t. -3

* -tr*1?      ,
                             A Guide for the Public Containing:

                           Background on wetlands and restoration
                Information on project planning, implementation, and monitoring
                       Lists of resources, contacts, and funding sources

             Developed by the \nteragency "Workgroup on "Wetland Restoration-.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Protection Agency,
              Army Corps of Engineers,  Fish and Wildlife Service, and
                      Natural Resources Conservation Service

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                                 This guide would not have been possible without the contributions of many individuals.  The
                                 members of the Interagency Workgroup on Wetland Restoration were critical to the document's
                              development  from start to finish: Susan-Marie  Stedman, National  Oceanic and  Atmospheric
                              Administration (NOAA)  Fisheries; John McShane, Lynne Trulio, Doreen Vetter, Mary  Kentula,  and
                              Matt Little, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Jack Arnold, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
                              (FWS); Jeanne Christie, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) [now with the Association
                              of State Wetland Managers]; and Colleen Charles, US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) (now with
                              the US Geological Survey).

                              The Workgroup would like to acknowledge the members of the Expert/User Review Panel  for their
                              practical knowledge  and valuable input:  Robert  P. Brooks,  Pennsylvania  State  University's
                              Cooperative Wetlands Center; Andre  F. Clewell, Society for Ecological Restoration (SER); Donald
                              Falk, SER;  Susan Galatowitsch, University of  Minnesota; Curtis Hopkins, Ducks Unlimited Inc.;
                              Mike  Houck,  Audubon  Society; Michael  Josselyn,  Tiburon  Center for Environmental  Studies;
                              Jon Kusler, Association of State Wetland Managers; Leah Miller and Gwyn Rowland, Izaak Walton
                              League  of America; Steve  Moran, Nebraska Rainwater Basin Coordinator; Richard P.  Novitski,
                              RP  Novitzki and Associates;  Duncan T.  Patton, Arizona State University; John Rieger, California
                              Department of Transportation; Frederick T. Short, University of New Hampshire; William Streever,
                              BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc.; Jim Stutzman, FWS; Billy Teels, the Wetland Science Institute; Gordon
                              Thayer, NOAA Fisheries; Ronald Thorn, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories; Pat Wiley, NRCS;
                              and Joy Zedler, University of Wisconsin-Madison.


                                               labie of Contents

            PART     NTRODUCTON
                    Why is Wetland Restoration, Creation, and Enhancement Necessary?
                    What are Wetlands?
                    The Importance of Wetlands
                    Two Approaches to Wetland Projects
                    Have Someone Do the Project for You
                    Do the Project Yourself
            PART 4.  PLANNING
                    Why Plan?
                    Know Your Landscape
                    Choosing the Project Site
                    Know Your Project Site
                    Setting Goals and Objectives
                    Using Reference Sites
                    Using Adaptive Management
                    Refine Your Goals and Objectives
                    Choose the Simple Approach
                    Preparing for Implementation
                    Publicize Your Project
                    Stages of Implementation
                    Working with Volunteers
                    Publicize Your Project
            PART 6.  MONITORING
                    What is Monitoring?
                    What Should I Monitor?
                    How Should I Monitor?
                    How Often Should I Monitor?
                    How Long Should I Monitor?
                    What Should I Do with the Monitoring Information?
                    Words to the Wise
                    A Wetland Restoration/Creation/Enhancement Checklist
            R-l      Bibliography of Reference Resources
            R-ll     Federal Financial Assistance
            R-lll    Organizations, Websites and Training Opportunities
            T-l      What Makes a Wetland Unique?
            T-ll     Activities Used to Restore or Change Wetland Characteristics
            T-lll     Wetland Parameters and Monitoring Methods
            T-IV     Definitions of Categories of Wetlands Conservation Activities
                                                            T A
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                 LETTER   TO   THE   READER
                           I ver the past 200 years, more than 50 percent of the wetlands in the coterminous U.S. have
                       I    i been lost and many of the remaining wetlands are degraded. These losses and alterations
                       \f  compromise  the  important benefits  provided  by wetlands including protecting  water
                             quality, providing  habitat for  a  wide variety of plants and  animals, and reducing flood
                damage. While preserving remaining wetland  resources is critical  to our nation's environmental health,
                restoring, creating, and enhancing wetlands also is essential to improving the quality of aquatic systems.
                Because  wetlands are so important to the earth's ecosystems and human society, the National Oceanic
                and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Fish and Wildlife Service
                (FWS), Natural Resources Conservation  Service (NRCS), and  Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) worked
                together to develop this document designed for people wishing to support or undertake wetland projects.

                Many  documents about wetland  restoration, creation, and  enhancement activities  are  technical or
                scientific in nature and  are designed for experts. This document, however, is not a scientific paper.  It is
                designed specifically for individuals, community groups, municipalities, or  others who  have little or no
                experience in this field.  We have written to a general audience for a number of reasons:
                       ^Ife   Most land in the U.S. is in private ownership; significant increases in wetland quality and
                              quantity  can  be achieved if private  landowners restore, create, or enhance  wetlands on
                              their property.

                       ^   Many EPA, NOAA, FWS, and NRCS programs support public involvement in wetland projects
                              efforts; information on wetland restoration,  creation, and enhancement for the general
                              public may enhance those programs.

                       ^Ifc  Restoration is an important, growing environmental field.  The general public can benefit
                              from access to basic  information about restoration, creation, and  enhancement, and may
                              become encouraged to become involved in and support wetland  projects.

                Developing a guide on wetland restoration,  creation,  and enhancement  applicable  across the nation is
                difficult for a number of reasons.  First, the terms "restoration," "creation," and "enhancement" encompass
                a wide range of activities related to establishing or  re-establishing wetlands.  Second, climate, region,
                wetland  type and local conditions determine  the type of wetland project that is most appropriate.  Third,
                the goals of people  undertaking wetland projects vary  widely and these goals  influence  what kind of
                activities are best suited to a particular site.  Given the broad scope of the subject matter, this document
                is designed to achieve two goals:
                       ^Ife   Introduce non-technical readers to the basics of wetland projects including planning,
                              implementing, and monitoring, and

                       ^ilfc   Direct interested persons to documents and resources specific to a particular region or
                              wetland type.

The document is organized around these two goals.  The text gives information on wetlands, background
on the practice of restoration, creation, and enhancement, and information on  the  process involved in
undertaking a wetland  project.  The  appendices  provide documents, web sites, agencies, and other
resources  for  finding  additional information  and  advice on  restoration,  creation, and  enhancement

As you read this document, it will  become clear  that  wetland  projects vary considerably in size  and
complexity.   In  some cases,  one person's  efforts (fencing out  cows, mowing instead  of tilling, or
eliminating the use of pesticides) can substantially improve a degraded site. On the other hand, teamwork
and the help  of specialists is usually  required  for establishing  new  wetlands  or  restoring sites with
extensive damage. In her book Restoring Streams in Cities, Ann Riley (1998) states that most restoration
projects require  teams of people with  expertise in areas such as ecology, hydrology,  engineering,  and
planning, among others.
Many landowners enroll in federal or state programs in which
the public agency puts together a team of specialists who help
with the wetland project.  Other landowners or citizen groups
may not be eligible for these programs or simply may want to
organize the project themselves.  Whether you are enrolled in
a  wetland program  or  are  organizing  a wetland project
yourself, this guide will help you understand what types of
people and resources to consult in order to plan,  implement,
and monitor your wetland  project.

The agencies who have worked on this informational document
want it  to be  as useful  as  possible.   Please give  us  your
thoughts and  comments on the  information provided  here.
Write us or e-mail us care of:

                                 Susan-Marie Stedman
                                 NOAA Fisheries F/HC
                                 1315 East-West Highway
                                 Silver Spring, MD 20910

          A restored prairie
          pothole wetland,

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                Why  Restore,  Create,  or Enhance Wetlands?

                                 he public's interest in the renewal of natural ecosystems has grown steadily during the
                                 past few decades. While preservation of habitat is a key to environmental health, there
                                 is a growing awareness that restoration, creation, and enhancement are essential to
                                 recover ecosystems that have been degraded  or destroyed.  Wetland habitats are the
                       focus of many recovery efforts because over the past 200 years the area and health of wetlands
                       have declined significantly.  Less than 46 percent of the 215 million acres of wetlands estimated
                       to exist in  the contiguous  U.S.  when  Europeans  arrived remain.  Prior to  the mid-1970s, the
                       draining and destruction of wetlands  were accepted practices.  Many wetlands altered by humans
                       were drained to support agricultural  uses, while others were filled for urban development, diked
                       for water impoundments  or to  diminish flooding, or dredged  for  marinas  and ports.  Indirect
                       impacts from pollutants, urban runoff, and invasion by non-native species continue to degrade and
                       destroy wetlands.

                       Scientists and  policy makers also recognize  the value of wetland  restoration.  In 1992, scientists
                       completed a study for the  National Research Council  that called for the development of a national
                       wetlands restoration strategy. Since  then,  federal agencies have been working with  partners to
                       achieve a net increase of  100,000 acres of wetlands per year by 2005.  This goal will  be reached
                       only  through carefully planned and  implemented  restoration and  creation projects that add
                       ecologically valuable wetlands to the landscape.  States and the federal government are funding
                       and  conducting  large-scale  ecosystem restorations,  such as  the South Florida/Everglades
                       Ecosystem Restoration, which are contributing to the national wetland goal. However, without the
                       support of citizens and local groups around the country the 100,000 acre per year goal cannot be

                       For many decades, citizens have been restoring, creating, and enhancing wetland habitats through
                       local non-profit organizations.  In addition, citizens have become  involved  in  wetland projects
                       through government programs. Despite these efforts, the nation is still losing more wetlands than
                       it gains each year.  This document is designed to support and further encourage landowner and
                       community-based wetland projects.

                What are Wetlands?
                       Wetland  Characteristics.    Wetlands  are
                       unique ecosystems that often occur at the edge
                       of aquatic  (water, fresh to salty) or terrestrial
                       (upland) systems.  They may be wet year-round,
                       wet during certain seasons, or wet during part of
                       the day. Corps regulations for implementing the
                       federal Clean Water Act define wetlands as:
                                                                                          Forested wetland, USFWS

             "those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and
             duration sufficient to support,  and  that  under normal  circumstances  do  support, a
             prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands
             generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas."

       In addition to bogs and swamps, wetlands include tidal marshes, prairie  potholes, seagrass beds,
       forested wetlands, and seasonally ponded sites, such as vernal pools. Some of these wetland types,
       such as seasonal wetlands that are dry much of the year, may not always appear  to be wetlands.
       The National Research Council's 1995 report entitled "Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries"
       lists several major classes  of U.S. wetlands and some  plants  associated with each:
              ^^  Freshwater Marsh— grasses, sedges, herbs;
              ^ilfe  Tidal Salt and Brackish Marsh— salt tolerant grasses, rushes;
              ^  Prairie Potholes-grasses, sedges, herbs;
              ^^  Fens— sedges, grasses, shrubs;
              ^ilfe  Bogs— sphagnum moss, shrubs, trees;
              ^  Swamp Bottomland-cypress, gum, red maple; and
              ^^  Mangrove Forest— black,  red, white mangroves.

      Although wetland  types  are  diverse,  they all  possess several  ecological characteristics  that
      distinguish them  from  upland  or other  aquatic ecosystems.   Specifically,  wetlands are
      characterized  by unique  hydrologic, soil (substrate), and  biotic  conditions.   The hydrological
      regime, which is  determined by the duration, flow, amount, and frequency of water on a site, is
      typically the pn'ma/yfacfordriving the other ecological elements of the system.  A site has wetland
      hydrology when it is wet enough to produce soils that can support hydrophytic vegetation (plants
      that are adapted to waterlogged environments).   Wetland  substrates are  called hydric  soils,
      meaning they are saturated with water for part or all of the year. Saturated soils become anaerobic
      (without oxygen) as water stimulates the growth of micro-organisms, which use up the oxygen in
      the spaces between soil particles.  When soils become anaerobic, they change significantly  in
      structure and chemistry. These factors all make wetland soils stressful to terrestrial plants.
      As  a  result of  waterlogged,  anaerobic  conditions, wetlands  are
      dominated  by  hydrophytic  plants that are specifically adapted to
      withstand these demanding conditions. The wide diversity of wetland
      plant species includes emergent plants (those  with  leaves that grow
      through  the water column,  such as cattails, sedges,  and rushes),
      submerged  plants (pondweeds, eelgrass), and  floating-leaved plants
      (such as water lilies and duckweed). Wetland plants also  include trees
      (such as cypress, red maple, and swamp oak), shrubs (such as willows
      and bayberry), moss, and many other vegetation types.
       Because they exist where land and water meet, wetlands are often used by animals from both wet
       and dry environments. A number of invertebrate, fish, reptile, and amphibian species depend on
       wetland water cycles to survive or complete their lifecyles. For example, nearly all amphibians and
       at  least 50  percent of migratory birds use wetlands regularly.   Approximately 75 percent of all
       commercial  marine fish species depend on estuaries, which in turn depend on their wetlands to
       maintain these productive ecosystems.  See Technical Appendix T-l for more information on these
       attributes of wetlands.
                  Fen, Newport
                   Bay, USFWS

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Definitions of Wetland Systems  from  Cowardin,  et al. (1979)

Open ocean overlying the continental shelf and associated high-energy coast line.  Examples of wetland types
within this system are subtidal and intertidal aquatic beds, reefs, and rocky shores.

