PB94-780C38 EPA MODEL CURRICULUM FOR TRAINING ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGNERS Student Manual Georgia Environmental Institute 4501 Circle 75 Parkway. Ste C-3100 Atlanta, Georgia 30339 Produced under EPA Grant *CX816386-01 EPA Project Officer. Karen Hottman Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 401M Street. S.W. Washington. DC 20460 ------- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This manual contains ideas, procedures and information which are the contributions of many individuals from a variety of disciplines. Information from existing EPA guidance documents and other EPA asbestos course curricula has been utilized where appropriate along with additional information which has not been previously included in these resources. We are grateful to all of those who have patiently worked toward improving our technology in the area of asbestos hazard detection, evaluation and control. This multidisciplinary effort is reflected in this course manual, not only by those who have assembled the information, but also by those who have reviewed it. We express sincere thanks to Karen Hoffman of the EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Her efforts as Project Officer greatly contributed to the integrity of the document and made our task more enjoyable. We also express our appreciation to Robert Jordan, PhD, of the EPA for his technical review and support. This manual is the result of a team effort by Individuals of The Environmental Institute and Diagnostic Environmental, Inc. in Atlanta, Georgia and Gobbell Hays Partners, Inc. (GHP) of Nashville, Tennessee. GHP conceptualized and developed the design laboratory/ workshop portion of the course. A special thanks to Phyllis Gobbell, Bill Echols, Steve Hays and Ron Gobbell for their innovative ideas and outstanding workmanship. The Atlanta group developed Sections I-XII. The following are recognized for the excellent work and dedication to the effort: Alan Agadoni, Bonnie Bonham, Corlette Dennard, Tod Dawson, Bill Ewing, Rachel McCain, WIIDam Spain and Michael Thompson. We express our gratitude to Mr. Lloyd Fox of Environmental Insurance Management Services, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia for reviewing and updating the section on Legal and Insurance Considerations. We also wish to acknowledge the following individuals and groups for the generous time and tenacious effort in providing technical review to portions or all of the document. Frank Bull Bull, Brown & Kilgo Architects, AIA, Atlanta, Georgia Herman Clark, Esq. Clark and Justice, Marietta, Georgia Stephen Connelly Balsam Environmental Consultants, Inc., Salem, New Hampshire Warren Friedman, PhD, CIH U.S. General Service Administration, Washington, D.C. ------- Alan Galson Bob Greene Dave Hogue Lynn Lammer Thomas Mitchell Andy Oberta, CIH David Pinzer, GET Robert Repas Dave Quillin Jim Werner Galson Corporation, East Syracuse. New York GLE Associates, Tampa, Florida Corporation for Environmental Management, Indianapolis, Indiana Midwest Asbestos Consultants, Fargo, North Dakota Memphis City Schools, Memphis, Tennessee Environmental Consultant, Brentwood, Tennessee H+GCL Environmental Scientists and Engineers, Boston Massachusettes Robert J. Repas and Associates, Inc., Elyria, Ohio John Deere, Waterloo, Iowa M & O Abatement, East Hazel Crest, Illinois ------- NOTICE The National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) is the publisher of Asbestos Abatement and Management in Buildings, Model Guide Specifications. NIBS has granted permission for portions of the second edition (dated August 12, 1988) of that document to he incorporated into the EFA sponsored Instructors' Manual and Student's Manual of the EPA Curriculum for Training Asbestos Abatement Project Designers. Those documents are used to train asbestos abatement designers. An Introduction and Instructions for Use and two new sections on removal of sheet and tile flooring were added to the NIBS Guide in 1992. The portions of this document contributed by NIBS arc copyrighted by the National Institute of Building Sciences and their use for purposes other than described in this notice are prohibited. It is very important that the portions of the Guide included in this manual not be used for purposes other than the training programs authorized by NIBS. This requirement is for your protection. The Guide is designed to be used as a comprehensive tool and the instructions for its use and the specification sections contain important interrelated information that help protect workers, occupants, the public and the environment. Such protection may not be afforded if sections are used independently for asbestos abatement design without the benefit of the information in the Introduction and Instructions for Use and other technical sections. The Guide is not untcnded to be utilized for abatement projects in its unedited form. Users (editors) of the Guide, should be knowledgeable in asbestos abatement design and qualified by training and experience in such work. Inappropriate use of the Guide could result in improper asbestos abatement and serious liability exposure. A copy of the NIBS Guide, including computer useable forms, can be obtained from the National Institute of Building Sciences, Publications Department, 1201 L Street, N.W., Suite 400, Washington, D.C. 20005. Telephone (202) 289-7800, FAX (202) 289-1092. ------- EPA MODEL CURRICULUM FOR TRAINING ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGNERS TABLE OF CONTENTS I Overview of Course Content and Objectives 1 II Background Information 1 A. Introduction 1 B. Description of Asbestos 1 C. Asbestos-Containing Products 3 D. Common Types of ACM Involved in Project Design 5 E. Building Survey Protocol and Sample Analysis 9 F. Options tor Control 11 G. Summary „ 14 H. Review Questions 15 II Asbestos Exposure and Its Effect on Health A, Asbestos Exposure - The Route of Entry 1 B. The Respiratory System and Its Defense Mechanisms lor Asbestos 2 C. Asbestosis 4 D. Lung Cancer 6 E. Mesothelioma 7 F. Other Diseases Associated with Asbestos Exposure 9 G. Recognition of Controversial Issues 11 H. Summary 13 I. Review Questions 14 ------- IV Overview of Conducting an Abatement Project and Roles of Various Disciplines A. Introduction 1 B. Role of Various Disciplines 1 C. Sequential Considerations for Conducting An Asbestos Removal Project 8 D. Summary 20 E. Review Questions 21 V Considerations In Designing Engineering Controls A. Introduction 1 B. Containment of the Work Area 2 C. Removal of ACM - Confining and Minimizing Airborne Fibers 18 D. Wet Removal of Asbestos-Containing Material 26 E. Dry Removal Techniques 33 F. Cleaning Up the Work Area 34 G. Waste Disposal 42 H. Summary 46 L Review Questions 48 VI Abatement In Occupied Buildings A. Introduction 1 B. Factors to Consider In the Design Phase 2 C. Vertical Shafts 12 D. Fire Safety 16 E. Water Leaks To Floors Below Abatement Project 20 F. Logistical Considerations And Public Relations 20 ------- GL Summary 23 H. Review Questions 24 VII Protection of Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel A. Introduction 1 B. Respiratory System 2 C. Respiratory Hazards 2 D. Categories of Respirators 4 E. Use of Approved Respirators and Components 10 F. Protection Factors 11 G. Respirator Fit Testing 15 H. Typical Respirator Use During Asbestos Response Actions 19 L Respiratory Protection Program 21 J. Protective Clothing and Other Protective Equipment 30 K. Putting Protective Clothing On 34 L Taking Protective Clothing Off 35 M. For Further Information 37 N. Respirator Program Checklist 37 O. Review Questions 43 VIII Safety Considerations A. Introduction 1 B. Electrical Safety 2 C. Scaffolding Safely 7 D. Ladder Safety 10 E. Walking and Working Surfaces 12 F. Fire Safety 13 ------- G. Emergency Procedures 16 H. Heat-Related Disorders 19 L Carbon Monoxide Hazards 22 J. Personal Protective Equipment 24 K. Hazard Communication Standard 25 L Review Questions 32 IX Air Sampling Protocols, Requirements and Data Interpretation A. Introduction 1 B. Purposes of Air Monitoring and Regulatory Requirements 1 C. Air Sampling Equipment 14 D. Analytical Alternatives 17 E. Data Interpretation 21 F. Qualifications of the Air Monitor and Project Monitor 25 G. Qualifications for Analytical Laboratory 26 H. Summary 29 L Review Questions 30 X Lockdown and Replacement Materials A. Introduction 1 B. Lockdown 1 C. Replacement 8 D. Hearth Effects of Substitutes 15 E. Summary 17 F. Review Questions 18 ------- XI Legal and Insurance Considerations A. Introduction 1 B. Liability of Project Designers 1 C. Insurance Considerations for Project Designers 6 D. Types of Insurance Coverage 8 E. Contracts for Abatement Work. 11 F. Some Important Issues Related to Contract Specifications 13 G. Conclusion 26 H. Review Questions 27 XII Federal, State and Local Regulatory Requirements A. Introduction 1 B. EPA Regulations ~ 2 C. Consumer Product Safety Commission 20 D. OSHA Regulations 21 E. Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulations 30 F. State and Local Regulations 39 G. Review Questions 40 XIII Design Workshop XIV Field Trip Glossary ------- Appendices A, Recommended Specifications and Operating Procedures for the Use of Negative Pressure Systems for Asbestos Abatement B. Procedures and Equipment for Using A Glovebag C. Breathing Air Systems Via ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section I - O/wviow of Court* Contort jnd Oty*c5v*s OVERVIEW OF COURSE CONTENT AND OBJECTIVES In accordance with the 1986 Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated regulations which established training and examination requirements for various disciplines associated with asbestos hazard evaluation and control in schools. These disciplines include inspectors, management planners, project designers, abatement contractors/supervisors and abatement workers. The training requirements also delineate the topics which must be included in the curricula for each discipline and the minimum number of days for each course presentation. EPA established five regional university training centers to serve as sources of the required training programs. A mechanism was also established for approving training entities. Currently, approval of training providers is conducted at the state level. EPA also provided funding to develop model curricula for each of the disciplines which Includes a student manual, instructor's manual and visual aids. These curricula are available from National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at 704-487-4650. for a nominal fee. This student manual is the EPA model curriculum developed for asbestos abatement project designers. As a matter of interest the portion of the Model Accreditation Plan (40 CFR Part 763) that applies to project designers has been excerpted from the Thursday. April 30. 1987, Federal Register and included at the end of this section. Thfe curriculum covers all the topics listed in the model accreditation plan with the exception that a design workshop has been substituted for a field trip. While the model plan requires a minimum of three days training tor project designers, four days is recommended to adequately cover the contents of this manual. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section I - Cvwvww of COUTMI Content and ObfoctKfos Pag* 2 As with other EPA model curricula, there is no mandatory prerequisite training or qualifications required for those attending this course. However, EPA recommended and several states have established additional qualifications for project designers such as being a registered architect, engineer or certified industrial hygienist Because there is no EPA prerequisite, the model curriculum provides background information on asbestos including physical characteristics, uses and health effects. A review of the Table of Contents indicates this curriculum consists of twelve additional sections that will be covered in lectures with slides and overhead transparencies; and a design laboratory which will provide students with hands-on opportunity to design a project by solving a series of design problems. Study questions are provided at the end of each section to help students focus on the most important information and prepare for the required exam. There are several advantages to using an AH ERA accredited project designer for all asbestos abatement projects. Furthermore, accredited designers are mandatory for some projects. For example, EPA/AHERA regulations 40 CFR 763.91 require accredited asbestos project designers for the following projects in schools (grades K-12): • 'any maintenance activities disturbing friable ACBM, other than small-scale. short-duration maintenance activities'; • the response action for any major fiber release episode.* ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section I - Overview of Course Content and Objectives Pa0»3 The Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Reauthortzation Act (ASMARA) which took effect on November 28, 1992, has extended the requirement for using an AHERA accredited project designer to design response actions in public and commercial buildings, as well as schools. These course materials are intended to help project designers generate and enforce written specifications and project plans which meet or exceed federal regulations and other appropriate criteria. Written specifications are necessary to ensure a successful abatement project, regardless of the size, and are necessary to establish the scope of work, set parameters for how the project is done, and set the criteria for determining when the work is completed. The specifications should help minimize at least five potential problems which can be involved with asbestos abatement projects: health, pubGcity, government regulations, contract disputes and law suits. These potential problems cannot be eliminated by merely having the contractor comply with federal, state and local regulations. In some cases, more stringent criteria are needed to provide adequate protection of the involved parties during the projects. The course material cites several instances where this is the case. There are various types or styles of design specifications. If the designer chooses to specify exactly how the work must be set up, done and completed, then they are called "means and methods" style of specifications. If the specifications state what must be accomplished, basic limitations of performance and criteria for measuring completion, then they are called "performance" style of specifications. Furthermore, specifications which list brand names are called "proprietary" and those which do not are called ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section I - Ovwvtow of Coura« Content vtd Otyecttvw Pa0»4 "nonproprietary." Each style has some advantages and some disadvantages which are presented as part of the notebook materials and lectures. Most specifications are a mix of several styles. The objective of the curriculum is to provide students with fundamental technical information related to asbestos abatement project design that can be incorporated into written specifications. This information may be augmented by additional project experiences and current events interjected by the presenters. It is not presumed that a three- or four-day training program can provide all of the information or experience necessary to correctly design an asbestos abatement project. The information In this course will serve as a technical supplement on asbestos work practices to those who are already designing projects and as a basic primer on design techniques for those who are familiar with asbestos issues but have limited design experience. Using the Manual There is a glossary in the Appendix of this manual which covers most of the important terms and definitions. Throughout the manual these terms are underlined to remind the reader they are in the glossary. Important words and phrases have been highlighted in bold print throughout the manual to help focus the reader's attention. Also, questions are provided at the end of each section to provide a review of important information. ------- SnUOENTMMiUAL AS8EST06 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section I - Ove«v»e» of Course Coolant and CbjscsVe* P«ge5 EPA Model Accreditation Plan Requirements or Asbestos Abatement Project Designers C Abatement Project Designer*. A SUtt shall require that all persona seeking sccreditatioe as abatement project designers complete either • S- day abatement project designer training coum as outlined below or tht 4-dajr asbestos abatement contractor and supervisor's training COOTM that la outlined in the next sub-unit The 3-dajr abatement project designer training program (hall include lecture*. demonstrations, • Held trip, coant review, and a written examine Hoa. EPA recommend* the use of audiovisual materials to comptememt lectures, where appropriate. The 3-day abatement project designer training coarse shall adequately address the following topics: (a) Background information on asbestos. Identification of asbestos; examples and discussion of the uses and locations of asbestos in buildings; physical appearance of asbestos. (b) Potential health effects related to asbestoe exposure. Nature of asbestos- related diseases; routes of exposure: dose-response relationship* and the lack of a safe exposure level; the synergistic effect between cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure; (he latency period of asbestos-related diseases: a discussion of the relationship between asbestoe exposure and asbettosis, lung cancer. mesotheliosa. and cancer of other organs. (c) Overview of abatement construction prefect*. Abatement as e portion of a renovation project OSHA requirements for notification of other contractors on a multi-employer site (29 CFR 1928.53). (d) Safety system design specification*. Construction and maintenance of containment barriers and decontamination enclosure systems; positioning of warning signs; electrical and ventilation system lock-out proper working techniques for minimizing fiber release entry and exit procedures for the work area; use of wet methods; use of negative pressure exhaust ventilation equipment use of high efficiency particulaU aerosol fHEPA) vacuums: proper clean-up and disposal of asbestos: work practices as they apply to encapsulation, enclosure, and repair; use of glove bags and a demoostraboo of glove bag use. (e) Field trip. ViaH an abatement site or othet suitable building site, including en-site discussions of abatement design. building walk-through inspection, and discussion following the walk-through. (f) Eaptoyve, personal protective eqwpmeot. To include the classes and characteristics of respirator types: limitations of respirators; proper selection, inspection, donning, use. maintenance, and storage procedures; methods for field testing facepieesMo-fac* seal (positive and negative pressure fitting tests): qualitative and quantitative fit testing procedures: variability between field and laboratory protection factors; factors that alter respirator fit (eg, facial hair* components of e proper respiratory protection program: selection and use of personal protective clothin* use, storage, and handling of non-disposable de-thing: and regulations covering persona) protective equipment. (g) Additional safety hazards. Hazards encountered during abatement activities and how to deal with them. including electrical hazards, beat stress. air contaminants other than asbestos. fire and explosion hazards. (h) Fiber aerodynamics and control. Aerodynamic characteristics of asbestos fibers; importance of proper containment barriers; settling time for asbestos fibers: wet methods in abatement aggressive air monitoring following abatement aggressive air movement and negative pressure exhsusl ventilation as a dean-up method. (i] Designing abatement solutions. Discussions of removal, enclosure, and encapsulation methods: asbestos waste disposal (j) Budgeting/cost estimation. Development of cost estimates: present costs 01 abatement versus future operations and maintenance costs: setting priorities for abatement jobs to reduce coat. (V) Writing abatenent specifications. Means and methods specifications versus performance specifications; design of abatement in occupied buildings: modification of guide specifications to a particular building: worker and building occupant health/ medical considerations: replacement of ACM with non-asbestos substitutes: clearance of work area after abatement air monitoring for clearance. Excerpted from 40 CFR Part 763. Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Proposed Rule and Model Accreditation Plan; Rule. Federal Register. Vol. 52. No. 83. Thursday. April 30.1987. ------- STU06HT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section I - Overview of Course CoMBnt and Ofepctfcw p.g.6 EPA Model Accreditation Plan Requirements or Asbestos Abatement Project Designers (1) Preparing abatement drawing* Use of as-built drawing* UM of Inspection photograph! and oa-tite reports; particular problems in abatement drawings. (m) Contract preparation and administration. (n) Legol/liabilitiet/deftnses. Insurance considerations: bonding; hold harmless clause*; use of abatement contractor's liability insurance dains- made versus occurrence policies. (o) Replacement Replacement of asbestos with asbestos-bee substitutes. (p) Rcie of other consultants. Development of technical specification sections by industrial hygjenists or engineer*, the multidisciplinary team approach to abatement design. (q) Occupied buildings. Special design procedures required in occupied buildings; education of occupants; extra monitoring recommendations: staging of work to minimize occupant exposure: scheduling of renovation to minimize exposure. (r) Relevant Federal State. a,id local regulatory requirement. Procedures and standards, including: (1] Requirements of TSCA Title D. (2] 40 CFR Part 81. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Subparts A (General Provu:ons) and M (National Emission Standard for Asbestos). (3) OSHA standards for permissible exposure to airborne concentrations of asbestos fibers and respiratory protection (29 CFR 1910.134). (4) EPA Worker Protection Rule, found at 40 CFR Part 703. Subpart C. (S) OSHA Asbestos Construction Standard found at 29 CFR 192&M. (s) Courte Review. A review of key aspects of the training course. Excerpted from 40 CFR Part 763, Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Proposed Rule and Model AccnxStation Plan; Rule. Federal Register, Vol. 52, No. 83. Thursday. April 30.1967. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMEHT PROJECT DESIGN S«c*an II - Background Information Pagsl BACKGROUND INFORMATION INTRODUCTION Many factors must be evaluated before deciding to conduct an asbestos abatement project. This section is intended to provide the project designer with insight into a variety of asbestos-related issues that ultimately influence the design process. These considerations range from the fundamentals of locating and identifying asbestos- containing materials to the tasks of assessing the potential hazard and selecting the most appropriate response action. In schools, the project designer will be coordinating efforts with the local education agency's (LEA) designee who Is responsible for short and long term management planning to control asbestos hazards. Although there is no regulatory requirement for a designated asbestos coordinator in commercial and public buildings and industrial facilities, often a staff person has been appointed. DESCRIPTION OF ASBESTOS Asbestos is a generic term which includes a number of fibrous minerals. The various types of asbestos minerals occur predominantly in metamorphic rock where they crystallize in narrow veins as parallel bundles of tiny fibers. A fiber bundle may contain as many as a milion of the minute fibrils. When dispersed into the air. these fibrils may remain airborne for several hours. Three distinctive characteristics of asbestos fibers are apparent when viewed under a microscope. Asbestos fibers are very small, they are much ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS86STOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socfton II - Background Information Pago 2 longer than they are wide and there Is a noticeable variation In diameter of the Individual fibrils. The different types of asbestos are placed into two mineralogic categories termed serpentines and amphiboles. Minerals in these groups are distinguished by their chemical composition and their crystalline structure. Serpentines and amphiboles exhibit different physical properties which are Important from a project designer's viewpoint. For example, the amphiboles do not wet as easily as the serpentines. Therefore, it may be more difficult to keep airborne fiber levels down when removing materials containing amphibole asbestos material. The only fibrous asbestos in the serpentine group is chrysolite, sometimes referred to as white asbestos. It comprises more than 90 percent of all the asbestos that has been used in commercial products in the Unites Stales. The primary elements in chrysolite are silicon and magnesium. Chrysotile also usually contains impurities of iron, nickel, aluminum, chrome and some other minerals. The chrysotile fibril is a spirally-wound hollow tube. The combination of fforils bound together gives the fiber the appearance of having curly split ends. Chrysotile fibers have high tensile strength and good spinnability but are not as resistant to acids as the amphiboles. The fibrous asbestos minerals in the amphibole group are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, croddolite and tremolite. They are characterized by a wide variation in chemical composition including calcium, sodium, aluminum, ferrous and ferric iron. Amosite and crocldollte, sometimes referred to as brown and blue asbestos, respectively, are the only commercially significant varieties. When compared to chrysotile in appearance, amosite and crocktolite fibers are larger in diameter, solid as opposed to ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soction II - Background Information Pago 3 hollow and straight instead of curly. The amphiboles are more resistant to acids than chrysotile and can withstand higher temperatures without breaking down. ASBESTOS-CONTAINING PRODUCTS To obtain asbestos for commercial use, asbestos ore is extracted from open pit or underground mines. The ore is crushed and the asbestos fibers are separated from the rock layers by vbrating screens and an air-lifting process. The fibers are bagged in bulk for incorporation into various products at manufacturing facilities or through on-site mixing. Asbestos-containing materials which are batch-mixed on the construction site, such as structural flreprooflng, usually have a wider variation in percentage of asbestos content than those that are Incorporated into manufactured products, such as floor tile. The type of material and method of production have a bearing on the number of samples that must be collected for a given suspect material in a building survey. The various types of asbestos have been incorporated into an estimated 3.000 commercial products. The Inherent physical characteristics such as resistance to heat and chemicals. abrasion resistance, insulating capabilities and high tensile strength along with low cost and availability, resulted in the widespread use of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). Asbestos was commonly used on steam pipes and boilers of ships during the early 1900s. It was used widely in American ships and shipyards in the 1940s and was expanded to include sprayed-on insulation materials in the 1950-1970s. Use of asbestos in the United States did not begin to decline until the 1973-1978 bans by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on spray-applied and premolded friable buiding materials. ------- STU06NT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«cten II - Background Information P»g>4 Asbestos abatement project designers will be primarily involved with several common asbestos materials that were incorporated into building products. These products can be described in terms of use such as fireproofing. thermal and acoustical insulation, decorative application, product reinforcement, and acid resistance. For the purposes of evaluating asbestos in buildings, the EPA has defined three categories of asbestos- containing building materials based upon application. • SURFACING MATERIALS - ACM sprayed or troweled on surfaces (walls, ceilings, structural members) for acoustical, decorative, thermal insulation or fireproofing purposes. • THERMAL SYSTEM INSULATION (TSI) - Insulation used to inhibit heat transfer or prevent condensation on pipes, boilers, tanks, ducts and various other components of hot and cold water systems, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This includes pipe lagging, pipe wrap; block, batt and blanket insulation; cements and 'muds'; and a variety of other products such as gaskets and ropes. • MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS - Materials not included in the other two categories such as floor tile, ceiling tile, roofing felt, concrete pipe, outdoor siding and fabrics, sheetrock 'mud,' glazing putty, various mastic products and caulking products. Frequently, nonbuilding ACMs such as material in ovens and laboratory counter tops must be addressed in the project design. The terms friable and nonfriable are used to further describe the cohesiveness and consistency of asbestos-containing materials. Friable ACM, when dry, can be ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section II - Background Information Pig»5 crumbled or reduced to powder by normal hand pressure. Friable materials generally release fibers into the air more readily than do nonfriable materials. However, many types of nonfrlable ACM can become friable and release fibers if they are substantially broken, cut. driBed, sanded, sandblasted, crushed, pulverized, or abraded. COMMON TYPES OF ACM INVOLVED IN PROJECT DESIGN The materials most likely to be involved in an asbestos abatement design project are spray-applied fireproofing. acoustical plaster, ceiling tile, thermal system Insulation, floor tile and associated mastic. A brief discussion of these materials follows and a listing of a wide variety of asbestos-containing products is provided in Table 11-1. Spray-Applied Fireproofing - A one-half to two-inch thick layer of friable asbestos- containing insulation was commonly spray-applied to the structural steel in a building to prevent buckling and collapse during a fire. Sometimes it was also spray-applied to the floor and roof decks. Chrysolite, In quantities of 1 to 95 percent (25 percent on average), is the most common type of asbestos found In fireproofing Insulation. Occasionally amoslte or rarely crocldollte were used. Other materials typically used in conjunction with chrysotJle included vermiculite. cellulose ftoers, gypsum and binders such as calcium carbonate and portJand cement Asbestos-containing fireproofing was usually spray applied to the structural steel before the installation of other building components and may be located in hard-to-access places such as elevator shafts, fresh-air ventilation shafts and beams covered up by duct work. There Is usually overspray on everything that was present at the time of application. It may be on the inside of some electrical and/or air conditioning ducts if they were partiafly in ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DES.ON Soction II - Background Information place when the fireprooling was applied. Cverspray may be found on exterior walls behind insulation on gypsum board and finish materials. Asbestos-containing fireproottng ranges from white to gray to brown as it was applied, but sometimes may be coated or encapsulated with a dear or colored sealant TABLE 11-1 REPRESENTATIVE LIST OF MATERIALS LIKELY TO CONTAIN ASBESTOS Asbestos Cement Insulating Panels Asbestos WaUboard Asbestos Insulating Panels Asbestos Chalkboards Roofing Asphalt Saturated Asbestos Felt Reinforced Asbestos Flashing Sheet Asbestos Base Felt Asbestos Finishing Felt Flashing Paint Sheet Metal Work Plastic Cement Membrane Waterproofing and Dampproofing Waterproofing Asbestos Base Felt Asbestos Finishing Felt Flashing Dampproofing Putty Fire Door Insulation Fire Dampers Flooring Asphalt Tile Vinyl Asbestos Tile Vinyl Sheet Flooring Backing Mastic Plaster Ceiling Tile Insulation Thermal, sprayed-on Fireproofing Paints Textured Coatings Taping Compounds Elevators. Brake Shoes Insulation, Plumbing Piping Insulation Pipe Gaskets Equipment Insulation Insulation, HVAC Piping Insulation Boiler Block Breeching Insulation Boiler Wearing Surface Gaskets Duct-work Taping Flexible Fabrte Joints (vibration dampening cloth) Rue, Seam Taping Cooling Tower. Baffles and FHI Valve Packing and Rope Laboratories Hoods Oven Gaskets Gloves Bench Tops ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Swrfonll - Background kitomutton Acoustical Plaster - Acoustical plaster typically containing 10 to 30 percent chrysolite was commonly troweled or sprayed onto walls or ceilings for soundproofing. The material is typically one-fourth to one-half inch in thickness, friable, and varies in color from white to gray. Acoustical material is usually accessible because it is used to reduce noise levels in frequently occupied areas such as hallways, auditoriums and cafeterias, but may also be inside electrical ducts, conduits and air conditioning ducts that were in place when the material was installed or inside of walls. Even In accessible locations where the acoustical ACM has been painted, It Is still a friable material which would need to be addressed upon renovation or demolition and In the operations and maintenance program. Thermal System Insulation - Thermal system insulation (TSI) is the category which contains the largest amount of ACM. In commercial buildings and schools, most of the material is generally limited to closed, restricted access areas rather than offices or highly- used space. However, in industrial facilities, accessible TSI is much more predominant The average percentage of asbestos in TSI ranges from 65 to 75 percent ft often contains crocktolite and amosite as well as chrysotie. Insulation on thermal systems is typically wrapped with an outer canvas jacketing and may be applied as a corrugated cardboard-type pipe wrap, a white chalky pipe wrap, cemantitious mud around pipe fittings, block insulation on boilers, white batt insulation on boiler breeching, or as black batt insulation inside ducts. On tanks and boilers there may be layers of other materials such as wire mesh sandwiched between the layers of insulation. Removal of TSI may pose special problems if it is insulating high-temperature lines, high pressure lines, or lines containing toxic chemicals. TSI used in occupied spaces such as insulation on exposed pipe risers in public areas is more accessible and ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section II - Background Information Pag»B may require additional surveillance and preventative maintenance to ensure the material remains in good condition. Floor Tlte and Mastic - Floor tile and the underlying mastic are generally considered to be nonfriabie materials when they are in good condition. These materials may need to be abated, however, when damaged or as part of a larger renovation project. Refer to the discussion of the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) in the section on Regulations for further information on regulated materials. Relatively low percentages (10 to 15 percent) of asbestos were used in floor tile and floor tile mastic. The dimensions of the asbestos fibers that were used in floor tiles and mastic are sometimes too small to be detected with a polarized light microscope which is the analysis prescribed in the EPA's Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) and National Emissions Standard for Hazards Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. A higher resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) may be needed In order to detect asbestos fibers In floor tile. Vinyl cove base and cove base mastic are a subset of this class of materials and are also candidates for TEM analysis. Ceiling Tile - Chrysolite and amostte were occasionally used in various types and sizes of celling tiles. If asbestos is present, the percentage usually ranges from 5 to 10 percent. Other components include mineral wool and cellulose. Like floor tile, ceiling tile may contain very smal fibers which cannot be detected with the polarized light microscope. Often the asbestos is restricted to a specific layer in the ceiling tile. It Is Important to note that nonasbestos celling tile may become contaminated If It Is below friable asbestos flreprooflng. ------- STUDENT MWUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«c*on II - Background Infcxmition Pages BUILDING SURVEY PROTOCOL AND SAMPLE ANALYSIS Because the project designer will need to rely on and supplement building survey data to develop written design specifications, an overview of how a survey is conducted, how samples are analyzed, and a brief discussion of data interpretation are presented here. A building survey for asbestos is conducted by determining where suspect materials are located, quantifying materials that appear to be the same (homogeneous materials), collecting a statistically reliable number of random samples for each suspect material identified and assessing the potential each material has for fiber release. This process has been formalized in the regulations for schools promulgated under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) and the subsequent EPA curriculum for building inspectors. The AHERA method of assessment and prioritization incorporates the factors of current material condition and potential for damage into a decision-tree framework. The criteria evaluated for each functional space such as hallways, auditoriums and classrooms include the extent of deterioration, physical damage, water damage, accessibility, vibration and air flow. Each suspect material found to contain asbestos is classified into one of three categories: significantly damaged, damaged, or good condition. Then, depending on the accessibility factors, the confirmed ACM is assigned a hazard ranking number, which corresponds to the degree of risk posed by the ACM including the potential for future damage. Samples collected for EPA compliance purposes are analyzed for asbestos content by polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the 'Interim Method for the Determination of ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section II - Background tnkxma&on PsgelO Asbestos in Bulk Insulation Samples'' found at Appendix A to Subpart F in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Pan 763. With this method, the presence of asbestos in a sample is determined by optical mineralogy using a light microscope with polarizing filters. Asbestos identification is achieved by examining the structure of the fibers and optical properties of the sample. Quantification is obtained either by visual estimation or point counting. Results are reported as percent asbestos by type (e.g., chrysolite. crockJoite). Additional information such as other fibrous components in the sample and the nonfibrous sample matrix may also be obtained. EPA standards define a material that contains one percent or greater asbestos, as asbestos-containing. The referenced EPA method refers to percent by weight. However, the laboratory results are actually reported as percent by area. The analyst determines the amount of asbestos present by an areal visual estimation. If the analysis by the standard PLM procedure Indicates less than 10 percent asbestos is present, the NESHAP regulation requires verification of the percent asbestos by point counting using PLM. Point counting is a more precise quantification procedure and, generally, the reported percentage of asbestos is lower by point counting than the standard method. As discussed earlier, the limitation to this analytical technique is the resolution of the polarized fight microscope. Even under optimum conditions, fibers less than 0.25 nm in diameter cannot be detected by PLM. The size of the asbestos ffoers incorporated into some materials, such as floor tile, may be too small to be detected by PLM. ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S*ctton II - Background Intormition STUDENT MANUAL OPTIONS FOR CONTROL Based on the information from the building survey and laboratory analyses, a decision is made on how to properly handle asbestos-containing materials. The options for controlling exposure to ACM are referred to as response actions in the EPA AHERA regulations. Response actions range from in-place management with an operations and maintenance (O&M) program if the material is in good enough condition, to removal if the material is severely damaged and cannot be repaired. Building renovation, demolition or modernization may also make ACM removal necessary. In-Place Management - An operations and maintenance program is a formal set of standard operating procedures to minimize asbestos exposure In the building. Two useful reference documents for asbestos operations and maintenance programs are the EPA publication "Managing Asbestos In Place - A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials", also known as the "Green Book"; and the National Institute of Bunding Sciences' "Guidance Manual: Asbestos Operations and Maintenance Work Practices". The purpose of an operations and maintenance program is to dean up any asbestos- containing dust or debris that may have been previously released, maintain the ACM in good condition, and prevent inadvertent disturbance to in-place asbestos-containing materials. This is achieved through a series of program elements which include: • Asbestos program manager appointment and training. Written, buHding-specific Operations and Maintenance Program, ------- STUDENT fcMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section II - Background Information • Notification to building occupants, staff and outside vendors about the presence and tocation(s) of ACM. • Training staff on special work practices for handling or working around ACM, • Respirator, medical surveillance and hazard communication programs, • Special maintenance procedures, • Special cleaning procedures, • Work order/permit system for outside vendors. • Periodic reinspection and recteaning, • Recordkeeping. One of the measures for maintaining the material in good condition is repair which involves limited replacement and/or patching. Another control option, termed enclosure, involves the installation of an airtight (or nearly airtight) barrier between the ACM and the building environment. This measure has Bmited applicability and is typically only used for small amounts of material on isolated columns or beams. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soctonll - Background Information Paeo13 Another option for in-place management is encapsulation of the material with a liquid that, after proper application, surrounds or embeds asbestos in an adhesive matrix to prevent fiber release. However, encapsulants are limited in their applicability and may make eventual removal of ACM more difficult and costly. For example, encapsulation should only be considered for ACM that is in good condition, not highly accessible, and granular or cementftjous. If the material is not in good condition, the encapsulant may cause the ACM to delaminate. Also, if fireproofing is encapsulated, the Underwriters Laboratory (UL) fire rating may be voided. Removal - If in-place management of ACM is not feasible or effective in protecting human health and the environment, the remaining control option is removal of the ACM. This option is often selected when renovation activities make it impossible to control asbestos fiber release. Partial removal of ACM in an area or on a floor-by-floor basis may be performed in conjunction with activities such as wall relocation, sprinkler installation, and ceiling, light, or duct replacement From a building owner's perspective, the critical issues which must be considered in selecting any control option include the potential health risk, legal liability, regulatory compliance, economic factors and the owner's long-term concerns. if the decision is made to remove ACM, it is imperative that the project be designed and executed properly to protect the safety and health of workers and building occupants, to avoid further contamination of the building and the environment and to minimize legal liability. This curriculum provides the fundamental concepts which will assist the project designer in achieving this goal. The designer must then supplement these fundamentals with a wide range of project ------- STUOEHTUANUAL ASBESTOS ABATE ME NT PROJECT DESIGN Section II - Background Inkxmaton Page 14 experience and continue to remain current in the various technical and regulatory issues associated with asbestos materials. SUMMARY Asbestos abatement project designers must be familiar with a wide variety of asbestos- related issues that impact the design process. They should know that the various types of asbestos are minerals that are in a fforous form. The fibers are very small and can remain airborne for several hours. The different types of asbestos exhibit different physical properties which may affect the design strategy. Though asbestos was incorporated into more than 3,000 products, asbestos abatement projects typically focus on spray-applied insulation, acoustical plaster, thermal system insulation, ceiling tile, floor tile, and floor tile mastic. A project designer should be able to review buBding inspection data including the survey protocol and the analytical methods used to determine if the information is adequate for design specifications. Asbestos removal is one of a variety of options for asbestos hazard control. A good written project design accompanied by careful project management are the Keys to successfully removing asbestos from a facility without contamination to the building or the environment. ------- STUOENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section II - Background Wormarion Pago 15 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What are the relative sizes of asbestos fibers we are concerned about? 2. Does it matter what kinds of asbestos fibers will be involved in a planned abatement project? Why? 3. Why can the percentage of asbestos vary in samples of the same material? List three examples of nonfriabfe ACBMs and give two actions which could make each friable. 5. What analytical method is typically used for bulk samples? What are the limitations of this method for floor tile? ------- STUDENT WKNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sactonll - Background Wom«ton 6. When must PLM point counting be used? 7. List the response actions (control options) which EPA considers acceptable for friable ACBMs. 8. Asbestos is A. A man made fiber. B. Mainly mined In the U.S. C. Mainly mined in Germany. D. A mineral fiber. 9. Which type of asbestos fiber is from the serpentine group? A. Amosite B. Chrysotile C. Actinolite 0. Crocidolite 10. Asbestos has been used in an estimated commercial products. A. 88 B. 300 C. 3.000 D. 7.800 ------- STUDENT HWNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN SacAon II - Bacfcgroond Inkymation Pig* 17 11. The three categories of asbestos-containing-builcSng materials as defined by EPA are A. Surfacing, Thermal System Insulation, Miscellaneous. B. Fireproof Ing. Lagging, Surfacing. C. Tiles, Thermal System Insulation, Surfacing. D. Miscellaneous, Lagging, Tiles. ------- STUOCNT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socton 111 - Asbestos Exposure and lt» EHoct on Health ASBESTOS EXPOSURE AND ITS EFFECT ON HEALTH The detrimental effect on the health of people exposed to asbestos fibers has been well documented. Numerous studies have been conducted on laboratory animals and cell cultures to investigate the specific mechanism by which asbestos initiates or promotes disease. Similarly, studies of former asbestos mill workers and insulators have provided a wealth of knowledge concerning the risk of disease among populations exposed to various concentrations of airborne asbestos fibers. The results of these studies have been reviewed and analyzed by scholars, government bodies and research groups in an attempt to shed light on many of the questions that remain unanswered concerning the health effects of asbestos exposure. Most of the controversy surrounding the health effects of asbestos exposure is focused on low-level exposure to general building occupants such as school chldren and teachers. There is little disagreement about the detrimental effects of occupational or high-level exposures to asbestos fibers. To protect worker health, project designers and contractors must focus on methods that reduce and control fiber levels inside the asbestos removal area. These engineering controls are then augmented with protective equipment to minimize worker exposure to asbestos. ASBESTOS EXPOSURE -THE ROUTE OF ENTRY Like any hazardous material, asbestos must first travel to the site where it can cause disease. The primary route of exposure for asbestos is through the air. There have been reports of asbestos warts due to asbestos fibers becoming imbedded in the skin; however, this appears to be a rare occurrence. There is also some concern that excessive ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socton 111 - Asbestos Exposure and IK Effect on Hearth Pago 2 exposure to asbestos through ingestion, such as asbestos fibers in drinking water, may lead to an increased rate of disease. Again, however, this has not been proven to be a significant route of entry leading to disease. The greatest concern is exposure through Inhalation. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AND ITS DEFENSE MECHANISMS FOR ASBESTOS Since the primary route of exposure for asbestos fibers is through inhalation, it is important to review the respiratory system and gain a brief understanding of its defense mechanisms. As air is inhaled through the nose or mouth it must pass across membranes that are covered with a sticky mucous. Very large particles of dust and fibers, which are often visible to the naked eye. are usually trapped at this point and are prevented from going any further into the respiratory system. Smaller particles will be carried further along into the air passageways, including the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. The air passageways have numerous turns and branches making it a turbulent trip for dust particles and fibers. These passageways are also lined with special cells that have hair- like projections into the cavities of the air passageways. These hair-like projections are called cilia and beat upward in a wave-like fashion. They are also covered with a sticky mucous which forms a layer across the surface of the air passageways. When particles of dust and ffoers impact this sticky coating, they adhere and are propelled upward by the cilia. Eventually the mucous layer with dust and ftoers imbedded in it is carried out of the lung and into the back of the mouth where it is expelled as spft or swallowed. The smallest dust particles and fibers may travel through the air passageways and be deposited into terminal air sacs called alveoli. The alveoli are depicted in Figure ///-/. The ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section Dl - Asbestos Exposure and Its Effect on Health Pago3 Natal Cavrry Pharynx Main Bronchia Pleural Cavity (the pleura conjiiu of the membrane enveloping the lungs and lining the che»t cavity) Alveol Diaphragm Figure II 1-1 Routes of inhalation and ingestion of asbestrform fibers are shown my smaJI arrows. Mesothelial cells line the outside of the lungs and the pleura! and peritoneal cavities. Interaction of asbestos with these cells can result in either pleura! or peritoneal mesothelioma. Adapted from Wagner, 1980.* "Figure from Asbestlform Fibers. Nonoccupational Health Risks. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington. DC (1984), p. 101. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section III - Asbestos Exposure and ta Eftoct on H»aJth exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place inside the alveoli. Oxygen from the inhaled breath diffuses through the alveolar wall into a network of capillaries. Waste gases, likewise, diffuse out of the blood and into the alveolar space. With the incoming air also comes dust, pollen, and other particles such as asbestos fibers. When dust and asbestos fibers are deposited inside the alveoli they trigger a response. Large cells, called macrophages move across the surface of the air sac and engulf the invading parti de. When the partide is an organic material such as pollen, the macrophage effectively digests it When the partide is a mineral, such as silica (quartz) or asbestos, it cannot digest it. The response often is to coat the offending partide and effectively encapsulate it. Eventually, layer upon layer is built up to form scar tissue. This buildup of scar tissue in the lungs leads to a disease called asbestosis. ASBESTOSIS Asbestosis. or scarring of the lung was first described in England during 1907. It was the first disease recognized as linked to asbestos fiber exposure. The alveolar wall thickening reduces the ability of the lung to expand and contract normally. This results in a retracted or restricted lung with an inability to exchange oxygen and, to a lesser extent carbon dioxide in a normal manner. The buildup of scar tissue in the lung occurs gradually over many years. A worker exposed to high concentrations of asbestos may not experience any overt symptoms for 10 to 30 years after the start of his or her exposure. The symptoms will gradually appear and increase in severity. These symptoms include shortness of breath, easy fatigue, mild ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section III - Acbostos Exposure and Us Effect on Health cough and weight loss. Advanced cases will usually include obvious cyanosis, a blue coloring of the mucous membranes visible in the mouth caused by the lack of oxygen. These symptoms will continue despite the cessation of exposure and death may occur as a result of infection such as pneumonia or influenza. The increased scarring reduces the elasticity of the lung. This makes it more difficult for the heart to pump blood through the vessels in the lung. The added stress can result in an enlarged heart and in some cases may lead to a heart attack. Annual medical examinations of workers exposed to asbestos fibers are often conducted to detect asbestosis. The physician will elicit a history of symptoms from the patient and a documented history of past asbestos exposure. The patient with clinical asbestosis will exhibit crackling respiratory rales in the lower chest fields upon chest examination. A chest X-ray will usually demonstrate Interstitial fibrosis. pleura! plaques, or significant pleura I thickening. Interstitial fibrosis, or lung scarring, will appear as opacities predominantly in the lower lobes of the lung. Pleural plaques are localized areas of fibrous thickening in the chest cavity lining known as the pleura. Pleural thickening Is a diffuse fibrosis of the chest cavity lining.The results of pulmonary function studies may show a restrictive defect Other indications include reduced blood oxygen and an abnormal diffusion study. The definitive diagnosis for asbestosis is the open lung biopsy, although this is an invasive procedure and is usually neither necessary nor desirable. Patients with clinical asbestosis should be immediately removed from any additional exposure to airborne mineral dusts, including asbestos. Physicians may advise their patients to take specific steps to help prevent lung infections, to have annual X-rays to ------- STUDENT UANUM. ASBESTOS ABATEMEffT PROJECT DESIGN S«cfeon III - Atbosto* Exposure and in Effw* on Hwhh Pago 6 detect possible lung cancer early, and not to smoke cigarettes. Unfortunately, once the fibrosis has occurred, the scarring cannot be reduced or removed. Asbestosls should only be a problem for asbestos abatement workers who fail to follow proper work practices and fail to wear their personal protective equipment including respirators. It is incumbent upon the asbestos abatement designer to require that stringent respiratory protection measures be implemented on their projects. LUNG CANCER Lung cancer is the most common of the serious health effects associated with airborne asbestos fiber exposure. It has been associated with asbestos exposure since the 1930s and is responsible for about 20 percent of the deaths of insulation workers who installed asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Like asbestosls. it appears that a dose- response relationship exists between asbestos exposure and lung cancer. That is. the greater the total exposure to asbestos fibers, the greater the risk of developing lung cancer. The latency period, however, is generally much longer for lung cancer. From the time of first exposure to the onset of disease is often 20 to 40 years. The relationship among asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer has been well documented. Workers exposed to asbestos who do not smoke cigarettes are about five times more likely to develop lung cancer than their nonsmoking, nonexposed counterparts. Workers who smoke cigarettes and are not exposed to asbestos are about ten times more likely to contract lung cancer than people who do not smoke and are not exposed to asbestos. However, workers who smoke cigarettes and are exposed to asbestos are over 50 times more likely to get lung cancer than nonsmoking, nonexposed ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sarton II - AstMBtoc Expowr* and IK Eftoct on Health Pag»7 workers. The relationship between smoking and asbestos exposure is called a synerglstlc effect since exposure to both greatly increases the risk of disease. While these statistics are based on the cancer incidence among asbestos insulation workers many years ago, they reinforce the need to follow proper work practices to reduce worker exposure during abatement projects. Another purpose of the annual medical examination among asbestos abatement workers is the early detection of lung cancer. Among the general population, about 75 percent of the lung cancers are first discovered too late for successful treatment However, In about 25 percent of the cases surgical treatment is possfcte. Of these individuals, 40 to 50 percent are deemed •successful' with survival in excess of five years. For this reason, the physician wiB usually order annual chest X-rays for older asbestos workers and may also recommend additional tests for any asbestos worker who smokes cigarettes. If lung cancer is detected, the most frequent therapy is surgery, if possible. This may be followed by cobalt radiation treatments. In rare cases, chemotherapy is employed. In ail cases, follow-up medical surveillance is required. MESOTHELIOMA Mesothelioma is a very rare form of malignant cancer involving the membrane-like linings of one or more body cavities. If it occurs in the lung cavity it is called mesothelioma of the pleura. In the gut cavity it is termed mesothelioma of the peritoneum. In rare cases it may occur in the heart cavity, which is termed pericardia! mesothelioma. The mesothelial lining of the lung is a very thin transparent membrane that lines the chest wall, doubles back upon itself, and lines the exterior of the lung proper. The lining of the chest wan is called ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socioo III - Asbottc* Exposure and to EJtee* on H*atti the parietal pleura; the lining of the exterior lung surface is called the visceral pleura. These mesothelial linings are depicted on Figure 111-1. The relationship between mesothelioma and asbestos exposure became well known in the early 1960s. At that time the scientific community thought that any mesothelioma must be caused by asbestos exposure. Today, it is recognized that some other chemical or physical agents such as ethylene oxide and erionite may also cause mesothelioma. The vast majority of cases, however, appear to be linked to asbestos exposure. Similarly to asbestosis and lung cancer, the latency period for mesothelioma is frequently 30 to 40 years after the first exposure to asbestos. There are, however, many documented cases of mesothelioma occurring with a shorter or longer latency period. Unlike asbestosis and lung cancer, there does not appear to be a clear dose-response relationship between asbestos exposure and the onset of mesothelioma. Cigarette smoking does not appear to have any additive or synergistic effect on the incidence of this disease among persons exposed to asbestos. Exactly how asbestos fibers are able to initiate mesothelioma in the pleura! cavity or the peritonium remains a mystery. Annual medical examinations of asbestos workers allow the physician to detect a mesothelioma at an early stage of development. Various therapies have been tried. including chemotherapy, radiation and surgery, without success. The mesothelioma usually proves fatal within a year of diagnosis. A worker with pleura! mesothelioma will usually experience a sharp pain in one side of the chest, cough, may be short of breath, and often exhibits a loss of weight. Persons with mesothelioma of the peritoneum will usually have abdominal swelling, a cramping pain, and weight loss. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section HI - Asbestos Exposure and Its Eltoct on Hoafth OTHER DISEASES AND CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ASBESTOS EXPOSURE MesothePoma. lung cancer and asbestosis are the three diseases most often associated with asbestos exposure. Several other diseases and conditions are also more prevalent among persons exposed to asbestos fibers. These include pleural plaques, pleural thickening, pleural effusion, kidney cancer, and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. The increased incidence of malignancies in the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys lends some credence to the theory that asbestos exposure through ingestion may be more serious than previously recognized. Others in the scientific community think these increased rates of malignancies may be due to the translation of asbestos fibers from the lung to other areas of the body. The exact cause again remains unknown. Pleural plaques are fibrous lesions that appear on the surface of the parietal pleura. They are usually thin, about one-half to one inch wide, and one to two inches long. They may also be calcified, especially among older asbestos workers with a long history of exposure. The pleural plaques usually first appear about 10 years after first exposure and continue to enlarge and become more frequent over the next 20 to 50 years. A person with pleural plaques usually experiences no discomfort or other symptoms associated with these lesions. They can be detected on chest X-rays and often serve as a marker for previous asbestos exposure. For this reason the physician may conduct additional tests designed for the early detection of asbestosis and lung cancer. Pleural effusion and pleural thickening often occur among workers exposed to asbestos. Pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity which may or may not be associated with a sharp chest pain during coughing, sneezing, or deep breathing. Pleural ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«cton HI - Asbwtoc Expocuro and te Etoct on HoaMi Pig»10 thickening results in a thickening of the parietal or visceral pleura, or both. Studies to date have indicated that there is a dear relationship between the duration and magnitude of asbestos exposure and the occurrence of pleura! effusion. The magnitude of the dose does not appear as important a factor with pleura! thickening, but there does exist a dear relationship between the time since first exposure to asbestos and the occurrence and severity of pleura! thickening. In severe cases of pleura! thickening the asbestos worker will have a reduced lung function or capacity and usually an elevated blood carbon dioxide level. Treatment of patients with pleura! effusions is usually limited to rest and administration of pain killers until the irritation subsides. The fluid may be drained in very rare circumstances. Only in very rare cases are patients suffering from severe pleura! thickening recommended for surgery to remove sections of the thickened pleura. In most instances, patients are advised to live with the discomfort rather than undertake a serious surgical procedure. The relationship between increased incidence of malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract and kidney and asbestos exposure is less clear, and pales in significance when compared to the increased incidence of lung cancer and mesothelioma which results among asbestos-exposed workers. From the standpoint of designing asbestos abatement projects, it is reasonable to conclude that if sufficient protective measures are taken to prevent or minimize the occurrence of asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma, then adequate protection will be afforded for malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys. ------- STUDEHT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socfton III - Asbostos Exposure and Its Effect on Healtfi RECOGNITION OF CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES To this day many controversial issues remain surrounding the effects on health posed by exposure to asbestos fibers. These issues include the level of exposure capable of causing disease; the type and size of asbestos fiber that may be responsible for disease; and various theories describing how the disease processes occur. Disagreements on many of these issues exist even among the most knowledgeable scholars on the subject It is important to recognize these controversies, but not necessary to delve Into them in great depth in this course of instruction. It is equally important to recognize that many of the issues are academic as far as asbestos abatement project designers are concerned due to the realities of such projects, magnitude of asbestos exposure, and current regulations. One current topic of debate concerns the level of airborne asbestos exposure responsible for an increased incidence of disease. The controversy centers around exposures experienced by routine building occupants in facilities with friable asbestos-containing materials. Additionally, there is significant debate over the magnitude and duration of exposure experienced by custodial and maintenance workers in similar buildings. To fully comprehend these debates one must understand all of the different diseases and have a firm grasp of the scientific and medical literature which serves as the basis for the debates. However, when designing the asbestos abatement project, primary concern is the protection of asbestos abatement workers and others in the vidnlty of the project. There is little debate that possible exposures when performing an asbestos abatement project such as removal of friable pipe insulation can be very high and consistent with past occupational exposures of workers who installed these same products. Accordingly, the ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATE ME WT PROJECT DESIGN S#c*oo II - Artwka Exposure and tt» Effect on question of low-level exposure becomes a moot point for most asbestos abatement projects. A second major controversial topic centers about the mineralogic types of asbestos and their respective ability to cause disease. Again it is imperative that each type of disease and condition (e.g., lung cancer, mesothelioma, pleura! plaques) be considered in the context of each different type of asbestos (e.g., chrysotile, crocidoite). For example, it may be that chrysotile Is less potent when compared to croctdolfte in causing mesothelioma. but may be an equally or more potent source of fibrosls. Again, from a health-effects standpoint to the asbestos abatement project designer the issue is not a major one. The current USEPA, OSHA and state regulations do not distinguish between asbestos fiber types. Accordingly, regulations and guidelines affecting worker protection, most abatement practices, transport of waste generated, and waste disposal are the same for all types of asbestos. The third controversial issue mentioned here has to do with how asbestos fibers cause disease. Some researchers support the view that long thin fibers are the most hazardous; others point out that short thick fibers may be equally as potent; and yet others profess that the size may not be an important factor. Again, the controversies become easier to understand when each disease is considered separately rather than broad sweeping generalizations. To overcome this dilemma, the asbestos abatement designer must rely on common sense. Asbestos workers who installed asbestos-containing materials in buildings were exposed to asbestos-containing dust and many developed asbestos- related diseases. The abatement of these same asbestos-containing materials from buildings, if performed without proper protective measures, would surely result in ------- STUOEHT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEJyEKT PROJECT DESIGN S«c*on II - Asfcwtot Exposure and to Effect on HoaJth exposures to asbestos-containing dust and workers would develop asbestos-related diseases. It is the purpose of this course to provide a brief understanding of the work practices and procedures which will minimize asbestos exposure to asbestos abatement workers and others in the vicinity of asbestos abatement projects. SUMMARY Asbestos abatement project designers should recognize that asbestos is primarily an inhalation exposure concern. When performing an asbestos abatement project the exposures to airborne asbestos fibers may be similar to that experienced by asbestos miP workers and insulation installers in the past. It is the designer's and contractor's responsibility to minimize worker exposure through proper design and execution of the remove! project. The three major diseases associated with asbestos exposure are asbestosis. lung cancer and mesothelioma. All of these diseases take many years to manifest themselves, often exceeding 30 or more years. Each of these diseases is debilitating, with lung cancer often fatal, and mesothelioma always fatal. Cigarette smokers who are also exposed to asbestos are at a much greater risk of developing lung cancer. Other diseases and conditions that may occur among workers exposed to asbestos Include pleura! effusion and thickening, and malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys. Annual medical monitoring for asbestos abatement workers is required in order to detect these diseases at an early stage. If detected early, treatment is often effective for all diseases except mesothelioma. A properly conducted asbestos abatement project should not put workers or others in the vicinity of the project at a significantly increased risk of developing these diseases. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section 111 - AttMttoc Eiposm and to Effect on H»«»i REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Match the correct word with the correct term. Asbestos Ingestfon A. Primary route of asbestos exposure Mesothelioma B. Scarring of the lung Alveoli C. Usually treated with surgery Pteural Plaques D. Not a major concern Asbestosis E. A very rare cancer Asbestos Inhalation F. Marker for asbestos exposure Lung Cancer G. Terminal air sacs 2. Which of the following are the three major debilitating diseases caused by asbestos exposure? A. Asbestosis, Lung Cancer, Pleura) Plaques B. Lung Cancer. Pleura! Plaques, Mesothelioma C. Asbestosis, Lung Cancer, Mesothelioma D. Scarring of Lungs, Asbestosis, Mesothelioma 3. The relationship between mesothelioma and asbestos exposure became well known ? A. during 1952 B. in the early 1960s C. from 1976 to 1978 D. during 1982 4. A worker heavily exposed to asbestos who also smokes cigarettes is how many times more likely to get lung cancer than a nonsmoker not exposed to asbestos? A. 5 times B. 10 times C. 15 times D. greater than 50 times 5. Which asbestos-related disease is always fatal? A. Asbestos warts B. Asbestosis C. Pleura! plaques D. Mesothelioma ------- S'ODENT MANUAL AS3ESTCS ABATE VIEM* PROJECT OESIGM IV -• Ovorvinw of Asbestos OVERVIEW OF CONDUCTING AN ABATEMENT PROJECT AND ROLES OF VARIOUS DISCIPLINES INTRODUCTION This section provides an overview of the sequence of steps involved in an asbestos abatement project from the planning stages through reoccupancy of the building space. This information will serve as a framework for the more detailed discussions on specific design elements in subsequent sections. In the course cf deve'oping and implementing asbestos abatement specifications and drawings, the designer may interface with a variety of disciplines. The building owner or local education agency (LEA) may call upon the designer to assist in the selection of some members of the abatement project team, such as the contractor or air monitoring firm. A brief discussion of the responsibilities and qualifications of these various disciplines is presented here so the project designer will understand their respective roles in executing a successful abatement project. ROLE OF VARIOUS DISCIPLINES Once a decision has been made to conduct an asbestos abatement project, the next step is to assemble an abatement project team. Some of the team members may serve in an advisory capacity and some will have an active role. The team is multldlsclplinary and, depending on the size and scope of the project, may include a project coordinator, project designer, architect/engineer, industrial hygienist, safety professional, project monitor, legal counsel, an analytical laboratory, medical clinic, contractor(s), and a ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IV - Overview ol Astestoc Rwrxjva: Page 2 transportation and disposal firm. The size of the project team is related to the scope and complexity of the abatement project Not all of the various disciplines are needed on every project and some individuals or firms may serve multiple roles. Through the project specifications, the project designer plays a large role in coordinating and defining the functions of other parties. Project Designer The project designer often has previous training and experience in architecture. engineering, industrial hygiene, or construction management. The project designer develops the specifications for contracts and provides working drawings and may specify reinsulation or replacement materials. The project designer may also be retained to assist In bid solicitation and contractor selection and to assume day-to-day project management responsibilities. It is imperative that a project designer involved in asbestos abatement projects receive asbestos-related training and accumulate a wide diversity of asbestos project design experience. EPA regulations now require project designers to be accredited through an EPA-approved training course In order to perform asbestos related design work in public and commercial buildings as well as schools. The designer must thoroughly understand all applicable regulations, safety procedures, and state-of-the-art work practices and techniques that can be applied to an abatement project ------- STU00------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8£STO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S*cbon IV - Industrial HvQienist The industrial hygienist helps establish procedures for minimizing exposure to asbestos, trains workers, selects protective equipment, conducts air monitoring before, during and after the project, and addresses additional industrial hygiene concerns such as heat stress and other potentially toxic materials being used on the project (solvents, paints, encapsulants. etc). As with the architect/engineer, it is important that the industrial hygienist has specific asbestos-related training and project experience. Safety Professional An asbestos abatement project has all the safety hazards inherent to construction work plus the added facet of handling a toxic material. A safety professional may be included on the project team of large or complex projects to address hazards unique to the project such as unusual scaffolding requirements, work in confined spaces, fire safety, or energized electrical lines. The contractor should also have safety expertise within his own staff to address routine safety concerns as well as any that arise during the removal project. Project Monitor/Clerk of the Works The project monitor is retained by the building owner or LEA and remains on site for the duration of the project to ensure that work is being performed in accordance with the written project specifications. Some state regulations now require project monitors for asbestos removal projects. The project monitor is responsible for extensive documentation and maintaining a dally log which includes a quality assurance checklist for contractor work procedures, a record of site activity, dafly air monitoring results ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N Section IV - Overview o4 Asbestos Removal Pago 5 and other project-related records. Project monitors also conduct formal approval inspections at certain critical stages of abatement projects. The project monitor may collect afr samples (if qualified) or this may be assigned to an independent testing firm. The project monitor should have an in-depth understanding of proper work procedures, safety practices and protective equipment, as well as construction management techniques. Additional training in collection and analysis of air samples is also a prerequisite if the project monitor is performing this function. The project designer must ensure the project specifications dearly define the authority and functions of the project monitor and independent testing firm if they are not the same entity. Leaal Counsel The legal counsel provides necessary legal advice concerning contracts, insurance, statutory law, potential liability and documentation. While it is ultimately the designer's responsibility to ensure that the specifications comply with regulations, there is an added advantage in retaining legal counsel that is versed in asbestos-related issues and local, state and federal statutes. Analytical Laboratory Laboratory analytical results provide information about airborne fiber levels in the work area and outside the work area both during and after abatement is completed. They are used to make key decisions about worker respiratory protection, the safety of occupants, and release of a work area for reoccupancy. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IV - Ovwvtow of A&beckx The two most common techniques used for analyzing air samples are phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEH). These methods are described in the section on air sampling requirements. A person who performs PCM analyses on personal air samples collected for compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) asbestos standard must attend the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 582 course (or an equivalent) for sampling and evaluating airborne ftoers. (This course is recommended for all PCM analysts.) Laboratories that perform TEM analysis for clearance samples on school abatement projects are required to participate in the National Voluntary Lab Accreditation Program (NVLAP) administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In addition to these requirements, NIOSH and the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) sponsor a voluntary assurance/quality control program for laboratories that perform PCM analysis. It is called the Professional Analytical Testing (PAT) Program. A similar program for individual analysts, called the Asbestos Analyst Registry, is sponsored by AIHA. While participation in these programs does not assure competency and does not mean the laboratory has AIHA accreditation, it can be used, along with other criteria such as experience and laboratory management practice, to select a good laboratory. Medical Clinics Workers and other personnel who enter asbestos abatement projects are required to undergo annual medical monitoring in accordance with the OSHA asbestos standard. The cost of the medical examination is bome by the employer. A physician conducts this ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«ct)on IV - Ovarvtow of AsbMto* Romoval P«gt7 medical screening and determines the capability of the individual to wear a respirator. Most occupational health clinics and many family practices are capable of conducting the necessary medical procedures. Contractor The contractor not only does the work, but can be a valuable resource to the designer on removal and disposal techniques and logistics for performing the asbestos removal work. Some asbestos contractors are qualified to install replacement materials while others subcontract the work. Contractors and supervisors who perform abatement in schools are required to be accredited through an EPA-approved course for abatement project supervisors and contractors. Asbestos abatement workers must be accredited through an EPA-approved course for workers. An amendment to the Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Reauthortzatlon Act (ASMARA) mandates this same accreditation for contractors and abatement workers performing asbestos abatement projects In public and commercial buildings. There often are additional local and state licensing requirements. In addition to the statutory prerequisites, other important qualifications for contractors include experience, amount of equipment and other resources, effective medical monitoring and respiratory protection programs, and quality control procedures. Establishing the qualifications/credentials of the contractor is critical because the capabilities of the removal company are a key factor in the success of the project. ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IV - Overview o( A&toctae Roroova STUDENT IUWNUAL Transportation and Disposal Firm The project designer must clearly understand all local, state and federal regulations concerning waste packaging. In some municipalities and states the asbestos waste must be transported to the approved disposal site by a licensed waste transporter who is independent of the asbestos abatement contractor. In this case, the waste transporter must be retained by the building owner. In some cases, the transporter may be restricted by regulations or may not want the responsibility of unloading the waste at the disposal site. Then, the asbestos removal contractor would need to coordinate with the transporter and perform this function. SEQUENTIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONDUCTING AN ASBESTOS REMOVAL PROJECT Although each abatement project is different and must be addressed individually, there are some fundamental concepts that can be applied to most abatement work. The steps involved in conducting an asbestos abatement project are organized into several broad categories as depicted in Figure IV- 1. Development of Contract Documents The technical specifications, drawings, and other documents such as those outlining general and special conditions are collectively referred to as contract documents. They are used by contractors to develop a bid and perform the work. They are a legal agreement between the owner and contractor and define the role of all parties. The contract documents also serve as a permanent record of the work performed. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S*cton IV - Ox^rvitw of Astoria* RwnovaJ Paged FIGURE IV-1 SEQUENTIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONDUCTING AN ASBESTOS REMOVAL PROJECT Development of Contract Documents Selection of Team and Project Startup Activities Worker Protection Containment of Work Area Removal Rnal Work Area Cleanup Post Abatement Activities Review Existing Drawings Review Survey Data Supplement Survey Data Design Project and Prepare Specifications Pre-BkJ Meeting Contractor Selection Pre-Job Meeting Issue Notification Acquire Permits Address Safety Concerns Estabish Log Book Medea) Exams Respirators Clothing Training Air Monitoring Decontamination Shut Down HVAC and Electrical Pre-Cfean Surfaces Protect Surfaces Decontamination Unit Loadout Area EstaMsfi Pressure Differential Post Signs Fiber Control Methods AJrSampIng Ongoing Cleaning Waste Packaging and Disposal HEPA Vacuum Wet Clean Visual Inspection AJrSampIng Reinsulation Documentation/Recordkeeping Renovation Reuse of space ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S*cflon IV - Cvtrvtow of A»b«to« Removal Pap 10 Development of the contract documents begins with understanding the building owner's objectives, what materials the building owner wants removed, reviewing existing drawings. and reviewing the asbestos survey report. The designer supplements this information with a site visit and fact-finding mission. The extent of the follow-up investigation that the designer needs to do will depend on the scope and detail of the original inspection. For example, a school inspecton conducted in accordance with AHERA protocol would probably be more detailed than an asbestos inspection conducted as part of a preliminary environmental assessment for a commercial property. There are many building-related Issues which are critical to the project designer that are not typically Included In an asbestos Inspection report. These items, such as contractor access, availability of power and water, fire protection/emergency exits, etc., are discussed in more detail in the design lab portion of this course. Once the designer has a dear understanding of the scope of work, the types and locations of asbestos-containing material to be removed, and the site conditions that will impact the performance of the work, the abatement design can be developed and put into written form. Selection of Team and Project Startup Activities Proper planning is critical to the success of an asbestos removal project. Before any work begins, the team members must be selected, workers must be trained, authorities notified, permits obtained, equipment and supplies procured, and the laboratory and landfill selected. The project designer is typically involved in assisting the building owner with the selection of other team members such as the contractor and project monitor. ------- STUDENT tMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATE VCKT PROJECT DESIGN Section IV - Owvtow o« AstMOos Rwnowal Pro-Bid Meeting - A pre-bid meeting and walk-through of the project area with the contractor, consultants, and building owner's representative is very useful for identifying areas that need special attention, resolving Issues associated wtth work area isolation, and documenting preexisting conditions of the work. Other issues which can be addressed at this time include security of the area, parking and equipment storage, special tools and equipment, air monitoring, time constraints, special safety concerns, inadequate written specifications and any other unique issues associated with the project The pre-bid proceedings should be documented in written form and made a part of the bid documents. Selection of Contractor(s) - The project designer reviews bid submittals and, in conjunction with the bulking owner, selects the contractor to perform the work. Pro-Job Meeting - The pre-job meeting is a foRow up to the pre-bid meeting to resolve any remaining issues regarding scheduling, access, security, etc. Notification - If the removal involves more than 160 square feet, 260 linear feet, or 35 cubic feet of regulated asbestos material or if a building is being demolished, the EPA requires notification of their NESHAP office at least 10 days before the project begins. This is generally considered to be a dual responsibility of the building owner and the contractor. More information about regulated materials and notification requirements is provided in the section on Regulations. There may be additional or more stringent state or local requirements for notification, disposal permits, building permits, required training and licensing. For example, some states require notification of the appropriate agency if any asbestos materials are removed, regardless of the amounts. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESiG* Section (V - Overview o» Asbmto* Romova: Documentation - The planning stage is also the time to establish a recordkeeping system for the project. The project designer should coordinate with the project coordinator and legal counsel to specify items that the contractor needs to provide for the building owner's files such as the notifications, waste disposal documentation, training records, proof of medical exams, daily air monitoring results, etc. The project monitor should also be required to retain documentation regarding contractor work procedures, safety procedures, daily activities and final air clearance samples on the site. This documentation is typically kept in a project log book which becomes part of the building owner's files at the end of the project Worker Protection The abatement contractor must devote a significant amount of time and resources to worker protection issues before work begins. The written design specifications should require the contractor to provide documentation of these activities. Respiratory Protection - It is an OSHA requirement that each worker is at all times provided with proper respiratory protection and training on its use, maintenance and limitations as well as training on work practices. The respirators provided must be approved by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) for protection in atmospheres containing asbestos. More information about respirator selection is provided in the section on Respiratory Protection and Protective Clothing. The project designer may need to consult with the industrial hygienist to establish appropriate levels of respiratory protection for various phases of the project ft is generally ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN State* IV - Ovwvfew of Astetkx Rwrov*) Pag* 13 considered good practice to use powered air purifying respirators (PAPR) or Type C. pressure-demand or continuous-flow, supplied-air respirators during the demolition or removal of asbestos. When air-supplied respirators are used, the air must be cleaned of any impurities to meet the requirements of Grade D breathing air. Ensuring that workers receive quality breathing air is a major consideration for an asbestos abatement contractor. Protective Clothing - OSHA requires that full-body protective clothing be worn by those who enter the work area. Generally, disposable coveralls are used to drcumvent the special handh'ng procedures that would be required for laundering contaminated clothing. Some contractors, however, elect to set up the necessary equipment for washing and reusing protective clothing. The primary purpose of protective clothing is to keep gross contamination off the body. The proper use of protective do thing, coupled with proper decontamination procedures, including thorough showering of the head and body, minimizes the chance that asbestos will be transported out of the work area. Other protective equipment may also be necessary to accommodate specific safety hazards, such as hard hats, and steel-toed boots. Medical Examination - Every worker and anyone else entering a contained work area once removal begins will need to have a medical examination. This examination is specified by OSHA and includes a medical history, physical examination and pulmonary function procedures. Chest X-rays are taken at the discretion of the physician. The physician must also determine if the individual is physically fit to wear a respirator. During the examination, the physician is required to explain to the patient the multiplied risk of contracting King cancer which results from exposure to asbestos and smoking cigarettes. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IV - Ovwview of Asbostos Removal Pago 14 Training - Workers and supervisors must receive appropriate training before performing asbestos removal work. If trie abatement project is being conducted in a school facility (kindergarten through 12th grade), the contractor and workers must be trained in accordance with the accreditation requirements outlined in the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). The Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Reauthorization Act (ASMARA) requirements make this training also mandatory for asbestos abatement projects performed in public and commercial buildings. These include a mandatory training course for workers and supervisors. These courses must be conducted by training providers that are accredited by the EPA or a state agency counterpart For aU projects, the OSHA training requirements outlined in the asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58) apply. These requirements do not specify a number of hours but require certain topics to be included in the instruction to workers. OSHA requires the contractor to assign a competent person, usually a foreman who has received a four- or Five-day training course, to each abatement project. In addition to the EPA and OSHA requirements discussed above, the training requirements of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard are also applicable to personnel on almost all asbestos removal projects. Many states also have training requirements which meet or exceed those imposed by federal statutes. Air Sampling - The contractor is required by the OSHA asbestos standard to conduct personal monitoring to determine worker exposure to airborne ffoer levels. The air sampling data is used to determine the appropriate level of respiratory protection that should be worn, and to document that fiber levels are being effectively controlled. ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT D€S1GN Section (V - Owvww ot A»t»rto« Removal STUDENT UM*JAL Containment of the Work Area Decontamination Unit - The first task is to construct a decontamination unit at an entrance to the work area. The decontamination unit typically consists of a dean room, a shower, and an equipment room (contaminated) with an air lock constructed between each room. The air locks serve to minimize the flow of asbestos-containing dust out of the work area. Curtained doorways made from polyethylene sheets are typically used to separate the rooms and form air locks. Waste Load-Out Area - A waste load-out area is often constructed adjacent to another work area entrance or trie decontamination unit. It usually consists of a single storage area for drums or bags and is joined to the work area with an air lock. Drums are cleaned before transferring them to this chamber from the work area. When a load has accumulated, this room is sealed from the work area and then sealed to an enclosed truck on the other side. The bags or drums are then placed in the truck for transport to the landfill. While the truck is being loaded and unloaded, an EPA warning sign must be placed on the outside of the truck. Sealing Off the Area - Before any removal work begins, the work area must be sealed off from all other areas to prevent migration of asbestos fibers. After shutting and sealing off the air handing system, movable items are cleaned using appropriate procedures and moved outside the work area All surfaces, with the exception of those covered with ACM. are pre-deaned using wet wiping techniques and/or high efficiency paniculate air (HEPA) vacuums. All openings to the work area including ducts, doorways, windows, etc. are sealed using polyethylene sheeting and tape. Items that cannot be removed from the work area are covered in place. All power inside the work area must be shut off and locked out ------- SnJD&fl MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sscten IV - Owrvww of Aifewte Ramwal Paget6 and then temporary lighting is set up. Floors and walls are covered with at least two protective layers of polyethylene sheeting secured with tape. These procedures are discussed in detail in the section on Considerations In Designing Engineering Controls. Establish Air Pressure Differential - Once the area is sealed off. air filtration units equipped with HEPA filters are positioned to maximize the air movement in the work area. When the air filtration units are operating, the work area is under negative pressure with respect to the surrounding air. With negative air pressure established, air will leak into rather than out of the work area if a barrier is torn. All entrances to the work area are secured to prevent inadvertent entry, but to allow for emergency exit All entrances and exits are posted with the required OSHA danger sign (see Figure V-f in next section). Removal Before entering a contained work area, workers remove their street clothes In the dean room of the decontamination unit and don fun-body protective dothing and respirators. They then pass through the shower area and equipment room into the work area. Wet Removal and Continuous Cleanup - Typically teams of workers are used to remove spray-applied fireproofing or acoustical ACM. Some of the workers will scrape and brush material from the substrate while others keep the material wet and. as K is removed, place it in impermeable bags for disposal. A wetting agent is added to the water for better penetration of the material being removed. Air Sampling - During removal, personal air samples are collected to determine workers' exposure inside the containment area. Personal air monitoring is the contractor's ------- STUOENTMANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«cton rv - Ovwtvww of Asbnka Rwnoval regulatory responsibility. Additionally, area air sampling is conducted each day outside the work area as a check for fiber leakage out of the work area. This sampling is not required by law, but is often conducted by a representative of the building owner to document effective containment ideally, sample results are available by the next day to help determine if proper respiratory protection is being worn and if engineering controls are effective. Waste Disposal - The asbestos waste is typically double bagged or placed into fiber drums and moved into the load-out area where it is held until enough containers have been accumulated for a trip to the landfill. Waste is then transported to the landfill in an enclosed truck. Workers who load and unload the truck should be wearing respirators and protective clothing. Detailed Cleaning - After the gross material has been scraped from the substrate, the remaining residue is removed with a nylon bristle brush, scrub pads or an equivalent abrasive material. Then the surface is wet cleaned to remove all remaining vtetoJe residue. Final Cleanup HEPA Vacuums and Wet Wiping - Once the removal is complete, the remainder of the work area and all equipment are thoroughly cleaned using HEPA vacuums and wet wiping techniques. Next the outer layer of polyethylene is removed from the floors and walls. At this point the sequencing of other clean-up activities and installing any replacement materials may vary. