
     side  in  stair tower  and  escape  side  toward Work  Area.
     Provide one  key to Owner  and  maintain one key in clean  room
     of decontamination unit.   After meeting Contractor, release
     criteria  set  forth  in Section 01714  Work  Area  clearance
     reinstall  original  passage  sets  and  adjust  for  proper
     operation.

Locked Access;   Arrange Work  Area so that the  only access  into
Work Area  is through  lockable  doors to  personnel  and equipment
decontamination units.

                         CHOOSE  ONE  OR  A  COMBINATION  OF  THE
                         FOLLOWING TWO PARAGRAPHS.

                         USE  FOLLOWING  IF  THERE ARE  NO  DOORS
                         WHICH   CAN   BE   USED  FOR  CONTROLLING
                         ACCESS.

     Install temporary doors with entrance type locksets that are
     key  lockable  from  the   outside  and always  unlocked  and
     operable from the inside.   Do not use deadbolts or padlocks.

                         USE  FOLLOWING  IF  THERE  ARE  EXISTING

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-10

   Copyright (c)   1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
      August 12, 1988
                         DOORS  WHICH  CAN
                         ACCESS.
BE  USED  TO  CONTROL
                 ;ksets  or  passage  sets  on  doors  leading  to
              Lnation  units  with temporary  locksets for duration
              sroject.   Remove  any deadbolts  or padlocks.   Use
                 locksets  that are key  lockable  front outside and
             unlocked and  operable from  inside.   After meeting
          factor  release criteria  set  forth in Section 01714 Work
           Clearance reinstall  original  locks,  passage  sets and
     locksets and adjust for proper operation.

Provide  one  key   Cor  each  door  to   Owner,  and   Owner's
Representative   and  maintain  one  key   in  clean   room  of
decontamination unit  (3 total).

visual Barrier: Where the Work Area is immediately adjacent to or
within view of occupied areas, provide a visual  barrier of opaque
polyethylene  sheeting at  least 6  mil  in thickness so  that   the
work  procedures  are  not  visible  to  building occupants.   Where
this visual barrier would block natural light, substitute frosted
or  woven  rip-stop  sheet  plastic  in  locations  approved  by the
Owner's Representativa.

                         CHOOSE ONE  OF  THE TWO  SIGNAGE SCHEMES
                         BELOW.

                         FOLLOWING IS APPROPRIATE FOR INDUSTRIAL
                         SETTINGS  OR  NORMALLY  UNOCCUPIED  AREAS
                         SUCH  AS   SCHOOLS  DURING  THE SUMMER  OR
                         CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION SITES.

Provide_Warninq_Siqns at  each  locked door leading to  Work  Area
reading as follows:
                         MODIFY LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS  DEPENDING
                         UPON LOCALITY

     Print text in both English and Spanish:

Legend                               Notation

KEEP OUT                          3"  Sans S«rif Gothic or Block

BEYOND THIS POINT                 1"  Sans Serif Gothic or Block

ASBESTOS ABATEMENT WORK           1"  Sans Serif Gothic or Block

IN PROGRESS                       l"  Sans Serif Gothic or Block

BREATHING ASBESTOS DUST MAY BE    14  Point Gothic

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-11

   Copyright (c)  1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988

HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH
                         FOLLOWING   IS  MORE  APPROPRIATE  IN
                         SENSITIVE  LOCATIONS  SUCH  AS  OCCUPIED
             '            BUILDINGS.

        Wa'rning_Signs  at  each  locked  door leading  to Work Area
        as follows:
                                     Notation

KEEP OUT                          3" Sans Serif Gothic or Block

CONSTRUCTION                      1" Sans Serif Gothic or Block

WORK AREA                         1" Sans Serif Gothic or Block
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING REQUIRED      14 Point Gothic
BEYOND THIS POINT
Immediately  inside door  and outside  critical  barriers  post an
approximately  20  inch  by  14  inch  manufactured  caution   sign
displaying the following legend with letter sizes and styles  of a
visibility required by 29 CFR 1926:

LEGEND

                              DANGER

                             ASBESTOS

                  CANCER  AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD
         RESPIRATORS  AND  PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ARE REQUIRED
                           IN THIS AREA

Provide  spacing  between  respective  lines  at  least equal  to the
height of the respective upper line.


ALTERNATE METHODS OF ENCLOSURE;

                         EDIT  FOLLOWING   IF   SECTION  01632  ON
                         PRODUCTS  AND  SUBSTITUTIONS  IS  OMITTED
                         FROM THE SPECIFICATION.

Alternate methods of containing the Work Area may be submitted to
the  Owner's  Representative  for  approval  in  accordance  with

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-12

   Copyright (c)  1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988

procedures  set  forth in Section  01632  Product Substitution.  Do
not  proceed  with  any  such  u«thod(s)  without  prior  written
approval oA the Owner's Representative.


                WORKER PROTECTION;
         roceeding  beyond  this  point  in  providing  Temporary
        es:

     Provide Worker Protection per Section 01560

     Provide Respiratory Protection per Section 01562

     Provide Personnel Decontamination Unit per Section 01563


CRITICAL BARRIERS;

Completely  Separate the  Work Area  from  other  portions  of the
building,  and  the  outside by  closing  all  openings  with sheet
plastic  barriers at  least 6 mil  in  thickness,  or  by  sealing
cracks leading out of Work Area with duct tape.

Individually seal all  ventilation  openings (supply and exhaust) ,
lighting  fixtures,   clocks,   doorways,  windows,  convectors  and
speakers, and  other openings into  the Work Area  with duct tape
alone or with  polyethylene sheeting  at least  6 nil in thickness,
taped securely in place with  duct  tape.   Maintain seal until all
work including Project Decontamination is completed.   Take care
in sealing  of  lighting fixtures  to  avoid melting  or burning of
sheeting.

Provide  Sheet  Plastic barriers  at least  6  nil   in  thickness as
required to seal openings completely  from the  Work Area into
adjacent areas.  Seal the perimeter of all sheet plastic barriers
with duct tape or spray cement.

Mechanically Support sheet plastic  independently  of duct tape or
spray cement seals so that seals do not support the weight of the
plastic.   Following are  acceptable  methods of supporting sheet
plastic  barriers.   Alternative  support methods  may be  used if
approved in writing  by the Owner's Representative.

                         FOLLOWING  ARE  EXAMPLES.     EDIT  AND
                         INDICATE  SPECIFIC  METHODS  OF  SUPPORT
                         APPROPRIATE   TO   PROJECT  REQUIREMENTS.
                         METHOD USED SHOULD PREVENT THE WEIGHT OF
                         PLASTIC FROM BEING CARRIED  BY ONLY DUCT
                         TAPE OR SPRAY  CEMENT.

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-13

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National  Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988


               luares  6" x  6H  x 3/8" held  in place  with  one 6d
            masonry nail  or electo-galvanized common nail driven
            i 'center  of the plywood  and duct tape  on plastic so
          (plywood clamps  plastic  to the  wall.    Locate plywood
           »s  at  each  end,  corner  and  at  maximum  4  feet  on
        ktere.

     Nylon or  polypropylene  rope  or  wire   with  a  maximum
     unsupported  span  of  10   feet,  minimum 1/4"   in  diameter
     suspended between  supports securely  fastened on either side
     of opening at maximum 1 foot below ceiling.   Tighten rope so
     that  it  has 2" maximum dip.   Drape plastic  over rope from
     outside  Work Area so that a  two foot long  flap of plastic
     extends over rope into Work Area.  Staple or wire plastic to
     itself 1"  below  rope at  maximum  6" on centers to  form a
     sheath over  rope.   Lift flap and seal to ceiling with duct
     tape or spray cement.  Seal loop at bottom of flap with duct
     tape.   Erect entire assembly so  that   it  hangs vertically
     without a "shelf" upon which debris could collect.

Provide Pressure Differential System per Section 01513.

Clean  housings  and  ducts of  all  overspray  materials  prior  to
erection of any Critical Barrier that will restrict access.


PREPARE AREA:

Scaffolding:   If fixed  scaffolding  is  to   be  used  to  provide
access  HEPA  vacuum   and  wet  clean  area prior to  scaffolding
installation.

Remove  all electrical  and  mechanical  items,  such  as  lighting
fixtures,  clocks,  diffusers,  registers, escutcheon  plates,  etc.
which  cover any  part  of  the  surface  to be  worked  en  with the
work.

                         THE LAST  SENTENCE  BELOW IS  A FALL BACK
                         WHICH SHOULD BE  DELETED IF NEW FINISHES
                         ARE TO BE PROVIDED.

Remove all general construction items such as cabinets, casework,
door and window trim,  moldings, ceilings,  trim,  etc., which cover
the surface of the work as required  to  prevent interference with
the work.  Clean,  decontaminate and reinstall  all such materials,
upon completion of all removal work with materials, finishes, and
workmanship to match existing installations before start of work.

                         BELOW IS  A  GOOD PRECAUTION.   NOTE THAT

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-14

   Copyright  (c)  1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988

                         THIS  PARAGRAPH  REQUIRES  THE INCLUSION
                         AND  EDITING  OF  SECTION  01712   IN  THE
                         SPECIFICATION.

Clean./WT'^ontaninated furniture, equipment, and  or supplies  with
a HEPX/VfAltered  vacuum cleaner or  by  wet cleaning, as specified
      "on  01712 Cleaning and  Decontamination Procedures, prior
       kg  moved  or covered.  All  equipment furniture,  etc. is to
             contaminated  unless  specifically  declared  as
  ^contaminated  on  the  drawings  or in  writing  by  the   Owner's
     •sentative.

                         FOLLOWING  PREVENTS  THE   SPREAD  OF
                         CONTAMINATION  DUE  TO THE  BELLOWS-LIKE
                         PUMPING  ACTION  SOMETIMES  OBSERVED IN
                         SHEET PLASTIC BARRIERS.

Clean All  Surfaces In Wprk Area with a HEPA filtered vacuum or by
wet wiping prior to the installation of primary barrier.
PRIMARY BARRIER;

Protect building and other  surfaces  in  the Work Area from damage
from water and high humidity or from contamination frore asbestos-
containing  debris,  slurry  or  high airborne  fiber  levels  by
covering with a primary barrier as described below.

                         THE MEASURES  TAKEN TO  PROTECT  BUILDING
                         SURFACES   WILL   ALSO   DAMAGE   THEM.
                         STRIPPABLE  COATINGS  MAY  REMOVE  LOOSE
                         PAINT.   DUCT  TAPE AND  SPRAY  GLUE LEAVE
                         RESIDUES AND ALSO  PULL  OFF  LOOSE PAINT.
                         MECHANICAL  FASTENING OF  SHEET  PLASTIC
                         LEAVES  HOLES.     THE  REPAIR  OF  THIS
                         UNAVOIDABLE DAMAGE SHOULD BE  DEALT WITH
                         DURING  PROJECT DESIGN.   THE SCOPE  OF
                         WORK  FOR  THE  CONTRACTOR  SHOULD  CLEARLY
                         INDICATE WHETHER  REPAIR WORK IS  A PART
                         OF THE  ABATEMENT  CONTRACT  OR IS  BEING
                         DONE  LATER  AS  A   PART  OF  A  RENOVATION
                         PROJECT.