Deepwater tidal habitats  and  adjacent tidal wetlands that are usually semi-enclosed  by land but have open,
partially obstructed, or sporadic access to the ocean and in which ocean water is at least occasionally diluted
by freshwater runoff from the land.   Examples of estuarine  classes include subtidal and intertidal emergent
wetlands, forested wetlands, and rock  bottom.

Wetland and deepwater habitats contained  within a  channel with two exceptions: 1)  wetlands dominated by
trees, shrubs, persistent emergent plants, emergent mosses, or lichens, and 2)  habitat with water containing
ocean-derived salts in  excess  of 5 ppt (parts per thousand).  Rivers and streams fall  within this system and
subsystems include tidal, perennial, and intermittent watercourses.

Wetlands and  deepwater  habitats with all of  the  following  characteristics: 1)  situated  in  a  topographic
depression or a dammed river channel, 2)  less  than 30 percent areal coverage by trees,  shrubs, persistent
emergent vegetation, emergent mosses, or lichens, and 3) total area exceeds 8 hectares (20 acres).  Lakes typify
lacustrine wetland systems.

P a I u s t r i n e :
All nontidal  wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergent vegetation, emergent  mosses or lichens,
and all such wetlands that occur in tidal areas where salinity due to ocean-derived salts is  below 5 ppt.  This
system also includes wetlands lacking  such vegetation if  they are less than 8 hectares, lack wave-action or
bedrock  shoreline features, and are no deeper than  2 meters at low water in their deepest spot.  Examples
include ponds, bogs, and prairie potholes.
                                                                                      Diagram of
                                                                                      wetland from
                                                                                      Cowardin et
                                                                                      al., 1979

      Wetland Classification.  Scientists have classified wetlands into various types.  A well-known
      scheme, developed by Cowardin et al. (1979) for the FWS, has become the federally-accepted
      standard (see box at left). Cowardin et al. state "Wetlands are defined by plants (hydrophytes), soils
      (hydric soils), and frequent flooding. Ecologically related areas of deep water, traditionally not
      considered wetlands, are included in the classification as deepwater habitats."  For the complete
      national wetlands classification standard see http://wetlands.fws.gov/Pubs_Reports/pubs.html.

The Importance  of Wetlands

      The loss and  degradation of wetlands in the U.S. has resulted in a decline in the important benefits
      that wetlands  provide  to society.  These benefits or functions usually link to goods and services
      important to society. Some of the benefits wetlands provide include:

      ^  Healthy fisheries.  A 1991 study by James R. Chambers determined that approximately 75
      percent (by weight) of commercially harvested fish and shellfish are dependent on estuaries and
      their wetlands.  Nationally, commercial fisheries were valued at $3.2 billion in 2001.  In California
      alone,  the seafood industry generated approximately  $900  million in wholesale sales in  2001.
      Virtually all freshwater species of fish are dependent to some degree on wetlands, often spawning
      in marshes adjacent to lakes or in riparian forests during spring flooding. These species are sought
      by recreational anglers, who spent $20.4 billion on trip related and durable goods in 2000 to pursue
      their sport.
       \  .*   v     ,  /•,,-'  •     •'l.tf'iiJt-
        \v   •     '                                   /
         ;,,   .   .^^^MB^^Lk'LiU

         .!       aifi^
      Juvenile spot in a tidal wetland, USFWS

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Black fern
feeding chick,
Elinor Osborn
                                                ^  Support for birds and other wildlife. Wetlands are probably
                                                best known for their value to waterfowl. The freshwater wetlands in
                                                the prairie pothole  region  of  North America support an  estimated
                                                50 to 80 percent of the continental waterfowl  production each year.
                                                The loss of wetlands in this region, which is estimated to be more than
                                                50 percent of the original wetland acreage occurring at the time of
                                                settlement, has been  considered a major factor in  the decline  in
                                                nesting success of duck populations in North  America.  Wetlands also
                                                support a wide diversity of other birds.  Eighty percent of America's
                                                breeding bird  population and more than 50 percent of the 800 species
                                                of protected migratory birds rely on wetlands.   In addition to birds,
                                                other wildlife makes its home in wetlands.  Reptiles and amphibians
                                                are common wetland residents.  Nearly all  of the approximately 190
                                                species  of amphibians in  North  America  depend  on wetlands  for
                                                breeding.  Other wildlife associated with wetlands includes muskrat,
                                                beaver,  mink,  raccoon, marsh  and  swamp  rabbits, numerous mice,
                                                voles, shrews, lemmings, and other small mammals. Large  mammals
                                                also rely on wetlands.  For example, moose often depend on wetlands
                                                such as white cedar swamps and other forested wetlands for winter
                                                shelter and food.
                        ^  High biological productivity. Many wetlands are highly productive ecosystems in large
                       part because  they are rich in organic matter and nutrients.  These nutrients support organisms
                       within the marsh,  but in many instances  the  nutrients  are  also transferred to  nearby aquatic
                       systems (lakes, rivers, and estuaries), enhancing the  productivity of these systems and supporting
                       human uses such as commercial fisheries.
                                                                                         A blue crab in a saltmarsh,

                                     ^   Biodiversity protection.   Wetlands support a  great
                                    diversity of species and many of the species are unique and rare.
                                    Among this vast diversity are many plant species used for food,
                                    drugs, and other  commodities.  There  are  most  likely  other
                                    beneficial organisms yet to be discovered.  Of the  1,082 U.S. plant
                                    and animal species listed as threatened and endangered as of May
                                    31, 1997, 499 species (46 percent) are wetland-associated.  These
                                    organisms are important to  ecosystem function  and, ultimately,
                                    for the health of the environment upon which humans depend.
       A whooping crane, John McShane
       ^     Erosion  control.     By
       dissipating   wave   energy   and
       stabilizing   shorelines,   wetland
       vegetation  buffers  the  adjacent
       upland from  wave  action  and
       intensive erosion.
                                          Salt marsh, Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, Susan-Marie Stedman

       ^   Flood damage reduction.  Wetlands  intercept runoff and store stormwater,  thereby
       changing rapid and high peak flows to slower and smaller discharges over longer periods  of time.
       Because it is usually the peak flows that cause flood damage, the effect of wetlands is to reduce
       the danger of flooding. A classic study by the Corps in the Charles River Basin in Massachusetts
       estimated that the loss of 3,400 hectares (approximately 8,100 acres) of forested wetlands would
       increase downstream flood damage, costing millions of dollars annually.
       A beaver, G. Kearns

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                        ^  Good water quality.  Wetlands are known for their ability to capture sediments and filter
                       pollutants, which improves water quality.  For example, spring floods often carry very turbid water
                       which, if not for the filtering that occurs in downstream wetlands, could deposit sediment that
                       would smother plants and fish eggs.  In addition, wetlands constructed to treat municipal  runoff
                       require only a fraction of the  construction and operation budget of a conventional system.

                       ^   Aesthetics and  recreation.   Many recreational activities take place in and  around
                       wetlands. Hunting and fishing are popular activities associated with wetlands.  Other recreational
                       activities in wetlands include hiking, nature observation and photography, canoeing, and  other
                       boating.  Many people simply enjoy the beauty and sounds of nature and spend their leisure time
                       near wetlands observing  plant and animal life.  Wetlands are also important places for outdoor
                       study and for gaining an appreciation of natural history and ecology.  Properties bordering
                       wetlands often have higher property values than those that do not.  Urban wetlands are typically
                       some of the last remaining pieces of "natural habitat" providing residents some sense of wildness
                       and open space.

                       A primary goal of wetland projects is to re-establish natural ecological processes.  Some wetland
                       functions  can be mimicked with engineered structures, but engineered methods typically do not
                       provide the maximum ecological benefit.  For example, instead of re-establishing native vegetation
                       on wetland edges to control erosion, a cement wall could be used to armor the bank.  A cement
                       wall could limit erosion  for  a  time, but it does not provide  the  other ecosystem benefits of
                       wetlands, such as filtering pollutants and providing fish habitat. For a more detailed  discussion of
                       wetland functions, see Technical Appendix T-l.
                       A canoe trip, USFWS


                      he terms "restoration", "creation", and "enhancement" have been defined a variety
                      of ways. The following commonly-accepted definitions for these terms, based on
                      Lewis (1990), will be used in this document:

       ^Ife  Restoration - Returning  a degraded wetland or former wetland to a pre-existing condition
            or as close to that condition as is possible.
       «  Creation - Converting a non-wetland (either dry land or unvegetated water)  to a wetland.
       ^  Enhancement - Increasing one or more of the functions performed by an existing wetland
            beyond what currently or previously existed in the wetland.  There is often an accompanying
            decrease in other functions.

       A similar set of definitions was adopted by a number of federal agencies in 2000 to keep track of
       federal wetland conservation projects. This set of definitions distinguishes between two types of
       restoration -  "rehabilitation"  (restoration  in an  existing  wetland)  and   "reestablishment"
       (restoration in  a former wetland). These definitions  are in Appendix T-IV.

       Restoration and enhancement  projects may be difficult to distinguish  from each  other,  because
       both can encompass activities in existing degraded wetlands.  According to the definitions above,
       restoration entails returning a  wetland to a former state (e.g., filling a ditch so  that a drained
       wetland becomes flooded again), while enhancement means changing the wetland so that one or
       more functions are increased beyond their original state.  An example would be diverting a small
       stream into a wetland so that the area has deeper water.

       Enhancing a wetland in one way often degrades it  in another way.   For example, adding more
       water to a wetland may create better habitat for fish, but it will decrease the ability of the wetland
       to hold flood waters.  This trade-off is particularly  true for enhancement in relatively unaltered
       wetlands.  Some common examples of the trade-offs that can occur with wetland enhancement
       include  loss of fish habitat when  salt marshes are impounded  to  provide  waterfowl  habitat,
       decreased water storage when seasonal wetlands are flooded to increase aquatic habitat, and  loss
       of colonial waterbird habitat when mangroves  are removed to provide shorebird habitat. When
       wetland enhancement is undertaken, the project goals should include minimizing any decrease in
       existing wetland functions.

       Wetland  creation  - putting a  wetland  where  it did not exist  before -  is  usually a  difficult
       undertaking. The primary challenges in creation projects are bringing water to a site where it does
       not naturally occur and establishing vegetation on soils that are not  hydric.  While creation is
       possible, it typically requires significantly more planning and effort than restoration projects,  and
       the outcome of the effort is difficult to predict. Many attempts to convert uplands to wetlands
       result in ecosystems that do  not closely resemble  natural wetlands  and that provide  limited

     INTRODUCTION     AND     USER'S      GUIDE     TO
                 wetland functions (valuable upland habitat  might be lost in the process  as  well).  Creating
                 wetlands from open water is less difficult with respect to establishing a water source, but it often
                 requires placing dirt or other fill into existing  aquatic habitats, which means  destroying one kind
                 of aquatic habitat to create  another.  While this trade-off sometimes can be justified ecologically,
                 the engineering and regulatory challenges of  these projects are so complicated that professional
                 expertise and oversight are almost always required.