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sectoon IV - Overview o« Asbestos Removal Pap 18 Visual Inspection of Substrate - The building owner's representative, who may be the project designer, industrial hygienist. or project monitor, generally performs an initial visual inspection of the substrate to ensure that all visbie residue has been removed. A team approach to the inspection, which includes a representative of the contractor and building owner, is the most effective way to find and resolve problems. Lockdown - If the substrate has been properly cleaned, the contractor receives approval to apply a water-based sealant to the surfaces where the asbestos has been removed. This serves to lock down any remaining fibers that could not be seen. After the sealant has dried, the remaining layers of polyethylene are removed, leaving only the critical barriers on the vents, doors and windows in place. The contractor then performs additional wet wiping of all surfaces in preparation for final clearance air testing. Visual Inspection of Project Area - Once the contractor indicates the area is ready, the building owner's representative performs a visual inspection of all surfaces in the work area. If no visible contamination is detected, final clearance testing is conducted using aggressive sampling techniques. Aggressive Air Sampling - The purpose of aggressive sampling is to create activity in the work area that would suspend any remaining fibers into the air. Once surfaces in the work area are thoroughly dry. the air testing firm directs the exhaust of leaf blowers at all surfaces, and then operates circulating fans and the air filtration units wh8e air samples are collected. ------- STUOENT MANUAL. ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PftOJECT DBSJON SocdonlV- Overview of Aatomloa Removal The air samples are routinely analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the airborne fiber concentrations in the work area. The AH ERA regulation for schools require this type of clearance testing. Airborne fiber levels must be below 70 asbestos structures per square millimeter of filter area (typically equivalent to 0.01 to 0.02 structures per cubic centimeter of air) or statistically less than the concentrations in the outside make-up air that is coming into the work area, tf the airborne fiber concentrations In the work area do not meet one of these criteria, the contractor must redean the area and a retest Is conducted. More information is provided about clearance testing and alternative clearance procedures for industrial and demolition projects in the section on Air Sampling Requirements, Protocols and Data Interpretation. Protect Completion Reuse of Space - After the area has met the final clearance criteria, replacement material can be installed and other trades people can enter the area to conduct further renovation activities. Typically a final walk-through is conducted by the contractor and building owner's representative to document the condition of the project area and resolve any punch 1st Hems before the contractor releases the space. A punch list is a compilation of work by the contractor which needs to be completed to achieve compliance with the written specifications. In closing out the project, it is critical that the building owner secures all the required project documentation from the contractor and the project monitor. Removal of Thermal System Insulation The methods for removing thermal system insulation are basically the same as for surfacing materials. The material is removed in blocks or sections, depending on how it ------- STUOefT MANUAL AS8EST06 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sacfen IV - Overview of Mbmta* Removal Page 20 was applied, and remaining material is scraped off the substrate. For certain pipe lagging, a gtovebag may also be appropriate. This technique allows asbestos-containing pipe insulation to be removed in a small enclosure with attached gloves that has been sealed around the pipe. It is a two-person operation with one worker removing the lagging and the other wetting the material with a sprayer inserted into the bag. Workers wear protective equipment and unauthorized personnel are prohibited from entering the area where removal is taking place. SUMMARY The asbestos abatement project designer may need to rely on the expertise of a variety of disciplines to enhance the design and implementation of a removal project. A brief summary of these disciplines has been provided in this section to familiarize the project designer with their various capabilities. A large portion of a project designer's responstoilrty involves proper planning and sequencing of asbestos removal activities. The written project specifications prepared by the project designer fully define the scope and the requirements of the project. The technical portion of abatement specifications typically addresses project tasks in the following sequence: planning, worker protection, containment of work area, removal, final cleanup and project completion. The technical aspects of worker protection, work area containment, removal and final clearance are presented in greater detail in the following sections. ------- STUOEHT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Svcbon IV - Ovwww of Attesto* Removal REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. From the following choices, choose the one discipline probably the best qualified to provide advice on the wording of contract requirements. A. Asbestos Abatement Contractor B. Legal Counsel C. Industrial Hygienist 0. Safety Professional 2. Asbestos abatement project designers may have various backgrounds, experience and expertise. Which of the following would probably be the least helpful? A. Industrial Hygiene B. Architecture C. Structural Engineering D. School Board President 3. Match the asbestos abatement project activity in the right-hand column with the project sequence in the teft-hand column. Project Completion A, Acquire permits Worker Protection B. Shut down HVAC Project Startup C. Medical exams Work Area Containment D. Visual inspection Final Cleanup E ReinsulatJon 4. On a small project, the functions of some disciplines can be combined. Which of the folowing should not be combined (i.e., remain separate)? A. Project designer and project monitor B. Abatement contractor and project monitor C. Industrial hygtenist and safety professional 0. Buiklng owner and project coordinator 5. Workers and asbestos abatement contractor supervisors should be properly trained. Which of the following laws and regulations have specific training requirements for workers and supervisors? A. OS HA B. ASMARA C. AHERA D. All of the above have training requirements ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Considttflibons in Designing Engineering Controls CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGNING ENGINEERING CONTROLS INTRODUCTION As discussed In Section IV, an asbestos removal project consists of several phases. Phases which are directly involved with the actual removal of the material include containment of the work area, removal, final cleanup and disposal. This section discusses the equipment, methods and procedures used to minimize the generation and migration of airborne fibers during these phases of the removal effort. Collectively these measures are termed engineering controls. Where appropriate, this section also highlights elements In the design specifications as they relate to the engineering controls used in each phase. Typical engineering controls for asbestos removal projects include construction of a temporary barrier to confine fibers to the work area, establishing negative pressure inside the work area with high-efficiency participate air (HEPA) filtration units, and wetting the asbestos-containing material (ACM) with amended water before, during and after removal. Regardless of whether the design is a means and method specification, a performance specification or a hybrid of the two, the project designer must have a dear understanding of these various engineering controls and how they can be modified to accommodate site- spedfic conditions. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Concid*ra6oro in Dnignng EngirtMring Control* Pag* 2 CONTAINMENT OF THE WORK AREA Construction of the temporary containment barrier with polyethylene sheets or 8prayed-on strlppable coatings is one of trie most basic engineering controls. The primary objectives of work area preparation are: • Preventing the migration of fibers outside the work area • Protecting the surfaces Inside the work area • Decreasing the difficulty of cleanup The sequence of tasks for work area preparation will vary with each site configuration, type of ACM, physical condition of the ACM, and design of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system. For example, If the ACM is in poor condition and it is likely to be disturbed during work area preparation and if there is visible asbestos-containing dust that has settled onto surfaces, workers would need to wear personal protective equipment in the initial stages of work area preparation. The following are general guidelines and considerations for preparing the work area for asbestos removal. They may need to be modified to address site-specific concerns. These guidelines are most applicable in situations where spray-applied surfacing ACM is being removed. Though the same concepts of containment apply to thermal system insulation (TSI) and miscellaneous materials, modifications of preparation techniques will be necessary. Appendix B contains general procedures for removing TSI with a glovebag. Task 1: Post Danger Signs Generally, one of the first things done when the contractor arrives on site is posting of danger signs and barrier tape to help keep unauthorized and unprotected people out of ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Considerations n Designing Engineering Controls Pago 3 the work area. OSHA requires that a danger sign such as the one shown in Figure V-1 be posted at each of the possible entry points into the abatement project This would indude the entrance to the decontamination unit and the exterior door of the waste loadout area(s), as well as other entrances or exits. Signs should be placed so they can be read from a distance far enough away so that persons can avoid the area or take necessary precautions. These black, red and white sfgns can be obtained from asbestos abatement supply companies. Task 2: Test Stationary Mechanical Equipment If it was not already done during the preconstruction walk through, any equipment remaining in the work area should be tested to determine if it is operational before being unplugged and covered. Any nonfunctioning equipment and pre-exsisting damage (i.e., cracked windows, marred walls, etc.) should be documented before abatement begins. Pre-existing damage should be agreed upon by the contractor and owner's representative before work begins. Task 3; Isolate the HVAC System The HVAC system servicing the area is shut down and locked out and openings are sealed to avoid entrapment of asbestos fibers throughout the building, contamination of the HVAC system, and buildup of positive pressure in the work area. The project designer has at least two important considerations with respect to the HVAC system. The designer must designate whether all or part of the duct work should be cleaned, removed, or left in place. The project designer may need to call upon an industrial hygienist to assist in determining rf there is asbestos contamination inside the duct work. Sometimes asbestos- ------- STU36NT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«c»on V - CoraidGfaboos m Designing Dvl"'*"nO Confrcte DANGER ASBESTOS CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHI G ARE REQUIRED I THIS AREA. FIGURE V-1 EXAMPLE OF SIGNAGE REQUIRED BY OSHA ------- STVJ06MTIMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OE&GN Section V - Conskferafioro m Designing Engineering Controls Pago 5 containing overspray was inadvertently sprayed into open duct work during initial construction. This overspray may be sporadic and difficult to detect without an extensive and time-consuming inspection of the duct system. In addition to specifying what should be done with the HVAC system in the work area, the designer must also determine whether the HVAC must remain In operation for other parts of the building. If so, special procedures may need to be followed to isolate the operational system from the work area. Often floors in a high-rise building are serviced by individual units and it is simple to shut down and lock out the HVAC system on one floor without affecting other floors. In other instances one large unit may service several floors and measures must be taken to truncate or reroute the duct work. The system may then need to be rebalanced to avoid over pressurization in the occupied portions of the building. The building owner's engineer or a mechanical engineer needs to be involved with any modifications of the HVAC system. Task 4: Critical Barriers After the HVAC system servicing the work area has been shut down or rerouted, the exposed vents, diffusers. grilles, and air ducts inside the work area are cleaned with a HEPA vacuum, wet wiped, and covered and sealed with two layers of 6-mil polyethylene and rinrtfopft The first layer of polyethylene forms a critical barrier and is left in place until final clearance air monitoring results indicate the area is ready for reoccupancy. In order to leave this critical barrier in place, the second layer of polyethylene must be cut larger than the first and taped so it can be removed separately. ------- STXJOENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Corauderabons in Dasigr*ng Enginwnng Controls In addition to the HVAC vents and ducts, critical barriers are placed over windows and doors not used for access. To make a more airtight seal, three-inch duct tape is used to cover the seams around the windows, then two sheets of 6-mil polyethylene are taped around the perimeter of the windows and doors. Rigid barriers constructed of plywood or an equivalent may be needed to block off hallways or divide large rooms. Task 5: Conduct Initial Cleaning of Work Area Al objects and horizontal surfaces, with the exception of substrates covered with ACM. should be initially cleaned by wet wiping with amended water. Wiping with plain water is recommended for surfaces that may be damaged by the chemicals in amended water and delicate wood surfaces may need to be wiped with an oil cloth. A technique that is effective for removing surface contamination is wiping in one direction and folding the cloth over to expose a dean surface prior to making the next wipe. Once an dean surfaces of the doth have been used it Is discarded as asbestos-containing waste. A HEPA vacuum is useful for deaning up visible dust or debris on surfaces prior to wet wiping. Property trained workers performing the initial cleaning should wear, at a minimum, half-mask respirators and disposable suits. Task 6: Remove Nonstationarv Items From Work Area The design specifications must clearly identify what will be removed from the work area and what will remain. It is typically best to remove all nonstationary items to avoid contaminating the items and to allow better access for scaffolding and other equipment. The specification should also make It dear who has the responsibility (owner or contractor) to remove nonstationary items. Typical items which would be removed from the work area ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN SocDon V - Considoralkxts in Oeeigning Engbeoring Controls Pag»7 include office equipment, office furniture, draperies, etc. A storage area for these items should be designated in advance. In some cases the storage area may not be convenient to the work area and several hours are required to transfer the items. If there is carpeting in the area, the designer must specify whether it will be removed and disposed of as asbestos-containing waste; cleaned and removed as non-ACM; or left in place, cleaned with a hot-water vacuum cleaner and covered with protective layers of polyethylene. The decision is influenced by the condition and age of the carpet and the degree of contamination. Studies have indicated that a hot-water vacuum cleaner is more effective than a HEPA vacuum for removing asbestos from carpets. When feasible, disposal of contaminated carpet is preferable to cleaning it. Usually if the carpet has been in place for a long time, the adhesive and some of the carpet backing may stick to the floor when the carpet is taken up. The adhesive may be difficult to remove, requiring unanticipated additional time to prepare the area. A test should be conducted before work begins to determine the degree of difficulty in removing the carpet and underlying adhesive. Upon removal, the carpet is rolled up, sealed in a layer of 6-mil polyethylene and disposed of as asbestos-containing waste. As a precaution, the carpet can be cut up and/or defaced to prevent the possibility of reuse. Worker's performing this task should mist the carpet with amended water to a point when the carpet is damp. The workers should wear protective clothing and respiratory protection. The project designer should also provide guidance on handling draperies and fabric- covered furniture. Unless there is evidence of heavy contamination, furniture is usually HEPA vacuumed or cleaned with a hot-water vacuum. Draperies can be disposed of as asbestos-containing waste or carefully HEPA vacuumed and stored. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soctton V - Consxtoflrions in Du&gning Engineering Concrete Pages Replacing or cleaning and storing the light fixtures is a site-specific decision that must be made by the building owner and the designer. Often, light fixtures must be moved to access the ACM. They can be detached, suspended with wire, cleaned and covered with polyethylene. The problem with this approach is that water may leak inside the polyethylene and the lights wil need to be recteaned. Alternately, they may be removed, cleaned and stored outside the work area. Building owners often elect to replace older light fixtures with new energy-efficient lighting equipment. The ballasts in light fixtures installed prior to 1978 may contain polychlorinated biphenyls. If PCB-containing ballasts are leaking or are disposed of in large quantities, they may be subject to disposal regulations. If new fight fixtures are installed, the specifications should be dear about who will pay for the fluorescent tubes and their installation. The light fixtures are usually one of the last items addressed in work area preparation because the electrical supply must be shut off. tagged and locked before the lights are disturbed. Also, if the lights are affixed to the ACM on the ceiling, it is likely that fibers will be released while the light fixture is being taken down. For these reasons, it is best to cover the floors and walls with polyethylene before disturbing the light fixtures. Task 7: Cover and Sea/ StatiQQpry Ottfects After the surfaces have been cleaned and all nonstationary objects have been taken out of the work area, any remaining stationary items such as water fountains, thermostats, radiators, chalkboards, sinks, machinery, etc. are deenergized. as necessary, and covered with separate layers of 6-mil polyethylene. Each layer is securely taped in an attempt to form an airtight barrier around the object ------- STUOENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PHOJECT DESIGN Section V - Considerations in Deaiontog Engineering Consols Task 8: Deenenpize Electrical System Once removal begins, the use of amended water to saturate the ACM creates a humid environment and wet, slippery floors. This increases the potential for a shock hazard. If at all feasble, electrical service to the project area should be shut off and the breaker box should be locked and tagged. However, the breaker box should not be locked if it also contains energized circuits for nonabatement areas. Individual breakers may need to be locked out The designer should specify that the contractor provide temporary electrical service that is equipped with ground fault interrupters from outside the work area. It is critical that extension cords are positioned so that they will not be lying in water once the project begins. In some cases it will not be possfole to disconnect the electrical supply. For example, a bus duct which supplies electricity to many areas of an occupied building and must remain operational may run through the work area. If the electrical system cannot be shut off, then energized parts must be insulated or guarded from employee contact and any objects that are conductive. Switch gear, transformers, and electric bus ducts often generate heat. It may be necessary to construct an enclosure around these items and provide dean, cool air to the enclosure for ventilation. Electrical conduit is not water tight and will need to have fittings caulked or sealed with vinyl tape or tape and polyethylene. If electrical systems within the work area must remain energized, then wet removal is not recommended because of the risk of fire or electrocution. In accordance with NESHAP regulations, dry removal requires notification and consent by EPA prior to project startup. ------- AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN V — GonooMBOfis in OtAi0ntn0 E/i^n00onQ Con vote STUDENT kMNUAL Task .------- STUDENT IttNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - CoraKferaiom in Designing EnginMring Controls The layers of wall polyethylene are hung using a combination of nails and blocks of wood, continuous furring strips, or adhesive and staples, and sealed with wide masking tape or duct tape. Duct tape alone Is not sufficient to keep the polyethylene In place for the du tton of the project. These additional methods may cause some damage to interior finishes and the contractor will need to make minor repairs upon completion of removal. The second layer of 6-mll polyethylene is placed on the floor with the seams of the first and second layers offset and extended just above the first layer on the wall and attached with duct tape. Then, the second layer of 4-mil polyethylene is secured to the wall just above the first layer, extended to the base of the wall just beyond tie bottom of the first layer and sealed with duct tape. At this point there are two continuous layers of polyethylene encasing the entire room except for the ceiling. Because wet polyethylene creates serious sup and trip hazards, extra precautions are necessary for stairs or ramps. Masking tape or thin wooden boards can be placed on top of the polyethylene to provide better friction. Textured polyethylene has been effective in reducing slip hazards. Although it is more expensive than standard polyethylene, fire-retardant polyethylene is preferable because of the added safety factors. It reduces the possibility of a fire starting and spreading outside the containment area. Its rough texture also reduces the potential for slips and faBs. Sp yed-on strtppable coatings can sometimes be used as an alternative to sealing the area with sheet polyethylene. The latex/water based material te sprayed onto surfaces with an airless spray pump to form a continuous, somewhat elastic barrier. It is outside the scope of this course to provide detailed instructions for applying strippable coatings and ------- STUDENT MM*IAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Consxtofrfons in Designing Engineering Controte project designers are encouraged to contact manufacturers for information on job setup and procedural specifications. Propping an area with a strippabte coating is more complex than using polyethylene, but depending on the surfaces and project configuration, there may be distinct advantages. While it is not applicable to every job. it is an alternative method with which designers should be familiar. The potential advantages compared to sheet polyethylene Include a faster application time, elimination of "rehang time" to keep sheet polyethylene in place. less contaminated waste to dispose of, less slippery floor surfaces, and no ballooning effects. The potential disadvantages compared to sheet polyethylene include a more complex application method, some difficulty in removing the strippabie coating when the job is finished, and the presence of ammonia requiring combination high efficiency and ammonia respirator cartridges during installation. When spray polyethylene is used to prepare a containment area, sheet polyethylene must still be used to form critical barriers over windows, doors and other openings. Then the spray polyethylene is applied over critical barriers. 10' EstaNishin A Decontamination Unit Usually the decontamination unit is built while the work area is being prepped. There may be a need to build the decontamination unit first so workers can use it during work area preparation. The OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58) requires the contractor to provide a decontamination unit for workers which consists of an equipment ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sacten V - Co«v«idM«kon» in Owlgning EnglnMrtng Control room, a shower area and a clean room. As an additional precaution it is recommended to separate the rooms with airlocks. The purpose of the decontamination unit is to allow passage to and from the work area during asbestos removal while minimizing migration of asbestos fibers to the outside. The design of the decontamination station may vary with each project depending on the physical constraints associated with the faclity, the crew sizes and the duration of the project A variety of materials can be used to build decontamination units on site including wood, PVC and polyethylene. Customized trailers and prefabricated units which can be moved from one site to the next are also used as decontamination stations. The decontamination unit is often bunt in sections to allow for easy disassembly and reuse (of noncontaminated components) at other areas of the building or other job sites. A typical unit built of wood might consist of 2" x 4' lumber for the frame, 1/4' to 1/2" plywood or 6- or 10-mi polyethylene for the walls, duct tape, staples and nails. Two common layouts for a decontamination unit are provided in Figure V-2 and Figure V-3. The first layout shows both the equipment room and the waste loadout unit directly adjoining the work area. An alternative configuration is provided in the second layout which shows the waste loadout adjoining the equipment room of the decontamination unit. This configuration can be used when a second opening into the work area is not available or convenient. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sector V - Con**fcra*on* in Designing Enginoonog Controts DECONTAMINATION AREA WORK AREA EOUPMENT ROOM AJRLOCK SHOWER ARLOCK CLEAN ROOM • \ ,\ •MSTEWATta R.T1UTKM o \ \ CURTAW DOORWAYS WORK AREA WASTE LOAD-OUT AREA ENCLOSED TRUCK FK3URE V-2 Layout of d«conlaminalion unit with equipment room and wrast* loadoot unit openings dir«ctty into work area. DECONTAMINATION AREA WORK AREA EQUIPMENT ROOM ^ AIRLOCK SHOWER AIRLOCK || CLEAN ROOM R.TMTOI I ) \^ J \ \ CURTAN DOORWAYS WASTE LOAD-OUT AREA A>«.OCK*MMP ENCLOSED TRUCK FIGURE V-3 Layout ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PflQJECT DESWN Sactkxt V - Conud*ndion* In Designing Enginoodng Controte The functions of each of the components of a decontamination unit are descrfoed below and procedures for entering and exiting the work area are provided in Table V-1. While the specifications usually do not detail the dimensions of the decontamination unit, general requirements such as numbers of chambers and airlocks should be included. It should also be emphasized that a separate waste loadout area will be established and no equipment or waste should be passed through the shower and dean room of the decontamination unit Clean Room - As described In the OSHA standard (1926.58) the clean room is an uncontaminated room having facilities for the storage of employees' street clothing and uncontaminated materials and equipment. It is an area in which employees remove their street dothes, store them, and don their respirators and disposable protective clothing. This room is where workers dress in clean clothes after showering. Furnishings for the clean room should include benches, lockers for dothes and valuables, and shelves for storing respirators. Extra disposable coveralls and towels can be stored in the dean change room. Shower Room - The shower is located between the dean room and the equipment room and is separated from each of the two by an airlock (see Figure V-2). Workers pass through the shower room on their way to the removal area and use the showers on their way out after leaving contaminated clothing in the equipment room. The shower should be of a pass-through design, reducing the chance of workers tracking through a contaminated area on their way to the clean room. Although most job specifications require only a single shower head, Installation of multiple showers may be time and cost effective if the work crew is large. While there is no mandatory requirement, some designers specify a minimum of one shower head per five workers. Coid and hot water ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Conskteraions in Designing Enginoonog Controls TABLE V-1 SEQUENCE OF PROCEDURES FOR ENTERING AND EXITING THE WORK AREA (To be used in conjunction with Figure V-2) ENTRY PROCEDURES IN THE CLEAN ROOM. WORKER: 1. Enters dean room 2. Removes dotNng. places in locker 3. Puts on nyton swim suit (optional) 4. Puts on dean coveralls 5. If separate disposable foot coverings are used, these are put on 6. Apples tape around ankles 7. Inspects respirator, puts it on. checks fit 8. Puts on hood over respirator head straps 9. Puts on gloves and tapes around wrists 10. Proceeds to equipment room IN THE EQUIPMENT ROOM, WORKER. 11. Puts on any adcftfenal clothing-boots. gloves, hard hat. etc. 12. CoUects necessary tools and proceeds to WORK AREA EXIT PROCEDURES IN THE WORK AREA. WORKER: 1. Brushes off contamination or uses a HEPA vacuum to remove debrts-a "buddy system* works wel BM THE EQUIPMENT ROOM. WORKER: 2. Removes al doming except respirator 3. Places disposable protective clothing in a bag ex bin 4. Stores any other contaminated artides 5. Proceeds to shower M THE SHOWER ROOM. WORKER: 6. Washes respirator and soaks filers (without removing) 7. Removes respirator, washes with soap and water 8. Places wet respirator filters just inside equipment room (without entering) for later disposal 9. Washes swim suit (if worn) 10. Thoroughly washes body and hair IN THE CLEAN ROOM, WORKER: 11. Dries off. dresses in dean coverals or street dothes 12. Cleans and dries respirator, instate new friers ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Corttxferwton* in Dmtgnng Engineering Control Papol? should be supplied with separate controls, and in ample capacity for each worker to have at least a three-minute shower. Local or state regulations can govern number of shower units and requirements for providing hot water. Shower wastewater should be drained, collected and filtered through a system before disposal Into the sanitary sewer. The lack of adequate accommodations for filtration of shower water is a common problem on abatement projects. A system containing a series of several filters with progressively smaller pore sizes (100, 50, 5 micron) is recommended to avoid rapid initial clogging of the filtration system by larger particles. Also a holding tank for shower water helps avoid exceeding the capacity of the filtration system. Wastewater may need to be retained in sealed barrels or containers and/or holding tanks for appropriate disposal. Some states, including Alabama. Georgia, Maryland and New Jersey have written regulations for handling shower wastewater. The designer should consult local regulations. Equipment Room - This area, also called the dirty change room, is the contaminated area where workers remove their protective coveralls and where equipment, boots or shoes. hard hats, goggles, and any additional contaminated work clothes are stored. Workers place disposable clothing such as coveralls, booties and hoods in waste disposal bags before leaving this area for the shower room. Respirators are worn into the shower and cleaned with water before taking off. The equipment room usually requires cleanup several times daily to prevent asbestos materials from being tracked into the shower and dean rooms. Airtocks- Airlocks are formed by overlapping two sheets of polyethylene at the exit to one room and two sheets at the entrance to the next room with at least three feet of space ------- STUDENT kMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PftOJECT DESWN Section V - Consktoraoons in Designing Engineering Controls Page 18 between the barriers. There are various methods used for constructing airlocks including a hatch-type construction, a slit and cover design, or strip curtains such as those used on loading docks. Airlocks must be constructed to effectively maintain negative pressure whie not inhibiting worker egress in an emergency situation. It is also critical to provide an alternate emergency exit from the containment area to comply with OSHA safety requirements and to protect the workers. Waste Loadoitf Area - The waste loadout area (separate from the decontamination unit and not used for personnel egress) is used as a short-term storage area for bagged waste and as a port for transferring waste to the truck. An enclosure can be constructed to form an airlock between the exit of the loadout area and an enclosed truck (see Figure V-2). The waste loadout area normally is equipped with water used to wipe off the exterior surface of the bagged asbestos waste or drums. Workers from inside the work area place containers of asbestos waste into the airlock between the waste loadout area and the truck. A different group of workers moves the waste from the airlock onto the truck. The waste loadout area must have a locking door to prevent entry from the outside. REMOVAL OF ACM - CONFINING AND MINIMIZING AIRBORNE FIBERS The primary engineering controls used In the removal phase of an asbestos abatement project are the use of amended water to wet the ACM and the use of HEPA filtration units to filter fibers out of the air and establish a negative pressure differential Inside the work area. Establishing an Air Filtration System - The OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58) states that "whenever feasible, the employer shall establish negative pressure enclosures ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - CortsidcrMtons In Designing Engineering Controls Pag«19 before commencing removal, demolition and renovation operations.* Though the EPA does not have a specific requirement, it endorsed the concept of air filtration systems as an effective control technique on asbestos abatement projects In the early 1980s. Negative air filtration systems are used on abatement projects not only to meet regulatory compliance but to accomplish several positive effects including: • Containment of airborne fibers inside the work area • Dilution (by filtration) of tne airborne fiber concentration in the work area • Improved efficiency in final cleanup • Improvement in worker comfort providing increased productivity The containment system is a combination of the physical enclosure, the number and placement of air filtration units and the number and locations of make-up air inlet(s). A variety of designs have evolved for establishing containment systems for asbestos removal. One of the earliest systems is described in EPA's •Recommended Specifications and Operating Procedures for the Use of Negative Pressure Systems for Asbestos Abatement* (Appendix A of this manual). This information was first published in a 1983 EPA Guidance Document In this design, air filtration units are used to filter asbestos fibers out of the air and exhaust it outside the work area, while pulling uncontaminated air into the work area through the decontamination unit. The air is moved by centrifugal fans housed in steel. fiberglass or aluminum "boxes.* The air is filtered through two preliminary filters, and a HEPA fitter, and then vented to the outside of the work area. A variation of this concept is to recirculate the air by exhausting some of the air filtration units inside the containment area. A hard door instead of polyethylene or vinyl flaps is ------- STUDENT UM*JAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soctton V - Considerafiorts in Designing Engineering Controts used on the decontamination unit Negative air is maintained by exhausting only enough air from the containment to overcome leakage. Another containment strategy involves using a HEPA-vent make-up air Inlet device inserted in a solid door on the decontamination unit. The louvered vent allows air to enter containment based on the demand of the air filtration units and the amount of negative pressure desired. Each of the containment systems discussed, and hybrids of these systems, have been demonstrated to be effective on asbestos removal projects when the techniques are properly appied. Some projects, depending on the physical parameters of the site, may be better suited to one type of system. The project designer is encouraged to become familiar with the various possibilities in designing containment systems and to collaborate with knowledgeable abatement contractors in developing the best system for a particular site. The remainder of this discussion will focus on special problems or considerations related to using air filtration units that the project designer may need to address in the design specifications. These issues include pressure differential across the containment barrier, number of air changes per hour, and potential for leakage of contaminated air through the air fltration units. Leakage of Contaminated Air- In the event there is a leak in the system, it has always been the recommended practice to exhaust HEPA air filtration units to the outside air rather than back into another part of the building. In 1990 EPA published a performance evaluation of in-piace HEPA filtration systems at asbestos abatement sites that strongly ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PPOJECT DESK3N Secttxi V - ConsidoratortK in Designing Engineering Controte Pap 21 supports the necessity of this practice. The study found that 16 percent of the 31 units tested showed particle efficiencies lower than the American National Standards Institute criteria for nuclear air cleaning systems of 99.95 percent with 0.7 - 0.8 um particles. The study suggested that the substandard performance may have resulted from damaged or improperly installed HEPA filters, from leaks in the mounting frame, or between the mounting frame and the housing, all of which could cause the air to bypass the HEPA filter. In an attempt to deal with this problem of potential leakage the designer should consider specifying the following requirements: • Documentation from the contractor that each of the HEPA filters used in the air filtration units on site has been individually tested and certified by the manufacturer to have an efficiency of not less than 99.97 percent when challenged with 0.3 micrometer dioctyl phthalate (OOP) aerosol. Each filter should be marked with the name of the manufacturer, serial number, air flow rating, efficiency and resistance, and direction of test air flow. • A visual inspection of aO HEPA filtered units, once they are on site, for evidence of damage to the HEPA filter and evidence that the filter is properly seated in position. • Al HEPA filtration units must be exhausted to the outside air. In most situations venting the HEPA filtration unit to the outside Is not a problem. Windows may have to be removed and wooden templates inserted or flexbte ducts may need to be connected to a roof ventilation pipe. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - CoraJdorationc in Designing Engineering Controls Page 22 There will be rare occasions where no outside access is available adjacent to the work area and it is not feasible to run flexible or rigid ducting the necessary distance to access an outside vent. In these cases it would seem logical to test the exhaust air for contamination but there is not a quick, reliable method for testing the efficiency of air fHtratjon units. To representatively sample the air being exhausted out of the HEPA filtration unit for asbestos fibers, the air samples would have to be collected at the same velocity as the exhaust air. This is termed isokinetic sampling and is not practical with the standard air sampling methods used on abatement projects. Methods used in previous research studies require the use of an aerosol generator and aerosol photometer which are not routinely available. Area air samples could be collected in the vicinity (not directly in line) of the exhaust air, but even if the analyses of these samples were done using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which is currently the best available method, there is no validated technique or established statistical reliability for this procedure. One design alternative, when exhaust air must be vented inside the building, is to exhaust it through a HEPA filtered unit into a sealed chamber, and then exhaust the air from the chamber through a second HEPA filtered unit. This provides a second opportunity for filtration of the air before releasing it into the building. With this configuration, care must be taken to avoid placing the chamber under positive pressure. Another option that is available is utilizing a secondary wet filter system where air from the HEPA filtration system is forced through a unit with a water reservoir before being discharged into the building environment. Ideally any fibers in the air are captured when the air is diffused through the water. No test data is currently available for this system. ------- STUOENT MANUAL AS8CSTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N Section V - Considerations in Designing Engineering Controls Again It Is emphasized, H at all possible, the exhaust from HEPA filtered units must be vented to the outside air to minimize the potential for building contamination. Pressure Differential Across the Containment Barrier — The establishment of a slight negative air pressure inside the work area using HEPA-filtered systems reduces the potential for migration of fibers outside the work area. Standard practice in the industry has been to establish a pressure differential between the work area and adjacent spaces of 0.02 to 0.03 inches water gauge (w.g.). and maintain four air changes per hour. Recent studies have shown that pressure variations exceeding 0.02 to 0.03 inches of w.g. inside a work area can be caused by changes in atmospheric pressure and wind velocities. Some states are considering a requirement to Increase the pressure differential across the containment barrier to 0.05 or 0.1 inches w.g. to allow for atmospheric variations. If a removal project is being conducted in an occupied building or in an area or time of year subject to wide variations in atmospheric pressure or wind velocity, the designer may need to consider requiring a higher pressure differential. It Is usually the responsibility of the air monitoring firm working for the building owner to measure and document the pressure differential. Measurements can be taken with a manometer. Typically, instruments which monitor the pressure drop continuously are connected to strip chart recorders to provide continuing documentation of the pressure differential. Some instruments are equipped with an audible alarm to alert the project personnel of a severe pressure drop. Measurements of the pressure differential should be taken daiy from a number of locations around the perimeter of the project area. Extensive pressure monitoring serves as a valuable tool in preventing fiber migration outside the work area. ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - ConEtdorattons in Designing Engineering Controls Page* Air Changes Per Hour-There is not a direct relationship between pressure differential and number of air changes per hour. For example, in a wind tunnel there may be many air changes per hour with no significant pressure drop between the inside and outside of the tunnel. Conversely, the more leak tight an area is, the easier it is to estabish a pressure differential. The recommended air change rate is based on engineering judgement. As previously discussed, the industry standard has been four changes per hour. On projects where high airborne fiber concentrations are anticipated, there may be a need to increase the air changes per hour in an attempt to increase the filtration rate for asbestos fibers. The number of HEPA filtration units necessary to achieve the required air changes per hour can be determined by first calculating the total volume of the work area and then dividing this volume by the desired air change rate. This establishes the total volume that needs to be exhausted from the work area each minute. total cubic feet/minute (CFM) - volume of work area (in cubic feet) + 60 minute/hour number of air changes/hour Then the number of units needed for the work area is determined by dividing the total CFM by the rated capacity of the HEPA filtration unit. number of units needed - CFM capacity of unit (CFM) The following example is provided for a work area that is 50 feet wide by 200 feet long by 10 feet high with an assumption that the available HEPA air filtration units have a nominal rated capacity of 2000 CFM and the number of desired air changes per hour is 6. ------- STUDENT WNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socboo V - Conskfcirabons in Dosigrang Engnooony Controls Pago2S volume - 50 feet x 200 feet x 10 feet - 100,000 cubic feet total CFM - 100,000 cubic feet + 60 minute/hour 6 air changes/hour total CFM - 10,000 CFM number of units needed » 10.000 CFM = 5 2,000 CFM number of units needed plus safety factor = 5 + (5 x .5) - 7.5 round to £ One potential problem in using this method for calculating the necessary number of HEPA filtration units is the use of the manufacturer's specified nominal air flow rate. Tests on HEPA units operating under field conditions indicate there may be as much as a 50 to 60 percent reduction of actual air flow compared to the manufacturer's rating. Assuming the filtration units are operating at the manufacturer's specified nominal air flow rates could result in actual ventilation rates significantly below project design specifications. The project designer may want to consider adding a required safety factor in the range of 25 to 50 percent more units than the calculated number using the manufacturer's rating. Alternatively, on-srte testing of in-piace units should be conducted to determine the actual exhaust rate. The designer should also require that extra exhaust units be available at the job site to replace ones that malfunction. One extra unit for every five in operation is a typical requirement ------- STUOEHT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - ConsKtofsetwnt In Designing Engineering Controls Pa0»26 WET REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIAL Thoroughly wetting friable ACM prior to removing it is a key engineering control which serves two important functions: • Fewer fibers are separated from the material and released into the air as removal takes pi ace. • The ACM is usually easier to remove after it has been saturated. Recognizing these advantages, EPA regulations require (since 1973) that ACM be kept wet before, during and after it is removed until it is placed into the disposal containers. Improper wetting of the material is one of the most common citations associated with asbestos removal projects. The benefits of wet removal can be further enhanced by adding chemicals to the water that Increase Its ability to penetrate the material. These chemicals are caBed wetting agents or surfactants. Water to which these have been added te called amended water. Various wetting agents are available which have been used in agriculture and fire fighting for many years. The type commonly used for asbestos removal contains 50 percent polyoxyethylene ester and 50 percent polyoxyethylene ether. Typically, the spray mixture contains one part amended water and five parts water. Amended water is most effective on materials containing chrysolite asbestos. It generally is not as effective with materials which contain a high percentage of amosite or crocidolite asbestos because amphiboles as a class are hydrophobic (lacking affinity for water). ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Considefafent In De&jpnng Engineering Contois There are available alternatives including 'removal encapsulants" which are modified so that they minimize fiber release but do not harden the ACM prior to removal. The project designer will want to review documentation of all materials and supplies being used on the project prior to start up as a means of ensuring the products being used are suitable for the job. Removgl Q( fflfflfr/fl Surfacing ACM If the work area has been properly prepared, removal is usually a straightforward process. Some states are now requiring an inspection of the work area by a state inspector before removal activities begin to ensure the work area has been properly sealed, the decontamination unit and HEPA filtration units are in place, and the proper equipment and materials are on site. A project designer may want to consider including a requirement for an inspection by the project monitor at this stage of the project if it is not a state or local requirement. The first step In the removal process Is to thoroughly wet the ACM with a low-pressure mist of amended water, allow time for soaking action and then saturate the material with a second application. If time allows, the ACM should be thoroughly saturated 12 hours in advance of removal to allow for maximum penetration of the ACM. (Note: The added weight of the amended water may cause the material to delaminate prior to removal. If the ACM is on a suspended metal lath ceiling, there is potential for collapse of the ceiling due to added water weight. The integrity of the ceiling supports should be checked prior to wetting the ACM.) ------- STUOEHTIyKNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESKJN Section V - Consxtonttons in Designing Engineering Cortoote Paga2B One of the most common insurance claims on abatement projects is water damage. Water damage te often caused when workers forget to shut off water to pressure spray hoses at the end of the day and a leak occurs overnight. Application with large pumped systems or airless sprayers with high water pressure may result in leakage behind the barrier seals to the outside of containment. Removal of the celling material Is generally carried out In two stages by first removing the gross material and then conducting a detailed cleaning of the substrate. Gross removal is effectively conducted with a three- or four-person team. Workers stand on mobile scaffolding or ladders to scrape the material from the substrate. One or two workers on the floor, package the moist ACM in 6-mil polyethylene bags or lined fiber drums before it has time to dry out. The ACtf must be bagged and sealed continuously and never allowed to remain on the floor overnight. Allowing ACM to dry out will result in high fiber concentrations. The material is collected and bagged using equipment such as dust pans, snow shovels and push brooms constructed of rubber or plastic to minimize the damage to the polyethylene barrier. The crew that bags the material also repositions the scaffold as needed. For large removal operations it may be more efficient to designate a 'spray* person to walk from one area to the next, keeping the ACM on the ceiling and floor wet and misting the air to maintain low airborne fiber concentrations. Bags containing waste are wet wiped, placed into another dean bag or placed into lined fiber drums as they are placed into the waste loadout area. Removing bags out of the work area on a continuing basis helps keep the work area dear tor easier access and movement. ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESWN Stcton V - Consxtoratfons in Designing Engnooring Cootrote Pag* 29 After removing as much of the sprayed-on material as possfole with scrapers, crews begin secondary removal. During this phase workers use a combination of brushing and wet wiping to remove the remaining residue. Typical tools include various sizes of nylon brushes, lint-free rags and a HEPA vacuum. The difficulty of secondary removal depends on the texture and configuration of the underlying surface. Figure V-4 illustrates some of the common types of ceiling construction which include concrete, a three-coat plaster system, suspended metal lath, concrete joists and beams, metal deck, corrugated steel. and steel beam or bar joist. One of the most difficult areas to access are the grooves formed at the junctions of the corrugated deck and beam. It is a tedious process using small brushes to clean out these spaces. Rough, rusted and pitted surfaces can also be very time consuming to decontaminate. The design specifications should provide a description of the type of substrate In the project area and the criteria that will be used to determine if the substrate Is clean. Also the specifications should specifically address ACM In areas that are difficult to access such as elevator shafts, soffits, exterior beams, etc. In some cases the designer may specify encapsulation or enclosure in areas where ACM cannot be effectively removed or where replacement material cannot be effectively installed. Whle crews perform detailed cleaning to remove an remaining residue from the ceilings. workers use brooms, wet/dry HEPA vacuums, wet rags and squeegees to dean ACM off the polyethylene and other stationary objects. When all visual contamination is removed from the substrate, secondary removal is complete. The next phase is final cleanup. ------- STUDENT! MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OE9GN Sectxxi V - CorwidMriona in Daaigning Engineering Controls Pago 30 CONCRETE JOIST AND SEAM CONSTRUCTION wit* jstfsm Hit M INIUSBC If «CI ttl M JOIS1S M KIMS CONCRHE WAFRE SLAB CONSTRUCTION V! ISKSTIS ISUUIT WfltM STEEL BEAM CONSTRUCTION WIITOBI aicsru SUSPENDED CEILING CONSTRUCTION ISKSIIS tsuui tf am M umiu mu. ura Excerpted from Asbestos Exposure Assessment In Buildings, Inspection Manual, EPA. October, 1982. FIGURE V-4 COMMON TYPES OF CEILJNG CONSTRUCTION ------- STUDENT WNUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Swcftoo V - CoraKtoratons in Dewgrung Engrwwong Controls Removal of Thennal System Insulation from Pipes. Boilers and Tanks There is a wide variation in the types of asbestos-containing thermal system insulation used on pipes, boilers and tanks. Pipes may be insulated with preformed fibrous wrapping, corrugated paper, chalky mixture containing magnesia, fiber felt and insulating cement (Note: There are older materials labeled "magnesia" which contain asbestos and new materials also labeled 'magnesia* which contain glass fiber rather man asbestos.) Usually a protective jacket, which may also contain asbestos, made of paper, tape. doth. metal, or cement covers the insulation materials. Boilers and tanks may be insulated with asbestos 'blankets* on wire lath, preformed block, or the chalky magnesia mixture which is typically covered with a finishing cement. Different approaches are typically required for removing these asbestos-containing materials than sprayed-on or troweled-on ceiling insulation; however, the same protective measures are used. Careful handling and packaging is required in many cases because of the metal jackets, bands, or wire associated with the insulation materials. Important considerations in developing the design specifications are the temperature, contents and condition of the thermal system. If at all posstoJe, high temperature lines should be deactivated before removal takes place. Removal from hot pipe requires special protective equipment and procedures to avoid damaging the pipe or injuring workers. In some industrial settings pipes may contain toxic materials that could cause a serious skin or Inhalation hazard if released due to damage. It is often difficult to determine the condition of insulated tanks or pipes. Older systems may have rusted or corroded sections that could be easily damaged during removal. This would result in the release of the contents of the pipe or tank into the work area. ------- STUDENT fcMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Coraidorabon* r Designing Enginwring Control* Gtovebags, which can be sealed around sections of pipe to form •mini-containment areas" may be used in some situations for removing pipe insulation. Insulated objects which are not readty accessible or are too large or hot for application of the glovebag technique, may require a full area enclosure with modified removal techniques. Standard glovebags should not be used on pipes that are hotter than 150°F. Procedures and equipment for using a glovebag are outlined in Appendix B. Because insulation on pipes, boilers and tanks may often contain as much as 70% asbestos and because areas where these materials are being removed are often confined, high airborne fiber concentrations may occur. Also, these materials are more difficult to saturate with water because they are often covered with an outer jacketing. They often contain amosite, which is not controlled as well with water as other types of asbestos. If these situations cannot be controlled by higher air flow rates and other engineering techniques, then Type C airline respirators are recommended for workers engaged in removal of asbestos from pipes and boilers. Removal of insulation from pipes, tanks and boilers can be accomplished by two-person teams. Cuts or slits are made in the insulation material, a spray nozzle is inserted, and the material is wetted to the extent feasible. One person cuts away the insulation and bags it while the other continuously sprays the material with amended water. Any metal bands or wire that are removed should be folded or rolled and placed in polyethylene to avoid injury to personnel. After the gross material is removed, nylon brushes are used to thoroughly dean the pipes. tanks or boilers. (In cases when pipes are extremely hot, nylon brushes may melt and wire brushes may be the most feasible tool.) Particular care must be taken to dean the fittings ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DEStGN S«cton V - ConsKteraftons n Dwgning Engineering Cootrote Pag* 33 and joints where a cement-plaster type material has been removed. After brushing, the surfaces are wet wiped and the final cleanup phase begins. DRY REMOVAL TECHNIQUES Dry removal, which requires specific EPA approval, may be appropriate for some types of asbestos-containing materials which have been previously encapsulated and will not absorb amended water. There are special conditions which may preclude the use of water such as a room containing electrical supply lines which cannot be deenergized during the removal project, hot steam pipes, below freezing weather, etc. Dry removal techniques can be used successfully but require much skill and attention to critical details in order to minimize airborne fibers in the workplace and to adequately confine all airborne fibers to the workplace enclosure. It Is very Important that all personnel use maximum personal protection during dry removal because of the constant and high potential for elevated airborne fiber levels. The dry removal procedures selected for a given situation must be carefully matched to the existing work area conditions, the type of asbestos and the skill of the work force. Adding layers of enclosure plastic, adding airlock chambers to the decontamination units, providing double or triple, rigid primary barriers (in addition to several layers of primary polyethylene), and increasing the number of negative pressure machines may be precautions that are required beyond the normal wet removal procedures. These added confining and minimizing measures obviously add cost to the project It is always much easier to control airborne fibers using wet techniques. It is recommended that all reasonable and safe avenues for wet removal be thoroughly explored before resorting to ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Constderuwns in Deupreng Engmering Controls dry removal. Dry removal requires EPA approval and approval is sometimes difficult to obtain. CLEANING UP THE WORK AREA Final cleanup of the work area begins when all visible ACM has been removed from the substrate. Successful cleanup requires proper sequencing of tasks and attention to detail to avoid recontaminatjon of dean areas. Clean-up activities for thermal system insulation and miscellaneous materials may vary, but the strategy will remain the same. While the project designer may allow the contractor to determine the most effective cleaning sequence, there may be some specific requirements that the designer will want to include in the design specifications, such as time intervals between cleaning activities. One sequence for cleaning up an area after removing surfacing ACM is discussed below and shown in Figure V-5. This sequence is typical, but not inflexbte. Some model/master specifications, and even state regulations, may suggest or require a different approach. The area of most variability seems to be when to take down the inner and outer layers of polyethylene. In the sequence discussed below, the first layer of polyethylene is taken down before the lockdown material is applied. An alternative sequence in which the lockdown material is applied while both layers of polyethylene are still in place is proved in Figure V-6. This sequence is outlined in the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1368, "Standard Practice for Visual Inspection of Asbestos Abatement Projects.' This procedure also provides specific guidance for conducting visual inspections of the substrate and the asbestos removal work area prior to final clearance monitoring. ------- STUOPNT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soceon V - Cont«d»r*»on« in Oangntng Engineering Contrate CONTRACTOR INSPECTOR/CONTRACTOR LABORATORY Complete removal of asbestos and surface residue FAIL Clean and remove equipment and first layer of polyethylene from walls and floors Inspect for completeness of removal PASS Apply sealer to abated surfaces Clean and remove second layer of polyethylene from walls and floors Perform final area cleaning FAJL Inspect for completeness of cleanup PASS Remove barriers and dismantle decontamination facilities Perform final air sampling PASS FIGURE V-5 ONE SEQUENCE FOR CLEANUP AND CLEARANCE AT CONCLUSION OF PROJECT ------- STUOCNT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN V - Corwdoroftonc n Daugre"Q EngioMnog Control* Page 36 CONTRACTOR INSPECTOR LABORATORY Complete removal of asbestos and surface residue FAIL Inspect for completeness of removal Apply sealer to abated surfaces PASS Clean and remove plastic from wads and floors Perform final area cleaning FAl FAIL Inspect for completeness of cleanup PASS Remove barriers and dismantle decontamination facilities Perform final air sampling PASS FIGURE V-€ ALTERNATE SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITY AT CONCLUSION OF PROJECT per ASTM E1368. 'Standard Practice for Visual Inspection of Asbestos Abatement Protects' (c) 1990. Andrew F. Oberta. PE. CIH ------- STUOEKT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socfon V - Consfcfenfions n Designing Engineering Controls Conduct Visual Insoection of Substrate. Redoan tf Necessary This is a good point for the building owner's representative and the contractor's representative to make sure that there is not residual material on the substrate from which the ACM has been removed. The contractor's representative is responsible for correcting any of the deficiencies noted before beginning the next phase of work. Remove Qross Contamination from Equipment and Potysflivtene After the visual inspection indicates the ACM has been totally removed from the substrate. all visible material is cleaned from the exposed layer of polyethylene and surfaces of equipment Including scaffolding, ladders, extension cords, and HEPA filtration units. Cleaning Is conducted by wet wiping and HEPA vacuuming. Any equipment that is not necessary to complete the project is thoroughly cleaned and taken out of the work area through the waste toadout unit. Remove Confa/n/flflffltf (^Yaf (ft Polyethylene from Walls The next cleaning task involves taking down the exposed layer of polyethylene from the walls. Ideally, the polyethylene is lighdy misted with an encapsulant or lock/down" material to minimize the release of airborne fibers when the polyethylene is disturbed. The polyethylene is first detached from the floor polyethylene at the base of the wall and then detached from the inner wall layer at the top of the wall. To minimize the generation of fibers, the polyethylene is then folded inward to form a compact bundle for bagging and disposal. Any visible debris which leaked behind the exposed layer of polyethylene onto the remaining layer is now removed with a HEPA vacuum and/or wet wiping methods. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATE ME NT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - ConsJdoralxxe in Designing Engraoring Controls Pago 36 Remove Contaminated Laver of Potvethviene from Floors Next, the contaminated layer of floor polyethylene is removed in the same manner as the waH layer, while shifting equipment around as necessary to access the floor layer. Any visible contamination which leaked through the remaining layer must be removed. Apply Lockdoutn Material to Substrate Though the substrate may appear to be visually dean, very small amounts of ACM may have become lodged in pores, cracks or crevices that were inaccesstole. A lockdown material is applied to the substrate to control and minimize the amount of asbestos fiber generation thai might result from this residual contamination. The lockdown should not be used as a substitute for good cleaning practices. A variety of products are available for locking down the substrate. These lockdown products are usually applied as sprayed-on liquid type sealants (alternatives for certain situations are latex paint and concrete sealant). It is important to select a lockdown sealant that is compatible with the substrate to ensure that adhesion occurs between the two surfaces. Also, consideration must be given to compatibility with the replacement material. Other factors in selecting the lockdown material include toxidty, volatility, fire ratings. For example, the selected lockdown material is considered by Underwriter Laboratories (UL) to be a component of the flreproofing system. It must be tested and found to be compatible with the replacement material or the UL rating on the replacement material could be void. Lockdown materials are typically applied with airless sprayers. It is good practice to use color tinting when applying lockdown materials to ensure that all areas of the substrate ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK* Soction V - Coo*Ktera»ons in Oocgnng Engineering Concrete have been covered. One coat of locfcdown Is usually adequate to adhere any remaining fibers in place. Additional coats may be warranted for cosmetic purposes, and to be certain that all surfaces nave been coated. Remove Remaining Wan and FI 5 °f Polethylene After the (ockdown material has been applied, the remaining layers of polyethylene on the wafl and floor are removed and disposed of in the same manner as the first layers. Critical barriers on windows, vents, etc. are left in place. If there is carpet in the work area specified for removal, workers should lightly mist the entire carpet with amended water before detaching it from the floor and rolling it up. The carpet is then wrapped with 6- mil polyethylene, sealed with duct tape and labeled for disposal. If the carpet is not specified for removal, at least one layer of polyethylene should remain in place to protect it from contamination and damage. Inspect and Clean Any Residual Debris Once all layers of polyethylene have been removed (except critical barriers and floor poly over carpet, if necessary), the area is closely inspected for any debris that may have penetrated the final layer of polyethylene. Any debris found is removed with a HEPA vacuum or wet-wiping technique to avoid recontaminating the area. Wet Clean WaMs and Floors The next activity is to HEPA vacuum and/or wet clean walls and floors. Workers begin cleaning the areas farthest away from the negative air filtration units and use amended ------- STUDENT IMNLIAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESWN Section V - Corwidorafcorts in Designing Engineering Controls water to wet wipe all exposed surfaces except the substrate from which the ACM was removed. After the walls are wet wiped, the floor is mopped with a dean mop head using amended water. The water is changed each time the mop is rinsed out and waste water from wet-cleaning activities Is dumped into the shower drain to be appropriately filtered or mixed with the removed ACM for cSsposal as asbestos contaminated waste. Wait Overnight - Repeat Wet-Wipe and Wet-Mop Procedures Because asbestos fibers can remain airborne for several hours once they are suspended into the air. a provision for a "waiting period" between wet-cleaning procedures may improve cleanup. The National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) Model Asbestos Abatement Guide Specification outlines a three-stage cleaning process. Each cleaning procedure using rags and amended water or a HEPA vacuum is followed by a 24-hour period during which negative air filtration units remain running. This stage of the project is also a good time to change out HVAC filters that may be contaminated with asbestos dust. The old filters should be wetted with amended water, removed and disposed of in the same manner as other asbestos-containing materials. Persons performing this task should wear respirators and protective clothing. The owner normally installs the new filters at the end of the abatement project but this should be discussed and agreed upon during the initial planning of the project. Visual Irtsoaction/Recieafi H Ateoassa/v The final visual Inspection Is conducted as a team approach by the owner's representative and contractor's representatives after the work area surfaces ------- STUDENT fcMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Consktorabons n Dmiyvng Engineering Control* are thoroughly dry. All surfaces and ledges, tops of beams, and all other hidden locations are inspected for visual contamination at this time. A standard method for conducting visual inspections in asbestos abatement work areas has been developed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). It is important that the project specifications clearly delineate how the visual inspection wUI be conducted so that all parties are aware of the criteria and methods which will be used. Areas which need to be cleaned are documented and addressed by the contractor. After recJeaning. the inspector and contractor's representative make a final walk-through to assure the items listed have been addressed. Final Clearance Monitoring After the area passes visual inspection, and the contractor gives notification that the work area is ready for clearance testing, aggressive clearance air monitoring is performed by a testing company retained by the building owner. Criteria, protocols and data interpretation for clearance monitoring are addressed in Section IX. If the first set of clearance samples indicate airborne fiber concentrations in the work area are above the specified 'clearance level," the area is recteaned folowed again by clearance sampling. The project designer may consider specifying that the contractor pay for any additional clearance sampling that is conducted after the initial testing. After the area has been cleared for reoccupancy by unprotected personnel, the HEPA filtration units are shut down, the critical barriers are removed and remaining renovation can be initiated. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATE MENT PROJECT DESIGN Saction V - Corw«ten*on* in Deei0ning Engineering Controls ClsanJnp Uo The Decontamination Unit The top layer of floor poly in the equipment room is removed at the same time the top layer of floor poly in the work area is removed, using the same procedures. This minimizes tracking contamination back into the work area. After cleanup is completed inside the work area, the polyethylene on the walls of the decontamination unit is lightly misted with amended water and folded inward. Next the remaining layers on the floor are removed in the same manner and packaged with the other poly for disposal. The walls are visually checked for contamination and wet wiped if necessary. The decontamination unit can now be disassembled for transport WASTE DISPOSAL Waste Loadout Procedure The most effective method in a waste loadout procedure is to use two teams of workers: an inside team and an outside team. Wearing appropriate respirators and protective ckMhing, the inside team ensures that the drums are properly packed, lids locked into place and plastic bags removed from the outside of each drum before it is sent through the waste loadout area and into the enclosed truck. (The plastic bags should then be placed in the next drum for disposal.) It Is Important that no workers from the Inside team exit the work area through the airlock. In cases where the drums are not being covered with plastic bags, the inside team assures that each drum exiting the work area is free of any dust. This may be accomplished by inspecting and wet wiping every drum leaving the area ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8EST06 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - Conuctefatkxn in Dw^rang EnginMhng Controls Wearing half-mask respirators and appropriate protective clothing, the outside team (In the waste toadout area) posts themselves at the entrance to the work area They receive the drums into the toadout area from the inside team. Then, the outside team loads the drums into the enclosed truck. Trucks must be posted with the NESHAP warning sign during loading and unloading of asbestos waste. The warning sign contains the following wording: DANGER ASBESTOS DUST HAZARD CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD Authorized Personnel Only The entrance into the waste loadout area from the work area is secured to prevent any unauthorized entry or exit Drums must be placed on level surfaces in the enclosed truck and packed tightly together to prevent shifting and tipping. Under no circumstances should containers ever be thrown into the truck. Also, when moving the containers, hand trucks, dollies or pull carts should be used. To assure that the truck is properly enclosed, the inside or "bed" area is lined with two layers of 6-mil polyethylene. First, the floor is completely covered with a 12-inch overlap of each piece. The same method is used to property secure the sheets of polyethylene to the sides and top of the truck. This not only ensures additional enclosure of asbestos- containing waste, but it also provides for easier dean-up operations. It should be noted here that any debris or residue observed on containers or surfaces outside the work area ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OEStGM Socfcn V - Conskferabons in Designing Engneering Controls Pago 44 resulting from disposal activities should be immediately cleaned by using HEPA-fiHered vacuum equipment and/or wet wiping, as appropriate. Other Forms of Asbestos-Containing Waste In any asbestos abatement project, not all of the waste material that needs to be disposed of will be loose or broken apart. There are many cases in which it will be necessary to dispose of materials such as asbestos-containing floor, wall or ceiling tiles, shingles, rugs, dtemantled items, etc. This may include neatly banding together tiles or shingles, with care not to expose sharp edges or any other protruding objects that could possibly puncture the polyethylene enclosure. Once the materials are banded together, each bundle is wrapped in two layers of 6-mil polyethylene, secured by duct tape, and labeled appropriately. When this is complete, the bundles are neatly stacked in the truck so that tipping or shifting of the load is prevented. Transportation To The AstjftfitQfj-ContaJnlna Waste Disposal Site As work progresses, and to prevent exceeding available storage capacity on site, sealed and labeled containers of asbestos-containing waste are removed and transported to the prearranged disposal location. Regulations may vary from state to state, but there are standard procedures that must be followed in any operation involving asbestos waste disposal. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous air Pollutants (NESHAP) requires vehicles that are used to transport asbestos-containing waste material to be placarded with an asbestos warning sign during the loading and unloading of waste. Disposal must occur at an authorized site in accordance with regulatory requirements of ------- STUDENT fcMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S*c*on V - Contideratkxw in DMigning Engineering Controls Pag* 45 the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). NESHAP and applicable local guidelines, tt is necessary to check with state officials on these requirements. When transporting asbestos-containing waste to any disposal location, it is important that the drivers of the vehicles be property trained In correct waste-handling procedures. It is also important that they not use excessive speeds or unusually rough roads to avoid load slippage or tipping. The driver will be responsible for retaining ail dump receipts, trip tickets, transportation manifests, or other documentation of disposal. These should then be given to the building owner for his/her records. The waste hauler is responsible for providing a copy of the NESHAP waste shipment record to the disposal site owners or operators at the same time as the asbestos-containing waste material is delivered to the disposal site. The Regulations section provides additional information about waste shipment records. Once the asbestos-containing waste truck arrives at the landfll, the driver approaches the disposal location as closely as possible for unloading of the waste materials. The asbestos-containing waste can be unloaded manually or by mechanical load dumping as long as precautions are taken to prevent rupture of the impermeable containers. In the event a bag has been damaged, the material is repacked into another bag as appropriate. The potential for rupture emphasizes the need to thoroughly wet the material before it is placed in a disposal container. It should be noted that the NESHAP requirement for *no vistole emissions' applies to the landfill as well as the removal site. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEkCWT PROJECT DESIGN Ssctioo V — Cortsxtefstions in Personnel off-loading the containers should wear proper protective equipment which Includes disposable head, body and foot protection. (Minimum respiratory protection requirements should include the use of half-face, air-purifying, dual-cartridge respirators equipped with high efficiency filters.) The NESHAP regulations require bags or drums to be placed intact in an excavated area and covered with a minimum of six inches of earth at the end of each working day. These areas must be clearly marked to prevent future disturbance of the waste. Cleaning Up The Enclosed Truck During the last disposal trip to the landfill, after the truck has been emptied of all waste materials, the polyethylene lining the inside of the truck is misted with amended water and carefully removed. Good practice should include wet wiping the floor and walls of the truck at this time. Polyethylene removed from the truck interior and the protective dothing worn by workers conducting disposal are bagged for disposal and placed with the other materials at the dump site. SUMMARY There are a variety of engineering controls used throughout an asbestos abatement project to minimize the generation of asbestos fibers. This section addresses these controls from the project designer's viewpoint, while presenting the various tasks that a contractor must perform to successfully prepare the work area, remove the ACM. dean the work area and dispose of the waste material. This information is intended to assist the ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section V - CortfKtervftOftS in Deigning Engnaartnj Control* Pap 47 project designer in Identifying many of the critical technical issues which need to be addressed in the development of the design specifications. ------- STUDENTMANUAL _ ASBESTOS ABATEMEKT PROJECT DESIGN Stcfeon V — Concidoraftofts in DostprvnQ REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Where should the asbestos danger signs required for asbestos removal projects be posted? A. Inside the work area at a height of 6 feet B. At all entrances to the work area C. At all entrances to, and exits from, the work area D. At 50-foot intervals around the building 2. Which of the following te not part of the decontamination unit for asbestos workers? A. dean room B. Shower room C. Waste toadout D. Equipment room 3. Shower water may be disposed of as asbestos-contaminated waste or filtered through a series of filers. The final filter should be what size? A. 500 micron filter B. 100 micron filter C. 50 micron filer D. 5 micron filter 4. In the space provided below, discuss the difference between "air changes per hour" and "pressure differential.* Does Increasing the number of air changes per hour always result in an Increase in the pressure differential? 5. A thorough visual inspection of the work area is conducted after cleaning is performed. This visual Inspection focuses on unremoved ACM, ACM debris and dust in the containment area. Who is responsible for making the final decision whether the area fails the visual inspection? A. The contractor B. The building owner's representative C. The EPA inspector 0. The building owner's representative and the contractor ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abatement in Occupied Bufcfings Pagol ABATEMENT IN OCCUPIED BUILDINGS INTRODUCTION Asbestos abatement procedures were initially developed for unoccupied, single-story structures typical of school facilities. Some of trie earliest EPA guidance on asbestos- containing materials was directed specifically toward schools. These types of buildings offered many advantages to project designers and contractors such as relatively simple building construction, extended shut-down periods and the ability to evacuate the building and inactivate HVAC and electrical systems. As the focus of asbestos abatement broadened to other types of commercial and industrial facilities, many of the containment and removal techniques that were developed for schools needed to be modified to address more complex technical, architectural and logistical problems. In many structures, such as hospitals, aviation facilities, and multitenant high-rise offices, the use of the building precludes massive personnel relocation. When the building must remain partially occupied, the ramifications of contaminating areas outside the work zone are potentially very expensive and time consuming from both technical and legal aspects. Although most projects do not involve extreme difficulties, there are many issues for consideration ranging from risk communication through procedural decisions to economic evaluation. In the case of an occupied high-rise office building, contamination outside the work area could require cleanup of several floors. Extensive resources might be required to address ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abatement in Occupied Buicfngs Pjg»2 the issue of potential exposure to unprotected people working on those floors. The same would apply to hospitals where contamination outside the work areas could impose some extremely complex public relations issues. Abatement procedures in occupied buildings are not only impacted by the increased risk of contaminating occupied areas, but also the nature of the structures and the operations within. Asbestos fireproofing was commonly spray applied on a variety of structural surfaces within a building. These areas include structural beams, decks, columns, and shafts, with associated overspray onto adjoining surfaces, conduit, piping and duct work. Overspray inside duct work may also be an area of concern. These locations are often difficult to access when removing the asbestos-containing material (ACM). Electrical and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems may need to remain operational. There are shafts and floor penetrations to worry about; transport of equipment, personnel and waste disposal present logistical difficulties; critical or sensitive equipment may need to remain operational; and the building maintenance staff may require access to equipment in the work area while abatement is in progress. This section covers some of the common problems associated with asbestos removal in occupied and high-rise buildings and outlines some of the factors to consider in the respective design solutions. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN THE DESIGN PHASE Unprotected Peoofe May Be Exposed One of the most critical concerns associated with abatement in occupied buildings is the potential for exposure to building occupants if there should be a breach in the containment ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEtCWT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abatement in Occupied Buitfngs Pago 3 barrier. An added concern is entry, inadvertent or otherwise, by unauthorized personnel into the project area. Monitoring can be conducted in the occupied areas to document airborne fiber concentration. However, by the time elevated levels are detected, the area and occupants within will have been exposed. Prevention, by Including safeguards In the abatement design and execution, Is the best approach. The two primary methods of confining fibers to the work area are construction of containment barriers and use of HEPA-filtered air units to create a pressure differential between the work area and adjoining spaces. Containment Barriers - High-rise structures have features which are not typical In single- story buildings that make construction of the containment barrier more difficult. Floor penetrations for cable, pipe, shafts, and chases are generally present and wBI serve as a conduit for air and water if not sealed. Also, many multistory buildings have a curtain wall construction which creates a perimeter space that exists just inside the walls of the building. In this type of construction floor decks extend to within anywhere from a half inch to four inches of the exterior wall. This space also needs to be sealed or blocked off. Figure VI-1 demonstrates methods to contain a work area having an exterior curtain wall. To help reduce the risk of fiber migration in occupied buildings project designers typically specify stricter methods of constructing and utilizing critical barriers than are used in empty buildings. Critical barriers as utilized on an asbestos abatement project are, as the name suggests, essential or critical in confining the elevated level of airborne asbestos fibers generated during the removal process. These barriers are the last line of defense in preventing the migration of ftoers into spaces direct/ adjacent to the removal work areas, or more importantly, in preventing migration of fibers into any common air handling ------- STVJOENTUANUAl AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sector) VI - Abatement in Occupied Bufcfngt PagM FK3URE VI-1 METHODS OF SEALING FLOOR PENETRATIONS BETWEEN FLOOR DECKS AND CURTAIN WALL ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMEKT PROJECT OEStOM S*cton VI - AtelMTWrt in Occupied Bufcfcgi RUBBER ROOFING KKKBRANE FLOOR DUCK FIREPROOFING EXPANDABLE FOAM SKA1. EXTERIOR WALL (CURTAIN WALL) FLOOR DECK RUBBER ROOFING MEMBRANE FIREPROOFING TO BE REMOVED FIREPROOFING TO REMAIN GYPSUM HOARD ENCLOSURE FIGURE VI-1 METHODS OF SEALJNG FLOOR PENETRATIONS BETWEEN FLOOR DECKS AND CURTAIN WALL ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«c*on VI - AbclWTwnl a\ Occupied Buttngs PagoS system(s) with the potential of contaminating the entire building or significant portions thereof. These barriers, which, in single-story unoccupied buildings are often constructed of simple wood frames with polyethylene sheets attached and sealed, serve a similar, but much more important purpose in taD or occupied facilities. A much more complicated system of engineering controls must be utilized in these structures. Some of these methods include the use of solid wood barriers over which polyethylene sheets are applied. Also a double solid barrier may be constructed in extremely sensitive areas. Caulk and fire stop foam can be used to effectively seal slab penetrations during the abatement process. It may be difficult to identify floor penetrations that are no longer being used and have been covered up but not tightly sealed. Where curtain walls are present, if the space between the slab and wall is narrow (less than two inches), foam may typically be used to fill the gap. For wider gaps it will probably be more effective to construct the critical barrier using a material such as rubber roofing strips that wii lay snugly up against the side of the wall and extend over the gap out onto the floor. The barrier is then covered with layers of polyethylene to form the containment. Seals installed between floors will often have to be removed at the conclusion of the abatement project. Number Of Air Changes. Higher Pressure Differential - As an additional safety measure for removal projects in occupied buildings, the number of air changes per hour may be Increased to as much as ten or even twenty In contrast to the traditional minimum of four which Is relied on In most single-story unoccupied projects. With the controlled flow of make-up air, this number of air ------- STUDENT UANUAi. ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abatement in Occupod Boltings changes within a totally enclosed, sealed off work area typically produces a differential ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 inches water gauge in the air pressure between inside the work area and outside the work area. As discussed in Section V. this Increased differential is necessary to overcome changes in environmental conditions. High-rise buildings are also known to commonly produce a stack effect of air flowing upward which can create strong pressure imbalances on opposite sides of an enclosure. Additionally. HVAC systems which remain operational outside the work area may interfere with the negative pressure being maintained in the work area. This pressure differential, while working effectively to help contain contamination within the work area, also contributes to the need for added reinforcement when erecting critical barriers and enclosures around the work area. Polyethylene must be affixed to the walls much more securely than is required under decreased pressure differential conditions. Sprayable coatings may be required to help withstand the pressure differential. Another problem of using HEPA-filtered exhaust units in multistory, occupied buildings is obtaining locations for venting the exhaust to the outside. Windows may have to be removed and replaced with wooden templates to accommodate the exhaust ducts. Additional precautions must be implemented when removing windows at heights well above street level to avoid injury to those below. Once the project begins, the HEPA-filtered exhaust units will remain in continuous operation. The decision to require back-up power for these units will depend on site- specific conditions such as the likelihood of power interruption and the likelihood of contamination outside the work area should power be lost. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - AhatMnont in Occupied BuMogt Pip? Monitoring - While the single most reliable method of assuring barrier integrity is visual inspection of barriers on a regular basis during a project, air monitoring is usually conducted around the perimeter as an additional means of documentation. Presently, two methods for analysis of these air samples are available: phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (JEM). PCM analysis, if performed on site, can give a quick indication of fiber concentration around the perimeter of the work area. However, PCM analysis can be misleading. This analytical method calls for the microscopist to include all fibers, within certain size limitations, to be reported on any particular sample. It does not count or detect fibers that are less than 5 microns long or 0.25 microns diameter. It does not differentiate between asbestos fibers and other fibers such as carbon fliers, mineral wool or glass fibers. This problem is especially evident when asbestos removal takes place in conjunction with other normal construction activities. TEM analysis, while giving positive identification of asbestos fibers, cannot give immediate results on those samples. Consequently, any results of TEM analysis would be significantly after the fact and posstoly too late to give warning or Indication of breaches of the enclosures. Another method sometimes used for testing the effectiveness of critical barriers and enclosures is the fibrous aerosol monitor (FAM). This apparatus can run continuously and give a near real time approximate readout of fiber concentrations within the ambient air around an active work site. The FAM also relies on PCM-type technology and. accordingly, can provide misleading information. Another problem is the lag time of many hours required for the FAM to register accurate low-fiber concentrations in the 0.01 -0.05 f/cc range. To summarize, the selection of the most appropriate monitoring method wPI be influenced by site-specific factors such as ongoing construction outside the abatement project and ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - AbotofTwrt in Occupied BufcSngs Pa0*8 accessfoil'rty to a TEM laboratory which affects turnaround time for complete results. The project designer may need to consult with an industrial hygienist to determine the best method for the given site. Systems Running Through Work Areas Mav Need To Remain Operational In an occupied building, there may be systems running through the work area that cannot be shut down. Two common examples include the HVAC system and electrical bus ducts. There may also be critical or sensitive equipment located in the work area that must remain operational or cannot be removed. HVAC Issues - H Is always preferable to shut down the HVAC system, secure the work area and seal the openings. A prepxoject evaluation and cost estimate will need to be conducted to determine if it is feasible to inactivate the HVAC or whether it must remain operational. Factors to consider include the configuration and zoning of the HVAC system, local dimatic conditions, length of anticipated down time, scope of the project, stationary equipment which might require cooling, and building codes. Another consideration would include the possibility of installing localized temporary HVAC. If the HVAC must remain operational during removal, very stringent engineering, monitoring and administrative measures are required. One of the main concerns in keeping the HVAC operational and uncontaminated Is to maintain positive pressure in all duct work, plenums and serviced occupied areas with respect to the abatement work area. Adjustments must be made, if necessary, to the mechanical system to produce a positive static pressure within the air handling system. This modification Is comparable to blowing up a balloon where the exhaust to the outside is restricted and air is forced into the system ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATED NT PROJECT DESiGN Section VI - Abatement n Occupied Butkfngt (i.e., the "balloon") by the operation of the supply fan. The project designer may need to enlist the help of a mechanical engineer to develop procedures for pressurizing the system. Some of the general considerations are discussed below and Figure VI-2 is a schematic diagram of this method. One of the key issues is whether the HVAC system can operate on fresh air or whether return air needs to be entrained via mixing dampers. This need will be influenced by the temperature of the outside air and the capacity of the HVAC system fans. The colder the weather, the greater the need for return air. Where return air is required, it is essential to make sure dampers are adjusted and operating property. This may involve the installation of temporary adjustable dampers or the addition of a manual control system to existing dampers. Where return air is not necessary, mixing dampers can be temporarily sealed off with polyethylene and duct tape to ensure air tightness. Once the mixing dampers have been properly adjusted or sealed, the joints in the duct work are seated with duct tape and the duct work is endosed in two layers of polyethylene. The return fan is shut down and exhaust dampers are sealed, typically with plywood and caulking. After the HVAC modification and adjustments have been made, a pressure monitoring system needs to be established. This can be done by installing rigid, leak-free static pressure tape with manometer, mechanical or electronic displays or automatic monitoring instruments in the supply and return duct work. Readings from these locations can be compared to a static line installed in the work area to determine the negative pressure ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8CSTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN SocttnVl Abatement in Oocupod EXHAUST 'XXXXXV/XXXXXXXXXXXXX '///////////////.'