                         AS  A   GENERAL   RULE   IT  IS  PRUDENT  TO
                         ASSUME THAT ALL PAINTED SURFACES (EXCEPT
                         FOR HIGH  PERFORMANCE  COATING  SUCH  AS
                         EPOXY  OR COLD  GLAZED  CEMENTS)  WILL HAVE
                         TO BE  REPAINTED.   A  DECISION ABOUT WHO
                         WILL  PROVIDE THIS REPAINTING SHOULD  BE
                         MADE DURING DESIGN.

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-15

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988


                         USE   EITHER   THE  SECTION  BELOW   ON
                         STRIPPABLE COATING  OR THE ONE  ON SHEET
                         PLASTIC   DEPENDING   ON  THE   TYPE   OF
                         PRIMARY BARRIERS TO BE USED.

          A               DELETE  THE   FOLLOWING   SECTION   ON
          \\  >           STRIPPABLE  COATINGS   IF   THE  PRIMARY
        ^V             BARRIERS ARE TO BE SHEET PLASTIC.

           coating;   Protect  surfaces  in the  Work Area  with  a
         e coating.   Perform all work in  strict  compliance with
        urer ' s  instructions.   Carry  out  work  in the  following
     Inspect;  Before  start  of  coating  work  inspect all surfaces
     to be coated.  Report on any surfaces that nay be damaged by
     the  material  or  any  condition   that  nay  interfere  with
     adhesion  of  the  coating  to  a   surface  to  the  Owner's
     Representative before application  of coating.

     Photograph or videotape existing damage  to affected surfaces
     and submit documentation to Owner's Representative.

                         FOLLOWING  IS   A  CATCHALL.    IT  IS  FAR
                         PREFERABLE  TO  TEST  THE MATERIAL  FIRST
                         AND  DESIGN THE  PROJECT  ACCORDINGLY.
                         THE  FOLLOWING  PROCEDURE   MAY  SAVE  A
                         DISASTER, BUT  IS  LIKELY TO  RESULT  IN  A
                         COSTLY   EXTRA  IF   SHEET  PLASTIC  IS
                         REQUIRED.

     Test Patches;   Apply test  patches as directed  by Owner or
     Owner's Representative.   Apply a  small area  of strippable
     coating to  a  hidden  or obscure area of each  surface  in the
     Work  Area  to be coated.    Allow  to   dry and  peal  off.
     Demonstrate  results  to  Owner's   Representative  prior  to
     coating entire area.   Commence coating of area  only  after
     receiving   written  authorization  from   the  Owner's
     Representat ive .

                         STRIPPABLE   COATINGS  CLEAN  SMOOTH
                         SURFACES BETTER THAN WET WIPING  OR  HEPA
                         VACUUMING.    DURING THIS  PROCESS  THEY
                         MAY ALSO UNCOVER HIDDEN DEFECTS  SUCH AS
                         PROBLEMS WITH  PAINT  ADHESION.   DURING
                         PROJECT DESIGN THESE  SURFACES  SHOULD BE
                         CHECKED TO DETERMINE IF ANY SUCH  DEFECTS
                         EXIST.
                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-16

   Copyright (c)  1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOfr-A^MEKEHT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

                    and  equipment  in work are from which coating
               rip cleanly.
             rer  shelving,  clocks,   light   fixtures  and  other
             ipnent with one layer of 6 mil sheet plastic.

          Cover fabric,  paper,  cork wall coverings  or unpainted
          gypsum board with one layer of 6 mil sheet plastic.

          Tape over any cracks that are larger than 1/16".

          Tape over electrical outlets, switches, door locks etc.

                         THE  FOLLOWING  THREE  PARAGRAPHS  ADDRESS
                         WOOD  PANELING.    REVISE AS  APPROPRIATE
                         FOR PROJECT SPECIFICS OR DELETE IF THERE
                         IS NO WOOD PANELING IN THE Work Area.

                         PETROLEUM   BASED   WOOD   FINISHES,
                         PARTICULARLY WAXES  MAY BE  REMOVED FROM
                         WOOD  SURFACES  ALONG   WITH  DIRT  AND
                         CONTAMINATION.  WOOD  SURFACES SHOULD BE
                         TESTED  DURING  PROJECT  DESIGN   AND  A
                         DECISION MADE ABOUT WHETHER THEY SHOULD
                         BE ISOLATED  FROM  THE  CLEANING PROVIDED
                         BY   THE  STRIPPABLE   COATING.     THE
                         FOLLOWING   PARAGRAPH   ADDRESSES   THE
                         REFINISHING  OF  WOOD  SURFACES.     THIS
                         PRESUMES  THAT DESIGNER HAS  DETERMINED
                         WHAT IS  APPROPRIATE.

          Wood paneling  in area  may have  the  finish partially
          removed  by the strippable  coating.   These  surfaces are
          to be coated directly  with strippable coating  and are
          not to be covered  with sheet plastic.   Refinishing of
          the this  paneling will  be accomplished by the Owner and
          is not a  part of the work of this  contract.

                         FOLLOWING   IS   APPROPRIATE  IF   VERY
                         DELICATE  WOOD  PANELING  WERE  IN  Work
                         Area.

          Cover wood paneling in Work Area  with one  layer  of  6
          mil sheet plastic.

                         FOLLOWING  IS  A  CATCH  ALL  AND  SHOULD
                         GENERALLY NOT  BE  USED.   THE ISSUE  OF
                         FINISHES  ON  WOOD   SURFACES  SHOULD  BE
                         RESOLVED DURING  DESIGN.
                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-17

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS-jUMEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988
                snail  area of  coating  in concealed  location to
               finishes in Work Area.   If finish is removed when
              ing  is  stripped  inform  Owner's  Representative.
             er  wood  surface with  one  layer  of 6  mil  sheet
           lastic   unless   otherwise  notified  by  Owner's
          Representative.

               Base bid is for direct coating of wood paneling.

               If  a  layer of sheet plastic  is necessary   this
               will  be a  change  to  the Contract  Sun.    Submit
               proposal  for  change  in  Contract  Sum  for  the
               addition   of  sheet   plastic   to  the  owner's
               Representative.
                         GENERALLY  CARPETING  SHOULD  BE  REMOVED
                         AND  DISPOSED  OF  IN   A   SPACE  WHICH
                         CONTAINS   FRIABLE  ASBESTOS-CONTAINING
                         MATERIALS.     USE  LANGUAGE   BELOW  IF
                         CARPETING IS TO  BE  SAVED.   IF  THERE IS
                         NO CARPET DELETE FOLLOWING.

          Cover carpeting  with  three (3) layers  of  polyethylene
          sheeting at least 6 mil in thickness.   Place corrugated
          cardboard sheets between  the  top  and middle  layers of
          polyethylene.

     Do not  use  strippable coating as an adhesive to  hold sheet
     plastic in place.

     Coat or cover windows into  Work Area:

                         STRIPPABLE   COATINGS   DEGRADE   IN
                         ULTRAVIOLET  LIGHT  IN  SUNLIGHT.    THIS
                         DEGRADATION  CAN  PREVENT  THE  MATERIAL
                         FROM STRIPPING CLEANLY.  USE  ONE OF THE
                         FOLLOWING  THREE  PARAGRAPHS  DESCRIBING
                         PROTECTION OF WINDOWS.

                         FOLLOWING   IS   PREFERABLE   SOLUTION  TO
                         WINDOWS  IF PROJECT  DURATION  IS TO  BE
                         LESS THAN 25 DAYS.

          Coat windows with  window  coating  applied  in  a minimum
          10 mil thickness when  wet.

                         FOLLOWING  IS  PREFERABLE  WHERE  PROJECT
                         DURATION IS LONGER  THAN 25  DAYS.
                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-18

   Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS
          AB/(VEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988
          ^pr
            'indows  with one  layer  of 6  mil  sheet  plastic.
            Meet  plastic with a thin but continuous coat of
            or wall coating.

                    FOLLOWING  SHOULD GENERALLY  NOT  BE  USED
                    AS  IT   COMPLETELY  ELIMINATES  NATURAL
                    LIGHTING FROM THE Work Area.

     Cover windows with one layer of black 6 mil plastic.

Protect  critical  barriers;    Install strippable  coating so
that it  will  not  remove critical barriers  during stripping
of  coating.    Cover  critical barriers  comprised of  sheet
plastic  with  a  second layer  of  sheet  plastic configured to
be  removed  with  strippable  coating.    Protect   critical
barriers  made from  tape with a protective layers  of  sheet
plastic or duct tape.

Coat all  surfaces in Work  Area with strippable  coating in
following order.

     Walls:    Coat seams, corners,  and junctions vertically.
     Coat  balance  of  walls  horizontally   lapping    over
     vertical sprayed areas by 50%.

     Floor:   Coat floor lapping wall by 12".  Start at point
     furthest  from  entrance  to  Work Area  and  work toward
     door.

Use straight  edge to  shield  asbestos-containing  materials
from coating during spray  application.

Apply;     to  a  minimum   of   the   following  thicknesses.
Thickness is to be measured when material is wet using a wet
film thickness gauge.
          SURFACE
          TO BE
          COATED
                                   MINIMUM
                                   THICKNESS
                                   WHEN WET
REQUIRED
COATING
TYPE
          Critical  Barriers
          Sheet Plastic  Covers
                                   Not Applicable
Glass
Plastic Over Glass
10
2
mil
mil
w i n d o
Coating
Wai
Coating
w
1
                     TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES                01526-19

   Copyright  (c)  1988, National Institute of  Building  Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
                                        12 mil
                                        15 mil
                                        15 mil
                                        20 mil
   zed Tile,
Saoothly Painted Brick,
Painted Concrete Block

Floors
Unpainted Brick,

Unpainted Concrete Block,
Rough Wood
                                        August 12, 1988
                                             Wall
                                             Coating
Wall
Coating
Floor
Coating

Wall
Coating
     Coat brick and concrete block with a sufficient thickness of
     coating to obscure color of substrate completely.

     Do not apply  over tacky or chalky  adhesives remaining from
     carpet or other flooring covering removal.

     Respiratory protection;   Require  that all  workers  in Work
     Area from  start of spray  operation until all  surfaces are
     dry  use   as  a  minimum requirement   a  half-face  negative
     pressure   respirator  equipped with  combination  ammonia and
     HEPA type  filter cartridges  as specified in  Section 01562
     Respiratory Protection.