                 The outcome of a creation  and enhancement project is  often difficult  to  predict because these
                 projects essentially try to produce a new ecosystem. With restoration projects, outcomes are more
                 predictable, although there  may still be uncertainty depending on the type of wetland, extent of
                 degradation, and many other factors. Under certain circumstances, creation or enhancement may
                 be the best option (see box below for an example) but for the most part, restoration is more likely
                 to have  a positive outcome in terms of improving wetland resources.
Created VJetlands to  Treat Urban  Runoff

    Created treatment wetlands can control the increased runoff and pollutants generated by development in
    watersheds.  In the Sligo Creek Watershed of Montgomery County Maryland, the Metropolitan Washington
Council  of Governments  (COG) worked  with  many groups and  agencies  to  create wetlands  to  capture
stormwater runoff from local urban development. The created wetlands control the amount of water reaching
Sligo Creek and allow the sediment  and  other pollutants to settle out before the water reaches the Creek.
Because the created wetlands helped improve water quality and establish more natural flows to Sligo Creek,
COG and local groups were able to complete stream restoration in the Creek itself.  They have restored  the
natural channel  shape, replanted native tree species, and reintroduced native fish and amphibians.
                 One additional term common in discussions about wetland restoration, creation, and enhancement
                 is mitigation.  In a general sense, mitigation means reducing environmental damage by avoiding,
                 minimizing, and compensating for activities that damage or destroy  protected resources.  In a
                 wetland context, "mitigation" is often short for  "compensatory mitigation" and means wetland
                 restoration, creation,  enhancement, or some other action undertaken for the specific  purpose of
                 compensating for the damage or destruction to another wetland area.  When wetland  restoration
                 or a related activity is undertaken as mitigation, there are usually a number of requirements that
                 must  be met  to ensure  that the  wetland activity  provides adequate compensation for  the
                 associated wetland loss.

                 Discussing the regulatory requirements of compensatory mitigation is beyond  the scope of this
                 document. More information on topics specific to compensatory mitigation can  be obtained from
                 agencies involved in wetland regulation, especially the Environmental Protection  Agency (EPA) and
                 the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) (see Federal  agency web sites in Resource Appendix R-lll).

                 Planning,  monitoring,  and  long-term  management, which are  important  for  all  wetland
                 restoration, creation,  and enhancement activities, are  especially important for wetland
                 mitigation projects.

Two Approaches to Wetland Projects

       The first method to consider for renewing wetland functions is to remove the factors  causing
       wetland degradation or  loss and let nature do  the work of re-establishing the wetland.  This
       method is often called the passive approach.  For example, if wetland vegetation and water
       quality are degraded primarily as a  result of cattle grazing, then removing the cows may be the
       only activity needed to restore the wetland system (however, animal grazing is  not always bad for
       wetlands). Passive methods allow natural regeneration of wetland plant communities, natural re-
       colonization by animals, and re-establishment of wetland hydrology and soils. Passive approaches
       are most  appropriate when  the  degraded site  still retains basic wetland characteristics and the
       source of the degradation is an action that can be stopped. The success of passive methods usually
       depends on an accessible source of water, the close proximity of wetland plants and animals, and
       a mechanism for bringing species to the restoration site. The benefits of passive methods include
       low cost and  a high degree of certainty that the resulting  wetland will  be  compatible with the
       surrounding landscape.

       For many sites, passive methods are  not enough to result in the necessary changes to the site, and
       so  an active  approach is necessary.  Active approaches involve physical intervention in which
       humans directly control site processes to restore, create, or enhance wetland systems. The active
       approach  is most appropriate when a wetland  is severely degraded  or when goals cannot be
       achieved in any other way, as is  the case with  wetland  creation  and most enhancements.  Active
       methods include re-contouring a site to the desired topography, changing the water  flow  with
       water control structures (i.e.,  weirs  or culverts), intensive planting  and  seeding,  intensive
       non-native species control, and bringing soils to the site to provide the proper substrate for native
       species. The design, engineering, construction, and costs for such work can be significant.
       Grading a wetland restoration site, The Louis Berger Group

                TACKLING   THE   WETLAND
                P  RO JE CT
                Enroll In a Wetland Program

                                       here are a number of federal wetland programs in which landowners can enroll
                                       for help with a wetland project. Federal programs provide technical and financial
                                       assistance  to  landowners, communities, and local governments interested  in
                                       restoring, creating,  and enhancing native fish and wildlife  habitats, including
                                       wetlands, uplands, riparian, and in-stream habitats. Many people take this route.
                       Information on federal programs  is given in Resource Appendix R-ll.  Several states,  non-profit
                       organizations, and  local governments have similar programs.   Check with your state department
                       of natural resources (or similar agency) to determine whether local wetland programs exist.

                Hire  a Project Manager

                       If you don't qualify for a federal or state program, another project approach  is to hire someone
                       with experience in  wetland restoration, creation, and enhancement to put together a plan and a
                       team for you. There are consulting firms and some non-profit groups around the country who have
                       the  expertise in-house or can act as a wetland project contractor to find those with the right kind
                       of expertise.   Check the  Association of State  Wetland  Managers'  "Directory  of Wetland
                       Professionals" at  http://www.aswm.org or the Professional Certification section of the Society of
                       Wetland Scientists' site at http://www.sws.org for lists of professional wetland scientists (and see
                       Resource Appendix R-lll).

                Be Your Own Project Manager

                       If you (as an individual or citizen's group)  choose to do  the  project yourself, you will want to
                       assemble the people necessary to  complete your wetland work. The type of technical advice and
                       amount of physical help needed will depend on the project goals, the extent of degradation of the
                       site, and the type of wetland; in short, it will depend on the complexity of the project. An example
                       of a community-based project requiring  moderate  effort, the Decker Lake Wetlands Project, is on
                       the  following page.

                       For  many projects, to accomplish the changes in hydrology, soils, and biota necessary to create or
                       restore a functioning system, you  will need  assistance from local experts  on wetlands.  Resource
                       Appendix R-l contains potential sources of information. You will most likely need funding for your
                       project, too.  See Resource Appendix R-ll for a start on where  to look for funding.  Some sources
                       of information, technical help, and funding include:

                       On-Line Resources.  There are numerous  on-line sources of wetland restoration, creation, and
                       enhancement experts  and expertise.  Resource Appendix R-lll  contains internet addresses for
                       directories of wetland  and ecological professionals, training opportunities, documents, and other
                       sources of information. New information is constantly added to the world wide web, so internet
                       searches on wetland topics will result in additional on-line information.
                PART   3:   TACKLING   THE   WETLAND   PROJEC

             Decker Lake  Wetlands  Project-A Multi-Partner Effort

              In Salt Lake County, Utah, non-native species were contributing to the degradation of Decker Lake.
              Youth Force, part of the Salt Lake County Service and Conservation Corps, decided to do something to
             help the  Lake. The Salt Lake County Job Training Partnership Act and the EPA's Five-Star Restoration
             Program helped fund the effort.  EPA's Region 8 office provided funding for a local naturalist who gave
             presentations on local ecology to the Youth Force crew and the community.  With technical assistance
             from a Fish  and Wildlife Service staff member, the Youth Force team pruned non-native tamarisk and
             removed Phragmitesand other invasive plants from a 15 foot by 500 foot bank area next to Decker Lake.
             In addition  to improving lake-side conditions, the Youth Force educated visiting groups about non-
             native species and attracted many other volunteers to help at the site.
      Agencies. Talk with public agencies to see if they have staff who can help you. You might begin
      with your local office of the U.S. Geological  Survey (USGS), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS),
      NOAA Fisheries, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or the Corps.  In agricultural areas, check
      with the NRCS for wetland expertise. Your state or local natural resource agencies, conservation
      districts, or state departments of natural  resources may  have staff with experience in  wetland
      restoration, creation, and enhancement. Ask  for help in developing your wetland plan, reviewing
      it, or  in providing specific information on the ecology of the wetland type you want to establish.
      If the agencies you contact do not have enough  time or  expertise to  help you, ask for other
      contacts they would recommend. Some agencies have programs for funding wetland  projects (see
      Resource Appendix R-ll).

      Local Experts.  Solicit restoration expertise  from  the local community.  Post or send out flyers
      asking for volunteer experts in the community to help you.  Many people with wetland expertise
      are involved in wetland restoration, creation, and  enhancement efforts  in  their off hours. Not
      everyone who  volunteers will  have the expertise you  need, so ask questions about what  projects
      they've  worked on, and look at the projects to see if they are meeting their  goals.

      Universities and Non-Profits.  Check with the  biology or environmental studies  departments
      of local colleges and universities. They may offer ecological restoration courses or programs that
      could provide you with more background.  The course instructors may be willing to help you with
      your  project  by  providing  technical  advice  and/or  student  volunteers.   Local non-profit
      organizations may have restoration programs  as well as access to advisors and volunteers.  If local
      non-profits don't yet have a restoration program, you might convince them to team up with you
      to plan  and undertake  your project.  Consider such organizations as the  Izaak Walton League of
      America, the local Sierra Club or Audubon Society, native plant societies, and watershed protection

      Several  large non-profit groups are significant supporters of wetland projects. The National Fish
      and  Wildlife  Foundation helps groups find  money  to  finance environmental  projects,  Ducks
      Unlimited provides funds and expertise to protect and restore wetland habitat, and The Nature
      Conservancy is a valuable source  of information on  restoration, creation, and enhancement
      projects. Find contact information for these and other groups in Resource Appendix R-lll.
                     PART   3:   TACKLING   THE   WETLAND   PROJEC

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                       Corporations.  Many corporations  sponsor  wetland projects,  sometimes in partnership with
                       government agencies and non-profits.  For example, the National Corporate Wetlands Restoration
                       Partnership, sponsored by the National Association  of Manufacturers, the Gillette Company, and
                       Coastal America,  is  a  public-private  partnership  between  the federal  government,  state
                       governments, and  private corporations  to restore  wetlands  and other aquatic habitats  (see

                       The  remainder  of this  document describes  the  four  phases  of a  restoration, creation,  or
                       enhancement project: planning, implementation, monitoring, and long-term management. If you
                       are having someone undertake the wetland project for you, you will not be using this information
                       yourself, but knowing the process will help you ask  the right questions and understand the work.
                       For those  doing their own projects,  the following  information gives a basic  overview of the
                       restoration, creation,  or enhancement process and provides some resources. This document cannot
                       provide the specific information on local wetland types, site conditions, watershed land  uses,  or
                       implementation that is necessary to accomplish a project.  That information must be obtained from
                       sources with  specific local knowledge.  Some of these sources are  listed in the Bibliography
                       (Resource Appendix R-l) and  in Resource Appendices R-ll and R-lll.
                        Egrets at Kingman Lake restoration site, Washington, D.C., Kathryn Conant
                                                           WETLAND   PROJEC

Why  Plan?
                       ood planning is a critical, but often overlooked, stage of the restoration, creation,
                       and enhancement process.  Inadequate planning is often cited as a major reason
                       projects fail  to result in  self-sustaining, naturally-functioning systems.  Here are
                       just a few reasons thoughtful planning is so important:
             Planning  requires collecting  information about  the  local  area,  potential restoration,
             creation,  or  enhancement sites,  historical trends, and other topics that will  help you
             understand the project you are initiating.
       ^    Planning will help you  choose  the  best site to achieve your goals, or, if you already have a
             site in mind,  planning  will help you determine the most reasonable goals for your site.
       ^Hfe    Planning will help you  establish clear and  feasible objectives given the factors that may
             constrain the project.
       sfe    Planning identifies the materials, labor, and activities that will be needed to achieve the
             project's goals.
       ^    Objectives   and   target  criteria
             established  during  planning  direct
             the type of monitoring that will be
       ^    Clear  goals and objectives will help
             you   explain   to   other  people,
             including   potential    funders,
             partners,  and the local community,
             what you are trying  to accomplish.

       Not  every project  will require  all  of the
       planning steps described in this section, nor
       will everything in each step be needed. The
       extent of the planning required will depend
       on the  condition of  the  project site  and
       your goals.  More complex projects require
       more planning.
                                                   A landscape and watershed consist of many
                                                   components, NOAA

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                Know Your Landscape

                       To plan a wetland project that will be compatible with adjacent ecosystems, you will  need to
                       understand the local landscape.   If you have already chosen a project site, understanding  the
                       landscape will help you determine what is ecologically possible on your site.  If you are looking for
                       a site, understanding the landscape will help you choose the site most likely to achieve your goals.

                       All wetlands exist in a  landscape  that has an enormous influence  on how the wetland develops
                       and functions.  As you  begin planning a wetland project, look at the landscape and identify  the
                       major natural features and any patterns in the way these natural features occur.  For example, is
                       the area fairly flat, hilly, or sloped? These factors affect surface and groundwater drainage and
                       ponding patterns. Are land uses in the surrounding landscape changing rapidly, as is often the case
                       near eroding coastlines or in urbanizing areas? Rapidly changing land forms or land uses may have
                       future  negative effects  on project sites.  Do the  wetlands occur throughout the landscape or are
                       they concentrated in one place? The distribution of wetlands is influenced by natural features of
                       watersheds, such as topography (elevation, aspect, and slope), climate, precipitation patterns,  soil
                       types, groundwater, surface waters, floodplains, and vegetation  communities.  You will want to
                       collect current information on the hydrology, soils, and vegetation communities in the watershed.