///// f 'X.XX./XV. EXHAUST/ TO SUPPLY xj DUCTS £ TORETURN C PLENUM / E^AUST '////, POSmVE PRESSURE FIGURE VI-2 DIAGRAM OF PRESSURE ZONES IN ASBESTOS ABATEMENT WORK AREA WITH OPERATIONAL HVAC ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEME NTT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abahmwnt in Oocupiod Buttings Pago 11 condition relative to the duct work. The return fan casing Is the most critical area for monitoring. If positive pressure is maintained here, the entire system is positive. The system should be tested once it has been adjusted and pressure monitors have been installed. This test should be conducted once the negative pressure is established in the work area, but before actual asbestos abatement begins. The supply fan switch can be turned to the manual "on" position. All seals on duct work should be checked with a smoke tube and if return dampers are in use they can be further adjusted as necessary to achieve the desired pressurization. Air sampling should be conducted at strategic points to ensure and document the HVAC system Is not becoming contaminated with asbestos fibers. It may be desirable to collect a background settled dust sample from inside the duct work prior to starting the system to make a qualitative determination about the presence of asbestos in dust Air sampling locations should be selected in downstream occupied areas serviced by the duct work. Preferably these areas are relatively small. such as offices. Air flow patterns could be checked with a smoke tube to determine the best location for placing air samples. Background air samples should be collected at these locations prior to removal and analyzed by the same techniques that would be used for analyzing samples collected during removal. In some projects, the use of a fibrous aerosol monitor may be appropriate. It has the advantage of providing a near real time reading, and can be used as an effective surveillance tool. Inside the work area, the RAM is effective in detecting rapid increases in the airborne concentration. This indicates the need for more stringent work practices. As ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sedton VI - Abatement in Occupied BuMngs Pago 12 mentioned earlier it has the disadvantage of not distinguishing fiber types and being a relatively expensive instrument (~$10.000~$13.000). Operating Stationary Equipment - In addition to the HVAC system, other concerns inside the work area include items such as energized electrical bus ducts carrying high voltage electrical wiring for the entire building, cable trays, transformers, and other equipment that must remain operational and needs ventilation. It Is reemphaslzed that deenerglzlng all electrical equipment servicing the work area Is the preferred procedure prior to asbestos removal. If this is not possible, then certain precautions and employee training are necessary. Dry removal may be required. Dry removal typically requires permission from regulatory agencies. Ft may be possible to wrap conduit or ducts in polyethylene or rubber sheeting. Another alternative is to build an enclosure around the equipment. A portable air conditioning unit might be used in conjunction with negative air units to supply cool air to the equipment and evacuate warm air. These alternative approaches are site-specific and require extreme care In design and Implementation. VERTICAL SHAFTS There are several significant concerns associated with performing abatement in tall or occupied buildings which have existing interior vertical shafts. These include: 1. Cross contamination of occupied floors through vertical shafts; 2. Preexisting contamination within elevator shafts due to vibration and air turbulence within the shafts; ------- STUDENT kMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN VI - AbrtMiwot in Occupied Bulking* 3. Vacuum and venturi effects wittiin elevator shafts due to the piston-like motion of elevator cabs; 4. Proper methods of sealing off work areas located adjacent to, around or within shafts; 5. Effective methods of relieving positive pressure within elevator shafts when relief ports are sealed or obstructed due to abatement work within the shafts. Interior vertical shafts within tall or occupied buildings have presented unique problems during asbestos projects since removal work in these structures first began. Interior vertical shafts are present in nearly all tall buildings. These shafts are utilized most often for elevators and numerous utility systems serving the building (i.e., electrical, plumbing, and particularly ventilation systems). Vertical shafts are often used for ducting and distributing conditioned air throughout the building. Furthermore, shafts may be used frequently for other purposes such as bathroom exhausts, dumbwaiters, mail drops and trash chutes. The purpose of vertical shafts within a structure is to make the building's utilities and services available to aH occupants in all spaces. Unfortunately, this efficient distribution of building service can contribute to the problems associated with performing abatement in these facilities. As these services are distributed to the different levels of the building, many voids are created in the shaft walls at each level. The pipes, ducts, conduit. horizontal shafts, etc. run through the voids in the shaft walls and large volumes of air can also pass through the wals around these service items. The problem stems from the vertical shafts traversing through occupied floors and abatement work area floors alike. providing a conduit for contamination generated during the removal process to migrate to occupied areas of the facility. This problem is aggravated and magnified by elevator ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Secton VI - Abatement In Occupied Bulldogs Pago 14 movement within a shaft. The piston-like movement of the elevator cab can cause a vacuum or venturi effect and actually pull contaminated air into the shaft and distribute that contamination throughout the building. A "stack effect*, or upward movement of air. can also occur in tall vertical shafts. Ideally, the solution to this problem would be to completely shut down all elevators which are in shafts that penetrate floors where asbestos abatement work area is being performed. Realistically, this would be impractical, due to the need to move occupants throughout the building. Also, the elevators in high-rise buildings are often utilized to transport abatement workers, supplies and packaged asbestos waste during a removal project. Due to the necessity to keep some elevators and shafts in use during a project and the difficulty ensuring that all openings to a shaft are completely sealed, the potential for contamination on occupied floors adjacent to work area floors is real and must be considered in the abatement design. In some cases, it may be necessary to construct an exterior elevator for use by the asbestos abatement contractor. Elevators that are not needed for transporting personnel, equipment and asbestos waste from the work area should be locked out so that they do not stop on floors where removal is taking place. Critical barriers can then be constructed to isolate the elevator openings from the work area. One method of isolation involves sealing the elevator opening In the work area with polyethylene and plywood or gypsum board and caulking. Some situations may warrant the need to form an air space at the elevator doors and pressurize the space with HEPA- fitered air so that it is at a pressure greater than that of the elevator shaft The seal can be constructed by first covering the elevator door with polyethylene and duct tape. Then a ------- STUDBfT HMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJON Section VI - Abatement in Occupied BuMngc barrier constructed of gypsum board and metal studs or ptywood and wood studs can be placed a minimum of three inches from the face of the door. A small containment area is formed between the barrier and door with 6-mil polyethylene and duct tape and the space is pressurized with a ducted exhaust from a HEPA-filtered unit located outside the work area. In situations where the elevator must be used to transport workers into the work area, the decontamination unit is usually constructed so that it adjoins the elevator. Provisions must be made so that air is not drawn back through the decontamination unit into the elevator cab or shaft. One design solution is to place a hard door between the dean room and the airlock leading into the shower. The door would remain closed whenever the elevator doors were open. Another problem that may need to be addressed in the abatement design is preexisting contamination within an elevator shaft due to vixation and air turbulence caused by the operation of the elevator. These forces may have, over the years (typically 10-20 years), dislodged ACM located within the shafts. This situation is usually associated with friable, sprayed-appJied materials used for fireproofing. Review of the building survey or a preproject evaluation of the elevator shafts should be conducted to determine if there is asbestos-containing fireproofing on exposed beams inside the shafts and if there is visual contamination at the bottom of the shafts. Prior to initiating removal on any of the floors. any visible debris at the base of the shafts should be removed with a HEPA vacuum. Another challenge regarding vertical shafts in tall, occupied buildings is conducting abatement within the shafts. Containment of the work areas is of great significance within an occupied building because improper containment may lead to significant airborne ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abatement in Occupied 3u*cfcogs 15 contamination. This contamination can migrate throughout a facility via shafts which pass through occupied areas. Once a work area involving an elevator shaft is sealed and enclosed, the enclosure may present another complication. Relief ports which vent positive pressure from the shaft may be obstructed. In many cases, elevators will fail to operate if the pressure relief ports are blocked. In other situations, air from within the elevator shaft will be forced out of the shaft through small openings, such as at doors which have not been completely sealed. Again, the potential for asbestos contamination is significant. If an entire shaft is being abated, typically the elevator will be locked out on each floor and doors will be sealed off by erecting plywood and polyethylene on the shaft side of the doors. The floor and walls of the elevator pit will be predeaned and lined with layers of 6- mil polyethylene and the cables will be isolated where possible with polyethylene. The method for accessing the material will be site specific depending on the configuration of the elevator shaft. Single shafts are sometimes accessed by using the tops of the cabs as a working surface. In shafts that accommodate more than one elevator, workers with safety lines attached will sometimes access the ACM from seats connected to cables in the shaft. Because of the numerous safety issues associated with removing ACM from the Inside of elevator shafts, the project designer may need to rely on the expertise of a safety engineer when developing the abatement specification. FIRE SAFETY Many of the engineering controls and procedures used for asbestos removal projects may affect the building's fire protection systems. While fire safety is a concern on every ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socfen VI - Abatement in Occupied Bukings asbestos removal project and is addressed in the Safety Considerations section of this notebook, there are some issues, such as maintaining operation of the sprinklers and alarms, that are of even greater importance in occupied, tall buildings. Fire Suppression Systems The requirements for maintaining operational sprinkler systems inside the asbestos abatement area will vary depending on state and local codes. It is generally recommended that the sprinkler system remain operational or at least be only shut off during work activity. Care must be taken not to obstruct sprinkler heads in a way that would keep them from being effective. If the sprinkler system is not deactivated there must be appropriate provisions for emergency shutott and water runoff in case the system is activated by something other than a fire. One such example would occur from someone inadvertently hitting and knocking off a sprinkler head with a rolling scaffold, ladder or other equipment One solution is to require a protective device such as a cage to be installed around each exposed sprinkler head in the work area. Additionally, the contractor should have a response plan posted which indicates the location of the shutoff valve for the sprinkler system and workers should be trained to respond to a major water leak. Because of the potential for water to penetrate floors below and spread asbestos contamination, it is critical to keep water confined to the abatement area. Bags of absorbent, squeegees and mops should be kept on site for dealing with large quantities of water. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abatement in Occupied Buitfngs Pago 18 Smoke detectors and alarms may also be affected by abatement activities. For example, some smoke detectors are triggered by the opacity of light. Dust will act like smoke in reducing the amount of light and trigger the alarm. Also, most smoke detectors and tire alarms in buildings are now required by code to have a back-up power supply. As a precaution, the back-up supply should be tested before beginning abatement Attention should also be directed toward the presence and locations of fire doors. Fire doors are often magnetized and activated by an electronic-type fusible link. If a fire occurs, the doors are triggered and automatically shut. Care should be taken not to interfere with the functioning of the fire doors by obstructing them with construction materials or by propping them open. One other preproject consideration is to determine if a halon fire suppression system Is being used within the project area. Though it is a remote possbility, if the halon system were activated in a small enclosed area, the oxygen could be dangerously depleted. Equipment and Materials A common safety measure built into the project design is the requirement for the contractor to have fire extinguishers on site which have been tested and tagged within the last year. The general rule of thumb is one extinguisher for each 2,500 square feet of floor space. In addition to the pressurized-water (2.5-gallon) fire extinguishers, which are typically used, a dry chemical fire extinguisher may be needed on site if stationary electrical equipment must remain operational. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abatement n Occupied Bui ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abatement m Occupied Buikinjs As specifications are being developed, project designers will need to carefully review local and state fire codes. Some codes for tall, occupied buildings stipulate that abatement cannot be conducted on two contiguous floors and that there must be at least five buffer floors between each floor where asbestos removal is taking place. WATER LEAKS TO FLOORS BELOW ABATEMENT PROJECT Besides the potential for a major water leak from damage to the sprinkler system, the water used inside the work area for wetting the ACM and showers is also of concern. Water damage Is one of the most common Insurance claims on abatement projects. The designer may require the contractor to take special precautions with showers and hose. For example, a sump-pump-type drainage system can be placed below the showers and aluminum pans placed under them to drain water to prevent a leakage problem. The designer may require the contractor to use time-controlled valves that automatically open and dose in concert with working hours so workers can leave the project area without leaving behind live water lines. At a minimum, procedures should be In place which assure water Is turned off at the end of each shift This may require the water shut-off be located outside the work area. Specifications may also require the contractor to use copper tubing instead of rubber hoses to hard plumb high pressure water lines. LOGISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND PUBLIC RELATIONS There are several logistical considerations associated with asbestos removal in tall. occupied buildings that are often not encountered with single-story structures that are not ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abakxnofit in Occupied Birikfrxp occupied. Since some of these considerations are closely tied to public relations issues. The discussion below addresses both. Inconvenience of Removal Activity It is difficult to conduct an abatement project in an occupied building without posing some inconvenience to the building occupants. Measures which can be used to lessen the impact of contractor personnel and equipment on site include: a public relations effort to Inform building occupants of the removal activity, establish at least a one-floor buffer zone above and below the project area, work night shifts only, and phase the work to correspond with periods of lowest occupancy. Experience indicates that projects typically go much more smoothly when affected building occupants have been Informed. A program for informing the building occupants about the nature of the project and the engineering controls and monitoring that are being implemented should be completed shortly after the project specifications are developed. The proper means of informing the building occupants will vary in each building and may range from a written notice to a meeting. The information should include key elements such as why the removal project is being conducted, where it is being conducted, who is performing the work, who is monitoring the work, what the safety procedures and engineering controls are, how long the project will take and who occupants should contact if they perceive there is a problem. This information is usually developed by building management in conjunction with legal counsel. The project designer may be needed to help address specific questions from building occupants as they relate to the specifications. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Secoon VI - Abatement in Occupied Bulking* Papa 22 If it is feasible (in some locales it is mandatory), there should be at least one unoccupied floor above and below the abatement project (i.e., three floors total). This not only provides a buffer zone In case there are inadvertent contamination leaks, but it also provides storage for the contractor's equipment and materials, and helps reduce noise transmission from the project area to the occupied spaces. Buffer floors also accelerate the project time line allowing the work crew to prepare the next abatement area while removal is being completed on the adjacent floor. Another way to minimize the effects of the removal activity is to have the contractor's crew work night and weekend shifts. This may or may not add extra expense to the project and may alleviate problems for the contractor such as parking and maneuvering equipment in congested areas during weekdays. There may also be foreseeable periods during the year when building occupancy is expected to be lower such as major holidays or at the end of lease periods. Conducting abatement projects during these periods would affect fewer building occupants. Transport of Personnel. Equipment and Asbestos Waste An often-overlooked but critical issue with respect to scheduling is the transport of personnel, equipment and asbestos waste. In many buildings there is a freight elevator which can be designated for use by the contractor. As long as the elevator remains in good working order, this is usually the best means of transport. It is more difficult in those buildings where a freight elevator does not access all floors. Typically, one of the elevators utilized by building occupants must then be designated for use by the contractor's crew. It is often best to require in the design specifications that asbestos waste be removed from ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Abatement In Occupied Buttings the project area after normal business hours. This reduces visibility, chance of exposure to building occupants and is usually more convenient for the abatement crew. Emergency Response Program In addition to the emergency response program which has been discussed for fire safety, there is also a need for contingency plans in the event of power failure, elevator problems, shutdowns of negative pressure systems, water leaks, personnel injuries and natural events such as earthquakes or tornadoes. The contractor should be required to develop and submit these prior to project startup. SUMMARY On a given project conducted in a tall or occupied building there may be several additional concerns not discussed in this section. With some of the concepts presented here in mind, the project designer will need to carefully evaluate the building and communicate with building management to fine tune the site-specific issues that are critical to the success of the project ------- STUDENT UANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sedkm VI - Abatement n Occupied REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. The most common insurance claim for damage resulting from an asbestos removal project is related to which of the following? A. Water damage B. Fire damage C. Broken windows D. Smoke damage 2. When an air duct passing through an asbestos abatement work area must remain operational, the pressure inside the duct should be the pressure in the work area. (Fill in the blank). A. the same as B. tower than C. higher than D. one-half 3. An owner of a tall office building is planning to remove asbestos-containing fireproof ing from several floors of the building as part of a scheduled renovation. When considering public relations, what approach would probably work best? A. Publish a notice In the local newspaper for three consecutive days. B. Notify affected building occupants of the project and precautions being taken. C. Post asbestos danger signs at ail entrances and exits for the building. D. Say nothing about the project until after completion to avoid a panic. 4. A transformer must remain operating in the mechanical room which is part of an asbestos abatement work area. Which of the following design techniques might be employed? A. Wrap the transformer tightly with two layers of 6-mil polyethylene sheeting. B. Create an enclosure around the transformer and pull air out of the enclosure with HEPA-filtered exhaust unit. C. Do not enclose the transformer to prevent heat build-up and spray it with cold water. D. Create an enclosure around the transformer and blow cool clean air into the enclosure. 5. Tall buildings usually have several vertical shafts which can produce a "stack effect." A "stack effect" can be described as which of the following? A. The emission of asbestos fibers from a smoke stack. B. The downward movement of air in a vertical shaft. C. The upward movement of air in a vertical shaft. D. The stacking of HEPA-filtered exhaust units in vertical shafts to dean the air. ------- STUOENTIMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection of A«ba«>a« Abat»m«nt Propel Pvionnal Pagol PROTECTION OF ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT PERSONNEL INTRODUCTION Most asbestos abatement projects require the direct disturbance of asbestos-containing materials, or the dust and debris derived from these materials. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that these activities almost always result In significantly elevated airborne asbestos concentrations. The actual concentration will vary depending on the friability of the material, amount and type of asbestos Involved, control measures employed, number of workers involved, volume of the work area, and work practices used. When designing the asbestos abatement project all of these factors are considered to minimize the generation of airborne asbestos fibers. Such factors include wet cleaning methods and the use of local exhaust ventilation. These are termed engineering controls. Engineering controls are employed to reduce the airborne asbestos concentration to the lowest feasible amount Respirators and other personal protective equipment are then used to further reduce exposure to the asbestos abatement workers. Personal protective equipment (e.g., respirators) must not be considered a substitute for effective engineering controls. Toxic substances include any material which can damage biological tissue. However, for a toxic substance to be hazardous (I.e.. pose a risk), exposure must occur at the site where damage is likely. Toxic substances can enter the body in three ways: (1) through the gastrointestinal tract, usually via the mouth; (2) through the skin; and (3) through the respiratory system. Asbestos fibers are not believed to pose a significant health threat through ingestjon or skin exposure. They can. however, pose a significant risk if inhaled into the respiratory system. Other chemicals which may be present in an asbestos ------- STUDENT UANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection of AsboOoK Abatement Project Personnot Pago 2 abatement work area may have different routes of entry for which protection may be necessary. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM The respiratory system is a gaseous (air) pump consisting of a series of airways leading from the nose and mouth down into the air sacs (alveoli) of the lung itself. Within the alveoli, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. Trie main components of the respiratory system, from top to bottom are fisted below. • Nose and mouth • Throat • Larynx (voice box) • Trachea (wind pipe) • Bronchi (branches from the trachea) • Bronchioles (smaller air passageways) • Alveoli (terminal air sacs in the lung) • Diaphragm and chest muscles RESPIRATORY HAZARDS Respiratory hazards are generally divided into two categories: toxic contaminants and oxygen deficiency. Generally, asbestos abatement projects do not pose oxygen deficiency hazards. However, since there are projects and circumstances where it can be a problem, oxygen deficiency must always be considered. For example, there could be an oxygen deficiency problem while performing abatement in steam tunnels, mechanical ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection of Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel Page 3 chases or boilers. Failing to consider oxygen deficiency could result in a fatality on a project The normal concentration of oxygen in air is 21 percent. NIOSH defines an oxygen deficient atmosphere as below 19.5 percent oxygen at sea level. A concentration of 19.5 percent provides an adequate amount of oxygen for most work assignments and includes a safety factor. The safety factor is included because oxygen deficient atmospheres offer little warning of the clanger. When oxygen concentrations fall below 16 percent, decreased mental effectiveness, visual acuity, and muscular coordination occur. When oxygen concentrations fall below 10 percent, loss of consciousness may occur, and below 6 percent, death will result. Toxic contaminants are a more common category of respiratory hazards encountered on abatement projects. These toxic contaminants are generally divided into two categories: paniculate and gaseous materials (or a combination of the two). Asbestos fibers are an example of the paniculate category and carbon monoxide is an example of the gaseous category. It is possible to have both of these hazardous substances, as well as others such as organic vapors, in a work area at the same time. The control of respiratory hazards typically involves three steps: • Assessing the hazards • Reducing or eliminating the hazards • Providing respiratory protective equipment The asbestos abatement project designer should assess existing hazards known to be present In the Intended work area and anticipate others that are ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection ol Asbostos Abatement Project Poreonnel likely to arise during the project For example, airborne asbestos fibers should be anticipated for any asbestos removal project. Organic vapors might also be anticipated from spray adhesives or floor tile mastic remover, and if surfaces are to be painted after the removal project. Through a well-designed project, some of the respiratory hazards can be eliminated or reduced. For example, an electric heater rather than a propane heater will eliminate the possibility of carbon monoxide in the work area from the propane combustion. Since it is usually not feasible to engineer out all hazards, workers and others at the job site must be made aware of possible hazardous conditions. Lastly, respiratory protection will almost always be specified on asbestos abatement projects. The type of respirator chosen for use is critical to assure that adequate protection is provided. CATEGORIES OF RESPIRATORS There are two broad categories of respirators. These are air purifying and supplied air respirators. in each category there are many different types of respirators (i.e., powered air purifying, gas masks, pressure demand supplied air respirators, etc.). Many of the respirators available are not appropriate for protection against asbestos since they are designed for a specific contaminant, such as chlorine gas. Air Purifying Respirators These respirators remove the hazardous contaminant from the breathing air before it is inhaled. They consist of a soft rubber faceptece and a replaceable filter or cartridge. Two major subcategories of air purifying respirators are the mechanical filter type and the chemical cartridge type. The mechanical filter variety is designed to protect against paniculate contaminants such as asbestos. The chemical cartridge type protects against ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Secfcn Vfl - Proxaton of Atbe«os Abnament Preset Personnel PigiS gaseous contaminants such as solvent vapors. Each respirator assembly is approved for a particular contaminant; care must be taken in choosing the appropriate unit. High efficiency filters designed for asbestos are typically purple or magenta in color (Figure VII- 1). These fitters are designed to remove 99.97 percent of the particles 0.3 micrometers or greater in diameter. Air purifying respirators remove limited concentrations of air contaminants from the breathing air, but do nothing to improve (of change) the oxygen content Thus, they can only be used in atmospheres where there is enough oxygen and where air contaminants do not exceed the specified range of the respirator and cartridge. Often, however, this is adequate protection when propping the asbestos abatement work area, performing final cleanup (wipe downs), or during gkwebag removal projects. During gross removal and gross cleanup, a different category of respirator may be used to provide greater protection for the worker; the supplied air respirator Air purifying respirators are further categorized based on their degree of face coverage. The half mask respirator (Figure VII-2) covers half the face; from the bridge of the nose to under the chin. A full face respirator (Figure VII-3) covers the face from the forehead to under the chin. The more extensive coverage provides a better fit and a higher degree of protection. Some air purifying respirators depend upon inhaling by the workers to draw atmospheric air through the respirator filter of cartridge where it is decontaminated. Hence, they are referred to as negative pressure respirators. ------- STUCerr MANUAL VD — AS8CSTO6 ABATEICNT PfOdECT OEStQN ot Aab CASKET FILTER CAKTRIDCE ^ ?A1VE 1'JBBEX FACtPlECE AII7LOW AI1TLOW HLTER FILTtl KATERIAL BOLDEX Figure VIM. Typical High Efficiency Filter Figure VI1-2. Typical Half-mask Respirator Figure VH-3. Typical Full-Facepiece Respirator Figure VI1-4. Example Powered Air- Purifying Respirator ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8CSTCK ABATEMENT PROJECT D6SJGN Section VII - Protection of Asbmtos Abatement Project Peraonrwl Pago? Powered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPRs) Another subcategory of air purifying respirator is the powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) shown in Figure VIM. It uses similar types of cartridges and filters as negative pressure air purifying respirators to clean the air. PAPRs. however, are positive pressure devices which employ a portable, rechargeable battery pack and blower to force contaminated air through a filter or cartridge where it is filtered and supplied to the wearer's breathing zone. PAPRs are available in both tight-fitting and loose-fitting styles. A tight-fitting respirator relies on a tight fit of the facemask to seal to the face. Loose-fitting respirators include hoods and helmets and must be positive pressure types. An advantage of using a powered air purifying respirator is that it supplies air at a positive pressure within the faceptece. helmet, or hood so that arty leak is usually outward. Supplied Air Respirators Supplied air respirators are used in conjunction with an airline to provide breathing air from a source outside the work area. This type of respirator is often referred to as a Type C or airline respirator. Supplied air respirators are further divided into several categories described below. Demand Tvoa Airline Respirators - These respirators provide air to the worker only when the worker inhales. Accordingly, they are not considered positive pressure respirators. Demand respirators are onty available as tight-fitting respirators with a half or full facepiece. ------- SnjO&n UANUAL. AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT D63WN Section VII - Protection o< Asbestos Abatement Project PorsonmH Pag»8 Continuous Flow Airline Respirators - These respirators provide a constant flow of breathing air to the worker at a rate of at least four or six cubic feet per minute (CFM). Four CFM is necessary for tight-fitting respirators and six CFM for loose-fitting types. The minimum airflow requirements are intended to provide air to the worker faster than his breathing rate. They may be half mask or full facepiece respirators, helmets or hoods, and be tight fitting or loose fitting to the face. Pfessure Demand Type Airline Respirators - These respirators have a regulator which maintains a constant positive pressure within the facepiece. Accordingly, it is very difficult for a worker to breathe at a rate faster than the incoming air. Pressure demand respirators are only available in tight-fitting models with a half or full facepiece. Regardless of which type of supplied air respirator is used, the breathing air must meet minimum specifications required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134). The minimum allowable specification is caHed Qrada D breathing air. Grade D breathing air is the minimum quality for use in suppled-air respirators. The grade D breathing air specifications are established by the Compressed Gas Association and incorporated into the OSHA respirator standard by reference. Table VII-1 summarizes the requirements for grade 0 air. One problem with supplied air respirators is the possible loss of air supply while inside the work area. The OSHA regulations require that a backup air supply be available in the event of compressor shutdown. However, this does not provide any safeguard against loss of air if the airline is severed or disconnected. For this reason, the National Institute for ------- SnJOefTkMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection of Mbaxtot Abatement Project Pononrwl Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that a backup be available on the worker. This may take the form of a backup short-term air supply bottle, or more commonly a backup high efficiency filter to be used in the event of air loss (Figure VII- 5). For a detailed discussion of breathing air systems, see Appendix C. TABLE VIM GRADE D BREATHING AIR REQUIREMENTS Oxygen 19.5-23.5 percent Carbon monoxide (co) 10 parts per mitton. maximum Carbon dtoxde (002) 1.000 parts per rrtHton, maximum Condensed hydrocarbons (oi) 5 miigrams per cubic meter, maximum Objectionable odors None Water vapor Not specified; however, moisture should not be permitted to interfere with the proper functioning of the co scrubbing device Self Contained Brsathho Apparatus fSCBA) The self contained breathing apparatus, or SCBA, Is another form of supplied air respirator (Figure VII-6). The SCBA system does not rely on an airline but incorporates an air tank carried by the worker, such as those used by fire fighters. The SCBA will normally provide 30 minutes to an hour of breathing air, making it unsuitable for asbestos abatement workers. However, it is sometimes used by project designers and inspectors since it permits the individual access to areas beyond the reach of airlines. The SCBA is only available as a tight-fitting respirator operated in the demand or pressure demand mode. ------- STUDENT fcKNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VH - Proi»c*an of A«b««m Ab«»m«nt Project Pmomwl Pag* K> REGULATOR BACZUF FILTER AIR LIKI All TAMK Figure VII-5. Supplied-Air Respirator with Rgure Vlt-6. Self-Contained Breathing Back-Up Filter Apparatus USE OF APPROVED RESPIRATORS AND COMPONENTS Any respirator used on an asbestos abatement project must be approved. The federal agencies that approve respirators are the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The approval label should accompany each respirator when purchased. At the top of the approval label will be listed contaminants for which the respirator is approved or in what atmosphere the respirator may be used. The approval label will also list limitations for that specific make and model of respirator. NIOSH publishes annually a list of all approved respirators In a publication titled NIOSH Certified Equipment List. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section W - Protection of A»tmto« Abatement Project Pvraonntri Pagoll An individual make and model respirator may have more than one approval depending on which fitter element is Installed. For example, one type of full face air purifying respirator may be approved for asbestos fibers when the high efficiency filters are installed, and also be approved for organic vapors when the organic vapor cartridges are installed. The approval number for each respirator is always preceded by the letters 1C* which stands for tested and certified.' The approval remains valid as long as the respirator contains all its original parts or replacement parts from the same manufacturer intended for the specific make and model of respirator. For example. H a headstrap is broken and replaced with a headstrap from a different manufacturer, the approval is no longer valid. For air supplied respirators, the approval includes the airline and regulator as well. Accordingly, respirators of one manufacturer cannot be connected to the airline of another manufacturer. In most cases, each manufacturer uses a slightly different connecting mechanism to prevent this from occurring. PROTECTION FACTORS No respirator totally eliminates exposure to airborne contaminants. However, some respirators provide greater protection than others. In order to compare the protection provided by different respirators it is necessary to understand the concept of protection ffldois* A protection factor is an index of the degree of protection afforded by a particular category of respirator. The protection factor is determined by measuring the concentration of a contaminant inside and outside the respirator simultaneously. By dividing the concentration measured outside the respirator by the concentration measured inside the respirator, the protection factor is obtained. Technically the term is fit factor; however, In ------- I s Nl I •2. 9 i? « s O K. .«/» fMMlSSMlf AftTIUDGC DiS OftOANICVAPOftV DUSTS. »UMfi. CHIMCALCAftTIUDGC DiSPWATMrM i.MISTi MMt JAf ITT AND HE AITM AOAMMlSTftATIQN JTITUTE JOflOCCUPATIONAlSAIETYAWO NATIONAL IM1T MSNA MCAUH AWflOVAl TC-1IC-JO nsucoTo IMITATIONS I NIOSM I •«4 MMt kMlOf • IMI* i»«t 1 WO »•>» »•> Wfk »•••> •» r« M* i«>M« ktrt tk*i •» f »«'«*•• wjrf •« M>4 ••I»I>H< bt MioUnn •*»> t»* M»4 MSHA4KOSH Approval TC-23C-243 March 10.1ttl CHfMKAlCAHTKIDCf Mt SMUTON »O« O«CANKVAK)RS. OUSTS. ruMCS. MISTS ANOKAbToHLKlKHS MM SAII TV AND HCALTH AOMINItTMATtON NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAfCTY AND HEALTH MSMA AfWIOVAl NO. TC-JK-IW NIOSM INMITATtONS *<^il*4 «H'I>« ttM *•• • « •>!•«••» *•' u»mi« «t»inim . >.)|ti.>. Mi- ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Pmmcton at Asbatfca Abafcrrxnt Profrct P«raoone< the field of asbestos abatement it has always been termed protection factor. To avoid confusion, the term protection factor will continue to be used here. The term protection factor to often abbreviated "PP." PF" Concentration outside the respirator Concentration inside the respirator The higher the PF number the greater the protection afforded by the respirator. The lowest number possbte is 1 since this would mean the concentration of the airborne contaminant is the same inside and outside the respirator. A protection factor of 10 indicates the respirator will reduce the concentration of the airborne contaminant by a factor of 10. Put another way, the concentration of the contaminant inside the respirator will not exceed 1/1 Oth the concentration outside the respirator, assuming a proper fit of the respirator to the face. Research is continuously conducted to determine the protection factors of new respirators and Improved versions of older models. Accordingly, the number assigned to a particular class of respirators may change based on new information. For example, the protection factors referenced in the 1986 OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58) were quickly out of date when NIOSH published the latest PF values a year later. While the OSHA PF values remain the legal minimum, designers may wish to apply for more current NIOSH PF values. The most current PF values are listed in Table VII-2 along with a suggested maximum use concentration for each category of respirator. The protection factor depends greatly on the fit of the mask to the wearer's face. Accordingly, the protection offered by any one respirator will be different for each Individual person. Further, the protection constantly changes depending upon the worker's activities and even shaving habits. When a worker laughs or coughs inside a respirator, the protection factor will decrease since the mask will not fit as well during ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection of Asbestos Atettmont Project Personnel PtgoU TABLE VII-2 RECOMMENDED RESPIRATOR SELECTION FOR PROTECTION AGAINST ASBESTOS RESPIRATOR SELECTION Hal mask air purifying with HEPA Filters Fufl facepiece air purifying with HEPA filers Powered air purifying (PAPR) loose-fitting helmet or hood, HEPA filter Powered air purifying (PAPR) ful facepiece. HEPA fitter Suppled air. continuous How, toose-f tting helmet or hood Suppled air. continuous flow. ful facepiece + HEPA escape Ful facepiece suppled air. pressure demand + HEPA escape Ful facepiece suppled ak. pressure demand, with auxiliary SCBA, pressure demand or continuous flow OSHA PF (1986) 10 50 100 100 100 100 1.000 >1.000 NIOSH PF1 (1991) 10 50 25 50 25 50 2.000 10.000 SUGGESTED MAXIMUM USE CONCENTRATION* 0.1 f/cc 0.5 f/CC 0.25 f/CC 0.51/CC 0.25 t/cc 05 f/cc 10 f/CC >10f/CC NOTES 1. These protection factors represent the most current state-of-the-art practice. 2. This value represents the maximum fiber concentration outside the respirator to maintain exposure inside the respirator below 0.01 fibers/cc. (It was calculated using the more conservative PF value between OSHA and NIOSH, assuming concentration inside the mask * 0.01 f/cc). ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Pnxxaton of *M**ttat Abatiitum Profrct P«nonn»l laughing or coughing. Similarty. the worker who forgets to shave one morning will not receive as much protection that day since the mask will not fit as wen to the face. RESPIRATOR FIT TESTING The assigned protection factor can only be assured if the respirator fits properly. Individual workers have different facial features that make fit testing necessary. The OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58) and the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134) both require that employers fittest each employee when a negative pressure respirator is issued. Fit testing is not required to be performed for positive pressure respirators unless there is a possibility that the respirator will be used in a negative pressure mode. For example, a tight-fitting powered air purifying respirator may lose its battery charge and only operate as a negative pressure respirator. In this instance the respirator should be fit tested with the battery disconnected to simulate this occurrence. Fit testing is required when the respirator is first issued and every six months thereafter. The reason for continued fit testing is due to the possibility that a worker may have gained or lost sufficient weight to change facial size and affecting the respirator fit. Initial fit testing will need to be repeated whenever an employee changes the make, model or size of his/her respirator. At the time of initial fit testing, the employer must have available at least five sizes of respirators from at least two manufacturers. For example, trus would include sizes small, medium, and large from manufacturer A; and sizes small/medium and medium/large from manufacturer B. Under the provisions of the OSHA asbestos standard, employees retain the right to request a powered air purifying respirator in lieu of a negative pressure respirator. It is the employer's duty to provide the PAPR upon request without cost to the employee. ------- STUOEHTIyMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protectwn ot Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel Pap* 16 The weak link In respiratory protection Is the seal of the respirator to the face. Anything that interferes with the facial seal wfll reduce the protection provided. It is for this reason thai chewing gum and tobacco are not permitted when respirators are worn. For tight-fitting respirators there should be no facial hair along the line of contact between the respirator and the face. Individuals wearing respirators requiring a tight seal to the face should be clean shaven. Mustaches and short sideburns are usualy permitted since they do not interfere with the facial seal. Temple bars on glasses will interfere with the seal in full facepiece respirators. Most manufacturers oner eyeglass inserts for their respirators which allow prescription lenses to be worn inside the respirator. For many years OSHA prohibited the wearing of contact lenses inside a full facepiece respirator. In light of a recent study, OSHA has lifted the prohibition on gas permeable and soft contact lenses. OSHA is considering issues surrounding hard contact lenses but currently still prohibits their use inside full facepiece respirators. There are two categories of fit testing that can be performed for negative pressure respirators. They are the qualitative fit test and the quantitative fit test. The qualitative fit test is a pass/fail test used to determine the fit of respirators having an assigned protection factor of 10 or less. This simple type of test is designed to determine if there is more than 10 percent leakage around the facepiece. Quantitative fit testing is used to measure the fit of the respirator wtth each worker by measuring the concentration inside and outside the respirator with a test substance. Qualitative Fit Testing During fit testing, the respirator straps must be property adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's directions and should be as comfortable as possible. Overtightening the ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protoctan of Aibmto* Abatement Project P«r*oooo4 straps wiU sometimes reduce facepiece leakage, but trie wearer may be unable to tolerate the respirator for any length of time. The facepiece should not press into the face and shut off Wood circulation or cause major discomfort. At the time of respirator selection, a visual inspection of the fit should always be made by a second person. Once a respirator has been selected and no visual leaks are evident, a negative pressure check and positive pressure check are performed by the wearer. These simple procedures are described below. Negative Pressure Respirator - For this check, the wearer closes off the inlet of the filters or cartridges by covering them with the palms of the hands or by squeezing the breathing tube so that air cannot pass through, inhales so that the facepiece collapses slightly, and holds his/her breath for about ten seconds. If the facepiece remains slightly collapsed and no inward leakage of air is detected, the respirator passes the test. This test can only be used on respirators with tight-fitting facepleces. Its potential drawback is that hand pressure can modify the facepiece seal and cause false results. Positive Pressure Respirator Check - This check is similar in principle to the negative pressure check. It is conducted by closing off the exhalation valve of the respirator and gently exhaling into the facepiece. The respirator fit is considered passing if moderate positive pressure can be built up inside the facepiece without evidence of outward air leakage around the facepiece. If the respirator selected fails to pass these simple checks, the fit testing should not proceed further. Instead, another size or another brand should be donned and these tests repeated. Alternatively, it may only be necessary to adjust the straps on the respirator and ------- STUDENT UMtJAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESKJN Sactxxi VII - Protection of AjteMos Abatement Propel Pereonnrt repeat the tests. Once the wearer has successfully passed the negative and positive pressure fit checks, the actual fit test may be conducted. The OSHA standards permit qualitative fit testing for half mask air purifying respirators. Quantitative fit testing is required for full face air purifying respirators. The actual qualitative fit-test method chosen is at the discretion of the employer as long as it is one of the three specified in Appendix C of the OSHA asbestos standards (29 CFR 1910.1001 or 29 CFR 1926.58). The procedures must follow those in this appendix whether Irritant smoke, Isoamyl acetate, or saccharin is chosen as the test agent The irritant smoke test is summarized below. Irritant Smoke Test - H the previous tests have been passed, the irritant smoke test may be administered. It can be used for both air purifying and supplied air respirators when used in a negative pressure mode (i.e. high efficiency backup filter). However, an air purifying respirator must have high efficiency filters. The test substance is an irritant smoke. Sealed glass or plastic tubes with substances to generate this smoke are available from safety supply companies. When the tube ends are broken and air passed through them with a squeeze bub, a dense irritating smoke is emitted. For the test the respirator wearer enters a test enclosure (a dear suspended plastic bag is sufficient) and the irritant smoke is sprayed/squeezed into a small hole punched in the bag near the respirator wearer's head. The wearer is asked to perform a series of exercises including head turning, jogging in place and speaking as specified in Appendix C of the OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58). ------- STXJOENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Pro«»Ooo ol *Jb»ifca Abatement Project Ptnonml Pap 19 Quantitative Fit Testing Quantitative fit testing provides an actual measure of the fit of a particular make and model of respirator for each individual. Historically, this was performed using a test chamber filled with a test atmosphere such as com oil, mineral oil or sodium chloride. A specially outfitted respirator which aOowed for sampling the air inside the mask was worn by the worker. The air inside and outside the respirator was sampled and analyzed to determine the percent leakage around the facepiece. More recently, test devices have become avaflabte which will measure the concentration of particles inside and outside the respirator on the actual respirator used by the worker. Regardless of which method is used, an actual protection factor is determined for each Individual for each respirator issued. Since the quantitative fit test is more sensitive, it is capable of measuring protection factors higher than 10. If the measured protection factor exceeds 10 times the assigned protection factor for the category of respirator being tested, only the assigned value times 10 may be used. Accordingly, the highest protection factor possfcte for a half mask air purifying respirator is 100; and for a full facepiece air purifying respirator is 500. TYPICAL RESPIRATOR USE DURING ASBESTOS RESPONSE ACTIONS Table VII-2 can be used to select which respirator is appropriate for the asbestos-related activity if the airborne asbestos fiber concentration can be reasonably predicted. According to OSHA, H historical data are not available to accurately predict what the worker's exposure will be on an asbestos abatement project the workers must wear air suppled respirators until personal sampling results are available which will allow the level of protection to be downgraded. Historical air sampling data must include personal air samples collected under nearly identical conditions, including work practices, type of ACM ------- STUOEHT IMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection of Asbestos AbalBmant Project Personnel abated, number of employees, and employees' level of training. OSHA has also stated that air supplied respirator usage must be resumed if conditions at the job site change that would be reasonably expected to result in a significant increase in worker exposures to airborne asbestos. For example, the removal of acoustical plaster from the celling of a school is expected to take two months. Workers are expected to wear air supplied respirators (if no historical data is available) until personal air samples demonstrate that the control methods are effective in reducing exposures to a level where less protective respirators would be allowed. The workers may use the less protective respirators until conditions at the job site change, such as when an area of acoustical plaster to be removed has a heavy coat of paint preventing effective wetting of the material to be removed. At this point the workers would have to go back to using the more protective air supplied respirators. The process of evaluating the personal exposure samples is then repeated. OSHA also permits personal air sampling to be waived if air supplied respirators are worn by the workers, for example, on short (one- to two-day) projects. The rationale is the project will be over by the time results of the personal air monitoring samples are available to be evaluated. As a rule of thumb, air purifying respirators are usually used during minor repair activities; glovebag removal projects; during preparation of a work area where asbestos-containing dust debris or material will be disturbed; for use during asbestos waste loading and unloading; and during final cleaning activities at the conclusion of an asbestos abatement project. Air supplied and, more particularly, pressure demand air supplied respirators may be used during gross removal and gross dean -up activities. ------- STUDENT fc/KNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJGN Sacfton VII - Pretocfen ol AstwtkM Abafctrunt Project P*nonn*l RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM Any employer who requires or permits employees to wear a respirator must have a written respiratory protection program. This is required by OS HA in both of their asbestos standards and their respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134). The written respirator program establishes standard operating procedures concerning the use and maintenance of respiratory equipment In addition to having such a written program, the employer must also be able to demonstrate that the program is enforced and updated as necessary. The OSHA regulations spell out what must be included in a written program. Those items are discussed below with special emphasis on applications to work performed by asbestos abatement personnel. An effective resp^ator program, as adapted from A Guide to Respiratory Protection for Ihe Asbestos Abatement Industry. USEPA/NIOSH publication EPA-560-OPTS-86-001 (September 1986). should include: 1. A written statement of company policy, including assignment of individual responsibility, accountability, and authority for required activities of the respiratory protection program. 2. Written standard operating procedures governing the selection and use of respirators. ------- STUDENT UHNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soctton VII - PRMBCfefl of Asteefc* Aba»m«m Propel Ptnortnrt Pap 22 3. Respirator selection (from NIOSH/MSHA approved and certified models) on the basis of hazards to which the worker is exposed. 4. Medical examinations of workers to determine whether or not they may be assigned an activity where negative pressure respiratory protection is required. 5. Employee training in the proper use and limitations of respirators as well as a way to evaluate the skill and knowledge obtained by the worker through training. 6. Respirator fit testing. 7. Regular cleaning and disinfecting of respirators. 8. Routine inspection of respirators during cleaning, and at least once a month and after each use for those respirators designed for emergency use. 9. Storage of respirators in convenient dean and sanitary locations. 10. Surveillance of work area conditions and degree of employee exposure (e.g.. through air monitoring). 11. Regular Inspection and evaluation of the continued effectiveness of the program. ------- STU06NT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«cbon VII - Protocton of Asboctos Abatement Project Personnel Page 23 All of the above Items are required by OSHA if employees wear respirators during work. a Policy Every employer should prepare a dear concise policy regarding the use of respirators by their employees when performing asbestos abatement activities for asbestos. This policy should serve as the guiding principal for the preparation, implementation, and enforcement of an effective respiratory protection program. Designation of a Program Administrator A respiratory protection program administrator must be designated by name. This person is responsible for implementation of, and adherence to, the provisions of the respiratory protection program. It is usually a good idea to also designate a person who is responsible for enforcement of the procedures at each job site. Procedures should also be outlined for enforcement of the program. Enforcement procedures and the development of the program as a whole should be done in conjunction with, and input from, the employees and/or their representatives. Sel&ction and Use of Respiriitnrv Protection Equipment Respirators used shall be selected from those approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for use in atmospheres containing asbestos fibers. A NIOSH-approved respirator contains the following: an assigned identification number associated with each unit; a label identifying the type of hazard for which the respirator is designed, additional ------- STUOefT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATCMEKT PROJECT DESIGN Sackon VII - Protocoon of Asbestos Abatement Protect Perj------- S7U06NT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection of Aeboctoe AbMBtnant Projoct Pmonnot by a qualified individual to ensure that the employee understands the limitations, use. and maintenance of respirator equipment Paspir^tor Fit Tasting One of the most Important elements of an effective respirator program is fit testing. The OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1910.1001 and 1926.58) and the OSHA respirator standard (29 CFR 1910.134) require that the fit of respirators be determined when the respirator is issued and every six months thereafter for all negative pressure respirators. Procedures for fit testing should be addressed in the written respirator program. A discussion of fit testing is induded elsewhere in this section. Cleaning and Disinfection of Respirators Whenever feasible, a respirator should be reserved for the exdusive use of a single individual. Following each use, the respirator should be cleaned and disinfected. The following procedures can be used to dean a respirator • Wash with a detergent or a combination detergent and disinfectant, in warm water using a brush. • Rinse in dean water, or rinse once with a disinfectant and once with dean water. The dean water rinse is particularly important because traces of detergent or disinfectant left on the mask can cause skin irritation and/or damage respirator components. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VI - Prottctoo ot Asbestos Abatement Project Pcrtomol Page 26 • Air dry on a rack or hang; position the respirator so that the facepiece rubber will not dry misshapened. Respirators should not be hung by the rubber facepiece and equipment/supplies should not be stacked on top of respirators. Routine Inspection Inspection of the respirator is an important, routine task. H should be performed by the user before and after each use. The following items should be checked, at a minimum. Air Purifying Respirators (half mask and full facepiece} - Rubber facepiece should be checked for: • Excessive dirt • Cracks, tears, or holes • Distortion from improper storage • Cracked, scratched or loose-fitting lens • Broken or missing mounting clips Headstraps should be checked for • Breaks or tears • Loss of elasticity • Broken or malfunctioning buckles or attachments • Excessively worn serrations of the head harness which might allow the facepiece to slip ------- STUDENT HMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection of Asoostos Abatement Project Pomnne< Inhalation valve, exhalation valve, should be checked for: • Missing or defective valve or valve cover • Detergent residue, dust particles or dirt on valve seat • Cracks, tears or cfstortion in the vatve material or vatve seat Filter elements should be checked for: • Proper filter for the hazard • Approval designation (TC....ID*...) • Missing or worn gaskets • Worn threads • Cracks or dents in filter housing Powered Air Purifying Respirators - Check facepiece. headstraps, vatve and breathing tube, as for aU air purifying respirators (see above). Check for proper airflow into the facepiece with the manufacturer-supplied flow meter. Be certain the battery is property charged before use. Hood or helmet if applicable, check for: • Headgear suspension (adjust property for wearer) • Cracks or breaks in faceshiekJ (replace faceshteld) Supplied Air Respirators - Facepiece. headstrap, and valves should be checked as specified above. In addition, the following checks should be performed: ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Suction VII - Protection of Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel PegeZB Breathing tube should be checked for: • Cracks • IvSssing or loose hose damps • Broken or missing connectors Hood, helmet or suit should be checked for: • Headgear suspension • Cracks or breaks In face shield • Rips and torn seams Air supply systems should be checked for: • Breaks or kinks in air supply hoses and end fitting attachments • Tightness of connections • Proper setting of regulators and valves (consult manufacturer's recommendations) • Correct operation of air purifying elements, and carbon monoxide and high- temperature alarms • Carbon monoxide monitor calibration and function • Water separator and drain function • Cooling device operation • Filter function Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) • Consult manufacturer's literature for specific inspection and maintenance procedures. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Profcoon ot Aibmto* Aba»m«nt Prepct Pwvxwwl Pag029 Repair At some point any respirator will need replacement parts or some other repair. OSHA requires that the person who repairs respirators be trained and qualified. It is important to realize that respirator parts from different manufacturers are not interchangeable. NIOSH approval is invaidated if parts are substituted Respirator Storsps Proper storage is very important The law requires that respirators be protected from dust, sunlight, heat, extreme cold, excessive moisture, and damaging or contaminating chemicals. When not in use, the respirator should be stored in a clean, convenient. sanitary location. Surveillance of Working Conditions The employer must provide adequate surveillance of the employee's working conditions to be certain the respirator selected provides adequate protection. In the case of asbestos abatement, this includes a determination if other hazardous airborne contaminants, such as resilient flooring mastic remover or encapsulant might be encountered for which the respirator chosen is not adequate. The surveillance also includes air monitoring to estimate the asbestos exposure. This provides the needed information to determine if the respirator chosen affords sufficient protection to the individual. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protected o< AtbMtot Ab*»m«nt Preset Pareoond Page 30 Resoirator Proaram Evaluation and Rocordko&oina The respirator program shall be evaluated at least annually with program adjustments, as appropriate, made to reflect air sampling or other evaluation results. Compliance to the aforementioned points of the program should be reviewed; respirator selection; purchase of approved equipment; medical screening of employees; fit testing; issuance of equipment and associated maintenance; storage, repair and inspection; appropriate surveillance of work area conditions. Attention should be given to proper recordkeeping. Records which should be kept include names of employees trained in respirator use. documentation of the care and maintenance of respirators, medical reports of each respirator user, possible airborne concentrations of asbestos fibers during work* and any problems encountered during projects with regards to respiratory equipment A cneckist for self evaluation of a respiratory protection program is included at the conclusion of this section. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND OTHER PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT The primary reason that protective clothing is worn by the workers is to keep gross amounts of asbestos-containing dust and debris off the body, out of the hair, and from beneath fingernails. The combined use of protective clothing and proper decontamination procedures will greatly reduce the amount of asbestos taken out of the work area. Protective clothing will also reduce the chance of rashes and discomfort caused by the material being removed. In addition to asbestos, frequently these materials contain fibrous glass, mineral wool, and binders such as Portland cement. ------- STUDEHT AMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection ol Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel Each of these materials can be skin irritants. Reports In the literature have also found that workers with prolonged contact with asbestos may develop asbestos "warts". Protective clothing on asbestos abatement projects consists of coveralls, foot covering, head covering, and gloves. Ideally, the foot and head coverings should be attached to the coveralls. This eliminates the need to tape the openings between the garments. Tight- fitting bathing suits are often worn beneath the coveralls. Nylon suits work well as they are easily rinsed off in the shower. The protective clothing most often used is of a disposable type. However, nondisposable protective clothing is sometimes used on large projects. When nondisposable doming is used It is most often laundered inside the work area. Wastewater is drained to a holding tank and filtered along with the shower water; or it may be used to wet asbestos-containing materials. The dryer exhaust may be ducted to an inlet of a HEPA-filtered local exhaust unit to remove the hot air from the work area. If an outside laundry is used, stringent OSHA regulations must be followed regarding packaging, labeling, notification, etc. The remainder of this section, particularly instructions on donning protective clothing and disrobing, pertain to the use of disposable protective clothing. Protective dothing does not include street clothes, T-shirts, blue jeans, sweat bands, knee pads and socks. If any of these items are used inside the work area, they must remain there until the job is completed and disposed of as asbestos-contaminated waste unless laundered as described above. Jewelry, such as rings and watches, should not be worn in the work area. ------- STU06KTIMMUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S*c*on VII - Prefecfen at Aibntca Abatement Preset Paraonnri Other protective dotting/items such as hard hats, gloves, and safety shoes/boots should remain in the work area for the duration of the project Upon project completion, items that cannot be cleaned may be placed in a plastic bag, labeled as containing asbestos, and taken to the next project If safety shoesAxxrts are not used, it is wise to have workers wear some form of proper foot protection with nonskid sotes. These remain In the work area and are disposed of at the end of the project as asbestos-containing waste. It is a good idea to have each worker mark his or her boots and hard hat with his/her name with permanent ink, To summarize, listed below are items normally worn by asbestos abatement workers. • Disposable coveralls, disposable foot covering, disposable head covering • Nylon swim suit • One-piece rubber steel-toed safety boots, or other shoes with nonskkd rubber soles • Hard hat (as required ) • Gloves (cotton, or as required for the work performed) • Eye protection (not necessary if full facepelce respirators are used) The disposable coveralls, foot, and head coverings are available from many sources and of several materials. Good quality coveralls, with foot and head covering attached, usually cost about $3.00 each when purchased In quantity. Separately, the coveralls cost approximately$2.00, head covering about $0.35, and foot covering about$0.50 per pair. It is important to realize that many "bargain' prices may not be a bargain at al. The less expensive coveralls often use less material. Accordingly, coverals marked "XL" may be too small for many workers. Be sure to check the construction of the coveralls as well. Double stitching on seams wll last longer, but cost more. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VU - Protection of Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel Ptge33 Under the provisions of the OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58) the contractor (employer) must have a "competent person' on site. One of the duties of the competent person is to routinely inspect the integrity of the protective clothing worn by the asbestos abatement workers. Severely torn clothing should be replaced. Small rips or tears may be repaired with duct tape. A common problem on asbestos abatement projects is a failure by contractors to purchase enough coveralls for the project Each worker must use a new coverall (and foot and head covering if not attached) each time he/she enters the work area. Assuming two breaks and a lunch period, four coveralls will be needed each day by each worker. Additional coverafts are usually needed for authorized visitors (architect industrial hygienlst, etc.) and to replace some that are torn to the point of being unusable. As a rule of thumb, the contractor may estimate the number of suits needed to a project by the following formula. 5 x number of workers x project duration (days)« number of coveralls needed As an example, a project lasting 46 days using a crew of 8 workers and 1 job foreman wil need the following number of coveralls (estimated). 5x9 people x48 days = 2,160 coveralls Accordingly, the contractor should order 87 cases (25 per case) of coveralls for the project The prudent contractor would purchase 100 cases to allow for sufficient surplus. When purchasing coveralls, large and extra large sizes should be purchased. These can always be made to fit smaller employees. ------- STUOEHT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMEKT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection of Asbestos Abatomont Project Personnel Papo34 PUTTING PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ON Protective dothing Is put on in the dean room of the decontamination unit before entering the work area. The following sequence should be used. 1. All street dothes, including undergarments are removed and stoned in a dean, convenient location. Bins or lockers work well for this. It is usually wise to have a lockbox or other means to protect valuables. This will discourage employees from bringing wallets, rings, keys, etc. into the work area. 2. The nylon swim suit is put on. 3. The disposable coveralls are put on. 4. If separate disposable foot coverings are used, these are put on. 5. Ankles are taped to take up slack in the suits and reduce the chance of tripping, (tape pants over foot coverings, if separate). 6. The respiratory equipment is inspected, put on, and fit checked. 7. The hood or head covering is put on over the respirator head straps. 8. Worker passes through airlocks and shower to contaminated equipment room. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Pio»c>on of Acboctoc Abatement Project Personnel 9. Boots are put on over the disposable foot coverings (or safety shoes, as required). 10. Gloves are put on (cotton gloves are usually worn although leather gloves should be used for handling metal lath). The sleeves are taped over the gloves using duct tape. 11. Other protective equipment such as hard hats and safety glasses (H a half- face respirator is used) are put on. One person should remain outside the work area at all times. It should be his/her responsibility to ensure that each person entering the work area has the proper protective clothing. Once inside the work area, no employees, or others, should be permitted to leave without going through the decontamination sequence unless it is an extreme emergency. A common problem is employees "stepping our for a drink of water or supervisors 'stepping In' the work area to deliver a message or piece of equipment. These activities defeat the purpose of the protective equipment and the decontamination sequence. TAKING PROTECTIVE CLOTHING OFF Whenever an employee or other person leaves a work area for any reason, he/she must go through the decontamination sequence. This sequence should include the following steps. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protecfcon ot Astoecttx Abatement Prof** PwsonrxH 1. Remove all protective garments and equipment (except respirators) in an area immediately outside the shower on the contaminated side. An area should be designated for this purpose and kept as free as possible of asbestos-contaminated material. All disposable clothing should be placed in plastic bags inside a drum and labeled as asbestos-containing waste. 2. The person should then dean reusable protective equipment such as boots/shoes, safety glasses, hard hats, etc. 3. The person should then proceed to the shower still wearing his/her respirator. While showering, the person should be sure to wash his/herself and his/her respirator. Used respirator cartridges may then be discarded in a plastic bag located at the shower. When using a PAPR. be sure to follow the manufacturer's instructions to protect the motor and battery pack from water damage. 4. The person should then proceed to the clean room; dry off; dress in his/her street clothes; and disinfect, dean, and inspect his/her respirator. Asbestos abatement projects are frequently conducted in boiler rooms or other areas where heat stress may be a concern. The wearing of fun-body protective dothing can reduce the cooling capacity of the body since evaporative cooling is reduced. Disposable protective dothing is available in "breathable" and "nonbreathable" varieties. A breathable fabric will reduce the symptoms of heat stress in hot environments and provide for greater worker comfort It should be noted, however, that some fabrics are so thin (almost transparent) that its protective value has been questioned. The asbestos ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Pro»c*on o( Aitestn Atettmtnt Pnpct abatement project designer should evaluate available protective clothing and select the product most applicable to the individual project. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION The USEPA and NIOSH jointly prepared and published a document titled, A Guide to Respiratory Protection for the Asbestos Abatement Industry (Publication EPA-560-OPTS- 86-001, September 1986 revision), which provides valuable information concerning the use and Imitations of respirators on asbestos abatement projects. A checklist from this publication has been reproduced at the end of this section. The asbestos abatement project designer should be familiar with the requirements of the OSHA asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58) and the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29 CFR 1910.134). The latest versions of these regulations are Included in the appendices of this notebook. Some state, county and municipal regulations may have additional, more stringent requirements affecting worker protection on asbestos abatement projects. These regulations should be reviewed when designing the project since they frequently change. RESPIRATOR PROGRAM CHECKLIST In general, the respirator program should be evaluated at least annually with program adjustments, as appropriate, made to reflect the evaluation results. Program function can be separated into administration and operation. ------- STUDENT fcWNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protection of Asbwtos Abatement Project Personnel P*go38 Program Administration 1. Is there a written policy which acknowledges employer responsfeflity for providing a safe and healthful workplace and assigns program responsibility, accountability and authority? 2. Is program responsibility vested in one individual who is knowledgeable and who can coordinate al aspects of the program at the job she? 3. Can feastole engineering controls or work practices eliminate the need for respirators? 4. Are there written procedures/statements covering the various aspects of the respirator program, including: • designation of an administrator; • respirator selection; • purchase of approved equipment; • medical aspects of respirator usage; • issuance of equipment; * fitting; • training; • maintenance, storage and repair; • inspection; • use under special conditions; and • work area under surveillance? ------- STUDENT lyMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N S«cten VII - Protocten of AsbestM Abatonwnt ProfKt Pcraorvvl Program QPftffltfCY? 1. Respiratory Protective Equipment Selection and Assignment: • Are work area conditions and employee exposures property surveyed? • Are respirators selected on the basis of hazards to which the employee is exposed? • Are selections made by individuals knowledgeable of proper selection procedures? • Are only approved respirators purchased and used; do they provide adequate protection for the specific hazard and concentration of the contaminate? • Has a medical evaluation of the prospective user been made to determine physical and psychological abiity to wear the selected respiratory protective equipment? • Where practical, have respirators been issued to the users for their exclusive use, and are there records covering issuance? ------- STUDENT MMJUAL AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N Section VII - Protector* of Asbostoe Abanxnent Project Personnel Pa0o40 2. Respiratory Protective Equipment Fitting • Are the users given the opportunity to try on several respirators to determine whether the respirator they wll subsequently be wearing is the best fitting one? • Is the fit tested at appropriate intervals? • Are those users who require corrective lenses properly fitted? • Are users prohibited from wearing contact lenses when using respirators? • Is the facepiece-to-face seal tested in a test atmosphere? Are workers prohibited from entering contaminated work areas when they have facial hair or other characteristics which prohibit the use of tight-fitting facepieoes? 3. Respirator Use: • Are respirators being worn correctly (i.e.. head covering over respirator straps)? • Are workers keeping respirators on all the time when necessary? ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VII - Protoctian of Asboctas Abatement Protect Personnel Pago 41 4. Maintenance of Respiratory Protective Equipment: Cleaning and Disinfecting: • Are respirators cleaned and disinfected after each use? • Are proper methods of cleaning and disinfecting utilized? 5. Storage: • Are respirators stored in a manner so as to protect them from dust sunlight. heat, excessive cold or moisture, or damaging chemicals? • Are respirators stored properly in a storage facility so as to prevent them from deforming? • Is storage in lockers and tool boxes permitted only if the respirator is in a cany ing case or carton? 6. Inspection: • Are respirators inspected before and after each use and during cleaning? • Are qualified individuals/users instructed in inspection techniques? ------- STUDENT MWUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESWN Section VII - Protocfcn ol Asbestos Abatement Project Personnel Page 42 • Is respiratory protective equipment designated as 'emergency use* Inspected at least monthly (in addition to after each use)? • Is a record kept of the inspection of 'emergency use' respiratory protective equipment? 7. Repair: • Are replacement parts used in repair those of the manufacturer of the respirator? Special Use Conditions: • Is a procedure developed for respiratory protective equipment usage in atmospheres immediately dangerous to We or health? • Is a procedure developed for equipment usage for entry into confined spaces? 8. Training: • Are users trained in proper respirator use, cleaning and inspection? • Are users trained in the basis for selection of respirators? Are users evaluated, using competency-based evaluation, before and after training? ------- STUDENT IfMNLML ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OESGN Section VII - Protection ot Acboetoe AbMtment Project Peraonmt Pap 43 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Using the letter corresponding to each type of respirator listed below, arrange the respirators with the first one being the most protective and the last one offering the least protection. a. half mask air purifying respirator 1 b. supplied air pressure demand type 2 c. fun facepiece air purifying type 3 d PAPR loose-fitting hood type 4 2. Describe the difference between a qualitative respirator fit test and a quantitative respirator fit lest, ____^^^^___^_^_______^^___^^_^^______^_^^^^___^__ 3. Estimate the concentration of asbestos inside the respirator of a worker if the results of personal air sampling are 4 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cm3) and the worker is wearing a half mask air purifying respirator equipped with high efficiency cartridges. List eight elements of a respiratory protection program required by OS HA. 1 5 2 6 3 7 4 8 5. Describe the protective clothing ensemble typically worn by asbestos abatement workers. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK* Section VIII - Safety Conckiofafons Page) SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION Effective safety management begins in the planning stages of the abatement project. Experience indicates that It is less costly and more efficient to prevent hazards rather than react to accidents or incidents. Though the abatement contractor te directly responst>ie for the safety and health of the worker, the designer can incorporate many safety features into the specifications that will assure a smoother and safer project The project designer must first be aware of the potential hazards that are associated with an asbestos removal project. Once the hazards are identified. then measures can be specified where possible to eliminate the hazards by redesign or substitution of equipment or procedures that are unsafe. If the hazard cannot be eliminated, the next approach is to reduce tt by isolating it, guarding against it. or diluting rt. To protect against hazards that cannot be eliminated or reduced, the design specifications must then require the use of specific protective equipment, work practices and/or related safety training. The procedures used in a typical abatement project, such as sealing the work area, using wet methods, working at heights on ladders and scaffolding, and shutting down building systems, add new dimensions to the task of providing a safe working environment. This section will identify and address various hazards associated with these tasks including electrical shock, falls from scaffolding, ladders, walking and working surfaces, fire, emergency procedures, heat-related disorders, carbon monoxide poisoning, and the need for body protection and hazard communication. The effort spent to incorporate these safety considerations into the project design is as important to the success of the project as the ------- STUDENT UMflJAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VIII • Satoty Coondwttxw Pag»2 effort spent in designing engineering controls to confine and minimize fibers in the work site. The project designer should indude a clause in the specification requiring the contractor to notify the building owner's representative when a hazard is identified. The contractor is required to take appropriate corrective actions to protect the asbestos abatement workers. Contractors should also be required to comply with the OSHA general construction safety regulations, specifically requiring a 'competent person* [29 CFR 1926.32(f)] be on site, and the need for an accident prevention program [29 CFR 1026.20{b) (2)]. ELECTRICAL SAFETY Electrical shock Is one of the most common hazards, and one that gives the least warning. Incorrect wiring, improper grounding, and lack of proper shielding results in over 1,000 workers each year being electrocuted nationwide. Many of these fatalities result from contact with just 120 volts alternating current (a.c.). Three factors determine the severity of electrical shock. These are: • The amount of current flowing through the body, • The path of the current flowing through the body, • The time the current is allowed to flow through the body. These factors vary greatty. The path of the current depends upon the points of contact Most often the path is from the hands, through the body, and out the feet The amount of electrical resistance determines, in part, the amount of current flow. Moist skin or damp conditions greatly reduce electrical resistance and significantly increase a person's risk of ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VIII - Safety Conakferationc Page3 serious injury if he comes in contact with a current source. In addition to the obvious shock potential, many deaths result from falls after a nonfatal electrical shock. During the design phase, potential electrical hazards to the workers should be identified and, where possible, eliminated or, at a minimum, guarded or isolated. The more common hazards are discussed below. Identification of Wiring Faults In the Buffeting Wiring faults in the building include open ground paths, reverse wiring polarity, and hot neutral wires. These common faults can easily be identified with a volt/ohm meter or with plug-in type circuit testers and should be corrected prior to project startup. This is particularly important if these circuits wil be used to provide power inside the work area. Any wiring faults identified should be corrected by a qualified electrician prior to their use. Uninsulated or Exposed Energized Wiring or Equipment Asbestos removal projects are often part of renovation or remodeling projects. Overhead lighting is usually removed for cleaning. Equipment or machinery may have been moved out of the area before the removal job with wiring left in place. Damaged equipment or electrical fixtures may need to be repaired. All of these things create potential sources of contact with the energized electrical circuits. When possible, the project designer should require that circuits that win not be used during removal efforts be turned off and locked out. Wiring and electrical connections should always be considered energized until tested and proven otherwise. Unenclosed wiring junctions in ------- STUXNTUAMJAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VIII - Safety ConstdtfMio** overhead areas should be addressed by the project designer since these are a particularly likely point of contact for removal workers. Asb&stos Abatement Protect Where the Building Remains Occupied Electrical circuits or service panels that are located inside the removal area and that service other parts of the building can present a challenge to the project designer. Sealing transformers or control boxes may not be possible due to heat buildup. If this situation is encountered, an alternative design will need to be developed which will allow for air circulation around these units. Dry removal may be necessary to avoid a potential serious shock exposure. Additionally, where this situation is encountered, all breakers and switches must be clearly labeled in case power must be secured to other areas of the buflding during the removal project When a dry removal is necessary, approval by local NESHAP authorities is necessary to avoid citation for falure to use wet methods. An alternative written plan must be submitted by the contractor to NESHAP authorities for conducting the removal Providing Power to the Wor^Area Providing power to the work area can create hazards not normally associated with building systems. Since OSHA considers abatement projects subject to the construction industry safety and health standard (29 CFR 1 926). there are special requirements for supplying temporary power to extension cords, portable electrical tools, electric air sampling pumps, electric equipment, and portable electrical appliances. This may be done by supplying power through ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI1 or having an assured equipment grounding program in effect ------- STUDENT UIVNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«cten VBI - Safety An assured equipment grounding conductor program requires regular inspection (usually monthly or more often if needed) of all tools, cords, and electrical devices with written documentation maintained (29 CFR 1926.404(b)j. Since it is very difficult to document compliance with an assured equipment grounding conductor program, it is best to require the use of GFCIs. The required use of GFCIs to protect circuits provides the safest and most feasible power source available since any significant current leakage will trip the circuit (see Figure VIII-1). These devices prove most effective when placed as near as possible to the "toad" and kept out of areas of high humidity. However, high-quality commercially avaBabte GFCIs are now on the market that work in both high- and low- humidity environments. on Abatement Projects Common electrical devices on abatement projects that present potential hazards and need to be addressed in the project specifications are lights, HEPA vacuum cleaners, negative air systems, drills, saws, heaters, sump pumps and, often, radios. All of these should be inspected regularly for damage, proper grounding, and integrity of insulation. When possible, nonmetalic tools should be specified for vacuuming or scraping to prevent a possfcte shock if wiring is cut or contact is made with energized equipment Specifying insulated handles on metal scrapers is another option. Hard rubber or plastic scrapers, while more difficult to find, perform well for removal. Wooden or fiberglass ladders reduce or eliminate a ground path if a worker contacts an energized circuit. Wiring should be elevated, when feasbte, to keep it away from water on the floor, to avoid damage from foot traffic and scaffolds, and to keep it from being a trip hazard. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soction VUI - Satety Coraxferrtora TWO BASIC FORMS OF GFCI DEVICES Circuit Breaker Type Rating Label Trip Indicating Handle For Identification of Faulty Circuits Push to Test Button to Insure Proper Operation Wiring Line End Connection Ampere Rating Reinforced Case Ground Trip Receptacle Type Meld Yoke Receptacle Stots Red Band for Positive Trip. Indication •Wiring Push to Test and Reset Controb to Insure Operation Reinforced Case FIGURE VIIH TWO BASIC TYPES OF GFCI DEVICES ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VIM - Safety CoowdBcttone Pag.7 When designing plans to reduce or eliminate electrical hazards, the project designer needs to make sure that the plan complies with OSHA's lockout/tagout standard (29 CFR 1910.147). This standard requires that all potential sources of energy, whether liquid, gas, electrical, or mechanical operations, be locked by the person performing the work, and that person is the only one with the keys to unlock the device. Additionally, a tag must be attached to serve as a warning sign or label to other workers in the area. If energy sources are required to be disconnected by the contractor, the project specifications must require the contractor to follow proper lockout/tagout procedures. SCAFFOLDING SAFETY Most asbestos abatement projects wifl involve the use of scaffolding. Proper setup, regular inspection, and basic maintenance should not be overlooked. In many removal projects, manually-propelled mobfle scaffolding provides a convenient and efficient work platform. OSHA standard 29 CFR 1926.451 requires that when free-standing mobile scaffolding is used, the height shall not exceed four times the minimum base dimension (usually the width). This requirement is based on the fact that scaffolding easily tips. Figure VIII-2 ilustrates a simple method to estimate a reasonable amount of force necessary to tip a scaffold. Since relatively little force is required to tip a scaffold, it becomes important to make sure that wheels on mobile scaffolds move freely, are lubricated and are in good repair. If rented scaffolding is used, all components must be inspected prior to accepting it All components such as cross bracing, railings, pin connectors, planking or scaffold-grade lumber must be available before the units are assembled. Workers should be careful to keep debris bagged and obstacles off the floor where mobile scaffolds will be used. If a ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soctxxi VIII - Safety Where: B • hekjhl from floor to f - force required to upset scaffold W » weight of scaffold and worker A - Jbalf the width of the scaffold Example: B - 14 feet f -X W . 199 to. (scaffold) + 17Sb (vyofintQ - 374 bs. A . 1foot Force to upset - 26.7 ba CIV.*6 X- (374x1)/ (14) X.26.7bs. • fo[mul!,is a" estimated way to obtain a reasonable idea of the force needed to upset scaffolding. Many variables need to be considered in addition to uiose illustrated.) FIGURE V\\\-2 SCAFFOLD UPSET FORMULA ------- STUDENT tMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMEKT PROJECT DESIGN Socbon VIII • Safely Conwdarabons Pngo9 wheel catches debris on the floor when the unit is moved, additional force w'NI be required to move it This additional force may be all that is needed to tip the unit Caution should be used when using mobile scaffolding on sloping floors, such as an auditorium. Guard rails (42 inches in height) should always be installed on scaffolding used for abatement projects. Workers are usually looking up while working and can easily step off the edge of an unprotected scaffold. OSHA requires that guard rails be used when scaffolding is over 4 feet tall and is less than 45 inches wide. Any time scaffolding is 10 feet or higher, toe boards must also be in place. No guard rails are required when scaffolding is less than four feet taU, although it is a good recommendation. Additionally, scaffolding must, at a minimum, meet the following requirements: • When guard rails are required, midrails (21 inches high) are also necessary. • Upright supports should be positioned at intervals no greater than eight feet apart. • If, due to the configuration of the work area, people must routinely pass underneath the scaffolding, then a screen (number 18 gauge wire one-half inch mesh or equivalent) is required from toe board to midrail. • The scaffolding must be designed to support four times the maximum load that will be placed on the scaffolding. ------- STUDENT UANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VIII - Satoty Considerations • Planking used on a scaffolding must be scaffold-grade lumber and extend past the sides by at least 6 inches but less than 12 inches, unless it is secured to the frame. • Scaffolding must be equipped with a ladder to reach the working platform. As with the other areas of hazard identification and accident prevention, when there is a need for scaffolding, the project design should specify the use of required devices and do so in the safest manner possfote. LADDER SAFETY Ladders, as well as scaffolding, are some of the most commonly used pieces of equipment on an asbestos removal site. To assist the project designer, the following list of ladder safety rules or hazard-elimination ideas are presented. These ideas should be considered when developing plans to incorporate safety into the project design. • Ladders with broken, missing or defective parts are prohbtted. • Ladder feet must be on a substantial base. • Work area at top and bottom of ladder must be kept dear. • No job-made ladders are allowed. ------- STUDENT MWNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sadton VIII - Safety Considerations Pa0eli • Metal ladders are prohibited near electrical equipment and Dnes (within 10 feet). Wood or fiberglass ladders should be selected to avoid electrical hazards. Ladders shall be used at pitch of four to one (one foot out for every four feet of elevation) or secured to prevent displacement during use. Ladders shall not be used In a horizontal position as scaffolding, platform or walkboard. Only one person per ladder is allowed and the person must always face the ladder when going up or down. An attendant is required in high-traffic areas. A worker must not climb higher than the third rung from the top on a straight ladder or the second step from the top on stepladders. Wood ladders shall not be painted. Ladders must always be inspected before use. Stepladders should only be used when fully open. ------- STUDENT M»NUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Saction VIII • Sofoty Considerations Pago 12 WALKING AND WORKING SURFACES The National Safety Council estimates that there are over 250,000 disabling injuries in work-related falls each year. Over 40 percent of the injured workers are employed in the construction industry. Reducing the potential for slips, trips, and falls is a challenge in work areas that are sealed with polyethylene and kept damp to reduce airborne fibers. This results in very slick surfaces. Disposable booties are a potential trip hazard; air and electrical cables also create trip hazards. All of these conditions create potential worker hazards even before removal begins. Some of these walking and working surface hazards can be eliminated by using the following guidelines: • When designing a project consider the height of the work to be done, equipment to be used, and possible trip hazards. Inspect the walking and working surfaces. • The use of disposable booties may be impractical in many removal situations. They may come apart and create a serious trip hazard. Seamless rubber boots, slip-on shoes or safety shoes with nonskid soles may be worn over the booties, or in place of the booties. Require the contractor to minimize water on floors. Wet polyethylene is very slick and water increases the risk of electrical shock. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VH1 • Safety Corekferafene • Develop designs calling for placement of airlines and electrical cords in positions that do not cause them to run across travehvays. When possible have these Ines and cords suspended off the walking and working surfaces. • Require that debris be minimized on floors by continuous cleaning. • Require the contractor to keep equipment, tools, and associated Items dear of main travetways. FIRE SAFETY Fire prevention must be given a high priority during the design phase. The wood and polyethylene materials used on asbestos removal sites increase the potential for fires and risk to human Bfe. The project designer will need to be concerned with fire safety features such as alarm systems, travel distances, exits, and emergency lighting. A predesign survey of the project site should first be conducted to determine potential fire hazards, sources of ignition, hot spots, location of fire suppression systems, and locations of current exits. The survey data is then correlated to the number of workers that will be in the area, the square footage of the containment area, and the types of combustible or flammable materials that will remain in the project area. This information will allow the project designer to include fire safety procedures that will reduce or eliminate the chance of fire in the containment area. Untreated polyethylene has a combustion temperature of approximately 150 degrees to 170 degrees. Polyethylene will start to bum slowly and pick up speed as more heat is ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEME NT PROJECT DESIGN Section Wl - Safely Consideration* Page 14 generated. It gives off heavy black smoke as a combustion by-product The flame spread is slow and steady as the combustion process continues. As an additional concern, thermal decomposition may produce toxic gases. The respirators worn by asbestos removal workers generally will not adequately protect them from the smoke and toxic gases produced. Because of this combustion threat, designs should require polyethylene sheeting to be kept away from heat sources such as transformers, steam pipes, boilers, and equipment that will be heated during the removal phase. In some situations It may be necessary or required to specify the use of flre-retardant polyethylene. The project designer should consult OSHA, the National Rre Protection Association (NFPA), and local fire code requirements before sealing off an area and blocking entrances and exits. For example, a poorly-written contract specification might require "one means of egress through a property designed decontamination system'; however, a better and more correct design would require alternative emergency exits and all on-site personnel entering the work area to be famiiar with these exits. Some additionaJ fire safety procedures that may need to be incorporated into the project design are outlined below: • Specifications must require all sources of ignition to be removed. Gas and other fuel sources must be cut off and pilot lights in boilers, heaters, hot water tanks. and compressors extinguished. ------- STUDBfTlyMNUAI. ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«c6on Vttl - Safety Considerations • Specifications should identify 'hot spots.' Quite often design specifications may require draping equipment instead of sealing it off to prevent overheating (i.e., computers, terminal boards, switch panels, transformers). • Require the cutoff of supply to steam lines, electric and steam heaters, and radiators. Do not permit the polyethylene to lie against hot surfaces. • Specifications must require the marking of exits from work area and posting directional arrows when exits are not visible from remote work areas. This can easily be done using duct tape or indelible marker on polyethylene walls and barriers. It is recommended that half of these directional arrows be placed close to the ground to assist workers who may be crawling in smoky conditions to escape a fire. • Specifications should require that trash and debris be kept to a minimum (e.g.. tape, polyethylene, bags, lumber). • If the work area te large and many workers are present, several emergency exits may need to be included in the project design. Choose exits that are locked from the outside but can be opened from the inside. A daily inspection must be conducted to ensure secondary exits are not blocked. Many local codes address these issues. • Lighting of exits and exit routes should be included in the project design. ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS86STOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VUI • Safety Conodtrabom • The project designer must be alert to the potential flammable vapors in industrial areas (solvents such as naphtha, toluene, xylene, etc. during the design phase). This is especially critical in industrial vacuuming operations where vacuum motors are not explosion proof. Compressed air vacuums may be required. • Specifications should require a nearby telephone be available at all times for notification of authorities in an emergency. • A retractable blade knife should be readily available at each emergency exit for use in cutting polyethylene sheeting. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES OSHA 29 CFR 1926.24 requires that every job site have a fire protection and prevention plan. This plan must cover procedures to be used in case of fire, which includes heavy smoke conditions, power failure, air supplied respirator compressor failure, accidents, and worker injury. The contractor wiH need to establish a system for alerting workers of an emergency that will require evacuation of the asbestos containment and work area. A compressed air horn provides an effective alarm that can be heard and does not rety on a power source. All persons entering the containment and work area must be familiar with the evacuation alarm signal and all primary and secondary exits. A simple floor plan of the work area must be posted near the work area entrance to familiarize persons entering the site with the location of exits, fire suppression equipment, and emergency telephone numbers (see Figure VM-3). ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soctioo VBI - Sato? Project Address: Project Phone f: 5555 Any Industrial Drive, Any Suburb, GA 333-3333 EMERGENCY «- EXIT LAB OFFICES SHIPPING BOILER ROOM LOAD-OUT RECEIVING o o DECON PRIMARY Ambulance: Fire: Police: Emergency Phone Numbers 333-9999 911 or 303-5555 911 or 303-6666 Suburb General Hospital Suburb County Fire Dept. Suburb Police Dept. FIGURE VIIK3 FLOOR PLAN OF WORK AREA SHOWING EXITS, EMERGENCY TELEPHONE NUMBERS, PROJECT ADDRESS. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S^Gbon VIII - Safety Cormdfntxn Pap* 18 Additional considerations in the development of an emergency plan include: • A description of the manner in which emergencies will be announced. • Emergency escape procedures and emergency escape routes. • Procedures for workers who must remain to operate critical operations which may take time to shut down. • Procedures to account for aO workers after evacuation. • Rescue and medical duties and responsibilities. • Before beginning the project, provisions should be made for prompt medical attention in case of serious injury or other medical emergency. • Some local codes may require that the project designer or contractor notify local emergency services of the type of operations (i.e., asbestos removal) that are on site. • Names and/or job titles of people to be contacted for additional emergency information. • A list of the major job-site fire hazards. ------- STUDENT IMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sacbon VII - Safety ComJd»«flon» • Names and/or job titles of people responsbte for maintenance of fire prevention and fire suppression equipment. • Names and/or job titles of people responsible for the control of fuel source hazards. • Posting local fire department and rescue squad telephone numbers. • The contractor needs to make sure that workers understand that the emergency hazard becomes more immediate than the asbestos hazard, and workers may need to violate polyethylene barriers. This can be covered in the written and posted emergency action plan. • Specifications should require that a monitor be outside at all times and trained in fire watch and emergency procedures. This person should also be trained in first aid and in the treatment of heat stress. HEAT-RELATED DISORDERS As explained in Section VII covering personal protection, the OSHA asbestos standard for the construction industry requires that al workers who are exposed to asbestos at or above the action level, or who are required to wear a negative pressure respirator, be given a complete physical examination. The main objective of the examination is to determine whether the employee is medically qualified to wear a respirator while performing abatement activities. The examining physician or clinic must additionally be aware that respirators may be worn under hot. adverse conditions. During warm months, or in hot ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VIII • Safoly Corektorrfons Page 20 environments, heat exhaustion and heat stroke are serious hazards faced by workers, particularly (nose not acdimated to the heat For projects conducted in hot environments, design specifications should require the contractor to develop and submit a plan that will reduce or eliminate heat-related disorders. Each of the disorders and techniques for prevention are discussed below. Hest Exhaustion Symptoms: • Fatigue, weakness, profuse sweating, normal temperature, pale clammy skin, headache, cramps, vomiting, fainting Treatment: • Medical alert • Remove worker from hot area • Have worker lay down and raise feet • Apply cool wet cloths • Loosen or remove clothing (remove disposal suit) • Allow small sips of water or salt replenishment beverage if victim is not vomiting Heat Stroke Symptoms: • Dizziness, nausea, severe headache, hot dry skin, confusion, collapse, delirium. coma, and death ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Saeion VIII. Safety Conttdmbons Pag* 21 Treatment: • Medical emergency • Remove worker from hot area • Remove clothing • Have worker lay down • Cool the body (shower, cool wet cloths) • Do not give stimulants NOTE: The major difference In symptoms between heat exhaustion and heat stroke Is that with heat exhaustion the person Is pale and sweating profusely; and with heat stroke, the person Is very hot, red, and has dry skin due to lack of sweating. The prevention and causes of both heat-related disorders are as follows: Prevention: • Frequent breaks away from the neat • Increase fluid intake • Allow worker to become acclimatized to heat • External cooling (vortex cooling, ice vests) • Reduce caffeine intake • No alcohol • Breathable protective dothing • Increased air movement ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATElueNT PROJECT DESON Section VIII - Safely Contkteralions Page 22 Causes: • High temperature • High humidity • Low air movement • Hard work • Not enough breaks away from the heat • Insufficient fluid intake • Full-body clothing • Worker not acclimated to heat Other measures that can be implemented to reduce heat-related disorders include the use of air-supplied cooling vests (available with high-pressure supplied air systems), an increase in number of HEPA filtration units to Increase air flow, and scheduling work at night when temperatures are cooler. CARBON MONOXIDE HAZARDS When supplied-air respirators are in use, it is important that an outside monitor who is familiar with the airline system remains close by to correct problems associated with the breathing srir. Carbon monoxide poisoning is perhaps the most important of these problems. Carbon monoxide exposure problems could develop if an outside source of carbon monoxide such as a truck exhaust is drawn into the air intake of the compressor supplying breathing air, or if it contaminates the makeup air being drawn into the containment area. Both of these problems should be taken care of during the design phase by requiring the compressor intake to be elevated 10-15 feet and/or prohibiting vehicles from idling near the decontamination unit ------- STUDCNT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK5N Socboo VUI • Safety Comxtermbons Pag* 23 It is important to note that the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are similar and may be confused with those of heat-related disorders. The symptoms, common sources, and allowable fimits for carbon monoxide are outlined below. Symptoms: • Dizziness, nausea, headache, drowsiness, vomiting, collapse, coma, and death (note similarity of symptoms to heat-related disorders) Sources: • Oil lubricated compressor • Internal combustion engine • Open flame and fire • Unventedgas • Kerosene heaters Description of Carbon Monoxide: • Colorless, odorless and tasteless Limits: • 10 parts per million (ppm) (Grade D breathing air for airline respirators, maximum allowable concentration) • 50 ppm (OSHA permissible exposure limit time-weighted average over eight hours) • 500 ppm (OSHA short-term exposure limit - 15 minutes) ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT P9OJECT DESIGN Socbon VUI • Safety Corektorabons STUDENT MANUAL PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT While the enforcement of proper use and wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) is the direct responsibility of the employer, the project designer may need to recommend certain types of PPE on particular projects. When the project designer recommends or requires that PPE be used, it should also be required to be maintained in sanitary and reliable condition necessary to protect workers from hazards which could cause injury or illness. When addressing personal protective equipment for asbestos removal personnel, the following guidance should be used. • Recommend work gloves as part of PPE to workers exposed to asbestos. This is particularly important when metal lath, suspended ceiling grids, and other materials are being removed. The OSHA asbestos standard requires full body covering. • Scrapers, retractable knives, wire cutters, chisels and other sorts of bladed tools are frequently used and can cause injuries. Recommend tools with insulated handles. • Many puncture and cut wounds occur when removing metal lath or cutting duct work. Recommend the use of good work practices and PPE and have a first aid kit available. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJGN Section VIII - Satoty Ccnstdorations Pago 25 • OSHA requires that protective hard hats be worn on a job site where there is exposure to falling objects, electric shock or burn. • Recommend the wearing of nonfogging face shields or goggles for operations involving potential eye injury. Full-face respirators are most effective (if nonfogging). • Where possible, design work so workers do not have to reach extensively overhead. Get them up to the job. • Recommend that workers use proper lifting methods. • Recommend the use of the "buddy system" for lifting and moving heavy objects. • Recommend the use of hand carts or rolling pallets when possible. Keep manual material handling to a minimum. • Recommend proper footwear for the hazards that are present on the job site, Including steel toed shoes, if necessary. HAZARD COMMUNICATION STANDARD The hazard communication standard, also known as the right-to-know rule, covers both general industry and the construction industry. It was promulgated by OSHA in August 1987 as 29 CFR 1926.59 and 29 CFR 1910.1200. The purpose of this standard is to ensure that the hazards of chemicals or materials used in the workplace are identified and ------- S7VJOEKT UMJUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socbon VHI - Safety Conskfciatkxw that this information, along with Information on protective measures and procedures, is passed on from manufacturer to employer to employee. Elements required under this standard include a comprehensive written hazard communication program, labeling of hazardous materials, employee training, and maintaining material safety data sheets (MSDS). Employers are required to inform affected workers about hazardous chemicals or materials to which they are exposed on the job site. This notification is done through a written program, maintaining material safety data sheets, maintaining labels, and conducting worker training on these items. The project designer must be aware that exposure to hazardous materials can occur in a number of tasks associated with asbestos removal work. Examples include spray adhesives, surfactants, encapsulants, paints, products used for lockdown of fibers, mastic removers, materials left in the work area by the building owner and, of course, the asbestos. The project designer should require the contractor to document that there is a program in place, that workers have received training on possible hazards and precautions, and that the correct MSDS have been obtained for hazardous chemicals being used on site. All hazardous chemicals used on the job site must have material safety data sheets available which indude all health hazard exposures as well as physical hazards and emergency procedures (see Figure VI 11-4). The material safety data sheets must be accessible to all workers during any working time which includes all three shirts as applicable. Material safety data sheets are available from manufacturers, suppliers of products and from owners of buildings where hazardous materials are handled in the ------- STUDENT! MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section Vin - Safety Coraktorrions removal area. The project designer should coordinate with the contractor since the contractor may fall under the umbrella of hazard communication programs of the budding owner who works with the on-site hazardous chemicals or materials. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VIII - Safoly Considerations P8002B MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET /. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION Trade Name: Manufacturer's Name: Spray Poly MPT Products Company 350 Main Street Atlanta, Georgia 30303 Date Prepared: Emergency Telephone Number February 2, 1993 1-800-555-1212 //. HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS INFORMATION CAS Ingredient: Number: Percent: TWA: STEL Ammonium Hydroxide 1336-21-6 0.2 50 ppm 35 ppm ///. PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS Boiling Point: Specific Gravity (H2O+1): 100°C 1.09 Vapor Pressure (mm Hg.): Melting Point 760 (3> 100°C 0°C Vapor Density (AJr=1): Evaporation Rate (Butyl Acetate): .63 1 Solubility in Water: Dlsperslble Appearance and Odor Milky white liquid, mild ammonia odor, Ph 8.5 - 9.5. FIGURE VIM MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VIII • S*tay Conskteralkxw TV. F/KE AND EXPLOSION DATA Flammable Limits Rash Point (Method used): LEL: UEL: N/A N/A N/A Extinguishing Media: Water or Foam. Special Fire Fighting Procedures: None Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards: Combustible by-products - oxides of carbon. V. HEALTH HAZARD DATA Route(s) of Entry Inhalation: Skin: Ingestion: X Health H ards (Acute and Chronic): Irrl tton of the respiratory tract. Testing completed by the MPT Consulting Company, Marietta, Georgia, states an exposure level of greater than 11 ppm of ammonia during product application without air movement Carcinogenicity NTP. (ARC Monographs: OSHA Regulations: No No No Signs and Symptoms of Exposures: Ammonia - burning eyes, runny nose, coughing and possible chest pain. Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by Exposure: Impaired pulmonary function. First Aid Procedures: Eye contact Wash eyes Immediately with large amounts of water and seek medical attention. Skin contact: Wash with soap and water all areas of body contacted by product. Inhalation: Remove to fresh air and seek medical attention If symptoms persist Ingestion: Seek medical attention. FIGURE V1IM MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET ------- STUDENT MANUML ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soctton VIII • Safety CotwktomtkxK Pago 30 VI. REACTIVITY DATA Stabifty: Conditions to Avoid: Stable None Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid): None Hazardous Polymerization: Conditions to Avoid: Will not Occur None VII. SPILL OR LEAK PROCEDURES Precautions in case of spiH or leak: No special requirement*. Spills or release should be diked to prevent spreading. Allow material to dry then strip film. Rush with water, larger spills can be coagulated with 0.3% calcium chloride or spills should be absorbed with sand or porous Inorganic material and then collected for disposal. Waste Disposal: In accordance with local regulations for disposal of non-hazardous waste. VIII. SPECIAL PROTECTION INFORMATION Protective Equipment: Ammonia or HEP A/Ammonia piggyback respiratory equipment depending on regulations. Goggles or face shield If splashing. At end of work period, and before eating, wash with soap and water all areas of body In contact with this product. Ventilation: If TWA or STEL is exceeded. FIGURE VIIM MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO8 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VIM - Safety CotwKtoratkxK Page 31 XL SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS Waste Disposal Method: In accordance with local regulations for disposal of non-hazardous waste. Shipping, Handling and Storage: No special requirements. Note: This USDS Is for example and educational purposes only and should not be used as a specific USDS on any asbestos abatement project. The sole purpose Is for general guidance in what may be contained In a USDS. FIGURE VIIW MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET ------- STUDBfT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section VIII - Safety Considerations Page 33 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following wiring faults often appear in buildings? A. Open ground paths B. Reverse wiring polarity C. Hot neutral wires D. All of the above 2. Fire extinguishers must be present on every asbestos abatement project As a rule of thumb, now many should be available? A. One for every worker B. One per 2500 square feet of floorspace C. Two per floor D. Three inside the work area, two outside the work area, regardless of size 3. A *OFCr is a device used to reduce electrical hazards. GFCI stands for . (fill in the Wank) 4. Which of the following are symptoms associated with heat stroke? A. sweating profusely with pale skin B. blue coloration of the mucous membranes C. hot. red and dry skin D. moist skin and heavy breathing 5. When using a straight ladder, the worker should climb no higher than the rung from the top. A. second B. third C. fourth D. fifth ------- STUOEKT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Ax Samping Protocol. Requirements and DoU> Interpretation AIR SAMPLING PROTOCOLS, REQUIREMENTS AND DATA INTERPRETATION INTRODUCTION Design specifications should contain specific air monitoring requirements for the asbestos removal project. The sampling and analytical methods that will be used during various project phases, and the acceptable fiber levels associated with each activity must be clearly stated In the specifications. This section covers the application of air monitoring for abatement projects, regulatory requirements and procedures for good practice, how air samples are collected, the various analytical techniques, and interpretation of laboratory data. Qualifications for the air monitor and the analytical laboratory are also discussed. PURPOSES OF AIR MONITORING AND REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS Air sampling involves drawing a known volume of air through a filter and analyzing that filter for the presence of asbestos fibers. The filter is housed In a plastic cassette which is attached to a sampling pump with flexible tubing. The sampling pump can be either electric (plug in) or battery powered and is calibrated to draw a known volume of air through the filter material over a given period of time, usually expressed In liters of air per minute (Ipm). Two basic air sampling methodologies are area and personal monitoring. Area samples are collected with a pump, tubing and filter cassette (called the sampling train) at a stationary location four to six feet above floor level. Personal samples are collected in the same manner as area samples, except the pump is hung from a belt around the worker's ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATE ME NT PROJECT DESIGN Soct-on IX - Ar Swiping Protect*. Roquirerwnis and Data tnwprotaban Page 2 waist and the filter cassette is attached, pointing downward, to the worker's lapel or collar. The samples are collected from within the breathing zone (as close to the nose and mouth as possible) of an individual, but outside the respirator. In relation to asbestos hazard identification and control during removal projects, air monitoring can be used for: 1. occupational exposure measurement 2. abatement surveillance 3. abatement clearance testing Before the removal project begins, air sampling may be conducted to determine background concentrations. This is particularly important if there are locations outside the contained work area, but within the building, where there are suspected or known asbestos-containing materials or other fibrous materials which may be interpreted as asbestos. During the project, air monitoring is used as a quality assurance tool to determine if engineering controls are effective to assess worker exposures and to document whether fibers are being contained in the work area. At the completion of the removal project air monitoring is used in conjunction with a thorough visual inspection to determine if the standards for reoccupancy have been met. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJOJ Sccbon IX - Air Sampling Protocote, Roqjirwnants and Data Interpretation Occupational Exposure Measurement The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires the asbestos abatement contractor to conduct personal air monitoring for workers Inside the abatement area. Since this is the responsibility of the employer. specific requirements for personal air monitoring are usually not included in the contract documents between the abatement contractor and the building owner. The contractor may have a trained employee who collects the personal samples and submits them to a laboratory, or an air monitoring firm may be retained to conduct personal monitoring. Exposure levels are measured by sampling the air in the breathing zone of workers who are conducting various types of activities such as scraping, bagging and spraying. For OSHA compliance the samples are analyzed by a phase contrast microscope. Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) will be discussed in more detail later in this section. The analytical results are compared to the following OSHA limits. (It should be noted that these limits are subject to changes In the regulation. Currently there Is a proposed regulation which would lower the PEL to 0.1 flbers/cc for certain activities). QSHAUmtt Fiber Concentration Exposure Duration Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) 0.2 fibers/cubic centimeter (cc) 8 hours Action Level (AL) 0.1 fibers/cubic centimeter (cc) 8 hours Excursion Limit (Eg 1.0 fibers/cubic centimeter (cc) 30 minutes Each limit has associated worker protection requirements that must be invoked if it is exceeded. The key limit for asbestos abatement work from a regulatory standpoint is the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Workers must be provided respirators with a high ------- STUOENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Samping Protocol*. Reojuirenwnts and Data >nt*pnta6cin Pag>4 enough protection factor to keep their exposures below 0.2 fibers/cc inside the respirator. However, It Is recognized as good practice and has been taught In EPA curricula for a number of years that 0.01 flbers/cc, not 0.2 flbers/cc, should be the limit for the level Inside the worker's respirator (see the discussion In Section VW-Protectlon of Asbestos Abatement Personnel). The requirements triggered by the action level and the excursion limit include continued air monitoring, a medical surveillance program, worker training, and documentation. Since all of these are performed in association with an abatement project anyway, these limits are more pertinent to the maintenance personnel and various tradesmen who are also covered by the OSHA Standard for the Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926.58} or the EPA Worker Protection Rule (40 CFR Part 763 Subpart G). The employer must conduct initial, representative monitoring at the startup of each abatement project. This has generally been interpreted as sampling at least 25 percent of the workers that are conducting various removal tasks - i.e., scraping, wetting, bagging. Personal monitoring must be conducted on a daily basis unless the workers are wearing supplied air respirators; or unless the contractor submits data (for OSHA approval) from a previous job which is nearly identical to the current project, and the data indicates fiber concentrations did not exceed the action level. If the daily air monitoring results indicate by statistically reliable measurements that exposures are below the action level, then the contractor can stop daily monitoring. Monitoring must resume if a different type of ACM is encountered or if work conditions change in any way. The employer must notify affected employees of the monitoring results as soon as they are received from the laboratory. While the collection and interpretation of personal air sample results is not the regulatory or legal responsibility of the building owner or the owner's representative, some designers ------- STUOerr MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Samping Protocol. Raqukwrwnti and Data I may elect to require the contractor to submit personal sampling results to the project monitor. The monitor can then compare the airborne fiber levels to the protection afforded by the respirators being used to determine if the contractor is in compliance with the regulations or the project specifications. Additionally, personal monitoring can be performed by the owner's representative to evaluate fiber control effectiveness, and results can be shared with the contractor. Abatement Surveillance To check for potential fiber leaks during the removal phase, stationary area air samples are usually collected from strategic locations around the outside perimeter of the containment area. Potential leakage points where sampling should be conducted include the clean side of the containment barriers separating the work area from occupied parts of the building, and just outside the dean room of the decontamination unit. If the removal project is being conducted In a multistory building, area samples should generally be colected from floors above and below the abatement activity. The results of these area samples are compared to the background and previous shift concentrations that were measured In the same locations before the project began. Usually this concentration is below 0.01 f/cc by PCM. PCM is used for abatement surveillance because sample results can be obtained quickly and sudden increases in fiber concentration would indicate a potential problem. There is currently no regulatory requirement for conducting abatement surveillance monitoring outside the containment area. It is considered good practice and is usually specified to be conducted by an air monitoring firm representing the building owner. The contractor may elect to conduct abatement surveillance monitoring if the specifications do ------- STUDENT UW*ML ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PftOJECT DESIGN Sactiofl IX - Air Sampling Protocols. Requiromonls and Data Interpretation not designate this activity. The specifications should Indicate what action will be taken If concentrations that exceed background levels or some other decision criterion, such as 0.01 f/cc, are detected outside the containment barrier. In order to use outside air monitoring data as an effective surveillance tool, the data must be available within a few hours after sample collection. Ideally, a field microscope is set up on site and the building owner's representative collects and analyzes the samples. A percentage of the filters that are read in the field (typically 10 percent) are then sent to a laboratory that participates in a nationally recognized QA/QC program for a quality control check. Refer to the discussion of laboratory and microscopist qualifications at the end of this section. Area air samples can also be placed In locations outside the building during the abatement project to detect leakage of fibers from the work site. Typically. pumps are placed at doors or windows near the exhaust of the negative air filtration units, and at the waste loadout area. Care must be exercised to ensure that outside samples are not overloaded with dust or other debris. Also, filter cassettes placed too close to the exhaust stream of the negative air filtration units will not give a meaningful indication of fiber leakage from these units. Samples should either be collected isokinettcaly, which demands special sampling equipment and a greater degree of expertise, or placed about 6-10 exhaust duct diameters downstream from the exhaust unit where fibers are more likely to be captured by the sampling apparatus. In addition to outside perimeter samples, specifications may stipulate the collection of area samples Inside the containment area during abatement This is typically done when there are building occupants elsewhere in the buOding. Two to three samples with a minimum 600 liters of air each day are usually adequate to index ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Ar Swnptng Pro****. Requirements and Data taxprotabon P«g»7 airborne fiber concentrations inside the work area. A radical increase in area concentrations would signal that work practices need to be adjusted from one day to the next. The design specifications may contain a "stop work" clause If a certain fiber concentration Is exceeded In the work area. For example, 0.5 f/cc by PCM may be defined by the designer as the level which cannot be exceeded inside the work area for a particular type of project If area air sampling indicates fibers are being generated at concentrations above this level then the contractor may be required to stop work and review wetting procedures, number of air changes per hour, and housekeeping procedures in an effort to lower fiber counts. This serves as an additional safeguard for preventing contamination outside the containment barrier. H Is Important to note that the "stop work" decision criteria will vary greatly depending on the type and percent of asbestos present, the friability of the material, the ability of the material to absorb water and nature of the project Abatement Clearance Testing The regulations promulgated by EPA for schools in accordance with the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act of 1986 (40 CFR 763. Subpart E) outline specific requirements for clearance testing of abatement projects. Currently, there are no federal regulations which require clearance testing in public and commercial buildings. Many project designers elect to apply the protocol outlined by regulations for clearance in schools to public and commercial building because it is considered as the current industry standard and there is published guidance for using the procedures. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT D6SON Section IX - Ak Sampino Protocols. Requirements and Data Intopratabon Pages Visual Clearance Inspection The project specifications should clearly require a thorough visual Inspection of the work area by the building owner's representative prior to final clearance air sampling. Generally, the owner's representative and the contractor's representative conduct a walk-through to closely check for evidence of visible debris on surfaces, in comers and dfficult-to-access places. There is a procedure for performing a visual inspection published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) entitled Standard E 1368. Standard Practice for Visual Inspection of Asbestos Abatement Projects. The specifications should Indicate this procedure will be used, outline an alternate procedure or have the inspector submit the visual inspection procedures that will be used in writing to the contractor prior to project setup. After each area has passed visual inspection it is common practice for the contractor to apply a sealant to the newly exposed surfaces and the inside of the containment barrier to lockdown any invisible fibers. Reference the section on lockdown and replacement materials. AHERA Protocol tor Clearance Testing - Once the work area has passed visual inspection criteria, then clearance air sampling can be performed to estimate the concentration of residual fibers. The AHERA procedures for final clearance air sampling, analytical sequence and clearance level requirements for asbestos abatement projects conducted in school buildings are outlined in Tables X-1 and X-2. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Samping Protocols. Roqulromonts and Data Interpretation Pag»9 TABLE X-1 AHERA SAMPLING PROTOCOL SAMPUNQ ORGANIZATION • Must have written qualty control procedures and documents which verify compf ance. • Sampling must be performed by qualified Individuals completely independent of the abatement contractor. SAMPUNQ EQUIPMENT • Commercially available cassettes must be used. • Loaded cassettes must be prescreened to assure they do not contain elevated background levels. • Fitter meda must be mixed celutose ester having a pore size less than or equal to 0.45 urn or polycarbonate having a pore size less than or equal to 0.4 um. • The ooMection filter is placed in series with a 5.0 urn back-up filler and support pad. • Reloading of cassettes is not permitted. SAMPLE COLLECTION • Conduct thorough visual inspection prior to samplng. • Cn1icalwortq)lace barriers over windows, doors, vents, etc. remain in ptace. • Perform teak check on sampfng train. • Calbrate pumps before and after each use. • Pump flow rate of 1-10 Iters per minute for 25 mm cassettes (proportionally higher for large olameter filers). • Isolate pump vtoration from fitter cassette. • Orient cassette 45° downward from horizontal • dearly label al samples. • Maintain log of al pertinent samping data. • Use aggressive sampfng techniques. • Collect a minimum of 13 samples: - 5 per abatement area - 5 per ambient area (where "make-up air comas from") - 2 field blanks (1 near entrance to work area; 1 at ambient sfte) -1 seated blank • Cofect a minimum of 1,199 Hers with a 25 mm cassette or 2.799 fters wflh a 37 mm cassette. • Turn sample cassette upright before turning pump off. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - A» Samping Protocol*, ftoqwrwrwrtts and Data IntrprwMion TABLE X-2 SEQUENCE FOR ANALYZING CLEARANCE SAMPLES IN ACCORDANCE WITH AHERA PROTOCOL SEQUENCING • Cdect at least 13 samples. • Analyze at least 5 inside samples. • If greater than or equal to 1 .199 Iters of air sampled for 25 mm cassettes, or 2.799 Iters of air for 37 mm cassettes, area passes if arithmetic mean is less than or equal to 70 asbestos structures per square mifmeter of filler area. • If less than 1,199 Hers (2.799 Iters for 37 mm cassette) of air sampled, or H greater than 70 s/mm2. analyze 3 blanks. • If arithmetic mean of blanks Is greater than 70 s/mm2. terminate analysis, identify and eirrinate source of contamination, colect new samples. • If arithmetic mean of blanks Is less than 70 s/mm2, analyze outside samples and compare with Z-test on the logarithms of the inside and outside levels. N Z-test results are less than or equal to 1 .65. response action is complete. If Z-test results are greater than 1.65. rectean and resampte. The AHERA protocol requires that analyses be performed with a transmission electron microscope unless the project Involves less than 160 square feet or 260 linear feet of asbestos-containing material. Phase contrast microscopy can be used to analyze clearance samples from the smaller projects. For TEM analysis a minimum of thirteen samples are collected with at least five from the abatement area, five from where the make-up air comes from, two field blanks, and one sealed blank. Samples are collected by aggressive air sampling techniques which involve physically or mechanically agitating the air in the work area during the sampling process. There is a nonmandatory aggressive sampling protocol provided in Appendix A of the AHERA regulations. This procedure provides for using the exhaust of a one-horsepower leaf blower to sweep floors, ceilings, walls and other surfaces in the work area to dislodge any residual fibers. ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS86STOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soction IX - Air Sampling Protocols. Requirements and Data tntorpretabon Pag* 11 Stationary fans are placed in locations which will not interfere with air monitoring equipment Pan air is directed toward the ceilings to keep any dislodged fibers airborne and at least one fan is used for each 10.000 cubic feet of work site. The purpose of final clearance air sampling using aggressive techniques Is to produce a "worst case" scenario. The procedure is designed to sample asbestos in the air and on surfaces through reentrainment. If the work area passes the final clearance level in this "worst case" environment, then the likelihood of airborne asbestos fiber levels above the clearance level when the area is reoccupied is remote. The AHERA protocol for the large removal projects is designed so that samples can be analyzed in stages in order to possibly avoid the expense of analyzing all thirteen. The sequencing of analyses is outlined in Table X-2. In order to utilize the phased analyses, at least 1,199 liters of air must be sampled with 25 mm cassettes, or 2,799 liters of air must be sampled when 37 mm cassette are used. Initially, the five samples (minimum) collected from inside the removal area are analyzed by TEM. If the arithmetic mean of the five samples Is less than 70 asbestos structures per square millimeter (70 s/mm2) of filter area, the area passes and can be opened for reoccupancy by unprotected personnel. The 70 s/mm2 criterion is considered to be the filter background leveMhe concentration of structures per square millimeter of filter than is considered statistically indistinguishable from the concentration measured on the blanks (filters through which no air has been drawn). If the arithmetic mean of the five inside samples exceeds 70 s/mm2, then the next step is to analyze the two field blanks and the sealed blank to determine if the blanks are contaminated, or if there is some contamination being introduced in the sample ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Sampfing Protocols. Requirvnwncs and Data lo>arpr»afloo Pap 12 preparation. If the blanks are contaminated, then the source of contamination must be eliminated and resampling must be conducted. tf the blanks are not contaminated, then the next step is to analyze the five samples collected outside the work area and perform a statistical procedure termed the Z-test on the logarithms of the inside and outside sample concentrations to determine if there is a significant difference between the inside and outside concentrations. If the Z-test indicates there is no significant difference, then the area passes the clearance criteria and can be reoccupied. If the Z-test indicates the ambient area samples are significantly less contaminated with asbestos fibers than the samples from inside the removal area, then the contractor must redeem the work area and resampling must be conducted. Additional information regarding the Z-test is provided in the EPA publication 'Guidelines for Conducting the AHERA TEM Clearance Test to Determine Completion of an Asbestos Abatement Project" (EPA 56CV 5-89-001). The purpose of the Z-test is to make an allowance for projects that are conducted in areas that may have elevated concentrations of asbestos in the ambient or make-up air that is being pulled inside the removal area. An example of this might be the illegal demolition of a nearby building which contains ACM, or the concurrent performance of an activity with PCM clearance controls (e.g.. operations and maintenance work). Experience in using this protocol since 1987 indicates that most of the time if the inside samples fail the initial screening test of 70 s/mm2. then the Z-test is usually failed also. For this reason, many contractors and designers prefer to reclean the work area tf the first round of testing Indicates levels are above 70 s/mm2. It is common for ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PBOJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Swnping Protocols. Roquirwnento «r*d Data Interpretation the project designer to specify that the contractor will bear the cost for additional testing. If final clearance is not achieved during the first round of testing. As mentioned previously, the AH ERA protocol allows PCM to be used for clearance testing of small removal projects (less than 260 linear feet or 160 square feet). The procedure for small projects involves collecting only five samples from the inside of the removal area. Samples are collected using aggressive sampling techniques and approximately 3.000 liters of air should be collected for each sample. If any one of these five samples exceeds 0.01 fibers per cubic centimeter by PCM (NKDSH Method 7400), then the work area must be recleaned and resampled. This concentration is generally considered the limit of detection of PCM area samples in an abatement project and is, therefore, issued as a clearance level. Other Sampling and Analytical Protocol - While the AH ERA protocol must be used for abatement projects in schools, and it is generally recommended for use in commercial and public buildings, there are some situations in which the designer may need to consider other options. Some examples are provided here to illustrate the point The designer may want to further consult with an industrial hygienist when developing specifications for these types of projects. Two examples of removal projects that may have different clearance criteria are a building that is going to be demolished (never reoccupied) after the ACM has been removed and a buikSng in an industrial complex that is older and large amounts of ACM have been used throughout the complex. ------- STUDENT IMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PPOJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Samplng Protecote. ftequrwrwrtR and Data Interpretation PagaU For nonschool buildings that are not going to be reoccupied, a clearance criteria of 0.01 f/cc by PCM is commonly used. The logic for using PCM instead of the more stringent TEM analysis is that the building will not be reoccupied and the 0.01 f/cc by PCM is not likely to significantly contribute to ambient air contamination when the building ts demoBshed. In an older industrial setting that contains large quantities of damaged ACM, it may not be feasble to achieve 70 s/mm2 by TEM if only portions of the ACM are going to be removed at one time. The designer may need to collect data on background levels in areas adjacent to the planned project to assist in selecting the clearance criteria. AIR SAMPLING EQUIPMENT A brief overview is presented here to familiarize the project designer with the types of air sampling equipment used on abatement projects. Sampling Pumps Pumps used for collecting asbestos fibers are typically categorized as either high-volume pumps which are generally electric (plug in), or low-volume (personal) pumps which are battery powered. High-volume pumps are usually calibrated to draw up to ten liters of air per minute through the filter and are used for area air samping. Since being able to detect low concentrations of airborne asbestos fibers relies, in part, on sampling large volumes of air, high-volume pumps are useful for sampling In environments where low levels of airborne asbestos are expected (e.g., following the cleanup of an abatement project). ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESX3N Section IX - Air S«npEng Protocol. Reqdnnmntt and Dan I Battery-powered or personal sampling pumps are small, light-weight pumps encased in a hard plastic sheD. These pumps are usualy calibrated to draw 1 .0 to 2.5 liters per minute through the filter when used to index worker exposure (or potential exposure, when wearing a respirator) to airborne asbestos fibers. The pumps are worn on the worker's belt and the cassette filter, which is connected to the pump with flexible tubing, is placed in the breathing zone of the worker. Fitters Mixed cellulose ester (MCE) is the primary type of filter material that is used to sample airborne asbestos fibers. MCE filters consist of cellulose strands bound together in a web called tortuous pore" and display a very irregular surface when observed under magnification. The MCE fitter media is available in various pore sizes and diameters. For personal sampfing a 25 mm diameter filter with a 0.8 jim to 1 .2 um pore size may be used. For clearance testing in accordance with the AHERA protocol, a 25 mm or 37 mm diameter filter may be used but the pore size must be 0.45 um for an MCE filter. All filters are housed in a sampling cassette which includes a cap with a plug extension cowl or retainer ring, the fiter, the MCE diffuser. a support pad, and a cassette base. Figure X-1 details a typical sampfing cassette figuration. The entire cap is removed when sampling for asbestos fibers. Pump Calibration The calculation of air sampling results are dependent, in part, on the total volume of air sampled. The volume of air sampled is the flow rate of the sampling pump (liters of air per ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - AJf S*rplnQ Protocol. Roquirvfneflts wxJ Data lrrtwpf»tt>on FIGURE X-1 TYPICAL SAMPLING CASSETTE CONFIGURATION Intel Plugj CasseneCap | Extension Cowl or Retainer Ring 0.4 |un pore PC filter or 0.45 Jim pore MCE filter j 5 \un MCE Diffiiser Support Pad B&se -{OudetPlug | Reprinted from Federal Register Vol. 52. No. 210, Friday, October 30,1987. ------- STUDENT IMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJGK Section IX - Air Swnping Protocols. R»qutoMTwns and Data Inttrprmabon Pag* 17 minute, or Ipm) multiplied by the time (in minutes) the pump ran. Accurate calibration of the pump flow rate, then, is very Important in the calculation of sample results. The EPA and OSHA require that sampfing pumps be caltorated before and after each use, and it is good practice to maintain these calibration records together with other sampling data. Although not always practical, a primary calibration standard is the best way to determine the flow rate of a sampling pump. A primary calibration standard is one that is known to have the highest degree of accuracy and repeatability when determining a pump's flow rate. Typically, a one liter flow bubble buret or automated soap bubble meter is used as a primary calibration standard for air sampling pumps. From this, a rotameter can be calibrated and taken into the field to caltxate each sampflng pump before and after use. It I* Important to ensure that persons performing air monitoring are routinely calibrating their sampling pumps. Regular requests for calibration data, or requiring this data to be included in reports of sample results, are two ways to help maintain the technical and legal validity of sampling data. The designer may want to specify that pump calibration records be submitted as part of the project documentation. ANALYTICAL ALTERNATIVES The primary analytical techniques used for analyzing airborne fibers collected on a filter are: phase contrast microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fibrous aerosol monitor (FAM) is an instrument which can be used in the field to obtain an index of airborne fiber levels. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT REJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Samplng Protocols. Requirements and Data Interpretation Pap IS Appications of each of these methods (PCM, SEM, TEM and FAM) in the analysis of air samples for asbestos are discussed below. Phase ftantrast Microscopy Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) is a technique using a light microscope equipped to provide enhanced contrast between the fibers collected and the background filter material. Samples for analysis by PCM are collected on either a 25 mm or 37 mm mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter with a 0.8 to 12 micrometer pore size. Filters are then prepared by either a liquid chemical solution or an acetone vapor that renders the filter material optically transparent. The filter Is then examined under a positive phase contrast microscope at a magnification of approximately 400 times. Fibers are sized and counted using a calibrated reticle fitting into the microscope eyepiece. PCM is inexpensive ($15 to$25 per sample) and can be performed on the job site in a few hours. Phase contrast microscopy is frequently referred to as the light microscopy method, the filter membrane method, or the NIOSH method. PCM is the analytical method specified in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) asbestos standards. PCM was first used to monitor asbestos workers' exposure in asbestos product manufacturing or mining operations. Using this method the analyst does not Identify what materials the fibers are composed of, and only counts those fibers longer than five micrometers and wider than about 0.25 micrometers. Because of these Pmitations. analysis by PCM typically provides only an index of total concentration of airborne fibers in the environment monitored. As the proportion of the airborne fibers which are less than 0.25 micrometers in diameter increases (e.g., nonindustriai settings such as asbestos abatement projects), PCM becomes a less reliable analytical tool. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - AJT Swnpbng Protocol. Rsquirvrrwnts a*>d Data tntorprMUion Pago 19 There are three primary fiber counting methods for phase contrast microscopy. NIOSH P&CAM 239 is the original method which was implemented for estimating airborne fiber concentrations. The NIOSH 7400 method is an improved version of P&CAM 239 which provides for a more reliable limit of detection. P&CAM 239 is no longer used for compliance monitoring. The OSHA reference method (ORM) is specified in OSHA Asbestos Standards and contains modifications to the procedures outlined in the NIOSH 7400 method for use in determining personal exposures. Transmission Electron Microscopy Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a technique which focuses an electron beam onto a thin sample mounted in the microscope column (under a vacuum). As the beam transmits through the sample, an image resulting from varying density of the sample is projected onto a fluorescent screen. Air samples for TEM analysis can be collected on either mixed cellulose ester or polycarbonate filters. Filters may be prepared using the direct transfer technique which allows for the transfer of a carbon-coated replica of the filter material (with embedded fibers and particulates, etc.) onto a copper grid suitable for TEM analysis. Alternatively, the indirect preparation technique may be employed. The uses and limitations of each technique are more fully described in the EPA publication, "Comparison of Airborne Asbestos Levels Determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Using Direct and Indirect Transfer Techniques," EPA publication 560/5- 89-004, Washington, DC, 1990. Several methods exist for the preparation and analysis of air samples by electron microscopy. Most significant are the mandatory and nonmandatory TEM methods set forth as appendices to 40 CFR 763, Subpart E (AHERA regulations). These methods are to be ------- STUOEWT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX -tor Samping Protooote. Requirements and Otla Intorprotttion Pago 20 used, with restrictions, for analysis of final clearance air samples on school abatement projects. Other methods include the NIOSH 7402. and the EPA Level I, II and III (Yamate method). Depending on the method used, preparation of the sample can take as long as 24 hours (or more) and analysis can take several hours to a day or more. However. standard preparation and analysis time for AHERA clearance samples is now in the range of 12 hours or less. As the number of laboratories with TEM capability continues to increase, the cost and turnaround time has gone down. Costs for TEM analysis typically range from about $150 to$400 per sample. Scanning Electron Microscopy Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a technique which uses a finely focused electron beam on the sample surface to generate an image of the surface shape. A magnified image is produced on a viewing screen. Air samples for SEM filter counting are collected on a mixed cellulose ester or a polycarbonate filter with a 0.45 micrometer pore size. The cost is about $150 to$300 per sample and may require several days to obtain results. SEM can identify large fibers by morphology (physical appearance) and elemental analyses when equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system. Fibers which are 0.05 micrometers in diameter are about the smallest that can be detected using SEM under optimal conditions. This method has fiber identification problems with thin fibers and flat, piaty particles that display poor contrast. Also, there is no standard protocol for this method. Currently, SEM provides somewhat better Information than PCM analysis, but the method cannot be used to conclusively Identify or quantify asbestos. SEM is not routinely used for air monitoring associated with asbestos removal projects. ------- STUDENT MMJUAL Fibrous Aerosol Monitor AS8EST06 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Samping Protocoto. Raqummnd and Data bttvprotalion Papa 21 The fibrous aerosol monitor (FAM) is an instrument which uses laser light and electrical field technologies for a near real-time analysis of the fiber content of the air. The instrument provides a continuous measurement, with direct readout of the number or concentration of airborne fibers. It has a flow rate of about 2 liters per minute. The FAM can be used in conjunction with a strip chart recorder to provide a record of air quality conditions. Typically used as an Indicator of airborne fiber level* rather than a precision testing device, the RAM's more useful function Is to alert personnel to any sudden elevation of the area fiber count. If the FAM is used on a project it should be used in conjunction with other traditional air sampling techniques and not in place of them. This instrument does not distinguish fiber types and cannot discriminate between fibers and certain particles that have sufficient shape irregularities to possess fiber characteristics. The FAM does not detect fibers less than 0.5 micrometers in diameter. Laboratory tests indicate FAM concentration readings are generally within ± 25 percent of the optical membrane filter count. Also, in order to obtain accurate low level (0.01 flbers/cc) readings It is necessary to operate the FAM for long periods (1000 minutes); even though the FAM will register these levels after one minute. DATA INTERPRETATION With the use of various analytical methods for asbestos sample analysis which have different counting protocol and different analytical reporting units, it can be difficult to understand what the results mean. No attempt is made here to interpret air monitoring ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Sampftng Protocol. R^yaxmaoo tnd D«u lm*prmt»ori data with respect to health effects because many more years of medical and epkJemiological research wilt probably be required before this is clearly understood. However, a discussion of the reporting units and the definitions of a fiber as used in the different counting protocols should help the designer better understand the limitations and the usefulness of the data. As discussed earlier, the OSHA standard which covers worker exposure monitoring requires analyses of these personal samples to be conducted by phase contrast microscopy. The counting protocol requires the analyst to only count those fibers that are at least three times longer than they are wide, and that are at least five micrometers long (approximately 1/5000 of an inch). The OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.2 fibers/cc Is somewhat difficult to visualize. It can also be expressed as 200,000 fibers per cubic meter of air. Another way to understand the 0.2 fioer/cc PEL is to visualize the size of a 10* x 10' room with a 10' ceiling. If this room had an asbestos fiber concentration of 0.2 fibers/cc, there could be over 5,000.000 fibers in the room. The AHERA protocol defines a fiber differently than the OSHA protocol. The analyst is required, using transmission electron microscopy, to count asbestos structures that have a length to width ratio of at least 5:1 and to count any asbestos structures that are longer than 0.5 microns. Structures are classified as fibers, bundles, dusters or matrices as illustrated in Figure X~2. Another difference is that the AHERA clearance level of 70 s/mm2 is based on the number of fibers per filter area. The OSHA PEL is expressed as an airborne fiber concentration (fibers/cc). White an entire course could be devoted to understanding analytical techniques and data interpretation, this short overview has been presented to help illustrate the complexity of ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air S«np«no Protocols, ftequtmments and D«ta iMMpfBtabon Pao»23 FIGURE X-2 COUNTING GUIDELINES USED IN DETERMINING ASBESTOS STRUCTURES Count as 1 fiber; 1 Structure; no intersections. Count as 2 fibers if space between fibers is greater than width of 1 fiber diameter or mir-ber of intersections is equal to or less than 1. Count as 3 structures if space between fibers is greater than width of 1 fiber dimeter or if the mnber of intersections is equal to or less than 2. Count bundles as 1 structure; 3 or more parallel fibrils less than 1 fiber diameter separation. ------- STUDENT (MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATE ME WT PROJECT DESIGN S«cttoo IX - A* Samptng Protocol*. Requirements and O«ta IntorprMMkxi Pag* 24 FIGURE X-2 (Continued) Count clusters as 1 structure; fibers having greater than or equal to 3 intersections. \ ~7 \ \ Count iratrix as 1 structure. DO NOT COWT AS Fiber protrusion <5:1 Ascect Patio No fiber protusion Fiber protrusion <0.5 micrcmeter <0.5 micrcneter in length <5:1 Asocct. Ratio Reprinted from Federal Register. Vol. 52. No. 210, Friday, October 30, 1987. p. 41867. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DEStGN SKtton IX - Air Samplng Protocol. Requirement* and Data Inlwpnrttbon data interpretation and the need to exercise caution. It should be apparent that PCM data cannot be interchanged with TEM data and that the counting protocol has direct effect on the analytical result QUALIFICATIONS OF THE AIR MONITOR AND PROJECT MONITOR The terms air monitor and project monitor have commonly been used interchangeably. For the purposes of the discussion on qualifications, the air monitor will be defined as the individual who collects air samples and reports the analytical results. The project monitor has a greater responsibility which may include acting as the building owner's representative to perform quality assurance on the contractor's work, construction management and visual clearance prior to clearance sampling. The project monitor may also serve as the air monitor or may interact with the air monitor. There are currently no federal requirements for certification or licensing of individuals or firms that conduct air monitoring or project monitoring on asbestos abatement projects. A few states do have requirements for training and experience. The following are provided as minimum guidelines for designers who are developing specifications for projects in states that do not have provisions for air monitoring or project monitoring personnel. Air Monitoring Personnel • Should have current training certificate from an EPA Model Accreditation Course for Asbestos Abatement Project Supervisors or Designers. ------- -^N- VIANUAL AS3ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sooon IX - Air Satisfing Protocols. Rcqurcmontr. and Data Intcuprotatior Page 26 • Should have attended and passed exam in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 582 course for Air Sampling and Analytical Techniques (or equivalent). • Should have on-the-job training under the supervision of an experienced air monitor. Project Monitoring Personnel • Should have current training certificate from an EPA Model Accreditation Course for Asbestos Abatement Project Supervisors or Designers. • Should have construction management experience and knowledge of reading blueprints, specifications and contract documents. • Should have on-the-job training under the supervision of an experienced project monitor. QUALIFICATIONS FOR ANALYTICAL LABORATORY The AHERA regulations outline quality assurance/quality control procedures for laboratories that perform TEM analysis of clearance samples collected on school abatement projects. It is recommended that design specifications for nonschool buildings also impose these requirements on the laboratory performing analyses. They include: ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Samptng Protocols. Requirements and Data Interpretation • Participation in the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NiST). • Perform quality control/quality assurance procedures in accordance with AH ERA protocol (Table X-3). For laboratories performing phase contrast microscopy (PCM), qualifications of each analyst should include: • Satisfactory performance In the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program sponsored by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and/or satisfactory performance in the Asbestos Analyst Professional Registry Program sponsored by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). • Successful completion of a 40-hour training course in air sampling and analysis (NIOSH 582 or equivalent.) In addition to these quality assurance/quality control programs, laboratories may also be accredited by the AIHA Laboratory Accreditation Program. This provides additional assurance that the laboratory exercises good general laboratory practices and recordkeeping procedures. ------- STUOENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Samping Protocols. Raquremenls and Data InterpraMbn Page 26 TABLE X-3 SUMMARY OF LABORATORY DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES* UntOoandbn Sample receiving Sample custody Sample preparation Calculator* and data reduction Olfllaty Gorit0' Crtack Review ol receiving report Review of chain-of-custody record Suppees and roegonts Grid opemng size Spsoal daan area monitoring L^oratoryb** Plasma etch blank Muleple preps (3 per sample) • • 11 n in • nC r ti • rl Mgnment cnecK MagnKcaeon catoraaon wkh tow and Ngh EOS calibration by copper ine Laboratory blank (measure of deanflness) nepkatt counting (measure of precision) Duplicate analysis (measure of Known samples of typicat materials (working mta n rim rrW \ etanOawCK) Analysis of NBS SHM 1875 ancVtar RM 8410 (measure of accuracy and comparaMily Data entry review (data vafidatfon and measure of completeness) Record and verity P eteoun diffraction pattern of ssrucDjre Hand calcutaion of automated data reduction procedure or independent Frequency Each sample Each tarn pie On receipt 20 operangs/20 gricMot of 1000 or 1 openincy»amc*» After cleaning or service 1 per pre isriea or 10% 1 per 20 samples Each sample Each day Each day Each month or after service WoeMy Daly Prop 1 per series or 10% read 1 per 25 samples 1 per 100 samples 1 per 100 samples Traning and for comparison w* unknowns 1 per analyst per year Each sample 1 per 5 samples 1 per 100 samples Conformanca Fjcoftctfltian 95% completa 86% complete Moot specs or reject 100% Meet specs or reject Meet specs or reanalyze series 75% One wati cover of squares Each day Each day 96% 96% 95% 1 Meet specs or reanalyze series I.SxPoiaaonStdl Oev. 2 1 Pokson Std. Oev. 100% t.SxPoisaonSki Oev. 96% 80% accuracy 85% recalculation of hand-catcUatod data Reprinted from Federal Register. Volume 52, No. 210, October 30,1987, P. 41892 ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - A» Sampling Protocol. R»quir»m«ntt vtd Data IntwpfMrion Pag* 29 SUMMARY Sampling and analytical techniques provide one quantifiable method for determining if the design specifications are being executed properly. There are a variety of sampling and analytical techniques and the appropriate ones must be selected to collect data that is representative of the environment being sampled. Project designers must have a general understanding of the various sampling and analytical techniques employed. They should also understand the limitations of the data that is generated by each procedure to recognize potential weaknesses and strengths in the design specifications. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«cton IX -Mr Sonptng Proton*. Requirements and Ottm trUorpfBttaon Pip 30 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What is the difference between a personal sample and an area sample? 2. What are three applications for air monitoring during removal projects? 3. What are the three current OSHA exposure limits? 4. What is the recommended worker exposure limit discussed in the course manual? 5. Who has the responsibility for conducting personal air monitoring for abatement workers? 6. What are the primary differences between transmission electron microscopy and phase contrast microscopy? 7. What is the AHERA clearance level and to what bufldings does it apply? ------- STUOENTUWNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section IX - Air Sampfing Protocofc, Ftoquir*m*ntt and Data bttNptvtabon Pago 31 8. When is a visual inspection conducted to determine if ACM removal is complete and who conducts it? 9. Describe a situation in which clearance by TEM might not be appropriate. 10. How often should sampling pumps be calibrated? 11. WhattsFAM? For what is it used? 12. Whteh analytical method reports results in structures/mm2? 13. What is NVIAP? 14. In what areas does the NIOSH 582 course provide instruction? ------- STUO6KT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section X - Locfcdown and Replacement Maieriate LOCKDOWN AND REPLACEMENT MATERIALS INTRODUCTION The use of asbestos in products manufactured in the United States has declined sharply since the mid-1970s when federal, state and local agencies began instituting regulations to restrict human exposures to airborne asbestos fibers. This trend culminated in 1989 when the USEPA issued a ban and phase-out rule which proposed a timetable for eliminating the manufacture of most asbestos-containing products. The ban was recently overturned by a federal court (reference the regulations section). However, the replacement of asbestos-containing building products with asbestos-free substitute materials remains an important issue for asbestos abatement project designers. They are usually responsible for specifying a replacement material that will adequately serve the same function as the ACM that is being removed. This section will review design considerations, materials and methods involved in the replacement of asbestos products which are removed from buildings. First a detailed review of the lockdown procedure which is used to trap any remaining nonvistole asbestos fibers on a substrate prior to the application of replacement materials will be discussed. This will be followed by a discussion of the types and features of commonly used asbestos substitutes in building products. LOCKDOWN Lockdown Is the procedure of applying a protective coating or sealant to a surface from which all visible asbestos-containing material has been ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT! PROJECT DESIGN Soc*on X - LocXdown and Rcplao«noo( Matortalc removed. Its primary function is to control and minimize the amount of airborne asbestos fiber generation that might result from any remaining material that cant be detected during visual inspection. Lockdown is different from encapsulation which is the appBcation of a liquid bridging or penetrating encapsulant to asbestos-containing material that has not been removed. Depending upon the surface structure and texture of the substrate, or the adhesive strength of the asbestos-containing material to the substrate, there will always be some residual fibers left behind after gross removal has taken place. Even when the substrate is smooth and appears clean there could still be invisible asbestos fibers present The lockdown procedure is the standard means of assuring that any remaining asbestos fibers are "locked" in place. Because a lockdown involves coating the substrate with a virtually impermeable barrier, it must also be designed with the subsequent replacement materials in mind. Lockdown Design Prior to lockdown design and before any asbestos is removed, it is essential to characterize the substrate. Some of the most common materials found as substrates in buildings include cement, corrugated sheet metal, metal beams, wire mesh, metal piping, plaster 'brown coat," wallboard and wood. These materials each have different characteristics pertaining to surface structure and texture which affect the ability of other materials to bond to them. For example, cement substrates are often porous and pitted (many small grooves or depressions on the surface). This uneven surface is extremely difficult to clean for two reasons. First, the pits in the surface may have become filled with asbestos-containing material when it was originally sprayed or troweled on the surface. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socboo X - Lockdown and Fteptic«m«fK MrorMfe Secondly, when the material is scraped away during removal, asbestos-containing materials will be packed tightly into these grooves or pits. Most of the material can then be removed through tedious brushing; however, some fibers will remain. Some substrates are imposstole to reach without demolishing the structure. An example of this is fireproofing which was applied to structural members before installing a curtain wall exterior. In this case, it may not be possible to completely remove the fireproofing wedged between the beams and the curtain wall before lockdown. In this event, the only option may be to encapsulate the material that cannot be removed and construct a permanent physical enclosure to isolate the material from the accessible ACM during removal and prior to lockdown. When material is left in place it is a good practice to apply visible warning labels in each area. A variety of products can be used for locking down the substrate. These lockdown products are usually applied as sprayed-on liquid-type sealants (alternatives for certain situations are latex paint, encapsulating solutions, and concrete sealant). Caution should be used so that the lockdown material does not present an additional hazard during application and anticipated use/conditions. Contractors should obtain all available information on the substance (i.e., toxlcity. volatility, fire ratings). Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are a good source of information. These sheets should be available from both the manufacturer and distributor of the material. Under OSHA "Hazard Communication* requirements, contractors are required to train their employees so that they understand and know how to use the material safety data sheets. All information should be obtained and evaluated prior to beginning the project. ------- STUDENT MMJUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Secton X - Lockdown and Replacement Materials Page 4 Many lockdown materials are not fire rated (they may actually be more flammable than me substrate) and thus could greatly reduce or eliminate the fire rating of some replacement materials. For instance, the substrates of some buflding systems such as pipes, flues and boilers have high temperature requirements (over 250 degrees) which could exceed some lockdown material specifications. A designer should consult with the manufacturer of the Jockdown material regarding any heat limitations. Another consideration is the compatibility of the lockdown material with the substrate. It is important to ensure that adhesion occurs between the two surfaces (substrate and lockdown material) and. In some cases, three surfaces (substrate, lockdown. and replacement or reinsulation). For example, latex paint may work well in locking down a porous concrete surface, whereas it would not be acceptable for use on metal piping since It would peel and crack. It is recommended that a field test application be conducted on a small portion of the substrate prior to widespread use to determine whether the lockdown and replacement products will perform as desired. It is essential to determine compatibility between lockdowns and replacement materials. Noncompatible materials may void UL ratings and manufacturers' warranties. Another good, recommended practice is to use color tinting when applying lockdown materials. This will make it easier to visually check that all areas of the substrate have been covered with the lockdown substance. One coat of lockdown substance will usually be adequate to prevent the generation of airborne residual fibers. In some cases. additional coats may be needed for cosmetic purposes. Also, if the lockdown material is being applied to metal substrate surfaces, it may be most advantageous to apply one fairly heavy coat of primer to act as both a lockdown material and corrosion inhibitor, regardless of whether or not reinsulation is taking place. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DEStGN Socfon X - Locfcdown and FtopUaomort MafcrWs Pago 5 Lockdown Methods The lockdown procedure begins after gross removal and dean ing of the asbestos- containing material is complete. The recommended method for brushing or cleaning a substrate after gross removal has taken place is to use a nylon brush. This will aid in getting to fibers that may have become lodged in grooves or crevices in the substrate surface. Wetting of the substrate should also take place while this brushing is being performed since the chance of airborne fiber generation is still present. Use of wire brushes is discouraged since it is suspected that wire tends to break down larger asbestos fibers or fiber bundles into fibrils of minute size which are easily dispersed throughout the surrounding air. The use of wire brushes can generate high fiber counts in the containment area. Heavy fiber dispersion can also make final cleaning very difficult In either case, wire or nylon brushing will generate airborne fibers to some degree. Once this brushing is completed, a final cleaning of the substrate and work area should take place in order to ensure that all loose residual fibers are eliminated. It may be necessary to wipe some surfaces with a lint-free rag and dusting agent once it has dried. The use of cleaning fluids or solvents which leave a residual 'film* on the substrate is discouraged. Some chemicals interfere with the adhesive properties of lockdown materials. When in doubt, check with the manufacturer of the products. After the substrate has completely dried, a thorough inspection must be conducted for visible residual contamination, It is Imperative that this Inspection Is conducted by the building owner's representative and that application of the lockdown material Is done ONLY AFTER the substrate Is found to be visually clean. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMEKT PROJECT DESIGN Soctfcfl X - Lockdown and Ffeptecamont Manriak Once the substrate has passed visual inspection a lockdown material can be appBed. The use of double layers of polyethylene on the walls and floors during preparation of the work area will result in greater efficiency at this stage since the inside layer can be removed after the initial lockdown application takes place. This reduces the amount of detailed cleaning. Workers performing the lockdown operation should wear disposable protective dothing and respirators suitable for asbestos and organic vapors (if applicable) because the area is still considered contaminated. Respirators which provide protection against both asbestos fibers and organic vapors may be needed if the lockdown material contains volatile organics in liquid form when being applied; however, many lockdown materials currently available are water based and are considered to present very little, if any, respiratory hazard. When planning a lockdown operation, It is Important to follow a logical sequence of events. One sequence that has been proven to work in the field is outlined below: 1 . Complete removal of asbestos-containing material from the substrate. 2. Collect as much of the asbestos-containing waste material as possfcte and transport it out of the work area enclosure according to appropriate asbestos waste-handling procedures. 3. Clean all visible debris by HEPA vacuuming and wet wiping. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Secton X - LocfcJown »xJ Rtpteewrwrt M**riafc Paa.7 4. Conduct a visual inspection of the work area enclosure for any remaining visible debris and reclean If necessary. 5. Only after the work area has passed Inspection for asbestos- containing debris and the asbestos waste containers are completely removed from the enclosure, one fairly heavy coat of lockdown sealant should be spray applied to the substrate. At the same time, the inside layer of polyethylene should be misted with a coat of lockdown material. Lockdown materials should be applied using an airless sprayer. 6. After the lockdown material has dried (time is dependent on type of material and the manufacturer's recommendations), the inside layer of polyethylene on the walls and floor of the enclosure should be removed, treated as asbestos-containing waste and transported out of the work area. 7. At this point, with the final (outside) layer of polyethylene still In place, a second, more comprehensive visual Inspection should be conducted to locate asbestos materials that have penetrated to the second layer of polyethylene and visible accumulations of dust on surfaces. If asbestos contamination is detected, additional HEPA vacuuming and wet-wiping of all surfaces in the enclosure wiP take place at this time. If desired, a second lockdown misting can be performed on the inside of the second layer to seal In any residual asbestos ftoers. 8. If additional lockdown has been performed on the final polyethylene layer of the containment barrier, sufficient drying time should be allowed before ------- SmjDBfT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROOECT DESIGN S«c*or. X - Locfcdown Md FfcplanmwW Mttwilk proceeding. At this point, preclearance monitoring may be conducted to determine if any airborne fibers are remaining. In the event these air sample results indicate the work area is still contaminated, another round of cleaning and locKdown should be conducted. The second layer may be taken down and disposed of as asbestos-containing waste if preliminary air sample results indicate an acceptable clearance level. 9. While special items such as doors, windows, and HVAC systems remain sealed (critical barriers), conduct final clearance air monitoring using aggressive sampling techniques. Once the lockdown sealant has been applied and after the final clearance monitoring has taken pJace, the next step may be to reappty an adequate substitute replacement material. To avoid conflicts between parties involved in the project, the designer should remember the importance of proper sequencing and scheduling of the removal/lockdown/ replacement process. Either this sequence should be outlined In the project specifications or the contractor should be required to submit his sequencing plan for approval by the project designer. The designer may also specify that the replacement contractor is ultimately responsible for reviewing and accepting the condition of the substrate prior to application of replacement materials. REPLACEMENT Increasing asbestos regulation and health concerns have created a new branch of materials science to develop and improve asbestos replacement materials. There are many products that have been used or are being experimented with as substitutes for ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S*c*xi X - Lockdown and RoptocOTWrt Mctorute asbestos. Some substitutes have been used for years and some perform better than asbestos counterparts. Each of these materials has special qualities which make it a suitable replacement material for asbestos in certain cases. The difficulty lies in the fact that none of these materials alone can be as universally applied for as many different functions as asbestos was. Many substitutes are more expensive, do not perform as well and are not as durable as asbestos products. There are also concerns about the health risks possibly associated with some asbestos substitutes. Therefore, it is imperative that the selection of substitute materials be an important consideration during the design of an asbestos abatement project. The individual who is specifying replacement material(s), should have the capability to investigate and recommend various types of asbestos substitutes. This person should be very familiar with the chemical and physical properties of the various materials available and which materials are most compatible with the building structure; specifically, the acoustics and fire ratings. The designer specifying replacement materials may need to consult a mechanical engineer for specifying replacement of thermal system insulation or an industrial hygienist, for information regarding potential health hazards or safety problems. The actual design of the asbestos replacement operation should be conducted by an individual who has formal training or knowledge In pertinent aspects of state and local building codes and knowledge of the particular replacement material application. Replacement Materials The use of asbestos in building products was primarily due to its properties of heat resistance, reinforcing strength and chemical resistance. Its performance and low cost led to widespread use in buildings in fireproof ing. cement panels, thermal insulation, acoustical treatment, flooring and adhesives, among others. Many materials have been ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section X - Locfefcmm and Ropteoomont Materials Pap 10 developed as substitutes for asbestos. These materials can be generally classified into three categories: 1. Man-Made Mineral Fibers - including glass fibers (fibrous glass or fiberglass), mineral wool, glass wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs); 2. Synthetic Materials - including carbon fibers, aramid fibers, polypropylene fibers and metallic fibers; 3. Natural Materials - including minerals (perilte, vermiculite, mica, talc) and organics (cellulose fibers, vegetable pulp). The above substitutes have a wide range of performance characteristics. For instance, minerals, mineral wool and refractory fibers are characterized by good heat resistance whereas cellulose and many synthetics are not. The air pockets in celluose do make ft a good insulation material. Aramid fibers, carbon fibers and steel fibers are used for reinforcing strength while minerals must be reinforced. The synthetics are highly chemical resistant but cellulose is not. There is also a wide range of costs for the substitutes. The costs of raw minerals, cellulose, glass wool and mineral wool are comparable with asbestos. The price of synthetics such as aramid fibers and carbon fibers can be many times the cost of asbestos. Beyond the price of raw materials, the price for substitute products relative to asbestos is also increased in many cases by costly manufacturing requirements. ------- STUDENT UANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OeSGN Section X - Locfcdown and Roptaoamwtt Mttvbfe Pap»11 Traces of asbestos have been found in some products which are sold as 'asbestos-free* substitutes. It is recommended that the project designer should research manufacturer's standards for determining asbestos content and seek documentation which provides assurances that a product does not contain asbestos. Bulk Sampling and analysis (PLM or TEM) could be used as a final quality assurance measure to detect for the presence or absence of asbestos in replacement materials. Despite these roadblocks, many replacement materials have been established as technically and economically viable substitutes for asbestos products. While it is true that no one substitute is available as a universal substitute for asbestos, alternatives are available depending on the desired use. A general discussion of the types of substitutes available for the more common asbestos-containing building products is provided below. Sorav-Aoolled Materials - Spray-applied asbestos-containing materials were used for fireproofing. thermal and acoustical insulation, condensate control, and decorative purposes. Since the focus of many asbestos removal projects has been on spray-applied asbestos-containing materials, several substitutes have been developed as replacements. Replacements used for thermal insulation often contain mineral wool, exfoliated vermiculite, treated cellulose (with boric acid) for fire resistance, or glass fibers. Some products contain a combination of these substitutes. In some instances, it may be necessary to replace asbestos-containing fireproofing on steel support beams with asbestos-free fiber-reinforced cement boards. Cement boards will often consist of minerals reinforced by glass or cellulose fibers. ------- STUOEKT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Svcton X - Locfcdown and Reptaoonwnt Materials Page 12 Numerous options exist for replacement of spray-applied acoustical insulation. Acoustical treatments, usually used on ceilings, absorb some sound which limits the amount of sound reflected from a surface. Spray-appPed cellulose, mineral wool, fibrous glass and pertite (a porous volcanic mineral) are often used. Sound-absorbing fibrous glass boards, frequently covered with a fabric, may also be used. A suspended acoustical ceiling, or waB assemblies utilizing cellulose and/or mineral wool panels, can also be employed. The designer should always consider the suitability of the appearance of the replacement design. If a spray-applied material is used, a sample should be requested from the manufacturer to demonstrate the texture and final appearance of the material. When considering alternatives to spray-applied asbestos-containing materials, be sure to ask. 'Is the material necessary?' The building codes determine whether the structure should be protected with some type of fireproofing or left unprotected. Square footage, height of the building, and the type of building use are evaluated to determine the fire rating of materials specified for construction. In accordance with these codes, the need for fireproofing may have been efiminated by changes in the occupancy use applied to the building over its life history. For example, a building used for large assemblies may now be used only for small assemblies, an educational facility may have been converted to business offices, or a factory/industrial site may have been converted to storage. Also, there are instances where building owners have had their building fireproofed even though the codes did not require it and replacement of these materials would not be necessary. An alternative may be the installation of a sprinkler system in lieu of fireproofing. depending upon occupancy use. ------- STUDENT IMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT 06SX3N Sector X - Locfcdown and R«ptoc»m*m MMwUto Pag* 13 Asbestos-containing decorative sprays, once removed, may be replaced with a coat of paint or a decorative (textured) plaster. Thermal System Insulation - Numerous alternatives to asbestos-containing thermal system insulation are available. The choice of substitutes is usually based on the temperature of the pipe to be covered. Foam rubber, cork or fibrous glass are often used on cold water pipes and air conditioning lines. The purpose of this covering is often for condensate control rather than insulation. Fibrous glass and asphalt-impregnated paper are frequent substitutes for hot water pipe insulation where temperatures are not extreme. Insulation of high-pressure steam lines. however, usually requires the use of refractory fibers, cellular glass or reinforced calcium silicate. The reinforcement fibers used may be mineral wool or another nonasbestos substitute. Asbestos Cement P[pducts - The majority of the asbestos stiB in use in the United States goes into manufacturing cement asbestos products, such as pipes and mill board. Several substitutes are available for these asbestos-containing products. Glass-reinforced plastics can be used in place of asbestos mill board but do not possess the fire resistance of asbestos mill board and may give off toxic fumes during combustion. When glass-reinforced cement was first introduced, there were problems with the Portland cement degrading the glass fibers. New high-zirconia. alkali-resistant glass fbers have greatly reduced this problem. The price of the asbestos-free cement pipe and mil board is near the price of traditional asbestos-containing cement products. ------- STUDENT MKNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESGN Metal and plastic (PVC) pipes have been available for many years. These are suitable substitutes for asbestos cement pipe in most instances. Large diameter pipes require more support than plastic can otter. For this reason, steel-reinforced cement and welded steel pipe is often used. In summary, alternatives are now available for practically all uses where asbestos cement products were once the only choice. Roofing - Asbestos-containing roofing felts are frequently replaced by glass fiber mats impregnated with bitumen. Research continues in this area since the glass fiber replacements are inferior to asbestos from the standpoint of fire resistivity. Other options are organic bituminous felts which contain cellulose or other organic fibers and elastomeric rubberized membrane roofing. However, these materials do not have the heat or chemical resistance of asbestos and are not considered durable. Flooring - Asbestos-containing floor tile has been replaced by vinyl tile which is reinforced by glass or mineral wool. Unfortunately, these tiles generally do not have the strength, wear resistance or nonslip surface of asbestos tiles. Some manufacturers offer flooring products which have eliminated fiber reinforcement through the use of advanced polymers. The asbestos backing of sheet flooring has been replaced by sheeting reinforced with glass or mineral fibers. Adhesives - Notable exceptions to the abundance of replacement building products are the adhesives, sealants and mastics commonly used in construction. Many floor tile adhesives, roofing repair compounds, window putties and other such products used today contain asbestos. The unique properties of cohesion, adhesion, elasticity and durability ------- STUDENT MANUAL ^ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socftofl X — Locfatown wid Rcpteownvnt Mtferats Page 15 offered by asbestos in these materials have frustrated manufacturers' attempts to find a viable substitute. Some asbestos-free products are available; therefore, a project designer should look carefully at the performance specifications of these products and consult with manufacturers regarding the suitability of asbestos-free replacement materials. Bulk sampling and PLM and/or TEM analysis of replacement mastics, adhesives. and sealants may be specified by the project designer to confirm these materials are nonasbestos- con tain ing prior to application. HEALTH EFFECTS OF SUBSTITUTES A valid concern held by many persons choosing asbestos substitutes is whether the substitute may also pose potential health hazards. Most of our knowledge on the health effects of asbestos comes from research that was conducted only during the last sixty years. While much has been learned, there are still uncertainties regarding exactly how asbestos fibers cause disease. Health risk information based on reliable data for many asbestos substitutes is inadequate or nonexistent. Fortunately, much of the recent lexicological research on asbestos has provided some insight into the potential health effects of fibrous substitutes. Based on this research, some general conclusions about the risks of fibrous asbestos substitutes can be made: • Fibers of the same size range and shape as commercial asbestos should be considered as potentially harmful; • The most durable fiber types are the most harmful; ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section X - Locfcdown and Ftop*ac*m*rt Matarufc • The size and durability of the fibers will depend on, among other things, the intended use. method of manufacture and chemical composition; • Smoking increases the risk of disease in workers exposed to fibers; • When available for a specific application, the use of nonfibrous substitutes should be strongly considered. Asbestos substitutes were developed because they possessed properties similar to asbestos. Therefore, it is not a surprise that some types of the three main categories of asbestos substitutes are suspected of health risks similar to asbestos. Man-made mineral fibers, such as glass wool, that have fibers in the same size range as asbestos fibers appear to cause some of the same harmful effects. The durability of these fibers varies, but workers in the rock or slag wool industry have developed lung cancers with similar latency periods as asbestos (more than 30 years). Synthetic organic fibers are usually bigger than the asbestos fiber size range, but some of the newer and more durable fibers break into smaller fibers when abraded. There are also concerns about toxic fumes released during the combustion of synthetics. The natural organic fibers are not considered a problem in themselves, but they can release bacteria and fungal spores during processing which can cause illness and lung scarring. This problem is controlled by wet processing and other dust control methods. Minerals such as talc and vermiculile have been found to be contaminated by naturally- occurring amphibote asbestos fibers such as tremolite and actinolite. In any event, the substitute chosen should be Investigated to minimize the chance of simply replacing one potentially harmful material with another. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PRDjeCT DESK3N Section X — Locfcttown end Roptaoovntnt Ktaimflte P»g»17 SUMMARY The practice of locking down the substrate is a critical step in the cleaning sequence of asbestos removal procedures. It can aid in minimizing the regeneration of asbestos fibers left on the substrate after removal, which will in turn help to make the area acceptable for reoccupancy more quickly. Additionally, asbestos abatement designers are often called on to specify replacement operations once asbestos-containing materials are removed from a facility. This section provides some basic information about available substitutes which the project designer will need to augment with research on specific products. It is essential that the designer have a thorough understanding of how and why asbestos was used in certain cases and which products may serve as the best substitutes. ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8CSTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESKJN Secfcn X - locfcdown and Reptacsment Material REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Lockdown is a procedure of applying a protective coating or sealant to a surface from which an visible asbestos-containing material has been removed. What is a lockdown's primary function? 