     Worker protection;   Equip all  workers in Work  Area during
     spray operation with eye protectives,  disposable gloves, and
     disposable paper suits.

     Ventilation:   during  spraying operation maintain  a  minimum
     of 4 air changes per hour  in  the  entire  Work Area.  Operate
     one additional  HEPA filtered  fan  unit  per  spray operator in
     area while spraying is taking place.

                         ELEVATORS AND STAIR  TOWERS  IN  HIGH RISE
                         BUILDINGS REQUIRE  SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED
                         POSITIVE  PRESSURE  AREAS  TO OVERCOME THE
                         STACK EFFECT WHICH WILL  ATTEMPT  TO DRAW
                         AIR FROM FLOORS BELOW THE MIDLINE OF THE
                         BUILDING  AND   DISCHARGE  IT  ON  FLOOR
                         ABOVE.     STACK  EFFECT   RESULTS  IN  THE
                         POSSIBILITY   OF  SPREADING  AIRBORNE

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-20

   Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988

                         ASBESTOS FIBERS THROUGHOUT A  BUILDING.

                         DELETE  THE  FOLLOWING  IF  THERE  IS NO
                         ELEVATOR ACCESS TO THE Work -Area.   AREA
                         IN  FRONT  OF ELEVATOR  DOORS  SHOULD BE
                         POSITIVELY  PRESSURIZED  TO  PREVENT THE
                         PISTON  ACTION  OF  THE  ELEVATOR   FROM
                         DRAWING CONTAMINATION FROM THE Work  Area
                         INTO THE ELEVATOR  SHAFT.

                Coat walls, floor and ceiling of elevator  in  sane
             as  Work Area.   Arrange  entry  to Work  Area  so  that
         rator door  is  in a positively pressurized space  outside
         clean  room of the decontamination unit.   At completion
     oT work clean  elevator  as  set  forth in Section 01711. Refer
     to  Section  01013   Summary  of  the   Work  for  additional
     requirements for protection of elevator.

                         DELETE  ENTIRE  SECTION  BELOW ON SHEET
                         PLASTIC IF STRIPPA3LE COATING IS TO BE
                         USED.

Sheet Plastic:   Protect surfaces in the Work Area  with  two (2)
layers of  plastic sheeting on  floor and walls,  or  as otherwise
directed on  the Contract Drawings  or in writing  by the  Owner's
Representative.   Perform work in the following sequence.

     Cover Floor  of Work Area with  2  individual  layers of clear
     polyethylene sheeting,  each at least  6  mil  in  thickness,
     turned  up  walls  at  least  12  inches.    Forn a  sharp right
     angle bend at junction of floor and wall so that there is no
     radius which could  be stepped  on causing the  wall  attach-
     ment to be pulled loose.   Both spray-glue  and duct tape all
     seams in floor covering.   Locate seams in top layer six  feet
     from,  or at right angles to, seams in  bottom layer.  Install
     sheeting so  that  top layer can  be  removed  independently of
     bottom layer.

                         GENERALLY  CARPETING SHOULD  BE  REMOVED
                         AND  DISPOSED  OF IN   A  SPACE  WHICH
                         CONTAINS   FRIABLE ASBESTOS-CONTAINING
                         MATERIALS.     USE LANGUAGE  BELOW  IF
                         CARPETING IS TO BE SAVED.   IF THERE IS
                         NO CARPET DELETE FOLLOWING.

     Cover  Carpeting  with  three  (3)   layers  of  polyethylene
     sheeting at  least  6  mil  in  thickness.   Place  corrugated
     cardboard  sheets  between   the  top  and  middle  layers  of
     polyethylene.


                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES                01526-21

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National  Institute of Building Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

                         THE FOLLOWING LANGUAGE SHOULD BE USED IF
                         CARPETING  HAS  A  PAD OR  IS  OTHERWISE
                         THICK  ENOUGH  TO  PROVIDE  QUESTIONABLE
                         FOOTING FOR SCAFFOLDING.

                 Plastic in areas where scaffolding is to be used
              ingle layer  of 1/2"  CDX  plywood or  1/4" tempered
            ird. Wrap  edges and corners  of each sheet  with duct
             At  completion  of  abatement  work wrap plywood  or
          >ard with  2 layers of  6 mil polyethylene  and  move to
     nelct Work Area  or  dispose  of as  an asbestos-contaminated
     waste  material   in  accordance  with  section  02084  of this
     specification.

                         THREE LAYERS OF 6 MIL PLASTIC SHOULD BE
                         CONSIDERED IN AREAS WHERE PLASTIC MAY BE
                         RIPPED,   SUCH  AS IN A  REMOVAL  WITH WIRE
                         LATH OR WHERE ROOM FINISHES ARE DELICATE
                         OR COSTLY.

     Cover  all  walls in Work Area  including  "Critical Barrier"
     sheet  plastic  barriers  with  one  layer  of  polyethylene
     sheeting,   at   least   6  mil  in   thickness,   mechanically
     supported  and sealed with  duct tape  or spray-glue  in the
     same manner  as  "Critical  Barrier"  sheet  plastic  barriers.
     Tape  all   joints including   the  joining  with  the    floor
     covering  with duct tape  or  as  otherwise indicated  on the
     Contract  Documents  or   in  writing   by   the   Owner's
     Representative.

                         ELEVATORS AND STAIR TOWERS  IN  HIGH RISE
                         BUILDINGS  REQUIRE  SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED
                         POSITIVE  PRESSURE  AREAS TO OVERCOME THE
                         STACK EFFECT WHICH WILL ATTEMPT  TO DRAW
                         AIR FROM FLOORS BELOW THE MIDLINE OF THE
                         BUILDING   AND   DISCHARGE   IT  ON  FLOOR
                         ABOVE.     STACK  EFFECT  RESULTS  IN  THE
                         POSSIBILITY  OF  SPREADING  AIRBORNE
                         ASBESTOS FIBERS THROUGHOUT A BUILDING.

                         DELETE  THE  FOLLOWING IF  THERE   IS  NO
                         ELEVATOR ACCESS TO THE Work Area.   AREA
                         IN  FRONT  OF  ELEVATOR DOORS SHOULD  BE
                         POSITIVELY  PRESSURIZED TO   PREVENT  THE
                         PISTON   ACTION  OF THE   ELEVATOR  FROM
                         DRAWING CONTAMINATION FROM THE Work Area
                         INTO THE ELEVATOR SHAFT.

     Elevator;   Cover walls,  floor and ceiling of  elevator with 2
     layers of 6 mil  polyethylene.  Arrange entry  to Work Area so

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-22

   Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS .ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

           ^n_x
     thatxfleVator  door  is  in a  positively  pressurized space
             ythe  clean  room  of  the  decontamination unit.   At
             on  of work clean  elevator as set  forth in Section
             Refer  to  Section 01013  Summary  of  the Work  for
          'ional  requirements for protection of elevator.

                         SHEET  POLYETHYLENE   IS  VERY  SLIPPERY
                         UNDERFOOT AND CAN PRESENT A CONSIDERABLE
                         SLIPPING HAZARD. DELETE THE FOLLOWING IF
                         THERE ARE NO  STAIRS  RAMPS OR LADDERS IN
                         THE Work Area.

     Stairs  and  Ramos;     Do  not  cover  stairs  or   ramps  with
     unsecured sheet  plastic.   Where  stairs or ramps are covered
     with  plastic, provide  3/4"  exterior  grade  plywood  treads
     securely held in place, over plastic.  Do not cover rungs or
     rails with  any type of protective materials.

     Repair of Damaged Polyethylene Sheeting:   Remove and replace
     plastic   sheeting   which  has   been  damaged  by  removal
     operations  or where  seal  has failed  allowing water to seep
     between  layers.    Remove  affected sheeting  and wipe  down
     entire area.   Install new sheet  plastic only when  area is
     completely  dry.

                         AN ISOLATION  AREA PROVIDES  A  BUFFER IF
                         THERE  IS   A  FAILURE  OF  Work  Area
                         ISOLATION.     AN  ISOLATION  AREA  IS
                         APPROPRIATE WHEN ADJACENT SPACES  HAVE A
                         CRITICAL   OCCUPANCY   WHICH   CANNOT  BE
                         INTERRUPTED.

                         THE   LOCATION  AND   ARRANGEMENT   OF
                         ISOLATION AREAS  SHOULD BE SHOWN  ON THE
                         PLANS.
ISOLATION AREA;

Maintain  isolation  areas  between  the  Work Area  and  adjacent
building area:
                         FOLLOWING ARE  EXAMPLES.   EDIT TO  SUIT
                         PROJECT REQUIREMENTS.

     In locations shown on the plans.

     In unoccupied  rooms  located between Work Area  and adjacent
     occupied portions of the building.

     In locations where separation between Work Area and occupied

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-23

   Copyright  (c) 1988, National institute of Building Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

               of  building  is  formed  by  sheet plastic  and/or
               barriers.

            elow Work Area.
         lation  area by  controlling access  to the  space  in the
       anner  as  a Work Area.   Physically isolate  the space froa
       rk Area and adjacent areas.   Accomplish physical isolation
                         FOLLOWING  ARE  EXAMPLES.   EDIT  TO SUIT
                         PROJECT REQUIREMENTS.

     Installing critical barriers in unoccupied space.

     Erecting a  second  Critical Barrier a  minimum of 3'-0" away
     fron Work Area.
STOP WORK;

If  the  Critical or Primary  barrier  falls or is  breached in any
manner stop work immediately.  Do not start work until authorized
in writing by the Owner's Representative.


EXTENSION OF WORK AREA:

Extension of  Work  Area: If  the  Critical Barrier  is  breached in
any manner  that could  allow the passage of asbestos  debris or
airborne fibers, then add affected area to the Work Area, enclose
it  as  required  by   this   Section   of  the  specification  and
decontaminate  it  as  described   in  Section   01711  Project
Decontamination.
SECONDARY BARRIER;

Secondary layer of plastic as a drop cloth to protect the primary
layer  from  debris generated  by the  asbestos abatement  work is
specified in the appropriate work sections.

                         FOLLOWING   IS  A  CATCH-ALL.     IT  IS
                         PREFERABLE TO  DESIGN THE  STRUCTURE AND
                         SHOW IT ON THE DRAWINGS.

EXTERIOR ENCLOSURES;

Construct exterior enclosures as a  Critical  Barrier as necessary
to  completely  enclose  the  work.    Fabricate  from  reinforced

                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-24

   Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOSyLBATEKENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12,  1988
          £^—^
polyethylene  sheeting  and  2"  x  wood  framework.    Attach  to
existinqjoaui/fding  components or  brace as  necessary for  lateral
stability^   Construct   walls   to  meet  all  state   and  local
regulat^sAs *°r  construction of  temporary  buildings.   Construct
to rjr^fttc a wind of 30 MPH, slope  ceiling  to permit drainage  of
rainlvajbler.
END OF SECTION - 01526
                      TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES               01526-25

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

-------
o
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WALL OPENING
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^_^-- EQUIPMENT OR FURNISHING
-» -6 MIL POLYETHYLENE CRITICAL
BARRIER CONTINUOUS DUCT
TAPE AT PERIMETER.