                       Maps with local topography and existing aerial photography can  provide essential information on
                       the primary sources of  water in the watershed and the way wetlands are associated with them.
                       Rivers,  streams, lakes, bays, and the ocean are obvious sources of water that may have wetlands
                       associated with them.  Some wetlands are sustained  by less obvious sources of water  such as
                       groundwater  (springs, seeps, high  water table) or rainfall and surface runoff. Obtain topography,
                       drainage, and runoff information from the NRCS  Field Office Technical Guides.  Local water quality
                       control districts, water management districts, or flood control districts (states often use different
                       names) will have rainfall  data and water level data for local water bodies.  Look  for data on  the
                       groundwater  levels.  The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and local flood control
                       districts have maps on the location and elevations of floodplains.  These agencies can help you find
                       out the frequency and magnitude  of the flood events that occur  in  your community.

                       Soil maps for your watershed are  available from the NRCS and are invaluable in locating where
                       wetland soils exist or used to exist.  Soil maps also often contain information about the location
                       of springs, ponds, streams, and drainage ditches.  Aerial photographs from the USGS or local aerial
                       photography  firms may provide data on  some  watershed  features including the  presence of
                                                                      wetlands  and  the  amount  and  type   of
                                                                      vegetation  cover in  an  area.  Information on
                                                                      local vegetation communities  also may come
                                                                      from recent biological reports completed  for
                                                                      planning  agencies,  Environmental  Impact
                                                                      Statements,  or other  documents available
                                                                      from local  planning agencies.  Table 1  gives
                                                                      sources  of information  on soils, floodplains,
                                                                      and other watershed features.
                       So/7 Surveys

       Example of an aerial view photo

       Aerial photos are a valuable and commonly used source of data on  watershed features such as
       topography, drainage and ponding patterns, land uses, vegetation communities and coverage, and
       habitat fragmentation and loss.  Aerial photos cannot provide all  of the information needed to
       evaluate watershed conditions; you will need to check with other  sources to fully evaluate your
       watershed. Consult local agencies and other sources of information  to get a full picture of current
       watershed conditions.

       In addition to information about present conditions, collect information on the history of the
       watershed for valuable  insight into the ecosystems that used to be there and  what factors have
       caused loss or degradation to wetlands in the area.  There may be aerial photographs for the past
       several decades or other records of past watershed conditions that  could  provide  some of this
       information.  Reviewing aerial photos from several years probably  will show that some features,
       such as topography, have not changed  much but others, such as land  use, drainage ditches, roads
       and  other structures, and vegetation communities, have changed significantly.

       After considering natural conditions, identify human influences and constructed features. Roads,
       ditches, dams, and  large areas of impervious surfaces such  as parking lots are  all features of the
       landscape that could affect existing wetlands and proposed wetland projects.  Adjacent or regional
       land uses may or may not be compatible with re-establishing a former wetland or with the goals
       of a wetland  creation  or enhancement.  Typical land uses  include urbanized lands  (residential,
       industrial,  commercial), agriculture, grazing, mining, forest harvesting, streams,  lakes, wetlands,
       non-harvested forest, open grassland, or park/recreational open space.
                                                                                P  L A  N  N

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                        Urban and industrial areas may be sources of excess sediment and pollutants, such as oil and heavy
                        metals,  that wash off paved areas into streams and wetlands.  Agriculture  is often  a  source of
                        pesticides and fertilizers that may harm wetlands. These land uses may impair the health of newly
                        established  wetlands. On the other hand, farms are capable of providing valuable adjacent upland
                        habitat if there are uncultivated buffer areas between the wetland and  the  fields. Consider not
                        only  existing  land  uses,  but  also  future changes  to the  landscape  such  as encroaching
                        development. Local zoning and planning documents from cities  and counties can be examined to
                        identify proposed conservation areas and future development areas.

                        Two land  use questions to address as you plan your project are:
                        «   How might changes in land  uses, roads, ditches, and other human-constructed features
                              have affected water quality, surface water runoff, and  drainage/ponding patterns?
                        ^   How might these changes in land  use, and the presence of roads, buildings, and other human
                              constructed features affect your ability to restore, create, or enhance a wetland?

                        For more  information on watershed features, check the data available on your watershed at the
                        EPA website,  http://www.epa.gov/surf.  For another information source,  check  the USGS 7.5
                        minute quadrangle maps for your area; these maps have many relevant landscape features.  Also,
                        National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps from the FWS for your region will show the location of
                        some (but not all) of the wetlands. Visit their web site at http://www.nwi.fws.gov/.
            Table \. Where to Find Information on Your Watershed/Landscape and Site
            Information Resource

            Aerial Photography
            Flood elevations
            and floodplains

            National Wetlands
            Inventory (NWI) Maps
            Soil Survey Information

            Topographic Maps
                                             Where to Find Information Resources

                         Local Geological Survey (USGS) office, NASA (satellite photos such as those from the Thematic
                         Mapper); Farm Services Agency (FSA); local aerial photography companies; state natural resource

                         County, city, or town zoning and planning offices; Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
                         Flood  Hazard Maps;  District offices  of the  Corps;  state natural  resource agencies.

                         For map status and free desktop printing of areas and acreage status (42% of US available) use the
                         Wetland Interactive Mapper at http://wetlands.fws.gov. To purchase paper maps (90% of US available)
                         call the USGS Earth Science Information Center at 1 -888-ASK-USGS or contact a state distribution
                         center  from  the  list at  http://wetlands.fws.gov/state_distribution_centers.htm.

                         Local office of NRCS; find the field office directory at: http://www.ncg.nrcs.usda.gov/perdir.html.

                         Local USGS office or USGS's "Map Finder" at:
                         or call 1 -800-ASK-USGS; local map or sporting goods stores.

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      Portion of a National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) map

Choosing the Project Site

      Many people decide  to do a wetland project with a site already in mind—one they own or have a
      special  interest in—but,  for many  people,  site selection is part of the planning process.   All
      restoration, creation, and enhancement projects must be carefully placed in the watershed to meet
      hydrologic, soil, and biotic  requirements. Site selection is a process of setting goals and then
      looking for sites with characteristics that will support achieving your goals. In the early stages of
      planning, you may select one site and  then switch to  another as your goals are refined.  The best
      approach to site selection is to be flexible.

      The first place to start when looking for a project site is  a local, regional, or state list of priority
      wetland restoration  sites. By choosing a site from such  as list, you will be taking advantage of
      local wetland expertise.  The contacts  listed in Appendix  R-lll, as well as local and state wetland
      contacts, can help you find  out if there is a  list of priority restoration sites for your area. Talking
      to the people who created the list can help you pick the site that best fits your goals and resources.

      When there are a number  of potential  project sites, you will need to evaluate them carefully.
      Hammer  (1992)  lists these six factors  to  consider  when  choosing a restoration, creation, or
      enhancement site:
      ^  hydrology;
      ^  topography and geology;
      *  soils;
      *  biotics;
      ^  land ownership; and
      ^  agency requirements.
                                                                         P  L A N N

                 Information on the first four factors may be provided when you conduct the landscape/watershed
                 evaluation described in the previous section.  When choosing a project site, specifically consider
                 how to achieve the necessary amount and duration of water for your wetland type.  Look for
                 locations with the hydrology, topography, and geology typical of the type of wetland you want to
                 restore, create, or enhance.  Look also for the presence of wetland soils (hydric soils) or drained
                 wetland soils, which indicate places that would be appropriate for wetlands. Choosing a site that
                 is close to an area with native wetland  species or finding a site that already has native species
                 might aid natural  colonization of the site.  The best sites are likely to  be near wetlands similar to
                 your target type.

                 If you are buying a site, determining the ownership of a potential project site is a critical step. Find
                 out if there are easements, liens, covenants, water-rights issues, or other aspects of the parcel that
                 may restrict its use for your project. Agency requirements also determine the suitability of a site
                 for  the  intended  project.  Find  out from local,  state, and federal  agencies what  permits  or
                 authorizations may  be necessary to undertake your project.  For more information  on this topic,
                 see the section below, "Government and  Agency Requirements."

                 Successful site selection  produces locations that will support your wetland project goals.  You may
                 need to revise your project goals to reflect the constraints of current  conditions if available sites
                 do not meet your original purposes.

          Know Your Project Site

                 Before designing a project, you will want to learn about the past and current conditions of your
                 project site by conducting a site assessment.  The goals  of a site assessment are to:
                 ^  understand former conditions on the site;
                 ^Ife  determine whether or not a wetland  ever existed on the site;
                 ^  determine what factors resulted in  wetland degradation or loss,  if a wetland did exist; and
                 ^Ife  determine the current condition of the site.

                 Before visiting the site and collecting samples or other information, make sure you have permission
                 from the owner or own the site yourself.

                 The site assessment is a more focused version  of the landscape evaluation and it may tap some of
                 the same information sources. Examine historical photos (including aerials), historical maps of the
                 area, talk to long-time residents, or hire a wetland professional to determine  the  locations and
                 types of former wetlands.  Past conditions can provide valuable information on  impacts to the site
                 that may affect project outcomes.  For example, if the site history reveals that the area was once
                 a dumping ground for potentially toxic materials, you should contact  experts on toxic substances
                 to determine  how to proceed.  A range of toxic materials can  occur  in polluted sites, and while
                 some pollutants may be serious  problems,  others may not.   Expert advice is  essential for
                 determining whether a polluted site is suitable for your projector whether you should seek another
                 project location.

                 You  will  also need to  characterize  the  current conditions  of the  restoration, creation  or
                 enhancement site.  Information on  the site's current hydrology, soils, and vegetation will help you
                 understand the site's potential wetland restoration, creation, or enhancement.  Visual inspection
                 of the site and the sources listed in Table  1 can provide qualitative (general) information  on the
                 following characteristics:

22        PART   4:    PLANNING

       ^  topography;
       ^llfc  evidence of erosion;
       ^  evidence of drainage and water movement patterns;
       ^  major vegetation types;
       ^  human structures and land use; and
       ^  adjacent land uses.

       In  addition to qualitative  information, collecting site-specific,  quantitative (numerical) data is
       often necessary to determine the causes and cures for wetland loss or degradation. Quantitative
       site measurements  may be required  to  obtain  permits or to  design  the project.   Collecting
       quantitative data typically requires the help of local  experts familiar with conducting biological
       assessments and wetland delineations, and  who  are knowledgeable  about the  local natural
       communities. Several quantitative parameters that are often measured  in the field include:
       A  exact elevations and  topography of features;
       ^llfe  levels of soil nutrients, organic matter, and moisture;
       ^Ifc  water flow rates and timing;
       ^  location of wetland soils, wetland plants, and wetland hydrology; and
       ^  diversity and cover of native and invasive or non-native plant species.
       You also should look for site conditions that could limit the project
       goals.  Modifications to the project design  or maintenance plan
       may be needed to address problems such as:
       ^ll£:  poor water quality or lack of sufficient water;
       ^  local pollutants;
       ^llfe  improper sun exposure for plantings;
       ^  lack of native species nearby;
       ^Ilk  invasive and non-native species on adjacent lands;
       ^llfe  herbivores that could decimate new plants (Canada geese,
            muskrats, etc.);
       ^Ilk  human uses (of the site and adjacent sites) that are
            incompatible with wetland functions;
       ^  future land uses (in and around  the site) that are
            incompatible with wetland functions; and
       ^ife  presence of cultural resources.
       As noted earlier, watershed  conditions play a major role in  achieving restoration, creation, or
       enhancement goals.  It is  important to realize that it may be harder to reach your goals at an
       isolated site than at a site located near or adjacent to comparable wetlands. Isolated habitats may
       be more vulnerable to invasion by non-native species and are more difficult for native plants  and
       animals to colonize. However, some wetland types such as prairie potholes and vernal pools are
       naturally separated from similar habitats.  For these types of wetlands, it is appropriate to restore
       or create them  where they typically occur in  the landscape and  in numbers  typical to  the
                                                   Taking water
                                                  Mary Ken tula
                                                                                 P L A N  N

      Setting  Goals  and Objectives

             As you selected the project site and evaluated its condition, you did so with ideas of what you want
             to achieve.  These goals, which are general statements about the desired project results, reflect
             your motivations for undertaking the project.  Do you want to see your site support a diversity of
             native plant and  animal species?   Are you interested  in improving  the  water  quality in local
             streams?  Do you hope to return the site to a  condition  you  remember from years before?
             Examples of goals for wetland restoration projects might include "repair damage to seagrass beds
             from boat traffic" or "restore the native plant species and seasonal water cycle to a drained prairie

             Goals provide an overall framework. The next step is to develop objectives that provide specific
             targets focused on hydrology, soils, topography, and/or biological factors that must be changed on
             the project  site to restore, create, or enhance a wetland.  For the  goal "restore  the natural
             hydrology and vegetation of a degraded Atlantic coast salt marsh" the following objectives  would
             be appropriate:
             ^llfc   Restore the  natural tidal regime;
             ^llfc   Ensure the mudflat is returned to a level appropriate for vegetation;
             ^llfc  Re-establish  dominance of the  native plant community, e.g., Spartina and Salicornia species; and
             ^llfc   Limit the  presence of non-native or invasive plant species.