2. Contractors and building owners should obtain all available information on locfcdown substances. What document(s) would be a source of this information? 3. It is important to ensure that what three components or surfaces are compatible when choosing a lockdown product/material? 4. Why would a color be added to a lockdown? 5. A lockdown is applied to an area only after what activity is performed by the building owner's representative? 6. What material is universally applied as a replacement for asbestos, and why? 7. When referring to man-made mineral fibers, what does RCF stand for? 8. Why is it important to research •asbestos-free" replacement materials? 9. Regarding thermal system insulation (TSI), the choice of replacement materials is usually based on what? ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sacton XI - Legal and Insurance Conaidenrtons Pag»1 LEGAL AND INSURANCE CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION Since an asbestos abatement project designer typicaDy acts as a representative of the building owner, he or she should be familiar with the legal liabilities that may be incurred by the building owner as well as those associated with designing the project. This section will review the areas of potential liability and insurance considerations for project designers, cover related insurance and bonding issues and discuss some of the important legal aspects of contracts for asbestos abatement work. LIABILITY OF PROJECT DESIGNERS Project designers face liability and litigation issues due to the critical role they play in the asbestos management and control process. The design documents outline the primary methods for performing the work and protecting human health and the environment. If a problem such as migration of fibers outside the work area occurs in connection with performance of the work, as a result of poor design specifications, the project designer may be liable for any resulting injury or damage. The project designer should be concerned with three areas of potential liability: contractual liability, tort liability and regulatory liability. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XI - Legal and Insurance Considerations Pagc2 Contractual Liability Contracts are complex legal documents and must be carefully reviewed and understood. Legal advice may be necessary. The project designer may be liable for breach of contract if the contract requirements are not property performed. There are several project design issues relating to potential contractual liability that must be addressed. Project Scooe - A scope of work which clearly states the services that will be provided by the project designer to the facility owner Is essential. Care must be taken to define the services to be performed and area(s) of the facility that are involved. It is also important to define the responsibilities of the facility owner. Work conducted on Fixed-Fee Basis - The fee to be charged for services must be specified in the contract. Design work for asbestos abatement is often conducted on a fixed-fee basis. Under this scenario, if unanticipated conditions such as the discovery of asbestos in the ceiling tile (previously unreported) increases the amount of design work. the designer would be liable for conducting that work within the fixed fee. One method of avoiding this is to include language in the contract which provides for additional funding if the work, as a result of unanticipated conditions, turns out to be significantly different than the original scope of work. Schedule for Dellverables/Tlme for Performance - The timing of the completion of construction documents can be of great concern to a school district or commercial building owner and the subject of breach-of-contract action or liquidated damages. If school officials or facility operators have a timetable by which they must solicit bids from ------- STUOCMT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«cton XI - L*gaf and Inturmc* Conudwtbora P.0.3 contractors or apply for federal or state funding, the completion of the project design and associated documents becomes an important contractual consideration. Reliance on Previous Survey Results - The extent of reliance on previous survey results Is another area in which the building owner and project designer should have a clear contractual understanding. Typically, the designer will need to supplement the survey data with additional samples, confirmation of material quantities and building dimensions. The facility owner/operator may want to save money in the short term by economizing on obtaining additional services; however, such practices could cause legal problems for the project designer later if the original survey was inadequately or improperly performed. Inherent Requirements Placed on Licensed Individuals - In those states or localities which require asbestos abatement design to be conducted by a licensed architect or engineer, or a professional of a specific designation, the designer should be aware of a variety of inherent contractual requirements. For example, regulated architects and engineers are required to comply wrth building codes to retain this license. If a designer provided specifications for asbestos abatement design and renovation but neglected to Incorporate code requirements, he or she could be contractually liable to correct the omission. This could be a significant expense depending on the size of the project. In addition, the contract will generally require that the designer be properly licensed. Failing to do so may require that design documents be approved by the properly licensed professional at the expense of the designer. Requirements for State-oMhe-Art Protocols - Contract language which should be approached with caution includes the requirement for "best practices* or "state-of-the-art" ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section X) - Legal and Insurance ConsktofafcxiB protocols for project design. These requirements must be defined. As an example, if a designer specified clearance after removal of ACM by phase contrast microscopy instead of transmission electron microscopy because the building owner did not want to pay the added cost, this must be documented in the contract; otherwise, the designer could be involved in a dispute over asbestos-related property damage or a breach -of -contract action by the building owner for failing to adhere to the contractually-required standard of performance. Indemnification Clauses - Many contracts contain provisions requiring that the project designer Indemnify the owner for liability arising out of the performance of the professional services. Indemnification clauses are highly complex and may be subject to differing interpretations in various states. It is important for every contract to be reviewed for such clauses and that the scope of the indemnity be carefully defined to avoid unintended liability for the designer. Tort fNeoliaence) Liability The second area of liability concerns the project designer's failure to perform his or her work In accordance with the standards of the profession. If such failure occurs and persons are injured or property is damaged as a result, the project designer may be sued in "tort." A tort is a legal wrong. The breach of a legal duty is often termed "negligence." Negligence can arise from the project designer failing to property include methods in the specifications to protect the building structure and finishes or the people within the building from harm. Three examples will illustrate the potential problem. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XI - \jfget and kvuranoe Coftstdoralions Pago 5 Exampte A - The designer is retained to develop written specifications to remove sprayed- on surfacing material in a gymnasium. The specifications call for placing only one layer of 4-mil polyethylene over the hardwood floor; as a result, in the course of removal the polyethylene leaks and the floor is severely damaged by water. In this case the designer could be accused of negligence for improper design of the system to contain the water. Example B -The design contract requires the development of written specifications to remove sprayed-on surfacing material in a multi-story building. The specifications neglect to address proper isolation of the high-rise elevators; as a result, fiber contamination occurs on floors above and below the work area. The designer could be accused of negligence for a design that did not prevent fiber migration. Example C-The designer is contracted to provide architectural and engineering services to property remove ACM in a single-story structure. The written specifications require the placement of two layers of fire-rated sheetrock over entrances and exits except the decontamination unit. If a fire occurs and people are injured, the designer could be accused of negligence for improper containment construction. It is also important to note that compliance with regulations, although mandatory, is not a defense against negligence, if industry standards are more stringent. Regulations are minimum requirements. Regulatory Liability The last area of project designer lability concerns noncompllance with federal, state or other regulations. A first area of concern is compliance with project designer ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESiQN Section XI - Legal and Insurance Comtdantotm accreditation requirements. Not only must the project designer take an EPA-approved course and pass an examination, but he or she must also comply with state regulations for certification. For example, In some states, project designers are also required to be registered architects or engineers, or certified industrial hygtertsts. In addition, regulations under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act, for example, carry severe penalties for noncompliance. including potential criminal liability. In the event that regulations are violated, the project designer may be subject to fines or penalties from various regulatory authorities. INSURANCE CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROJECT DESIGNERS Obtaining professional liability insurance is the normal method for a professional such as an asbestos project designer to secure protection from possible litigation arising from negligence in performing his or her professional activities. Insurance is a risk-shifting mechanism to provide protection against catastrophic liability. Many owners require that all professionals involved in asbestos-related work have liability insurance in order to have some financial security for significant claims that may arise. Under certain state and local laws, general liability Insurance In specified amounts Is often required. A related aspect of risk shifting is the presence of indemnification clauses in the contract. whereby the professional is obligated to indemnify and defend the owner (and vice-versa) against claims brought against the owner arising out of the professional's work. Insurance may not always protect against this type of liability. At the same time, however, project designers need such insurance to protect themselves against claims which can be ------- STUDENT KWNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XI - Legal and Insurance Conudoraiof» Pago 7 financially ruinous, and to provide for legal defense of any claims. While work done in accordance with the applicable industry standard of care, the contract documents and applicable regulations may ultimately shield the project designer from liability, the assumption of defense of a legal action by the insurance carrier, or the dient (building owner) who indemnifies the designer, is a significant benefit It is obvious that insurance adds to the project designer's cost of performance and thus is eventually paid by the owner, either on a pro-rata basts or, in many cases, dollar for dollar. Due to the expense of liability insurance, many owners have considered dropping insurance requirements and many consultants have performed work without insurance. The relative unavailability of professional liablity insurance in the recent past has resulted in some asbestos professionals purchasing insurance without paying adequate attention to whether risks are covered or the strength or credibility of the carrier. Similarly, owners are accepting insurance certificates without analyzing the coverage being offered. Changes in the type and scope of coverages offered by the insurance industry must, therefore, be analyzed carefully to accomplish the goal of insurance. Rather than protection against liability, insurance for some has become a "license to work* in the asbestos industry. However, insurance products have become more available for professional activities and should be investigated. ------- STUDENT MANUAL TYPES OF INSURANCE COVERAGE ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N Sodton XI - Legal and tounroa Consktorations Pag»8 rors antf Omissions Asbestos abatement project designers will normally look for professional liability Insurance, also known as Errors and Omissions (E&O) Insurance to protect them against negligence In the performance of their professional services, Including developing the specifications and drawings. The mistake may take the form of an inadvertent error (i.e., miscalculation of area square footage), or an unintentional omission (i.e., leaving an area that needs to be abated, such as a soffit, out of the design specifications). E&O coverage is written for specific professions. Many professionals (architect, engineer, designer, etc.) have E&O coverage to protect them for their specific professions; however, asbestos-related professionals may have difficulty obtaining appropriate coverage due to the great risk for loss in their activities. If E&O insurance is desired by the asbestos professional, the coverage must be carefully examined, from a coverage, limits and cost perspective. GenetaLLlabilitv General liability insurance is another type of coverage that project designers need. It is intended to serve as protection for events that occur during development and execution of the project specification that do not involve pollution liability. These can include slips and falls, and nonpollution property damage. The drawback to this type of Insurance Is that it will likely contain a pollution or asbestos exclusion, rendering the policy essentially Ineffective for asbestos-related claims. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XI - Legal end Inmrwxj* Con*fcfertton> Coverage Issues It is important to understand the difference between general liability and professional liability insurance from a coverage basis also. In the past, general liability insurance has been written on an "occurrence" basis. Under such a policy, if an incident "occurs" while the policy is in force, coverage Is afforded even If the actual claim Is made some years later and even If the Insured Is no longer Insured by the same carrier. As a result of the writing of this type of coverage, insurance carriers must defend claims brought years after companies are no longer insured by the carrier. Particularly with the long latency period of asbestos-related disease, occurrence coverage can result in great losses to carriers who have not received premiums over a period of time. As a result, several years ago carriers began adding exclusions to existing general liability policies for asbestos-related third-party claims and even changed the coverage form from "occurrence" to "claims made" for both consultants (designers) and contractors as well. As contrasted with general liability coverage, professional liability coverage has historically only been written on a "claims made' basis. Thus, E&O coverage for asbestos design consultants, as well as architects, engineers, attorneys, accountants and medical professionals, will most likely be on a "claims made" basis and it may be difficult to obtain appropriate coverage. Under a "claims made" policy, coverage Is provided for claims that are brought while the policy Is In force. In certain situations, a daim may also be brought during an extended ("tail") reporting period after the policy has expired, which may require an additional premium. In switching coverage to a new insurance carrier, it Is also possible to request 'retroactive* coverage for unknown claims prior to the new policy. For ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XI - Legal tnd Irvurwtc* Corarierttons many risks, the difference between occurrence and claims made coverage is not significant since the liability-causing event is obvious, and claims are generally asserted shortly after the event occurs. However, injury caused by the release of fibers from an asbestos abatement project may not be detected for 20 to 40 years afterward. Thus, daims made coverage may not respond in such cases if (1) the insured changes insurance carriers before a claim is made, or (2) the carrier or insured terminates coverage under a policy, or (3) the carrier later withdraws from the market before a claim is filed. Nevertheless, it is likely that professional liability coverage in the future will continue to be written on a claims made basis, and thus the insured must understand what is actually being purchased and whether the carrier wiH continue to service this market In addition to coverage issues, it is mandatory that the insured read and understand the exclusions in its policy. All exclusions, conditions and definitions must be carefully analyzed. For example, a general liability policy written for an asbestos project designer which includes a "pollution exclusion," excludes coverage for any personal injury or property damage caused by a broad list of substances known as 'pollutants." Generally, asbestos is included on the list for project designers and, consequently, the policy provides no coverage for asbestos risks. Some professional liability policies require certain types of documentation, or certain professional accreditations. All policy terms must be understood. In addition to obtaining Insurance for professional liability, a designer may work with the owner in developing insurance specifications for the contractors performing the work. Care must be taken in assuming this responsibility, since this is often excluded in the E&O policy. There are several important considerations in making an analysis of available insurance coverage or in specifying same: ------- STUDENT HKNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N Section X) - Laga! and Irwurarae ConsktocMlont 1 . True "occurrence" coverage la available. However, the terms of the policy must be reviewed carefully. Some 'occurrence' policies have conditions or exclusions that negate coverage, or have "sunset* clauses which terminate coverage one, two or five years after the policy ends. The name of the policy makes no difference. 2. The insurance certificate is only evidence of coverage; it provides relatively little information of benefit to an owner or professional consultant The policy itself must be reviewed. 3. The Insurance carrier must be very carefully evaluated. Does the carrier understand the industry and is it committed to writing proper coverage? Again, the policy terms are important. CONTRACTS FOR ABATEMENT WORK Though the contract for the abatement work is between the building owner and the contractor, the designer is often involved in the solicitation of bids and selecting the contractor. Some of the more important contract issues with which the designer may be involved are discussed below. Typos of Contract Documents Once a building owner has decided to begin an asbestos abatement program, the owner is faced with many practical questions. One of the first of these relates to contract documents. Great care must be used in the selection of contract documents and clauses, since this will ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sacfeon XI - LtgaJ and bvurano* Comidwuions define the legal relationship and responsibilities of the owner and contractor. The American Institute of Architects (AIA) has developed a number of standardfced agreements for construction, but nevertheless advises users of the important legal consequences of these documents. One typical contract used for abatement work is AIA 101, Owner- Contractor Agreement Form - Stipulated Sum, a four-page document which typically contains the name of contracting parties, the contract amount, the start and completion date and other general data. Other standardized forms also exist. Accompanying Form AIA 101 is AIA 201, General Conditions of the Contract for Construction. This is a 19-page document which contains general contract requirements, sometimes erroneously referred to as "bolter-plate* language. Form AIA 201 has been around for many years. Its clauses have been frequently litigated and lawyers and facility owners are familiar with the normal interpretation placed on the language in AIA 201 . This provides for a degree of certainty, which is desirable. Of course, disputes do arise under these clauses, and the contract must be tailored to the specific project. However, it may be easier for legal counsel and the facility owner and contractor to resolve differences under familiar contract language than in the unknown areas of a job specification on an asbestos abatement contract. Contract documents are covered in more detail in the design workshop portion of this manual. The third document that will typically be included, or referenced to, in an asbestos abatement contract is the project manual or project specifications. Regardless of the size of the Job, or whether It Is public or private, a written set of project specifications Is a must for any asbestos abatement project. Project specifications will vary in the amount of detail provided and the format, from one designer to the next No two should be exactly alike because the specifications must be adapted to the site parameters. The fact that these project specifications are site specific and ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socton XI - 1*04 and Insurmca Concfcferattvw therefore have not been subject to the interpretations placed on the standard specifications, makes careful attention to and interpretation of asbestos abatement specifications critical Frequently, design professionals give very strict interpretation to these clauses and are much less permissive than in the interpretation of specifications involving less hazardous activities. SOME IMPORTANT ISSUES RELATED TO CONTRACT SPECIFICATIONS Description of Work One of the most Important Items In the written specifications Is the work description. Typically, if an entire building is involved, the work description may not be a significant problem. However, if a contractor is being asked to remove asbestos in only a segment of a floor of a building, for example, a serious abatement problem may exist. When the plastic barrier is removed, will the "dean air* still be dean? Another problem is Illustrated by the Job where the contractor was asked to remove friable material from beams over a dirt basement in a commercial building. The specifications did not call for barrier protection for the dirt The contractor, fully in compliance with the specifications, removed the asbestos; however, in the process, it contaminated the dirt. The result was that a second abatement effort was required for the removal of several inches of dirt in the basement This cost, quite unnecessary, was the result of inadequately prepared specifications. Of course, drawings are of great assistance in properly defining job boundaries and the scope of the specifications. ------- STUDENT HMNUAL Furniture. Fixtures and Equipment ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XI - Lftgai and Insurance Consfctorafons Pago 14 Another issue that frequently arises is that of furniture, fixtures and equipment. Most asbestos abatement projects require the removal and then reinstallation of furniture, fixtures and equipment. The owner should make a realistic assessment of whether salvaging of such Items, particularly fixtures, Is feasible. The age and condition of the furniture and equipment must be assessed. It will only promote contractual disputes for the owner to insist that a contractor remove and reinstall fixtures and equipment which will be damaged or destroyed by the very process. The owner and project designer should not expect to engage in a "backdoor" renovation of the facility, at the contractor's expense, by placing specification requirements on the contractor which are unattainable. Site Security Site security is another issue that should be specifically addressed. An unsecure asbestos abatement site can have grave legal Implications. Of course, any construction site can be dangerous, but an unmonitored asbestos abatement site is particularly hazardous. The issue of whether security must be maintained on a 24-hour basis is also one which must be addressed. Again, this is an area where more attention must be given if only one area of a building is being abated while other areas are occupied. If an entire building can be isolated, security is a much easier process. Certainly, the regulatory warning signs required by OSHA are important; however, these should be viewed as a minimum warning and further warnings or security are frequently necessary. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N Section XI - Legal and Ineurano* Corwidorrfom Equipment Selection Each owner must participate, if only through his project designer, in equipment requirement decisions on an asbestos abatement project. The decision about the number of air filtration devices, what type of respiratory protection equipment is required, what type of dothing is sufficient, what number of HEPA vacuum units are necessary and other similar equipment requirements is very important to the success and safety of the job. From a technical and legal standpoint, It can be effectively argued that "state-of-the-art" equipment should be employed. OSHA and EPA requirements again should be viewed as minimal requirements. If one is not going to employ •state-of- the-art* technology, that decision must be justified. Insurance Protection for the Building Owner A major issue for asbestos abatement contractors, as well as design professionals, is insurance. At present, the insurance 'crisis* is easing and contractors who have not been able to obtain liability insurance now have it more readily available. From the owner's or contractor's perspective, it is first important to understand what the insurance requirements are. The first issue Is who must be protected. Generally speaking, the owner will want to require protection for itself and its employees, the contractor and its employees, and third parties. This will mean that the owner will wish to be an additional insured under the contractor's policy and to be furnished a certificate of insurance as well. It is important that the certificate of insurance specify the types of coverage afforded. However, since the certificate of insurance is only evidence of coverage, it is not complete and the owner should request a copy of the contractor's insurance policy. This is particularly true since asbestos and pollution exclusions can appear in such policies. The owner's legal or ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sodton XI - legal and Insunmoo ConciderMons Paptie insurance advisors can play an important role in ensuring that proper coverage is obtained. Insurance must protect the insureds from both bodily injury (to persons) and property damage claims. While this is standard in general liability policies, bodily injury and property damage claims may be excluded due to an exclusion of coverage for asbestos- or pollution-related claims. Therefore, the owner must be sure that H is protected from the real hazards presented by asbestos abatement Of course, it is necessary to insure against the normal construction hazards as well, with general liability coverage. Another important point is to determine the length of time the insurance will be in force. CJearty. the insurance should be in force during the contract However, it is most important that coverage continue after the contract is completed. "Completed operations" coverage ensures that if the contractor fails to completely abate the asbestos problem and the owner initially fails to discover the contractor's oversight the owner will nonetheless be protected if a claim arises after completion. Also related to this issue is the need to determine whether the insurance is "claims made" or "occurrence" coverage. These concepts were covered earlier in the discussion on insurance for the project designer. Generally speaking, the owner needs general and asbestos liability Insurance coverage for both bodily Injury and property damage risks, completed operations coverage and, of course, workers' compensation coverage which compiles with the laws of the state where the work Is to be done. Coverage for specific activities, such as transportation, should also obtained. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMEMT PROJECT DESKS* Section XI - Legal and Inturano* Conckferationc P«gol7 Bonding While some facility owners are now requiring bonds from professional firms, bonding is usually required only from the contractor, and the project designer's interest in this topic is that of the building owner's. The requirement for bonding is generally included in the contract documents. The project designer, in conjunction with legal counsel, may be called upon to provide guidance on the types and amounts of bonds that are necessary for the project. Traditionally, two types of bonds have been required in the construction industry to protect the owner or lender against the contractor's financial default: • Payment Bonds - under which a surety company agrees to pay for labor and materials supplied to a project in the event the contractor fails to do so; and • Performance Bonds - under which a surety company agrees to complete performance of a project if the contractor fate to do so. Abatement contractors who have had their Insurance cancelled or not renewed experience difficulties in obtaining bonding. Bonding companies rely on the financial ability of the principal (the contractor) to respond to claims under payment and performance bonds. If a contractor is not insured against catastrophic liability, the financial underpinnings of the company can be weakened and the bonding company becomes apprehensive over issuing bonds. In a similar vein, lenders are reacting adversely to the problems of insurance and bonding of such companies. Lenders are advising contractors who find themselves In such positions that lines of credit will not be renewed for the same reasons given by the bonding companies. ------- STUDENT hMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Secton XI - Logaf and Insurance Coroxtorafcns Pa0oiS In the recent past, the difficulty encountered by asbestos abatement contractors in obtaining bonding was severe. For reasons similar to those which caused the asbestos abatement Insurance crisis, many contractors were unable to obtain sufficient bonding and. in some cases, any bonding. In addition to the general underwriting concerns about the contractor's financial and technical ability to perform the work, another reason some bonding companies were unwilling to write bonds for asbestos abatement work relates directly to liability insurance problems. Because the abatement contract often has requirements for the contractor to obtain and maintain certain liability insurance coverage on the project, the bonding companies fear that If the contractor has insurance problems. such as improper coverages or cancellation during the policy period, the potential loss that may otherwise be covered by liability insurance might be covered by the contractor's performance bond. Though insurance and bonding are easier to obtain now than in the late 1980s, the expense remains relatively high and careful attention must be paid to the quality of coverage obtained, as discussed earlier. While the traditional concepts of bond underwriting may not be applicable to project designers, it is nevertheless useful to understand them. The primary considerations of the bonding company in determining whether to bond a contractor are the ability of the contractor to perform the work and the contractors financial ability. A proven track record of successfully-completed projects, without ensuing litigation, is very helpful to the contractor in demonstrating to the bonding company its ability to perform the work. Financial stability is important not only with respect to the contractor's ability to perform the work, but also its ability to satisfy its indemnity obligation to the bonding company in the event a loss Is suffered under the bonds. Unlike insurance, a payment or performance bond gives the bonding company the right to recover contract balances if losses are sustained by it under the bond. A somewhat more intangible, yet important factor, is the ------- STUDEHT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DEStQN Sodion XI - Legal and Insurance CorakfcwatonB Pap 19 contractor's good character. Despite satisfactorily proving all of these items, however, a contractor may still not be able to obtain sufficient bonding in today's market In such events, an owner may waive or refuse bonding requirements or arrange other contractual mechanisms to assure payment or performance. There are numerous legal considerations involved in the evaluation of insurance and bonding coverage. The cost of insurance for asbestos abatement is significant, and if such expense Is going to be undertaken, the coverage obtained should be satisfactory. While there are no easy solutions in this decision-making process, it is mandatory that contractors, consultants and owners undertake to become knowledgeable purchasers of insurance. The shift in the types of coverages written for the contracting industry from occurrence to claims made, and the difficulty in obtaining bonds have placed greater emphasis on the contractor's commitment to the performance of work in a quality manner, the carrier's commitment to continuing to insure asbestos abatement contractors, and the quality of the carrier's coverage and insurance program in general. This makes the process of purchasing Insurance more complicated, but a thorough review of the considerations outlined above will greatly assist the contractor, consultant or owner in making a knowledgeable choice. Supervision and Training The heart of any asbestos abatement project is not the equipment, although the equipment is important, or the physical project requirements, although they are vital too. The heart of the project is the care and skBI exercised by the workers who remove the asbestos- ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N S*cten XI - Lagal and Imunno* CoraidKttons containing materials. If this occurs in a professional manner, the owner can expect a good result If the work is sloppy, good equipment will not save the job. From the owner's perspective. It is vital that the contractor's project superintendent be an experienced asbestos abatement worker. He or she must have had experience on various projects and under various conditions. The owner should require documentation of the experience. It will behoove the owner to check on the quality of the preceding projects. The superintendent is the key to the work. Many projects are sufficiently extensive to require a project superintendent and foreman. The latter person typically will be in the containment area actually supervising the workers while the superintendent may be in and out of the area at various times. If a foreman is required, he or she should also be experienced and able to instruct the workers on site and personally supervise actual preparation, removal and clean-up activities. It is desirable to contractually require that both of these positions be filled by qualified individuals. If the removal project is being conducted in a school, abatement workers and supervisors, as well as inspectors, management planners and project designers, must be trained In accordance with AHERA regulations. Under regulations promulgated by the Asbestos In Schools Hazard Reauthorlzatlon Act (ASMARA), AHERA training requirements are being extended to commercial and public buildings. When those regulations come into effect, it will not only be recommended, but a regulatory requirement, that asbestos abatement workers and supervisors receive training from an approved training provider and pass the required exam. ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8E5TO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Sccton XI - U0a) and Insurant* ConridBfrions Page 21 From a legal standpoint it is critical that records be kept to document that training was given to each worker. The facility owner, via the project specifications, can reserve the right to inspect these records and retain copies. In fact, the owner may wish to maintain a complete file on all workers who worked on the project This will avoid the problem of the contractor going out of business later and an asbestos daim arising by an employee against the owner many years thereafter based on an alleged failure to warn. The facility owner needs to maintain permanent records on all phases of the project, from Inspection, to design and through abatement It is not enough to maintain these records for a few years. Asbestos disease latency periods may extend 30 or more years beyond the work date. These records should be stored and maintained permanently. The required records should be specified in the project specifications, and responsibilities for development and maintenance of records dearly defined. Adequate Time for Job Performance One of the most difficult problems in asbestos abatement work is that of time. Once the owner has decided to conduct an asbestos abatement program, he is virtually always in a hurry. Many programs are specified with very snort time limits of two to five days, and work often must be performed at night, or on weekends or holidays. To avoid contractual disputes, it is desirable for the owner to specify enough time to allow the project to be completed in a competent manner. Questions of access to the site, other contractors who may be working or waiting for notice to proceed, and the owners' ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESKSN Socton XI - Lagal and Insurance ConoktoroDons Page 22 employees presence at the site must be considered. Generally speaking, qualified abatement contractors will begin work quickly once they are notified to proceed. Owners are frequently critical of late starts that can result in late finishes. It may, therefore, be in the owner's interest to provide some liquidated damages for a late start as a means of emphasizing to the contractor that the start date is important However, most frequently this issue is addressed by completion date requirements and liquidated damages for failing to complete the work on time. At the same time, owners are frequently guilty of not providing the site at the time specified, or delaying the work themselves, or changing the scope of work. This may result in difficulties for the contractor in completing this project or with scheduling other work. The resolution Is to cooperatively come up with a time for the project which will be realistic both In length and In calendar placement for the owner and the contractor. The project designer must bring his or her experience to bear on this issue. As to delay damages, many owners choose to use liquidated damages as a vehicle to make sure that contractors finish the job in the time specified. If extensive renovation work, following removal, or other important use of the facility is contemplated, liquidated damages may not suffice to cover the actual damages. In these instances, owners may find that they are limited to damages which are less than that to which they are entitled. However, liquidated damage provisions are intended for use where the actual computation of damages is not possble. Most courts wifl enforce liquidated damage provisions on the basis that the reason for specifying liquidated damages is the uncertainty of calculation of actual damages. The amount of liquidated damages must be determined on a reasonable basis, since bonding companies will often limit the daily amount that can be imposed on the contractor. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socboo XI - Legal and Insurance Conadarafere Pap 23 of Asbestos-Contain'tna Waste Another important issue is that of materials handling and disposal. The asbestos material must be properly containerized, labeled, and shipped to an approved dump site. The contract or specifications should specify each item with particularity. The owner should obtain a copy from the contractor of the waste shipment record or manifest required by the EPA NESHAP. This document must be given to the landfill operator by the waste hauler. The owner must receive a copy from the landfill operator within 35 days after the waste is received. This provides a means for the owner to verify the waste arrival at the landfiH. it will be desirable to have an inventory of the drums or bags to compare to the waste shipment record. This kind of attention to detail will eliminate possible claims of improper toxic substance dumping. The disposal site must also be chosen carefully, depending on the character of the waste (solid/liquid, asbestos/other hazardous substances, etc.). It Is also prudent to make sure that the materials are property unloaded and handled at the disposal site. Selection of Qualified Contractors Another problem peculiar to public work is the requirement that the public authority accept the lowest bid, or lowest responsible bid. The owner must determine the best way to satisfy this requirement and stHI engage qualified asbestos abatement contractors. One method of addressing this problem is to determine whether the applicable laws permit the public agency to prequallfy contractors. Prequalification requirements can consist of various criteria. These may Include experience either with asbestos abatement or with the particular type or size of project being bid, training, formal education (for Instance, attending seminars), Insurance, bonding, and a Job ------- STUDENTMAMUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N Section XI - L«94 and tnturance ConeidaraOone Inspection. A public agency must determine the best way to hire a contractor and still comply with its legal obligation to accept the lowest bid, or the lowest "responsible'' or lowest 'responsive' bid, under applicable law. Frequently, an asbestos abatement contract may be coupled with other renovation or reinsulatJon work. It is virtually always necessary to have some replacement materials or structures for the asbestos-containing materials or structures that are removed. A decision must be made whether to have the asbestos abatement contractor function as the general contractor, or as a subcontractor under the general contractor in charge of the entire project. The general contractor is responsible for coordination of the various trades that may be involved. In a particularly hazardous project, it may be necessary to contractually require some training of other trade workers regarding the dangers of asbestos or of the asbestos removal. Certainly, conferences of the trade superintendents throughout the job is desirable and strict security is most important in a job of that type. Using a general or prime contractor with an asbestos abatement subcontractor does raise several issues. A problem can arise if the asbestos abatement subcontractor is unable to complete the work or is thrown off the job for some reason. In most instances, the prime contractor will not be qualified to complete the work himself. In these instances, the owner may wish to reserve the right to select a substitute asbestos abatement subcontractor using the same criteria used in the original selection. Another issue that can arise is the ability of the general contractor to obtain adequate insurance and bonding for asbestos abatement work. Most often, these activities are excluded from the general contractor's insurance and bonding programs. This may necessitate using the abatement contractor as a prime contractor, or having separate contracts for abatement and renovation work. ------- STUDENT MANUAL Cleanliness of the Job Site AS8EST06 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XI - Legal and Imuranc* ContxtonOtom Pape2S One final note is that of the completion of the job by clearance testing. The contract should contain a combined requirement of clean surface* and achieving clearance air standards, as well as specifying the methods to be used. Itis possible to have acceptable air monitoring results within the abatement area, and still have dangerous levels of asbestos-containing materials present within the facility. It is important to require that all surfaces in the work area be dean upon visual inspection, prior to clearance testing. Therefore, the owner or his representative must be sure that the contractor has thoroughly removed and cleaned up all material, and that the airborne asbestos fiber concentrations meet the clearance standards established in the specifications and applicable regulations, utilizing the specified procedures (e.g.. aggressive sampling, PCM vs. TEM analysis, etc.). Protect Manaoer and Air Monttorlna Personnel The qualifications and integrity of the project manager or air monitoring professionals are vital. They should be qualified and experienced. There have been a few instances of falsified tests reported. An Important consideration Is to have project management and air monitoring performed under a separate contract between the owner and the project management or air monitoring firm. An owner does not normally want to have a turnkey* contract where his abatement contractor supplies the project management and the air monitoring, unless the owner has separately determined the qualifications of the project management or air monitoring firm being engaged by the contractor. In school buildings covered by AHERA regulations, an independent firm is required to conduct clearance testing. Other laws must be consulted ------- STU)6KT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PftOJECT DESIGN Socttxi XI - Legal and Insurance Conefcteretons as weH. The owner may wish to have the project management or air monitoring paid for as part of the abatement contract; however, this must be weighed against obtaining his own project management or air monitoring contract with a separate firm or person. A number of owners seek to save money by having the contractor take either progress samples or even clearance samples, using the contractor's employees. Since air monitoring data is so critical in determining proper performance and perhaps defense of any claim, this procedure is discouraged. CONCLUSION The project designer and owner must be aware of legal and insurance issues involved with abatement work. Contractual issues are particularly important since the project designer must be concerned not only with its contract but often in developing the contract and project requirements between the owner and contractor. The project designer must be careful to avoid areas where he or she is not trained or experienced, so as to avoid being held liable to the owner. Both legal and insurance issues are complex. The project designer and owner should work with legal counsel and insurance advisors who are experienced with asbestos abatement work. This will help avoid problems before, during and after the asbestos abatement project Note: The remarks contained in this section are. by nature, general and do not attempt to specif icaly explore the law of any state. Moreover, these remarks are not intended to constitute a specific legal opinion on any asbestos abatement project. The sole purpose of these remarks is for the general guidance of those invoked in asbestos abatement work. Specific legal advice should be obtained from competent legal counsel. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XI - U04 and Incuranot REVIEW QUESTIONS 1 . What are the three areas of potential liability for an asbestos abatement project designer? 2. What type of liability is associated with failing to perform work in accordance with skills of the profession? 3. What type of protection does general liability insurance provide? 4. What is the difference between •occurrence* and "claims made* liability insurance? 5. Name the types of contract documents typically used for asbestos abatement projects. 6. Is "state-of-the-art" technology always imperative when designing an asbestos abatement project? If not, give an example of when a lesser degree of technology might be more prudent. 7. Traditionally, what two types of bonds have been required in the construction industry to protect owners or landlords against the contractor's [financial] default? 8. For removal projects being conducted in schools, abatement workers and supervisors as well as inspectors, management planners and project designers must be trained in accordance with what regulations? ------- STUDENT ANNUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT OEStQN Section XI - Lugai and Incuranoa Comdwmtons 9. How long should a building owner maintain records of an abatement project? 10. Liquidated damage clauses are often used in abatement contracts by whom and for what reason? 11. Prequalfication of contractors is helpful for what purpose? 12. Should air sampling be solely used to evaluate the completion of an abatement? If not. what should supplement the air sampling? 13. IdeaBy, who should the air sampling professional be under contract with during an abatement project? ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Federal. State and Local Rogutattxy Requirements Paool FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS INTRODUCTION The federal agencies which oversee regulations pertaining to asbestos-containing materials (ACM) include the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the Department of Transportation (DOT), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). This section will focus on the EPA. OSHA and DOT regulations which have the greatest impact on the design and execution of an abatement project. This section will conclude with a discussion on common variations between federal, state and local regulations. The EPA traditionally has jurisdiction over issues that affect air. water and land. Following this trend for asbestos, there arc EPA regulations which focus on minimizing the release of asbestos fibers into the environment and accreditation of the work force. For asbestos- related issues. EPA also regulates schools. These regulations require inspection, assessment and control of ACM In schools conducting kindergarten through twelfth grade classes. OSHA regulations focus on worker health and safety issues including procedures for performing work, established permissible exposure limits for asbestos workers, and requirements for protective equipment when working with ACM. DOT regulates the packaging and shipping of asbestos-containing materials including waste generated during an abatement project. States, counties and cities promulgate and enforce a wide range of asbestos regulations which must be as stringent as the federal regulations, and which also must be incorporated into the abatement project design. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Federal. Sate and Local Rugvtobxy Requirements Page2 EPA REGULATIONS The primary EPA asbestos regulations are listed and briefly summarized in Table XII-1. The most important regulations, from a project designer's perspective, are covered in more detail in the following section. TABLE XIM LISTING OF PRIMARY EPA ASBESTOS REGULATIONS USEPA National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Asbestos Regulations. 40 CFR 61, Subpart M. USEPA Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools: Final Rule and Notice. 40 CFR Part 763. Subpart E. USEPA Friable Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Identification and Notification. 40 CFR Part 763. Subpart F. USEPA Regulations Governing Asbestos Abatement Projects (Worker Protection). 40 CFR 763. Subpart G. USEPA Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools: Model Accreditation Plan, 40 CFR Part 763. USEPA Asbestos Ban and Phaseout Rule. 40 CFR Part 763. Subpart I (Remanded to EPA by U. S. Court of Appeals on October 18,1991). This section will also discuss the Asbestos Information Act of 1988. P. L 100-577, that required former and current manufacturers and processors of asbestos products to submit information identifying their products to the EPA. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants The National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for asbestos were promulgated under section 112 of the Clean Air Act in 1973 and have undergone a ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PflOJECT DESJGN Section XII - Federal. State and Local Rogutekxy Requirements number of revisions, the latest on November 20, 1 990. The standards potentially apply to all buildings including school and nonschool structures, and emphasize procedures for minimizing emissions of asbestos fibers into the environment. With respect to asbestos demolition and renovation activities, the NESHAP regulation addresses the following topics: • Applicability • Notification requirements • Asbestos emission control procedures • Standards for insulating materials • Waste disposal requirements for owners/operators • Standards for operators of active disposal sites • Requirements for operations that convert asbestos-containing material into nonasbestos material Concerning abatement projects, the important NESHAP areas to consider are applicability. notification requirements, asbestos emission control procedures, and ACM waste disposal practices and records. In some regions the administration of NESHAP has been delegated to the state level, in which case the regulation may be more stringent or the interpretation and enforcement may vary from the federal authorities. In any case, the NESHAP administrator is a federal or state authority with primary responsibility for regulation of asbestos abatement associated with building demolition or renovation. Applicability - The revised NESHAP regulation added or amended some definitions which are key to understanding the applicability of the regulations. These include the following: "Regulated asbestos-containing material (RACM)" means (a) Friable asbestos material; (b) Category I nonfriable ACM that has become friable; (c) Category I nonfriable ACM that will be or has been subjected to sanding. grinding, cutting, or abrading; or (d) Category II nonfriable ACM that has a ------- STVOtNT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - F*dafa<. State and Local Regulatory RoquirormHrts Pago4 high probability of becoming or has become crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by the forces expected to act on the material in the course of demolition or renovation operations regulated by this subpart. "Renovation" means altering a facility or one or more facility components in any way. including the stripping or removal of RACM from a facility component. "Demolition" means the wrecking or taking out of any load-supporting structural member of a facility together with any related handling operations or the intentional burning of any facility. "Category I nonfriable asbestos-containing material (ACM)" means asbestos-containing packings, gaskets, resilient floor covering, and asphalt roofing products containing more than one percent asbestos as determined using the method specified in Appendix A, Subpart F. 40 CFR Part 783. Section 1, Polarized Ught Microscopy. "Category II nonfriable ACM" means any material, excluding Category I nonfriable ACM, containing more than one percent asbestos as determined using the methods specified in Appendix A. Subpart F. 40 CFR Part 763. Section 1, Polarized Light Microscopy that, when dry. cannot be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure. "Friable asbestos material' means any material containing more than one percent asbestos, that, when dry, can be crumbled pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure. •Adequately wet* means to sufficiently mix or penetrate with liquid to prevent the release of particles. If visible emissions are observed coming from the material, then it is not adequately wet. However, lack of visible emissions alone is not sufficient evidence of being adequately wet. "Visible emissions" means any emissions which are visually detectable, without the aid of instruments, coming from RACM or asbestos-containing waste material. Before conducting a renovation or demolition activity, building owners or operators must thoroughly Inspect the facility or part of the facility where the activity will occur for the presence of asbestos, Including friable, and Category I and Category II nonfriable ACM. If a facility contains the following amounts of RACM, it is subject to NESHAP regulations for demolition and renovation activities which disturb the ACM: • 260 linear feet (80 linear meters) ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Federal. State and Local Regulatory Roquromorts PagoS • 160 square feet (15 square meters) • 35 cubic feet (1 cubic meter) • Combined additive amount during a calendar year equals or exceeds any of the above amounts For demolition projects that wilt not involve more than the stated amounts of material, the only action that is required is notification. Notification must be given to the NESHAP administrator prior to building demolition. For renovation projects that disturb less than the stated quantities, NESHAP does not apply. Notification Requirements - The facility owner or contractor performing the demolition or renovation project must notify the NESHAP administrator in writing. The notification can be delivered by U. S. mail, commercial delivery service or hand delivery. Notification must be postmarked or delivered ten days before renovation, demolition or any other activity begins that would disturb ACM. For combined additive renovations projected to occur in the coming year, notification must be postmarked or delivered ten days before the end of the calendar year preceding the year during which the work will be done. For emergencies, notification must be given as soon as possible but no later than the following working day. NESHAP notification requirements are extensive, including the following: name and address of the building owner or manager; description and location of the building; estimate of the approximate amount of friable ACM present in the facility; scheduled start and completion dates of ACM removal; description of planned removal methods; procedures to be used to comply with the requirements of this regulation; and name, address and location of the disposal site. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S*ctk>n XII - F*dara). Sato and Local Ftegutetxy Raqwrwnwtts Pago 6 It should be noted that specific notification requirements may vary depending on the interpretation of NESHAP requirements by a state or region. Therefore, a designer should contact the local NESHAP administrator for detailed instructions. An example notification form is provided in Figure XI1-1. Asbestos Emission Control Procedures - Regulated asbestos-containing material must be removed from a facility before any demolition or renovation activities occur that would break up, dislodge or similarly disturb the material. The following exceptions are allowed during demolition and renovation: • Category I nonfriabte ACM that is not in poor condition, is not friable and will not be subjected to sanding, grinding, cutting or abrading does not have to be removed • ACM that is on a facaity component and is encased in concrete or other similar material and is adequately wet when exposed does not have to be removed. • ACM that was not accessible before testing and was not discovered until after beginning the demoition or renovation project does not have to be removed. (ACM exposed during demolition or renovation must be treated as ACM waste material and kept adequately wet at all times until disposal.) ------- STUDENT MANUAL Aseesros ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socbon Xfl - F*d»ral. S«to and Load Regulatory Ffequrvrwnts Pag.7 P Operator Preset t Poitnark C*t« R«cviv«d Hoc if ic at. 100 t I. TYPE OP NOTIFICATION < O-Or.?ln«l • - •*,!•*<] OC*»c*ll«d |i II. FACILITY INFORMATION I :o«atlfy owner. n»n i il contractor. t/td oih«r «p*r*tor ) OWNER NAME: C.tyi H; lipi Cor.tcr: i REMOVAL CONTRACTOR: Ajdrrm lipi ConLicn Tvll OTBCS OPC.X».TO^i Clt/i St«t«i tlpt Con'.ict: Tell III. TYPE OP OPERATION ( o-Order^ ••H«mov«t ion j IV. IS ASBtSTCS P.^ISEKT? ( T«»/»o ) V. FACILITY DESCRIPTION < Is •nd floor or room *«Kb*r ) Citji Coontyi tit* Uoc*tto«i Si;«i t at rtoorsi la Pr««**t o*»i Prior U*«i VI. PROCEDURE, IHCI.UDINC ANALYTICAI. HETBOP. IF APPROPRIATE, USED TO DETECT THS PRESENCE OF ASBESTOS MATERIAL: VII. APPROXIMATE AMOUNT Or ASSESTO3, i::CLi ? T«-.«x>ry : AC-« itot. ••K>«vd ). C«l«,cr» ;i ACM Nut *r*ov«------- STUDENT MANUAL AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XU - F«doral. State and toe* Regirfalory Rcqu X. DESCRIPTION OF PLAWKTD DEMOLITION OR REWOVATIOH WOK*, AND KETBOO(S) TO BE OSES I XI. DESCRIPTION OF WORK PRACTICES ASO ENGINEERING CONTROLS TO BE USED TO PREVENT EMISSIONS OP ASBESTOS AT THE DEMOLITION AND REttOVATIOM CITE: XII. HASTE TRANSPORTER II Addrcaa CUT- &tatn Contact Per torn »1P, T*i*pAOWI WASTE TRANSPORTER 12 Cityi ~" f.alci Contact Prr«oni lip. T»lep.v><"» i XIII. WASTT DISPOSAL SITE CltTi XIV. IP DEMOLITION ORDERED BY A COVEJUtMIHT ACTKCT. PLEASE IDENTin THE AGENCY BELOW: §t« of Order (»w/DO/Tlli iivi/DO/rT)i XV. FOR EMUtCENCY RENOVATIONS C«t« *nd Hour of n*rq«*er (>w/oc/tTii o! xv«nt> o! XVI. DESCRIPTION Of PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED IM THE EVENT TBAT UKEXPECTED ASBESTOS IS FOUND OR PREVIOUSLY WONFKIABLE ASBESTOS KATERiAL BECOMES CRW1BLED. PULVERIZED, OR REDUCED TO POWDER. XVI. I CERTIFY TBAT AN INDIVIDUAL TRAINED IN THE PROVISIONS OF THIS RZ3ULATIO8 (O CFR PART 41. S'.-BPART M) WILL 3E ON-SITE CURING THE DEMOLITION OR RENOVATION AKO EVICCNC THAT THE R£QUIK£D TRAINING HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED BY THIS PERSON WILL BE AVAILABLE FOR INFECTION DCKING NORHAL BUSINESS HOURS. (Rnquirod 1 year after promulgation) of (D«tt) J XVII. I CESTIJ'Y THAT THE A3OVE INTORKATION IS CORRECT. (Sigr.At.ur* of owe*r/operator) FIGURE XII-1 (CONTINUED) NOTFICATKON OF DEMOLfTION AND RENOVATION FEDERAL REGISTER, VOLUME 55, NO. 224, TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20,1990 ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - F«doral. Stato and Local Rogutawy Ftoquiromonts Page 9 • Category II nonfriable ACM that has a low probability of becoming crumbled. pulverized or reduced to powder during demolition or renovation does not have to be removed. If a Category II nonfriable ACM is damaged and becomes friable during demolition or renovation, then it must be removed. Building components covered with ACM can be removed in sections as long as all exposed RACM is kept adequately wet during cutting or disjoining operations and lowered to ground level without disturbing the ACM. The ACM on the components can be wrapped and sealed in a leak-tight material such as 6-mil polyethylene or stripped in a contained area using appropriate work practices. RACM must be kept adequately wet during removal operations and carefully lowered to the ground floor. Material being stripped or removed more than 50 feet above ground must be transported via leak-tight chutes or containers. Exceptions from wetting ACM because of damage to electrical equipment or other systems must be obtained in writing from the NESHAP administrator. If the RACM is being removed from a work area with freezing temperature conditions. It does not have to be kept wet. However, temperatures must be recorded at the beginning, middle and end of each work day. These temperature records must be maintained for two years. In addition to these control procedures, there is a requirement that there must be a foreman or management-level person trained in the provisions of NESHAP on site during renovation or demolition activities. This person must receive refresher training every two years and evidence that the required training has been completed must be posted on site and available for inspection by the EPA or delegated agency. Training topics must include applicability of the NESHAP regulation, notification, material identification, emission ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Secbon XII - Fodoral. Stato and Local Regulatory Roquromoftts Pago 10 control procedures for removal and demolition, waste disposal work practices, reporting and recordkeeping, and asbestos hazards and worker protection. EPA will recognize valid accreditation of an AHERA asbestos abatement contractor/supervisor as satisfying the asbestos NESHAP training requirements. ACM Waste Disposal Practices and Records -The NESHAP regulation explicitly slates that no visible emissions shall be generated to the outside air during the collection or disposal of asbestos-containing waste material. The RACM must be adequately wetted prior to removal and sealed or wrapped in leak-tight containers while it is still wet. The containers holding asbestos waste must be labeled in accordance with OSHA requirements [29 CFR 1926.58 (k)(2)]. If the containers are transported off the facility site, they must be labeled with the name of the waste generator and the location at which the waste was generated (see also DOT labeling requirements). All regulated asbestos-containing waste material must be deposited as soon as practical by the waste generator at a site that meets EPA requirements for operation as a disposal or conversion facility. Owners and operators must maintain waste shipment records similar to the example in Figure XII-2 including generator, local NESHAP administrator, quantity of waste, disposal site operator and location, date of transport, transporter, and certification. If the generator does not receive a signed copy of this record back from the waste disposal facility within 35 days, the generator must attempt to determine the status of the shipment. If the paperwork has not been received within 45 days, the generator must report the situation to the local NESHAP administrator. The NESHAP regulation also Imposes several requirements on operators of disposal facilities which are not covered in this discussion. ------- STUDENT HMNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PfWOECT DESIGN S*e4on XII - F*dMl. StM* «nd Local FUgutotory Requirements Generator | 1. «crk site narcc 2. Operator's na.te 3. ..aste disposal sailing address location ana nai 1 ing address Owner's nane ana acdress site (WOS) name, , and physical site Owner's telephone no. Operator's telephone no. WDS phone no. •l. Narr.e, and acdress of responsible agency 5. Description of materials 6. Containers No. Type 7. Total quantity m3 (yd3) Special handing instructions and additional information | 9. CURATOR'S CERTIFICATION: 1 hereby declare that the contents of this consignment are fully and accurately described above by proper shipping name and are classified, packed, narked, anc labeled, and are in all respects in proper condition for transport by highway according to applicable international and government regulations. Printed/typed nane & title Signature Month Day Year 10. Transporter 1 (Acknowledgment of receipt of materials) frintea/typea name & title Address and telephone no. Signature Month Day Year l\. Transporter 2 (Acknowledgment of receipt of materials) Printed/typec name & title Address and telephone no. Signature Month Day Year 12. Discrepancy indication space 13. Waste disposal site owner or operator: Certification of receipt of asbestos materials covered by this manifest except as noted in item 12. >/l Pri ntea/typec name & t itle Signature Month Day Year FIGURE XII-2 WASTE SHIPMENT RECORD FEDERAL REGISTER. VOLUME 55, NO. 224, TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20,1990 ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section Xll - Federal. State and Local Regutuory Raquiremonls flans - It may be of interest to the project designer to note that NESHAP banned certain applications of asbestos-containing materials from 1973 to 1978 as follows: 1973 - spray-applied insulating materials 1976 - pre molded insulation (thermal system insulation), if friable 1978 - spray -applied decorative materials EPA Regulations Regarding Asbestos In Schools Several important legislative and regulatory actions have affected how public education agencies manage and respond to asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in schools. The 1982 'Schools Rule* in 40 CFR Part 763 required all schools to conduct inspections for friable ACM and to notify workers and parents of its location. Congress provided federal funds, in the form of loans or grants, to schools to control ACM through the Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act (ASHAA) in 1984. In the 1986 Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA), Congress required EPA to promulgate regulations which further addressed the identification, evaluation and control of ACM in schools. The AHERA regulations, 40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E, became effective December 14, 1987. ASHAA was reauthorized in 1990 as the Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Reauthorization Act. or ASHARA, which extended the availability of federal funds to schools through 1996. This Act also requires extension of accreditation and training requirements which were originally Intended for work In schools to Include Inspectors, designers, contractor supervisors and abatement workers performing asbestos-related work In public and commercial buildings. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Secbon XII - Fwterti. Stttt «xl Locrt Regulatory B*quifwn*ntt Pap 13 AHERA Regulations Local education agencies (LEA) affected by AHERA were required to perform inspections to identify friable and nonfriable ACM, evaluate the condition of the ACM and develop a management plan outlining a control program. Trie initial inspection and management plan requirements were to have been completed by May 9. 1989. All public and private nonprofit elementary and secondary schools must comply with AHERA, and each LEA must have a designated person to coordinate inspection, management planning, operations and maintenance, and response actions. The AHERA regulations supplement but do not supersede any requirements of OSHA or NESHAP. Below is an AHERA overview for the asbestos abatement project designer on a topic-by- topic basis. The requirements which are not likely to directly affect designers are condensed. If performing other asbestos-related tasks in a school building, one must acquire a much more thorough understanding of AHERA regulations than this summary provides. Inspection - AHERA requires accredited inspectors, those who have successfully completed an EPA-approved course, to identify all asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM) in the school and certain exterior materials. AHERA divides ACBM into three categories-surfacing material, thermal system insulation, and miscellaneous. The inspector must determine friability by touching all suspect ACBM. Sampling and Analysis - LEAs can assume any or all suspect material is ACM. Otherwise, a minimum of three to seven samples is required for characterizing different-sized areas of surfacing material. Thermal system insulation requires three samples and one for patched ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Federal. State and Local Regulatory Requirements PageW areas. Although the inspector must estimate the quantity of suspect ACBM to determine the correct number of samples, this number may or may not be reliable for design purposes. Sample analysis is by polarized light microscopy and must be done by a laboratory which is certified by the National Voluntary Lab Accreditation Program (NVLAP), directed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). If any one sample of a material is determined to be greater than one percent asbestos using AHERA methodology, then the material is ACM. The designer should always check the laboratory results in the inspection report to determine if further surveying, sampBng and analysis are necessary prior to abatement design. Assessment - An AHERA inspection report should assess the condition of ACBM found. The assessment should determine if the condition is good, damaged, or significantly damaged; the potential for future damage; and preventive measures which could be taken. Remember that conditions may have changed since an initial AHERA inspection in 1987- 1988 or subsequent reinspections. which is another reason for carefully reviewing data prior to developing a specification. The Management Plan - The management plan is a dynamic document which rates the priority of response actions to the condition of the ACBM found, describes the response actions to be implemented, and is updated as actions occur. The management plan takes risk of exposure, cost of response, and LEA budget into account in recommending how to control and manage ACBM. The main criterion is that the response action must protect human health and the environment. The LEA is responsible to implement the management plan in a timely manner. ------- STUDENT KMNUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - F«d»fri. State and Coed Regulatory Notification - LEAs must notify the parent-teacher organization and school workers of the availabiBty of the management plan for their inspection. Training - Custodial and maintenance employees who work in school buildings where ACBM is present must be properly trained, and the LEA must notify short-term workers, such as telephone and electric workers, of the location of ACBM. Additionally, inspectors. management planners, response workers and supervisors, and project designers must all receive EPA-accredited training. Project specifications should include the requirement that property trained and accredited personnel be used, and should require documentation of all certifications. Response Actions -AHERA defines five response actions which LEAs can employ. Removal, encapsulation, enclosure, repair, and operations and maintenance are all allowed in certain situations. Damaged or significantly damaged thermal system insulation ACBM must be repaired and maintained in undamaged condition. If repair is not possible. then material must be removed. This is the most stringent AH ERA response requirement. OSHA and NESHAP regulations must also be followed during school asbestos response actions. Enclosure, encapsulation, removal, and responses to major fiber release episodes in schools must all be designed by an accredited project designer. Clearance Monitoring -AHERA defines specific clearance requirements for school response actions. These are discussed in detail in the section on air sampling. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, clearance can be achieved two ways. Either (1) the average of five air samples taken inside the project area is less than 70 structures per square miHimeter, or (2) five air samples taken inside and five samples taken outside the project area are not significantly statistically different as determined by the Z- ------- STUDENTMANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESK3N Section XII - Federal, Stato and Local Regulatory Fteqwfwnorts Page 16 test and the average of three field blanks is less than 70 s/mrn2. PCM dearance is onty allowed for projects which do not exceed 160 square feet or 260 linear feet of ACBM. In this case, fiber concentration for each of five samples must be less than or equal to 0.01 fibers per cubic centimeter. Periodic Surveillance and Reinsoection - The rule requires periodic surveillance and reinspection to monitor asbestos-containing materials left in schools. Periodic surveillance requires checking these materials every six months to determine if its condition has changed since the last inspection or surveillance. In addition, schools must have an accredited inspector relnspect and reassess the condition of remaining asbestos- containing materials every three years and determine if the condition of the material requires new response action activity. Many AH ERA requirements are considered "state of the art" for the industry and as such are employed in work outside schools. There is no current law requiring inspections and management plans for public and commercial buildings. However, 1990 ASHARA included a requirement that EPA write regulations to extend the AHERA training requirements to cover asbestos work in public and commercial buildings. Prior to the ASHARA deadline of November 28,1992, EPA's Office of Prevention. Pesticides and Toxic Substances published Interim Guidance on ASHARA Requirements. In a letter accompanying the document, EPA explained that they would not be able to fully address significant ASHARA issues by the statutory deadline. However, the guidance document stated that after November 28, 1992, all persons inspecting for asbestos or designing or conducting response actions in public and commercial buildings shall be accredited in accordance with AHERA training requirements. EPA interpreted "public and commercial ------- STUDOn MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Secton XJ1 - Fadwal, State and Local Ragubtory Raqummants Pa0*17 buildings* to exclude schools, apartment buildings of fewer than ten units and single-family homes. Additional clarification and revision of the regulations are expected from EPA. Worker Protection Rule Certain employees of state and local governments are not covered under the OSHA worker protection standard (29 CFR 1926.58) discussed later in this section. The purpose of the EPA Asbestos Abatement Projects; Worker Protection; Final Rule is to extend the OSHA worker safety guidelines to these government employees, especially those who perform asbestos abatement work. The Worker Protection Rule. 40 CFR Part 763 Subpart Q, became effective March 27.1987. and Is currently under revision. When enacted, the rule was essentially the same as the OSHA regulations in 1987. It provided for an exposure limit, exposure monitoring and recordkeeping. regulated areas. worker protection devices and facilities, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and notification requirements. However, the rule has not been amended as have the OSHA standards on multiple occasions since 1987. Thus, there are currently many discrepancies. Some of the most important differences are listed below. 'Employer' Definition - In order to protect state and local government employees, the rule states that 'employer' means the public department, agency, or entity which hires an employee. The term includes, but is not limited to, any state, county, city, or other local government entity which operates or administers schools, a department of health or human services, a Ibrary, a police department, a fire department, or similar public service agency or office. ------- STUD6HT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEUCKT PROJECT DESIGN Section XI! - Federal. Sato and Local Regulatory Requirements Page 18 Notification - Under the Worker Protection Rule, an employer must notify the appropriate EPA Regional Asbestos Coordinator in writing at least ten days before starting abatement work. The exceptions to this are emergencies, in which case notification is required within 48 hours, and projects involving abatement of less than three linear feet or three square feet of asbestos-containing material. Also, if NESHAP notification (which is required for demolition and renovation projects which disturb asbestos-containing material) is made ten days before work begins, and the NESHAP notice clearly states that some of the work will be performed by employees covered under the rule, then additional notification of the Regional Coordinator is not required. Excursion Limit - Section 763.121 (c) states a permisstole exposure limit (PEL) of 0.2 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (fibers/cc). on an eight-hour time-weighted average basis. However, there is no excursion limit written in the worker protection rule as there is in the current OSHA standard. In the OSHA standard, the excursion limit is a short-term exposure limit of one fiber per cubic centimeter average over a 30-minute time period. Small Projects - Section 763.121 (eX6)(H)(iii)(B) provides employers no exception for small-scale, short-duration projects in the (e) Regulated Areas requirements. (Currently, this still resides in Appendix B of AHERA.) The Worker Protection Rule contains no parallel to Appendix Q of the OSHA standard for regulating such activities. Appendix Q describes several types of small-scale, short-duration projects and the appropriate safety measures and engineering controls for use during these types of projects. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soobon XII - f+donl. Stato nod loori Rogutetery Requirements San fl/irf Phasfiout Rule The EPA published Asbestos: Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce Prohibitions; Rnal Rule in the Federal Register on July 12, 1989. The purpose was to 'prohibit, at staged Intervals, the future manufacture, importation, processing, and distribution in commerce of asbestos in almost all products." Commonly known as the Ban and Phaseout Rule, this section of 40 CFR 763 became effective August 25, 1989, except for the information collection requirements which have not yet been approved. However, on October 21, 1991, a Federal Appeals Court sent the rule back to EPA and effectively suspended the rule except for those products which were out of production prior to July 12,1989. The court held that the EPA did not properly consider less burdensome alternatives to banning the products in these stages. Specifically, the court maintained that the EPA did not evaluate the toxidty of likely alternatives to asbestos-containing products. As of this writing, the EPA Is considering Its response to this ruling. For information purposes, the following is a summary of many of the products that would have been affected in each stage of the Ban and Phaseout Rule: Stage 1: Felt products, corrugated and flat A/C sheet, floor tile, and clothing; Stage 2: Original equipment drum brake linings and disc brake pads, clutch facings, automatic transmission and other friction components, and beater-add and sheet gaskets (except in some industrial uses); Stage 3: Roof and other coatings, paper products, brake blocks, after- market brake linings and pads, and A/C pipe and shingles. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Fedarai. State and Local Regulatory Raquhwncnts The rule stated dates by which manufacturers of each of the three categories of asbestos- containing products must provide labels, cease production, and end distribution. It also provided that exemptions may be granted by the EPA only in very limited circumstances. CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Proper sampling and assessment of waDboard and joint compound has been a topic of interest in the asbestos abatement industry. There is insufficient research concerning the types and concentration of asbestos in such materials. EPA has cited some firms for not sampling these materials during AH ERA inspections. For these reasons, it is Important to review a ban of asbestos in joint patching compound by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). The CPSC banned "consumer patching compounds containing intentionally added asbestos" with regulations published in 16 CFR 1304 in December 1977. The regulation defines consumer patching compounds as "those that are customarily produced or distributed for sale to or for the personal use, consumption or enjoyment of consumers in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise." The ban on manufacturing took effect January 16, 1978, and the ban on all affected products took effect June 11, 1978. Merely labeling products for industrial use only would not exdude them from the ban, so the CPSC wrote a broad definition tor consumer patching compound. However, the definition of "intentionally-added asbestos" did have an exception-"Whenever a manufacturer finds out that the finished product contains asbestos, the manufacturer win be ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XU - Fodoral. Stato and Local ftegutatxy Requirements Page 21 considered as knowingly using a raw material containing asbestos, unless the manufacturer takes steps to reduce the asbestos to the maximum extent feastole." The nature and extent of the steps were not in the rule. Whatever the reason, joint compounds which contain over one percent asbestos have been found in building construction completed nearly ten years after the ban took effect This issue, along with future industry and regulatory decisions, is important to consider in evaluating survey results. OSHA REGULATIONS OS HA has the legislated obligation to issue and enforce regulations which protect the safety and health of workers. This is done by setting minimum standards with which employers must comply. Project designers need to design projects so that there can be fun compliance with OSHA regulations. However, merely meeting OSHA regulations will not be adequate for protecting workers in some cases. OSHA has acknowledged that some risk remains for workers at the current PEL Thus, the project designer may choose to write and enforce more stringent specifications in order to protect workers from safety and health hazards and to protect the building owner and project designer from legal liabilities. The official enforcement of OSHA standards for a project will be performed by either a federal or state OSHA office and its enforcement officers. About half of the states and territories have OSHA programs and the other half have federal OSHA programs. California. Indiana, North Carolina, and Iowa are examples of states with OSHA programs. Missouri, New Jersey, Georgia, and Mississippi are examples of states with federal OSHA ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN SoefeA XH - Federal. Stato and Local Rogutatory Requtotmente Page 22 programs. Federal and state OSHA regulations and enforcement are usually similar, but often not identical State regulations are not permitted to be less stringent than the federal regulations. Regulatory interpretation and enforcement emphasis may vary some from state to state, and from inspector to inspector, in both state and federal enforcement states. Both the state program states and the federal program states have similar regulations with which the project designer should be familiar. These federal regulations include: • 29 CFR 1926.58 Asbestos Standard • 29 CFR 1926.59 Hazard Communication Standard • 29 CFR 1910.134 Respiratory Protection Standard • 29 CFR 1926 General Safety and Health Requirements A summary of these OSHA standards follows. However, project designers should also obtain, study and follow the complete OSHA standards as they appear in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). It should also be noted that the OSHA standard is currently under revision. 29 CFR 1926.59 Construction Asbestos Standard SCOPS and Application -OSHA has two specific asbestos standards-1926.58 and 1910.1001. The 1926 standard is intended for all asbestos control activities (including operations and maintenance) since they are judged by OSHA to be construction and maintenance actions regardless of the type facility in which they are performed. The 1910.1001 is a general industry standard for those companies still manufacturing asbestos-containing products such as brake shoes and pads. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Fwtoral. Saw and Local Regulatory Raqutraments Pap 23 Alf Limits - There are currently three limits for asbestos filers in air. The lowest air limit is the action level (AL) of 0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc) measured over an eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA). Exceeding the AL only requires the employer to: continue air monitoring, offer initial and annual asbestos training, offer an asbestos medical exam after 30 days of exposure above the AL during a calendar year, and keep certain records. The other two air limits are a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.2 f/cc as an eight-hour TWA and an excursion limit (EL) of 1.0 f/cc measured over the 30 minutes of maximum exposure for each employee monitored. If either the PEL or EL limits are exceeded, then the following are added to AL requirements: appropriate respirators and clothing must be furnished and used as listed in the standard; a regulated area must be established. contained, and placed under negative pressure (if feastole); a "competent person" must be present at all work times to supervise the regulated area and the persons who enter and exit it; eating, drinking, smoking, makeup, and chewing gum must be prohibited in the regulated area; "Danger" signs (red. black and white in color with OSHA-required wording) must be posted at all possbie entrances into the regulated area; other employees in the area must be informed of the regulated area and its significance; any feasible engineering and work practice controls must be implemented to reduce airborne fiber levels; a decontamination area consisting of a dirty equipment room, shower area, clean room, and storage facilities must be established for employees, equipment and supplies entering and exiting the regulated area; and multiple records must be kept At the time of publication of this manual, OSHA is proposing new exposure limits. Communication Among Employers - This allows the other employers to train their employees in the proper actions around the regulated area. It also informs the other ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJGN Stefan XII - Fodwal. State and local Regulatory Requirements Pap 2* employers of chemicals being used for the project so they can incorporate the chemicals into their hazard communication program as appropriate. Regulated Areas - These are required when either the PEL or EL are exceeded. Activities in these areas must be supervised by an OSHA-defined asbestos 'competent person." Asbestos 'Danger signs with required wording must be posted at all possible entrances. The area must be contained and placed under negative pressure, if feasible; acceptable respirators and clothing must be worn in the area; smoking, drinking, chewing gum, using makeup, and eating must be prohibited in the area; all feasible engineering controls and work practices must be used to reduce airborne fiber levels; and a decontamination setup must be established. Exposure Monitoring - Regardless of whether workers are wearing respirators, representative air samples must be collected and analyzed according to Appendix B of the standard lor an employees who might be exposed above one of the three air limits (AL, PEL, and EL). According to the OSHA Field Operations Manual (FOM), at least seven hours of sampling must be performed on each employee being checked for the eight-hour limits. Additionally, if there is any possibility of the EL being exceeded for an employee, a short-term sample (30-45 minutes) must be collected on that employee during his/her peak exposure for comparison to the 30-minute EL. The OSHA FOM allows as few as 25 percent of the workers in each work category to be monitored. However, the employees with the expected highest exposures should be included in the 25 percent monitored. Appendix B requires the samples to be read by a person having passed the NKDSH 582 course or equivalent. OSHA compliance air samples must be analyzed with a phase contrast microscope. Then, once the air monitoring results are received, they must be posted or given in writing to al affected employees as soon as possible. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Snctioo XII - Fodon*. S»» and Local RoguteKxy Requirement* Methods of Compliance - If the PEL or EL is being exceeded, then one or more of the following must be used to the extent feasible to reduce employee exposure below or as dose as possible to the PEL and EL: local exhaust ventiation wrth HEPA filters; general ventilation systems; HEPA vacuum cleaners; containment and isolation; wet or chemical methods; and prompt cleanup and disposal in leak-tight containers. Certain work practices such as ACM removal with compressed air are prohibited. RBsoiratorv Protection - Respirators must be used by all employees who would be exposed above the PEL or EL. Only respirators approved by NIOSH for the contaminant (such as asbestos) can be used. Then the respirators must be maintained and used within the limits of the approvals. A written respirator program must be generated and followed according to 29 CFR 1910.134------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XI - FvdoraJ, Stale and Local Roguluory Requirements Pages falling equipment, then other appropriate protective equipment (i.e. steel-toed shoes) must be provided and worn. Asbestos-contaminated protective clothing must be used, handled. cleaned, and/or disposed of in specified ways to prevent dispersion of the asbestos into areas outside the regulated area. Protective clothing and equipment must be cleaned, repaired or replaced to maintain effectiveness. Contaminated dothing and other items being taken out of the regulated areas must be transported in sealed impermeable containers and must be appropriately labeled. Laundries that are sent contaminated dothing must be notified. Hygiene Facilities and Practices - When employees are exposed above the PEL or EL, the employer must establish a decontamination area for the employees. It must be adjacent and connected to the regulated area. The decontamination area must at least include a dean room, shower area, and dirty equipment room, in that order, leading from the outside to the project area. The dean room must have lockers or other appropriate storage containers for each employee's street dothing. The shower must indude a combination of hot and cold water in accordance with the referenced 29 CFR 1910.141 standard. The dirty equipment room must be outfitted with impermeable, labeled bags or containers for disposing or containing asbestos-contaminated dothing and supplies. The asbestos competent person for the regulated area must ensure that employees enter and exit the regulated area by correctly using the decontamination area. Even at exposures below the AL, the employer must ensure that employees do not smoke in work areas where they are occupationaJty exposed to asbestos because of activities in the work area. Communication nf jJazards to Employees — The employer must train all employees who are exposed to airborne fiber concentrations above the AL. Those employees must be trained at the time of initial assignment and at least yearly thereafter. No specific duration ------- STUOEKT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OESXSN Section Xn - F*dwtf. Stato and Local Ragutetory Re is given for the training program, but it must cover: recognizing asbestos and ACM; health hazards; the synergistic relationship between asbestos and smoking in producing lung cancer; the potential benefit of a stop smoking program and the name, address and phone number of at least one such local program which is available; the importance of necessary protective controls to minimize exposure including, as appropriate, engineering controls, work practices, respirators, housekeeping procedures, emergency procedures, and waste disposal procedures; the use and meaning of the "Danger* signs and labels; proper use and limitations of respirators; and the components and reasons for the medical surveillance program. All training materials must be available to the employees without cost and, if requested, to an OSHA or NIOSH representative. Housekeeping - Al vacuuming equipment used must have HEPA filters. Asbestos waste, scrap, debris, bags, containers, equipment, and asbestos-contaminated clothing consigned for disposal must be collected and disposed in sealed and impermeable bags or containers which are properly labeled. Medical Surveillance - The employer must provide a medical surveillance program for all employees prior to their wearing respirators or if they are exposed above the Al or EL for more than 30 days per year. The exams must be by or under the supervision of a loensed physician and must be provided at reasonable time and place without cost to the employee. The exams must include a medical and work history using questionnaires from Appenolces D of the standard and a physical examination with special emphasis directed to the respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems; a chest X-ray at the discretion of the physician; and a pulmonary function test. These exams must be made available annually. ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PflOJECT DESIGN Section XII - F*------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Pectoral. State and local Rogutetory 29 CFR 1929.5$f-lazard Communication Standard General -This standard is often called the Federal Right-to-Know Regulation; Employee Rkjht-to-Know, or Haz Com. Scope - It applies to hazardous chemicals in a work area that an employee might be exposed to while performing his or her job. Each employer must include all hazardous chemicals to which his/her employees may be exposed, Including those belonging to other parties, regardless of the origin. Required Program Elements - The program must include: a site-specific Kst of hazardous chemicals; a material safety data sheet (MSDS) at the site for each hazardous chemical on the site-specific list; leaving the labels on the containers as they came from the manufacturer or distributor; documented employee training concerning the program and safe handing of the chemicals; and, a written program kept on site for each project 29 CFR 1910.134 Respiratory Standard General - Four sections of this OSH A General Industry Standard for Respirators. 