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-------
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

SECTION 01714 - _W
-------
MODEL ASBETOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12,  1988
              Section will not begin until the  visual  inspection
           in  Section 01711  Project  Decontamination is  complete
     is been certified by the Project Administrator.

AIR MONITORING:

To  determine  if  the   elevated  airborne   asbestos   structure
concentration   encountered  during abatement operations  has  been
reduced to the specified level,  the Owner will secure samples and
analyze them according to the following  procedures.

          CHOOSE ONE OF THE  FOLLOWING SEQUENCE  OF  PROCEDURES AND
          DELETE THE OTHER.   THE  FIRST  IS BASED UPON  SEQUENTIAL
          SAMPLING FIRST  BY  PCM FOLLOWED BY TEM.    THE SECOND IS
          BASED UPON SIMULTANEOUS  SAMPLING WITH CLEARANCE  BY PCM
          REQUIRED BEFORE TEM SAMPLES ARE ANALYZED.

     Aggressive sampling  procedures  as  described  below will  be
     followed.

     PCM samples will be secured as indicated  below. If  the  area
     meets the clearance criteria  TEM sampling will  proceed.

     Aggressive sampling procedures will  be  repeated.

     TEM samples will be secured and  analyzed  as indicated  below.

     Work  Area  Clearance:    upon  meeting   the   TEM  Clearance
     requirements   the   work   of   Section  01711    Project
     Decontamination can continue.

          FOLLOWING  PROCEDURE IS BASED UPON  PCM AND TEM SAMPLES
          BEING TAKEN SIMULTANEOUSLY

     Aggressive sampling  procedures  as  described  below  will  be
     followed.

     PCM and TEM samples will  be secured as  indicated below.   PCM
     samples will  be analyzed  and  TEM samples  will be transmitted
     to the laboratory.   If  the area  meets the clearance  criteria
     by PCM the TEM  analysis will  proceed.

     Work  Area  Clearance;    upon   meeting   the  TEM  Clearance
     requirements   the  work  of   Section  01711    Project
     Decontamination can continue.

          AGGRESSIVE SAMPLING IS APPROPRIATE  ONLY  FOR  CLEARANCE
          OF  ABATEMENT   PROJECT  AREAS  THAT  ARE   ISOLATED  FROM

                      WORK  AREA CLEARANCE              01714  - 2

   Copyright (c)  1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

          SURROUNDING AREAS  BY BOTH  PHYSICAL  BARRIERS (CRITICAL
          BARRIER)  AND  A  PRESSURE  DIFFERENTIAL  (DIFFERENTIAL
                   SYSTEM) .   AGGRESSIVE SAMPLING SHOULD NEVER BE
                 ED  IN  OCCUPIED  OR UNISOLATED  AREAS.    THE FEW
                THIS HAS  BEEN ATTEMPTED HAVE RESULTED IN SERIOUS
           [ONTAMINATION  PROBLEMS  FOR  THE  INVOLVED  SPACE  AND
              XXJNDING AREAS.

           SAMPLING:
All  Air  Samples  will  be   taken  using  aggressive  sampling
techniques as follows:

          THERE ARE NO  STANDARDS  AVAILABLE FOR FLOW RATE OF LEAF
          BLOWERS OR LARGE FANS.  HOWEVER THIS INFORMATION IS NOT
          CRITICAL TO THE SUCCESS OF THE PROCEDURE.

     Before sampling  pumps  are started the  exhaust from forced-
     air  equipment  (leaf  blower   with  an  approximately  1
     horsepower electric notor) will  be swept against all walls,
     ceilings,  floors,  ledges  and  other  surfaces in  the  room.
     This procedure  will be continued for 5  minutes  per 10,000
     cubic feet of room volume.

     One  20   inch  diameter  fan per  10,000 cubic  feet  of  room
     volume   will  be   mounted   in   a   central  location  at
     approximately 2  meters  above floor,  directed toward ceiling
     and  operated  at low speed for the entire  period of sample
     collection.

     Air samples will be collected in areas subject to normal air
     circulation away from  room  corners,  obstructed  locations,
     and sites near windows, doors of vents.

     After air  sampling  pumps  have been shut  off,   fans will be
     shut off.

SCHEDULE OF AIR SAMPLES:

          CONSULT  WITH   THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANT  SUPPLYING
          PROJECT  ADMINISTRATORS  AND  LABORATORY WORK  ABOUT THE
          SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT AND ANALYTICAL METHODS AVAILABLE FOR
          THE  PROJECT.    EDIT  THE  FOLLOWING  TO  SUIT  SPECIFIC
          PROJECT  REQUIREMENTS  AND  AVAILABILITY  OF  ANALYTICAL
          TOOLS.

General;    The  number   and volume  of air   samples  taken  and
analytical methods used  by  the Owner  will  be  in accordance with
the following schedule.  Sample volumes given may vary depending
upon the analytical instruments used.

                       WORK AREA CLEARANCE              01714 - 3

   Copyright  (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
                                       August  12,  1988
PHASE
               LLY,  LOCATIONS FOR SAMPLING SHOULD BE  SHOWN  ON THE
                NGS.
JtST MICROSCOPY:

         homogeneous Work  Area after  completion  of all  cleaning
       a  mini muni  of  7  samples  will  be  taken and  analyzed  as
Samples will  be collected on 25 nun. cassettes with  the  following
filter media:

     PCM:    0.8  mixed  cellulose  ester  in  a  cassette  with  a
     conductive extension  cowl.
Location
Sampled
    Number
      of
   Samples
Analysis
Method
Detection
Limit
Fibers/cc.
Minimum   Rate
Volume    LPM
(Liters)
Each Work Area

    or

Each Room of
             PCM
             0.01
            1,200
          1-10
Work Area (5
Work Area Blank
Laboratory Blank
aiin. )
1
1
PCM
PCM
PCM
0.01
0.01
0.01
1,230
0
0
1-10
Open for
30 seconds
Do Not
Ooen
          GENERALLY  RETAIN   THE  FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPH.    THIS
          PARAGRAPH  DESCRIBES  THE ANALYTICAL  METHOD REQUIRED  BY
          THE  AHERA  REGULATION  FOR  PCM  CLEARANCE  IN SCHOOLS.
          OTHER ANALYTICAL METHODS COULD  BE USED FOR  NON-SCHOOL
          PROJECTS  OR AS  PRE-CLEARANCE  LEADING  TO TEM ANALYSIS.
          HOWEVER,   THE   AHERA  REGULATION   IS   A  VERY  STRONG
          STATEMENT  FROM  THE  EPA  ON  THE  STANDARD OF CARE AND
          ACCEPTABLE METHODS OF ACHIEVING THAT STANDARD.

Analysis;  Fibers on each  filter will be measured using the NIOSH
Method 7400  entitled "Fibers"  published in the  NIOSH  Manual  of
Analytical Methods, 3rd Edition, Second Supplement, August 1987.

Fibers:  referred to in this section include fibers regardless  of
composition  as  counted by the phase contrast  microscopy method
used.

                       WORK AREA CLEARANCE              01714 - 4

   Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
                                    August  12,  1988
Split Sample:  one Work Area sample will be split  and  both halves
analyzed separately for duplicate analysis.

Release Critftria:   Decontamination of  the work site  is  complete
                 Area  sample  is at or  below  the Detection  Limit
             any  sample  is  above the  Detection  Limit  then  the
                 is incomplete  and  recleaning  per section  01711
          contamination is required.

      ISSION E.UCTRON MICROSCOPY:

          THE  FOLLOWING  DESCRIBES CLEARANCE  TESTING AS  REQUIRED
          BY  THE AHERA  REGULATION  FOR SCHOOLS.    THIS  IS ALSO
          BECOMING  A  DE  FACTO STANDARD  FOR  PUBLIC  NON-SCHOOL
          BUILDINGS.   WORK  IN  INDUSTRIAL SETTINGS MAY  HAVE A
          DIFFERENT  STANDARD  THAN THAT FOR  A  PUBLICLY  OCCUPIED
          BUILDING.

In  each  homogeneous work area  after completion  of all  cleaning
work,  a  minimum  of  13  samples  will be  taken and  analyzed as
follows:

          THE  SAMPLE  VOLUME  GIVEN  BELOW   IS  NOT  THE   LOWEST
          REQUIRED  BY THE AHERA REGULATION.    IT  IS  THE  LOWEST
          VOLUME  ALLOWED  FOR   10   GRID  OPENINGS  TO  GIVE  AN
          ANALYTICAL SENSITIVITY OF 0.005 STRUCTURES/CC.   10 GRID
          OPENINGS  IS  THE  NUMBER   GENERALLY   PREFERRED  BY
          LABORATORIES  PERFORMING  THIS  TYPE   OF   ANALYSIS.
          ADHERENCE  TO THIS  VOLUME  MAY  GIVE  RISE  TO   GREATER
          REPRODUCABILITY  OF   RESULTS.     THE  MINIMUM  VOLUME
          NECESSARY  TO  AVOID  COMPARISON  OF  INSIDE-TO-OUTSIDE
          SAMPLES IS 1,199 LITERS.
Location
Sampled
Number   Analysis
of       Method
Samples
Analytical
Sensitivity
 Fibers/cc.
Recommended Rate
Volume      LPM
 (Liters)
Each Work Area      5  TEM

Outside Each        5  TEM
Work Area

Work Area Blank     1  TEM
Outside Blank       1  TEM
Laboratory Blank    1  TEM
                      0.005   1,300-1,800   1-10

                      0.005   1,300-1,800   1-10
                      0.005
                      0.005
                      0.005
                       Open for
                       30 Seconds

                       Open for
                       30 Seconds

                       Do Not
                       Open
                       WORK AREA CLEARANCE              01714 - 5

   Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988


Analysis w^LLbe performed using the analysis method set forth in
th« AHE$<54lwnto.ation 40 CFR Part 763 Appendix A.
         I ^^
         Structures referred  to  in this Section include asbestos
        bundles,clusters or matrices,  as defined by  method of
       a.

    ;ase Criteria; Decontamination of the work site is complete if
either of the following two sets of conditions are met:

     Work Areg Samples are below filter background levels

          All Work  Area  sample  volumes  are  greater than  1,199
          liters for a 25 mm. sampling cassette.

          The average concentration  of  asbestos on the  five Work
          Area  Samples   does  not  exceed  the  filter  background
          level of 70 structures  per square millimeter  of filter
          area.

     Work  Area  Samples  are not  statistically  different  from
     Outside samples

          All sample volumes  except for blanks  are  greater than
          560 liters for a 25 mm. sampling cassette.