             Progress is determined by measuring performance standards or target criteria that  are linked to
             each objective. Target criteria often include a numerical end-point and a time line to reach that
             end-point.  For example, the objective  "Restore the natural tidal regime" might be linked to this
             target criterion: "Remove enough of the dike so that within one year the tidal range upstream of
             the dike is  equal  to the tidal range  downstream of  the dike."   Such  numerical  targets are
             measurable and will allow you to know  if the site is progressing toward your goals. You should set
             target criteria that are: (1) measurable and objective; (2) collectable with simple methods that
             generate comparable  data each time they are used; and (3) produce repeatable  results. Include
             incremental  targets  that reflect how  the  site  is  likely to change as it  moves  from  its  initial
             condition toward  a more established community.

             The box  at right provides information  on  the target criteria  set for the West Eugene Wetlands
             Project in Oregon. This project also illustrates another  important point: even if you  have  a very
             specific goal, such as providing additional wetland habitat for a rare species, be sure that you focus
             not just on that one wetland function,  but on the wetland system as a whole.

             Here are other  examples of target criteria:

             ^Ifc   If your goal is to restore a seasonal prairie pothole by re-establishing its natural hydrology,
                  then one  target criterion might be to "establish  water depths between 1 and 2 feet  on 75
                  percent of the site for the period of the year necessary to support native vegetation."

             ^llfc   If your goal is to restore a seagrass bed, then  one objective might be to re-establish  native
                  eelgrass.  A target criterion for that objective could be to "establish eelgrass plants covering
                  60 percent of the original area at the  end  of 3 years."

      PART   4:   PLANNING

            West Eugene Wetlands Project Targets  Rare Species Habitat

               The Lane-Metro Youth Corps of Eugene, Oregon, undertook a 9-month wetland restoration project in
               the West Eugene Greenway,  which is managed by the Army Corps of Engineers.  The goal of the
            project was to complete work in endangered and threatened species habitat that would lead to natural
            re-colonization by the native species.  The specific measurable target criteria to be achieved in nine-
            months included:
           ^    Enhance  and restore 5 acres  of
                  habitat to provide for the  survival
                  and  reproduction  of Bradshaw's
                  lomatium  and Willamette Valley
           $lk    Collect seeds  from  40 acres  of
                  native wetlands.
           ^    Construct  11  accessory  water
                  channels   to   enhance   site
                  hydrology to support rare  daisies.
           ^Ife    Plant native species along 5,000
                  feet of levees to provide a diverse
                  native plant community.                      Lane-Metro Youth Corps working to restore a wetland
Using Reference Sites

       How do wetland scientists determine what kind of hydrology, soil conditions, or specific organisms
       to establish at a project site? A standard method for setting project targets is to base them on the
       conditions of the wetland that existed  on the site before it  was altered.  If hydrology, soil,  and
       biotic data on the pre-damaged condition of the wetland are complete enough, this information
       can  be used  to set  standards for partially or  completely  re-establishing  the pre-alteration
       conditions.  Information collected from aerial photos and historical  maps may show the former
       extent of vegetation and/or hydrology. Data from sources such as local water districts, universities,
       and citizens, may also provide the detail needed.

       However, in most cases, there is not enough detailed background information on plant species  and
       cover, animal species and abundance, soil conditions, or hydrology to set target criteria.  Because
       historical  information is often missing, most wetland scientists depend on local "reference sites,"
       which  are sites that represent the least altered wetlands of the target type in  the  area.   The
       ecological conditions at reference sites are usually indicative of the natural communities that can
       be supported under current conditions.  Even if we wanted to restore a "pristine" ecosystem such
       as the Europeans first saw  when they arrived  in  North America, changes to land uses, water
       sources, or other aspects of the surrounding landscape in  the  last  300 years usually  make it
       difficult or impossible to  restore a wetland to its pre-alteration ecological condition (see box on
       next page).  Reference sites provide insight into what is possible now.
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  Restoration  in "The Meadowlands"  of Northern  New ]ersey

A      good example of altered regional hydrology and its effect on wetland restoration exists in northern
      New Jersey in "The  Meadowlands." In colonial times, this area was an Atlantic white cedar swamp,
  but today the cedars are gone, replaced by fill, roads,  buildings, some brackish marsh, and a tall reed
  known  as  Phragmites.    There  are
  numerous wetland restoration  projects
  in The Meadowlands, but none  of them
  have as  their goal restoration of a white
  cedar swamp.  In addition  to  all  the
  other landscape changes, a dam on  the
  Hackensack River has  made the area
  too salty for cedars. Instead,  wetland
  restoration  efforts are  focusing  on
  establishing  brackish  water   marsh,
  which is much more appropriate given
  the  current  regional  ecological  and
  hydrological conditions.

                                        "The Meadowlands" Restoration project, Susan-Marie Stedman
             To  collect reference site data, examine the least altered nearby wetlands that are in the same
             landscape position as your site (e.g., along a river,  in an isolated depression) and appear to be
             similar to the pre-alteration condition of the degraded wetland, if known.  You may have already
             collected  some  information  on similar  wetlands  when  you  were learning  about the local
             watershed. Try to identify several reference wetlands, because wetlands of the same type can vary
             considerably  in  their  characteristics.  Looking at multiple wetlands of the type you hope to
             establish can help you understand the natural range  of variation of the wetland type.  Be sure you
             have the landowner's permission to enter any property you examine.

             Wetland scientists also look for data on different phases of recovery to understand how the system
             will change over time. Some states are currently developing sets of data from  reference wetlands.
             Contact your state water quality agency or department of natural  resources to find out if your
             state is gathering information on reference wetlands. The wetlands division of your regional EPA
             office  may also have information on reference sites.  Look also for other restoration,  creation, or
             enhancement projects and talk to the people responsible about how well the project is progressing
             toward its goals.   Understanding  how  other  wetland projects are developing can help you
             determine whether your goals are appropriate.

             You or someone on your team should collect basic information on the hydrology, soils, and plant
             community from the reference sites. General information can be collected from visual inspection
             of  the sites  and from  the  sources  you  consulted for general  information  on your project site.
             Reports and  published  literature may also be a  source of general information on reference sites.
             The Community Profiles  series published  by the FWS  provide basic information on a range of
             wetland types (see Resource Appendix R-l).  Wetland scientists often collect specific, quantitative
             measurements on the characteristics of the reference sites. These characteristics are the same as
             those used to quantify  conditions on the project site.

       When using data from reference sites to set target criteria, remember that ecological systems are
       not static, so target criteria should include an acceptable range of natural variation. Also plan for
       typical disturbance  regimes,  such  as  2-year to  100-year flood  conditions.   While natural
       disturbance regimes are essential to the long-term health of ecosystems, many projects have been
       damaged or lost soon  after completion because planners did not consider the flood potential or
       natural disturbance regime of their site.

       Below is a list of questions to ask your technical advisors and to keep in mind as you plan your
       wetland project. Don't be alarmed if the answer to many of these  questions is "we don't know
       precisely  and  finding out would be too  costly."  Many of these questions  do not have simple
       answers, but even partial answers can help you in your planning.

       Ask about Hydrology:
       ^Ife  Where can regional baseline hydrologic data, including typical and extreme flood events and
            their potential, be found?
       ^Ife  What are the current hydrologic characteristics of the project site?
       ^Ife  What are the pre-alteration hydrologic characteristics at the project site (if known)?
       ^Ife  Where can reference sites for this wetland type be found in the watershed or nearby?
       ^Ife  What parameters should be measured at the project and reference sites?
       ^Ife  What has caused  changes to the hydrologic characteristics of the site (what removed the
            water or prevents it from entering your site)?
       ^Ife  Are  there potential effects on downstream areas of changing  the hydrologic characteristics
            of your site?
       ^Ife  What is the relationship between the elevation of the land surface and primary water sources
            (surface  and ground  water) for the wetland?
       ^Ife  What changes might restore hydrology and the correct relationship between soil  and  water
       ^Ife  What design elements should be included to restore or create the typical hydrological regime
            and allow for extreme events?
       ^Ife  What soft engineering or bioengineering  methods are available to rectify the problems?
       ^Ife  What factors might constrain restoring or creating full  hydrological functioning?
       ^Ife  What are likely reasons  that the site might fail to reach its hydrological goals?
       ^Ife  What potential remediation or correction measures are available?
       ^Ife  Are  the project goals reasonable, feasible, and likely to result in establishing the maximum
            ecological functioning possible for the site?
       ^Ife  What  parameters should be monitored?  How often should  they be monitored  and for
            how long?

       Ask about Water Quality:
       ^llfc  Are there indications of pollution?  What are the  likely sources?
       ^llfe  What water quality tests are necessary?
       ^llfc  What are the best methods for testing water quality (field kits, lab testing)?
       ^llfe  What methods are available for fixing pollution problems?
                                                                PART   4:   PLANN

             ^  Are the project goals reasonable, feasible, and likely to result in establishing the maximum
                  ecological functioning possible for the site?
             ^llfc  What parameters should be monitored?  How often should they be monitored  and for how

             Ask about Wetland Soils and Substrates:
             ^  Where can baseline information about local soils be found?
             ^  What are the typical  characteristics of substrates in  the  wetland of interest?   Levels of
                  organic matter, nutrients, soil moisture?  Particle sizes and soil structure?
             ^  Are there impervious soil layers contributing to the wetland dynamics?
             ^  What soil  parameters should be sampled to characterize the site?
             ^  What are  typical  substrate elevations and microtopographic features of this wetland type
                  (including channels, islands, and mounding)?
             ^  If toxic soils are found, can they be removed or remediated?
             ^  What methods are available to bring the soil conditions and substrate elevation in line with
                  observations from relatively unaltered wetlands?
             ^  What bioengineering or soft engineering implementation  methods are available?
             ^  Are the project goals reasonable, feasible, and likely to result in establishing the maximum
                  ecological functioning possible for the site?
             ^  What soil and  elevation parameters  should  be  monitored?   How  often  should  they  be
                  monitored and for how long?

             Ask about Wetland Plant Communities:
             ^llfc  What native plant species are found in pioneer and mature stages of the target wetland type?
                  What are the dominant and rare species?
             ^  On  the potential project site, what  plant species are present, including special status and
                  listed species, non-native invasives, and species native to the target wetland?
             ^llfc  What natural disturbances are typical of this wetland type?
             ^  What soil  and hydrolgical conditions on  the potential site would constrain  establishing the
                  native community? How should these conditions be changed?
             ^llfc  How should  the site be prepared (adding soil amendments, removing non-natives, etc.)  for
                  establishing  native plants?
             ^  What methods are available for eliminating the most damaging non-native  species?
             ^llfc  Is it likely that native species will colonize the site quickly? If not,  what methods should be
                  used to establish native plants?
             ^llfc  What are the threats to newly established plants (herbivores, flooding, intense sun, etc.) and
                  how should they be combated?
             ^  Are the project goals reasonable, feasible, and likely to result in establishing the maximum
                  ecological functioning possible for the site?
             ^llfc  What plant and plant community parameters should be monitored? How often should they
                  be monitored and for how long?

      PART   4:    PLANNING

      Ask about Wetland Animal Communities:

      ^Ife  What native animal species are found in pioneer and mature stages of the target wetland
           type? What are the dominant and rare species?
      ^Ife  On the  potential site, what animal species are present, including special status and listed
           species, non-native invasives, and species native  to the target wetland?
      ^Ife  What natural disturbances affect animal  species  in this wetland type?
      ^Ife  What soil, hydrological  and  plant community  conditions  on  the  potential  site would
           constrain establishing the native community?  How should these conditions be changed?
      ^Ife  What habitat conditions will attract the typical  animal species and  what specific habitat
           features can be added to attract specific  valuable and/or rare species?
      ^Ife  What methods are available for eliminating the damaging non-native species?
      ^Ife  Is it likely that native species will colonize the site quickly?  If not, what can be done?
      ^Ife  What are the  threats to newly established  animal populations  on the site (predators,
           flooding, pollution, human impacts, etc.) and how should they be managed?
      ^Ife  Are the project goals reasonable, feasible, and likely  to result in establishing the maximum
           ecological functioning possible for the site?
      ^Ife  What parameters  should be monitored?  How  often should  they be  monitored and for
           how long?