1910.134 (b), (d), (e) and (f). are incorporated into 29 CFR 1926.58 (h) and made mandatory by reference. The specific requirements are presented in the Respiratory Protection section of the notebook. The requirements include a complete written and implemented respirator program and air quality specifications. ------- STUDerr MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Fedora). State and Local ffegutatory Roqufewnents Pa0*30 29 CFR 1926 General Safety and Health Recuirements OSHA has specific and applicable construction standards for a variety of other safety and health considerations which must be complied with, including: scaffolds, walking/working surfaces, ladders, electrical, lockout/tagout, and confined space entry. Many of these are covered in the section on Safety Considerations. LIMITATIONS OF OSHA STANDARDS The OSHA standards, like most government standards, are intended to establish minimum levels of protection for the employees. For asbestos, OSHA has acknowledged that its standard does leave significant risk to workers. In some cases, the project designer may consider writing specifications which are more stringent than the OSHA standards. Good examples of candidates for tighter job specifications are: requiring employees to wear respirators and protective clothing at trigger levels lower than or other than the PEL and EL; using respirators which protect to a level lower than the OSHA allowed level of 0.2 f/cc inside the respirator; and requiring guard rails on all scaffolds regardless of the height •DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (DOT) REGULATIONS' The U.S Department of Transportation (DOT) administers the regulations for the transportation of hazardous materials which are found in CFR Title 49. Parts 171 through 180. These hazardous materials regulations (HMR) apply to the transportation of ------- STUOENTMANUM. AS8£STO6 ABATEMENT PROJECT DESCN S«cbon XII - Fwdwml. State and Local Regulatory teqursmenls Pag* 31 hazardous materials, including asbestos, in commerce. The main requirements covered in theHMRare: • Classifications of Materials • Packaging • Shipping • Hazard Communication All of these requirements are relevant to the design of asbestos projects. Recent changes to the regulations require that both the past and current law as H pertains to abatement design be reviewed in this section. It Is Important for the reader to note that the newly revised regulations are still undergoing Interpretation. With time, It Is likely that the practical Implementation of these regulations with respect to asbestos-containing materials will become more clear. The discussion provided here is meant to point out some of the more significant changes and when they are projected to come into effect The reader will need to seek additional clarification on exact requirements for labeling, placarding, etc. as these requirements become effective. On October 1, 1991. regulations that significantly revised the HMR took effect. These revisions were published in the Federal Register on December 21, 1990, as 49 CFR Part 107, et a!.. Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards; Changes of Classification, Hazard Communication. Packaging and Handling Requirements Based on UN Standards and Agency Initiative; Final Rule. Depending on interpretation, the new regulations may significantly change the classification, packaging, shipping and hazard communication requirements for asbestos. ------- STUDENT UWJUAL AS8ESTO6 ABATEMEHT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Fwfcratf. SMt w>d Locd Ftogufatory FfcquirNTWfts Pag* 32 Since the regulations became effective, the DOT has issued revisions to the HMR and has indicated that more are likely. A recent significant revision was published in the Federal Register on October 1, 1992. Written requests to the DOT for clarification of specific asbestos issues in the HMR have also been made, but no official responses have been noted as of this writing. Further, the effective dates for many of the requirements are phased over the next few years which has deferred the impact of the rule. The previous DOT asbestos regulations took more than a year of interpretations and revisions before they were officially interpreted by the DOT and adopted by the asbestos abatement industry. This section will first review the previous DOT asbestos regulations. This will be followed by a review of the significant changes to asbestos regulations in the revised HMR. Previous DOT Regulations The last substantive change to the HMR for asbestos was published in 1986. These regulations were later revised and full adherence to the requirements were delayed until January 1, 1988. Those regulations listed friable asbestos as a Class 9 hazardous substance with a reportabte quantity (RQ) of one pound. Two shipping descriptions in the hazardous materials table (HMT) applied to asbestos: • Asbestos. ORM-C • Hazardous substance, solid, n.o.s., ORM-E The Asbestos, ORM-C classification was referred to as 'commercial value asbestos* because of exceptions found in 173.1090 of the HMR which excluded "manufactured products—whose commercial value is not dependent on their asbestos content.' DOT ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Socbon XII - Ftdofal. Stata and loot ftogutattry Raqubomonts designed this classification for refined asbestos which was used to make products and not for asbestos-containing products or asbestos abatement waste. For regulation of asbestos debris and waste from abatement projects, DOT directed the industry to use the Hazardous Substance, Solid, N.O.S. (not otherwise specified), ORM-E classification. The identification number for this classification was NA9188. This classification required that any single container (bags or drums) of material which exceeded the RQ (one pound) be labeled and transported in closed trucks or dumpsters. Revised Regulations Material Classification -The most obvious revision to the HMR is the proper shipping names that are found in the HMT. In the December 1990 Final Rule, DOT eliminated the former classifications and listed two new descriptions: • Blue asbestos (croddolite) or Brown asbestos (amosite, mysorite) • White asbestos (chrysotjle, actJnolite, anthophytlite, tremolite) On October 1,1992. DOT published a revision of the Final Rule which designated the Blue or Brown asbestos and White asbestos shipping names for international use and created a new generic Asbestos shipping name for domestic transportation of aH forms of asbestos in the United States. The identification number for domestic Asbestos is NA2212. The following review will concentrate on the requirements of the domestic Asbestos classification. Al forms of asbestos are Class 9 hazardous materials. The RQ for friable asbestos remains one pound. ------- STUD6KT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Soction XII - Fedora!, State and Local OsguUtory Roqurwnenls Pag034 As with the previous HMR, there are exceptions to the rules. Nonfrlable asbestos continues to be excepted and is not subject to the requirements of the HMR. The HMT also lists a nonbulk quantity packaging exception in 173.216. While the issue of 'commercial value" was dropped, this exception does exclude. "Asbestos which is immersed or fixed in a natural or artificial binder material (such as cement plastic, asphalt, resins or mineral ore), and manufactured products containing asbestos....' ft would seem that manufactured products containing asbestos which are friable would not be excepted from the nonbulk quantity packaging requirements. Exceptions notwithstanding, the revised HMR includes a series of new requirements and restrictions. The following paragraphs will review the packaging, shipping and hazard communication requirements which pertain to the design of asbestos abatement projects. Packaging Requirements - One of the major goals of the new HMR was to update and improve the packaging requirements. DOT discarded the previous practice of directly specifying the packaging for each material type and instead instituted two new concepts: packing groups and performance-oriented packaging standards (POPS). Each material classification is assigned to packing groups I. II or III based on the level of hazard associated with transporting the material. Packing group I is the most restrictive, while packing group III is the least restrictive. Asbestos is in packing group III. There are extensive "performance" guidelines for packing group III POPS in the HMR, but these do not appear to apply to asbestos because of two packaging exceptions in the HMT, which are based on the weight of material in each container. Remember, nonfriabie asbestos and friable asbestos less than the RO are already excluded from regulation under the HMR. ------- STUDENT MANUAL AS86STOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Federal. State and local Ftegutoiory Roquromonts The first packaging exception found in 173.4 is for small quantities of Class 9 (asbestos) materials. This exception stales a small quantity of material is excepted from other packaging requirements (i.e., packing group) If it meets certain specified POPS criteria. First, there must be no more than one ounce of material per container and the entire package must not exceed 29 kg (64 pounds). While this will not apply to bags of asbestos waste from abatement projects, it could apply to the shipment of bulk samples collected prior to designing a project. Second, each container must be constructed of plastic, earthenware, glass, or metal wtth a minimum thickness of 0.2 mm (0.008 inch). Sample container lids must be held in place with wire, tape, or other positive means. Each container must be secured inside the package with cushioning. Finally, once samples are contained, specified package testing requirements must be certified to have been met before shipment The second exception to packaging regulations appfies to friable asbestos waste before it is transported by a waste hauler. The weight of the material in each container is again the determining factor. Because each container of asbestos waste will exceed the small quantities exception in 173.4, it is instead subject to the exception for nonbuik quantities as found in the already referenced 173.216. Nonbuik quantities are defined as a RQ less than 30 kg (66 pounds). According to this exception, friable ACM must be transported in rigid, leak-tight packaging such as fiber drums or hopper-type motor vehicles. Bags of asbestos material must be dust and sift proof. There are other noteworthy packaging issues in the HMR which could apply to an asbestos abatement project One issue is the packaging requirements for mixtures of hazardous materials. Assume that during the abatement project, a contractor removes both asbestos- ------- STUDENT MANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESJGN Section XII - Fwtorat. State and Local Rogotafcxy Ftequiranwnis Pap* 36 containing floor tile and mastic. A liquid mastic remover is used to remove the mastic. The mastic remover is classified as a hazardous material According to the HMR, if more than one hazardous material is combined, then the total material is classified according to the highest applicable hazard class. Therefore, if mastic remover is combined with asbestos, then the classification could be different and a whole new set of regulations for the higher class of hazard would have to be followed. During the course of the abatement project, a contractor may want to reuse some of his fiber drums. This packaging will have to be inspected to ensure that it continues to conform with the requirements of the rule prior to reuse. In addition, it may not be reused unless it is free from incompatible residue, rupture, or other damage which reduces its structural integrity. The new HMR also states that plastic packaging (plastic bags) may not be reused at all. Shipping - After the samples or asbestos waste are packaged, the shipper must select an appropriate carrier. Just as the packaging regulations vary depending on the weight of material, the regulations for shipping differ depending upon the material classification. Up to 200 kg of asbestos can be sent on board passenger or cargo aircraft or rail car. It is the shipper's responstoHity to determine what materials are being shipped, prior to shipment. This is not possible In the case of bulk sample shipment because the samples are being shipped in order to determine what the asbestos content is. Without any knowledge of what the samples do or don't contain, the "worst case" must be assumed. In other words, if the shipper thinks that there is asbestos in the samples, then the shipper must assume that asbestos is In the samples. The asbestos content assumed to be in the samples should be based upon past experience and professional judgment. ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XII - Federal, StaJo and Local Regulatory Raquirarrwrts Page 37 Hazard Communication Requirements - Prior to abatement the designer wiB need to incorporate the new HMR into the project specifications for enforcement during the project An updating of specifications to incorporate the new hazard communications and transportation requirements will be in order. It should be noted that while the HMR is effective October 1, 1991, compliance with the hazard communication requirement for Class 9 materials is not mandatory unti October 1, 1993. The revised HMR Includes changes to the shipping papers, marking, packaging, and transportation requirements. There is a transition period for complying with the new shipping paper and label requirements. On preprinted labels and shipping papers, the HMR requirements must be complied with no later than October 1, 1992. It should be noted that there are exceptions to the marking and labeling requirements for limited quantity (less than 66 pounds) shipments. The HMR states that it is unlawful to tamper with any of the required markings or to misrepresent the material being transported. Strictly speaking, only asbestos, asbestos- containing materials, or asbestos-contaminated materials can be put into prelabeled, premarked bags. Storage of other items, such as decontaminated respirators, extension cords and towels in these bags will be unlawful. The shipper is still required to prepare shipping papers for the asbestos being transported. As required by current regulations, the shipping description, name of the shipper, and an emergency response telephone number wHI continue to be required. The revised HMR requires that the shipping description now include the proper shipping name, hazard class, identification number, packing group, and total quantity of material. Furthermore, "RQ" ------- STUDENT WNUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESGN Section XII - F^dorrf. Stile aod Local FtegutMory R0quir>m«nts must be included at the beginning of the shipping description. The certifications that have been required by current regulations on shipping papers have not been changed and must still be included. The shipper must mark packages greater than 66 pounds that contain asbestos. One change In the HMR is that packages are to be marked with the consignee's or consignor's name and address except when the material is transported by highway only and wil not be transported from one motor carrier to another. In addition, the new HMR requires that packages must now be marked with the proper shipping name and identification number for the material contained in it Material that is authorized for transportation must have the proper label with new specifications for the colors, design, durability, location, and printing acceptable for the labels. In addition, bags of asbestos material that are transported in closed motor vehicles are to be loaded by and tor the exclusive use of the consignor and unloaded by the consignee." This means that a contractor who removed the asbestos must load it onto the vehicle and that the person who transports the material must unload it If nonfriabte asbestos is the only waste being transported, the shipment is not subject to the requirements of the HMR. This would include materials such as Transite, floor tile, resitent sheet flooring, and roofing materials. These materials are those classified in the NESHAP regulation as Category I and II nonfriabte materials. According to the NESHAP regulation, these asbestos-containing materials could possibly be left in place during the demolition of the building. Therefore, it appears that this final rule parallels the revised NESHAP regulation and that construction debris will not be regulated under the new regulation even though this debris could contain asbestos. ------- STU06NTMANUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PflOJECT DESIGN Section XII - Federal. State and Local Regulatory Requirements Page 38 STATE AND LOCAL REGULATIONS States, counties, cities and localities are often permitted and choose to have and enforce standards different from the federal standards and from each other's standards. For example, state standards can usually be different from federal standards as long as they are at least "as effective as' the federal standards. The following are some of the areas for which states, counties, cities, and localities choose to have and enforce standards different from the federal standards: certifications and licenses for contractors, consultants, inspectors, air monitoring specialists and project designers; NESHAP trigger limits and notification periods; project notifications and fees; and not automatically accepting people certified in other states. Examples of differing state and local requirements at the time of writing include: not being able to enter an abatement area in New York City unless you have their "Limited Waste Handlers" license; being required to have a Florida asbestos contractor's or consultant's license to direct work there; and being required to be a licensed state asbestos abatement contractor or licensed state asbestos roofing abatement contractor to perform work on asbestos-containing roofs in Georgia. Many other states and cities have their own versions of differing regulations or interpretations. Furthermore, those regulations and interpretations are subject to additions and updates. Thus, all project designers, consultants, and contractors need to learn the state and local regulations of the area in which the project is being planned. Then they must comply with the most stringent of all the applicable regulations while the project Is being performed. ------- STUDENT UWJUAL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT D6SK3N Section XII - Fwtorrf. State and Local Rogutetory Rcquwnonts REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What are the requirements for building inspections in the NESHAP regulations? 2. When was the last ban imposed on spray-applied fireproofing? 3. According to AH ERA, when must a LEA retain an accredited project designer? 4. What is ASMARA and what does It stipulate regarding training requirements? 5. What asbestos product did the CPSC ban in 1978? 6. List at least four OS HA standards that apply to asbestos abatement projects? 7. Name at least three locations/activities where OSHA requires asbestos 'Danger" signs to be posted or placed? 8. What Is the reportable quantity for friable asbestos as stated in the DOT regulations? ------- SECTION XIII Design Workshop ------- STUDENT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN S«cton XIII-1 • Infrodurton to Lab Page 2 1. INTRODUCTION TO LAB In this first session of the design laboratory, your instructor(s) will explain the concept of the design laboratory and dearly outline what will be required of you during the remainder of the course. The sections in your manual correspond to the sessions into which this course is divided. Copies of the material used for discussion are included in your manual, under the appropriate section. Also included for your benefit are a list of objectives for each session, and in some cases, study questions which will help you review the main points from the lectures. These questions will be helpful in preparation for the examination at the end of the course. Learning Objectives; 1. Understand philosophy of lab. 2. Understand structure of lab. 3. Understand objectives of lab. 4. Understand deliverables required of each workgroup. ------- Exhibits ------- OBJ CT1V Use of — Guideline Specifications Drawings Drawing Indexes Details Contracts, Pay Requests Cost Estimates ------- RESOURCES Av il blel formation: Physical Data of Facility Existing Drawings Slides of School Survey Data Management Plan School District Objectives Work Materials: Abatement Drawings Replacement Drawings Abatement Specifications Replacement Specifications Contracts for Construction and Administration Cost Estimates ------- IMPORTANT Copyrighted materials in this manual have been reproduced by permission from the National Institute of Building Sciences and the American Institute of Architects. AIA permission Is granted under license #94043. The copyrighted materials in this manual cannot be used for any other purposes than education/training. Information regarding the purchase of the NIBS Model Guide Specifications Asbestos Abatement in Buildings, AIA MASTERSPEC, or AIA Documents can be obtained by calling the telephone numbers provided below. National Institute of Building Sciences 1201 L Street, N.W., Suite 400 Washington, D.C. 20005 (202) 289-1092 American Institute of Architects Office of the General Counsel 1735 New York Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006 (202) 626-7391 /i ------- STUDENT ASBESTOS ABATCMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section XIII-1 • Ir.troducacn to Lab 1. Introduction to Lab Learning Objectives of Introductory Chapter Exhibits • Resources for Conducting Laboratory Exercise • Objectives of Laboratory ------- DESIGN LABORATORY TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction to Lab Learning Objectives of Introductory Chapter Exhibits • Resources for Conducting Laboratory Exercise • Objectives of Laboratory 2. Problem Presentation Learning Objectives and Study Questions Exhibits • Physical Data for Hypothetical AHERA School • Inspection Report for Asbestos-Containing Materials • Management Plan 3. Design Issues Learning Objectives and Study Questions Exhibits • Critical Design Decisions 4. Drawings Learning Objectives and Study Questions Abatement Drawing Exhibits • Floorplans for AHERA Elementary School • Example Index of Abatement Drawings • Example Abatement Detail Drawing Replacement Drawing Exhibits • Example Index of Replacement Drawings • Example of Replacement Detail Drawings Drawings Workshop 5. Specifications Learning Objectives and Study Questions Exhibits • Examples from National Institute of Building Sciences Model Guide Specifications • Examples from MASTERSPEC Replacement Specifications • Example Project Manual Table of Contents Specification Workshop • Portions of NIBS and MASTERSPEC Specifications for markup ------- 6 Contracts and Administration Learning Objectives and Study Questions Exhibits • AIA Document B141 - Standard Form of Agreement between Owner and Architect • AIA Document A101 - Standard Form of Agreement between Owner and Contractor • AIA Document A201 - General Conditions of the Contract for Construction • AIA Document G702 - Appfication and Certificate for Payment Contracts and Administration Workshop 7. Cost Estimates Learning Objectives and Study Questions Exhibits • Considerations for Preparing Cost Estimates • Example Abatement Cost Estimating Forms • Example Abatement Cost Estimates Cost Estimate Workshop 8. Group Presentations Learning Objectives 9. Instructors Design Lab Summary Learning Objectives Exhibits ------- LIST OF DELIVERABLES 1. List of field data needed 2. List of assumptions 3. List of abatement drawings 4. Description of each sheet 5. Layout of each sneet 6. Edited abatement specifications (four sections) 7 List ol replacement drawings 8 Description cf each sheet 9 Layout of each sneet ^ana-drawn) 10. Edited replacement specifications (four sections) 11. Contracts 12. Cost estimates a. A/E fee for total pro;ect including construction observation (one oerson observing luii-tme), abatement design, and replacement design b. Air monitoring fee c. Total constructicn cost • abatement • renovation d. Total project ccst - items a-»-b + c ------- STJCCNT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PHOJEC'DESIGN Sec-jo-i XIII-2 • Pofcte-n P-ewniatwr Page! 2. Problem Presentation Learning Objectives and Study Questions Exhibits • Physical Data for Hypothetical AHERA School • Inspection Report for Asbestos Containing Materials • Management Plan ------- S'UCr.N' AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Section Xlil 2 • Problem Presentation 2. PROBLEM PRESENTATION Learning Objectives: 1. Divide into workgroups. 2. Understand hypothetical design problem: "AHERA School". Study Questions: 1. What are the benefits of using an interdisciplinary approach to asbestos abatement? 2. What is the role of the designer in regard to the management plan? 3. Why should asbestos abatement projects be designed, not left to a contractor to select the best method? ------- Exhibits ------- PHYSICAL DATA Name of property: AHERA Elementary Location: Comer of Elm Street and Wilson Avenue Lonesome Plains, USA Owner: Lonesome Plains School District Dates of Construction: 1924 original building; 1962 addition Square Footage: 1924 basement 7,200 SF 1924 first floor 7,200 SF 1924 second floor 7,200 SF 1962 first floor 7.200SF 1962 cafeteria 4.050 SF 1962 second floor 8,200 SF Mechanical Systems: 1924 building - low pressure steam boiler and radiators 1962 addition - hot water boiler and finned tub radiation, cafeteria served by package unit air conditioner Window unit air conditioners in some classrooms Roofing: 1924 - Original slate roof 1962 - Original 3-ply built-up roof and 1974 cover with 4-ply built-up roof system Major Renovations: 1974 Installed acoustical tile lay-in ceiling in admini- stration offices, cafeteria, kitchen and library; New carpet in administration offices and library; and Original ceilings left in place above new ceilings. Elevator: Installed in 1962 addition Windows: 1924 - Wood double hung 1962 - Aluminum frame Ceilings: 1924 - Acoustical plaster on wood lath 1962 - Acoustical plaster on metal lath - Sheetrock in all toilets ------- PHYSICAL DATA CODE COMPLIANCE: School Board will authorize abatement/renovation designer to petition local building official for variances for compliance with current codes. Items requiring confirmation and/or clarification are noted below: -manner of new fireproofing or re-spray. -windows in walls between classrooms and corridor (as indicated in slide presentation). -electrical system does not require upgrade. -no sprinkler system. ------- PHYSICAL DATA SCHEDULE: JuneS: last day of school June 6-14: move out/store furniture June 15: begin abatement July 1 -9: administration offices at school closed for July 4th holiday August 15: abatement/renovation complete August 16-31: move in/re-occupy September 1: first day of school Administrative offices of school will remain in operation during summer months, except as noted above. Offices cannot be relocated to on-site trailer, and toilet facilities of the school must remain available for use. (Single unisex toilet will be acceptable.) Telephone, fax, computer link, and air conditioning must remain in full operation. ------- PHYSICAL DATA RENOVATION PROGRAM (following abatement): The School Board has issued the following general guidelines regarding replacement materials for renovation: -Paint all areas damaged by abatement. •New flooring material will be similar to existing type. -Boiler and heating system will continue to operate; replacement/ upgrade are not part of this project. -New acoustical lay-in ceiling tile and new lights will be installed throughout. (Power system is adequate to install new lighting.) -Consideration will be given to new systems, etc., if designer's cost trade-off study indicates budget will allow purchasing new. -Roof is in good condition; no repairs needed. ------- AHERA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Lonesome Plains School District Lonesome Plains, USA INSPECTION FOR ASBESTOS- CONTAINING MATERIAL December 1, 1989 Job No. 89032 ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES State City, USA ------- APPENDIX VI Results of Polarized Light Microscopy Bulk Sample Analyses ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KrasCty,U.SA DateRaoeHvd: 9-20-89 Protect Nvw AHERA Elementary School Client: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AH ERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA401 Sample Type: 1924 boitef ins Jatkxi Sample Description: White chunky matenai DaleAnetyzBd: 9-25-89 Deteof Sample: 8-14-89 Cfant 1.0. Na: 89032-001 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotile 2. Amosite 3. OockJolite 4 Anthophyfltte 5. Tremolite/Actlnolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2 3. 4. 5. 70% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Celulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fbers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovfte/Vermlcuilte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 30% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kama* Cty. USA OateRecafead: &-20-69 Protect Harem: AHERA Elementary School COant Urasorne Ptalns School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA402 Sample Type: 1962 boiler insUatton Sample Description: White, fibrous Data Analyze* 9-25-99 Date of Sample: 8-14-69 CQent I.D. No.: 89032-002 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. ChrysotUa 2. Amosite 3. CroadoJrte 4 AnthophyUite 5. Tremolite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 35% B. NON^SBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 65% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SBMCES Karma Oy.U-SA Bdk Satiate Amrvrii DateRecatoed: 9-20-89 ProtectName: AHERA Elementary School Client: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AH ERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA403 Sample Type: Plp« insulation Sample Description: Air cell QtfaAntfyzad: 9-25-89 DcteofSampiK 8-14-89 Client 1.0. No.: 89032-003 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotie 2. Amosite 3. Crocriome 4. Anthoprryttlte 5. Tremolite/Actlnolrte ESTIMATED PERCENT 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 50% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Celulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermicuiite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 40% 5% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.USA Bdk SamrJa Datertecafcwi: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Otont Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Bementary School Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA404 Sample Type: Pfpe insulation Sample Description: White, chunky material Date Analyzed: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 dent ID No.: 89032-004 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysolite 2. Amosite 3 Crocidolite 4 Anthophyllte 5. Tremolite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 70% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wooo fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovtte/Vermtcufitd) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 30% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kama* Cty. USA Data Rawed. 9-20-89 Project Nam* AHERA Bementary School Client: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA405 Sample Type: Pipe insulation Sample Description: White, fibrous 0*0 Analyzed: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 CBent I.D. No.: 89032-005 ASBESTOS MINERALS B. 1. 2. 3. 4 5. ChrysotJle Amosite Crocidollte Anthoprtyllle Tremolite/Actlnolite NON-ASBESTOS 6. 7. 8 9. 10. 11. Celulose (paper /wood fibers) Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers Binders Mica (Muscovite /Vermculite) Quartz Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 65% 3. 4. 5. ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 35% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES .Cty.U-S-A. OataRec*«d: 9-20-89 Project Nam: AHERA Elementary School Client Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA406 Sample Type: Pipe joint Insulation Sample Description: Whtte chunky material QateAnatyzad: 9-2S-89 Date of Sample 8-14-69 Client I.D. No.: 89032-006 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotile 2. Amosrte 3. Crocidollte 4. AnthophyUtte 5. Tremollte/Actlnolrte ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 90% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermtoulite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 10% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Btrfk Samie AnBtafai QateReoetod: 9-20-89 Project Namac AHERA Elementary School Otent: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA407 Sample Type: Pipe insutadon Sample Description: White chunky material Anatyzad: 9-25-S9 Data of Sample: S-14-69 CflentLD.Na: 89032-007 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotie 2. Amosrte 3. Crocidollte 4. Anthophylllte 5. Tremoiite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 60% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. C«ilu*ose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. a 9. 10. 11. 40% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KamwCty.U.SA Date Receded: 9-20-89 Prafect Name AHERA Elementary School (Sent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID. No: BSA408 Sample Type: Pipe joint Insulation Sample Oeecripbort White material Date Analyzed: 9-25-69 DataofSampte: 8-14-89 CBent I.D. No.: 89032-008 ASBESTOS INERALS i. ChrysotHe 2. Amosrte 3. Crocidolite 4. AnthophyUite 5. Tremollte/Actlnolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 85% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Celukwe (paper /wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mtea( usoovite/VermiciJfce) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 15% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SBMCES Kare»Cty. U.SA Dale Receded: 9-20-89 Preset Name: AHERA Elementary School atone Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID. No,: BSA409 Sample Type: Pipe joint insulation Sample Descnpdon: While fibrous QgtoAneJyzad: 9-25-69 Dele of Sample: 8-14-89 Otont I.D. No.: 89032-009 ASBESTOS MWERALS 1. ChrysotUo 2. Amosrt* 3. Cfoadollte 4. AntnophyHlrte 5. Tremolfte/Aciinoiite ESTIMATED PERCEKTT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 75% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/VemnculiJe) 10. Quartz 11 Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 25% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.U.SA 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Bementary School Client Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Bementary School Laboratory I.D. Ho.: BSA410 Sample Type: Ptpe foint InsUation Sample Description: White chunky DateAnatyzad: 9-25-89 of Sample: 8-14-69 dent I.D. No.: 89032-010 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotie 2. AmosJte 3. Croddolife 4. Anthophyllrte 5. Tremolrte/Actinotae ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 70% B. NONVkSBESTOS 6. C0I Jose (paper /wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Woo Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Vermicume) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 30% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KmasCty.USA 9-20-89 Project Nam* AHERA Elementary School CSent Lonesome Rains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID. No.: BSA411 Sample Type: Acoustical plaster Sample Description: White, fluffy material DatoAmryzetfc 9-25-83 Date of Sampler 8-14-69 CIlenM.D. No.: 89032-011 ASBESTOS MINERALS B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chrysotle Amos it* Ooodolite Anthophyllite Tremotoe/Acttnolite NOW ASBESTOS 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Cellulose (paper /wood fibers) Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers Binders Mica (Muscovrte/Vermculite) Quartz Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 15% 2. 3. 4. 5. ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7 8. 9. 10. 11. 60% 25% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES I Cay USA 9-20-99 Project NamK AHERA Elementary School CUenc Lonesome Plains School Dbtrtct Survey Location: AH ERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA412 Sample Type: Acoustical plaster Sample Description: White, fibrous Dot* Analyzed: 9-25-99 Dote of Sample: 8-14-89 CUenM.D. No.: 89032-012 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotte 2. Amos*e 3. Crocidolite 4. Anthophytlrte 5. Tremoirte/Aclinolfte ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 20% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Celuiose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovtte/Verrrucuiite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 20% 60% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KaneaBCty.U.SA Data Recefead: 9-20-69 Project Nam* AHERA Bementary School COant: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. Na: BSA413 SamplaType: Pipe insulation Sample Oescnpttorr White chunky material Date Anaryzad: 9-25-89 OataofSan^le: 8-14-89 Otent I.D. Na: 89032-013 ASBESTOS MINERALS i. Chrysotrte 2. Amosrte 3. Crocidolrte 4. AnthophyUite 5. TremoKe/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PEHCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 60% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Vermeulrte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. a 9. 10. 11. 40% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.USA DafteRecefead: 9-20-69 Protect Name: AHERA Elementary School Cfant Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA414 Sample Type: Pipe joint Insulation Sample Description: White chunky material Dtt» Analyzed: 9-25-69 Dote of Sample: S-14-89 CUent I.D. No.: 89032-014 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotile 2. Amosite 3. Cfocxlolfte 4. AnthophyUrte 5. Tremolite/ActinoMe ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 85% B SON-ASBESTOS 6. Celulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte.A/ermtculfle) 10 Quartz 11 Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 15% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.U.SA Data Received: 9-20-89 PfOjectNarnK AHERA Elementary School COert Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA415 Sample Type: Plaster brown coat Sample Description: Ught tan cememitious Date Analyzed: 9-25-89 Dote of Sample: 8-14-89 Cleat IJ5. No.: 89032-015 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chrysotile Amosite Crocidolrte Anthoprtylite Tremolite/Actinolite NON-ASBESTOS 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 CeHulose (paper /wood libers) Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers Binders Mica (Muscovite /Vermjculite) Quartz Others ESTMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4 5. ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 99% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kmtt Cty. USA Dtfe Received: 9-20-89 Protect Nam* AHERA Bementary School CSent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA416 Sample Type: Plaster brown coat Sample Description: Light tan cemerttnious Dafc» Analyzed: 9-25-69 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 COentl.D. Na: 89032-016 ASBESTOS MINERALS i. ChrysotHe 2. Amosde 3. Crcodolite 4 Anthophyllite 5. Tremoirte/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 1% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6 CeltJose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 99% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.U.SA DateRecetad: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Client: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AhCRA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA417 Sample Type: Acoustical piaster Sample Description: White, fluffy material Dale Analyze* 9-25-89 Data of Sample: 8-14-89 Client I.D. No.: 89032-017 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotile 2. Amosite 3. Croodotite 4 Anthophyllite 5. Tremolite/Actlnome ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 35% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Gltss/Mlneral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Verrmculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 20% 45% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KwwsCty.U.SA Dtfaftocafeari: 9-20-S9 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School COent Lonesome Ptains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA418 Sample Type: Acoustical piaster Sample Description: White, fibrous material Oat* Analyzed: 9-25-89 Dote of Sample: 8-14-89 Otert I.D. No.: 89032-018 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotle 2. Amosrte 3. Crocidolrte 4 Anthophyllrte 5. Tremolrte/Actirtolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 15% NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Vermiculrte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 65% 20% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KamwCty.U.SA QeleReoitoBd: 9-2049 Prafact Name: AHEflA Elementary School CHart Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID. No.: BSA419 Sample Type: Plaster brown coat Sample Description: Light tan cememitious OBtoAnatyzad: 9-25-89 Data of Sample: 8-14-89 CUeril.D. Ma: 89032-019 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 ChrysoMe 2. Amosxe 3. Crocidolite 4 Anthophyllrte 5. Trwnollte/Actinolrte ESTIMATED PERCENT 2 3. 4. 5. B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Gtoss/Mineral Wool Fibers a Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/VerTTttcuHe) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 99% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Km*aCty,U.SA Date Reowvwt 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Bementary School dent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA420 Sample Typec Plaster brown coat Sample Oescnption: Light tan cementrtious QateAnatyzad: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 CBent LD. NOJ 89032-020 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotile 2. Amosrte 3. Croodolrte 4 Anthophytiite 5. Tremolite/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KmMCty.USA Date Receded: 9-20-89 Project Nairn: AHERA Eementary School CQant: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA421 Sample Type: 3ipe joint insulation Sample Description: White chunky material : 9-25-89 Dale or Sample: 8-14-69 CBent I.D. No.: 89032-021 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotile 2. Amosite 3. Ocodolite 4 Anthophyflite 5. Tremolite/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 65% B. NON.AS8ESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 3. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrtc/'Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7 a 9. 10. 11. 35% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.U.SA DateReoafced: 9-20-89 Project Nam*: AHERA Elementary School Ctent- Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA422 Sample Type: Pipe joint Insulation Sample Description: White chunky material OetoAnetyzad: 9-25-89 Data of Sample: 8-14-89 Client 1.0. No.: 89032-022 ASBESTOS MINERALS B. 1. 2. 3. 4 5. Chrysotie Amosne Croctddite Anthophyllite Tremotite/Actinoitte NON-ASBESTOS 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers Binders Mica (Muscovrte/Vermiculrte) Quartz Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 70% 3. 4. 5. ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 30% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KmatCty,U.SA Bdk Sample Anarvsto DataRecatoad: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Cflent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Bementary School Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA423 Sample Type: AcousticaJ plaster Sample Description: White chunky material DBteAnafyzad: 9-25-89 DM* of Sample: 8-14-89 CSent 1.0. No.: 89032-023 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotde 2. Amosrte 3. CrocidcJrte 4 Anthopriyflite 5 Tremolite/Actinolrte ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4 5. B. NON-ASBESTOS 6 CeUidose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11 Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 60% 40% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SBMCES KmnCty.USA BtJk Samrie DateReoatoad: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School C»ent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA424 Sample Type: Acoustical plaster Sample Description: White cnunky material Analyzed: 9-25-69 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 Otert I.D. No.: 89032-024 ASBESTOS MWERALS B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chrysolite Amostte Crocidome Anthopnylite Tremolite/Actinolite NON-ASBESTOS 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Cellulose (paper /wood fibers) Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers Binders Mica (Muscovrte/Vermiculite) Quartz Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 1% 2. 3. 4. 5. ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7 8 9. 10. 11. 99% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Karon Cty, USA Data RecefeBd: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Olart: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA425 Sample Type: AcousticaJ plaster Sample Description: White fluffy 9-25-69 D«to of Sample: 8-14-69 OJentl.D. No.: 89032-025 ASBESTOS MINERALS I Chrysotfe 2. Amosrte 3. CrocidoJite 4. Anthophyllite 5. Tremoiite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscoviie/Vermiculite) 10 Quanz 11 Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 99% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kna>Cty,U.SA Date Rooafrod: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Eementary School Otent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA426 Sample Type: Acoustical piaster Sample Description: White fibrous Dat»A«*yzact 9-25-69 (Me of Sample: 8-14-69 Giant ID. No.: 89032-026 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotde 2. Amostte 3. Croctfolrte 4. Anttiophyllite 5. Tremolile/Actinciite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 1% B. NON-AS8ESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Gtass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8 Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculfte) 10. Quartz 11 Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 99% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Data ReceiwBd: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Client Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA427 Sample Type: Spray-applied fireproofing Sample Description: Brown fibrous material DatoAnalyzad: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-69 CBent I.D. No.: 89032-027 ASBESTOS MINERALS i. Chrysotile 2. Amosrte 3. Oocidolite 4 Anthophylllte 5. Tremolrte/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 35% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper /wooo fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9 Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 20% 45% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Date Received: 9-20-89 Project Name: AH6RA Bementary School CSent lonesome Rains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. Na: BSA428 Sampte Type Spray-applied fireproofinq Sample Description: Brown fibrous material DatoAnaryzed: 9-25-88 Data of Sample: 8-14-69 CHentl.D. No.: 89032-028 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotile 2. Amosite 3. Croodoiite 4. Anmophyllite 5. TremoJrte/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 35% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. CeflUose (paoer/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 20% 45% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL S8MCES KamwCty.U.SA Data Received: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Eementary School Client: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA429 Sample Type: Spray-applied hreproofing Sample Description: Brown granular material Dote Analyzed: 9-25-89 DataofSampte: 8-14-89 Okrtl.D. No. 89032-029 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysodle 2. Amosite 3. Crocidolrte 4. Anthophytlite 5. Tremoiae/AcJinolite ESTIMATED PERCEhfT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 40% NON-ASBESTOS 6. Celulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite /Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 20% 40% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.U.SuA. 9-20-89 Prefect Name AHERA Elementary School CBent: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA430 Sample Type; Spray-applied fireproofing Sample Description: Brown fibrous DtteAnatyiMt 9-2S-89 Dote of Sample: 8-14-89 CUent I.D. Na: 89032-030 ASBESTOS MINERALS B. 1. 2. 3. 4 5. Chrysotde Amosrte Crccidolite Anthopnyllite Tremolite/Actinoiite NON-ASBESTOS 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) Glass/ Mineral Wool Fibers Binders Mica (Muscovite /Vermiculite) Quartz Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 30% 2. 3. 4. 5. ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 35% 35% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Ktf»ttCty.U.SA Bit DoteRecervKi: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Otert: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA431 Sample Type: Spray-applied lireoroofing Sample Description: Brown /gray fibrous material CMe Analyzed: 9-2S-89 Date of Samp** 8-14-89 Cflent ID. No.: 89032-031 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotde 2. Amosrte 3. Crcodolrie 4. Anthopfiyllite 5. Tremolite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 35% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9 Mica (Muscovite/Verrruculrte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 20% 45% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.U&A. Data Recatoed: 9-20-89 Pra^act Name: AHERA Elementary School Client Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHEHA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA432 Sample Type: Spray-applied fireproofing Sample Description: Brown granular material D*B Analyzed: 9-25-89 Date 01 Sample: 8-14-89 CHent 1.0. No.: 89032-032 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysorte 2. Amosite 3. Crocidolfte 4 Anthopnytlite 5. Tremolrte/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 45% NON^ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8 Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 20% 35% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES MJ.SA OateReceiwed: 9-20-89 CM*AnafyzB* 9-2S-69 Project Name: AJHERA Elementary School COant Lonesome Plains School Dfetnct Survey Locator AHER A Elementary School Data of Sample: 8-14-89 Laboratory ID Na: BSA433 Oiert ID Ho.: 89032-033 Sample Type: Spray-applied lireproding Sample Description: Brown, loose, granular material A. ASBESTOS MINERALS ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 35% 2. 3. 4 5. 8. NON-ASBESTOS ESTIMATED PERCENT 6 7. 8. 20% 9. 45% 10. 11. Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chrysotde Amosfle Crocidolite Anthophyllite TremolJte/Actinoi.ie NON ASBESTOS 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Celulose (paper /wood fibers) Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers Binders Mica (Muscovite /Vermculite) Quara Others ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Cty.OSA DateRflcefeod: 9-2Q-S9 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Client: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA434 Sample Type: Acoustical piaster Sample Description: White fibrous Data Analyzed: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-69 Cfienl 1.0. No.: 89032-034 ASBESTOS MINERALS i. ChrysotHe 2. Amosrte 3. Croctdolite 4. Antnophyllite 5. Tremolite/Actinoirte ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (papor/Mood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite;VermioJrte) 10. Quartz n. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 99% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kara»Cty.U.SA 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Cflert: Lonesome Plains School District Suvey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA435 Sample Type: Acoustical plaster Sample Description: White fibrous materai DrtB Analyzed: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 Otert I.D. Ma: 89032-035 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotile 2. Amosrte 3. Occidolrte 4 Anthophyilite 5. Tremoiite/Actlnoiite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 1% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. CeDulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovne/VenncJrte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 99% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kanee.Cty.USA : 9-20-89 Protect Name: AHERA Elementary Schod CUent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA436 Sample Type: Floor Ue. green Sample Description: Green granular ti!e material Dete Analyzed: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 CQent I.D. No.: 89032-036 ASBESTOS (MINERALS 1 ChrysotHe 2. Amosrte 3. Croodolrte 4. Arthopnyilite 5. Tremolite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6 Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8 Binders 9 Mica (Muscovite/Verrniculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 95% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kansas Cfty, U.SA 0*0Rec*fcad: 9-20-89 Project Nam* AHERA Elementary School Caere Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA437 Sample Type: ROOT Ue. brown. 9" x 9" Sample Description: Brown granular DtfaAneJyzad: 9-2S-89 DtfeorSampte: 8-14^9 CUert ID. Na: 89032-037 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 ChrysotiJe 2. Amosrte 3. Croddoirte 4. Anthophyllite 5. Tremolite/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1% B NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovtte/Vermicuiite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 99% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES D*0Rec*feKi: 9-20-89 Project Nam* AHERAElementarySchod Cfent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. Na: BSA438 Sample Type: ROOT tile, yellow Sample Description: Yellow chunky me material DeteAnrtyzad: 9-25-89 Detaof Sample: 8-14-89 Cflent I.D. No.: 89032-038 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. ChrysoUe 2. Amosite 3. Crocidolhe 4 Anthophyllite 5 Tremolfle/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 2% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mtea (Muscovrte/VermicJite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 95% 3% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES &U.SA BufcSamtoAnatvsia Date Received: 9-2O-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary Schod dent Lonesome Plains Schod District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA439 Sample Type: ROOT tile, green. 9* x 9* Sample Description; Green, granular material Date Analyzed: 9-25-89 Oat* of Sample: 8-14-39 OtentID No. 89032-039 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotile 2. Amosae 3. CrockJotrte 4 Anthopnyilite 5. Tremolrte/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PEHCEhTT 6. 7 8. 9. 10. 11. 97% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KmmwCty.U-SX Bdfc 8amoto AneJvah DateRecsMxt 9-20-69 Project Maim: AHERA Elementary School CUent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA440 Sample Type: Floor tile, black, 9* x 9' Sample Description: BlacK. granular DtfaAnalyzKt 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 COent I.D. No.: 89032-040 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotde 2 Amosrte 3 Crocidolite 4 AnthophyUite 5. Tremolite/Actinol;te ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 1% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cflflulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8 Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/VermicUite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 99% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES OtteReoatod: 9-20-89 Preset Name: AHERA Elementary School dare Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: SSA441 Sample Type: Pipe insulation Sample Deacnptton: White, chunky 9-25-89 DataofSampte: 8-14-89 Cttert I.D. No.: 89032-041 ASBESTOS MINERALS i Chrysotile 2. Amosrte 3. Cfcodolite 4 Anthophyllite 5. Tremolite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 60% NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8 Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Vcrmculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 40% Notes. ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KeneeftCty.U&A. Date Received: 9-20-89 Protect Name: AHERA Bementary Schod CBent Lonesome Plains Schod District Survey Location: AHERA Bementary Schod Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA442 Sample Type: Pipe insulation Sample Description: White chunky material Date Analyze* 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 CUent I.D. Na: 89032-042 ASBESTOS INERALS 1 Chrysotile 2. Amosite 3. Crociddite 4. Anthophyil.le 5. Tremdrtc/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 50% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper /wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wod Fibers 8. Binders 9. lea (Muscovrte/Vermtculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 50% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KwwaCty.U.SA Data Beoetad: 9-20-89 Propel Nairn: AHERA Bementary School Client Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Bementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA443 Sample Type: Pipe insulation Sample Description: White fibrous D*B Analyzed: 9-25-69 Oat* of Sample: 8-14-69 (Sent I.D. No.: 89032-043 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotile 2. Amosite 3. Croodolrte 4. Anthophyllite 5. Tremolrte/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PEnCENT V 2. 3. 4. 5. 40% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Ceiulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Vermeuirte} 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7 8 9. 10. 11. 60% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Bitfk Samcte Anatvsta Dale Received: 9-20-89 Prefect Name: AHERA Elementary School Client: Lonesome Rains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. No,: BSA444 Sample Type: Pipe insulation Sample Description: White chunky DeteAnetyzad: 9-25-69 Data of Sample: 8-14-89 Client 1.0. Na: 89032-044 ASBESTOS INERALS 1. Chrysotile 2. Amosite 3. Crocidolite 4 Anthophyilite 5. TremcJite/Actlnolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 65% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. lea (Muscovrte/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11 Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 35% Notes. ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES f.USA Data Recetod: 9-20-89 Prefect Name: AHERA Bernentary Schod Client Lonesome Rains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary Schod Laboratory ID. No.: BSA445 Sample Type: Pipe joint insulation Sample Oescnptton: White fibrous DateAnatyzBd: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 Client I.O. No.: 89032-045 ASBESTOS (MINERALS 1. Chrysolite 2. Amosrte 3. Crcoddite 4. Anthophyllite 5. Tremdrte/Act indite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 45% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wod Fibers 8 Binders 9. Mica (Muscovtfe/VermicuUe) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 55% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KanMBCty.USA DaleReoarvad: 9-20-89 Project Nam* AHERA Elementary School atone Lonesome Plains School District S**vey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory t.D. No.: BSA446 Sample Type: Flue Sample Description: Gray cementitkxis DrttAnrtyzod: 9-2S-Q9 Date ot Sample: 8-14-89 Client I.D. No.: 89032-046 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotle 2. Amosrte 3. Oocidolite 4. Antnophylirte 5. Tremolite/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PERCEMT 1. 2 3. 4 5. 65% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6 Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8 Binders 9. Mtea (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7 8 9. 10. 11. 35% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kansas Cty.U.SA QateRecatoad: 9-20-89 Project Name AHERA Elementary School Client Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID No.: BSA447 Sample Type: Rue Sample Description: Gray cementitious DateAnatyzad: 9-25-89 Data of Sample: 8-14-89 Client ID Na: 89032-047 ASBESTOS MINERALS i. Chrysotde 2. Amosfte 3 Crocxjolite 4 Antnophyflite 5. Tremolite/Acti.Tolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2, 3. 4 5. 45% NON ASBESTOS 6 Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 3. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovde/Vermicdite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 55% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kama* Cty. USA tSanrie Afrtvsfe Date Received: 9-20-69 Protect Name: AHERA Elementary School den: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location; AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID. No.. 8SA448 Sample Type: Mot water tank Sample Description: White chunky material DataAnatyzad: 9-2549 Dace oi Sample: 8-14-89 OJentl.D. Na: 89032-048 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotde 2. Amosite 3. Croodolrte 4 Anthophyllite 5. Tremolrte/Actinoirte ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 70% 3. 4 5. B. NON^SBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiajlite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 30% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES i CXy. US A BtJk Samoto AraivsiB Date Receded 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School OJent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID. No.: BSA449 Sample Type: Floor tile • 9* x 9* blue Sample Description: White chunky material DetaAnaryzad: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 COertt I.D. No.: 89032-049 ASBESTOS (MINERALS i. Chrysotiie 2. Amosite 3. Crcodolrte 4. AnthophyllJte 5. Tremolrte/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cell Jose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. a 9. 10. 11. 97% Notes: Mastic material negative ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KlfMttCty.U.SA BdtcSamdeAnafvsfe Oats Received: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Bementary School CUenL Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I D. No : BSA450 Sample Type: Carpet mastic Sample Description: White chunky material Data Analyzed: 9-25-69 Data of Sample: 8-14-89 Cflent I.D. No.: 89032-050 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotle 2. Amosite 3. Crocdolite 4. AnthophyllKe 5. Tremolite/Actinol.le ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper /wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8 Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Vermicdite) 10 Quartz 11 Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. a 9. 10. 11. 90% 10% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kansas Cty. USA BtJk Sarnie Anehnfe Data Received: 9-20-89 Project Name: AH ERA Elementary School Cflert: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: 3SA451 Sample Type: Carpet mastic Sample Description: White chunky material Data Analyzed: 9-25-99 Data of Sample: 8-14-89 Client I.D. No.: 89032-051 ASBESTOS MINERALS i. ChrysoUe 2. Amosrte 3. Crocidolite 4. Anthophylirte 5. Tremolite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovtfe/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz n. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 90% 10% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SBMCES Kama* Cty. USA Bufc Sanmte Anarvsfe DateReceMK* 9-20-89 Project Name: AH ERA Elementary School dent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. Ho.: BSA452 Sample Type: ROOT tile, green Sample Description: Green, granular tde material DtteAnatyzed: 9-25-89 Oatao*Sample: Olent 1.0. No.: 89032-052 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotile 2. AmosJte 3. Crocidolite 4. Anthophyllrte 5. Tremolite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 2. 3. 4 5. B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Venniculrte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 95% 3% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.U.SA DateRecetact 9-20-39 Project Name AHERA Bementary School Cfant Lonesome Plains School District Survey Loc^ton: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA453 Sample Type: Floor tile, green Sample Description: Green, granular tile material Dtf» Analyzed: 9-25-89 OrtB of Sample: 8-14-89 CUent LD. No.: 89032-053 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotile 2. Amosite 3. CrocWoirte 4. Anthophyllite 5. Tremolite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 2. 3. 4. 5. NOW ASBESTOS 6. CellUose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Vermiculrte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 95% 3% Notes: Mastic matenai negative ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.USA Dote Recede* 8-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Cnant Lonesome Plains Schod District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA454 Sample Type: Floor tUe. black. 9" x 9" Sample Description: Black, granular DetBAneryzfid: 9-2S-89 Date of Sample: 8-14^89 Client I.D. Ma: 89032-054 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotile 2. Amosrte 3. Crocidoiite 4. Anthophyllite 5. Tremolite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 2. 3. 4 5. B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. CeHulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Rbers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite /Vermiculiie) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6 7 8. 9 10. 11. 97% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kama* Cty. USA B«*k Sanwte Arrtvsfe QeJeReceiwad: 9-2O-89 Prefect Name: AHERA Elementary Schod Cflent: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Bememary School Laboratory I.O. No.: BSA455 Sample Type: Floor tKe. black. 9' x 9* Sample Description: Black, granular Data Analyzed: 9-25-69 Dote of Sample: 8-14-89 Otert I.D. Na: 89032-055 ASBESTOS MINERALS i. ChrysotHe 2. Amosite 3. Crocidolite 4 Anthophyllite 5 Tremolite/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PERCENT Z 3. 4. 5. B. NONVtSBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Ffcers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Vermcuirte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 97% Notes: Mastic material negative ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.U.SA OateRecwvad: 9-20-69 Protect Name: AHERA Elementary School dart: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory l.D. No.: BSA456 Sample Typo: ROOT trie. yeUow Sample Description: Yelow. chunky tile material OMe Analyzed: 9-25-89 DateafSampte: 8-14-89 Client 1.0. No.: 89032-056 ASBESTOS MINERALS i. Chrysotde 2. Amosrte 3 Crocidolite 4. Anthoprtylite 5 Tremolite/Actinolrte ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. CeUiJose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite.A/ermtculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 95% 3% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SBMCES Kara* Cty. USA Data Recetod: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School CBart: Lonesome Plains School District Swvey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. No.: 8SA457 Sample Type: ROOT tile, yellow Sample Description. Yellow, cnunxy tile material 9-25-88 DaiaoiSampte: 8-1^89 OJert I.D. No.: 89032-057 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Cnrysotte 2. Amosite 3. Crcodolrte 4 AnthophyHite 5. Tremdite/Actinolrte ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2% B. NON-AS8ESTOS 6. Celulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Vermicidtte) 10. Quara 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 95% 3% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KmMCty,U.SA Data RecaivKt: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School COent: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID. No.: BSA458 Sample Type: Floor tile, green Sample Description: Green, granular trie material : 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 Qlent I.D Na: 89032-056 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotile 2. Amosrte 3 Croctdolrte 4 Anthoprryiiite 5. Tremdite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 2. 3. 4. 5. B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Verrrwculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 95% 3% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KenswCty. U.SA Bulk SamrJe Arrtvste DateRecafeKi: 9-2O-89 Project Name: AHERA Bementary School COent: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA4S9 Sample Type: Acoustical ceding tile Sample Description: White chunky material DrttAnarynd: 9-2549 Date of San*** 8-14-89 Olent 1.0. Na: 69032-059 ASBESTOS MINERALS i. Chrysolite 2. Amosite 3. Crocidolite 4. Anthophyllite 5. Tremotoe/Actinolrte ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B. NON-AS8ESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. MJca (Muscovrte/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11 Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7 8. 9. 10. 11. 60% 40% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.U.SA 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Bernentary School Giant Lonesome Plains School District Suuey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID. No.: BSA460 Sample Type: Acoustical ceiling trie Sample Description: White chunky material DoteAnrfyzad: 9-25-89 8-14-89 CSent I.D. No.: 89032-060 ASBESTOS MINERALS 8. 1. 2. 3. 4 5. Chrysotte Amostte Croadolite AnthophyUrte Tremotite/Actinol ite NON-ASBESTOS 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. CelUose (paper/wood fibers) Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers Binders Mica (Muscovite/VermicuJite) Quartz Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 60% 40% Notes: No asbestos deteciea ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.U.SA Date Received: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School dent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. Na: BSA461 Sample Type: Acoustical ceding Me Sample Description: White chunky material 0*»AnrtyzBd: 9-2S-89 Dtfa of Sample: 8-14-89 Client 1.0. Na: 89032-061 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotile 2. Amosrie 3. Croctdolrte 4. AnthophyHite 5 Tremdrte/Actmolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 8. NON-ASBESTOS 6. CeBUose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovfle/VermicuJite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. & 9. 10. 11. 60% 40% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES /.U.SA DataRecervwt 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School dent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. No.: BSA462 Sample Type: Acoustical ceding tde Sample Description: White chunky material Date Analyzed: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 Client I.D. No.: 89032-062 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotie 2. Amosite 3. Crcodolite 4. Antnophyllite 5. Tremolrte/Actmolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 8. NON^SBESTOS 6. Cefldose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermicuirte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 60% 40% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- ACE ANAL KmttCty.lL&A. Biik Samte Anriwsfa 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Bementary School OtenL Lonesome Plains Schod District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary SchooJ Laboratory ID No.: BSA463 Sample Type: Acoustical ceiling trie Sample Description: White chunky materal DiteAnafynd: 9-25-69 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 OienMD. No: 89032-063 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotlle 2. Amosite 3. CrocJdolrte 4. Anthophyllite 5. Tremolrte/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 8. NON.ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral WooJ Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 60% 40% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES tCty.USA BtJk Sttrato Anarvsfe Data Received: 9-20-69 Project Name AHERA Elementary School Otent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID. No.: BSA464 Sample Type: insulation debris Sample Description: White chunky material QtfeAneJyzad: 9-2S49 OateofSimple: 8-14-69 CJtert I.D. No.: 89032-064 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysotle 2. Amosite 3. Croodolite 4. Anthophyliite 5. Tremoiite/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 70% B. NON-ASSESTOS 6. CelJose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermcuiite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 30% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Btft Sanwia Anrtoto OoteReceivad: 9-20-89 Protect Mama: AHERA Bementary School Otert Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No,: BSA465 Sample Type: Insuiattondebns Sample Description: White cnunky material DrteArah/zad: 9-25-89 Date of Sample 8-14-89 Otent I.D. No.: 89032-065 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotite 2. Amosite 3. Oocidolite 4. Antnophyllite 5. Tremolrte/Actinoiite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1 2. 3. 4 5. 70% B. NONWkSBESTOS 6. CelliJose (paper/wood libers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mtea (Muscovite/Venrocutrte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 30% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES iCty.USA BJk Satiate AnarvgiB Data Recervad: 9-20-89 Prafact Name: AHERA Elementary School Client: Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory 1.0. Na: BSA466 Sample Type: insulation debris Sample Description: White chunky material DeteAraiyzad: 9-25-S9 Dale of Sample: 8-14-89 Cflent I.D. No.: 89032-066 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotde 2. Amosite 3. Crocidolrte 4. Anthophyllrte 5. Tremolrte/Actinciite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 70% B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermiculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 30% Notes: ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kma»Cty,U.SA BtaV Samde AnafvRfe Data Received: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Client Lonesome Rains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA467 Sample Type: Acoustical plaster (at wall) Sample Description: White chunky material DataAneiyzad: 9-25-89 Dale of Sample: 8-14-89 Client ID. No.: 89032-067 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotte 2 Amosite 3 Croctdolite 4 Anthophyllite 5 Tremoiite/Actinoiite ESTIPUIATED PERCENT 1 2 3. 4 5. B. NON-ASBESTOS 6 Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8 Binders 9 Mica (Muscovte/Venriculite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 60% 40% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES Kansas Cty.U.SA Dote Received: 9-20-89 Project Name: AHERA Elementary School Client Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA468 Sample Type: Acoustical plaster (at wall) Sample Description: White chunky material DataAnafyzad: 9-25-89 Data of Sample: 8-14-89 CSent 1.0. Ma: 89032-068 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1 Chrysolite 2. Amosrte 3. Croadolite 4 Anthophytiite 5 TremoJite/Actinolite ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cellulose (paper/wood fibers) 7 Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/Vermtcultte) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 60% 40% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KmnCty.USA Ri4k Samia Anrfvafa Dale Received: 9-20-89 Prefect Name: AHERA Elementary School Otent Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHERA Elementary School Laboratory ID. No.: BSA469 Sample Type: Acoustical piaster (at wai) Sample Description: White chunky material Q** Analyzed: 9-25-89 Date of Sample: 8-14-89 CUentl.D. Na: 89032-069 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysolite 2. Amosrte 3. Crocdolite 4 Anthophyllite 5. Tremoiite/Actinoirte ESTIMATED PERCENT 1 2. 3. 4 5 B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Cefluiose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovite/VermicUite) 10. Quartz 11. Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7 8 9 10. 11. 60% 40% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- ACE ANALYTICAL SERVICES KmnCty.U.SA Date Received: 9-20-89 Protect Name: AHERA Dementary School Cttant Lonesome Plains School District Survey Location: AHE^A Elementary School Laboratory I.D. No.: BSA470 Sample Type: Acoustical plaster (at wall) Sample Description: Whrte cnunky material Date Analyze* 9-2S-68 Date of Sample: 8-14^89 Client I.D. No.: 89032-070 ASBESTOS MINERALS 1. Chrysotde 2. Amosite 3 Crocidolite 4 Anthophylite 5. Tremolite/Actinolitc ESTIMATED PERCENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B. NON-ASBESTOS 6. Celulose (paper/wood fibers) 7. Glass/Mineral Wool Fibers 8. Binders 9. Mica (Muscovrte/Verrmculrte) 10 Quartz 11 Others ESTIMATED PERCENT 6. 7. a 9. 10. 11. 60* 40% Notes: No asbestos detected ------- Management Plan for AHERA Elementary School Lonesome Plains School District Lonesome Plains, USA SUBMITTED BY: Management Planners, Limited State City, USA AHERA Certification Number XXOII December 1,1989 ------- MANAGEMENT PLAN Ab t m nt Alternatives 1. REMOVAL Advantages: a. Eliminates asbestos source b. Eliminates need for special operations and maintenance program c. Eliminates potential for future fiber release Disadvantages: a. Replacement with substitute material may be necessary b. Porous surfaces may also require encapsulation c. Improper removal may raise fiber levels in air d. Generally the most expensive 2. ENCAPSULATION Advantages: a. Reduces asbestos fiber release from material b. Does not require replacement of material c. Initial cost may be lower than removal ------- Disadvantages: a. Asbestos source remains and must be removed later b. If material is not in good condition, sealant may cause material to delaminate c. Periodic reinspection required to check for damage or deterioration d. Encapsulated surface is difficult to remove and may require costly techniques for eventual removal e. Further fiber release is possible if encapsulant is damaged 3. ENCLOSURE Advantages: a. Reduces exposure outside the enclosure b. Initial costs are lower than removal c. Usually does not require replacement of material Disadvantages: a. Asbestos source remains and must be removed later b. Fiber release continues behind the enclosure c. Fibers released during construction of enclosure d. Long-term cost could be higher than removal ------- MANA( Management Plan Response for AHERA Bementary All spray-applied and trowel-applied asbestos-containing material, thermal systems insulation and asbestos-containing floor tile - Remove All spray-applied and trowel-applied asbestos-containing material which is inaccessible for removal - Enclose Surfaces from which asbestos material has been removed - Encapsulate for lockdown of surfaces only ------- Lonesome Plains School District Objectives for Asbestos Abatement of AHERA Elementary 1. Meet AHERA Management Plan as submitted by Management Planners, Ltd. 2. Install no asbestos-containing material in renovation work. 3. Notify School District of any other suspect asbestos-containing material encountered in renovation. 4. School office to remain occupied during the abatement of the non- administrative areas of the school. ------- STUC6NT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Secson Xlll-3 • U«^fi IMU« 3. Design Issues Learning Objectives and Study Questions Exhibits • Critical Design Decisions ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN Swcton XII.-3 - Dwign lvsuo* PagoS 3. DESIGN ISSUES Learning Objectives: 1. Understand philosophical decisions 1hat the designer must address. 2. Understand critical design decisions that the designer must address. Study Questions: 1. List and explain some critical design decisions that are typical for asbestos abatement projects. 2. Why is rt important to list critical design decisions at the beginning of the project? 3. What are the phases of design? Of the total project? 4. Explain why details are a necessary part of the design process. What are examples of details that would be important to show on an abatement design project? ------- Exhibit ------- CRITICAL DESIGN DECISIONS Removal of fireproofing Removal of acoustical plaster material only or removal of lath Pipe insulation removal by glovebag or removal during gross removal work Removal of floor tile Boiler room and pipe tunnel in same work area or separate areas Number of contiguous work areas Keep and clean light fixtures or dispose of and replace Keep cafeteria air conditioner or dispose of and replace Renovate building to code or replace what removed Replace acoustical plaster ceiling or use other type ceiling Repaint entire school or touch-up damaged areas Install floor tile or use other type floor covering Remove library books or protect in-place Remove school furnishings or store on-site ------- STUDENT ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OESJCN Soctton XIIM - Drawing 4. Drawings Learning Objectives and Study Questions Abatement Drawing Exhibits • Floorplans for AHERA Elementary School • Example Index of Abatement Drawings • Example Abatement Detail Drawing Replacement Drawing Exhibits • Example Index of Replacement Drawings ------- AS8ESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT OESJGN Section Xlli-4 Drowrintgs Page 2 Example of Replacement Detail Drawings Drawings Workshop ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT DESIGN X. 1-4 - Drawings Pago 3 4. DRAWINGS Learning Objectives: 1. Understand abatement drawings. 2. Understand replacement drawings. Study Questions: 1. Prepare a typical list of drawings for asbestos abatement. 2. What is a designer's library of details and procedures and how is it useful? 3. Under what conditions should you separate the abatement contract from the replacement contract? When would rt be appropriate to include abatement and replacement in the same contract? 4. What are some considerations that must be addressed when separating abatement from replacement? 5. What is the purpose of drawings? What role do drawings play in the total design presentation? ------- Abatement Drawings Exhibits ------- - ~r •- ' m^^f "~^M^f f^^^M *" "^rfl - - T I— •* i _. •• r~* •• • I dilL^UL vr~-i-r •a- '. |:s' .*JUl ^JU* =p^-r r "IF * • " - R"'- , - J •• N — •>••»« FIRST FLOOR PLAN .A. I ^ rL_pL •'.:•• '««•*» \ • t ^" ------- CD 8 • a- E--5HRI m I If «.t ll 3)I80@^ER ------- ------- EXAMPLE Index of Abatement Drawings Title Sheet AA-1 Location plan, Index of Drawings AA-2 General notes, Legend, Abbreviations AA-3 Procedures. Details AA-4 Site plan AA-5 Basement floor plan AA-6 First floor plan AA-7 Second floor plan AA-8 Third floor plan AA-9 Photographs - Basement AA-10 Photographs - First and second floors AA-11 Photographs - Third floor ------- ABATEMENT DETAIL EXAMPLE PREMANUFACTUREO GLOVE BAG 6-MIL POLYETHYLENE ACM HEPA VACUUM MAINTAIN NEGATIVE AIR PRESSURE WITH A HEPA FILTERED VACUUM USE VACUUM TO REMOVE AIR FROM BAG AFTER INSULATION REMOVAL GLOVE BAG DETAIL AJR TIGHT SEAL FORMED BY NYLON STRIPS INSULATION TO BE REMOVED NO CLOSER THAN 6" FROM END OF GLOVE BAG POCKET FOR TOOLS WORKER AND AREA TO BE TOTALLY ISOLATED FROM POTENTIAL FIBER RELEASE WORKER TO WEAR RESPIRATORY AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING THROUGHOUT OPERATION D DETAIL NOT TO SCALE ------- ABATEMENT DETAIL EXAMPLE >ew cone. FLL / DCKT. CONC. *•»•*• 'A- '*••' /•::•• ":••: -jT / 1 ' . ' ''.'-.'' / *• • • • * • •*•«." .r D '""'."'-. • w . Q >.•« •:•«•;.'• » j r 2- / W STL. t l 4^4" EXP. /WCHORS ONE 0 EA. CORNER OF 9 DETAIL NTS ------- ABATEMENT DETAIL EXAMPLE ASBESTOS CONTAINING JOINT MATERIAL NON-ASBESTOS INSUL PIPE PIPE NON-ASBESTOS INSUL ASBESTOS CONTAINING JOINT MATERIAL NOTE: REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS CONTAINING MATERIAL AT JOINTS TO INCLUDE THE REMOVAL OF NOT LESS THAN 6' OF FIBERGLASS INSULATION BEYOND THE OUTER EDGE OF JOINT MATERIAL. CUT FIBERGLASS LEAVING A STRAIGHT.EVEN EDGE. PIPE JOINT DETAIL DETAIL NOT TO SCALE ------- ABATEMENT DETAIL EXAMPLE CONTINUOUS CARBON- MONOXIDE MONITORING DEVICE FOR OIL LUBRICATED COMPRESSOR. THIS DEVICE SHALL HAVE A GAUGE GAUGE RECEIVING DEVICE LOCATION TO BE AWAY FROM ALL BUILDING AND ENGINE EXHAUSTS UNCONTAMINATED AIR IN COMPRESSOR UNIT SIZE SHALL BE ADEQUATE TO SERVICE RESPRIATORY SYSTEM AIR COOLED AFTER COOLER TO RESPIR- ATORY SYSTEM COMPRESSED AIR PURIFIER RESERVE OF 20 MINUTES OF AIR PER PERSON PRESSURE - REGULATOR W/ GAUGE COMPRESSOR SYSTEM ------- EXAMPLE 1. ALL SHEETING TO BE 6 MIL. POLYETHYLENE. 2. SECURE TOP EDGE OF SHEET »1 ALONG TOP EDGE OF OPENING. 3. SECURE SHEET •! ALONG ONE VERTICAL SIDE OF OPENING. EXISTING OPENING 4. SECURE TOP EDGE OF SHEET »2 ALONG TOP EDGE OF OPENING. 5. SECURE SHEET *2 ALONG SIDE OF OPENING, OPPOSITE OPENING SIDE OF SHEET *1 EXISTING OPENING 6. SECURE SHEET 3 ON OPPOSITE SIDE SHEET 2 ALONG THE SAME VERTICAL EDGE AS SHEET »1 VERTICAL SEAL (TYP.) SHEET SHEET »2 SHEET »3 PLAN VIEW NOTE: MIN. 8oz. WEIGHT TO BE SECURED TO THE OPENING CORNER OF EACH SHEET. EXISTING OPENING CURTAIN DOORWAY ------- Replacement Drawings Exhibits ------- EXAMPLE Index of Replacement Drawings Title Sheet A-1 Location plan, Index of Drawings A-2 General notes, Legend, Abbreviations A-3 Site plan A-4 Basement floor plan A-5 Details of basement enclosures A-6 First floor plan A-7 Second floor plan A-8 Third floor plan A-9 Finish schedule, Finishes notes A-10 First floor reflected ceiling plan A-11 Second floor reflected ceiling plan A-12 Third floor reflected ceiling plan A-13 Ceiling details. Roor covering details, Lighting cove details ------- REPLACEMENT DETAIL EXAMPL NEW GRID EXIST1NC GRD EXISTING GRD SYSTEM -PAJWT) MEW ACOUSTICAL CELMG PANEL NEW CQUNG SUPPORT ANCLE NEW ACOUSTICAL W*J. SYSTEM EXISTING WALL EXISTING WOOD TRJM t FRAME TO. BE REWORKED AS REQUIRED FOR NSTALJLATtON Of NEW ACOUSTICAL WALL WALL DETAIL 6 BAND ROOM DETAIL SCALE: 1/2" ' 1'-0" ------- REPLACEMENT DETAIL EXAMPLE 3 5/8" 20 GA. STL. STUD LATER*. BRACE • V-0" O.C.. ATTACH TO STRUCTURE ABOVE 6" 20 GA. STL. STUDS « W" O.C.. ATTACH TO STRUCTURE ABOVE 5/8" GYP. BO..EXTEXD 6" ABOVE FINISHED CEILING. TYP. ACOUSTIC TILE 1 SUSPENSION SYSTEM TYPICAL BULKHEAD DETAIL SCALE: 1" - 1'-0" ------- REPLACEMENT DETAIL EXAMPLE EXISTING CEJLJNG GRID (RE-PAINT) NEW ACOUSTICAL CEUNG PANELS PAJNT TNS AREA OF WALL AS FEATURE STRIPE (DOWN TO SECOND MORFOR oOiNT 8ELOW CEILING) EXISTING CMU WALL FEATURE STRIPE DETAIL SCALE: 1/2" - 1'-0" ------- Drawings Workshop ------- AS8ESTOS A3A7EMEM PROJECT DESIGN Section XIII 5 • Spocilicnaoro Page! 5. Specifications Learning Objectives and Study Questions Exhibits • Examples from National Institute of Building Sciences Model Guide Specifications • Examples from MASTERSPEC Replacement Specifications • Example Project Manual Table of Contents ------- ASBESTOS ABAItVENI =ROJECT DESIGN Sector. Xlll-b - Speo'tcaSors Specification Workshop • Portions of NIBS and MASTERSPEC Specifications for markup ------- Sa.OEVT AS8CSTOS ABATEMENT PFOJECT DES:GN SscJtor. Xlll-5 - Speclicawxs Page 3 5. SPECIFICATIONS Learning Objectives: 1. Understand main concepts of specifications. 2. Understand the use of guideline specs for abatement. 3. Understand the use of guideline specs for replacement. Study Questions: 1. What are the two major philosophies used to write contract specifications? Define each. 2. What do you call a spec that dictates the exclusive use of a specific product manufacturer and product model number? What do you call the opposite kind of spec? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using means/methods specs for asbestos abatement? 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using performance specs for replacement? 5. Name two producers of guideline specs. 6. When abatement and replacement are included in one package, how do you determine which contractor to act as general? 7. What is the purpose of specifications? What is the role of specifications in the total design presentation? ------- Exhibits: Abatement Specifications NIBS ------- IMPORTANT Copyrighted materials in this manual have been reproduced by permission from the National Institute of Building Sciences and the American Institute of Architects. AIA permission is granted under license f94043. The copyrighted materials In this manual cannot be used for any other purposes than education/training. Information regarding the purchase of the NIBS Model Guide Specifications Asbestos Abatement in Buildings, AIA MASTERSPEC, or AIA Documents can be obtained by calling the telephone numbers provided below. National Institute of Building Sciences 1201 L Street, N.W., Suite 400 Washington, D.C. 20005 (202) 289-1092 American Institute of Architects Office of the General Counsel 1735 New York Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006 (202) 626-7391 ------- Second Edition Asbestos Abatement & Management in Buildings Model Guide Specifications ABSTRACT Mational Institute of BUILDING SCIENCES ------- In 1986 the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) first published the document. Asbestos Abate- ment and Management in Buildings, Model Guide Specifications, as a resource for persons interested in asbestos abatement in buildings. In 1988 NIBS rcpuhlishcd the Model Guide The 1988 edition contains numerous re\ iiions ami several new sections which enahle users to deal with the requirements of A HERA and to benefit from advancing technology and procedures developed ov er the past two years. This guide was developed in response to a national nee;! for authoritative advice and guidance in the design and execution of abatement of asbestos-containing building materials (ACM) in the following four categories of activity: ':) maintenance and repair 2) encapsulation 3)enclosure 4) removal A number of user groups are expected to benefit from the direct use of this information. Of'primary- interest to design professionals (architects, engineers, and cm ironmcntal consultants), building owners, and abatement contractors, this document provides an outline of important information on specifying asbestos abatement and main'criance and repair of ACM in buildings Regulatory agencies may also find valuable information in the Model Guide Specifications. It is expected lhat, o\ er time, a more consistent approach to asbestos abatement pro: eels ".ill evolve through the proper use of thi.i guidance material As a consensus document, the Model Guide Specifications rctlcct the concerns, viewpoints, and agree- ment of the more than eighty-five members of the Institute s Asbestos I ask Force who contributed their time, know ledge, and effort to define up-to-date model procedures that may be used to achieve quality and consistency in asbestos abatement work. Refinements to materials prepared b> the Institute's contractor were made through a series of highly technical review sessions and written correspondence. Finally, the document was accepted by written ballot by the Task Force. The following concepts and content are incorporated in the Model Guide Specifications: A. Basic Asbestos Abatement Design Principles include: 1) isolation of airborne contamination, 2) isolation of wa:crbome contamination; ?) protection of room surfaces; 4) worker protection; 5) regulations and standards; 6) testing; 7) wet removal; 8) disposal; 9) encapsulation; and 10) enclosure. I. Isolation of Airborne Contamination: During asbestos abatement operations that disturb ACM. the work area will be contaminated by airborne asbestos fibers. The balance of the building must be protected from this contamination. This is accomplished by sealing all points of entrance to the work area, and maintaining the work area at an air pressure lower than that of surrounding areas (above and below as well as adjacent to) 2. Isolation of Water Borne Contamination: Water with a wetting agent added (amended water) are normally used to wet asbestos containing materials before removal. Non-asbestos materi- als, including baps and drums being removed from the work area for disposal are decontami- nated by washing. Work areas are misted with amended water to reduce air borne fiber levels, and workers shower when leaving the work area. 'I his extensive use of water on an asbestos abatement project results in considerable possibility for contamination of the building outside the work area by contaminated water. Where a removal encapsulant is used for wetting of materials the situation will be somewhat ameliorated. However, ever, in this instance there is typically considerable water used on an abatement project with the atlendanl concern with water borne contamination. ------- 3 Protection of Room Surfaces: Asbestos abatement projects, particularly removal projects. develop a considerable amount of contamination inside the work area. This contamination can be in the form of air bomc fibers, dusu debris, wet slurry or a combination of these forms of contamination. Accordingly, the surfaces of the room need to be protected from this contami- nation. 4. Worker Protection: Protection of the worker is the responsibility of his employer, the Contrac- tor. Great care must be used in writing a specification to avoid transferring this responsibility to the Owner. Building Owners conducting asbestos abatement in their buildings with their own employees assume similar responsibilities for their workers. 5. Regulations and Standards. Applicable regulations and standards should be made a pan of the specifications for the work to assure the contractor is responsible to comply w ith their adminis- trative, technical, and other pro\ isions. Further, regulations emanating from the federal, state, and local governments having jurisdiction change rapidly. Many state and federal regulations are identified in the NIBS guide, however, the designer is responsible to research the extent and impact of such laws and regulations, especially at the state and local levels of government. 6. Testing: Ty pically, both the Owner and C'ontractor conduct air mon::oring during an abatement project: a. Owners often sample and analy/c the air inside and outside the work area throughout the work to insure that the building outside the work area remains uncontaminated. This sampling will normally be carried out in a different manner than and have nothing to do with the air sampling required by OSHA forthe Contractor's respiratory protection plan. b. Contractors are required by OSHA to sample the air in the breathing zone of his workers to demonstrate the adequacy of respiratory protection provided for workers 7. Wet removal: The asbestos-containing building material to be removed is saturated with amended water or a removal encapsulant and hand scraped from its substrate. 8. Disposal: Material which has been removed must be taken out of the work area through an equipment decontamination unit which is different from the personnel decontamination unit. This material is then land filled in accordance w ;ih HPA KESHAP regulations 9. hncapsulation: Encapsulation involves either binding the constituents of an asbestos-containing material together and to their substrate (penetrating encapsulant), or coating it with a tough flexible or hard coatine (bridging encapsulant) This process is intended to greatly restrict or prevent fiber release 10. HncInsure: Knclosing an asbestos-containing installation can be accomplished by sealing it behind a permanently constructed barrier. This barrier could be constructed of gypsum dry- wall, tongue and groove plywood, concrete, masonry, metal or ether materials The construc- tion is made as airtight as possible. The use of enclosure is most appropriate if there is no need to obtain access into the enclosed area. I hese Guide Specifications provide guidance on the use of gypsurn dry wall systems for such an enclosure; although other systems such as wood. concrete, concrete, and masonrv can be used. ------- B. lnlroduilkLQ.aPiUjlStOtQ.ii.ons forJL;se: A comprehensive new 80 page section of the guide contains information to help practitioners utilize the Guide Specifications effectively and efficiently. The section: 1. Explains asbestos abatement and management in the context of the content and organization of contract documents and the roles and relationships of the participants in the process with emphasis on the owner, designer, and contractor. 2. Outlines and explains the design of an asbestos abatement project—the decisions that must be made and the rationale for making those decisions. 3. Describes the basic elements of the construction and operation of buildings, insofar as it affects the abatement of certain asbestos containing building materials. 4. Describes how to assemble and contract with a qualified design team 5. Explains how to develop, organize, and coordinate contract documents, and what each should contain. 6. Describes how to develop and coordinate a bidding package, including where to obtain and how to use standard forms. 7. Includes helpful hints on how to pre-qualify contractors for negotiated and bid contracts—what information to ask for and how to evaluate it. 8. Provides helpful procedures for negotiating and bidding contracts. 9. Outlines and explains how to administer contracts from receipt of bids to project close out. 10. Includes a brief abstract of each section in the guide specifications. C. Contract Documents: In order to organize the information conveyed to the contractor hired to perform construction work by contract, the construction industry has developed a system to catego- rize the various types of responsibilities of both the contractor and the owner. The parts of this system, known as contract documents, are: Owner Contractor Agreement General Conditions (of the Contract for Construction) Supplementary and Other Conditions Technical Specifications Contract Drawings Addenda (changes made before bids are received) Modifications (changes made after award of the contract) The NIBS Model Guide Specifications are intended to assist designers in the development of the technical specifications needed for asbestos abatement and management work. Information in the introduction to the NIBS document also provide gu:dancc on how to coordinate the specifications with the other pans of the contract. 4 ------- D NIBS' Model Guide Specifications: The Model Guide Specification. Asbestos Abatement and Management in Buildings is a compilation of thirty-four guide specification sections which can Se used a-; a manual to assemble technical project .specification sections for: - Removal of Asbestos-Containing Materials - Hncapsulation of Asbestos-Containing Materials - Enclosure of Asbestos-Containing Materials In addition, the Model Cmidc Specifications can be used ;o prepare the specifications necessary to define the maintenance and repair portions of an asbestos management and control program which arc appropriate for an outside contractor to cam* out. These sections arc identified in the Guide. SpiaJOiations under Maintenance of Asbestos-Containing Materials. Also, requirements can be developed through use of this document for conduct of these types of work by the building owner's forces as well. 1. Format: Sections in the Model Guide Specifications are arranged according to the Construc- tion Specification Institute's "Mastcrformat" which has become the standard for presentation of specification material in the construction industry. "Masterformat" organizes specification material into sixteen divisions which correspond to related construction activities Sections further break down the work of each division to correspond to the work accomplished by common trades, thus facilitating organization of the work into subcontracts. Most asbestos abatement activities arc defined in Division 1. General Requirements, which contains temporary facilities, quality control testing, and administrative requirements. Specifi- cation sections for remov al operations are described in Division 2. Site Work, as specialized demolition work Sections on encapsulation o;"asbeslos-conta:ning architectural finishes and gypsum drywall enclosure systems are included in Division 9, Finishes, as they constitute specialized interior finish work. Repair and encapsulation of pipe insulation and lagging arc located in Division 15, Mechanical. 