          The average asbestos concentration  of the  three blanks
          is below the  filter background  level  of  70  structures
          per square millimeter of filter area.

          Average asbestos  concentrations  in Work Area  Samples
          are not statistically  different  from  Outside samples,
          as determined by the Z-test calculation found in 40 CFR
          Part  763,  Subpart  E,  Appendix  A  (Z  is  Less  that  or
          equal to 1.65)

If  these conditions  are  not met  then  the  decontamination  is
incomplete and  the cleaning  procedures  of Section 01710 shall be
repeated.

Termination  of  Analysis;    if  the arithmetic  mean  (average)
asbestos concentration  on the blank filters exceed 70  structures
per square millimeter of  filter  area the analysis will  cease and
new samples collected.

LABORATORY TESTING:

PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPY:
                       WORK AREA CLEARANCE              01714 - 6

   Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS  ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12,  1988

                          CHOOSE THE  APPROPRIATE  PARAGRAPH  FROM
                          THE  THREE  BELOW  AND DELETE  THE OTHER
                          TWO.   IT IS IMPORTANT TO THE  CONTRACTOR
                          TO  KNOW  HOW  IMMEDIATELY  AIR  SAMPLE
                          RESULTS WILL BE AVAILABLE.

                          THE  FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH  REPRESENTS  THE
                          TYPICAL  LEVEL  OF SERVICE AVAILABLE  IF  A
                          MICROSCOPE  IS  TO  BE SET  UP AT THE  JOB
                          SITE.  TYPICALLY  THIS WILL BE DONE  IF
                          NIOSH 7400  ANALYSIS  IS  BEING USED  FOR
                          WORK   SITE  MONITORING  USING  A  SPECIAL
                          SLIDE PREPARATION  DEVICE.

              of  a testing laboratory  will  be employed by  the
       to  perform laboratory  analysis  of  the  air  samples.    A
      (cope and  technician will be  set up at the job  site,  so  that
        reports  on air samples can  be  obtained  immediately.   A
    jlete  record,  certified  by the testing  laboratory,  of all  air
monitoring  tests and  results  will  be  furnished  to the Owner's
Representative, the Owner and  the  Contractor.

                          THE FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPH  SHOULD BE  USED
                          IF THERE WILL BE  NO MICROSCOPE AT  THE
                          JOB SITE.

The  services of  a testing laboratory  will  be employed  by   the
Owner  to  perform laboratory  analysis  of  the air  samples.    A
technician  will be  at the job site,  and  samples  will be  sent
daily  by  overnight   delivery, so that  verbal  reports  on   air
samples  can be  obtained within  24   hours.    A  complete record,
certified by the  testing laboratory,  of all air monitoring tests
and  results  will  be  furnished to the Owner's  Representative,  the
Owner and the Contractor.

                          THE FOLLOWING  PARAGRAPH  IS  A  CATCH  ALL
                          AND DOES NOT PROVIDE  THE  CONTRACTOR WITH
                          DETAILED  INFORMATION ON  HOW  THE OWNER
                          INTENDS TO ANALYZE AIR SAMPLES.

The  services of  a testing laboratory  will  be employed  by   the
Owner  to perform laboratory  analysis  of  the air   samples.     A
microscope  and  technician  will be  set up  at the  job site, or
samples  will be  sent  daily by overnight  mail,   so  that verbal
reports  on  air samples  can  be  obtained  within  24 hours.     A
complete  record,  certified  by the testing laboratory, of all  air
monitoring  tests  and  results  will be  furnished  to  the Owner's
Representative,  the owner and  the Contractor.

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY:

                       WORK AREA CLEARANCE               01714  -  7

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National institute of Building Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August  12,  1988
                         FOLLOWING  IS NECESSARY  INFORMATION  FOR
                         THE CONTRACTOR TO ESTIMATE THE  LENGTH OF
                         TIME  HIS  EQUIPMENT  WILL   BE  TIED  UP
                         WAITING FOR  TEM  ANALYSIS.    FOLLOWING IS
                         TYPICAL AVAILABILITY  OF SERVICE FOR  TEM
                         LABS DURING  OFF-PEAK  TIMES OF THE  YEAR.
                         TYPICAL  TURN  AROUND  TIME  FOR  VERBAL
                         RESULTS IS  5 TO 10 DAYS.   THIS SECTION
                         SHOULD  BE REVISED  BASED UPON  THE TURN
                         AROUND  TIME THE  LABORATORY IS  ABLE TO
                         PROVIDE.    MOST  LABORATORIES   CHARGE A
                         PREMIUM  FOR  WEEKEND/HOLIDAY  WORK  AND
                         FAST (24 TO 48 HOUR) TURNAROUND.

SaBj>^9^  will  be  sent  by  overnight  courier  for  analysis  by
Tr^n^^aiion Electron Microscopy.  Samples will not be carried on
       Is,  so  that samples shipped  on Friday  will  arrive on  the
           Monday.   Verbal  results  will  normally  be  available
        the  5th  working  day  after  receipt  of  samples  by  the
   moratory.  The  laboratory  is  capable of analyzing  a maximum of
13  such  samples   from  this  project  at  any  one  time.      All
Transmission Electron Microscopy results will be available to  the
Contractor.

                         FOLLOWING  IS A  FAIR  METHOD OF DEALING
                         WITH DELAYS  IN ANALYSIS.   THIS REQUIRES
                         THE  PROJECT  DESIGNER  TO   SECURE  UNIT
                         COSTS DURING BIDDING.

     Submit with  bid unit  cost for  each day  of  waiting beyond
     that set forth in the paragraph above.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS  (NOT APPLICABLE)

PART 3 - EXECUTION (NOT APPLICABLE)
END OF SECTION - 01714
                       WORK AREA CLEARANCE              01714 - 8

   Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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         E>fc»«ii^jy m
MODEL AS£3$TOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

             with bid  unit  cost  for  each  day  of waiting  beyond
          set forth in the paragraph  above.
PART 2 - PRODUCTS  (NOT APPLICABLE)


PART 3 - EXECUTION  (NOT APPLICABLE)


END OF SECTION - 01714
                       WORK AREA CLEARANCE               01714  - 9

   Copyright (c)  1988, National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12,  1988


              - REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS
Drawings  and general provisions  of Contract,  including  General
and  Supplementary  Conditions  and  Division  -  1  Specification
Sections, apply to work of this section.


RELATED WORK SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE:

Installation  of Critical  and  Primary  Barriers,  and  Work  Area
Isolation  Procedures  are  set  forth in  Section 01526  Temporary
Enclosures.

Project Decontamination procedures after  removal of the Secondary
Barrier are specified in Section 01711  Project Decontamination.

Disposal  of asbestos-containing  waste  is  specified  in  Section
02084 Disposal of Asbestos-Containing Waste Material.


SUBMITTALS;

Before  Start  of  Work;    Submit  the  following to  the  Owner's
Representative  for  review.     Do  not  start  work  until  these
submittals  are  returned  with  Owner's  Representative's  action
stamp indicating that the  subnittal is returned for  unrestricted
use.

Surfactant:   Submit   product  data,   use  instructions   and
recommendations from manufacturer of surfactant  intended for use.
Include   data  substantiating   that  material   complies  with
requirements.

Removal  Encapsulant:  Submit  product data,  use  instructions  and
recommendations from manufacturer of removal encapsulant intended
for use.   Include data substantiating that material complies with
requirements.

NESHAP Certification; Submit  certification from manufacturer of
surfactant or removal encapsulant that, to the extent required by
this  specification,  the  material,   if  used  in accordance  with
manufacturer's  instructions,  will  wet  Asbestos-Containing
Materials  to  which  it  is applied  as  required  by  the  National
Emission  Standard  for   Hazardous   Pollutants  (NESHAP)  Asbestos
Regulations (40 CFR 61,  Subpart M).

            REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS  - CONTAINING MATERIALS   02081 - 1

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988
            Fetv  Data  Sheet;    Submit  the  Material  Safety Data
Sheet^O^op equivalent,   in  accordance  with  the  OSHA  Hazard
ComBTOorcacion Standard  (29  CFR 1910.1200) for  each surfactant ,
encttpjMiiating Material and  solvent  proposed  for use on the work.
M&hBHe  a  separate attachment  for  each sheet  indicating  the
(specific  worker protective equipment  proposed  for use  with the
ncrerial indicated.
PART 2 - PRODUCTS:

                         FOLLOWING ALLOWS  THE CONTRACTOR  TO USE
                         EITHER  A  SURFACTANT   IN   WATER  OR  A
                         REMOVAL ENCAPSULANT,  PROVIDING  THAT  IT
                         IS  ABLE  TO  PERFORM  AS  WELL  AS  THE
                         GENERIC  MIXTURE  OF  ONE   OUNCE  OF  A
                         MIXTURE OF 50% POLYOXYETHYLENE ESTER AND
                         50%  POLYOXYETHYLENE   ETHER  IN  FIVE
                         GALLONS OF WATER.

Wetting   Materials;     For  wetting  prior   to   disturbance  of
Asbestos-Containing  Materials  use either amended  water  or  a
removal encapsulant:

     Amended Water;  Provide water to which a surfactant has been
     added.  Use  a mixture  of surfactant and  water  which results
     in  wetting  of  the   Asbestos-Containing  Material  and
     retardation  of   fiber  release  during  disturbance  of  the
     material equal  to or greater than that provided  by  the use
     of   one  ounce  of  a  surfactant   consisting  of   50%
     polyoxye thy lane  ester  and  50%  polyoxyethylene ether  mixed
     with five gallons of water.

     Removal Encapsulant;  Provide a  penetrating  type encapsulant
     designed  specifically   for removal  of  Asbestos-Containing
     Material.    Use  a material which  results in wetting  of the
     Asbestos-Containing  Material  and   retardation   of  fiber
     release during  disturbance  of  the   material  equal  to  or
     greater   than  that  provided  by  water   amended   with   a
     surfactant  consisting  of  one ounce  of  a  mixture  of  50%
     polyoxyethylene  ester and  50% polyoxyethylene  ether  in five
     gallons of water.

                         FOLLOWING  IS  MOST LIKELY TO  BE  FOUND  ON
                         THE  JOB  IN  THE  ABSENCE   OF   A  MORE
                         SPECIFIC  REQUIREMENT.

Polyethylene Sheet;   A single  polyethylene  film in the  largest
sheet size  possible  to minimize seams, 4.0  or  6.0  mil thick  as

            REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS  - CONTAINING MATERIALS   02081 - 2

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National  Institute of  Building Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

indicated, clear, frosted, or black as indicated.

                         FOLLOWING IS A  GOOD  PRECAUTION IN AREAS
                         WHERE  THERE  IS   HOT  EQUIPMENT  OR  A
                         POTENTIAL FOR FIRE,  SUCH AS IN A BOILER
                         ROOM.   FIRE RETARDANT  SHEET  PLASTIC IS
                         CONSIDERABLY  MORE   EXPENSIVE   THAN
                         STANDARD PLASTIC.