Using  Adaptive Management

      Natural ecosystems are complex.  Even if you start out with detailed information about a site, the
      way it responds to  changes can be unpredictable.   Unforseen events may  occur, such  as  a
      unexpected plant species colonizing  the  site, or new information may become available, such as
      the presence of a  natural spring on the site.  These  unforseen  elements may be beneficial or
      detrimental to the project.  In either case, you will need to make decisions about how to adapt
      your project to account for the new element.

      Adaptive management is a technique that involves incorporating  new information  into all stages
      of a wetland  project.  Using adaptive management means you continuously evaluate your project
      in light of new information, generating ideas and making decisions about how to further refine the
      project. This  process  also can be thought of as a "feedback loop" in which information about what
      is happening  with your project currently helps you determine how best to go forward with the next
      step of project. Monitoring (covered in detail in Part 6) provides the information, you  and/or your
      project team  provide the decisions.  Adaptive  management is a repeated process that should be
      applied through the lifetime of the project.

      In the planning stage, adaptive management should be used to refine goals  and objectives (see
      next section) and make changes to  implementation plans  as necessary.  In the implementation
      stage,  adaptive management should be  used  to  evaluate  the need  for changes  to any of the
      original plans for specific  components of the  project,  e.g., the number and types of plants, the
      configuration of channels or grading, or the amount  of new soil brought in.  In  the long-term
      management stage, adaptive management should be used to keep the project developing toward
      a positive outcome.
                                                              PART   4:    PLANN

      Refine Your Goals  and Objectives

             The initial goals and objectives for any project may change based on the ecological data collected
             about the  landscape, current and past conditions on  the  potential restoration,  creation,  or
             enhancement site, and the ecology of reference sites.  In addition, non-ecological factors such as
             agency requirements and socioeconomic factors (financial resources,  available labor, concerns of
             adjacent landowners) may alter what you  can  achieve. Therefore, you may  need to revise your
             goals after considering the following factors.

             Government and Agency Requirements.   Discuss  your  project goals  with agencies  that
             regulate and manage natural resources. If you have asked these agencies for information or help
             with an  earlier planning stage, you may already be aware of any regulatory requirements relevant
             to your  project. Do not assume that wetland restoration,  creation, or enhancement projects are
             exempt from needing a permit or other authorization—some are, but many are not.  For complete
             information you should call the appropriate  federal, state, or local regulatory agencies.  If you want
             to work  in a former or existing wetland, you may need a permit for your project.  Begin with your
             local district of the Corps. This agency regulates discharges of dredged or fill material to wetlands
             under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. Talk to the EPA about other applicable Clean Water
             Act regulations. If your site is on agricultural land, you may need to talk to the NRCS.  Your project
             also may be subject to federal and state regulations that protect certain kinds offish and wildlife.
             States often have "Natural Heritage" or  rare species programs that can tell  you whether there are
             plants and animals protected by state or federal  regulations on or near your  site.  Alternatively, you
             can contact state  fish and  wildlife  agencies  and/or  local  offices of the FWS and NMFS for
             information. See Resource Appendix R-ll for contact information. In  addition, you should talk to
             your city and county planning offices  about local requirements or permits for your project.

             Be sure to avoid or minimize adverse environmental impacts that may result from wetland project
             construction activities. For example, earth moving, which can be a part of more complex projects,
             can cause erosion,  increases in particulate  matter  in the  air, and potential disturbance to locally
             nesting bird species.  Avoid  impacts by following the requirements of regulating agencies and  by
             implementing the Best Management  Practices  (BMPs) recommended by the agencies and local
             municipalities.  BMPs to  limit erosion may  include using silt fences and hay bales to capture silt,
             avoiding work during rainy periods, and/or capturing runoff in a holding pond.

             Socioeconomic Factors.  For many  projects, restoration, creation, or enhancement potential is
             restricted by societal factors. Some of these include availability of funds, volunteer resources, local
             landowner concerns,  community  support, and  legal issues (such  as water rights).  The relevant
             societal  issues must be considered in your project design and implementation, with the hope that
             someday in the  future some of the limitations to a more complete restoration may be removed.

             A major limiting factor is, of course, money.  Some projects are relatively inexpensive, but others
             can be major financial undertakings.  Typically, the more engineering that is needed, the more
             expensive your project will be. To help finance your project, begin with the list of funding sources
             in Resource Appendix R-ll. Other sources of money or information on funding are:
            ^Ife   local cities or counties;
            ^   state programs, especially through parks and  recreation, wildlife, or other resource
                  agencies; and
            ^llfe   local corporations, some of which  have philanthropy programs for local  projects.

      PART   4:    PLANNING

      Other potential constraints on your project may arise from adjacent landowners and/or a lack of
      community support.   Local  communities should be involved  if your  project may  result in
      controversial effects on public lands.  Neighbors may feel that your  project could damage their
      property through potential flooding or other effects. Ask your local experts and agencies if there
      appear to be any potential community or  adjacent landowner issues. See  the box below for
      information on an enhancement project that factored in these types of challenges.
            Wetland Enhancement in Marshy Hope Creek,  Maryland

                On Maryland's eastern shore, Marshy Hope Creek winds its way to the Chesapeake Bay. Along most
                of its  reaches it is a meandering stream with lush riparian vegetation.  However, where it flows
            through the town of Fredericksburg, the Creek was straightened and channelized with levees.  Much of
            the vegetation was removed and the historical  floodplain had been filled. The levees containing the
            modified portion of the Creek prevented flooding of adjacent properties and local landowners did not
            want these embankments to be removed. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) worked
            with the town to develop a plan that enhanced the Creek's ecological values while leaving the levees in
            place.  DNR removed fill from the floodplain and created channels through the levee that allowed river
            water to flow to newly sculpted depressions on the floodplain. The channels also connected the river
            with existing deep ponds adjacent to the floodplain  that were remnants of former mining operations.
            Soil excavated from  the floodplain was used to fill part of the mining ponds to create shallow water
            habitat for  fish.    Native
            vegetation recolonized the
            floodplain  and fish quickly
            began  to use the channels
            and ponds. Although total
            restoration    was    not
            possible,  enhancing  the
            conditions  adjacent  to
            Marshy   Hope    Creek
            increased  overall  wetland
            values  of the area.
                                                                 Marshy Hope Creek, Maryland, Judy Long Bailey
Choose the Simple Approach

      You now have a better idea of what your site conditions are like and what you want to achieve.
      What, then, will need to be done for your site to meet its restoration, creation, or enhancement
      goals?  This question links goals with implementation. Methods for implementing projects are very
      diverse and should be developed with as much  ecological, hydrological, and/or soils expertise as
      you can muster.  In general, the best approach  is to use the simplest methods possible, because
      the more complex a wetland  project is, the greater the chance that something could go wrong.
      Implementation should be achieved through the  least destructive means and the most ecologically
      sound solutions.  Passive methods should be considered before more active interventions.
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                         If natural processes cannot be initiated with passive methods, then implementation should focus
                         on bioengineering or soft engineering solutions over traditional hard engineering solutions.  Soft
                         or bioengineering methods are based on working with  natural  processes.  This approach  is an
                         alternative  to  the traditional, hard engineering solutions that often replace ecosystem functions
                         with human-designed  structures.  For example, hard engineering solutions to  controlling erosion
                         along a stream  bank  such as rip rap or cementing the stream banks destroy natural wetland
                         processes.  Soft engineering uses physical solutions that reinstate ecological processes and allow
                         the system  to  become  as self-sustaining  as possible. In addition to being  ecologically preferable,
                         bioengineering methods are often more economical than traditional techniques. Some researchers
                         have found that hard  engineering for erosion  control can cost up  to four times as much as soft
                         engineering methods.  Examples of soft engineering solutions to stream bank erosion  include:
                         ^llfc  planting  native vegetation, especially fast growing species such as willows;
                         ^llfe  shoring the banks with logs that will decompose in time; or
                         ^llfc  stabilizing the bank with "geotextile materials" that do not decompose, but are covered  with
                              soil and allow root growth through  the material.

                         Table 2 contains some  of the most common and obvious examples of wetland damage and typical
                         corrective measures. The table also lists some cautions.  If the damage is severe or has been present
                         for a long time, reversing the damage may not be as simple as it initially  seemed. Some of these
                         corrective  measures are  also  applicable to  implementing  enhancement or creation  projects.
                         Technical Appendix T-ll contains additional information on typical measures for restoring, creating,
                         or enhancing wetlands.
            Table 2.  Common Wetland Problems and Corrective Methods
              Wetland Damage        Reason for  Damage

            Water Quality Impairment
                           Excess sediment or  nutrients
                           in runoff from adjacent area
            Water Quality Impairment      Excess sediments from
                                      eroding slopes
            Altered Hydrology (drained)    Ditching or tile drains
            Altered Hydrology
                           Road crossing with
                           undersized culvert
            Altered Hydrology (drained)    Former wetland diked off
                                      from its water sources
                                                       Suggested Correction
Work to change  local land use
 practices; install vegetated
buffers/swales/ constructed
treatment wetlands; install
sediment traps.

Stabilize slopes with vegetation/
biodegradable structures.
                                                      Fill or plug ditches or drains;
                                                      break tiles.
Replace with properly sized
culvert or with a bridge.

Remove/breach dikes or install
water control structures.
Sediment traps will need
periodic cleaning; an expert
may be needed to design
buffers and swales.
Many corrective methods exist;
look for most sustainable and
effective methods.

Organic soil may have
decomposed so that the
elevation of the site is lower
than it used to be.

Hydrologic expert needed to
correct this.

Substrate elevation may not be
correct for vegetation; add soil
or control water level with low
maintenance structures.

Table 2. Common Wetland Problems and Corrective Methods - CONTINUED
Wetland Damage Reason for Damage
Raised Elevation Soil dumping or fill
Subsidence Soil removal; oxidation of
organics; groundwater
Toxic Soils By-product of on-site or off-
site industrial process;
dumping; leaching and
concentration of natural
Loss of Biodiversity Change in original habitat
Loss of Native Plant Species Invasive and/or non-native
plants; change in hydrology;
change in land use
Suggested Correction

Remove material.
Add fill; allow natural
Treatment systems or methods
appro- priate to the soil/
pollutants; remove material;
cover with appropriate soil.

Restore native plant and animal
community using natural
Remove invasive, non-native
plants (allow native plants to
re-colonize); try to reverse
changes in hydrology.

Fill may have compressed soil
to lower than initial elevation;
take steps to avoid erosion.
Fill must support target
wetland; test fill for toxic
Work with experts to choose
treatment methods that
cause least amount of indirect
damage; choose a different site
to avoid serious toxin problems.

Allow species to colonize
naturally; import species as
Pick lowest impact removal
method; repeat removal as
non-natives re-invade; alter
conditions to discourage
non-native species.
Prepare for Implementation

       After  determining  what  site changes are necessary,  prepare  to implement the changes by
       developing  project designs such  as field protocols or construction  plans  and specifications.
       Protocols are written guidelines for field crews on how to undertake the work. They should be as
       specific as possible, but in easy-to-understand language, especially if volunteers will be doing the
       work.  Even with protocols, volunteers will need direction in the field.

       Most  projects will  need some level of documentation to direct implementation; more complex
       projects will probably need construction plans.  Good designs include at least these elements:

       ^  specifications/diagrams for all installation/construction features;
       ^llfc  descriptions of site preparation needed;
       ^  descriptions of how to install features, such as plants, etc.;
       ^  plans to prevent construction  impacts, such as erosion;
       ^llfc  lists of plant species, numbers of each to be planted, and planting  locations;
       ^  plans for site maintenance; and
       ^llfc  monitoring features, such as groundwater wells, staff gauges, or boardwalks.

       The design  of restoration,  creation, or enhancement projects can be highly technical and  may
       require hydrologists, ecologists, geotechnical experts,  engineers, and/or  landscape  architects.
       Construction documents are usually prepared by engineers for use by contractors in the field for
       constructing a project.  If construction documents are necessary, take the time to find engineering
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                       and construction firms that are flexible and willing to undertake non-traditional designs and soft
                       engineering methods. Try to find firms that have undertaken wetland projects in the past. Talk to
                       their former clients to see what their work was like.  Be sure your ecological advisors work with
                       the engineers to produce plans that accurately reflect the methods you want used for the project.
                       During construction, have the work inspected by your ecological experts to be sure that the plans
                       are being followed accurately.