2. Section Organization: The Model Guide Specifications organize each section into the Con- struction Specifications Institute (CSI) three part format. This format includes: a. Part I (icncral: includes such information as a description of the work in that section. identification of related contract documents, required submittals, inter-sectional coordina- tion (related work specified elsewhere), and identification of referenced standards. b. Part 2 Products (products, equipment, or materials): specifies items physically provided by the contractor through the use of specific prescriptive or performance provisions or through reference to standards or other criteria c. Part 3 Kxcculion: defines requirements to be followed b\. the Contractor in actually earn- ing out the work, including sequencing of the work with requirements of other sections and special requirements for methods which can be described or incorporated by reference to installation standards. ------- 3. Compatibility with "MASTKRSPE-X"'*": To facilitate coordination of the Model Guide Speci- fications with other building renovation needs, its format is compatible with "MASTKRSPKC." '• a subscription guide specification service published by the American Institute of Architects (AIA). 'MASTERSPEC" is a series of specification sections written in a uniform format which can be used to develop a project specification by selecting and editing the appropriate sections from over 130 sections available. Because this service is wideh used by architects and engineers, the Model Guide Specifications have been made compatible with "MASTKRSPF.C," so they can readily be used to develop consistent and coordinated specifica- tions for related work such as reinsulation or re-fireproofing. Also, they are more easily coordinated with the standard contract document forms published by the AIA and the Engi- neers Joint Contract Documents Committee (EJCDC). The (iuide Specifications can also be used with other commcrciall) available guide specifica- tions systems such as "SPECTEXT""" published by CSI. or with guide specifications devel- oped and maintained by government agencies and required to be used for their projects. 4. Advisory Notes: In the text of the technical sections of the Model Guide Specification notes are included to provide additional guidance to the user. These notes must be deleted after preparing the project specifications. The following is an example of the format and style of the no:cs: NOTES ARF. ALWAYS PRINTED FN CAPITAL LETTERS AND ARE INDENTED Jl.ST AS THIS PARAGRAPH IS PRINTED. AFTER EDITING Till: GUIDE TO SI II PROJICT NEEDS. ALWAYS DK- i.irn THESE xon-.s BEFORE PRINTING PROJECT SPECIFICA- TIONS. E. Using :he Model Guide Specifications: In writing project specifications, the Asbestos Abatement ami Management in Buildings, Model Guide Specifications is used by selecting the sections appropriate for the project and editing each to meet the project's needs. Some sections are neces- sary for any type of abatement project. Other sections contain specific requirements and will be appropriate only for certain types of abatement work. The appropriate sections are selected from the "Master Table of Contents" to form the basis for the specifications for removal, encapsulation, enclosure, or maintenance and repair F. Following is a complete table of contents for the NIBS Model Guide Sp.e.cj fixations: MASTF.R TABLE OF CONTENTS OF ALL TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS SKCTIONS DIVISION 1 - GENER Al RFOMRFMF.NTS 01013 Summary of Work - Asbestos Abatement 01028 Application for Payment - Asbestos Abatement 01043 Project Coordination - Asbestos Abatement 01046 Cutting & Patching - Asbestos-Containing Materials 01091 Definitions and Standards - Asbestos Abatement 01092 Codes, Regulations, and Standards - Asbestos Abatement 01301 Submittais ------- 01410 Air Monitoring - Test Laboratory Sen ices 01503 Temporary Facilities - Asbestos Abatement 015 H Temporary Pressure Differential & Air Circulation System 01526 Temporary Enclosures 01527 Regulated Areas 01528 F.ntry Into Controlled Areas 01529 Small-Scale Short-Duration Work 01560 Worker Protection - Asbestos Abatement 01561 Worker Protection - Repair & Maintenance 01562 Respirator. Protection 01563 Decontamination Units 01601 Materials and Equipment - Asbestos Abatement 01632 Product Substitutions - Asbestos Abatement 01701 Project Closeout - Asbestos Abatement 01711 Project Decontamination 01712 (leaning & Decontamination Procedures 01713 Project Decontamination - Microfibcrs 01714 Work Area Clearance DIVISION 2 - SITE WORK 02061 Building Demolition - Asbestos Abatement 02062 N'on-Asbestos Demolition 02063 Demolition of Asbestos Contaminated Materials 02081 Removal of Asbestos-Containing Materials 02082 Removal of Asbestos-Contaminated Soil 02084 Disposal of Asbestos-Containing Waste Material 02085 Resilient Floor Covering Manufacturers' Recommended Work Practices 02087 Resilient Flooring Removal - Asbestos Abatement DIVISIONS- FINISHES 09251 Gypsum Dry wall - Asbestos Enclosure 09805 Encapsulation of Asbestos-Containing Materials DIVISION 15 - MECHANICAL 15254 Repair of Insulation and Lagging (i. Specification Sections: The following describe the above specification sections needed to specify the different types of work required for an abatement or maintenance and repair project. The sections are presented in a chronological order according to typical sequencing of the work A. General and Administrative Requirements: arc set forth in sections: 1. 01013 Summary of Work- Asbestos Abatement: Identifies the scope of the project, primary conditions of the contract, lists the specification sections applicable, identifies the ------- asbestos containing materials subject to the contract work, and sets forth procedures related to Contractor's use of the premises, site, existing buildings, and equipment such as eleva- tors. 2. 01028 Application for Payment - Asbestos Abatement: Sets forth administrative proce- dures for Contractor s payment requests. 3. 010-43 Project Coordination-Asbestos Abatement: Sets the responsibilities for notifica- tions and other special reports, supervisory personnel, contingency plans, and related suhmittals. I>etails the required qualifications of supervisory personnel. Describes coordi- nation meetings. 4. 01091 Definitions and Standards - Asbestos Abatement: Defines important general and technical terms and positions related to the work, identifies drawing symbols and abbrevia- tions, and identifies the applicability of and methods for referencing standards. 5. 0130; Submittals: Sets forth the requirements and procedures for coordinating, schedul- ing, and submitting shop drawings, product data, samples, mock-ups, and other informa- tion. Issues addressed include review times, action to be taken, subsequent submissions, distribution of copies, and record keeping. 6 01632 Product Substitutions - Asbestos Abatement: Describes procedures to be used and basis for determining if the contractor will be allowed to substitute alternative products or procedures. Includes definitions of key terms, procedures, quality assurance, submittals. product delivery, storage and handling, product compliance, general product requirements, and installation. 7. 01701 Project Closeout: details administrative closcout procedures for the project once abatement work is complete. B. Abatement Work: requirements are set forth in the following sections: 1. 01092 Codes, Regulations, and Standards - Asbestos Abatement: sets forth many govern- mental regulations and industry standards which arc adopted by reference and made a part of the contract (specifications). Notices and permits which must be made to or obtained from governmental authorities before start of work are also to be identified in this section. Some guidance documents developed by public and private organi?ations to assist asbestos abatement are also listed in this section. This section requires the addition of requirements (criteria such as codes. regulations, and referenced standards) specific to the project location. In order to assure all such governmental requirements are noted, the Owner and the Owner's consukants must identify and understand the requirements to assure inclusion of all pertinent provisions and to assure coordination of the technical specification requirements with applicable laws and regulations. ------- 2. 01410 Test I aboratory Services: describes air monitoring by the Owner to insure that the building beyond the work area remains unconlaminated Also sets forth action levels that may result in a stop work order or other action Air monitoring to determine required respirator) protection is the responsibility of the Contractor. 3. 01503 Temporary Facilities -Asbestos Abatement: sets forth the support facilities needed such a.s electrical and plumbing connections for the decontamination unit, storage and staging areas, and office space for the Project Administrator. 4. 01513 Temporary Pressure Differential and Air Circulation System: sets forth the proce- dures to set up the differential air pressure machines and ventilation of the work area. 5. 01526 Temporary Enclosures: details the requirements for the sheet plastic barriers isolating the work area and decontamination areas from the balance of the building. 6. 01560 Worker Protection - Asbestos Abatement: describes the equipment and procedures for protecting workers against asbestos contamination and other asbestos-related work place ha/ards except for respiratory protection 7. 01562 Respiratory Protection: establishes procedures and equipment and sets minimum requirements for protection against inhalation of airborne asbestos fibers. 8. 01563 Decontamination Units, explains the setup and operation of the personnel and material decontamination units. 9. 01601 Materials and Equipment - Asbestos Abatement: Sets forth general requirements for material & equipment to be incorporated in the project. C. Asbestos Removal Work Procedures: arc described in the following specification sections: 1. 01046 Cutting and Patching - Asbestos-Containing Materials: sets basic requirements for cutting, drilling, abrading, or otherwise penetrating ACM and related requirements for local exhaust, wetting, and sealing edges of asbestos-containing materials. 2. 02061 Building Demolition -Asbestos Abatement: Sets forth requirements for asbestos abatement work in preparation for building demolition. Describes procedures for removal of entire systems and assemblies with associated asbestos-containing materials. 3. 02062 Non- Asbestos Demolition: Describes the removal of non-asbestos containing materials which are related to the asbestos abatement work. 4. 0206.1 Demolition of Asbestos-Contaminated Materials: Sets forth requirement for re- moval of non-asbestos containing materials that arc contaminated with asbestos; and subsequent cleaning, and disposal as non-asbestos waste. 5. 02081 Removal of Asbestos-Containing Materials: Addresses submissions and regulatory requirements, product material and equipment quality requirements, and related execution of the work. 9 ------- 6. 02082 Remo\al of Asbestos-Contaminated Soil: Covers procedures for wet and dry soils. 7. 0208'! Disposal of Asbestos-Containing Waste Material: Addresses requirements for notices and submissions, physical requirements for vehicles (enclosed trucks, etc.), and handling of bagged waste at the disposal site. 8 02085 Resilient Flooring Removal-Resilient Floor Covering Manufacturers' Recom- mended Work Practices: Work practices for the removal cf asbestos and non-asbcstos- containing resilient floor covering materials using r.on-aggrcssive methods for v\hich historical data are available about airborne fiber levels generated during use of these practices. 9. 02087 Resilient Florring Removal-Asbestos Abatement: Covers aggressive methods for the removal of resilient floor covering by the use of machinery I). Hnclosure Procedures: Masonry, metal panels, wood, and plastic can and have been used for enclosure. If any of these materials are used, the appropriate section should be added to the specification. Gypsum drywall enclosures are described in section: 1. 09251 Gypsum Drywall Asbestos Fnclysures: Sets requirements for materials and proce- dures used, erection methods, and variations in standard drywall practices appropriate ("or asbestos related drywall enclosures. H. Encapsulation Procedures: arc described in the following sections: 1. 09805 Kncapsulation of Asbestos-Containing Materials: Describes special materials. safety procedures and submittals. quality control practices, and worker protection. 2. 15254 Repair of Insulation and I agging: describes repair of insulation on pipes and other equipment using procedures that involve primarily bridging encapsulants and fabric rein- forcing or plastic jackets. F. Decontamination of the Work Area: after completion of abatement work, is described in the following sections: 1. 01712 Cleaning and Decontamination Procedures: set forth procedures to be used on contaminated objects and rooms which are not pan of an abatement work area. 2. 01711 Project Decontamination: describes the sequence of cleaning and decontamination procedures during removal of the sheet plastic barriers isolating a work area. 3. 01713 Project Decontamination - Microfitxrs: describes the special procedures required to clean an area of contamination by asbestos fibers too small to seen with an optical micro- scope. 4. 01714 Work Area Clearance: describes the analytical methods used to determine if the work area has been successfully cleaned of contamination. 10 ------- (i. Repair and Maintenance: procedures are specified in the following sections. GencralK these involve activities where asbestos fibers arc collected at the point of generation so that enclosure or'an area with plastic barriers is unnecessary: 1 01 527 Regulated Areas: Includes procedures for preparation of the work area for small- scale short-duration uork such as maintenance activities, entry into controlled areas, cleaning and decontamination. 2. 01561 Worker Protection - Repair and Maintenance: Intended for work in areas with fiber counts below 0.02 fibers per cubic centimeter. Training, medical examinations, worker protection requirements and protective clothing arc defined as arc the procedures for their use. 3. 01528 Kmry Into Controlled Areas: Covers entry into areas where asbestos-containing materials could be disturbed, such as above ceilings where fircproofing is present, and other controlled areas. 4. 01529 Small-Scale Short-Duration Work: Ik-fines limits for "small areas" of ACM. other sections with which the work is to comply, and product requirements. Sets forth proce- dures to be used for maintenance activities. Describes mini-enclosures, glove bags and specific procedures for preformed pipe insulation, job molded plaster fitting insulation, pipe hangar or other brackets installation in fireproofmg, and removal of small areas of fircproofing or architectural finishes. In order to provide the most useful tool to designers and others in need of this technical information, the Institute has published the Model Guide in several formats It is available in loose leaf format in three ring binders, softbound. and in magnetic media for IBM and compatible micro-computers. The magnetic versions are available in WordPerfect. Word Star. Microsoft Word, Mullimalc. Displaywritc and ASCII. Please note that the magnetic media must be purchased with the printed copy and cannot be purchased separate!}. Hie Asbestos Abatement and Management in Buildings, Model Guide Specifications is copyrighted publication by the National Institute of Building Sciences For funhcr information about the NIBS' Asbestos Abatement and Management in Buildings, Model Guide Specifications, contact: The National Institute of Building Sciences Publications Department 1201 I. Street. N.W.. Suite 400 Washington. IXC. 20015 (202) 289-7X00 MX. (202) ?.8'MO<;2 11 ------- Asbestos Publications Now Available from the National Institute of BtBLDNGSOENCES ------- ASBESTOS ABATEMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN BUILDINGS; MODEL GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS, Second Edition NOW INCLUDES: New Comprehensive Introduction and Instructions for Use Two New Sections on Resilient Flooring Removal The second edition of MBS* ASBESTOS ABATEMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN BUILDINGS; MODEL GUIDE SPECIFICA- TIONS continues to be one of the most widely used technical documents on abatement and maintenance and repair of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. It is an essential tool for design professionals, contractors, and building owners. In addition, it is rccogni/ed as an effective tool for organizations providing training in asbestos abatement and manage- ment procedures. In 1988. NIBS updated the GUIDE SPECIFI- CATIONS to include requirements resulting from new federal regulations and provisions for new products, equipment and procedures. and refinements in existing practices for asbes- tos abatement, maintenance and repair. In 1991. NIBS developed two new sections on removal of non-friable asbestos-containing flooring materials and a new "Introduction and Instructions for Use" to facilitate more effec- tive use of the GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS. Regulations and standards promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) set responsi bilities for building owners, contrac- tors, designers, and others involved in the asbestos work. The GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS Is coordinated with relevant provisions from AHERA. NESHAP. and the OSHA Construction Rule for abatement contracts between owners and abatement contractors. NIBS had distributed more than 5000 copies of the MODEL GUIDE SPECIFI- CATIONS since it was first published in 1986. The 550 pages in the current edition include provisions for new products, equipment and procedures, and refinements in existing prac- tices for asbestos abatement and maintenance and repair. More than 100 leading technical experts in the field contributed to this consen- sus document Millions o are being spc on removing, other-wise contn containing mat buildings, industrr schools, and othe by the public and t Those carrying 01 V should be usi current and b technical c These pul puter disk DOS bast processor mumR ------- GUIDANCE MANUAL: ASBESTOS OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE WORK PRACTICES ollars annually naging or ng asbestos- als in office lants, housing, iildings owned i private sector. these actions the most f available / dance. NIBS1 GUIDANCE MANUAL: ASBESTOS OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE WORK PRACTICES is a technical procedures manual which provides detailed guidance to owners, asbestos program managers, and to asbestos operations and maintenance (O&M) workers for managing asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in buildings. NIBS developed this document in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the General Services Administration (GSA). The O&M MANUAL addresses three different types of ACM found in buildings: •Surfacing ACM which are sprayed or troweled on ceilings, walls, and structural members. Thermal System Insulation (TSI) which can be found around pipes, ducts, boilers, and tanks. •Miscellaneous ACM such as ceiling and floor tile, roofing felts and shingles, and wall board systems. cations are also available with com- tes for use on MS-DOS and PC- microcomputers in several word formats. See order form for details. In order to present a full range of information, the O&M MANUAL provides guidance on the design and validation of O&M programs, checklists for asbestos program managers and O&M workers, detailed descriptions of 26 general O&M procedures and 57 specific work practice activities. It lists tools and equipment, special procedures applicable to each work practice, the appropriate number of workers to carry out each task, and the responsibilities of each worker. The O&M MANUAL addresses three differ- ent levels of precaution which may be warranted by specific building conditions. The value of this O&M MANUAL is in its presenta- tion of a range of guidance for common operations and maintenance procedures, which enables owners to efficiently meet applicable regulations and the desired levels of protection in varying building conditions. One hundred and eighty of the nation's leading experts in building construction and asbestos abate- ment issues gave their advice and guidance in the development of this 350-page consensus document A companion to EPA's "Managing Asbes- tos In-Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs lor Asbestos-Containing Mateirals" (a.ka. The Green Book') which provides guid- ance on how to organize and structure O&M programs. ------- i3iaVIIVAV UO|JDtUJOJU| |OJ|UOO jsouj iseq em SOOOZ Dd ' OOf'Vns'MN ">»»-OST 1021 s ^ ,,.,,, ORDER FORM >.rilonal Institute of BUILDING SCIENCES 1201 L Street, NW. Suite 400 Washington. DC 20005 (202) 289-7800 Fax (202) 289-1092$25 •& t*t*t Qiy. Description , M^ Asbestos Abatement & Management ic Buildings. tiiunn Model Guide Specifications. Hardcopy only , » i J n.uu Asbestos Abatement & Management in Buildings. * i rn nn Model Guide Specifications with disket*s* * W Not Meiie Your Pn:e • Pnce $145.00$19500 ! Practices. Hardcopy Only I I ! 1 1 NIBS GudaDce Manual: Asbestos O&M Work .$150.00$175.00 Practice* with diskettes* | Dtdnct S25 wHf* ordering ta£.^um *>bjM lo iiMnxKil OOL Coaua STSS Py*)icux>« UtpMtocM la non lafimuo*. M*J «nat»rt»i) aOc fora md>p*ya««k>NlBS lUtfyarf nt« kc bdk urtm «« «»uUbU. ciU fc« d.«*dt ------- MODEL AS SECT ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 1960 - WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT THIS SECTION IS INTENDED FOR LARGE SCAT.E ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECTS INVOLVING REMOVAL, ENCAPSULATION, OR ENCLOSURE WHEN THERE IS CONSIDERABLE DISRUPTION OF THE MATERIAL BEING ENCLOSED. FOR MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR WORK AND FOR ENCLOSURE PROJECTS THAT LEAVE THE ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIAL (ACK) RELATIVELY UNDISTURBED USE SECTION 01561. ANY REVISION OF THIS SECTION SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF A CERTIFIED INDUSTRIAL HYGIENIST OR OTHER QUALIFIED OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SPECIALIST. THIS SECTION DOES NOT ADDRESS THE SUBJECT OF HEAT STRESS. THIS IS A COMMON PROBLEM ON ABATEMENT PROJECTS IN HOT ENVIRONMENTS. WHERE REQUIRED SPECIFIC PROVISION FOR PROTECTION AGAINST HEAT STRESS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED FOR THE SPECIFIC PROJECT AND INCLUDED IN THIS SECTION. PART 1 - GENERAL RELATED DOCUMENTS; Drawings and general provisions of Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and other Division-1 Specification Sections, apply to work of this section. DESCRIPTION OF WORK: This section describes the equipment and procedures required for protecting workers against asbestos contamination and other workplace hazards except for respiratory protection. RELATED WORK SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE: W Respiratory Protection; is specified in Section 01562. WORKER TRAINING; •"a^ STATE OR LOCAL REGULATIONS COULD HAVE A MORE STRINGENT REQUIREMENT. AHERA Accreditation; All workers are to be accredited as Abatement Workers as required by the AHERA regulation 40 CFR 763 Appendix C to Subpart E, April 30, 1987. DELETE THE FOLLOWING IF NO STATE OR LOCAL REQUIREMENT. WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01560 - 1 Copyright (c) 1988, National institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL$AffBE6TOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 REVISE AS REQUIRED TO CORRESPOND WITH APPLICABLE CODE OR REGULATION. State and Local License; All workers are to be trained, certified and accredited as required by state or local code or regulation. Train, in accordance with 29 CFR 1926, all workers in the dangers inherent in handling asbestos and breathing asbestos dust and in proper work procedures and personal and area protective measures. Include but do not limit the topics covered in the course to the following: EDIT FOLLOWING AS REQUIRED TO COMPLY WITH STATE OR LOCAL STANDARDS. TOPICS LISTED ARE THE MINIMUM REQUIRED FOR ADEQUATE TRAINING. Methods of recognizing asbestos Health effects associated with asbestos Relationship between smoking and asbestos in producing lung cancer Nature of operations that could result in exposure to asbestos Importance of and instruction in the use of necessary protective controls, practices and procedures to minimize exposure including: Engineering controls Work Practices Respirators Housekeeping procedures Hygiene facilities Protective clothing Decontamination procedures Emergency procedures Waste disposal procedures Purpose, proper use, fitting, instructions, and limitations of respirators as required by 29 CFR 1910.134 Appropriate work practices for the work Requirements of medical surveillance program Review of 29 CFR 1926 WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01560 - 2 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL A33g£TdS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 •ure Differential Systems ?ork practices including hands on or on-job training Personal Decontamination procedures Air monitoring, personal and area FOLLOWING IS INTENDED FOR ABATEMENT PROJECTS. THIS SECTION MAY REQUIRE REVISION IF USED IN SPECIFYING WORK FOR OTHER TRADES (EG. ROOFING, FLOORING). SOME INDUSTRIES ARE NOT FAMILIAR WITH OSHA REQUIREMENTS FOR ASBESTOS. SOME INDUSTRY GROUPS MAY HAVE DEVELOPED OBJECTIVE DATA SATISFACTORY TO OSHA THAT OBVIATES THE NEED FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS. MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS: Provide medical examinations for all workers who nay encounter an airborne fiber level of 0.1 f/cc or greater for an 8 hour Tine Weighted Average. In the absence of specific airborne fiber data provide medical examinations for all workers who will enter the Work Area for any reason. Examination shall as a nininura meet OSHA requirements as set forth in 29 CFR 1926 In addition, provide an evaluation of the individuals ability to work in environments capable of producing heat stress in the worker. SUBMITTALS; Before Start of Work: Submit the following to the Owner's Representative for review. Do not start work until these submittals are returned with Owner's Representative's action stamp indicating that the submittal is returned for unrestricted use. FOLLOWING IS REQUIRED IN SCHOOLS AND GOOD PRACTICE IN GENERAL. AHERA Accreditation: Submit copies of certificates from an EPA- approved AHERA Abatement Workers course for each worker as evidence that each asbestos Abatement Worker is accredited as required by the AHERA Regulation 40 CFR 763 Appendix C to Subpart E, April 30, 1987. DELETE THE FOLLOWING IF NO STATE OR WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01560 - 3 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 Stat be LOCAL REQUIREMENT. REVISE 'AS REQUIRED TO CORRESPOND WITH APPLICABLE .CODE OR REGULATION. _ Jocal License; Submit evidence that all workers fiave irfed,certified and accredited as required by state or ode or regulation. ificate Worker Acknowledgement; Submit an original signed copy of th« Certificate of Worker's Acknowledgement found at the end of this section, for each worker who is to be at the job site or enter the Work Area. DELETE THE FOLLOWING IF THE AHERA COURSE CERTIFICATION IS RETAINED. Progr Submi ti^couVse ou trifle of) the worjeer tra^tnin timevcourse was giLea^-'name and Report from Medical Exaaination; conducted within last 12 months as part of compliance with OSHA medical surveillance requirements for each worker who is to enter the Work Area. Submit, at a minimum, for each worker the following: Name and Social Security Number Physicians Written Opinion from including at a minimum the following: examining physician Whether worker has any detected medical conditions that would place the worker at an increased risk cf material health impairment from exposure to asbestos. Any recommended limitations on the worker cr on the use of personal protective equipment such as respirators. Statement that the worker has been informed by the physician of the results of the medical examination and of any medical conditions that may result from asbestos exposure. Copy of information that was provided to physician in compliance with 29 CFR 1926 Statement that worker is able to wear and use the type of respiratory protection proposed for the project, and is able to work safely in an environment capable of producing heat stress in the worker. WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01560 - 4 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION >^v * " Certifications; Submit certification firm Nota of August 12, 1988 signed by an notarized that cf the abatement contracting firm and measurements, medical surveillance, and worker training are being kept in conformance with 29 CFR 1926. PART 2 - EQUIPMENT PROTECTIVE CLOTHING; REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIAL CLOTHING SUCH AS COVERALLS OR SIMILAR WHOLE BODY CLOTHING, HEAD COVERINGS, GLOVES, AND FOOT COVERINGS AND OTHER PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ARE DELINEATED IN OSHA REGULATIONS. THE NEED FOR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IN EXCESS OF THESE REQUIREMENTS SHOULD BE REVIEWED WITH A SAFETY CONSULTANT AND EDITED FOR THE SPECIFICS OF THE PROJECT. Coveralls; Provide disposable full-body coveralls and disposable head covers, and require that they be worn by all workers in the Work Area. Provide a sufficient number for all required changes, for all workers in the Work Area. FOLLOWING IS MORE APPROPRIATE WORKER PROTECTION IN ENVIRONMENTS WITH HOT OR COLD HAZARD TO WORKER. . Coveralls; Provide cloth full -body pjsoveralls and hats, require A that they be worn by all workers in "tnfe^fcorR Area. Require that workers change out of coverall in the Equipment Roon of the Personnel Decontamination Unit. Dispose of coverall as asbestos waste at completion of all work. FOLLOWING IS APPROPRIATE IF WORKERS ARE TO BE WORKING IN UNHEATED ENVIRONMENTS DURING COLD WEATHER Cold removed Dispose l wor MUCH OF THE FOLLOWING IS RUDIMENTARY WORKER PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS, BUT PROTECTION BEYOND RESPIRATORS AND PAPER SUITS IS FREQUENTLY NOT CONSIDERED FOR WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01560 - 5 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 ABATEMENT PROJECTS. REVIEW THE FOLLOWING WITH A SAFETY CONSULTANT AND EDIT FOR THE SPECIFICS OF THE PROJECT. '" Boots V^S)^frfrov ide work boots with non-skid soles, and where requiMW^^ry OSHA, foot protectives, for all workers. Provide bo------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 protection as required by the most stringent OSHA standards applicable to the work. The following are minimums to be adhered to regardless of fiber the Work Area. time Work Area is entered remove all street clothes in the Changing Room of the Personnel Decontamination Unit and put on new disposable coverall, new head cover, and a clean respirator. Proceed through shower room to equipment room and put on work boots. DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES ; Require all workers to adhere to the following personal decontamination procedures whenever they leave the Work Area: Type C Supplied Air or Powered Air-Purifvina Respirators; Require that all workers use the following decontamination procedure as a minimum requirement whenever leaving the Work Area: t * A When exiting area, remove disposable coveralls, disposable head covers, and disposable footwear covers or boots in the equipment room. Still wearing respirators, proceed to showers. Showering is mandatory. Care must be taken to follow reasonable procedures in removing the respirator to avoid asbestos fibers while showering. The following procedure is required as a minimum: Thoroughly wet body including hair and face. If using a Powered Air-Purifying Respirator (PAPR) hold blower unit above head to keep canisters dry. With respirator still in place thoroughly wash body, hair, respirator face piece, and all parts of the respirator except the blower unit and battery pack on a PAPR. Pay particular attention to seal between face and respirator and under straps. Take a deep breath, hold it and/or exhale slowly, completely wet hair, face, and respirator. While still holding breath, remove respirator and hold it away from face before starting to breath. Carefully wash facepiece of respirator inside and out. If using PAPR: shut down in the following sequence, WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01560 - 7 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- work area, worker will HEPA vacuum disposable suit starting moving to feet to remove all debris before entering equipment material to be removed inside work araa before entering equipment room ------- MODEL ASBESTOS MTCElfeNT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 inlets to filter cartridges, then/turn off unit (this sequence will help keep debris which 'collected on the inlet side of filter -.from lodging and contaminating the outside of the unit). oroughly wash blower unit and hoses. Carefully wash battery pack with wet rag. Be extremely cautious of getting water in battery pack as this will short out and destroy battery. Shower completely with soap and water. Rinse thoroughly. Rinse shower room walls and floor prior to exit. Proceed from shower to Changing Room and change into street clothes or into new disposable work items. Air Purifying-Negative Pressure Respirators; Require that all workers use the following decontamination procedure as a minimum requirement whenever leaving the Work Area with a half or full face cartridge type respirator: When exiting area, remove disposable coveralls, disposable headcovers, and disposable footwear covers or boots in the Equipment Room. Still wearing respirators, proceed to showers. Showering is mandatory. Care must be taken to follow reasonable procedures in removing the respirator and filters to avoid asbestos fibers while showering. The following procedure is required as a minimum: Thoroughly wet body from neck down. Wet hair as thoroughly as possible without wetting the respirator filter if using an air purifying type respirator. Take a deep breath, hold it and/or exhale slowly, complete wetting of hair, thoroughly wetting face, respirator and filter (air purifying respirator). While still holding breath, remove respirator and hold it away from face before starting to breath. Dispose of wet filters from air purifying respirator. Carefully wash facepiece of respirator inside and out. Shower completely with soap and water. WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01560 - 8 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION oroughly. August 12, 1988 shower rooro walls and floor prior to exit. from shower to Changing Room and change into street Lhes or into new disposable work items. FOLLOWING DESCRIBES USE OF A DECONTAMINATION UNIT CONNECTED TO A Work Area AS A REMOTE SHOWER FOR MINI- ENCLOSURE WORK THAT MAY BE GOING ON ELSEWHERE IN THE BUILDING. Reirote d econfcara i na t i on cannrot ga en^er Deo/ontami/fation Room to completed SHOWERING IS SOMETIMES NOT REQUIRED FOR CONTAINMENT PROJECTS. IN THIS CASE, USE DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES OF SECTION 01561. Within Work Area: Require that workers NOT eat, drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or apply cosmetics in the Work Area. To eat,fLcfeau^. drink cn>ok», workers shall follow the procedure described above ,then dress in street clothes before entering the non-Work Areas of the building. To dhtuJ or smoke. ~i~b loa.c.c.0, Work**'* must /e------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 CERTIFICATE. WFVWORKER'S ACKNOWLEDGEMENT W Ss^.\ ' PROJEC ADDRESS CONTRACTOR'S NAME WORKING WITH ASBESTOS CAN BE DANGEROUS. INHALING ASBESTOS FIBERS HAS BEEN LINKED WITH VARIOUS TYPES OF CANCER. IF YOU SMOKE AND INHALE ASBESTOS FIBERS THE CHANCE THAT YOU WILL DEVELOP LUNG CANCER IS GREATER THAN THAT OF THE NON-SMOKING PUBLIC. Your employer's contract with the Owner for the above project requires that: You be supplied with the proper respirator and be trained in its use. You be trained in safe work practices and in the use of the equipment found on the job. You receive a medical examination. These things are to have been done at no cost to you. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION: You must have been trained in the proper use of respirators, and informed of the type respirator to be used on the above referenced project. You must be given a copy of the written respiratory protection manual issued by your employer. You must be equipped at no cost with the respirator to be used on the above project. TRAINING COURSE: You must have been trained in the dangers inherent in handling asbestos and breathing asbestos dust and in proper work procedures and personal and area protective measures. The topics covered in the course must have included the following: Physical characteristics of asbestos Health hazards associated with asbestos Respiratory protection Use of protective equipment Pressure Differential Systems Work practices including hands on or on-job training Personal decontamination procedures Air monitoring, personal and area MEDICAL EXAMINATION; You must have had a medical examination within the past 12 months at no cost to you. This examination must have included: health history, pulmonary function tests and may have included an evaluation of a chest x-ray. WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01560 - 10 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 By signing Owner of your the d Name his document you are acknowledging only that the iding you are about to work in has^advised you. of training and protection relative to yoilr employer, _Social Security No_ Witness WORKER PROTECTION - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01560 - 11 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- Exhibits: Replacement Specifications MASTERSPEC ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 SECTION 09250 - GYPSUM DRYWALL PART Typist THIS SECTION USES THE TERM "ARCHITECT". CHANGE THIS TERM AS NECESSARY TO MATCH THE ACTUAL TERM USED TO IDENTIFY DESIGN PROFESSIONAL AS DEFINED IN THE GENERAL AND SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS. "a/1 and general provisions of Contract, including General Supplementary Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section. SUMMARY : Extent of each type of gypsum drywall construction reg^iire is indicated on Drawings. This Section includes the following types of gypsum board construction: ADJUST LIST BELOW TO SUIT PROJECT. Steel framing members to receive gypsum board. Gypsun board screw-attached to steel f raraing^ Gypsun board nail-attached to wood framing and furring members. Gyp*uta boajrtin bonde asortcVsubst DELETE BELOW IF SPECIFIED GYPSUM DRYWALL kin i «.:•:••«< io t?:>.:e JM ttJ Bn :- !:• 'm-p •t^::.:t=M : he- ?* c:r,n« :na 09250 - 1 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 IN DIVISION-9 "TILE." SECTION LIST ONLY MATERIALS IN THIS PROJECT WHICH THE READER MAY EXPECT TO FIND IN THIS SECTION. VERIFY THAT LISTED SECTIONS ARE INCLUDED IN THIS PROJECT SPECIFICATION AND THAT THEIR TITLES ARE CORRECTLY INDICATED HERE. ugh O ruuJ Tiuooeoi ABOVE AND BELOW ARE MASTERSPEC NSV SECTIONS. Gypsu heathina speoafiei in DivJ G/psurc Eheatating Divisio section n DELETE BELOW IF GLASS MESH MORTAR UNITS INCLUDED IN TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION INCLUDED IN THIS SECTION. GYPSUM DRYWALL >•< ul " ftp:*. "o '.•!»«• 09250 - 2 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 Construction Terminology: Refer to ASTM C 11 and GA definitions of terms for gypsum board construction not ferwise defined in this section or other referenced standards. SUBMITTALS; Product data specified. from manufacturers for each type of product QUALITY ASSURANCE; DELETE BELOW IF NO RATED ASSEMBLIES. Fire-Resistance Ratines: Where indicated, provide materials and construction which arc identical to those of assemblies whose fire resistance rating has been determined per ASTM E 119 by a testing and inspecting organization acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction. DELETE BELOW IF NOT APPLICABLE TO ASSEMBLIES INDICATED. INDICATE RATING, TESTING AGENCY, AND TESTING AGENCY'S DESIGN DESIGNATION ON DRAWINGS. Provide fire-resistance-rated assemblies identical to those indicated by reference to GA File No's, in GA-600 "Fire Resistance Design Manual" or to design designations in U.L. "Fire Resistance Directory" or in listing of other testing and agencies acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction. Single Source Responsibility; Obtain each type of gypsun board and related joint treatment materials from a single manufacturer. DELIVERY. STORAGE. AND HANDLING; GYPSUM DRYWALL St 5 * f. ifi' Pwr •WC M e*U o? ::i «rs ty -.ir-t- 09250 - 3 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 > erials in original packages, containers or bundles rand name and identification of manufacturer or materials inside under cover and keep them dry and :ected against damage from weather, direct sunlight, surface contamination, corrosion, construction traffic and other causes. Neatly stack gypsum boards flat to prevent sagging. Handle gypsum boards to prevent damage to edges, ends, and surfaces. Do not bend or otherwise damage aietal corner beads and trim. PROJECT CONDITIONS; Environnental Conditions. General: Establish and maintain environmental conditions for application and finishing gypsum board to comply with ASTM C 840 and with gypsum board manufacturer's recommedations. Minimum Room Temperatures; For nonadhesive attachment of gypsum board to framing, maintain not less than 40 deg F (4 deg C) . For adhesive attachment and finishing of gypsum board maintain not less than 50 deg F (10 deg C) for 48 hours prior to application and continuously thereafter until drying is complete. Ventilate building spaces to remove water not required for drying joint treatment materials. Avoid drafts during dry, hot weather to prevent materials form drying too rapidly. PART 2 - PRODUCTS MANUFACTURERS: Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering products which may be incorporated in the Work include, but are not limited to, the following: ^RETAIN ABgVE FOR OR BELOW FOR SEMIPROPRIETARY SPECIFICATION. REFER TO DIVISION-1 SECTION GYPSUM DRYWALL ^ £^-VT^T,,1^:,^ 09250 - 4 «oi :*. *t*ttt to-rr-t c«:vV »»-r ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 "PRODUCTS SUBSTITUTIONS." AND adfincr and Furrina: Lck Steel Framing Co. Industries, Inc. Ld Bond Building Products Div., National Gypsum Co. Incor, Inc. Marino Industries Corp. United States Gypsum Co. DELETE ABOVE OR BELOW IF NONE. Gr tallyc C Rolliila >fills Gypsum Boards and Related Products; MFRS. LISTED BELOW MARKET PRODUCTS NATIONALLY; INSERT REGIONAL MFRS IF DESIRED. NOT ALL MFRS OFFER FULL RANGE OF RELATED PRODUCTS. Centex American Gypsum Co. Domtar Gypsum Co. Georgia-Pacific Corp. Gold Bond Building Products Div, United States Gypsum Co. National Gypsum Co, CERTAIN PROPERTIES OF PRODUCTS MAY BE SPECIFIED IN SUBSEQUENT ARTICLES BY SELECTING A "DEFAULT" REQUIREMENT WHICH APPLIES UNLESS EXCEPTIONS ARE INDICATED HERE OR ON THE DRAWINGS. THESE DEFAULT REQUIREMENTS ARE GYPSUM DRYWALL HI S f. j«B:rjt« t» ft»;;.:j tr( «.' tj«r IT-,li»t to t..a 09250 - 5 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 QUALIFIED BY THE PHRASE, "UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED." IF NO EXCEPTIONS ARE ALLOWED OR KNOWN TO EXIST, THEN DELETE THIS PHRASE. IF ALL INDICATIONS ARE ON THE DRAWINGS RETAIN ONLY THE "AS INDICATED" REQUIREMENT. \>TEEL FRJ G COMPONENTS FOR SUSPENDED AND FURRED CEILINOS :O; DELETE THIS. SUSPEND] CEILING' *TICLE IF NO OR FURRED iral ; materiais Provide nd sizes, omponents which comply .X/ith unless otherwise indicated. ASTM C 754 for )ELETE ANY COMPONENTS BELOW NOT REQUIRED. IF NO HANGERS DIRECTLY IN VERIFY SAFETY REVIS E AS OR INSERT 1C LOAD REQUIREMENTS AND NAMES OF ACCEPTABLE PRODUCTS. DELETE BELOW CONCRETE OR EMBEDDED CONCRETE. FACTOR; REQUIRED SPECIF Concrete Inserts: Thserts designed for attachment to concrete forms and for /embedment \n concrete, fabricated from corrosion-resistant materials, w\th holes or loops for attachment of hanger viresi and capability \p sustain, without failure, a load equal to/3 times that imposed by ceiling construction, as determined from testing per ASTH^ E 488, conducted by an independent/testing laboratory. Wire for/Hangers and Ties; soft temper. ASTM A 64\. Class 1 zinc coating, USUAXLY RETAIN ABOVE WHICHNCOVERS 8 THROUGH 16 GAGE WIRE. DELETE ABOVE GYPSUM DRYWALL BT'S a i.-xuri i: -•?>*;< nt «:• Kit t»or "trr ii;:- lir '.-IN- -tfn:.'.: * 09250 - 6 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 AND RETAIN BELOW WHI REQUIRED BY BUILDING CODE QK BY LOADING. Hand >Mild steel, zinc coated or protected with :iVe paint. Mild steel, zinc coated or /protected with rusJ utive paint. Angle-Type Hana< wide, formed fri complying with AS' connections and 5/ll DELETT' BOTH OF ABOVE AND RETAIN BELOW FOR E X>C E PTIONAL UPLIFT RESISTANCE. Angles with leg*' not less than 7/8 inch 0.0635 inch thi^fx galvanized steel sheet A 446, Coating /Jesignation G90, with bolted inch diameter >K>lts. DELETE BELOW IF SUSPENSION SYSTEM LIMITED TO GRID SUSPENSION SYSTEM. Channels; Cold-rolled st base (uncoated) metal anoT 1 /'. rust-inhibitive paint, a-nd as 0.0598 inch minimum thickness of inch wide flanges, protected with follows: Carrying Channel^; 2 inch\s deep, 590 Ibs per 1000 ft., unless otherwis/e' indicated. DELETE ABOVE OR BELOW UNLESS BOTH REQUIRED AND LOCATIONS OF EACH INDICATED ON DRAWINGS AND JALIFYING PHRASE FOR EXCEPTION IS CHANGED TO E INDICATED." Carrying Channels; 1-1/2 inch deep, 47^ uiyfess otherwise indicated. Ibs per 1000 ft., DELETE BEl£>W IF FURRING CHANNELS LIMJTED TO STEEL STUDS, RIG\D FURRING CHANNELS, OR\ RESILIENT GYPSUM DRYWALL '•(•«!.« MJ M* ».1 t.-~i- :tjr»«t "iw» tkt ::?)• ft 09250 - 7 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 Furring unless CHANNELS COMBINATION. lannels; 3/4 inch deep, 300 Ibs per tervise indicated. 0 R ft., bent Furring Channels; ASTM C 645, withflange edges deg and doubled over to form 3/16 inch minimum lip thickness of base (uncoated) nv«:al and minimum tol 1 ows : Thickp^ss: Thicknt Thickne; 0.0179 inch, unless otherwise indicated. 0.0329 inch, unless otherwise indicated. As indicated. 'RETAIN ONE DEFAULT REQUIREMENT FOR THICKNESS AND DEPTH FROM CHOICES ABOVE AND BELOW OR DELETE AND EITHER INSERT OTHERS OR RETAIN "AS INDICATED" AND INDICATE ON DRAWINGS. Depth; 1-5/8 inched/unless otherwise indicated. Depth; 2-1/2 inchesy\unless otherwise indicated. Depth; 3-5/8 inched/ \nless otherwise indicated. Depth; As indicated. L Rigid Furring/Channels; \ASTM C 645, hat-shaped, depth of and nirvdfinum thickness of base (uncoated) metal as 7/8 inch, follows: Thicknejss; Thickness; Thickness; RETAIN ONE REQUIREMENT BELOW. 0.0179 inch, unless otherwise indicated. 0.0329 inch, unless otherwise indicated. As indicated. REFSR TO MFRS1 TECHNICAL L I T\E RAT U RE FOR LIMITATIONS IN USE OF THEIR \ESILIENT FURRING CHANNELS\ USG ADVISES AGAINST WSE OF THEIR PRODUCT BENEATH FLEXIBLE FLOOR JOISTS> GYPSUM DRYWALL RIIS ft M?en.t< M rtttttf.i tH Mil Sa tMf "tr^.tut* te t^^kn T;^«(«! :• -;•/ s? :>!im< **t lit n?w- 9*m 09250 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 ResiLlgtV Furring Channels; Manufacturer's^x^tandard to reduce sound transmission, copjJiying with or material, finish and widths of face/and fastening to form 1/2 inch deep channe^xof the following g-Le Configuration Assymetr'lc-shaped channel with onnected to a single flang------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 ABOVE AND BELOW. DELETE, RETAIN OR REVISE EXCEPTIONS OR RETAIN "AS INDICATED" IF BOTH DEFAULT AND EXCEPTIONS DELETED. -5/8 inches, unless otherwise indicated. • inehea xlieie iniUualed, ?h th dieatc. 3-1/a inches wheie. iiKliuaLeil. i D/o imjiiui; wtitim imili'aUMi. Ac indicated RETAIN ONE REQUIREMENT ABOVE AND BELOW. Thi -gravmr!—Mjiidma ani. typu, aajmnbin, fihrin Corrosion-resistant steel sheet complying with ASTM thickness of base (uncoated) metal of 0.03; designfe trfntou od w) ttrt tipc." mwJ t« 09250 - 10 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 ABOVE AVAILABLE FROM 1ISG AND DALE OF MFRS LISTED, BELOW AVAILABLEPKOM DALE AND GOLD ABOVE OR IF TH^RD RETAHfED. RETAIN LOW OR BOTH, REQUIREMENT Double-Li Ionfiguration; Cot Hat-sjxtped channel, with 1-1/2 connected to fringes by double slotted or is (webs). tration; EitheXone indicated above. BELOW AVAILABLE IN DEPTHS OF 1, 1-1/2, 2, 2-1/2, AND 3 INCHES. USG ^PRODUCT HAS SLOTTED WEB. 7-Furring Members'; Manufacturer's standa*Xd zee-shaped furring memberswithshotted or nonslotted web, fabricated from hot-dip galvanized sfceel sheet complying with ASTnv A 525, Coating Designation/660; with a minimum base metal (unoqated) thickness of 0.0179 ./inch, face flange of 1-1/4 inch, wall-attachment flange of 7/8 inch, and of depth required to fit insulat^pn thickness indicaJKed. Fasteners; Provide fasteners of type, material, size, Oorrosion resistance, holding power and other properties required to\fasten ;teel framing and furring members securely to substrates involved; complying with the recommendations of gypsun dryw^ll jnanufacfur"*"' *"*• "ppH"""' GYPSUM BOARD; General: Provide gypsum board of types indicated in maximum lengths available to minimize end-to-end joints. DELETE BELOW IF THICKNESSES FOR ALL ^APPLICATIONS SPECIFIED OR INDICATED ON DRAWINGS^ TTS I NCH EXCLUDED POSSIBLE TO MFRS' THICKNESS BELOW TO AVOID MISUSE. REFER RE COMMEN DATIONS GYPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 11 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 FOR PROPER USE OF 3/8 INCH THICKNESS. r6vide gypsum board in thicknesses indicated, otherwise indicated, in either 1/2 inch or 5/8 esses to comply with ASTM C 840 for application support spacing indicated. Gypsum (ftaj/jiboard; ASTM C 36, and as follows: DELETE TYPES BELOW NOT REQUIRED. INDICATE ON DRAWINGS FIRE-RESISTANT TYPES OCCUR. SEE EVALUATION SHEETS. Type: Regular, unless otherwise indicated. Foil-hag) 1 whinn. iiidiiuHLa. Type; Type X for fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Edges; Tapered. Taparo< SELECT ONE REQUIREMENT BELOW. (rounded EDGE prrf i 1 RETAIN OR REVISE DEFAULT REQUIREMENT BELOW. DELETE, RETAIN OR REVISE EXCEPTIONS OR RETAIN "AS INDICATED" IF BOTH DEFAULT AND EXCEPTIONS DELETED. REFER TO MFRS ' LITERATURE FOR LIMITATIONS ON USE OF 3/8 INCH THICKNESS. Thickness Thicknefcs /frhickne^cji Available Products; Subject to compliance with requirements, products which may be incorporated in the Work where Type X gypsum wallboard is indicated include, but are not limited to, the following: GYPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 12 to SMH ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 RETAIN ABOVE FOR NONPROPRIETARY OR BELOW FOR SEMIPROPRIETARY SPECIFICATION. REFER TO DIVISION-1 SECTION "PRODUCTS AND SUBSTITUTIONS." Pro BELOW REPRESENT PRODUCTS WHOSE FIRE RESISTANCE IS GREATER THAN EACH MFR'S STANDARD TYPE X WALLBOARD. RETAIN ONLY PRODUCTS OF MFRS RETAINED UNDER 1ST ARTICLE OF PART 2. 'Gyprock Fireguard 'C1 Gypsum Board"; Dorotar Gypsum Co. 'Fire-Shield G" ; Gold Bond Building Products Div. , National Gypsum Co. 'SHEETROCK Brand FIRECODE 'C' Gypsum Panels"; United States Gypsura Co. DELETE BELOW IF NO MULTI- APPLICATIONS. BOARD NO MANUFACTURED GOLD BOND. LAYER ASTM C 442 LONGER BY USG OR ar :ioni gypsuitf e backing board is not available from nanuj illboard, ASTM C 36, and as follows: :er, ?TE TYPES BELOW NOT 'REQUIRED. INDICATE ON DRAWINGS WHERE FOIL-BACKED AND TYPE X BOARDS OCCUR. Type; Type; Type; Regulaj?------- Copyrightrtl987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/1 to/ Manufacturer's standard. DELETE ABO\ EDGE DESCRI! PRODUCED MATERIAy AVAILABII/ITY. OR BELOW. D BELOW ONLY ASTM C 442 VERIFY Edges; lare, non-tapered; or V-tongue$md groove. RETA/N OR REVISE DEFAULT REQUIREMENT BELOW. DELETE, RETAIN OR REVISE EXCEPTIONS OR RETAIN "AS NDICATED" IF BOTH 'DEFAULT AND EXCEPTIONS DELETED. REFER TO MFRS' LITERATURE FOR LIMITATIONS ON USE OF 3/8 INCH THICKNESS. Thickness; Thickness: Thickness; Thickness; 1/2 inch, uHl ess/otherwise 5/8 inch wheVe /ndicated. 3/8 inch wherVindicated. As indicated.. indicated. Water-Resistant Gvpsoin Backing Board: follows: DELETE BELOW IF GLASS MESH MORTAR UNITS EXCLUSIVELY SPECIFIED AS BASE FOR TILE. PRODUCT BELOW NOT SUITABLE FOR CEILING APPLICATIONS. ASTM C 630, and as RETAIN TYPE OR TYPES BELOW REQUIRED. INDICATE ON \DRAWINGS WHERE FIREYRESISTANT TYPE OCCURS A Type; Type; tegular, unless otherwise indicated. Type X for fire-resistance-rated assenfelies. RETAIN OR REVISE DEFAULT REQUIREME N\ BELOW DELETE, R£TAIN\OR REVISE GYPSUM DRYWALL M-S i ».••«!.•« •: nt'ttJU ttts: PWTI.U •:• "v tiff - T«il :: »n -t: s-rr -.t »; t w* 1 1 09250 - ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 EXCEPTION OR INDICATED" DEFAULT DELETED. 5/8 inch, unless otherwise indica 1/2 inch where indicated. As indicated. BELOW' SUITABLE ONLY FOR SOPTITS INDIRECTLY EXPOSED TO WEATHER. SEE RS ' LITERATURE FOR MITATIONS. C 931, with manufacturer's s indicated below: Exterior Gypsum standard edges, Soffit Board; AS type and thickne DELETE TYPES BELOW NOT REQUIRED. ess otherwise indicated. re->cesistance rated assenblies. Regular, u Type X for Typg: Type: RETAIN BELOW. AVAILABILITY AND DESIRED FROM SELECTED MFRS FOR BOTH REGULAR AND TYPE X BOARD. 1/2 INCH THICK TYPE X BOARD NOT AVAILABLE FROM GOLD BOND AND USG. inch, inch, indicated. indicated. Thicknes Thickness: unless unless otherwise otherwise DELETE THIS ARTICLE IF NO GLASS MD6H MORTAR UNITS OR IF XPECIFIED IN ANOTHER SECTION. Proprietary backing units with glass mesh fiber mesh 09250 - 1 THICKNESS VERIFY OF PRODUCT THICKNESS inforcing GYPSUM DRYWALL ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 id water resistant coating on both faces, complying following requirements: sum Panels; Gypsun and manufacturer's ating on both faces 48 inches wide by 96 ft. core pro the PRODUCT BELOW ARE ORDER AS N, AT END OF CORRELAT RETA IN/ED CORRESPOND IPTIONS IN SAME D PRODUCTS IS ARTICLE. DESCRIPTIONS BELOW TO WITH NAMED PRODU RETAINED. ith glass fiber nesh ietary water and vapor abricated in panels 1/2 inches long, and weighing Cement-Coated PoVtland Cement Panels: High density portland cement surface ^coating on /both faces and lightweight concrete core composed of/portland cement and expanded ceramic aggregate; Vabricared in panels 7/16 inch thick by 36 inches wide by 36\ A3,/or 60, 64, or 72 inches long; and weighing 3.2 - 3.8 lbs\p$rr sq. ft. Vinyl-Coated Portland/Cement Panels: Core formed in a continuous process f/om Aggregated portland cement slurry and reinforced v embedded in both textured; fabrice inches wide by Ibs per sq. ft. vinyl-coated woven glass fiber nesh iriaces,\with one face smooth and other 'ed in panels 1/2 inch thick and by 36 60, and 7\ inches long; and weighing 3 Available Products'; Subject to corop\iance with requirements, glass itesh morta/ units which may be incorporated in the Work include, but are/not limited to, the following: RE T\IN ABOVE FOR NONPR6PRIETARY OR BELOW FOR S\£MIPROPRIETARY SPECIFICATION. REFER TO DIVISIOW^-1 SECTION "PROD i:\ T S AND SUBSTITUTIONS Products; Subject to compliance with requirements, provide one of bhe following products: GYPSUM DRYWALL M J •. i.tX' it;:- Cm •re :e sf.i : • n.t4*t t?l y ly 09250 - 16 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 "Wonder-Board" "Durock USG Industries. ASTM C Edge Trim for Interior Installation; Comply with the following: rbead formed from zinc alloy, with flanges knurled and orated or of fine-mesh expanded netal. Steel Edge trim, formed from galvanized steel, types per Fig. 1 of ASTM C 840 as follows: RETAIN TYPES REQUIRED FROM CHOICES BELOW. **LC" Bead, unless otherwise indicated. REVISE BELOW IF BULL NOSE REQUIRED. BELOW HAS NO BACK FLANGE. "U" Bead where indicated. Plastic Edge Trim: Manufacturers standard rigid or semi-rigid PVC moldings shaped to provide resilient contact of gypsum board edges with other construction; friction-fit, or pressure-sensitive adhesive mounting. One-Piece Control Joint; Formed with perforated face flanges connected by vee-shaped slot, 1/4 inch wide by approximately 7/16 inch deep and covered with removable tape, fabricated from the following material: RETAIN ONE BELOW. GOLD BOND RECOMMENDS EXTRUDED VINYL. USG ONLY OFFER ZINC. GYPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 17 r. PtnMx- ta N MtctM HT ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 Roll-formed zinc. Extruded vinyl. Either roll-forned zinc or extruded vinyl. IF BELO-W RETAINED IN DIC A'T E PROFILES REQUIRED EITHER HERE BY INSERTS OR ON DRAWINGS. Aluir.inun EdgeSTrin; Where indicated, provide manufacturer's standardextrubed aluminum edge/trim of profile shown or referenced by manufacturer's arandard product designation, fabricated from aluminum allpy 6063 T5 complying with ASTM B 221, finished as follows: _ Metal — (J6Pnejri&5 e Exterior Ceilings; O^and the following: ae trim formed from zinc alloy, type "LC of ASTM C 840 unless otherwise indicated. Anodized (choffiically cleaned; chemical etch, mi* minimum thick clear anodic coatn BELOW IS AN EXAMPLE ONLY, OTHER FINISHES AVAILABLE INCLUDING COLOR ANODIZED AND BAKED ENAMEL FINISHES, INSERT IF QUIRED. h: AA-C12C22A42 medium natte; 0.7 HER INSERT ACCESSOR INCLUDING COLUMN FORMS EDGE TRIM FOR COLUMNS, ETC. TRIM HERE EFORMED CURVED ROUND GYPSUM BOARD JOINT TREATMENT MATERIALS; General: Provide materials complying with ASTM C 475, ASTM C 840, and recommendations of manufacturer of both gypsum board and joint treatment materials for the application indicated. GLASS-FIBER-MESH TYPES WITH OR WITHOUT PRESSURE GYPSUM DRYWALL »M h •\y.-. PfmsiM kr blhr ^m tt K'l -rt ttm ft cenr. 09250 - 18 ------- Joint Tape; Pap Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 SENSITIVE ADHESIVE BACKING ARE ALSO AVAILABLE BUT ARE ONLY APPROVED BY MFRS FOR USE WITH SELECTED SETTING-TYPE JOINT COMPOUNDS. reinforcing tape, unless otherwise indicated. DELETE BELOW IF NOT APPLICABLE. _ .sure sensitive or staple-attached open-weave glass reinforcing tape with compatible joint compound where aended by manufacturer of gypsum board and joint treatment materials for application indicated. EXAMPLES BELOW ARE THE USUAL RANGE OF PRODUCT CHOICES. BEFORE EDITING BELOW, FIRST EDIT PART 3 ARTICLE "FINISHING DRYWALL" TO DETERMINE WHICH COMPOUNDS TO RETAIN FOR FINISH SYSTEMS REQUIRED. SEE EVALUATION SHEETS FOR CONSIDERATIONS INVOLVED IN SELECTING JOINT COMPOUNDS. Setting-Type Joint Compounds: Factory-prepackaged, job-mixed, chemical-hardening powder products formulated for uses indicated. RETAIN APPLICABLE REQUIREMENTS BELOW. SETTING TIMES OF CERTAIN SETTING-TYPE JOINT COMPOUNDS MAY BE ADJUSTED WHICH COULD AFFECT QUALITY OF PERFORMANCE. "BELOWTSINTENDED TO LIMIT SELECTION TO THOSE WITH LONGER SETTING TIMES. REVISE OR COMPLEMENT WITH PRODUCT NAMES IF PRODUCTS WITH GYPSUM DRYWALL >£,'££*'^G^.SV 09250 - 19 ~.r tt rf; ~tc •-•«• •_•« ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 SHORTER SETTING TIMES ACCEPTABLE. Where se£mngftype joint compounds are indicated for use as taping/^nicrskopping compounds, use formulation for each which develop*' greatest bond strength and crack resistance and is e with other joint compounds applied over it. >rvT"pref ill ing gypsum board joints, use formulation nended by gypsum board manufacturer for this purpose. For filling joints and treating fasteners of water-resistant gypsum backing board behind base for cerair.ic tile, use formulation recoxmended by gypsum board manufacturer for this purpose. Drying-Type Joint Compounds: Factory-prepackaged vinyl-based products complying with the following requirements for formulation and intended use. Ready-Mix Formulation; Factory-prefixed product. DELETE ABOVE OR 3ELOW OR RETAIN BOTH IF EITHER ALLOWED IN FINISHING REQUIREMENTS IN PART 3. RETAIN BELOW EITHER BOTH TAPING AND TOPPING COMPOUND OR ALL-PURPOSE COMPOUND OR ALL 3 TO CORRELATE WITH FINISHING REQUIREMENTS IN PART 3. Taping compound formulated for embedding tape and for first coat over fasteners and flanges of corner beads and edge trim. Topping compound formulated for fill (second) and finish (third) coats. jppi GYPSUM DRYWALL n$ n Mtko ;K k iry»fctt ITJ at !wj W* Pi-wan v torn, rt.-Mict» ••-•fl » ef.i -n "»• rfe C*JT- ;« c*tt! 09250 - 20 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS; General: Provide auxiliary materials for gypsum drywall construction which comply with referenced standards and the recommendations of the manufacturer of the gypsum board. DELETE MATERIALS BELOW NOT APPLICABLE TO PROJECT. Tormina ti Gypsum Board Screws: s to ASTX C 1002. Beard Hailoi AM'H C sin~.—• Asphalt Folt; ASJM D 220, Typo I (Ht Concealed Acoustical Sealant; Nondrying, nonhardening, nonskinning, nonstaining, nonbleeding, gunnable sealant complying with requirement specified in Division-7 section "Joint Sealers." y confining setting without RETAIN ONE REQUIREMENT FROM 3 BELOW. Mi: Fiber F i b e r s^fllaliii f a c t u r ed-^from>g 1 a s s leral Fiber^Tvoe; t Fibers manuCactAU'ed from bias: >(ineraJ 3er Type: jers manufactured from AVOID USE OF MATERIAL BELOW FOR BELOW-GRADE OR OTHER POTENTIALLY DAMP LOCATIONS; USE EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE OR OTHER GYPSUM DRYWALL M S i ijxritt •: n>t3.;f mt ui •»>;1 Pr-nreur- T ' !".f M iKt VI 'r»fi : 09250 - 21 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 CLOSED CELL INSTEAD. INSULATION Thermal Ins Material indicated below, of thickness and ^tbids formed by Z-furring members: Mineral Fiber Blanket Insulation; blanket insulation produced by c; of type described below with the] ly with ASTM C 665 for Type I (blankj g); and as follows: nfaced mineral ining nineral setting resins to s without membrane Min slagJ Mineral Fiber Mineral\Fiber RETAIN ONE REQUIREMENT :OM 3 BELOW. Fibers/Manufactured from glass or Fibers manufactured from glass. Fibers manufactured from slag. RETAIN ABOVE OR BELOW FOR INSULATION BETWEEN Z-FURRING MEMBERS. DELETE BOTH IF NO Z-FURRING MEMBERS. REVISE IF OTHER TYPES OF INSULATION MATERIALS DESIRED. VERIFY CODE COMPLIANCE OF BELOW WITH AUTHORITIES HAVING JURISDICTION. Extruded Pol Thermal Insulation: Rigid, cellular theirtnal insulation with closed cells and integral high density skin; formed by rt^e expansion of polystyrene base resin/in an extrusion processvto comply with ASTM C 578 for Type TV; with a flame spread ami smoke developed ratings of, respectively, not more than 25 and 450 per ASTM E 84. R E T\I N BELOW IF SEPARATELY APPLIED VAPOR BARRIER\ REQUIRED OVER WOOD FRAMING AND ITS INSTALLATION IS SPECIFIED IN THIS SECTI* Polyethylene Vapor Retarder; aferroeance rating as follows: ASTM D 4397, thickness and GYPSUM DRYWALL :**. > i-.e t*. 09250 - 22 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 4.0 mils, 0.19 perms. Glas , 0.13 perms. Mortar Unit Finishing Materia. DELETE ABOXE OR BELOW OR REVISE. comp Tape and joint s a\ recommended by glass mesh mortar unit manufacturer. TEXTURE FINISH^MATERIALS; Prlraer: Of type reconum Polystyrene Aqqreqat standard proprieta/ry produ aggregates for Spray appl characteristics of/25 per ASTM E Available Produces; Subject to polystyrene Work include, DELETE THIS ENTIRE ARTICLE IF NO TEXTURE FINISH OR IF SPECIFIED AS WORK OF ANOTHER SECTION SUCH AS PAINTING OR SPECIAL COATINGS. BELOW IS JUST ONE EXAMPLE OF SEVERAL PRODUCTS AVAILABLE. by manufacturer of texture finish. for Ceilings; Manufacturer's formulated with polystyrene ition, with surface burning and in texture indicated. of the following products: / "IMPERIAL QT SPRAY Medium Texture Finish"; Gypsum Co. rapliance with requirements, egated finishes which,, may be incorporated in the t are not limited to, \he following: TAIN ABOVE FOR 1PROPRIETARY OR BELOW FO"fc SEMIPROPRIETARY SPECIFICATION. REFER TO DIVPeiON-1 SECTION "PR O\D U C T S AND SUBSTITUTIONS." Products; Subject to compliance with requirements^ provide one United States GYPSUM DRYWALL TT.s ,; •tttft * —.? It t m»:-:.:t »tt «; tet 09250 - 23 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 SPRAY Coarse Texture . ySpray MediujiH >ray Medium"; Gold Bond Building lational Gypsum Co. Thited States Building Products Div., Div., PART 3 - EXECUTION EXAMINATION; REVISE BELOW TO SUIT PROJECT CONDITIONS AND CONSTRUCTION. Examine substrates to which dryvall construction attaches or abuts, preset hollow metal frames, cast-in-anchors, and structural framing, with Installer present, for compliance with requirements for installation tolerances and other conditions affecting performance of drywall construction. Do not proceed with installation until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected. -PREPARATION. Ceili suspension systems to provisions /have Banner tha /required tovs«p'port ceili DELETE THIS ARTICLE IF NO STEEL FRAMING FOR CEILINGS OR PARTITIONS. ceiling DELETE BELOW DEVICES NOT SPECIFIED SECTIONS. at spacing IF ANCHORAGE USED OR IF IN OTHER installation with o GYPSUM DRYWALL "?„' i'""7'** " I*'**' fit Ml Brv TX-. "cnt,^. fc, ...-ma, .^c-,^ •--•/ if :'.'**{ -'t~ n: -.-.i 09250 - 24 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 DELETE BELOW IF NO SPRAYED-ON FIREPROOFING OR IF NOT APPLICABLE. on firepro^ftTyr is applied iling ruprters ( ed-on fireproofi ravide continuous u o.c. mupn firepr construction INSTALLATION OF STEEL FRAMING. GENERAL; DELETE THIS ARTICLE IF NO STEEL FRAMING. ASTM C 840 INCLUDES REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATION THAT ARE NOT INCLUDED IN ASTM C 754. Steel Framing Installation Standard; Install steel framing to comply with ASTM C 754 and with ASTM C 840 requirements that apply to framing installation. Install supplementary framing. blocking and bracing at terminations in the work and for support of fixtures, equipment services, heavy trim, grab bars, toilet accessories, furnishings, and similar construction to comply with details indicated and with recommendations of gypsum board manufacturer, or if none available, with "Gypsum Construction Handbook" published by United States Gypsum Co. INDICATE ISOLATION DETAILS ON DRAWINGS OR INSERT DETAILED DESCRIPTION HERE. Isolate steel framing from building structure to prevent transfer of loading imposed by structural movement, at locations indicated below to comply with details shown on Drawings: Where edges of suspended ceilings abut building structure GYPSUM DRYWALL fcns <\ j.ttf :te to Ttttxt nt «: 9- to* Ir *,-•*• ri for •* c 09250 - 25 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 at ceiling perimeters or penetration of elements. rtition and wall framing abuts overhead structure RETAIN BELOW ONLY IF DETAILS PROVIDED ON DRAWINGS; OTHERWISE DESCRIBE CONNECTION REQUIRED IN DETAIL. Provide slip or cushioned type joints as detailed to attain lateral support and avoid axial loading. Do not bridge building expansion and control joints with steel framing or furring members; independently frame both sides of joints with framing or furring members or as indicated. DELETE THIS ARTICLE SUSPENDED AND CEILINGS. DELETE BEL0W IF NO WOOD FRAMrXG (CEILING JOISTS/BEAMS, STUDS, ET Screw furring n ers to wood framing. Secure hangers to "structural supp*brt by connecting directly to structure where possrtjle, otherwise connect to cast- in concrete inserts or other anchorage devices or fasteners as indicated. DELETE BELOW IF NO METAL DECK. Do not attachxangers to netaXdeck tabs. Do not a$£ach hangers to metal robC deck. D E"lSET E BELOW IF POWDEKN^CTUATED FASTENERS ACCEPT ABI GYPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 26 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 condu Keep Do not^itach hangers to underside of concrete slabs /with ted fasteners. ct or suspend steel framing from ducts, z&pes or condu ers and braces 2 inches clear of ducts'; pipes and REVISE RZLOW TO INDICATED SPECIFIC TYPE OF HANGER IF DIFFERENT FROM HANGERS USED/TO SUSPEND FRAMING. Swav-brace suspended steel framing with hangers used for support. Install suspended framing components in sizes and at spacings indicated butXnot less than^chat required by referenced steel framing installation standard., BELOW IS AN EXAMPLE OF A DEFAULT REQUIREMENT. DELETE IF SIZES AND SPACING INDICATED ON DRAWINGS OR REVISE IF OTHER SIZES AND SPACING REQUIRED TO SUIT PROJECT CONDITIONS. Carrying Channels (Main Runner; center. 1-1/2 inch, 4 ft. on Rigid Furrvna Channels fFurring Members); 16 inches on center. RET\ IN ABOVE FOR PARALLEL-ATTACHED SINGLE LAYER \l/2 OR 5/8 INCH THICK &PSUM WALLBOARD, O R B >£ LOW FOR PER PEN DI Oil LAR-ATTACHED BOARD \O F SAME THICKNESSES .\ REVISE FOR OTHER THICKWfSSES AND DOUBLE LAYERS. GYPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 27 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 Purring Channels (Furring Members); 24 inches TOLERANCES B^LOW ARE BASED ON TH0SE SPECIFIED IN ASTM-XC 636 FOR ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS. Installation Tolerances; Install steel .Craning components for suspended ceilingtT so that cross fdrring members or grid suspension members TUTC level to wi>Kin 1/8 inch in 12 ft. as measured both lengthwise on each member and transversely between parallel members. Wire-tie or clip furring structural supports as i ers to main runners and to other DELETE BELOW IF NO GRID S USPENSION SYSTEM INCLUDED IN PART 3 OR FLOWED. Grid Suspension System; Attach perimeterNwall track or angle where gr i.^ suspension system meets vertical surfaces. Mechanically join main beam and cross furring^ members to each other ana butt-cut to fit into wall track. FRAMING FOlNfiELOW SHOULD BE DETAILED ONN0RAWINGS. EOT exterior soffits provide cross-bracing and additional /Indicated or reqqjred to resist wind uplift. framing INSTALLATION OF STEEL FRAMING FOR WALLS AND PARTITIONS; DELETE THIS ARTICLE IF NO STEEL FRAMING FOR WALLS AND PARTITIONS. Install runners (tracks) at floors, ceilings and structural walls and columns where gypsum drywall stud system abuts other construction. Where studs are installed directly against exterior walls, install asphalt felt strips between studs and wall. GYPSUM DRYWALL V$ ft tft t-jt; •> , ft) j* -»B ;,"t:.r c: 09250 - 28 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 BELOW IS BASED ON RECOMMENDATION IN GA-216 FOR ALL FRAMING. ASTM C 840 REQUIRES ONLY THAT FRAMING AND SUBSTRATES BE INSTALLED SO THAT, AFTER GYPSUM BOARD HAS BEEN INSTALLED, THE FINISHED SURFACE WILL BE IN AN EVEN PLANE. DELETE BELOW IF ASTM C 840 REQUIREMENT ACCEPTABLE. ion Tolerances; Install each steel framing and furring so that fastening surface do not vary more than 1/8 inch lane of faces of adjacent framing. >nd partition framing full height to structural supports or substrates above suspended ceilings, except where partitions are indicated to terminate at suspended ceilings. Continue framing over frames for doors and openings and frame around ducts penetrating partitions above ceiling to provide support for gypsum board. RETAIN ABOVE WITH BELOW OR REVISE TO MAKE BELOW DEFAULT REQUIREMENT AND ABOVE THE EXCEPTION; OR DELETE BOTH IF NOT APPLICABLE (SUCH AS NO SUSPENDED CEILINGS). Terminate partition framing at suspended ceilings where indicated. Install steel studs and furring in sizes and at spacings indicated but not less than that required by referenced steel framing installation standard. BELOW ARE EXAMPLES OF DEFAULT REQUIREMENTS. RETAIN APPLICABLE REQUIREMENTS OR REVISE. DELETE IF SIZES AND SPACING INDICATED ON DRAWINGS. For single laver construction; 16 inches on center. GYPSUM DRYWALL HIiS 4 ii*e-6H'.: us•otox tii tH iti IX*. fa--OK- "v *••?•« m*a :•> ticii'.ti •------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 DELETE ABOVE OR BELOW OR BOTH IF THIRD REQUIREMENT RETAINED. REFER TO TABLE 4 IN ASTM C 754. In steel studs so that flanges point in the same direction sum boards can be installed in the direction opposite to the flange. Sine door openings to comply with details indicated, with GA-219 and with applicable published recommendations of gypsum board manufacturer. Attach vertical studs at jambs with screws either directly to frames or to jamb anchor clips on door frames; install runner track section (for cripple studs) at head and secure to jamb studs. RETAIN SUSPENSION BELOW CEILINGS I F CAPABLE OF WITHSTANDING DOOR OPENING AND CLOSING FORCES. QUALIFY TF~ 'XCEPTIONS . Extend vertical jamb studs through suspended ceilings and attach to underside of floor or roof structure above. INSTALLATION OF FRAMING FOR ABOVE AND BELOW SHOULD BE FULLY DETAILED. Frame openings other than door openings to comply with details indicated, or if none indicated, in same manner as required for door openings; and install framing below sills of openings to match framing required above door heads. place with Z-furring Erect insulation members spac ches on center. GYPSUM DRYWALL PtT«tw« Ir br.tr ft or: i at:latt -w n, t,,r' 09250 - 30 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 \ jxterior corners, securely attach narrow flanges Ingr members to wall with concrete stub na^ls, screws for masonry attachment, or powder-driven fasteners 24 inches on center. Exterior corners, attach wide flange of/furring members wall with short flange extending beyond corner; on adjacent wall surface, screw attach shortr flange of furring chanVel to web of attached channel. Start from this furring channel with standard width insulation/panel and continue in regulair manner. At interior corners, /space second member no more th\n 12 inches from corner and sfut insulation to fit. DELETE BELOW IF POLYSTYRENE INSULATION BOARD SPECIFIED EXCLUSIVELY FOR THERMAL INSULATION. Until gypsum boaxd is installed hold insulation in place with 10 inch staples fabricated from 0.0625 inch (16 gage) diameter tie wire\ and /inserted through slot in web of member. \7 DELETE BELOW IF NO SEPARATELY APPLIED VAPOR RETARDER REQUIRED. DO NOT INSTALL BEHIND WATER-RESISTANT BACKING BOARD. Install polyethylene vapor retarder on interior of framing members of exteric requirements: insulated walls \o comply with the following Extend vapor retarder to extremiti< of exterior insulated ids in in insulated walls anal to cover miscellaneous substrates, including those which ha\e been stuffed with loose thermal insulation. Seal /vertical -joints in vapor retarders\ over framing by lapping not less than 2 wall studs. Fasten\vapor retarders to/framing at top, end, and bottom edges, *t perimeter of wadl openings, and at lap joints; space fasteners 16 inches on center. Seal joints in vapor retarder caused by pipes, Vonduits, electrical boxes and similar items penetrating; vapor GYPSUM DRYWALL *';$a *n-. •tt»f. r.f t» 09250 - 31 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 retarder immediately other APPLICATION AND FINISHING OF GYPSUM BOARD. GENERAL; Gypsum Board Application and Finishing Standard: finish gypsum board to comply with ASTM C 840. Ins Install and Install Locate exposed end-butt joints as far from center of walls and ceilings as possible, and stagger not less than 24 inches in alternate courses of board. Inst Install wall/partition boards in manner which minimizes the number of end-butt joints or avoids them entirely where possible. At stairwells and similar high walls, install boards horizontally with end joints staggered over studs. Install exposed qypsua board with face side out. Do not install imperfect, damaged or damp boards. Butt boards together for a light contact at edges and ends with not more than 1/16 inch open space between boards. Do not force into place. Locate either edge or end Joints over supports, except in horizontal applications where intermediate supports or gypsum board back-blocking is provided behind end joints. Position boards so that like edges abut, tapered edges against tapered edges and mill-cut or field-cut ends against mill-cut or field-cut ends. Do not place tapered edges against cut edges or ends. Stagger vertical joints over different studs on opposite sides of partitions. Attach gypsuro board to steel studs so that leading edge or end of each board is attached to open (unsupported) edge of stud flange first. GYPSUM DRYWALL .-rt:i? 09250 - 32 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 Attach gypsum board to supplementary framing and blocking provided for additional support at openings and cutouts. DELETE BELOW IF NO HOLLOW METAL DOOR FRAMES IN STEEL-FRAMED PARTITIONS. LOCATION REQUIREMENTS SPECIFIED WITH INSTALLATION OF TRIM ACCESSORIES. Form control joints and expansion joints at locations indicated, with space between edges of boards, prepared to receive trim accessories. Cover both faces of steel stud partition framing with gypsum board in concealed spaces (above ceilings, etc.), except in chase walls which are braced internally. Except where concealed application is indicated or required for sound, fire, air or smoke ratings, coverage may be accomplished with scraps of not less than 8 sq. ft. area, and may be limited to not less than 75 percent of full coverage. Fit gypsum board around ducts, pipes, and conduits. Where partitions intersect open concrete coffers, cut gypsum board to fit profile of coffers and allow 1/4 to 1/2 inch wide joint for sealant. Isolate perimeter of non-load-bearing drywall partitions at structural abutments. Provide 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch space and trim edge with "U" bead edge trim. Seal joints with acoustical sealant. BELOW TS FEAST BT.E ONLY WITH WOOD FRAMING WHERE FIRE RATINGS ARE NOT REQUIRED. DELETE FOR Tf!$ a MUj-~.tr; K tfrwitt M u I GYPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 33 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 METAL-FRAMED DRYWALL. GYPSUM uding siur boarjd o^ydr tructio ct io y mknuf "floirg rcommended rani rated drywall construction is indicated, seal on at perimeters, control and expansion joints, d penetrations with a continuous bead of acoustical ncluding a bead at both faces of partitions. Comply C 919 and manufacturer's recommendations for location trim, and close off sound-flanking paths around or construction, including sealing of partitions above acoustical ceilings. USUALLY DELETE BELOW IF CEILING HAS VERY LITTLE ATTENUATION VALUE. /acou Space fasteners in gypsun boards in accordance with referenced gypsum board application and finishing standard and manufacturer's recommendations. METHODS OF GYPSUM BOARD APPLICATION; Single-Layer Application; Install gypsum wallboard as follows: DELETE BELOW IF NO GYPSUM DRYWALL CEILINGS. it Inn boarrl On partitions/walls apply gypsum board vertically (parallel to framing) , unless otherwise indicated, and provide sheet lengths which will minimize end joints. DELETE BELOW IF NOT APPLICABLE OR DESIRED. SEE EVALUATION SHEETS. J'Sfi'5 arP*T GYPSUM DRYWALL iv it M , .{ 09250 - 34 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 DELETE BELOW IF Z-FURRING MEMBERS. NO applv^ypsiim board^i*«"bically jointsV_^*6cate echta-XSints ov \ n "dry" areas install gypsum backing board or wallboaTd wvthtaperededges taped and finished to produce a flat surface. At lowers. tubs and siuilar "wet" areas,/ install water-resistant gypsum backing board to comply wTth ASTM C 840 andNreconunendations of gypsum board manufacturer. DELETE A^CVE OR BELOW OR BOTH IF BELOW SPECIFIED IN plVISION-7 SECTION "TIJ At showers, tubs and\ similar "wet a] install glass mesh mortar units and trea\ joints to comply with manufacturer's recommendations for type\f application indicated. Double-Layer Application; tnstaVl gypsum backing board for base layer and gypsum wallboard fotvface layer. /\ DELETE NEXT REQUIREMENT IF NO GYPSUM DRYWALL CEILINGS. On ceilings apply/base layer prror to application of base layer on walls/partitions; applV face layers in same sequence. OffSOT joints between layXrs at least 10 inches. Apply base layers at right angles\ to supports unless otherwise indicated. REVISE\ BELOW IF WALL CONDI T\O NS PERMIT E C O N O M I OsA L USE OF HORI20NTAL\APPLICATION fPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 35 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 OF BAS£^-"LAYER AND LAMINATED ATTACHMENT IS METHOD USED. On parbi±.ions/walls apply base'' layer and face layers vertically^-fjiarallei to framing) with joints of base layer over supports^va^id face layer joints offset at least 10 inches wifch base ra^r jo>fits. DELETE BELOW IF NO Z-FURRING MEMBERS. Ambers apply base lltyer vertically (parallel ling) /-and face layer either veiy^ically (parallel to horizontally (perpendicular\to framing) with ve~M*tt it: i- ti GYPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 36 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 RETAIN ONE FOLLOWING. OF THE isten both base layers and face layers separately to supcorts with screws. ABOVE AND FOR ME' SUPPORTS REQUISPED fLOW SUITABLE OR WOOD ABOVE METHOD FOR CERTAIN •RESISTANCE JLIES. RATED 'layers witnxscrews and/face layer with adhesive and s6£pNiftraentary fastenei :ertj base layers to wood .Supports with nails and face 'with adhesive and supplementary fasteners. VNSERT SPECIFIC aUIREMENTS (IF KNOWN) FOKV THE PARTICULAR SUBSTRATE OF THE SYSTEM. Direct-Bonding to Substrate; Where gypsum boar& is indicated to be directly adherexT to a substrate (other than\ studs, joists, furring members yor base layer of gypsum board\ comply with gypsum board manufacturer's recommendations, anov temporarily brace or fasten gypsum board until fastening adhesive\has set. Exterior Soffits and Ceilings; Apply exterior gypsum soffit board perpendicular to supports, with end joints staggered over support*'. Install with 1/4 inch open space where boards abut other/construction. Fasten with cadmium-plated screws, or with galvanized or a1urninun nails where supports are nailable. INSTALLATION OF DRYWALL TRIM ACCESSORIES; General; Where feasible, use the same fasteners to anchor trim accessory flanges as required to fasten gypsun board to the supports. Otherwise, fasten flanges to comply with manufacturer's recommendations. THE FOLLOWING ARE ONLY EXAMPLES OF "UNIVERSAL" GYPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 37 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 SCOPE DEFINITIONS FOR THE USE OF TRIM. REVISE AS DESIRED OR SHOW BY DRAWING DETAILS. Install corner beads at external corners. Install metal edoe trim whenever edge of gypsum board would otherwise be exposed or semi-exposed, and except where plastic trim is indicated. Provide type with face flange to receive joint compound except where "U" bead (semi-finishing type) is indicated. Ins ab bijtnll *k "LC" bead where drywall construction is tightly to other construction and back flange can be d to framing or supporting substrate. K" b d wh kci-fed t -i e of trim,. uLL hoard ii Install U-type trim where edge is exposed, revealed, gasketed, or sealant-filled (including expansion joints). DELETE BELOW IF NO EXTERIOR BOARD OR JOINTS "ARE REQUlRFD TO BE FINISHED. Ins Install plastic edge trim where indicated on wall panels at juncture with ceilings. Install control -Joints at locations indicated, or if not indicated, at spacings and locations required by referenced gypsum board application and finish standard, and approved by the Architect for visual effect. DELETE BELOW IF ZINC CONTROL JOINT REQUIRED. GYPSUM DRYWALL tTU ti ».;•:•(.•*« K i«r::.:i M ut MI KPT*, frr-^.niy. •» '.-i* rt*e:.rr«« tax M otu-ce N:- :•» t:?f 09250 - 38 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 FINISHING OF DRYWALL; General: Apply joint treatment at gypsum board joints (both directions); flanges of corner bead, edge trim, and control joints; penetrations; fastener heads, surface defects and elsewhere as required to prepare work for decoration. Prefill setti iy Joints and rounded or beveled edges, if any, using ie joint compound. Int tape at joints between gypsum boards, except where cessories are indicated. csh interior gypsum wallboard by applying the following joint compounds in 3 coats (not including prefill of openings in base), and sand between coats and after last coat: RETAIN ONE COMBINATION FROM CHOICES BELOW, LISTED IN SEQUENCE OF HIGHEST QUALITY RESULTS PER USG "GYPSUM CONSTRUCTION HANDBOOK." CORRELATE PRODUCTS REFERENCED BELOW WITH THOSE RETAINED IN PART 2. SEE EVALUATION SHEETS. Embedding and First Coat; Setting-Type Joint Compound. Fill (Second) Coat: Setting-type joint compound. Finish fThird) Coat; Ready-mix drying-type all-purpose or topping compound. Embe and Fir ose ping c condl .goat ing compound A\ C EmbeddJjKT m compounjd. (Second compound nd First Coa Job-mix dryingxtype topping compound. /inish (Thir\n Ctfat: Job-mixe^ drY>ng-type toppingVeompound. GYPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 39 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 and First C compcfund nish ( First Coat: compound. joint fill s to p; and f ound horde after finis Paifitii ras dri\ ts USG RECOMMENDS PAINTING ENTIRE SURFACE OF EXTERIOR GYPSUM SOFFIT BOARD AFTER THIRD COAT OF JOINT COMPOUND HAS DRIED. CORRELATE WITH DIVISION-9 SECTION "PAINTING" OR INSERT REQUIREMENT HERE. of exte£i«pr'""gyp!lum soft'Af^-bustKd after^rtnTsn\coat :cified intDiyi»r6n-9 Secrioflr-*rPainting. DELETE BELOW IF NOT DESIRED OR NOT APPLICABLE. V-JOINT BACKING BOARD USUALLY DOES NOT REQUIRE TAPING. Base_f_or Acoustic Where gypsufflj board is fbr adhe>i^ely-applJied acoustical/ tile, -coat conipollnd treatment}—*«*fm3Ut sandi ed as and »tf~n* fe- GYPSUM DRYWALL DELETE ABOVE OR BELOW. SEE EVALUATION SHEETS BEFORE EDITING. RECOMMENDATIONS DIFFER 09250 - 40 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 BETWEEN MFRS. TILE INSTALLATION STANDARD REQUIRES JOINTS TO TREATED WITIT TAPE AND COMPOUND./ BELOW IS RECOMMENDATION OF UNITED STATES GtfPSUM CO. urer feed in Backing Board Base for CeLfamj^c Tile; Finish water-resistantbacking ^ooardwith tape and joint compound to comply with gypsum board recommendations and/installation standards 'ision-9 Section "Till PajTTial Finishing: \ Onit third >efoat and sanding on concealed drywall constructionXwhich is indicated for drywall finishing or which requires finishiha to achieve fire-resistance rating, sound rating or to act as air ar sm-oKe barrier. APPLICATION OF TEXTURE / \ DELETE THIS ARTICLE IF NONE OR SPECIFIED IN ANOTHER SECTION. SEE DEVALUATION SHEETS. Surface Preparation and Printer: PrepareNand prime drywall and other surfacesin strict accordance with texture finish nanufactur«r/s instructions. Apply primer Xo all surfaces to achieve texture finish. Finish A|:i GYPSUM DRYWALL 09250 - 41 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 8/87 END ON 09250 GYPSUM DRYWALL e>: fcr 09250 - 42 ------- PROJECT MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS EXAMPLE INDEX TO PROJECT MANUAL DIVISION AND SECTION DIVISION NUMBER DIVISION 0 - CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS 00020 Invitation to Bid 00100 Instruction to Bidders. Kentucky Dept. of Education 00110 Prohibition Against Conflicts of Interest. Gratuities and Kickbacks 00130 Pre-8id Conference 00300 Form of Proposal. Kentucky Department of Education 00410 Bid Bond 00420 Bidders Qualification Form 00500 Contract Agreement Kentucky Department of Education 00510 Indemnification Agreement 00520 State Application tor Certification 00530 10 Day Notification Form 00620 Performance and Payment Bond. Kentucky Department of Education 00700 General Conditions. Kentucky Department of Education 00810 Supplemental General Conditions 00850 Index to Drawings DIVISION 1 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 01010 Summary of Work • Asbestos Abatement 01014 Work Sequence 01030 Alternates and Alternatrves 01035 Additional Project Procedures 01040 Coordination 01041 Project Coordination 01043 Project Coordination - Asbestos Abatement 01045 Cutting and Patching 01046 Cutting and Patching • Asbestos Abatement 01091 Definitions and Standards - Asbestos Abatement 01092 Codes and Regulations - Asbestos Abatement 01200 Meetings 01312 Warranty of Work After Final Payment 01313 Schedules. Reports. Payments 01315 Aftidavt of Compliance 01340 Shop Drawings. Product Data. Samples and Schedule of Values 01380 Construction Photographs 01410 Air Monitoring - Test Laboratory Services INDEX TO SPECIFICATIONS -1 ------- PROJECT ANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS 01503 Temporary Facilities EXA PLE 01513 Negative Pressure System 01526 Temporary Enclosures 01560 Worker Protection • Asbestos Abatement 01562 Respiratory Protection 01563 Decontamination Units 01632 Products and Substitutions • Asbestos Abatement 01701 Project Ctose-Out 01711 Project Decontamination 01712 Cleaning and Decontamination 01714 Work Area Clearance DIVISION 2 - SITE WORK 02060 Building Demolition 02061 Bulding Demolition • Asbestos Abatement 02081 Removal of Asbestos-Containing Materials 02082 Removal of Asbestos-Containing Soi 02083 Enclosure of Contaminated Earth 02084 Disposal of Asbestos-Containing Waste Materials DIVISION 6 • CARPENTRY 06100 Rough Carpentry DIVISION 9-FINISHES 09250 Gypsum Dry Wall 09510 Acoustical Ceilings 09520 Acoustical Wall System 09900 Painting DIVISION 15 - MECHANICAL 15010 Mechanical General Provisions 15250 Mechanical Insulation DIVISION 16 - ELECTRICAL 16000 General Electrical Requirements 16070 Electrical Connections for Equipment 16110 Raceways 16120 Wires and Cables 16135 Electrical Boxes and Fittings 16190 Supporting Devices 16500 Lighting Fixtures INDEX TO SPECIFICATIONS - 2 ------- Specifications Workshop ------- Abatement Specifications Exhibit ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 SECTION OlOld r SUMMARY OF THE WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMET general provisions of Contract, including General and Suppementary Conditions, and other Division-1 Specification Sections, apply to work of this section. THE VARIOUS PARAGRAPHS IN THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE SHOW SEVERAL DIFFERENT METHODS OF SUMMARIZING THE CONTRACT WORK AND PROJECT SCOPE. SELECT THE PARAGRAPH OR COMBINATION OF PARAGRAPHS THAT MOST ACCURATELY SUMMARIZES THE WORK AND REVISE AS NECESSARY. DELETE UNNECESSARY PARAGRAPHS. PROJECT/WORK IDENTIFICATIQN; THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH IS THE SIMPLEST METHOD OF SUMMARIZING CONTRACT WORK. IT BRIEFLY IDENTIFIES THE PROJECT BY NAME AND LOCATION AND IDENTIFIES THE OWNER'S REPRESENTATIVE. THIS TYPE PARAGRAPH IS OFTEN USED AS A LEAD PARAGRAPH IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER METHODS OF SUMMARIZING THE WORK. General; Project name is as shown on Contract Documents prepared by Owner's Representative, Drawings and Specifications are dated Contract Documents: Indicate the work of the Contract and related requirements and conditions that have an impact on the project. Related requirements and conditions that are indicated on the Contract Documents include, but are not necessarily limited to the following: THE FOLLOWING IS A LISTING OF SOME OF THE MORE COMMON CONTRACT PROVISIONS AND NON-CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS THAT MAY BE SHOWN ON CONTRACT DRAWINGS OR MENTIONED IN THE SPECIFICATIONS. EDIT THE LIST TO CONFORM TO PROJECT REQUIREMENTS, ADDING NEW ELEMENTS WHERE NECESSARY. REQUIREMENTS FOR EACH ITEM IN THE LISTING MUST BE DESCRIBED ELSEWHERE IN SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 1 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 THE CONTRACT DOCUMENTS, USUALLY" AS A SEPARATE ARTICLE IN THIS SECTION. //"XDD APPROPRIATE CROSS REFERENCES WHERE \ SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE. e codes and regulations. and permits. (ting site conditions and restrictions on use of the site. Work performed prior to work under this Contract. Alterations and coordination with existing work. Work to be performed concurrently by the Owner. Work to be performed concurrently by separate contractors. Work to be performed subsequent to work under this Contract. Alternates. Allowances. Pre-negotiated equipment/material orders assigned as work of this Contract. Pre-purchased material/equipment for Contract, with purchase price included in the Contract Sum. Pre-purchased subcontracts for the Contract, with subcontract amounts included in the Contract Sun. Requirements for partial Owner occupancy prior to substantial completion of the Contract Work. REVISE THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH TO REFLECT THE MANNER IN WHICH DOCUMENTA- TION FOR THE PROJECT HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED. NOTE THAT BIDDING REQUIREMENTS HAVE BEEN OMITTED. Summary bv References; Work of the Contract can be summarized by references to the Contract, General Conditions, Supplementary Conditions, Specification Sections, Drawings, addenda and modifications to the Contract Documents issued subsequent to the initial printing of this project manual and including but not necessarily limited to printed material referenced by any of SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 2 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBBSTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 of the Contract is also unavoidably affected or by governing regulations, natural phenomenon including conditions and other forces outside the contract fnts. THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS CONSTITUTE A MORE DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK THAN THE PRECEDING PARAGRAPHS. Abbreviated Written Summary; Briefly and without force and effect upon the contract documents, the work of the Contract can be summarized as follows: THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS ARE ONLY SAMPLE TEXT, WHICH MUST BE REWRITTEN FOR EACH PROJECT (OR THE PRECEDING PARAGRAPH AND THOSE THAT FOLLOW SHOULD BE DELETED AS UNNECESSARY). The work includes the removal (encapsulation, enclosure) of asbestos-containing naterials according to the requirements of the following specification sections in the sequence indicated: General and Administrative Requirements: are set forth in the following specification sections: 01013 Summary of the Work - Asbestos Abatement 01028 Application for Payment 01043 Project Coordination - Asbestos Abatement 01091 Definitions and Standards - Asbestos Abatement 01301 Submittals 01601 Materials and Equipment - Asbestos Abatement 01632 Product Substitutions 01701 Project Closeout - Asbestos Abatement Abatement Work; requirements are set forth in the following specification sections, listed here according to the sequence of the work: 01092 Codes, Regulations and Standards - Asbestos Abatement: sets forth governmental regulations and industry standards which are included and incorporated herein by reference and made a part of the specification. This section also sets forth those notices and permits which are known to the Owner and which either must be applied for and received, or which must be given to governmental agencies before start of work. 01503 Temporary Facilities - Asbestos Abatement: sets forth the support facilities needed such as electrical and plumbing connections for the decontamination unit and office SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 3 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 space for^ne*vProject Administrator. 01526 ^Qaporary Enclosures: details the requirements for the/£hs& ''plastic barriers isolating the work area from the the building. Test Laboratory Services: describes air monitoring by Owner so that the building beyond the work area will remain uncontaainated. Air monitoring to determine required respiratory protection is the responsibility of the Contractor. 01563 Decontamination Units: explains the setup and operation of the personnel and material decontamination units. 01513 Temporary Pressure Differential and Air Circulation System: sets forth the procedures to set up pressure differential isolation and ventilation of the work area. 01560 Worker Protection - Asbestos Abatement: describes the equipment and procedures for protecting workers against asbestos contamination and other workplace hazards except for respiratory protection. 01562 Respiratory Protection: sets forth the procedures and equipment required for adequate protection against inhalation of airborne asbestos fibers. Asbestos Removal Work Procedures; are described in the following specification sections: 01046 Cutting and Patching - Asbestos-Containing Materials 02061 Building Demolition - Asbestos Abatement 02062 Non-Asbestos Demolition 02063 Demolition of Asbestos-Contaminated Materials 02081 Removal of Asbestos-Containing Materials 02082 Removal of Asbestos-Contaminated Soil 02084 Disposal of Asbestos Containing Waste Material THE TWO FOLLOWING SECTIONS ARE BEING DEVELOPED AND WILL BE SENT TO PURCHASERS OF THESE GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS WITHOUT FURTHER ACTION BY THE PURCHASER. 02085 Removal of Interior Non-Friable Asbestos-Containing Materials 02086 Removal of Exterior Non-Friable Asbestos-Containing Materials SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 4 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 FOLLOWING INDICATES GYPSUM DRYWALL AS AN ENCLOSURE METHOD. MANY OTHER MATERIALS COULD BE USED, SUCH AS MASONRY, METAL PANELS, ETC. IF THESE MATERIALS ARE TO BE USED THE APPROPRIATE SECTIONS FROM AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS' "MASTERSPEC," CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE'S "SPECTEXT," OR OTHER APPROPRIATE GUIDE SPECIFICATION SHOULD BE USED. re Procedures; are described in the following: '09251 Gypsun Drywall - Asbestos Enclosures Encapsulation Procedures; are described in the following: 09805 Encapsulation of Asbestos-Containing Materials 15254 Repair of Insulation and Lagging Decontamination of the Work Area; after completion of abatement work is described in the following sections: 01712 Cleaning and Decontamination Procedures: sets forth procedures to be used on contaminated objects and rooms which are not part of an abatement work area. 01711 Project Decontamination: describes the sequence of cleaning and decontamination procedures to be followed during removal of the sheet plastic barriers isolating a work area. 01713 Project Decontamination Microfibers: describes the special procedures required to clean an area of contamination by asbestos fibers too small to be seen with an optical microscope. 01714 Work Area Clearance: describes the analytical methods used to determine if the work area has been successfully cleaned of contamination. 