              Sheet ;   Provide  flame resistant  polyethylene film
     Jconf oms  to  requirements set  forth  by  the  National  Fire
    sction Association  Standard 701,  Small Scale  Fire  Test for
   ae-resistant  Textiles  and  Films.     Provide  largest  size
  jssible to  minimize seams,  4.0  or 6.0 mil thick as indicated,
frosted or black as indicated.

Duct Tape;  Provide duct tap* in 2" or 3" widths as indicated, with
an adhesive  which is formulated  to stick  aggressively  to sheet
polyethylene.

Spray Cement:   Provide spray  adhesive in  aerosol  cans  which is
specifically   formulated  to  stick  tenaciously  to   sheet
polyethylene.

Disposal Baas:   Provide 6  mil  thick leak- tight polyethylene bags
labeled  as  required  by  Section  02084  Disposal  of  Asbestos
Containing Waste Material.

Fiberboar<^ PnilHff;  Provide heavy duty leak tight fiberboard drums
with tight sealing locking metal tops.

Paper board  Boxes;   Provide heavy  duty corrugated  paper board
boxes coated with plastic or wax  to retard  deterioration  from
moisture.   Provide  in  sizes  that  will  easily  fit  in  disposal
bags.

Felt;   Standard  felt approximately  1/16"  thick and 36" to 72" in
width.
PART 3 - EXECUTION

SECONDARY BARRIER!

Secondary Barrier;   Over the Primary Barrier,  install  as a drop
cloth a  clear  6 mil sheet plastic   in all  areas  where asbestos
removal work is to  be carried out.  Completely cover floor with
sheet plastic.   Where the work  is within  10'-0" of a wall extend
the Secondary Barrier up wall to ceiling.   Support sheet plastic
on wall with duct tape,   seal top of Secondary plastic to Primary

            REMOVAL  OF ASBESTOS  - CONTAINING  MATERIALS  02081 - 3

   Copyright (c) 1988, National institute of Building Sciences

-------
MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

              duct  tape so that debris is unable  to get behind
               cross   strips  of  duct  tape  at  wall  support  as
              support sheet  plastic and prevent its falling during
        operations.

          Secondary  Barrier at the beginning  of  each work shift.
        only  sufficient plastic  for work of that shift.

        Secondary Barrier at end of each work shift or as work in
an  area is completed.   Fold plastic toward center  of sheet and
pack  in disposal  bags.  Keep material on sheet continuously  wet
until bagged.

Install Walkways  of black  6  mil plastic  between  active  removal
areas  and decontamination  units to  protect  Primary  Layer  from
tracked material.    Install walkways at  the  beginning of,  and
remove at the end of,  each work shift.
WORKER PROTECTION;

Before  beginning work  with  any  material  for  which  a  Material
Safety  Data Sheet  has  been  submitted  provide  workers  with  the
required  protective  equipment.   Require  that  appropriate
protective equipment be used at all times.


WET REMOVAL:

Thoroughly  wet  to   satisfaction   of  Owner's  Representative
Aasbestos-Containing Materials  to be removed prior  to stripping
and/or   tooling  to   reduce   fiber  dispersal   into   the  air.
Accomplish  wetting  by a  fine spray  (mist)  of  amended  water  or
removal  encapsulant.   Saturate material  sufficiently  to  wet  to
the substrate  without causing excess dripping.   Allow  time  for
amended  water  or  renoval  encapsulant  to  penetrate  material
thoroughly. If  amended  water is used,  spray  material  repeatedly
during the work process to maintain a continuously wet  condition.
If a removal encapsulant is used,  apply in strict accordance with
manufacturer's written instructions.   Perforate  outer covering  of
any installation which has  been painted and/or  jacketed  in order
to allow penetration  of amended water or  removal encapsulant,  or
use  injection  equipment  to  wet  material  under  the   covering.
Where  necessary,  carefully  strip   away  while  simultaneously
spraying amended water or removal  encapsulant on the  installation
to minimize dispersal of asbestos  fibers into the air.

                         SOME  MATERIALS,  PARTICULARLY  THOSE
                         CONTAINING AMOSITE ASBESTOS,  DO NOT WET
                         WELL WITH WATER AMENDED WITH THE GENERIC

            REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS   02081 - 4

   Copyright (c) 1988, National  Institute  of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

                         MIXTURE OF ONE OUNCE OF A MIXTURE OF 50%
                         POLYOXYETHYLENE   ESTER  AND   50%
                         POLYOXYETHYLENE ETHER IN FIVE GALLONS OF
                         WATER.  OTHER WETTING AGENTS AND REMOVAL
                         ENCAPSULANTS  SHOULD  BE TESTED  ON  THE
                         MATERIAL FOR  ADSORPTION.    THIS  SECTION
                         SHOULD THEN  BE MODIFIED TO  SPECIFY THE
                         MATERIAL  MOST  APPROPRIATE  TO  THE
                         PROJECT.

                         FOLLOWING   ARE  GOOD   PRACTICES  FOR
                         CONTROLLING AIRBORNE FIBER LEVELS IF THE
                         MATERIAL DOES NOT WET WELL BECAUSE IT IS
                         COATED, THICK, OR CONTAINS AMOSITE.

Mist^jrk area continuously with amended water whenever necessary
       »o€ airborne fiber levels.
                     tstos-Containing Material  in  small sections
  Ira  all  areas.   Do not allow  material  to dry  out.   As  it is
 removed,  simultaneously  pack  material  while  still  vet  into
disposal  bags.    Twist neck  of bags,  bend over  and  seal  with
minimum three wraps of duct tape.  Clean outside and move to Wash
Down Station adjacent to Material Decontamination Unit.

                         USB  THE   FOLLOWING   IF  THE  MATERIAL
                         REMOVED  CONTAINS  AMOSITE   ASBESTOS.
                         OTHERWISE DELETE.

     Evacuate air  from  disposal  bags with a HEPA filtered vacuum
     cleaner before sealing.

                         IN THE PARAGRAPH BELOW REDUCE THE 20' TO
                         4'  IF  THE  MATERIAL  BEING   REMOVED
                         CONTAINS AMOSITE ASBESTOS.

                         THE  FOLLOWING  REFERS  TO HIGH PRESSURE
                         WASHERS.  THESE DEVICES CAN BE EXTREMELY
                         EFFECTIVE IN CLEANING BUT CAN ALSO CAUSE
                         FLOODING,   SPLATTERING,   AND   SPRAY
                         THROUGH  HOLES   INTO  ADJACENT  AREAS.
                         WORKER  SKILL AND JUDGMENT  IS NECESSARY
                         TO  ACHIEVE  DESIRED  RESULTS  WITH  THIS
                         EQUIPMENT.     USE  EXTREME   CAUTION  IN
                         SPECIFYING THIS TYPE OF EQUIPMENT.

Fireproofina  or Architectural  Finish  on Scratch  Coat;    Spray
aasbestos-containing   fireproofing   or  architectural  acoustic
finish with a fine mist of  amended water  or removal  encapsulant.
Allow time  for  amended water or removal  encapsulant to saturate

            REMOVAL OF  ASBESTOS  - CONTAINING MATERIALS   02081 - 5

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL AS£B$T0p ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION       August 12,  1988

              substrate.   Do  not over-saturate  to cause  excess
            Scrape materials from substrate.  Remove materials  in
            quantities and control the descent to  staging or floor
        if  over  20' use drop chute  to contain  material  during
     it.   If using amended water, spray mist surface continuously
during  work  process.    If  using  removal  encapsulant  follow
manufacturer's written instructions.  Remove residue remaining  on
scratch  coat  after scraping using  stiff  nylon  bristled  hand
brush.  Use high pressure washer only with written authorization
of  Owner's Representative.    If  a removal  encapsulant is  used
remove residue  completely  before encapsulant dries. If  substrate
dries  before complete   removal  of residue re-wet  with amended
water or removal encapsulant.

Fireproofincr  or  Architectural  Finish  on  wire  Lath;    Spray
asbestos-containing fireproofing or architectural  acoustic  finish
with  a fine mist of amended water or removal encapsulant.  Allow
time  for   amended  water  or  removal  encapsulant  to   saturate
material  completely.    Do  not  over-saturate  to cause  excess
dripping.    If surface of material  has  been painted or  otherwise
coated cut small holes  as required  and  apply amended  water  or
removal encapsulant from  above.   Cut wire  lath  into   2'  X  6'
sections  and  cut hanger wires.   Roll  or  fold up complete with
Asbestos-Containing Material and hand place in container.   Do not
drop  on  floor.    After  removal  of lath  and  Asbestos-Containing
Material  remove  any  overspray  on decking  and  structure  above
using stiff nylon bristled  brush.   Use high pressure washer only
with written  authorization  from  Owner's Representative.   Use one
of the following methods for containing waste.

     Deposit material in corrugated paper board box.  When  box  is
     full duct tape closed and place in disposal bag.

     Wrap  material  in  felt  and place  in  fiberboard  drum  lined
     with  two disposal  bags.    Use caution  to  insure  that all
     edges  of wire  lath that could cut plastic are covered with
     felt.

     Place  material  directly in a  steel  drum.    Seal  drums when
     full with leak tight seal.   Drum  is  to be  leak tight  in any
     orientation.

Pipe  Insulation:  Spray  with a mist of amended water  or removal
encapsulant.   Allow  amended  water  or removal  encapsulant  to
saturate  material  to  substrate.    If  a  removal   encapsulant  is
used, use  in  strict  accordance  with manufacturer's instructions.
Cut  bands  holding  preformed pipe  insulation,  slit  jackets  at
seams, remove   and  hand-place  in a  disposal  bag.  Remove job-
molded fitting insulation in chunks and hand  place in  a  disposal
bag.   Do  not drop  to  floor.   Remove  any residue  on  pipe or

            REMOVAL OP ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS   02081 - 6

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988
          *
        with stiff bristle  nylon  hand brush.   In locations where
      irting insulation is  removed from  pipe with straight runs
      ted  with  fibrous glass  or other  non-asbestos-containing
     us material, remove fibrous material 6" from the point where
   contacts the asbestos-containing insulation.


                         DELETE FOLLOWING IF  THERE  IS TO  BE  NO
                         DRY REMOVAL

DRY REMOVAL;

                         WET  REMOVAL AS  SPECIFIED  HEREIN  IS
                         REQUIRED  UNLESS  DAMAGE  TO  EQUIPMENT
                         RESULTING  FROM  THE  WETTING  WOULD  BE
                         UNAVOIDABLE.    IN   SUCH  CASE,   LOCAL
                         EXHAUST  VENTILATION  IN  PLACE  OF  WET
                         REMOVAL MIGHT BE USED, BUT ONLY WITH THE
                         WRITTEN  APPROVAL OF  THE UNITED  STATES
                         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY.    THE
                         OWNER'S  REPRESENTATIVE  SHOULD  HAVE  A
                         COPY OF EPA APPROVAL IN HAND BEFORE WORK
                         COMMENCES.     IF   LOCAL  VENTILATION
                         (SECTION  01513)   IS    TO  BE  USED  JU
                         ADDITION  TO  WET  REMOVAL METHODS,  EPA
                         APPROVAL IS NOT REQUIRED).