                Publicize Your Project

                       After talking with your neighbors and the appropriate  agencies, and after developing feasible goals
                       and objectives, consider writing a small article for a local newsletter or newspaper describing your
                       project and its benefits.   Publicity at  the end of the  planning phase lets people know about the
                       work and may turn up local issues you  had not considered. More often, publicity  builds public
                       support and can help you find volunteers to help you  install and monitor the project.
             Steps in the Planning  Process
                   Collect past and present information on the local watershed
                   Choose a project site.
                   Collect past and present information on the project site.
                   Collect data on reference sites.
                   Develop objectives and target criteria based on watershed,
                   project site, and reference site information.
                   Talk to the agencies about appropriate regulations.  Talk to
                   adjacent landowners  and  identify  important social  or
                   economic factors that could affect the project.
                   Refine goals and objectives.
                   Decide on methods for implementing changes designed to
                   rectify damage and meet planning goals and objectives.
                   Prepare  designs, such  as  protocols or  construction
                   documents, to direct implementation.
                   Publicize your project.
                                                                                Planting saltmarsh, Frail's Island,
                                                                                      New York, Robbin Bergfos

Stages of Implementation

                 [I  mplementation is the physical process of actually doing the restoration, creation,
        X""™^\  \i  or enhancement project according to the design developed in the planning stage.
               '  M-   This phase of the process is popular with volunteers and it is the  most visible
       ^^^^^^      phase to the public. Implementation may require a series of steps depending on
       the wetland type, your project goals and objectives, and the extent of the degradation. Steps in
       implementation typically include site preparation, plant preparation, installation, maintenance,
       and continuous adaptive management.

       Site Preparation.  During site preparation, the  project site is  altered  either to allow natural
       processes to operate or to prepare it for additional human intervention. Common activities in this
       stage are:
      Jfc  removing non-native species;
      ^  removing piles of soil, debris and trash;
      ^_  amending soil with nutrients or other
      ^fc  removing polluted soils;
      ^_  bringing in appropriate soils or substrates;
      ^  plugging  or removing drains;
      Jife  fencing out cattle or other herbivores;
      ^llfe  breaching levees; and
      Jfe  mowing  or burning the site to reinstate the
           natural disturbance regime.
                                                             Removing trash and preventing new dumping is often
                                                             the first step of a wetland restoration plan
       Plant Preparation.  For some restoration projects you  can rely on natural re-vegetation to re-
       establish native wetland vegetation.  Native seed banks are present in many wetlands. As long as
       the soils have not been removed or filled over, native seeds are likely to germinate and grow when
       suitable conditions have been established.  There also may be local sources of plants that can drive
       natural re-colonization. However, for many other projects, indigenous species must be brought to
       the site.  If native plants must be grown for the site, plant preparation should begin during or
       before site preparation.  Growing the number of plants  needed may take 6 months  to a year or
       even  longer.

       Always use  native species and cuttings or seeds from local plants.  Locally-adapted seeds and
       plants will have a better chance of surviving the conditions at your site than plants or seeds of the
                                                                    I M  p  L E M E  N

A  N
I   N
                              U   C  T  I   O   N
U  S
G   u  i
                                                                                                              T  O
                        same species that come from another area. When collecting native plant material, take care not
                        to damage the collection site and always check with the property owner (public or private) before
                        collecting plant material.  Plant preparation includes:
                       ^   collecting seeds;
                       ^Ife   propagating plants;
                       ^Ifc   collecting cuttings; and
                       ^ife   collecting plugs (newly-grown whole plants with soil).

                        There are innumerable  methods to collect and treat plants and seeds. Find out from local plant
                        experts what methods are best for the species you need.  Native plant nurseries and native plant
                        societies may  also have expertise  with local  native species  and they may have seeds  or plants
                        appropriate for the area.  They may also be able to grow particular species that are not available
                        in nurseries.
                        Students growing saltmarsh plants in Tampa, Florida, NOAA

             Controlling Invasive  Species^A  Tale of Two Wetlands
                                                                                   .       '
                                                                                   '   v,  .

  Invasive  species,  especially  plants,  are  a
  tremendous  problem in the  U.S.   They
degrade more habitat each year than urban
growth. The FWS estimates that 4,600 acres
of habitat are lost  each day  to  invasive
species.   Consequently,  removing  these
invaders is a major component of restoration
work.  Control  methods  and  success rates
vary widely, as the following examples show.

  In  Fairfield, Connecticut, impounded  salt
marshes that were once tidal were overrun
by Phragmites, a tall  invasive wetland plant.
Phragmites  had replaced the  local plant
species and, being  prone to burning  in the
summer, the invader was threatening  homes
near the  marsh. Phragmites is intolerant of
high salt  levels and  the City was able to
quickly reduce  the infestation by  installing
tidal gates that allowed  the  return of  salt
water  to  the  marsh.  This  project  was
expensive, but it was  very effective.
             At the Hayward Regional Shoreline along the San Francisco Bay, an insidious invader has taken root
             in the tidal salt marsh.  Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass), a species from the east coast of the
             U.S., is replacing its close relative, the native Spartina foliosa. Smooth cordgrass is a tough customer.
             _                                                                 It is tolerant of a wider range
                                                                              of conditions than its cousin
                                                                              and it has resisted all efforts
                                                                              to remove it. Biologists have
                                                                              tried  digging it  up, spraying
                                                                              it  with  herbicide,   and
                                                                              cooking it under black plastic
                                                                              mats.      None  of   these
                                                                              measures have worked well
                                                                              and the  plant is spreading.
                                                                              The  search   is  on  for a
                                                                              biological control agent that
                                                                              will specifically target and
                                                                                          Phraamites, NOAA
                                                                              destroy S. alterniflora.
              Spartina  alterniflora x Spartina foliosa hybrid in  San Francisco  Bay,
              California, San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project

          I   N
                              U  C  T  I   O  N
                                           U   S
G   u  i
                                                                                                            T  O
Installing water control
structures at a farm
field restoration site,
 Installation/Construction. A wide array of activities can occur during this phase including large
 earth-moving activities,  such as grading. Minimize the temporary but destructive  impacts that
 may occur at this stage.  Limit  the movement of heavy vehicles to  the smallest footprint possible
 and use the methods that create the  least disturbance possible.  Implement appropriate Best
 Management Practices.  Installation/construction may include:
                        ^ constructing water control structures;
                        Jfe installing bank/edge stabilization structures;
                        ^ building habitat islands;
                        ^Ife grading existing soils;
                        ^ placing and grading new soil;
                        ^Ife planting plugs, seeds or newly-grown plants;
                        ^ installing plant protections (tubes, screens, etc.);
                        jfc placing irrigation systems;
                        ^ constructing and placing habitat structures.

 As-Built Documentation. After the project is installed, conduct an "as-built" assessment, which
 is a detailed description  of the  site conditions immediately after the installation is completed.  If
 you and your volunteers installed the site, document whether everything was installed as expected.
 If the work  was done by a contractor, the as-built assessment should be conducted by a site
 inspector who  is  not employed by the contractor  to document whether the project plans and
 specifications were followed by the contractor.  This also ensures that the site complies with any
 regulatory (e.g., permit) requirements.

 It is  likely  that  there will  be  some  deviations from  the  site plan caused  by human error or
 unanticipated characteristics of the site (e.g., a hidden spring in a corner of the site).  Use adaptive
 management: any deviations should be documented and discussed with your technical team to
 determine whether they need to  be  corrected to ensure that the project meets its  goals.  If the
 installed project deviates in  important ways from the plans,  have the construction firm correct the
 problem—but only if the benefits of corrections outweigh the impacts from further disturbance. If
 corrections are needed, they should  be made as  soon  as possible.  The as-built assessment also
 provides a "baseline," or  starting point, for measuring change during subsequent monitoring.

 Maintenance.  Implementation does not end with  installation.  Maintaining the site in good
 ecological condition is a critical  part of implementing a project.  Many factors can conspire to
 undo the hard work you  put into  the previous stages.  Maintenance may require:
^ilfe   controlling  non-native and invasive species;
^   controlling  herbivores;
^Ife:   repairing  structures;
^   maintaining monitoring and other equipment;
^   replacing plants;
^ilfe   mowing,  burning, and/or other activity reinstating or mimicking the natural disturbance
^   reducing or preventing human intrusion; and
^Ife   controlling  local pollutants.
                 Working with Volunteers

                       The implementation and monitoring phases are great times to involve volunteers and  there are
                       many good reasons to include volunteers in your project.  Volunteers can help reduce the costs of
                       implementation, provide community support, and bring a social dimension to the work. Working

       with volunteers may be one of the most rewarding aspects of your project. Among the volunteers,
       you  may find experts, new friends, and  dedicated helpers.  Some helpers  may be inspired to
       undertake a  similar project of their own and you may find  people who will want to continue
       stewarding your site by helping you with maintenance and monitoring.

       Look for volunteers through non-profit environmental groups, schools, public community service
       groups, and private service groups organized by local corporations. If you decide to use volunteers,
       you will enjoy the vitality that they bring to the project. You will also
       have to carefully train and monitor those enthusiastic helpers.  The more
       complex the task the more training volunteers will need. Generally, it is
       best to have volunteers do one or two simple but time-consuming tasks.
       Keep  things  interesting  by  rotating  people among  different  tasks.
       Carefully observe volunteers to  be sure they are  following  protocols.
       Encourage and reward your helpers' hard work.

       Discuss your project with  the volunteer coordinator for a  local nonprofit
       group  to determine any  issues  that may arise from using volunteers.
       While volunteers can be great additions to a project, weigh the benefits
       against these potential complications:
      ^llfe  the time and effort  required for training;
      ^jfc  the potential need for compensation;
      ^Ifc  oversight of volunteers' work; and
      ^llfe  potential liability issues.

Publicize Your  Project
      The  implementation phase is a great time to get  the  local  media (especially newspapers and
      television)  interested in your project.  People working outside on wetland projects provide  great
      photo opportunities and these action shots are often popular with the local press.  Find out if any
      of your volunteers have media contacts or call local TV and  newspaper science,  outdoors,  and
      current events reporters.  If reporters do cover your project, be sure that they come to the site on
      a day when there is some  interesting people-oriented activity occuring. For example, plan media
      events on days when volunteers are planting seedlings.  You or another supervisor  must be on site
      and  the volunteers must  be informed that the press will  be there.  Prepare what  you or your
      spokesperson will say to the reporters. Tell them a little about the history of the project and always
      highlight the positive environmental and community benefits  of the project.
                                                 Monitoring a
                                                 seagrass bed
                                                    in Florida,
             Summary  of Implementation  Stages
                   Prepare the site by making changes that allow natural processes to occur.
                   Prepare plants by collecting materials from local stocks.
                   Install the plants, structures, and major features of the project.
                   Use adaptive management to adjust plans as needed
                   Involve volunteers to keep costs down and develop community support.
                   Publicize your project.
                                                                   I M  p L E M E  N

          What is Monitoring?

                                  onitoring  is systematic data collection that provides information on  changes
                                  that  can  indicate  problems and/or  progress  towards  target  criteria  or
                                  performance standards which, when met, indicate that established ecological
                                  goals have been reached.  Thus, monitoring provides data on whether a site is
                developing in a way that will achieve the project goals.

                A  common misconception about wetland restoration, creation, and enhancement is that once a
                project is implemented,  nature will  just do the rest.  In reality, many wetland projects need
                mid-course corrective actions such as re-planting seedlings that were  washed away by  a  storm,
                digging more channels to get water to remote parts of the site, or plugging ditches missed  during
                the  initial site survey.   Monitoring  provides  the  information  for this adaptive  management.
                Monitoring can also give information on routine maintenance that may be necessary to keep the
                site functioning well.   Broken sprinkler heads,  non-native weed growth, and holes in  fences are
                just a few of the routine maintenance items that are easily observed during monitoring.

          What Should I  Monitor?

                Monitoring consists of measuring a  number  of wetland attributes or parameters  at  regular
                intervals to record the changes in the wetland. The parameters to be measured at any particular
                site are based on the  project objectives and target criteria. Monitoring efforts should  be directly
                linked  to the target criteria.  An array of parameters is usually measured to assess hydrology, soils,
                and  biological  conditions on the  site.  After the project is completed, initial site  conditions
                (including as-built conditions) should  be documented to  provide baseline  information against
                which  changes to the site can be evaluated.  Typical parameters measured  to evaluate  wetland
                functions are listed in Technical Appendix T-lll.

          How Should I Monitor?