01701 Project Closeout: details the closeout procedures to end the project once abatement work is complete including final paperwork requirements. Repair and Maintenance; procedures are specified in the following sections. Generally these involve activities where asbestos fibers are collected at the point of generation so that enclosure of an area with plastic barriers is unnecessary: SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 5 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 01527 Regulated Areas 01529 Small-Scale Short-Duration Work 01561 Worker Protection - Repair and Maintenance 01562 Respiratory Protection 01528 Entry Into Controlled Areas THE FOLLOWING IS ONLY SAMPLE TEXT WHICH MUST BE REWRITTEN FOR EACH PROJECT OR DELETED AS UNNECESSARY. are being issued for bid to perform work at will follow the work of this Contract. Separate rk can be summarized as follows: Placement of sprayed-on fireproofing. Replacement of suspended acoustical ceilings. Replacement of lighting and associated wiring. New HVAC system including ductwork, diffusers and grills. New temperature controls reusing existing pneumatic lines. PLAN OF ACTION; Submit a detailed plan of the procedures proposed for use in complying with the requirements of this specification. Include in the plan the location and layout of decontamination areas, the sequencing of asbestos work, the interface of trades involved in the performance of work, methods to be used to assure the safety of building occupants and visitors to the site, disposal plan including location of approved disposal site, and a detailed description of the methods to be employed to control pollution. Expand upon the use of portable HEPA ventilation system, closing out of the building's HVAC system, method of removal to prohibit visible emissions in work area, and packaging of removed asbestos debris. The plan must be approved by the Owner's Representative prior to commencement of work. INSPECTION; Prior to commencement of work, inspect areas in which work will be performed. Prepare a listing of damage to structure, surfaces, equipment or of surrounding properties which could be misconstrued as damage resulting from the work. Photograph or videotape existing conditions as necessary to document conditions. Submit to Owner's Representative prior to starting work. POTENTIAL ASBESTOS HAZARD: SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 6 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 The disturbance or dislocation of asbestos-containing materials may cause asbestos fibers to be released into the building's atmosphere, thereby creating a potential health hazard to workmen and building occupants. Apprise all workers, supervisory personnel, subcontractors and consultants who will be at the job site of vthe seriousness of the hazard and of proper work procedureaywh^Lch must be followed. Where Jan Jthe performance of the work, workers, supervisory /subcontractors, or consultants may encounter, disturb, ise function in the immediate vicinity of any identified -containing materials, take appropriate continuous as necessary to protect all building occupants from the potential hazard of exposure to airborne asbestos. Such measures shall include the procedures and methods described herein, and compliance with regulations of applicable federal, state and local agencies. STOP WORK; If the Owner, the Owner's Representative, or the Project Administrator presents a written stop work order immediately and automatically stop all work. Do not recommence work until authorized in writing by Owner's Representative. INFORMATION ON ASBESTOS TYPE AND CONTENT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE CONTRACTOR TO KNOW. THIS HELPS THE CONTRACTOR ESTIMATE HOW WELL THE MATERIAL WILL WET AND HENCE HOW DUSTY THE WORK IS LIKELY TO BE. THIS AFFECTS THE TYPE OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTION REQUIRED AND MAN-HOURS OF EFFORT NEEDED FOR REMOVAL. ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS; The following asbestos-containing materials are known to be present at the worksite. If any other materials are found, which are suspected of containing asbestos, notify immediately Owner's Representative. INSERT A LISTING OF ALL ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS EXPECTED TO BE ENCOUNTERED AT EACH WORK LOCATION. INCLUDE THE TYPE AND PERCENT OF ASBESTOS-CONTENT FOR EACH SPECIFIC BUILDING MATERIAL TO BE ABATED. THE "OTHER" COMPONENTS" MAY BECOME IMPOR- TANT IN BUILDING CLEARANCE. THIS SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 7 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 INFORMATION CAN HELP A LABORATORY IN ITS ANALYSIS OF AIR SAMPLES. IT WOULD BE HELPFUL IF A COPY OF ANY SURVEY REPORTS COULD BE MADE AVAILABLE FOR REVIEW BY THE CONTRACTOR AT THE SAM- LE LOCATION AS THE CONTRACT DOCUMENTS. THE FOLLOWING IS AN EXAMPLE OF THE PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION NEEDED. REVISE AS REQUIRED TO SUITE PROJECT. Item Other Content Components BOI INSULATION Boiler: Surface Coat Base Coat Boiler Breeching: Surface Coat Base Coat Water Storage Tank: Surface Coat Base Coat 95% to 100% Chrysotile 60% to 65% Chrysotile 75% to 80% Chrysotile 75% to 80% Chrysotile 60% to 65% Chrysotile 60% to 65% Chrysotile Rock Wool, Refractory Binders Refractory Binders Gypsum Plaster Refractory Binders Refractory Binders Refractory Binders PIPE INSULATION; Air Cell Plaster Fittings, Valves, Roof Drain Bodies, etc. 45% to 50% Chrysotile 30% to 35% Chrysotile Cellulose Rockwool, Gypsum Plaster ARCHITECTURAL SURFACES Troweled-on acoustical plaster 9% to 10% Chrysotile Sand, Gypsum, Plaster SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 8 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 FIREPROOFING Spray«d-onx=x—v> 25% to 30% Chrysotile Vermiculite, fireproofn&r / Gypsum PSE OF PREMISES; THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE IS AN EXAMPLE OF SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO THE CONTRACTOR'S USE OF THE PREMISES. PROVISIONS SIMILAR TO THESE ARE NECESSARY WHEN THE PROJECT INVOLVES WORK ON AN EXISTING OCCUPIED BUILDING OR SITE. RETAIN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH WHEN PROJECT IS ON A VACANT SITE OR IN AN UNOCCUPIED BUILDING BEING RENOVATED REVISE AS NECESSARY BY ADDING REQUIREMENTS TO SUIT SPECIAL PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. General; During the entire construction period the Contractor shall have the exclusive use of the premises for construction operations, including full use of the site. DELETE THE PRECEDING PARAGRAPH AND RETAIN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH IF THE SITE IS TO BE ACCESSIBLE TO OTHER PARTIES, OR IF PORTIONS OF AN EXISTING BUILDING BEING RENOVATED ARE TO BE OCCUPIED BY THE OWNER OR OTHERS DURING THE CONSTRUCTION PERIOD. REVISE AS NECESSARY TO SUIT SPECIAL PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. General; The Contractor shall limit his use of the premises to the worfc indicated, so as to allow for Owner occupancy and use by the public. MODIFY THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS AS NECESSARY TO SUIT SPECIAL PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. Use of the Site; Confine operations at the site to the areas permitted under the Contract. Portions of the site beyond areas SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 9 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 on which work is indicated are not to be disturbed. Conform to site rules and regulations affecting the work while engaged in project construction. THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS ARE EXAMPLES OF SPECIAL PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. MODIFY AS NECESSARY TO SUIT PROJECT OR DELETE IF . UNNECESSARY. Keep/^EE^isting driveways and entrances serving the preaises ^nd available to the Owner and his employees at all Do not use these areas for parking or storage of fals. 'not unreasonably encumber the site with materials or equipment. Confine stockpiling of materials and location of storage sheds to the areas indicated. If additional storage is necessary obtain and pay for such storage off site. Lock automotive type vehicles, such as passenger cars and trucks and other mechanized or motorized construction equipment, when parked and unattended, so as to prevent unauthorized use. Do not leave such vehicles or equipment unattended with the motor running or the ignition key in place or accessible to unauthorized persons. RETAIN AND MODIFY THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS WHEN THE WORK INVOLVES AN EXISTING OCCUPIED BUILDING. DELETE THIS PARAGRAPH IN OTHER CASES. Contractor's Use of the Existing Building; Maintain existing building in a safe and weathertight condition throughout the construction period. Repair damage caused by construction operations. Take all precautions necessary to protect the building and its occupants during the construction period. THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS ARE EXAMPLES OF TYPICAL PROVISIONS THAT MIGHT BE ENCOUNTERED WHEN WORK IS PERFORMED ON AN EXISTING OCCUPIED BUILDING. THEY PLACE SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS ON THE CONTRACTOR'S USE OF THE PREMISES. DELETE UNNECESSARY PROVISIONS. ADD NEW PROVISIONS OR AMPLIFY THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPHS TO SUIT PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. Keep public areas such as hallways, stairs, elevator lobbies and toilet rooms free from accumulation of waste, rubbish or construction debris. SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 10 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 Smoking or open fires will not be permitted within the building enclosure or on the premises. COORDINATE THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH WITH OTHER DIVISION-1 SECTIONS ON TEMPORARY FACILITIES. MODIFY AS REQUIRED TO SUIT PROJECT. Toilet Room on the floor designated by the Contractor's personnel, use of existing /Within the building, by the Contractor and his el, will not be permitted. COORDINATE THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH WITH DIVISION-1 SECTION ON TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES AND DIVISION-14 SECTION ON ELEVATORS. MODIFY THE PARAGRAPH AS APPROPRIATE TO SUIT PROJECT. DELETE IF PROVISIONS ARE INCLUDED ELSEWHERE, OR IF THE PROJECT DOES NOT INVOLVE THE USE OF ELEVATORS. Use of Existing Elevators; Except for the Freight Elevator (Elevator No. ), use of elevators by the Contractor will not be permitted. The Contractor will be permitted to use the freight elevator for temporary freight service and the transportation of construction personnel during the construction period. This elevator must also be available to the Owner at all times; coordinate freight elevator usage with the Owner's Representative. Provide protective pads for the elevator cab and other appropriate protective measures for the car and entrance doors and frames. During asbestos abatement activities the car is to be protected as set forth in the Division 1 Section on Temporary Enclosures. OWNER OCCUPANCY; THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE CONTAINS SAMPLE PARAGRAPHS THAT DESCRIBE REQUIREMENTS NECESSARY FOR OWNER OCCUPANCY OF THE PREMISES DURING THE ENTIRE PERIOD OF CONSTRUCTION, OR PARTIAL OWNER OCCUPANCY OF COMPLETED CONSTRUCTION PRIOR TO SUBSTANTIAL COMPLETION. RETAIN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH WHEN THE OWNER WILL OCCUPY THE ENTIRE PREMISES DURING CONSTRUCTION. MODIFY AS NECESSARY TO SUIT PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 11 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 Full Owner Occupancy; The Owner will occupy the site and the existing building during the entire period of construction. Cooperate fully with the Owner or his representative during construction operations to minimize conflicts and to facilitate Owner usage. Perform the work so as not to interfere with the Owner's operation. RETAIN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH WHEN THE OWNER WILL OCCUPY COMPLETED PORTIONS OF THE BUILDING PRIOR TO SUBSTANTIAL COMPLETION. MODIFY AS NECESSARY TO SUIT > PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. )w/ier Occupancy; The Owner reserves the right to place equipment as necessary in areas of the building in til asbestos abatement and project decontamination have been completed, and to occupy such completed prior to substantial completion, provided that such ocvSp'ancy does not substantially interfere with completion of the work. Such placing of equipment and partial occupancy shall not constitute acceptance of the work or any part of the work. IF THE WORK INCLUDES GENERAL CONSTRUCTION BEYOND ASBESTOS ABATEMENT, REFER TO A.I.A. SERVICE CORP. "MASTERSPEC-BASIC" SECTION 01010, CSI'S "SPECTEXT" OR OTHER COMPETENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION FOR SPECIFIC FORMAT AND LANGUAGE. SUBMITTALS Before the Start of Work; Submit the following to the Owner's Representative for review. Do not begin work until these submittals are returned with Owner's Representative's action stamp indicating that the submittal is returned for unrestricted use or final-but-restricted use. Plan of Action; Submit as a written report in the same manner as product data. Inspection; Report on inspection carried out as required by this section. Include copies of all photographs, video tapes, etc. Submit in the same manner as product data. PART 2 - PRODUCTS (Not Applicable) PART 3 - EXECUTION (Not Applicable SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 12 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION ION - 01013 August 12, 1988 SUMMARY OF WORK - ASBESTOS ABATEMENT 01013 - 13 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 SECTIQNyfflJ&il - TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES PART, ROTATED DOCUMENTS; Drawings and general provisions of Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and other Division-1 Specification Sections, apply to work of this section. SUBMITTALS; Before Start of Work submit the following to the Owner's Representative for review. Do not begin work until these subraittals are returned with the Owner's Representative's action stamp indicating that the submittal is returned for unrestricted use. DELETE FOLLOWING IF STRIPABLE COATINGS ARE NOT TO BE USED. Stripable Coatings; Submit following: Product description including major components and solvents. Test report on ASTM E84 test of surface burning characteristics. Manufacturer's installation instructions. Indicate portions applicable to the project and selected assemblies where the manufacturer offers alternatives. Material Safety Data Sheet: Submit the Material Safety Data Sheet, or equivalent, in accordance with the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for stripable coating material proposed for use on the work. Include a separate attachment for each sheet indicating the specific worker protective equipment proposed for use with the material indicated. Spray Cement: Submit following: Product description including major components and solvents. Manufacturer's installation instructions. Indicate portions applicable to the project. TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-1 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 MaterialvEatetv Data Sheet: Submit the Material Safety Data i^ equivalent,in accordance with the OSHA Hazard ition Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for spray cement /proposed for use on the work. Include a separate for each sheet indicating the specific worker :iv« equipment proposed for use with the material ited. Sheet Plastic; For fire retardant plastic submit test reports on NFPA 701 t«st. Signs; Submit saaplea of signs to be used. PART 2 - PRODUCTS SHEET PLASTIC; EDIT THE FOLLOWING LIST TO ELIMINATE THOSE TYPES OF PLASTIC NOT USED. FOLLOWING IS MOST LIKELY TO BE FOUND ON THE JCB IN THE ABSENCE OF A MORE SPECIFIC REQUIREMENT. Polyethylene Sheet: A single polyethylene film in the largest sheet size possible to minimize seams, 4.0 or 6.0 nil thick as indicated, clear, frosted, or black as indicated. FOLLOWING IS A GOOD GENERAL PRECAUTION AND SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED IN AREAS WHERE THERE COULD BE EXITING DIFFICULTIES IN CASE OF EMERGENCY (WORK AREAS ABOVE OR BELOW GRADE OR INTERIOR SPACES WITH LIMITED EXITS) OR THERE IS HOT EQUIPMENT OR A POTENTIAL FOR FIRE, SUCH AS IN A BOILER ROOM. FIRE RETARDANT SHEET PLASTIC IS CONSIDERABLY MORE EXPENSIVE THAN STANDARD PLASTIC. Polyethylene Sheet: Provide flame-resistant polyethylene film that conforms to requirements set forth by the National Fire Protection Association Standard 701, Small Scale Fire Test for Flame-Resistant Textiles and Films. Provide largest size possible to minimize seams, 4.0 or 6.0 mils thick as indicated, frosted or black as indicated. REINFORCED PLASTIC SHOULD BE USED IN EXTERIOR APPLICATIONS WHERE THE SHEET IS EXPECTED TO BE STRESSED BY WINDS OR IN ANY LOCATION WHERE HIGH SKIN STRENGTH IS REQUIRED. FOLLOWING IS AN EXAMPLE OF LANGUAGE WHICH CAN BE USED. EDIT TO SUIT PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-2 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 . \ Reinforced Polyethylene Sheet: Where plastic sheet constitutes the only barrier between the work area and the building exterior, provide translucent, nylon reinforced or woven polyethylene, laminated, flame resistant, polyethylene film that conforms to requirements set forth by the National Fire Protection Association Standard 701, Small Scale Fire Test for Flame- extiles and Films. Provide largest size possible to minimtre\>seains, 4.O or 6.0 mil thick as indicated, frosted or indicated. COA/TINGS; DELETE THIS ENTIRE SUB-SECTION IF STRIPPABLE COATINGS (SPRAY PLASTIC) IS NOT TO BE USED. STRIPPABLE COATINGS ARE RELATIVELY NEW MATERIALS WHICH ARE DESIGNED TO ADHERE TO SURFACES SUCH AS WALLS AND CEILINGS AND THEN BE REMOVE BY PEELING OFF. CARE MUST BE EXERCISED IN SELECTING FINISHES TO RECEIVE THIS TREATMENT. SUBSTRATES WITH A LOOSE FINISH CAN LOSE PART OF THE FINISH WHEN THE COATING IS PEELED OFF. THE MATERIAL MAY NOT PEEL CLEANLY FROM TEXTURED SURFACES, FABRICS OR CARPET. STRIPPABLE COATINGS PLASTIC ARE EFFECTIVE IN CLEANING MANY SURFACES AND MAY FACILITATE PROJECT DECONTAMINATION. IT IS A WISE PRECAUTION TO TEST THE STRIPPABLE COATING ON THE SUBSTRATES INVOLVED IN THE PROJECT DURING DESIGN. S^rippable Coatings; Provide strippable coatings in aerosol cans or premixed for spray application formulated to adhere gently to surfaces and remove cleanly by peeling off at the completion of the work. Provide only water-based latex materials. Provide materials manufactured for the specific application required. Wall coating: designed to be easy to remove. Floor coating: designed to provide a tough film which resists spread of water beneath plastic layer. Window coating: recommended by the manufacturer for use on windows. Supply materials that are designed to be stable on TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-3 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 glass in sunlight and resist the transmission of ultraviolet radiation. Fire Safetyr^V >Provide materials that meet the following or while being installed: not create combustible vapors, Rave no flash point Are not noxious Department of Transportation category of non-flammable. When dry, material must have a Class A rating as a building material and meet the following requirements when tested in accordance with ASTM E-84: Flame Spread no greater than 20 Fuel Contributed 0 Smoke Developed no more than 110 Deliver materials to the job site in unopened, factory-labeled containers. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering products which may be incorporated in the work include, but are not limited to, the following: RETAIN ABOVE FOR NONPROPRIETARY OR BELOW FOR SEMIPROPRIETARY SPECIFICATION. REFER TO DIVISION-1 SECTION "PRODUCTS AND SUBSTITUTIONS." Manufacturer: Subject to compliance with requirements, provide products of one of the Following: THE FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF FIRMS BELIEVED TO MANUFACTURE THIS PRODUCT. NO MANUFACTURERS HAVE BEEN INTENTIONALLY EXCLUDED AND NO ATTEMPT HAS BEEN MADE TO EVALUATE THESE PRODUCTS. ADDITIONAL SUPPLIERS MAY TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-4 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 EXIST. PRODUCT LITERATURE SHOULD BE USE TO EVALUATE THESE PRODUCTS AND TO VERIFY THAT LISTED PRODUCTS COMPLY WITH THE SPECIFICATIONS AND MEET PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. VERIFY THAT PRODUCTS INDICATED ARE STILL BEING MANUFACTURED. EDIT OR ADD TO THE LIST AS APPROPRIATE TO THE PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. Spray Poly S, LA 70189-0799 MTSCEHArfEOUS MATERIALS; Duct Tape: Provide duct tape in 2" or 3" widths as indicated, with an adhesive which is formulated to stick aggressively to sheet polyethylene. Sprav Cement: Provide spray adhesive in aerosol cans which is specifically formulated to stick tenaciously to sheet polyethylene. PART 3 - EXECUTION SEQUENCE OF WORK: Carry out work of this section sequentially. Complete each activity before proceeding to the next. GENERAL; Work Area: the location where asbestos-abatement work occurs. It is a variable of the extent of work of the Contract. It may be a portion of a room, a single room, or a complex of rooms. A "Work Area" is considered contaminated during the work, and nust be isolated from the balance of the building, and decontaminated at the completion of the asbestos-control work. Completely isolate the Work Area from other parts of the building so as to prevent asbestos-containing dust or debris from passing beyond the isolated area. Should the area beyond the Work Area(s) become contaminated with asbestos-containing dust or debris as a consequence of the work, clean those areas in accordance with the procedures indicated in Section 01711. TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-5 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 Perform all such required cleaning or decontamination at no additional cost to owner. Place all tools, scaffolding, staging, etc, necessary for the work in the area to be isolated prior to completion of Work Area isolatiom. V ^<> all removable furniture that has been designated by the Contract Documents or owner ' s ¥ntative. Also remove uncontaminated equipment, and/or ries from the Work Area before commencing work, or jletely cover with two (2) layers of polyethylene sheeting, at ist 6 mil in thickness, securely taped in place with duct tape. Such furniture and equipment shall be considered outside the work area unless covering plastic or seal is breached. Disable ventilating systems or any other system bringing air into or out of the Work Area. Disable system by disconnecting wires, removing circuit breakers, by lockable switch or other positive means that will prevent accidental premature restarting of equipment. Lockout power to Work Area by switching off all breakers serving power or lighting circuits in work area. Label breakers with tape over breaker with notation "DANGER circuit being worked on". Lock panel and have all keys under control of Contractor's Superintendent of Owner's designated Representative. Lockout power to circuits running through work area wherever possible by switching off all breakers or removing fuses serving these circuits. Label breakers with tape over breaker with notation "DANGER circuit being worked on". Lock panel and have all keys under control of contractor's superintendent or owner's designated representative. If circuits cannot be shut down for any reason, label at intervals 4'-011 on center with tags reading, "DANGER live electric circuit. Electrocution hazard." Label circuits in hidden locations but which may be affected by the work in a similar manner. Inspection Windows; Install inspection windows in locations shown on the plans or as directed by the Owner's Representative. Each inspection window is to have a 24" X 24" viewing area fabricated from 1/4" acrylic or polycarbonate sheet. Install window with top at 6 '-6" above floor height in a manner that provides unobstructed vision from outside to inside of the Work Area. Protect window from damage from scratching, dirt or any coatings used during the work. A sufficient number of windows are to be installed to provide observation of all portions of the Work Area that can be made visible from adjacent areas. Inspection windows that open into uncontrolled area are to be TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-6 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 covered with a removable plywood hatch secured by lock and key. Provide keys to Owner's Representative for all such locks. EMERGENCY EXITS; Provide emergency exits and emergency lighting as set forth below: Emergency ExitA;\ At each existing exit door from the Work Area provide the .tejjlpWinQ means for emergency exiting: door so that it is secure from outside the Work permits exiting from the Work Area. "outline of door on Primary and Critical Barriers with lescent paint at least 1" wide. Hang a razor knife on a string beside outline. Arrange Critical and Primary barriers so that they can be easily cut with one pass of razor knife. Paint words "EMERGENCY EXIT" inside outline with luminescent paint in letters at least one foot high and 2" thick. FOLLOWING ARE VERY GENERAL AND SHOULD BE REVISED FOR SPECIFIC PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO USE EXISTING BUILDIMG EXIT LIGHTS AND EMERGENCY LIGHTING. IF SO REVISE FOLLOWING TO REQUIRE CONTINUED OPERATION AND PROTECTION OF THIS EQUIPMENT. Provide lighted EXIT sign at each exit. Provide battery-operated emergency lighting that switches en automatically in the event of a power failure. CONTROL ACCESS; THE FIRST STEP IN AN ASBESTOS ABATEMENT PROJECT IS TO ISOLATE THE AREA SO THAT ONLY TRAINED WORKERS CAN ENTER AND LEAVE THROUGH A CONTROLLED ENTRANCE. THIS SUBSECTION DESCRIBES THE MEASURES NECESSARY TO ACCOMPLISH THIS ISOLATION. THE ISOLATION IS ACCOMPLISHED ONLY AT THE COST OF EASE OF ACCESS AND EXITING FROM THE BUILDING. TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-7 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SEMI*?CATION August 12, 1988 IT I^VERY POSSIBLE THAT THE WORK AREA COULD EFFECT EMERGENCY EXITING >RTIONS OF THE BUILDING BEYOND THE IT MAY BE NE!Z£S~SARY TO CLOSE THESE PORTIONS OF THE/./BUILDING TO ?OID A LIFE SAFETY HAZARD FOR OCCUPANTS OF THESE AREAS. THE FOLLOWING COULD AFFECT EXITING FROM THE BUILDING AND CERTAINLY AFFECTS EXITING FROM THE WORK AREA. THIS CHANGE IN EXITING SHOULD BE REVIEWED TO INSURE THAT IT DOES NOT VIOLATE LOCAL BUILDING CODES OR THE ANSI LIFE SAFETY CODE. IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO CONSTRUCT TEMPORARY EXITS. THERE MAY BE SPECIFIC BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS GOVERNING THE LAYOUT AND CONSTRUCTION OF THESE EXITS. ON INDUSTRIAL SITES WHERE THE ACTIVITIES OF ALL PERSONS IN THE AREA ARE CONTROLLED IT MAY BE UNNECESSARY TO CONTROL ACCESS BEYOND THE ERECTION OF WARNING SIGNS. Isolate the Work Area to prevent entry by building occupants into Work Area or surrounding controlled areas. Accomplish isolation by the following: FOLLOWING ARE EXAMPLES EDIT AS REQUIRED BY PROJECT SPECIFICS. CHAINING EXIT DOORS IS A CLEAR VIOLATION OF EXITING REQUIREMENTS OF ANY BUILDING OR LIFE SAFETY CODE. USE FOLLOWING ONLY IF ALTERNATIVE EXITING IS PROVIDED . IF DOORS MUST BE CHAINED SHUT SUCH SPECIFIC DOORS SHOULD BE CALLED OUT OR LABELED ON DRAWINGS. Submit to Owner's Representative a list of doors and other openings that must be secured to isolate Work Area. Include on list notation if door or opening is in an indicated exit route. After receiving written authorization from the Owner's Representative lock all doors into Work Area, or, if doors cannot be locked, chain shut. Cover any signs that direct emergency exiting, either outside or inside of Work Area, to locked doors. Do not obstruct doors required for emergency TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-8 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- Af MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 exits from Work Area or from building. v FOLLOWING IS APPROPRIATE WHERE NON- COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION IS XSEQUIRED. IN SOME CIRCUMSTANCES, SUCH AS SMALL CLOSURES IN ONE STORY BUILDINGS, LESS > EXPENSIVE WOOD CONSTRUCTION MIGHT BE SUBSTITUTED receiving written authorization from the Owner's entative: construct partitions or closures across any ig into Work Area. Partitions are to be a minimum of 8 high. CHOOSE ONE OF THE THREE BELOW AND DELETE THE OTHER TWO. MAKE SELECTION BASED ON LOCAL FIRE SAFETY AND BUILDING REGULATIONS. Fabricate partitions from 3-5/8", 25 gage metal studs with 1/2" gypsum board on both faces. Brace at 4'-0" on center. Fabricate partitions from 2X4 wood studs with 1/2" plywood on both faces. Brace at 4'-0" on center. Fabricate partitions from 2X4 wood studs with 1/2" plywood on both faces. Brace at 4f-0H on center. Use only fire retardant treated wood. DELETE FOLLOWING PARTITIONS. IF NO FABRIC TYPE Fabric-type folding partitions: provide temporary partitions across fabric-type folding doors or partitions into Work Area. REVISE FOLLOWING AS REQUIRED TO PROVIDE SECURE LOCKING OF SPECIFIC PARTITION INVOLVED. DELETE IF NO RIGID FOLDING PARTITIONS ARE USED. Rigid-type folding partitions: remove operating bar and latch on clean side of folding partitions. Fasten down operating lever with hook and chain or other secure device on Work Area side. At completion of all abatement work reinstall bar and latch and adjust for proper operation. DELETE THE FOLLOWING IF THERE ARE NO ELEVATORS. REVISE AS NECESSARY FOR TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-9 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 PROJECT SPECIFICS. ELEVATOR LOCKOUT IN MANY INSTANCES IS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE OWNER RATHER THAN THE CONTRACTOR. IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS MORE DETAIL WILL FREQUENTLY BE REQUIRED. COORDINATE WITH SECTION 01013 THAT DESCRIBES THE OWNER'S AND CONTRACTOR'S USE OF ELEVATORS. ModJ&ryX^levator controls to prevent elevators from stopping at^ptojs in Work Areas. This work is to be performed by a fied elevator technician. FOLLOWING IS EXAMPLE LANGUAGE TO USE WHERE DOORS THAT ARE NEEDED FOR EXITING MUST BE SECURED. REVISE AS APPROPRIATE OR DELETE IF THERE ARE NO DOORS INTO THE Work Area. A DETERMINATION SHOULD BE MADE ABOUT EXITING REQUIREMENTS FROM THE Work Area. THE FOLLOWING SHOULD BE EDITED AS APPROPRIATE TO PERMIT ADEQUATE EXITING AND MINIMIZE THE NEED FOR REPLACEMENT OF LOCKSETS. Replace passage sets on doors required for exiting from Work Area with temporary locksets for duration of the project. Use entry type locksets that are key lockable from one side and always operable from inside. Install locksets with key side in stair tower and escape side toward Work Area. Provide one key to Owner and maintain one key in clean room of decontamination unit. After meeting Contractor, release criteria set forth in Section 01714 Work Area clearance reinstall original passage sets and adjust for proper operation. Locked Access; Arrange Work Area so that the only access into Work Area is through lockable doors to personnel and equipment decontamination units. CHOOSE ONE OR A COMBINATION OF THE FOLLOWING TWO PARAGRAPHS. USE FOLLOWING IF THERE ARE NO DOORS WHICH CAN BE USED FOR CONTROLLING ACCESS. Install temporary doors with entrance type locksets that are key lockable from the outside and always unlocked and operable from the inside. Do not use deadbolts or padlocks. USE FOLLOWING IF THERE ARE EXISTING TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-10 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 DOORS WHICH CAN ACCESS. BE USED TO CONTROL ;ksets or passage sets on doors leading to Lnation units with temporary locksets for duration sroject. Remove any deadbolts or padlocks. Use locksets that are key lockable front outside and unlocked and operable from inside. After meeting factor release criteria set forth in Section 01714 Work Clearance reinstall original locks, passage sets and locksets and adjust for proper operation. Provide one key Cor each door to Owner, and Owner's Representative and maintain one key in clean room of decontamination unit (3 total). visual Barrier: Where the Work Area is immediately adjacent to or within view of occupied areas, provide a visual barrier of opaque polyethylene sheeting at least 6 mil in thickness so that the work procedures are not visible to building occupants. Where this visual barrier would block natural light, substitute frosted or woven rip-stop sheet plastic in locations approved by the Owner's Representativa. CHOOSE ONE OF THE TWO SIGNAGE SCHEMES BELOW. FOLLOWING IS APPROPRIATE FOR INDUSTRIAL SETTINGS OR NORMALLY UNOCCUPIED AREAS SUCH AS SCHOOLS DURING THE SUMMER OR CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION SITES. Provide_Warninq_Siqns at each locked door leading to Work Area reading as follows: MODIFY LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS DEPENDING UPON LOCALITY Print text in both English and Spanish: Legend Notation KEEP OUT 3" Sans S«rif Gothic or Block BEYOND THIS POINT 1" Sans Serif Gothic or Block ASBESTOS ABATEMENT WORK 1" Sans Serif Gothic or Block IN PROGRESS l" Sans Serif Gothic or Block BREATHING ASBESTOS DUST MAY BE 14 Point Gothic TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-11 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH FOLLOWING IS MORE APPROPRIATE IN SENSITIVE LOCATIONS SUCH AS OCCUPIED ' BUILDINGS. Wa'rning_Signs at each locked door leading to Work Area as follows: Notation KEEP OUT 3" Sans Serif Gothic or Block CONSTRUCTION 1" Sans Serif Gothic or Block WORK AREA 1" Sans Serif Gothic or Block PROTECTIVE CLOTHING REQUIRED 14 Point Gothic BEYOND THIS POINT Immediately inside door and outside critical barriers post an approximately 20 inch by 14 inch manufactured caution sign displaying the following legend with letter sizes and styles of a visibility required by 29 CFR 1926: LEGEND DANGER ASBESTOS CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ARE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA Provide spacing between respective lines at least equal to the height of the respective upper line. ALTERNATE METHODS OF ENCLOSURE; EDIT FOLLOWING IF SECTION 01632 ON PRODUCTS AND SUBSTITUTIONS IS OMITTED FROM THE SPECIFICATION. Alternate methods of containing the Work Area may be submitted to the Owner's Representative for approval in accordance with TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-12 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 procedures set forth in Section 01632 Product Substitution. Do not proceed with any such u«thod(s) without prior written approval oA the Owner's Representative. WORKER PROTECTION; roceeding beyond this point in providing Temporary es: Provide Worker Protection per Section 01560 Provide Respiratory Protection per Section 01562 Provide Personnel Decontamination Unit per Section 01563 CRITICAL BARRIERS; Completely Separate the Work Area from other portions of the building, and the outside by closing all openings with sheet plastic barriers at least 6 mil in thickness, or by sealing cracks leading out of Work Area with duct tape. Individually seal all ventilation openings (supply and exhaust) , lighting fixtures, clocks, doorways, windows, convectors and speakers, and other openings into the Work Area with duct tape alone or with polyethylene sheeting at least 6 nil in thickness, taped securely in place with duct tape. Maintain seal until all work including Project Decontamination is completed. Take care in sealing of lighting fixtures to avoid melting or burning of sheeting. Provide Sheet Plastic barriers at least 6 nil in thickness as required to seal openings completely from the Work Area into adjacent areas. Seal the perimeter of all sheet plastic barriers with duct tape or spray cement. Mechanically Support sheet plastic independently of duct tape or spray cement seals so that seals do not support the weight of the plastic. Following are acceptable methods of supporting sheet plastic barriers. Alternative support methods may be used if approved in writing by the Owner's Representative. FOLLOWING ARE EXAMPLES. EDIT AND INDICATE SPECIFIC METHODS OF SUPPORT APPROPRIATE TO PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. METHOD USED SHOULD PREVENT THE WEIGHT OF PLASTIC FROM BEING CARRIED BY ONLY DUCT TAPE OR SPRAY CEMENT. TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-13 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 luares 6" x 6H x 3/8" held in place with one 6d masonry nail or electo-galvanized common nail driven i 'center of the plywood and duct tape on plastic so (plywood clamps plastic to the wall. Locate plywood »s at each end, corner and at maximum 4 feet on ktere. Nylon or polypropylene rope or wire with a maximum unsupported span of 10 feet, minimum 1/4" in diameter suspended between supports securely fastened on either side of opening at maximum 1 foot below ceiling. Tighten rope so that it has 2" maximum dip. Drape plastic over rope from outside Work Area so that a two foot long flap of plastic extends over rope into Work Area. Staple or wire plastic to itself 1" below rope at maximum 6" on centers to form a sheath over rope. Lift flap and seal to ceiling with duct tape or spray cement. Seal loop at bottom of flap with duct tape. Erect entire assembly so that it hangs vertically without a "shelf" upon which debris could collect. Provide Pressure Differential System per Section 01513. Clean housings and ducts of all overspray materials prior to erection of any Critical Barrier that will restrict access. PREPARE AREA: Scaffolding: If fixed scaffolding is to be used to provide access HEPA vacuum and wet clean area prior to scaffolding installation. Remove all electrical and mechanical items, such as lighting fixtures, clocks, diffusers, registers, escutcheon plates, etc. which cover any part of the surface to be worked en with the work. THE LAST SENTENCE BELOW IS A FALL BACK WHICH SHOULD BE DELETED IF NEW FINISHES ARE TO BE PROVIDED. Remove all general construction items such as cabinets, casework, door and window trim, moldings, ceilings, trim, etc., which cover the surface of the work as required to prevent interference with the work. Clean, decontaminate and reinstall all such materials, upon completion of all removal work with materials, finishes, and workmanship to match existing installations before start of work. BELOW IS A GOOD PRECAUTION. NOTE THAT TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-14 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 THIS PARAGRAPH REQUIRES THE INCLUSION AND EDITING OF SECTION 01712 IN THE SPECIFICATION. Clean./WT'^ontaninated furniture, equipment, and or supplies with a HEPX/VfAltered vacuum cleaner or by wet cleaning, as specified "on 01712 Cleaning and Decontamination Procedures, prior kg moved or covered. All equipment furniture, etc. is to contaminated unless specifically declared as ^contaminated on the drawings or in writing by the Owner's •sentative. FOLLOWING PREVENTS THE SPREAD OF CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE BELLOWS-LIKE PUMPING ACTION SOMETIMES OBSERVED IN SHEET PLASTIC BARRIERS. Clean All Surfaces In Wprk Area with a HEPA filtered vacuum or by wet wiping prior to the installation of primary barrier. PRIMARY BARRIER; Protect building and other surfaces in the Work Area from damage from water and high humidity or from contamination frore asbestos- containing debris, slurry or high airborne fiber levels by covering with a primary barrier as described below. THE MEASURES TAKEN TO PROTECT BUILDING SURFACES WILL ALSO DAMAGE THEM. STRIPPABLE COATINGS MAY REMOVE LOOSE PAINT. DUCT TAPE AND SPRAY GLUE LEAVE RESIDUES AND ALSO PULL OFF LOOSE PAINT. MECHANICAL FASTENING OF SHEET PLASTIC LEAVES HOLES. THE REPAIR OF THIS UNAVOIDABLE DAMAGE SHOULD BE DEALT WITH DURING PROJECT DESIGN. THE SCOPE OF WORK FOR THE CONTRACTOR SHOULD CLEARLY INDICATE WHETHER REPAIR WORK IS A PART OF THE ABATEMENT CONTRACT OR IS BEING DONE LATER AS A PART OF A RENOVATION PROJECT. AS A GENERAL RULE IT IS PRUDENT TO ASSUME THAT ALL PAINTED SURFACES (EXCEPT FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE COATING SUCH AS EPOXY OR COLD GLAZED CEMENTS) WILL HAVE TO BE REPAINTED. A DECISION ABOUT WHO WILL PROVIDE THIS REPAINTING SHOULD BE MADE DURING DESIGN. TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-15 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 USE EITHER THE SECTION BELOW ON STRIPPABLE COATING OR THE ONE ON SHEET PLASTIC DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF PRIMARY BARRIERS TO BE USED. A DELETE THE FOLLOWING SECTION ON \\ > STRIPPABLE COATINGS IF THE PRIMARY ^V BARRIERS ARE TO BE SHEET PLASTIC. coating; Protect surfaces in the Work Area with a e coating. Perform all work in strict compliance with urer ' s instructions. Carry out work in the following Inspect; Before start of coating work inspect all surfaces to be coated. Report on any surfaces that nay be damaged by the material or any condition that nay interfere with adhesion of the coating to a surface to the Owner's Representative before application of coating. Photograph or videotape existing damage to affected surfaces and submit documentation to Owner's Representative. FOLLOWING IS A CATCHALL. IT IS FAR PREFERABLE TO TEST THE MATERIAL FIRST AND DESIGN THE PROJECT ACCORDINGLY. THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURE MAY SAVE A DISASTER, BUT IS LIKELY TO RESULT IN A COSTLY EXTRA IF SHEET PLASTIC IS REQUIRED. Test Patches; Apply test patches as directed by Owner or Owner's Representative. Apply a small area of strippable coating to a hidden or obscure area of each surface in the Work Area to be coated. Allow to dry and peal off. Demonstrate results to Owner's Representative prior to coating entire area. Commence coating of area only after receiving written authorization from the Owner's Representat ive . STRIPPABLE COATINGS CLEAN SMOOTH SURFACES BETTER THAN WET WIPING OR HEPA VACUUMING. DURING THIS PROCESS THEY MAY ALSO UNCOVER HIDDEN DEFECTS SUCH AS PROBLEMS WITH PAINT ADHESION. DURING PROJECT DESIGN THESE SURFACES SHOULD BE CHECKED TO DETERMINE IF ANY SUCH DEFECTS EXIST. TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-16 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOfr-A^MEKEHT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 and equipment in work are from which coating rip cleanly. rer shelving, clocks, light fixtures and other ipnent with one layer of 6 mil sheet plastic. Cover fabric, paper, cork wall coverings or unpainted gypsum board with one layer of 6 mil sheet plastic. Tape over any cracks that are larger than 1/16". Tape over electrical outlets, switches, door locks etc. THE FOLLOWING THREE PARAGRAPHS ADDRESS WOOD PANELING. REVISE AS APPROPRIATE FOR PROJECT SPECIFICS OR DELETE IF THERE IS NO WOOD PANELING IN THE Work Area. PETROLEUM BASED WOOD FINISHES, PARTICULARLY WAXES MAY BE REMOVED FROM WOOD SURFACES ALONG WITH DIRT AND CONTAMINATION. WOOD SURFACES SHOULD BE TESTED DURING PROJECT DESIGN AND A DECISION MADE ABOUT WHETHER THEY SHOULD BE ISOLATED FROM THE CLEANING PROVIDED BY THE STRIPPABLE COATING. THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH ADDRESSES THE REFINISHING OF WOOD SURFACES. THIS PRESUMES THAT DESIGNER HAS DETERMINED WHAT IS APPROPRIATE. Wood paneling in area may have the finish partially removed by the strippable coating. These surfaces are to be coated directly with strippable coating and are not to be covered with sheet plastic. Refinishing of the this paneling will be accomplished by the Owner and is not a part of the work of this contract. FOLLOWING IS APPROPRIATE IF VERY DELICATE WOOD PANELING WERE IN Work Area. Cover wood paneling in Work Area with one layer of 6 mil sheet plastic. FOLLOWING IS A CATCH ALL AND SHOULD GENERALLY NOT BE USED. THE ISSUE OF FINISHES ON WOOD SURFACES SHOULD BE RESOLVED DURING DESIGN. TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-17 Copyright (c) 1988, National institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS-jUMEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 snail area of coating in concealed location to finishes in Work Area. If finish is removed when ing is stripped inform Owner's Representative. er wood surface with one layer of 6 mil sheet lastic unless otherwise notified by Owner's Representative. Base bid is for direct coating of wood paneling. If a layer of sheet plastic is necessary this will be a change to the Contract Sun. Submit proposal for change in Contract Sum for the addition of sheet plastic to the owner's Representative. GENERALLY CARPETING SHOULD BE REMOVED AND DISPOSED OF IN A SPACE WHICH CONTAINS FRIABLE ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS. USE LANGUAGE BELOW IF CARPETING IS TO BE SAVED. IF THERE IS NO CARPET DELETE FOLLOWING. Cover carpeting with three (3) layers of polyethylene sheeting at least 6 mil in thickness. Place corrugated cardboard sheets between the top and middle layers of polyethylene. Do not use strippable coating as an adhesive to hold sheet plastic in place. Coat or cover windows into Work Area: STRIPPABLE COATINGS DEGRADE IN ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT IN SUNLIGHT. THIS DEGRADATION CAN PREVENT THE MATERIAL FROM STRIPPING CLEANLY. USE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING THREE PARAGRAPHS DESCRIBING PROTECTION OF WINDOWS. FOLLOWING IS PREFERABLE SOLUTION TO WINDOWS IF PROJECT DURATION IS TO BE LESS THAN 25 DAYS. Coat windows with window coating applied in a minimum 10 mil thickness when wet. FOLLOWING IS PREFERABLE WHERE PROJECT DURATION IS LONGER THAN 25 DAYS. TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-18 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS AB/(VEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 ^pr 'indows with one layer of 6 mil sheet plastic. Meet plastic with a thin but continuous coat of or wall coating. FOLLOWING SHOULD GENERALLY NOT BE USED AS IT COMPLETELY ELIMINATES NATURAL LIGHTING FROM THE Work Area. Cover windows with one layer of black 6 mil plastic. Protect critical barriers; Install strippable coating so that it will not remove critical barriers during stripping of coating. Cover critical barriers comprised of sheet plastic with a second layer of sheet plastic configured to be removed with strippable coating. Protect critical barriers made from tape with a protective layers of sheet plastic or duct tape. Coat all surfaces in Work Area with strippable coating in following order. Walls: Coat seams, corners, and junctions vertically. Coat balance of walls horizontally lapping over vertical sprayed areas by 50%. Floor: Coat floor lapping wall by 12". Start at point furthest from entrance to Work Area and work toward door. Use straight edge to shield asbestos-containing materials from coating during spray application. Apply; to a minimum of the following thicknesses. Thickness is to be measured when material is wet using a wet film thickness gauge. SURFACE TO BE COATED MINIMUM THICKNESS WHEN WET REQUIRED COATING TYPE Critical Barriers Sheet Plastic Covers Not Applicable Glass Plastic Over Glass 10 2 mil mil w i n d o Coating Wai Coating w 1 TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-19 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION 12 mil 15 mil 15 mil 20 mil zed Tile, Saoothly Painted Brick, Painted Concrete Block Floors Unpainted Brick, Unpainted Concrete Block, Rough Wood August 12, 1988 Wall Coating Wall Coating Floor Coating Wall Coating Coat brick and concrete block with a sufficient thickness of coating to obscure color of substrate completely. Do not apply over tacky or chalky adhesives remaining from carpet or other flooring covering removal. Respiratory protection; Require that all workers in Work Area from start of spray operation until all surfaces are dry use as a minimum requirement a half-face negative pressure respirator equipped with combination ammonia and HEPA type filter cartridges as specified in Section 01562 Respiratory Protection. Worker protection; Equip all workers in Work Area during spray operation with eye protectives, disposable gloves, and disposable paper suits. Ventilation: during spraying operation maintain a minimum of 4 air changes per hour in the entire Work Area. Operate one additional HEPA filtered fan unit per spray operator in area while spraying is taking place. ELEVATORS AND STAIR TOWERS IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS REQUIRE SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED POSITIVE PRESSURE AREAS TO OVERCOME THE STACK EFFECT WHICH WILL ATTEMPT TO DRAW AIR FROM FLOORS BELOW THE MIDLINE OF THE BUILDING AND DISCHARGE IT ON FLOOR ABOVE. STACK EFFECT RESULTS IN THE POSSIBILITY OF SPREADING AIRBORNE TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-20 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 ASBESTOS FIBERS THROUGHOUT A BUILDING. DELETE THE FOLLOWING IF THERE IS NO ELEVATOR ACCESS TO THE Work -Area. AREA IN FRONT OF ELEVATOR DOORS SHOULD BE POSITIVELY PRESSURIZED TO PREVENT THE PISTON ACTION OF THE ELEVATOR FROM DRAWING CONTAMINATION FROM THE Work Area INTO THE ELEVATOR SHAFT. Coat walls, floor and ceiling of elevator in sane as Work Area. Arrange entry to Work Area so that rator door is in a positively pressurized space outside clean room of the decontamination unit. At completion oT work clean elevator as set forth in Section 01711. Refer to Section 01013 Summary of the Work for additional requirements for protection of elevator. DELETE ENTIRE SECTION BELOW ON SHEET PLASTIC IF STRIPPA3LE COATING IS TO BE USED. Sheet Plastic: Protect surfaces in the Work Area with two (2) layers of plastic sheeting on floor and walls, or as otherwise directed on the Contract Drawings or in writing by the Owner's Representative. Perform work in the following sequence. Cover Floor of Work Area with 2 individual layers of clear polyethylene sheeting, each at least 6 mil in thickness, turned up walls at least 12 inches. Forn a sharp right angle bend at junction of floor and wall so that there is no radius which could be stepped on causing the wall attach- ment to be pulled loose. Both spray-glue and duct tape all seams in floor covering. Locate seams in top layer six feet from, or at right angles to, seams in bottom layer. Install sheeting so that top layer can be removed independently of bottom layer. GENERALLY CARPETING SHOULD BE REMOVED AND DISPOSED OF IN A SPACE WHICH CONTAINS FRIABLE ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS. USE LANGUAGE BELOW IF CARPETING IS TO BE SAVED. IF THERE IS NO CARPET DELETE FOLLOWING. Cover Carpeting with three (3) layers of polyethylene sheeting at least 6 mil in thickness. Place corrugated cardboard sheets between the top and middle layers of polyethylene. TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-21 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 THE FOLLOWING LANGUAGE SHOULD BE USED IF CARPETING HAS A PAD OR IS OTHERWISE THICK ENOUGH TO PROVIDE QUESTIONABLE FOOTING FOR SCAFFOLDING. Plastic in areas where scaffolding is to be used ingle layer of 1/2" CDX plywood or 1/4" tempered ird. Wrap edges and corners of each sheet with duct At completion of abatement work wrap plywood or >ard with 2 layers of 6 mil polyethylene and move to nelct Work Area or dispose of as an asbestos-contaminated waste material in accordance with section 02084 of this specification. THREE LAYERS OF 6 MIL PLASTIC SHOULD BE CONSIDERED IN AREAS WHERE PLASTIC MAY BE RIPPED, SUCH AS IN A REMOVAL WITH WIRE LATH OR WHERE ROOM FINISHES ARE DELICATE OR COSTLY. Cover all walls in Work Area including "Critical Barrier" sheet plastic barriers with one layer of polyethylene sheeting, at least 6 mil in thickness, mechanically supported and sealed with duct tape or spray-glue in the same manner as "Critical Barrier" sheet plastic barriers. Tape all joints including the joining with the floor covering with duct tape or as otherwise indicated on the Contract Documents or in writing by the Owner's Representative. ELEVATORS AND STAIR TOWERS IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS REQUIRE SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED POSITIVE PRESSURE AREAS TO OVERCOME THE STACK EFFECT WHICH WILL ATTEMPT TO DRAW AIR FROM FLOORS BELOW THE MIDLINE OF THE BUILDING AND DISCHARGE IT ON FLOOR ABOVE. STACK EFFECT RESULTS IN THE POSSIBILITY OF SPREADING AIRBORNE ASBESTOS FIBERS THROUGHOUT A BUILDING. DELETE THE FOLLOWING IF THERE IS NO ELEVATOR ACCESS TO THE Work Area. AREA IN FRONT OF ELEVATOR DOORS SHOULD BE POSITIVELY PRESSURIZED TO PREVENT THE PISTON ACTION OF THE ELEVATOR FROM DRAWING CONTAMINATION FROM THE Work Area INTO THE ELEVATOR SHAFT. Elevator; Cover walls, floor and ceiling of elevator with 2 layers of 6 mil polyethylene. Arrange entry to Work Area so TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-22 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS .ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 ^n_x thatxfleVator door is in a positively pressurized space ythe clean room of the decontamination unit. At on of work clean elevator as set forth in Section Refer to Section 01013 Summary of the Work for 'ional requirements for protection of elevator. SHEET POLYETHYLENE IS VERY SLIPPERY UNDERFOOT AND CAN PRESENT A CONSIDERABLE SLIPPING HAZARD. DELETE THE FOLLOWING IF THERE ARE NO STAIRS RAMPS OR LADDERS IN THE Work Area. Stairs and Ramos; Do not cover stairs or ramps with unsecured sheet plastic. Where stairs or ramps are covered with plastic, provide 3/4" exterior grade plywood treads securely held in place, over plastic. Do not cover rungs or rails with any type of protective materials. Repair of Damaged Polyethylene Sheeting: Remove and replace plastic sheeting which has been damaged by removal operations or where seal has failed allowing water to seep between layers. Remove affected sheeting and wipe down entire area. Install new sheet plastic only when area is completely dry. AN ISOLATION AREA PROVIDES A BUFFER IF THERE IS A FAILURE OF Work Area ISOLATION. AN ISOLATION AREA IS APPROPRIATE WHEN ADJACENT SPACES HAVE A CRITICAL OCCUPANCY WHICH CANNOT BE INTERRUPTED. THE LOCATION AND ARRANGEMENT OF ISOLATION AREAS SHOULD BE SHOWN ON THE PLANS. ISOLATION AREA; Maintain isolation areas between the Work Area and adjacent building area: FOLLOWING ARE EXAMPLES. EDIT TO SUIT PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. In locations shown on the plans. In unoccupied rooms located between Work Area and adjacent occupied portions of the building. In locations where separation between Work Area and occupied TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-23 Copyright (c) 1988, National institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 of building is formed by sheet plastic and/or barriers. elow Work Area. lation area by controlling access to the space in the anner as a Work Area. Physically isolate the space froa rk Area and adjacent areas. Accomplish physical isolation FOLLOWING ARE EXAMPLES. EDIT TO SUIT PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. Installing critical barriers in unoccupied space. Erecting a second Critical Barrier a minimum of 3'-0" away fron Work Area. STOP WORK; If the Critical or Primary barrier falls or is breached in any manner stop work immediately. Do not start work until authorized in writing by the Owner's Representative. EXTENSION OF WORK AREA: Extension of Work Area: If the Critical Barrier is breached in any manner that could allow the passage of asbestos debris or airborne fibers, then add affected area to the Work Area, enclose it as required by this Section of the specification and decontaminate it as described in Section 01711 Project Decontamination. SECONDARY BARRIER; Secondary layer of plastic as a drop cloth to protect the primary layer from debris generated by the asbestos abatement work is specified in the appropriate work sections. FOLLOWING IS A CATCH-ALL. IT IS PREFERABLE TO DESIGN THE STRUCTURE AND SHOW IT ON THE DRAWINGS. EXTERIOR ENCLOSURES; Construct exterior enclosures as a Critical Barrier as necessary to completely enclose the work. Fabricate from reinforced TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-24 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOSyLBATEKENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 £^—^ polyethylene sheeting and 2" x wood framework. Attach to existinqjoaui/fding components or brace as necessary for lateral stability^ Construct walls to meet all state and local regulat^sAs *°r construction of temporary buildings. Construct to rjr^fttc a wind of 30 MPH, slope ceiling to permit drainage of rainlvajbler. END OF SECTION - 01526 TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES 01526-25 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- o o •o X CEILING-/ ^-SEAL WITH DUCT ^ I * L — WALL PROTRUSION TAPE- *il- SlDFS —f. un pn-YTTWYirwr ^___i _ n_ SEAL WITH DUCT TAPE. ALL SIDES. -6 MIL. POLYETTHYLENE WALL OPENING CRITICAL BARRIER ^_^-- EQUIPMENT OR FURNISHING -» -6 MIL POLYETHYLENE CRITICAL BARRIER CONTINUOUS DUCT TAPE AT PERIMETER. rn I/OOOR y y BEYOND/ \ ^^ WINDOW -= :=*- I > M H 11 3 M SEAL ALL CRACKS W/ DUCT TAPE 6 MIL POLYETHYLENE CRITICAL BARRtR OVER WINDOW e n M •w R - g to O FLOOR / \ 6 MIL POLYETHYILNE CRITICAL BARRIER AT ALL DOORS AND WINDOWS SLAl WITH DUCT TAPE. «o e M r» o 0> o» CRITICAL BARRIER PREP_INS [AU AllpN KOT TO ------- o o o a- u •- o § I ^- *< 3 £ te n r- r- •- o n (si C C " a- * rr o CO n ^-' rt a o a v. NOTE T 5. I vJ 7AP£ AN'D MECHANiCAUY SUPPORT PRIMARY 6 Mi. PO. YTTHrUNf CEILING- lAPf TO PR WARY 6 U.i POlYETHYUNE (DROP CXOTW) -PRIKA.R^' 6 ML POOTlHYUNf OJCT TA.=>f CON-nN^OJS UPE AND ClUE AT AU SCAMS -SECONDARY FlOOR 6 MIL POl-YETHYUNt (DROP ClOTH) ,-PR,MA,RY FLOOR I ? lAYTPf, 6 MIL H POtTETHYUNE It —_ FLOOR uc & TAPE STAGGER iA7F. 00 NOT ALL ,GO:S. o c IT r > te to d >• C1 C •r R O •c RFMOVAL AREA PREP. INSTALLATION M,: TJ SCA;t en a ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 SECTION 01714 - _W------- MODEL ASBETOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 Section will not begin until the visual inspection in Section 01711 Project Decontamination is complete is been certified by the Project Administrator. AIR MONITORING: To determine if the elevated airborne asbestos structure concentration encountered during abatement operations has been reduced to the specified level, the Owner will secure samples and analyze them according to the following procedures. CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING SEQUENCE OF PROCEDURES AND DELETE THE OTHER. THE FIRST IS BASED UPON SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING FIRST BY PCM FOLLOWED BY TEM. THE SECOND IS BASED UPON SIMULTANEOUS SAMPLING WITH CLEARANCE BY PCM REQUIRED BEFORE TEM SAMPLES ARE ANALYZED. Aggressive sampling procedures as described below will be followed. PCM samples will be secured as indicated below. If the area meets the clearance criteria TEM sampling will proceed. Aggressive sampling procedures will be repeated. TEM samples will be secured and analyzed as indicated below. Work Area Clearance: upon meeting the TEM Clearance requirements the work of Section 01711 Project Decontamination can continue. FOLLOWING PROCEDURE IS BASED UPON PCM AND TEM SAMPLES BEING TAKEN SIMULTANEOUSLY Aggressive sampling procedures as described below will be followed. PCM and TEM samples will be secured as indicated below. PCM samples will be analyzed and TEM samples will be transmitted to the laboratory. If the area meets the clearance criteria by PCM the TEM analysis will proceed. Work Area Clearance; upon meeting the TEM Clearance requirements the work of Section 01711 Project Decontamination can continue. AGGRESSIVE SAMPLING IS APPROPRIATE ONLY FOR CLEARANCE OF ABATEMENT PROJECT AREAS THAT ARE ISOLATED FROM WORK AREA CLEARANCE 01714 - 2 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 SURROUNDING AREAS BY BOTH PHYSICAL BARRIERS (CRITICAL BARRIER) AND A PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL (DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM) . AGGRESSIVE SAMPLING SHOULD NEVER BE ED IN OCCUPIED OR UNISOLATED AREAS. THE FEW THIS HAS BEEN ATTEMPTED HAVE RESULTED IN SERIOUS [ONTAMINATION PROBLEMS FOR THE INVOLVED SPACE AND XXJNDING AREAS. SAMPLING: All Air Samples will be taken using aggressive sampling techniques as follows: THERE ARE NO STANDARDS AVAILABLE FOR FLOW RATE OF LEAF BLOWERS OR LARGE FANS. HOWEVER THIS INFORMATION IS NOT CRITICAL TO THE SUCCESS OF THE PROCEDURE. Before sampling pumps are started the exhaust from forced- air equipment (leaf blower with an approximately 1 horsepower electric notor) will be swept against all walls, ceilings, floors, ledges and other surfaces in the room. This procedure will be continued for 5 minutes per 10,000 cubic feet of room volume. One 20 inch diameter fan per 10,000 cubic feet of room volume will be mounted in a central location at approximately 2 meters above floor, directed toward ceiling and operated at low speed for the entire period of sample collection. Air samples will be collected in areas subject to normal air circulation away from room corners, obstructed locations, and sites near windows, doors of vents. After air sampling pumps have been shut off, fans will be shut off. SCHEDULE OF AIR SAMPLES: CONSULT WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANT SUPPLYING PROJECT ADMINISTRATORS AND LABORATORY WORK ABOUT THE SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT AND ANALYTICAL METHODS AVAILABLE FOR THE PROJECT. EDIT THE FOLLOWING TO SUIT SPECIFIC PROJECT REQUIREMENTS AND AVAILABILITY OF ANALYTICAL TOOLS. General; The number and volume of air samples taken and analytical methods used by the Owner will be in accordance with the following schedule. Sample volumes given may vary depending upon the analytical instruments used. WORK AREA CLEARANCE 01714 - 3 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 PHASE LLY, LOCATIONS FOR SAMPLING SHOULD BE SHOWN ON THE NGS. JtST MICROSCOPY: homogeneous Work Area after completion of all cleaning a mini muni of 7 samples will be taken and analyzed as Samples will be collected on 25 nun. cassettes with the following filter media: PCM: 0.8 mixed cellulose ester in a cassette with a conductive extension cowl. Location Sampled Number of Samples Analysis Method Detection Limit Fibers/cc. Minimum Rate Volume LPM (Liters) Each Work Area or Each Room of PCM 0.01 1,200 1-10 Work Area (5 Work Area Blank Laboratory Blank aiin. ) 1 1 PCM PCM PCM 0.01 0.01 0.01 1,230 0 0 1-10 Open for 30 seconds Do Not Ooen GENERALLY RETAIN THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH. THIS PARAGRAPH DESCRIBES THE ANALYTICAL METHOD REQUIRED BY THE AHERA REGULATION FOR PCM CLEARANCE IN SCHOOLS. OTHER ANALYTICAL METHODS COULD BE USED FOR NON-SCHOOL PROJECTS OR AS PRE-CLEARANCE LEADING TO TEM ANALYSIS. HOWEVER, THE AHERA REGULATION IS A VERY STRONG STATEMENT FROM THE EPA ON THE STANDARD OF CARE AND ACCEPTABLE METHODS OF ACHIEVING THAT STANDARD. Analysis; Fibers on each filter will be measured using the NIOSH Method 7400 entitled "Fibers" published in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd Edition, Second Supplement, August 1987. Fibers: referred to in this section include fibers regardless of composition as counted by the phase contrast microscopy method used. WORK AREA CLEARANCE 01714 - 4 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 Split Sample: one Work Area sample will be split and both halves analyzed separately for duplicate analysis. Release Critftria: Decontamination of the work site is complete Area sample is at or below the Detection Limit any sample is above the Detection Limit then the is incomplete and recleaning per section 01711 contamination is required. ISSION E.UCTRON MICROSCOPY: THE FOLLOWING DESCRIBES CLEARANCE TESTING AS REQUIRED BY THE AHERA REGULATION FOR SCHOOLS. THIS IS ALSO BECOMING A DE FACTO STANDARD FOR PUBLIC NON-SCHOOL BUILDINGS. WORK IN INDUSTRIAL SETTINGS MAY HAVE A DIFFERENT STANDARD THAN THAT FOR A PUBLICLY OCCUPIED BUILDING. In each homogeneous work area after completion of all cleaning work, a minimum of 13 samples will be taken and analyzed as follows: THE SAMPLE VOLUME GIVEN BELOW IS NOT THE LOWEST REQUIRED BY THE AHERA REGULATION. IT IS THE LOWEST VOLUME ALLOWED FOR 10 GRID OPENINGS TO GIVE AN ANALYTICAL SENSITIVITY OF 0.005 STRUCTURES/CC. 10 GRID OPENINGS IS THE NUMBER GENERALLY PREFERRED BY LABORATORIES PERFORMING THIS TYPE OF ANALYSIS. ADHERENCE TO THIS VOLUME MAY GIVE RISE TO GREATER REPRODUCABILITY OF RESULTS. THE MINIMUM VOLUME NECESSARY TO AVOID COMPARISON OF INSIDE-TO-OUTSIDE SAMPLES IS 1,199 LITERS. Location Sampled Number Analysis of Method Samples Analytical Sensitivity Fibers/cc. Recommended Rate Volume LPM (Liters) Each Work Area 5 TEM Outside Each 5 TEM Work Area Work Area Blank 1 TEM Outside Blank 1 TEM Laboratory Blank 1 TEM 0.005 1,300-1,800 1-10 0.005 1,300-1,800 1-10 0.005 0.005 0.005 Open for 30 Seconds Open for 30 Seconds Do Not Open WORK AREA CLEARANCE 01714 - 5 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 Analysis w^LLbe performed using the analysis method set forth in th« AHE$<54lwnto.ation 40 CFR Part 763 Appendix A. I ^^ Structures referred to in this Section include asbestos bundles,clusters or matrices, as defined by method of a. ;ase Criteria; Decontamination of the work site is complete if either of the following two sets of conditions are met: Work Areg Samples are below filter background levels All Work Area sample volumes are greater than 1,199 liters for a 25 mm. sampling cassette. The average concentration of asbestos on the five Work Area Samples does not exceed the filter background level of 70 structures per square millimeter of filter area. Work Area Samples are not statistically different from Outside samples All sample volumes except for blanks are greater than 560 liters for a 25 mm. sampling cassette. The average asbestos concentration of the three blanks is below the filter background level of 70 structures per square millimeter of filter area. Average asbestos concentrations in Work Area Samples are not statistically different from Outside samples, as determined by the Z-test calculation found in 40 CFR Part 763, Subpart E, Appendix A (Z is Less that or equal to 1.65) If these conditions are not met then the decontamination is incomplete and the cleaning procedures of Section 01710 shall be repeated. Termination of Analysis; if the arithmetic mean (average) asbestos concentration on the blank filters exceed 70 structures per square millimeter of filter area the analysis will cease and new samples collected. LABORATORY TESTING: PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPY: WORK AREA CLEARANCE 01714 - 6 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 CHOOSE THE APPROPRIATE PARAGRAPH FROM THE THREE BELOW AND DELETE THE OTHER TWO. IT IS IMPORTANT TO THE CONTRACTOR TO KNOW HOW IMMEDIATELY AIR SAMPLE RESULTS WILL BE AVAILABLE. THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH REPRESENTS THE TYPICAL LEVEL OF SERVICE AVAILABLE IF A MICROSCOPE IS TO BE SET UP AT THE JOB SITE. TYPICALLY THIS WILL BE DONE IF NIOSH 7400 ANALYSIS IS BEING USED FOR WORK SITE MONITORING USING A SPECIAL SLIDE PREPARATION DEVICE. of a testing laboratory will be employed by the to perform laboratory analysis of the air samples. A (cope and technician will be set up at the job site, so that reports on air samples can be obtained immediately. A jlete record, certified by the testing laboratory, of all air monitoring tests and results will be furnished to the Owner's Representative, the Owner and the Contractor. THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH SHOULD BE USED IF THERE WILL BE NO MICROSCOPE AT THE JOB SITE. The services of a testing laboratory will be employed by the Owner to perform laboratory analysis of the air samples. A technician will be at the job site, and samples will be sent daily by overnight delivery, so that verbal reports on air samples can be obtained within 24 hours. A complete record, certified by the testing laboratory, of all air monitoring tests and results will be furnished to the Owner's Representative, the Owner and the Contractor. THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH IS A CATCH ALL AND DOES NOT PROVIDE THE CONTRACTOR WITH DETAILED INFORMATION ON HOW THE OWNER INTENDS TO ANALYZE AIR SAMPLES. The services of a testing laboratory will be employed by the Owner to perform laboratory analysis of the air samples. A microscope and technician will be set up at the job site, or samples will be sent daily by overnight mail, so that verbal reports on air samples can be obtained within 24 hours. A complete record, certified by the testing laboratory, of all air monitoring tests and results will be furnished to the Owner's Representative, the owner and the Contractor. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY: WORK AREA CLEARANCE 01714 - 7 Copyright (c) 1988, National institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 FOLLOWING IS NECESSARY INFORMATION FOR THE CONTRACTOR TO ESTIMATE THE LENGTH OF TIME HIS EQUIPMENT WILL BE TIED UP WAITING FOR TEM ANALYSIS. FOLLOWING IS TYPICAL AVAILABILITY OF SERVICE FOR TEM LABS DURING OFF-PEAK TIMES OF THE YEAR. TYPICAL TURN AROUND TIME FOR VERBAL RESULTS IS 5 TO 10 DAYS. THIS SECTION SHOULD BE REVISED BASED UPON THE TURN AROUND TIME THE LABORATORY IS ABLE TO PROVIDE. MOST LABORATORIES CHARGE A PREMIUM FOR WEEKEND/HOLIDAY WORK AND FAST (24 TO 48 HOUR) TURNAROUND. SaBj>^9^ will be sent by overnight courier for analysis by Tr^n^^aiion Electron Microscopy. Samples will not be carried on Is, so that samples shipped on Friday will arrive on the Monday. Verbal results will normally be available the 5th working day after receipt of samples by the moratory. The laboratory is capable of analyzing a maximum of 13 such samples from this project at any one time. All Transmission Electron Microscopy results will be available to the Contractor. FOLLOWING IS A FAIR METHOD OF DEALING WITH DELAYS IN ANALYSIS. THIS REQUIRES THE PROJECT DESIGNER TO SECURE UNIT COSTS DURING BIDDING. Submit with bid unit cost for each day of waiting beyond that set forth in the paragraph above. PART 2 - PRODUCTS (NOT APPLICABLE) PART 3 - EXECUTION (NOT APPLICABLE) END OF SECTION - 01714 WORK AREA CLEARANCE 01714 - 8 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- E>fc»«ii^jy m MODEL AS£3$TOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 with bid unit cost for each day of waiting beyond set forth in the paragraph above. PART 2 - PRODUCTS (NOT APPLICABLE) PART 3 - EXECUTION (NOT APPLICABLE) END OF SECTION - 01714 WORK AREA CLEARANCE 01714 - 9 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 - REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS Drawings and general provisions of Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and Division - 1 Specification Sections, apply to work of this section. RELATED WORK SPECIFIED ELSEWHERE: Installation of Critical and Primary Barriers, and Work Area Isolation Procedures are set forth in Section 01526 Temporary Enclosures. Project Decontamination procedures after removal of the Secondary Barrier are specified in Section 01711 Project Decontamination. Disposal of asbestos-containing waste is specified in Section 02084 Disposal of Asbestos-Containing Waste Material. SUBMITTALS; Before Start of Work; Submit the following to the Owner's Representative for review. Do not start work until these submittals are returned with Owner's Representative's action stamp indicating that the subnittal is returned for unrestricted use. Surfactant: Submit product data, use instructions and recommendations from manufacturer of surfactant intended for use. Include data substantiating that material complies with requirements. Removal Encapsulant: Submit product data, use instructions and recommendations from manufacturer of removal encapsulant intended for use. Include data substantiating that material complies with requirements. NESHAP Certification; Submit certification from manufacturer of surfactant or removal encapsulant that, to the extent required by this specification, the material, if used in accordance with manufacturer's instructions, will wet Asbestos-Containing Materials to which it is applied as required by the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Pollutants (NESHAP) Asbestos Regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart M). REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS 02081 - 1 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 Fetv Data Sheet; Submit the Material Safety Data Sheet^O^op equivalent, in accordance with the OSHA Hazard ComBTOorcacion Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for each surfactant , encttpjMiiating Material and solvent proposed for use on the work. M&hBHe a separate attachment for each sheet indicating the (specific worker protective equipment proposed for use with the ncrerial indicated. PART 2 - PRODUCTS: FOLLOWING ALLOWS THE CONTRACTOR TO USE EITHER A SURFACTANT IN WATER OR A REMOVAL ENCAPSULANT, PROVIDING THAT IT IS ABLE TO PERFORM AS WELL AS THE GENERIC MIXTURE OF ONE OUNCE OF A MIXTURE OF 50% POLYOXYETHYLENE ESTER AND 50% POLYOXYETHYLENE ETHER IN FIVE GALLONS OF WATER. Wetting Materials; For wetting prior to disturbance of Asbestos-Containing Materials use either amended water or a removal encapsulant: Amended Water; Provide water to which a surfactant has been added. Use a mixture of surfactant and water which results in wetting of the Asbestos-Containing Material and retardation of fiber release during disturbance of the material equal to or greater than that provided by the use of one ounce of a surfactant consisting of 50% polyoxye thy lane ester and 50% polyoxyethylene ether mixed with five gallons of water. Removal Encapsulant; Provide a penetrating type encapsulant designed specifically for removal of Asbestos-Containing Material. Use a material which results in wetting of the Asbestos-Containing Material and retardation of fiber release during disturbance of the material equal to or greater than that provided by water amended with a surfactant consisting of one ounce of a mixture of 50% polyoxyethylene ester and 50% polyoxyethylene ether in five gallons of water. FOLLOWING IS MOST LIKELY TO BE FOUND ON THE JOB IN THE ABSENCE OF A MORE SPECIFIC REQUIREMENT. Polyethylene Sheet; A single polyethylene film in the largest sheet size possible to minimize seams, 4.0 or 6.0 mil thick as REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS 02081 - 2 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 indicated, clear, frosted, or black as indicated. FOLLOWING IS A GOOD PRECAUTION IN AREAS WHERE THERE IS HOT EQUIPMENT OR A POTENTIAL FOR FIRE, SUCH AS IN A BOILER ROOM. FIRE RETARDANT SHEET PLASTIC IS CONSIDERABLY MORE EXPENSIVE THAN STANDARD PLASTIC. Sheet ; Provide flame resistant polyethylene film Jconf oms to requirements set forth by the National Fire sction Association Standard 701, Small Scale Fire Test for ae-resistant Textiles and Films. Provide largest size jssible to minimize seams, 4.0 or 6.0 mil thick as indicated, frosted or black as indicated. Duct Tape; Provide duct tap* in 2" or 3" widths as indicated, with an adhesive which is formulated to stick aggressively to sheet polyethylene. Spray Cement: Provide spray adhesive in aerosol cans which is specifically formulated to stick tenaciously to sheet polyethylene. Disposal Baas: Provide 6 mil thick leak- tight polyethylene bags labeled as required by Section 02084 Disposal of Asbestos Containing Waste Material. Fiberboar<^ PnilHff; Provide heavy duty leak tight fiberboard drums with tight sealing locking metal tops. Paper board Boxes; Provide heavy duty corrugated paper board boxes coated with plastic or wax to retard deterioration from moisture. Provide in sizes that will easily fit in disposal bags. Felt; Standard felt approximately 1/16" thick and 36" to 72" in width. PART 3 - EXECUTION SECONDARY BARRIER! Secondary Barrier; Over the Primary Barrier, install as a drop cloth a clear 6 mil sheet plastic in all areas where asbestos removal work is to be carried out. Completely cover floor with sheet plastic. Where the work is within 10'-0" of a wall extend the Secondary Barrier up wall to ceiling. Support sheet plastic on wall with duct tape, seal top of Secondary plastic to Primary REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS 02081 - 3 Copyright (c) 1988, National institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 duct tape so that debris is unable to get behind cross strips of duct tape at wall support as support sheet plastic and prevent its falling during operations. Secondary Barrier at the beginning of each work shift. only sufficient plastic for work of that shift. Secondary Barrier at end of each work shift or as work in an area is completed. Fold plastic toward center of sheet and pack in disposal bags. Keep material on sheet continuously wet until bagged. Install Walkways of black 6 mil plastic between active removal areas and decontamination units to protect Primary Layer from tracked material. Install walkways at the beginning of, and remove at the end of, each work shift. WORKER PROTECTION; Before beginning work with any material for which a Material Safety Data Sheet has been submitted provide workers with the required protective equipment. Require that appropriate protective equipment be used at all times. WET REMOVAL: Thoroughly wet to satisfaction of Owner's Representative Aasbestos-Containing Materials to be removed prior to stripping and/or tooling to reduce fiber dispersal into the air. Accomplish wetting by a fine spray (mist) of amended water or removal encapsulant. Saturate material sufficiently to wet to the substrate without causing excess dripping. Allow time for amended water or renoval encapsulant to penetrate material thoroughly. If amended water is used, spray material repeatedly during the work process to maintain a continuously wet condition. If a removal encapsulant is used, apply in strict accordance with manufacturer's written instructions. Perforate outer covering of any installation which has been painted and/or jacketed in order to allow penetration of amended water or removal encapsulant, or use injection equipment to wet material under the covering. Where necessary, carefully strip away while simultaneously spraying amended water or removal encapsulant on the installation to minimize dispersal of asbestos fibers into the air. SOME MATERIALS, PARTICULARLY THOSE CONTAINING AMOSITE ASBESTOS, DO NOT WET WELL WITH WATER AMENDED WITH THE GENERIC REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS 02081 - 4 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 MIXTURE OF ONE OUNCE OF A MIXTURE OF 50% POLYOXYETHYLENE ESTER AND 50% POLYOXYETHYLENE ETHER IN FIVE GALLONS OF WATER. OTHER WETTING AGENTS AND REMOVAL ENCAPSULANTS SHOULD BE TESTED ON THE MATERIAL FOR ADSORPTION. THIS SECTION SHOULD THEN BE MODIFIED TO SPECIFY THE MATERIAL MOST APPROPRIATE TO THE PROJECT. FOLLOWING ARE GOOD PRACTICES FOR CONTROLLING AIRBORNE FIBER LEVELS IF THE MATERIAL DOES NOT WET WELL BECAUSE IT IS COATED, THICK, OR CONTAINS AMOSITE. Mist^jrk area continuously with amended water whenever necessary »o€ airborne fiber levels. tstos-Containing Material in small sections Ira all areas. Do not allow material to dry out. As it is removed, simultaneously pack material while still vet into disposal bags. Twist neck of bags, bend over and seal with minimum three wraps of duct tape. Clean outside and move to Wash Down Station adjacent to Material Decontamination Unit. USB THE FOLLOWING IF THE MATERIAL REMOVED CONTAINS AMOSITE ASBESTOS. OTHERWISE DELETE. Evacuate air from disposal bags with a HEPA filtered vacuum cleaner before sealing. IN THE PARAGRAPH BELOW REDUCE THE 20' TO 4' IF THE MATERIAL BEING REMOVED CONTAINS AMOSITE ASBESTOS. THE FOLLOWING REFERS TO HIGH PRESSURE WASHERS. THESE DEVICES CAN BE EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE IN CLEANING BUT CAN ALSO CAUSE FLOODING, SPLATTERING, AND SPRAY THROUGH HOLES INTO ADJACENT AREAS. WORKER SKILL AND JUDGMENT IS NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE DESIRED RESULTS WITH THIS EQUIPMENT. USE EXTREME CAUTION IN SPECIFYING THIS TYPE OF EQUIPMENT. Fireproofina or Architectural Finish on Scratch Coat; Spray aasbestos-containing fireproofing or architectural acoustic finish with a fine mist of amended water or removal encapsulant. Allow time for amended water or removal encapsulant to saturate REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS 02081 - 5 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL AS£B\$T0p ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 substrate. Do not over-saturate to cause excess Scrape materials from substrate. Remove materials in quantities and control the descent to staging or floor if over 20' use drop chute to contain material during it. If using amended water, spray mist surface continuously during work process. If using removal encapsulant follow manufacturer's written instructions. Remove residue remaining on scratch coat after scraping using stiff nylon bristled hand brush. Use high pressure washer only with written authorization of Owner's Representative. If a removal encapsulant is used remove residue completely before encapsulant dries. If substrate dries before complete removal of residue re-wet with amended water or removal encapsulant. Fireproofincr or Architectural Finish on wire Lath; Spray asbestos-containing fireproofing or architectural acoustic finish with a fine mist of amended water or removal encapsulant. Allow time for amended water or removal encapsulant to saturate material completely. Do not over-saturate to cause excess dripping. If surface of material has been painted or otherwise coated cut small holes as required and apply amended water or removal encapsulant from above. Cut wire lath into 2' X 6' sections and cut hanger wires. Roll or fold up complete with Asbestos-Containing Material and hand place in container. Do not drop on floor. After removal of lath and Asbestos-Containing Material remove any overspray on decking and structure above using stiff nylon bristled brush. Use high pressure washer only with written authorization from Owner's Representative. Use one of the following methods for containing waste. Deposit material in corrugated paper board box. When box is full duct tape closed and place in disposal bag. Wrap material in felt and place in fiberboard drum lined with two disposal bags. Use caution to insure that all edges of wire lath that could cut plastic are covered with felt. Place material directly in a steel drum. Seal drums when full with leak tight seal. Drum is to be leak tight in any orientation. Pipe Insulation: Spray with a mist of amended water or removal encapsulant. Allow amended water or removal encapsulant to saturate material to substrate. If a removal encapsulant is used, use in strict accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Cut bands holding preformed pipe insulation, slit jackets at seams, remove and hand-place in a disposal bag. Remove job- molded fitting insulation in chunks and hand place in a disposal bag. Do not drop to floor. Remove any residue on pipe or REMOVAL OP ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS 02081 - 6 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 * with stiff bristle nylon hand brush. In locations where irting insulation is removed from pipe with straight runs ted with fibrous glass or other non-asbestos-containing us material, remove fibrous material 6" from the point where contacts the asbestos-containing insulation. DELETE FOLLOWING IF THERE IS TO BE NO DRY REMOVAL DRY REMOVAL; WET REMOVAL AS SPECIFIED HEREIN IS REQUIRED UNLESS DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT RESULTING FROM THE WETTING WOULD BE UNAVOIDABLE. IN SUCH CASE, LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION IN PLACE OF WET REMOVAL MIGHT BE USED, BUT ONLY WITH THE WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY. THE OWNER'S REPRESENTATIVE SHOULD HAVE A COPY OF EPA APPROVAL IN HAND BEFORE WORK COMMENCES. IF LOCAL VENTILATION (SECTION 01513) IS TO BE USED JU ADDITION TO WET REMOVAL METHODS, EPA APPROVAL IS NOT REQUIRED). Drv Removal; of Asbestos-Containing Materials is required in the following areas where wetting may create a hazard for workers or damage equipment or finishes. FOLLOWING ARE EXAMPLES. EDIT AS REQUIRED BY PROJECT SPECIFICS. Electrical closet on each floor: this space contains the vertical electrical bus for the building. This bus operates at 480 volts and must be kept in operation at all times. Transformer vault: This space contains four large transformers operating at 14,000 volts on the primary side. These transformers must be kept in operation at all times. High pressure steam lines from the boiler header to Steam Turbine no. 2. These line are operating at 300 psi and 422 degrees Fahrenheit and cannot be shut down. North Data Processing Center: This space contains operating computer equipment that must be maintained in operation throughout the work. REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS 02081 - 7 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 Reading Room: The damask vail coverings in this room are approximately 250 years old and extremely fragile. removal area from balance of Work Area by a Critical described in Section 01526 Temporary Enclosures and a differential between the dry removal area and Work Area ribed in Section 01513 Pressure Differential System. thorization; Do not begin dry authorized in writing by the EPA NESHAP Owner's Representative. removal work until coordinator and the THE HISTORY OF ASBESTOS ABATEMENT IN THIS COUNTRY INCLUDES THE COPPER PLATING OF AN ABATEMENT WORKER PERFORMING A WET REMOVAL NEAR AN ELECTRICAL BUS. THIS FATAL ACCIDENT COULD HAVE BEEN AVOIDED BY PROPER WORK PROCEDURES AND SPECIFIC WORKER SKILLS. FOLLOWING IS GENERAL AND SHOULD BE REVISED WITH THE ADVICE OF A SAFETY PROFESSIONAL. THE QUALIFIED TRADESPERSON IN SOME JURISDICTIONS WILL BE A LICENSED ELECTRICIAN. IF THIS IS THE CASE REVISE THE FOLLOWING TO MAKE THE REQUIREMENT MORE SPECIFIC. Active Electrical Ecmionent; Do not wet materials in the vicinity of active electrical equipment. Dry remove any Asbestos-Containing Materials in the vicinity of active electrical equipment. Restrict Access: Maintain existing access restrictions to areas with active electrical equipment. Allow access to area only to qualified tradespersons with prior experience in the installation and repair of involved equipment. Warning Signs: Post warning signs at the entry point to active electrical equipment as required by OSHA or other applicable regulation. Personnel; Work on active electrical equipment is to be performed by qualified tradespersons with prior experience in the installation or repair of the involved equipment. Restrict access to electrical equipment. Electrical Isolation: Cover exposed conductors with a REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS 02081 - 8 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, 1988 ninimuo\ ^/8" thick neoprene blanket draped over the condrcto? and surrounding area. Lve Equipment; Provide workers working on or in the iity of active electrical with appropriate protective lent including insulating gloves, boots, and non- iductive tools. Work Procedures; Perform removal work using "Localized Control of Material Release" and "Local Ventilation and Collection System" procedures described below. Hot Equipment; Do not wet materials on hot piping or equipment. Dry remove any Asbestos-Containing Materials on hot equipment. Restrict Access; Maintain any existing access restrictions to areas with hot equipment. Provide railing or other barriers to prevent accidental contact with hot equipment. Allow access to area only to qualified tradespersons with prior experience with the type of equipment involved. Warning Signs; Post warning signs at hot equipment as required by OSHA or other applicable regulation. Personnel; Work on hot equipment is to be performed by qualified tradespersons with prior experience with the type of equipment involved. Restrict access to electrical equipment. Re-insulation; Re-insulate equipment immediately following visual inspection. Do not allow more than 8 linear feet of piping to be exposed at any time. Protective Equipment; Provide workers working on or in the vicinity of hot equipment with appropriate protective equipment including insulating gloves, boots, and coveralls. Work Procedures; Perform removal work using "Localized Control of Material Release" and "Local Ventilation and Collection System" procedures described below. LOCALIZED CONTROL OF MATERIA ALWAYS USE FOLLOWING FOR DRY REMOVAL PROJECTS . FOLLOWING ARE EXAMPLES OF EXTREMELY CAREFUL WORK PRACTICES WHICH WILL HELP TO KEEP FIBER LEVELS LOW ON A DRY REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS 02081 - 9 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- MODEL ASBESTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12,. REMOVAL OR AN AMOSITE JOB. REQUIRED BY JOB SPECIFICS. • ..'.'£ '•..i"S------- MODEL ASBSTOS ABATEMENT GUIDE SPECIFICATION August 12, ises of duct so that air flow is horizontally and slighpiyaownward into intake. Replace primary filters on HE PA f iltjfc^dxfan units at an interval of no greater that 30 minutes. All/ov&o «ore than one scraping or wire brushing activity per fan USE ABOVE AND DELETE BELOW IF THE WORK INVOLVES SCRAPING MATERIAL OFF A SCRATCH COAT OR OTHER OPERATION THAT IS GOING TO GENERATE A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF DEBRIS. BELOW IS APPROPRIATE FOR REMOVAL OF PREMOLDED PIPE INSULATION OR CUTTING WIRE LATH FOR REMOVAL. Attach a job-built 4* X 4' flared end piece on intake end of duct. Support end piece horizontally at a point 4'-0" below the work, so that airflow is downward into intake. END OF SECTION - 02081 REMOVAL OF ASBESTOS - CONTAINING MATERIALS 02081 - 11 Copyright (c) 1988, National Institute of Building Sciences ------- Replacement Specifications Exhibit ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 11/87 SECTIOMffllQ4X> -^PROJECT COORDINATION THIS SECTION USES THE TERM "ARCHITECT". CHANGE THIS TERM AS NECESSARY TO MATCH THE ACTUAL TERM USED TO IDENTIFY THE DESIGN PROFESSIONAL AS DEFINED IN THE GENERAL AND SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS. PART 1 - GENERAL RELATED DOCUMENTS Drawings and general provisions of Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and other Division-1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section. SUMMARY This Section specifies adr.inistrative and supervisory requirements necessary for Project coordination including, but not necessarily limited to: DELETE REQUIREMENTS NOT INCLUDED FROM THE LIST BELOW. INSERT SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS, AS NECESSARY. DO NOT CONFLICT WITH GENERAL OR SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS. Coordination. Administrative and supervisory personnel. General installation provisions. Cleaning and protection. FIELD ENGINEERING AND PROJECT MEETINGS ARE OFTEN INCORPORATED IN THIS SECTION ON SMALL PROJECTS. IF INCLUDED IN PROJECT COORDINATION ?*%£*+»£, 0104° ~ •?;« bt ::XM -if tkc : ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 11/87 THIS SECTION, DELETE THE NEXT TWO PARAGRAPHS. Field eagj-Tfefrrinq is included in Section "Field Engineering". T Pr CO 'meetings, coordination neetings and pre-installation ces are included in Section "Project Meetings". REVISE THE PARAGRAPH BELOW IF EITHER THE NARROWSCOPE SECTION "SCHEDULES AND REPORTS" IS USED OR IF A CPM-TYPE CONTRACTOR'S CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE IS USED. COORDINATE WITH SECTIONS DEALING WITH SCHEDULES AND REPORTS. Requirements for the Contractor's included in Section "Subnittals" . Construction Schedule are COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS IN THE ARTICLE BELOW AMPLIFY COORDINATION REQUIREMENTS INCLUDED IN THE GENERAL CONDITIONS. DELETE THIS ARTICLE IF REQUIREMENTS IN THE GENERAL CONDITIONS SATISFY PROJECT REQUIREMENTS AND SPECIFIC ACTIONS SPECIFIED IN THIS ARTICLE ARE NOT REQUIRED. Coordination; Coordinate construction activities included under various Sections of these Specifications to assure efficient and orderly installation of each part of the Work. Coordinate construction operations included under different Sections of the Specifications that are dependent upon each other for proper installation, connection, and operation. Where installation of one part of the Work is dependent on installation of other cor.ponents, either before or after its PROJECT COORDINATION 01040 - 2 T1S a *fs*tt< H f.yt4.n tri «• t-i Ni !»•*« «.- n* ::;) ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 11/87 own insta] sequence tion, schedule construction activities in the aJred to obtain the best results. Whe variability of space is limited, coordinate ion of different components to assure maximum bility for required maintenance, service and repair. adequate provisions to accommodate items scheduled for later installation. Where necessary, prepare memoranda for distribution to each party involved outlining special procedures required for coordination. Include such items as required notices, reports, and attendance at meetings. Prepare similar memoranda for the Owner and separate Contractors where coordination of their Work is required. Administrative Procedures: Coordinate scheduling and timing of required administrative procedures with other construction activities to avoid conflicts and ensure orderly progress of the Work. Such administrative activities include, but are not limited to, the following: INSERT ADDITIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES NEEDED TO SATISFY SPECIAL PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. Preparation of schedules. Installation and removal of temporary facilities. Delivery and processing of submittals. Progress meetings. Project Close-out activities. PROVISIONS IN THE NEXT PARAGRAPH MAY BE DIFFICULT TO ENFORCE. AT BEST PROVISIONS FOR CONSERVATION ARE USEFUL IN CONTRACT NEGOTIATION. IF PENALTIES FOR WASTEFUL PRACTICES ARE DESIRED, REQUIREMENTS ARE MORE ENFORCEABLE IF MADE A "CONDITION OF THE PROJECT COORDINATION 01040 - 3 ': nrtttit r . * W.-.P •' tit M n-tttt fctr »e :cv ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 11/87 CONTRACT" AND ADDED TO ARTICLE 3.3 BY SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS. INSERT SPECIFIC CONSERVATION REQUIREMENTS IN THE APPROPRIATE SECTIONS IN DIVISIONS-2 THROUGH-16. \ oordinate construction activities to ensure that opera t i9w are carried out with consideration given to conserW£Con/of energy, water, and materials. materials and equipnent involved in performance of, not actually incorporated in, the Work. Refer to other for disposition of salvaged materials that are designated as Owner's property. SUBMTTTALS THE REQUIREMENT BELOW FOR COORDINATION DRAWINGS IS REDUNDANT IF INSTALLATION IS COMPLETELY COVERED IN A SINGLE SECTION OR SHOWN COMPLETELY ON SHOP DRAWINGS . Coordination Drawings; Prepare and submit coordination Drawings where close and careful coordination is required for installation of products and materials fabricated off-site by separate entities, and where limited space availability necessitates maximum utilization of space for efficient installation of different components. Show the interrelationship of components shown on separate Shop Drawings. Indicate required installation sequences. Comply with requirenents contained in Section "Submittals. " Refer to Division-15 Section "Basic Mechanical Requirements," and Division-16 Section "Basic Electrical Requirements" for specific coordination Drawing requirements for mechanical and electrical installations. PROJECT COORDINATION 01040 - 4 ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 11/87 N Within 15 days of Notice to Proceed, submit a list cactor's principal staff assignments, including the nt and other personnel in attendance at the site; individuals, their duties and responsibilities; list esses and telephone numbers. jst copies of the list in the Project meeting room, the temporary field office, and each temporary telephone. INSERT SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE SUPERINTENDENT AND ASSISTANTS THAT ARE OVER AND ABOVE REQUIREMENTS CONTAINED IN GENERAL AND SUPPLEMENTARY CONDITIONS. PART 2 - PRODUCTS (Not Applicable) PART 3 - EXECUTION GENERAL INSTALLATION PROVISIONS RETAIN THE ARTICLE BELOW ONLY AS A MEANS OF DELETING SIMILAR PARAGRAPHS FROM OTHER SECTIONS. Inspection of Conditions; Require the Installer of each major component to inspect both the substrate and conditions under which Work is to be performed. Do not proceed until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected in an acceptable manner. Manufacturer's Instructions: Comply with manufacturer's installation instructions and recommendations, to the extent that those instructions and recommendations are more explicit or stringent than requirements contained in Contract Documents. Inspect materials or equipment immediately upon delivery and again prior to installation. Reject damaged and defective items. PROJECT COORDINATION 01040 - 5 M S i ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 11/87 chroent and connection devices and methods necessary Work. Secure Work true to line and level. Allow sion and building movement. Effects: Provide uniform joint widths in exposed Work. e joints in exposed Work to obtain the best visual effect. questionable choices to the Architect for final decision. Recheck measurements and dimensions, before starting each installation. Install each component during weather conditions and Project status that will ensure the best possible results. Isolate each part of the completed construction from incompatible material as necessary to prevent deterioration. Coordinate temporary enclosures with required inspections and tests, to minimize the necessity of uncovering completed construction for that purpose. Mounting Heights; Where mounting heights are not indicated, install individual components at standard mounting heights recognized within the industry for the particular application indicated. Refer questionable mounting height decisions to the Architect for final decision. CLEANING AND PROTECTION PROVISIONS IN THE NEXT ARTICLE ARE INTENDED TO REDUCE OR ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR SIMILAR PROVISIONS IN OTHER SECTIONS. INSERT PROVISIONS NEEDED BECAUSE OF UNIQUE PROJECT CONDITIONS. HOWEVER, UNUSUAL PROVISIONS FOR SPECIFIC UNITS OF WORK SHOULD BE SPECIFIED IN THE INDIVIDUAL UNIT OF WORK SECTION. During handling and installation, clean and protect construction in progress and adjoining materials in place. Apply protective PROJECT COORDINATION 01040 - 6 ill S e. f 5c t'. It Tfft:.:< - »tj ------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 11/87 covern deteri re required to ensure protection from damage or ion at Substantial Completion. maintain completed construction as frequently as through the remainder of the construction period. and lubricate operable components to ensure operability damaging effects. Limiting Exposures; Supervise construction activities to ensure that no part of the construction, completed or in progress, is subject to harmful, dangerous, damaging, or otherwise deleterious exposure during the construction period. Where applicable, such exposures include, but are not limited to, the following: DELETE ITEMS FROM THE LIST BELOW THAT ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR THE PROJECT. ADD ITEMS TO SATISFY PROJECT REQUIREMENTS . Excessive static or dynamic loading. Excessive internal or external pressures. Excessively high or low temperatures. Thermal shock. Excessively high or low humidity. Air contamination or pollution. Water or ice. Solvents. Chemicals. Light. Radiation. Puncture. Abrasion. Heavy traffic. Soiling, staining and corrosion. Bacteria. Rodent and insect infestation. Combustion. Electrical current. High speed operation, Improper lubrication, Unusual wear or other misuse. Contact between incompatible materials. Destructive testing. Misalignment. Excessive weathering. PROJECT COORDINATION 01040 - 7 t ut en hr irtw it j-**fl,»- •! art -.tn tt :.)r------- Copyright 1987, AIA MASTERSPEC 11/87 UnproCacrcd storage. Impn^ppr/shipping or handling. Th« Vattdattism. END OF SECTION 01040 PROJECT COORDINATION 01040 - 8 TTS i Mkxjrt 3 ftjftd;* jrj ml l» S t«*r »ti« vu»« IK tv-he Ry< ------- MASTERSPECT SECTION COVER SHEET Explaining scope and basis or this issue . LIBRARY Basic \Vrs;on KTRI :< HI JRAL/CI VIIl.lBRARY Vorcion Cnpyngh! 1992 by Th* AjT«-nr«n Irvttilulo of Arr-hilrcti ITi.'. NVw York Ar.-n-.n-. N \V . \Vn.ihinfalf»d locations but also a variety of highpr density products for nxpowd locations rynirmffr/n more fir.:shc>d appearance a« well as greater resiKtnnce to physical abuso. detpnoratio(^i»fn weaTJler, air orosjnn. and higher humidituw. / f /\ Related Sections: Rpfcr to "Specification C