Drv Removal;  of Asbestos-Containing Materials is required in the
following areas where wetting may  create  a  hazard for workers or
damage equipment or finishes.

                         FOLLOWING  ARE  EXAMPLES.     EDIT  AS
                         REQUIRED BY PROJECT SPECIFICS.

     Electrical closet  on  each floor:   this  space  contains the
     vertical electrical bus for the building.  This bus operates
     at 480 volts and must be kept in operation at all times.

     Transformer  vault:     This  space  contains   four  large
     transformers operating at  14,000 volts on the primary side.
     These transformers must be kept in operation at all times.

     High pressure steam lines from  the  boiler header to Steam
     Turbine no. 2.  These  line are operating at 300 psi  and 422
     degrees Fahrenheit and cannot be shut down.

     North Data Processing Center:   This space contains operating
     computer  equipment that  must  be maintained  in  operation
     throughout the work.


            REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS  - CONTAINING MATERIALS   02081 - 7

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION
                                                  August 12, 1988
     Reading  Room:   The  damask vail coverings  in  this room are
     approximately 250 years old and extremely fragile.

            removal  area  from  balance of Work Area by a Critical
            described in  Section 01526 Temporary Enclosures and a
         differential between  the  dry removal area and Work Area
       ribed  in Section 01513 Pressure Differential System.
thorization;
Do  not
                                 begin  dry
authorized  in writing  by  the EPA  NESHAP
Owner's Representative.
                                             removal  work  until
                                             coordinator  and  the
                         THE  HISTORY  OF  ASBESTOS ABATEMENT  IN
                         THIS COUNTRY INCLUDES THE COPPER PLATING
                         OF AN ABATEMENT WORKER PERFORMING A WET
                         REMOVAL  NEAR AN  ELECTRICAL  BUS.   THIS
                         FATAL ACCIDENT  COULD HAVE  BEEN AVOIDED
                         BY PROPER  WORK  PROCEDURES  AND SPECIFIC
                         WORKER SKILLS.

                         FOLLOWING   IS   GENERAL  AND   SHOULD  BE
                         REVISED  WITH  THE  ADVICE OF  A  SAFETY
                         PROFESSIONAL.     THE   QUALIFIED
                         TRADESPERSON IN  SOME JURISDICTIONS WILL
                         BE A  LICENSED ELECTRICIAN.   IF THIS IS
                         THE CASE REVISE  THE FOLLOWING  TO MAKE
                         THE REQUIREMENT MORE SPECIFIC.
Active  Electrical  Ecmionent;     Do  not  wet  materials  in  the
vicinity  of  active   electrical   equipment.     Dry  remove  any
Asbestos-Containing   Materials   in  the  vicinity  of  active
electrical equipment.

     Restrict Access:   Maintain existing access  restrictions to
     areas  with  active electrical  equipment.    Allow  access to
     area only to qualified tradespersons with  prior experience
     in the installation and repair of involved equipment.

     Warning Signs:   Post  warning  signs at  the entry  point to
     active electrical  equipment as  required by  OSHA  or  other
     applicable regulation.

     Personnel;    Work on  active electrical equipment  is  to be
     performed  by  qualified tradespersons with  prior experience
     in  the installation or  repair  of  the involved equipment.
     Restrict access to electrical equipment.

     Electrical  Isolation:    Cover  exposed  conductors  with  a

            REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS  02081 - 8

   Copyright (c)  1988,  National  Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, 1988

     ninimuo\ ^/8"  thick  neoprene   blanket  draped  over  the
     condrcto? and surrounding area.
             Lve Equipment;   Provide  workers working on or in the
          iity  of  active  electrical  with  appropriate  protective
           lent  including  insulating  gloves,  boots,   and  non-
       iductive tools.

     Work  Procedures;    Perform  removal  work using  "Localized
     Control  of  Material Release"  and  "Local Ventilation  and
     Collection System" procedures described below.

Hot Equipment;  Do  not  wet materials on hot piping or equipment.
Dry remove any Asbestos-Containing Materials on hot equipment.

     Restrict Access;   Maintain  any  existing access restrictions
     to  areas  with hot  equipment.    Provide  railing or  other
     barriers  to  prevent accidental  contact  with  hot  equipment.
     Allow access to area only  to  qualified  tradespersons with
     prior experience with the type of equipment involved.

     Warning  Signs;   Post  warning  signs  at  hot equipment  as
     required by OSHA or other applicable regulation.

     Personnel;   Work  on hot equipment is  to be  performed by
     qualified  tradespersons with  prior experience with the type
     of  equipment  involved.    Restrict  access  to  electrical
     equipment.

     Re-insulation;   Re-insulate  equipment immediately following
     visual  inspection.   Do  not allow  more than 8  linear feet of
     piping to be exposed at any time.

     Protective Equipment;   Provide  workers working on or in the
     vicinity   of   hot   equipment  with  appropriate  protective
     equipment  including insulating gloves, boots,  and coveralls.

     Work  Procedures;    Perform  removal  work using  "Localized
     Control  of  Material Release"  and  "Local Ventilation  and
     Collection System" procedures described below.
LOCALIZED CONTROL OF MATERIA
                         ALWAYS  USE  FOLLOWING  FOR  DRY  REMOVAL
                         PROJECTS .

                         FOLLOWING  ARE   EXAMPLES   OF  EXTREMELY
                         CAREFUL WORK  PRACTICES WHICH  WILL HELP
                         TO  KEEP  FIBER  LEVELS  LOW  ON  A  DRY

            REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS  - CONTAINING MATERIALS   02081 - 9

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

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MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12,.

                         REMOVAL  OR AN  AMOSITE JOB.
                         REQUIRED BY JOB SPECIFICS.
                                                            •  ..'.'£ '•..i"S
-------
MODEL ASBSTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION      August 12, ises
                of duct  so  that air  flow  is horizontally  and
slighpiyaownward into  intake.   Replace primary  filters on HE PA
f iltjfc^dxfan units at an  interval of  no  greater that 30 minutes.
All/ov&o «ore than one scraping or wire brushing activity per fan


                         USE ABOVE  AND DELETE BELOW  IF THE WORK
                         INVOLVES SCRAPING MATERIAL OFF A SCRATCH
                         COAT OR OTHER OPERATION THAT IS GOING TO
                         GENERATE   A  CONSIDERABLE  AMOUNT  OF
                         DEBRIS.     BELOW   IS  APPROPRIATE  FOR
                         REMOVAL OF PREMOLDED  PIPE INSULATION OR
                         CUTTING WIRE LATH FOR REMOVAL.

Attach a  job-built 4*  X  4' flared  end  piece  on intake  end of
duct.  Support  end piece  horizontally  at a  point  4'-0" below the
work, so that airflow is downward into intake.

END OF SECTION - 02081
            REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS  02081 - 11

   Copyright (c) 1988,  National Institute of Building Sciences

-------
Replacement  Specifications
         Exhibit

-------
   Copyright  1987, AIA
MASTERSPEC                 11/87
SECTIOMffllQ4X> -^PROJECT COORDINATION
                                        THIS  SECTION   USES   THE
                                        TERM "ARCHITECT".  CHANGE
                                        THIS TERM AS NECESSARY TO
                                        MATCH  THE   ACTUAL  TERM
                                        USED  TO  IDENTIFY   THE
                                        DESIGN   PROFESSIONAL  AS
                                        DEFINED  IN  THE  GENERAL
                                        AND   SUPPLEMENTARY
                                        CONDITIONS.
PART 1 - GENERAL
RELATED DOCUMENTS

Drawings and  general provisions  of  Contract,  including  General
and Supplementary  Conditions  and other  Division-1  Specification
Sections,  apply to this Section.
SUMMARY

This   Section  specifies   adr.inistrative   and  supervisory
requirements  necessary  for  Project  coordination  including,  but
not necessarily limited to:

                                        DELETE  REQUIREMENTS  NOT
                                        INCLUDED  FROM  THE  LIST
                                        BELOW.    INSERT  SPECIAL
                                        REQUIREMENTS,   AS
                                        NECESSARY.     DO   NOT
                                        CONFLICT WITH  GENERAL OR
                                        SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS.

     Coordination.
     Administrative and supervisory personnel.
     General installation provisions.
     Cleaning and protection.

                                        FIELD   ENGINEERING   AND
                                        PROJECT  MEETINGS   ARE
                                        OFTEN   INCORPORATED   IN
                                        THIS  SECTION   ON  SMALL
                                        PROJECTS.  IF INCLUDED IN
   PROJECT  COORDINATION         ?*%£*+»£,            0104° ~
                              •?;« bt ::XM -if tkc :

-------
   Copyright 1987, AIA
                               MASTERSPEC
11/87
                                         THIS  SECTION,  DELETE  THE
                                         NEXT  TWO PARAGRAPHS.
Field eagj-Tfefrrinq  is  included  in Section  "Field Engineering".
       T
Pr
CO
          'meetings,  coordination  neetings  and  pre-installation
        ces are included in Section "Project Meetings".

                                        REVISE   THE   PARAGRAPH
                                        BELOW   IF  EITHER   THE
                                        NARROWSCOPE   SECTION
                                        "SCHEDULES  AND  REPORTS"
                                        IS  USED OR  IF A  CPM-TYPE
                                        CONTRACTOR'S CONSTRUCTION
                                        SCHEDULE   IS   USED.
                                        COORDINATE WITH  SECTIONS
                                        DEALING   WITH  SCHEDULES
                                        AND REPORTS.
Requirements  for  the  Contractor's
included in Section "Subnittals" .
                                      Construction   Schedule  are
COORDINATION

                                        REQUIREMENTS   IN  THE
                                        ARTICLE  BELOW  AMPLIFY
                                        COORDINATION  REQUIREMENTS
                                        INCLUDED  IN  THE  GENERAL
                                        CONDITIONS.   DELETE  THIS
                                        ARTICLE   IF   REQUIREMENTS
                                        IN THE GENERAL  CONDITIONS
                                        SATISFY    PROJECT
                                        REQUIREMENTS  AND SPECIFIC
                                        ACTIONS SPECIFIED IN  THIS
                                        ARTICLE   ARE    NOT
                                        REQUIRED.

Coordination;   Coordinate  construction activities included under
various Sections  of  these  Specifications to assure efficient and
orderly  installation  of  each part  of  the  Work.     Coordinate
construction operations  included  under different Sections of the
Specifications  that are dependent  upon each  other  for proper
installation, connection, and operation.

     Where  installation  of  one part of the  Work is dependent  on
     installation of other cor.ponents, either before  or after its
   PROJECT COORDINATION
                                                      01040 - 2
                           T1S a *fs*tt< H f.yt4.n tri «• t-i
                                  Ni !»•*«
                                  «.- n* ::;)

-------
Copyright 1987, AIA
                              MASTERSPEC
11/87
   own  insta]
   sequence
                  tion,  schedule  construction activities  in the
                  aJred to obtain the best results.
  Whe
              variability   of  space   is  limited,   coordinate
              ion  of  different  components  to  assure  maximum
            bility for required maintenance, service and repair.

          adequate provisions  to  accommodate items scheduled for
     later installation.

Where necessary, prepare memoranda for distribution to each party
involved outlining special  procedures  required for coordination.
Include such  items  as required notices,  reports,  and attendance
at meetings.

     Prepare  similar   memoranda   for   the  Owner  and  separate
     Contractors where coordination of their Work is required.

Administrative  Procedures:   Coordinate scheduling  and timing of
required   administrative   procedures   with  other  construction
activities to avoid  conflicts  and ensure  orderly progress of the
Work.    Such  administrative  activities   include,  but  are  not
limited to, the following:

                                        INSERT   ADDITIONAL
                                        ADMINISTRATIVE
                                        ACTIVITIES   NEEDED  TO
                                        SATISFY  SPECIAL  PROJECT
                                        REQUIREMENTS.

     Preparation of schedules.
     Installation and removal of temporary facilities.
     Delivery and processing of submittals.
     Progress meetings.
     Project Close-out activities.

                                        PROVISIONS  IN  THE  NEXT
                                        PARAGRAPH    MAY   BE
                                        DIFFICULT TO ENFORCE.  AT
                                        BEST   PROVISIONS   FOR
                                        CONSERVATION  ARE  USEFUL
                                        IN  CONTRACT  NEGOTIATION.
                                        IF PENALTIES FOR WASTEFUL
                                        PRACTICES  ARE  DESIRED,
                                        REQUIREMENTS  ARE   MORE
                                        ENFORCEABLE   IF  MADE  A
                                        "CONDITION   OF    THE
PROJECT COORDINATION
                                                      01040 - 3
                              ': nrtttit r
                         .     * W.-.P •'
                       tit M n-tttt fctr »e :cv

-------
   Copyright 1987,  AIA        MASTERSPEC                  11/87
                                        CONTRACT"  AND  ADDED  TO
                                        ARTICLE   3.3    BY
                                        SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS.
                                        INSERT    SPECIFIC
                                        CONSERVATION REQUIREMENTS
                                        IN   THE  APPROPRIATE
                                        SECTIONS  IN  DIVISIONS-2
                                        THROUGH-16.
\
                oordinate  construction  activities  to  ensure  that
opera t i9w  are   carried  out  with  consideration   given  to
conserW£Con/of energy, water,  and materials.

             materials and equipnent  involved  in performance of,
         not actually  incorporated  in,  the Work.   Refer to other
               for  disposition  of  salvaged  materials  that  are
     designated as Owner's property.


SUBMTTTALS

                                        THE REQUIREMENT  BELOW FOR
                                        COORDINATION DRAWINGS  IS
                                        REDUNDANT IF INSTALLATION
                                        IS COMPLETELY COVERED  IN
                                        A  SINGLE  SECTION   OR
                                        SHOWN  COMPLETELY ON  SHOP
                                        DRAWINGS .

Coordination Drawings;  Prepare and submit coordination Drawings
where close and careful coordination is required for installation
of  products  and   materials   fabricated   off-site by   separate
entities,  and  where  limited   space  availability  necessitates
maximum  utilization  of  space  for  efficient  installation  of
different components.

     Show the  interrelationship  of components shown on  separate
     Shop Drawings.

     Indicate required installation sequences.

     Comply with requirenents contained in Section  "Submittals. "

     Refer  to   Division-15  Section  "Basic  Mechanical
     Requirements,"  and   Division-16  Section  "Basic Electrical
     Requirements" for specific coordination Drawing requirements
     for mechanical and electrical  installations.
   PROJECT COORDINATION                               01040 - 4

-------
   Copyright  1987, AIA
MASTERSPEC
11/87
              N
              Within  15 days  of Notice  to Proceed,  submit a list
            cactor's  principal  staff assignments,  including the
            nt  and  other personnel  in attendance  at  the site;
          individuals,  their  duties  and  responsibilities;  list
          esses and telephone numbers.

       jst copies  of the  list  in the  Project meeting  room,  the
     temporary field office, and each temporary telephone.

                                        INSERT    SPECIAL
                                        REQUIREMENTS  FOR   THE
                                        SUPERINTENDENT  AND
                                        ASSISTANTS THAT ARE  OVER
                                        AND  ABOVE   REQUIREMENTS
                                        CONTAINED IN  GENERAL AND
                                        SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS.
PART 2 - PRODUCTS  (Not Applicable)
PART 3 - EXECUTION
GENERAL INSTALLATION PROVISIONS

                                        RETAIN THE  ARTICLE BELOW
                                        ONLY   AS   A   MEANS   OF
                                        DELETING   SIMILAR
                                        PARAGRAPHS   FROM   OTHER
                                        SECTIONS.

Inspection of  Conditions;   Require  the  Installer  of  each major
component  to  inspect  both the  substrate  and  conditions under
which   Work  is  to   be  performed.    Do   not  proceed  until
unsatisfactory conditions  have been  corrected  in  an  acceptable
manner.

Manufacturer's  Instructions:     Comply  with  manufacturer's
installation instructions and  recommendations, to the extent that
those  instructions  and  recommendations  are more explicit  or
stringent than requirements contained in Contract Documents.

Inspect  materials   or  equipment  immediately  upon  delivery  and
again prior to installation.  Reject damaged and defective items.
   PROJECT COORDINATION
                       01040 - 5
                            M S i
                            
-------
   Copyright 1987,  AIA
MASTERSPEC
11/87
             chroent  and connection  devices and methods  necessary
              Work.   Secure  Work  true to  line  and level.   Allow
         sion and building movement.

        Effects:   Provide  uniform joint widths  in exposed Work.
      e joints  in  exposed Work to obtain the best visual effect.
      questionable choices to the Architect  for  final decision.

Recheck   measurements   and   dimensions,   before  starting  each
installation.

Install  each  component  during  weather  conditions  and Project
status that  will ensure the  best possible results.  Isolate each
part of the  completed construction from incompatible material as
necessary to prevent deterioration.

Coordinate  temporary  enclosures   with required inspections and
tests,   to  minimize   the   necessity  of  uncovering   completed
construction for that purpose.

Mounting  Heights;    Where mounting  heights  are  not   indicated,
install   individual   components   at  standard  mounting  heights
recognized  within  the  industry  for  the  particular application
indicated.   Refer  questionable mounting height  decisions to the
Architect for final decision.
CLEANING AND PROTECTION

                                        PROVISIONS  IN  THE  NEXT
                                        ARTICLE  ARE  INTENDED  TO
                                        REDUCE  OR  ELIMINATE  THE
                                        NEED   FOR    SIMILAR
                                        PROVISIONS   IN  OTHER
                                        SECTIONS.    INSERT
                                        PROVISIONS NEEDED BECAUSE
                                        OF    UNIQUE   PROJECT
                                        CONDITIONS.     HOWEVER,
                                        UNUSUAL  PROVISIONS  FOR
                                        SPECIFIC  UNITS  OF  WORK
                                        SHOULD  BE  SPECIFIED  IN
                                        THE  INDIVIDUAL  UNIT  OF
                                        WORK SECTION.

During handling and  installation,  clean and protect construction
in progress and  adjoining materials in place.   Apply protective
   PROJECT COORDINATION
                       01040 - 6
                       ill S e.
                        f
                         5c
                            t'. It Tfft:.:<
                                     - »tj

-------
Copyright 1987, AIA
                               MASTERSPEC
                                                          11/87
covern
deteri
             re  required  to  ensure  protection  from  damage  or
          ion at Substantial Completion.
             maintain  completed  construction  as  frequently  as
           through  the  remainder  of  the  construction  period.
        and lubricate  operable  components  to  ensure  operability
        damaging effects.

Limiting Exposures;   Supervise  construction activities  to ensure
that no  part of the  construction, completed  or in progress,  is
subject to harmful, dangerous, damaging, or  otherwise  deleterious
exposure during the construction period.  Where applicable,  such
exposures include,  but are not limited  to, the  following:

                                         DELETE  ITEMS   FROM   THE
                                         LIST BELOW THAT ARE  NOT
                                         APPROPRIATE   FOR  THE
                                         PROJECT.    ADD  ITEMS  TO
                                         SATISFY    PROJECT
                                         REQUIREMENTS .

     Excessive static or dynamic loading.
     Excessive internal or external pressures.
     Excessively high or low temperatures.
     Thermal shock.
     Excessively high or low humidity.
     Air contamination or pollution.
     Water or ice.
     Solvents.
     Chemicals.
     Light.
     Radiation.
     Puncture.
     Abrasion.
     Heavy traffic.
     Soiling, staining and corrosion.
     Bacteria.
     Rodent and insect infestation.
     Combustion.
     Electrical current.
     High speed operation,
     Improper lubrication,
     Unusual wear or other misuse.
     Contact between incompatible  materials.
     Destructive testing.
     Misalignment.
     Excessive weathering.
   PROJECT COORDINATION
                                                      01040 - 7
                                         t ut en
                                    hr irtw it j-**fl,»-
                                 •! art -.tn tt :.)r
-------
   Copyright  1987,  AIA         MASTERSPEC                  11/87
     UnproCacrcd storage.
     Impn^ppr/shipping or  handling.
     Th«
     Vattdattism.
END OF SECTION 01040
  PROJECT COORDINATION                                 01040  - 8
                             TTS i Mkxjrt 3 ftjftd;* jrj ml l» S
                             t«*r »ti« vu»« IK tv-he Ry<

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MASTERSPECT
SECTION COVER  SHEET
Explaining scope and basis or this issue
                                                           . LIBRARY
                                                          Basic \Vrs;on
                                           KTRI :< HI JRAL/CI VIIl.lBRARY
                                                              Vorcion
 Cnpyngh! 1992 by Th* AjT«-nr«n Irvttilulo of Arr-hilrcti ITi.'. NVw York Ar.-n-.n-. N \V . \Vn.ihinfalf»d
locations but also a variety of highpr density  products for nxpowd locations rynirmffr/n more fir.:shc>d
appearance a« well as greater resiKtnnce to physical abuso. detpnoratio(^i»fn weaTJler, air orosjnn. and
higher humidituw.                                            / f     /\

Related Sections: Rpfcr to "Specification C