                Two basic approaches to  monitoring are to  collect qualitative  (observational  and  general)
                information and to collect quantitative  (numerical and specific) data.  Qualitative methods can be
                used in conjunction with quantitative  measures.  Qualitative methods typically do not provide
                enough information to accurately determine how close the site conditions are to target criteria,
                but  they do  give  a general  view  of whether change is occurring. Some  typical  methods for
                gathering qualitative information include:
                ^  aerial photographs to  show  general  hydrology, evidence of channelization  and  general
                     substrate levels,  and the extent of the site covered by plants;
                ^Ife  ground-level photographs for identification of  some plant species, general level  of plant
                     growth, general  substrate levels, and general water levels; and
          PART   6:   MONITOR

       ^llfc   general  observations such  as  water clarity and
            scum, presence  of trash, evidence of human use,
            bird   species   present,  vegetation   condition
            (stressed, blooming,  healthy), presence of invasive
            plants, evidence or  erosion,  and the integrity  of

       Quantitative  methods  are  used  to  provide detailed
       information about how the wetland  is developing with
       respect  to  target   criteria  and  can  also provide
       information important to long-term wetland research.
       A wide range of methods  exist for collecting numerical
       data.  With your technical advisors, develop the most
       appropriate methods for  your project.  Talk to local
       wetland experts and get their advice on what is needed
       for adequate monitoring and whether there are special
       circumstances (e.g., rocky soils that make it difficult to
       install wells) or opportunities (such as a nearby  school
       looking for a  science project) that will affect how you
       monitor your wetland.  Examples of some  quantitative
       methods include:

       ^llfe   measuring water level changes  with an automatic
            water level gauge;
       $tlk   collecting and testing  water samples periodically
            to evaluate changes in water quality;
       ^   collecting a representative sample of sediment cores to test for organic matter and other soil
       ^iife   surveying surface elevations at permanent transects once a year;
       ^   recording plant species and cover by species along randomly established transects across the
            site; and
       ^llfe:   setting traps for small mammals at randomized locations to determine species diversity and

       Quantitative monitoring is often carried out by experts in hydrology,  soils, or biota.  However,
       volunteers may be used to collect numerical data if they are supervised by an advisor who knows
       the protocols for data collection.  With the right training and  supervision, wetland quality can be
       monitored by citizens to provide useful information.  Quantitative methods can be expensive and
       time consuming, but they do provide the most accurate information on site changes. See Technical
       Appendix T-lll for common  quantitative  methods  and qualitative  methods  used  to  monitor
       ecological attributes.  On the next page is an example of a monitoring plan that measures a range
       of parameters.

       Even  if you have  very limited resources, monitor by observing your site and  documenting the
       changes using basic qualitative methods. Take photographs of the site and write down general
       observations such  as  how wet the site is and for how long, what the soils are like, what kinds of
       plants are growing on the  site, and what kinds of animals you see or hear. Repeat the  photographs
       (from the same vantage point) and the written descriptions as  often as you can. The result will be
       a  chronicle of your wetland  project for yourself, future owners of the land, and others interested
       in your site.
                                                   A volunteer
                                                 monitoring for

      Monitoring  in  Mountain  View,  California

      "The Stevens Creek Tidal Marsh  restoration project in the City of Mountain View is a compensatory
      I mitigation site with the primary goal of providing vegetated tidal marsh habitat for rare species such
      as the salt marsh harvest mouse.  The site began as a deep pit with ponded water.  Project objectives
      included restoring  tidal influence, building up the mudflat, and establishing native tidal salt marsh
      vegetation.  Target criteria included:
      ilk   Re-establish tidal influence.
      ^Ife   Within 3 years, develop mudflat on 50 percent of the site at an elevation available to vegetation.
      ^Ife   Restore native salt marsh vegetation on 50 percent of the site within 5 years.

      To assess progress, the City monitored the following parameters once a year:
      ^   Amount of tidal exchange:  measurements were taken  by  an automatic  tide  gauge  and
            interpreted  by a hydrologist.
      ^   Elevation of the mudflat: measurements were taken  by a qualified  surveyor.
      ^   Amount of vegetation on the mudflat: measurements  were taken on the ground using
            transects and taken from aerial photographs, then interpreted by an ecologist.
      ^   Extent of channel  formation: measurements were  taken  from  aerial photographs  and
            interpreted  by a hydrologist.

      These quantitative methods were supplemented by qualitative observations on tidal flow,  non-native
      species invasion, bird use, and human use.
         How Often Should  I Monitor?

                How often  and when a particular attribute  should  be monitored depends on  many  factors
                including the attribute's natural variability, the rate of change of the site, and the goals of the
                project.   Most characteristics should  be monitored at least annually.  Vegetation  should  be
                monitored during the  growing season (monitoring in both the early and late growing season will
                make it easier to identify all plants), and animals should be monitored during breeding, nesting,
                and/or migration seasons. Depending on your project goals, you might want to monitor hydrology
                during both high and low water periods. Once the site has stabilized, some characteristics  such as
                wetland  size may be monitored less frequently, unless there are signs of change.

                Consistent monitoring is very important, and you may need help doing  it. Ideally, every stakeholder
                involved in the wetland project should help with the monitoring so they can see the benefits of
                their work and continue to support it.  Monitoring is  a good way to get the local community
                involved in  your wetland project, and it's a great way to give people hands-on  experience in
                learning  how local ecosystems function. Talk to schools, clubs, and other community groups to see
                if they would be  interested in  helping  you with the  monitoring.   Have training sessions for
                volunteer monitors.   Many states  have  active volunteer monitoring groups or programs that
                monitor  lakes and streams.  Many are also beginning wetland monitoring projects.  Check  out the
                EPA website for information on volunteer monitoring at

A V       PART   6:   MONITORING

How Long Should I  Monitor?

       Like most  ecosystems, wetlands change  over many years.  This  is especially  true for restored,
       created,  or enhanced wetlands that may take decades to reach  a  condition close to that of a
       mature, naturally-occurring wetland. Research on wetlands created from dredged material in the
       Gulf of Mexico suggests that these wetlands are still changing and  maturing 20 years after they
       were created. Consider monitoring to be a long-term activity, not just something you do for the
       first year or two.  At a  minimum,  a site should be monitored until it  meets all performance
       standards,  which can take from several years to decades.  Future managers of wetlands will thank
       you for monitoring for as long as you can. Even after it reaches maturity, your wetland will be a
       dynamic system that varies over time.

What  Should I Do With the Monitoring  Information?

       Monitoring information can be used in several ways.   First,  monitoring data are essential for
       determining  whether  your  project  goals are  being  met.  Organize,  summarize,  and  graph
       (if possible) the monitoring data at least annually to show how the wetland site is  developing.
       Monitoring information should be compared to the target standards to assess whether the site is
       developing as planned.  If it is not, determine whether remedial  measures should  be taken or
       whether the original goals should be reevaluated (see section above on adaptive management).

       Second, monitoring data can be used to determine whether the target criteria were good measures
       of the project goals you hoped to achieve. If you were to do this again, would you  do anything
       differently? Third, use  long-term monitoring to assist in maintaining structures and managing the
       site to keep it functioning well. See Part 7 for more on long-term management.

       Finally, use your monitoring data to inform others. Provide copies of your findings to your  local
       planning and wetland regulatory authority, and the local offices of the  Corps, EPA, FWS, NMFS, or
       NRCS. Present your work to local groups and ecological societies or at professional  meetings of
       the Society of Wetland Scientists, Society for  Ecological Restoration, and  others (see  Appendices
       for contact information).  Write an article for the local  newspaper or a  journal, such as Ecological
       Restoration,  which  publishes  reports  from  landowners,  community groups,  and  restoration
       practitioners.  All too often, years of irreplaceable data  are lost if they are not shared, archived, or
       published.  Don't assume no one is interested in your project; every wetland restoration, creation,
       and enhancement project that is monitored provides wetland scientists with  additional knowledge
       about how wetlands function and develop over time. With this additional information, scientists,
       policy-makers, and  landowners can make better decisions about wetland  conservation, including
       the use of  wetland restoration, creation, and enhancement.
                                                          PART   6:    MONITORING

AN      INTRODUCTION     AND      USER'S      GUIDE     TO
             Steps in  the  Monitoring Process
                  Select the parameters you will monitor based on the target criteria established in the planning
                  stage. Include observations to assist in site maintenance.
                  Develop procedures for qualitative and quantitative monitoring methods.
                  Collect data at intervals that will provide information necessary to monitor the progress of the
                  site relative to the target criteria.
                  If monitoring shows  that  site conditions are not meeting target criteria, use an adaptive
                  process to identify corrective measures.
                  Continue long-term monitoring and maintenance to ensure that the site continues to provide
                  the maximum ecological value.
                  Provide your monitoring data and results to local groups and publish in newsletters.
              Monitoring fish use of a salt marsh, NOAA
                PART   6:    MONITORING

                 I J  n addition to providing data  on whether a site is developing in a way that will
            "*N  \J  achieve the project goals, monitoring is essential for the long-term management
                f*   of wetland  projects.  A wetland is an ecosystem  that evolves and changes  in
                      response to the surrounding environment.  It is not realistic to expect that when
       the implementation stage is complete, the work is done.  Long-term management is often required
       to keep the site functioning as it was designed to function and to keep human  impacts to a
       minimum.  For example, long-term management is often needed to:
                 maintain existing structures such as berms, water control structures, or levees;
                 maintain a specific desirable plant community by burning, mowing, or otherwise
                 managing the vegetation on a periodic basis;
                 address problems such as invasive species or excessive sediment deposition;  or
                 address unexpected events such as structural failure.

       Adaptive Management, introduced in Part 4 as an iterative process  of monitoring conditions and
       then  taking  appropriate  action,  should  be  an integral  part of  long-term management  and
       stewardship of your site.  If your site is  not developing as anticipated, there are two basic options:
       make changes to the site to try to get it "back on track," or allow the site  to continue developing
       in the new direction.  Which option to  pick  should be decided  in consultation with your local
       Consider  whether current progress  at  the site might achieve  your
       overall  goals in a different way than you originally  intended.  Also
       consider whether any deviation from the expected  development is
       within  the ecological  norms for that wetland type and  the  region.
       Since natural systems  are variable, sites may diverge from objectives,
       but this difference may not require significant changes to the site. For
       example, your site may be developing a native wetland community, but
       one that is different from what was expected.  If this new community
       is within the norms of  the wetland type and the watershed, it may not
       be necessary to change it.
       If, however, your site is growing a crop of invasive or non-native species or otherwise falling far
       short of the objectives, then corrective action is probably necessary. Significant corrections to a
       site are called remedial measures. Work with local experts or your technical team to determine the
       source of the problems and the appropriate remedial actions.  The remedial measures taken will
       depend on why the site is diverging from its expected path and what the costs and  impacts of the
       changes would be. Always consider whether changing conditions on the site will be  worth the cost
       of the disturbance that would  be incurred.   Typical problems with wetland sites include  the
                                                        Looking for
                                                     Michael Corey
                                                      LONG-TERM    MANAGEMEN

             hydrology  not being properly  established,  incorrect water-to-substrate elevations,  nutrient
             problems with the soil, and rapid invasions by non-native species. Some typical remedial measures
             ^Ife;   regrading the site to the correct substrate elevations;
             «   contouring channels or installing structures to redirect water flow;
             ^Hfc   adding to or reworking water control structures or altering structure operations;
             ^   removing invasive plants, planting native species, or installing a cover crop; and
   Adaptive Management in  Commencement Bay, Washington

   "The Middle Waterway Shore Restoration project is an attempt to re-establish some of the salt marsh
   I that once covered thousands of acres of Commencement Bay.  In a cooperative effort,  federal, state,
  tribal, and private interests planned and implemented a restoration project that included  re-grading fill
  material to intertidal elevations and planting salt marsh plants salvaged from the same area, as well as
  some provided by a nursery. One year after project implementation, monitoring showed that few of the
  plants had survived. A review of the planting procedures pointed to a number of possible  causes for the
  low plant survival, including soil that was too sandy,  nursery plants that weren't from the local area,
  and planting during the summer. The goal of the project (increasing the  acreage of fringing marsh)
  could not be achieved  without better plant growth, so a decision was made to replace some of the soil
  and re-plant.  The top eighteen inches of the sandy fill  was replaced with topsoil.  A local nursery
  collected seeds from plants in the local area and  grew them into seedlings, which were planted on the
  site in the spring.  A year after this new planting, salt grass, seaside plantain, seaside arrowgrass,  and
  other species were thriving. Monitoring will continue in case other remedial actions are needed, but for
  now the project seems to be on the right  track.
             Long-term management often is needed to compensate for changes in the surrounding landscape.
             In many cases, the surrounding land use, hydrology, or other features of the local watershed will
             change over time, possibly affecting your wetland site.  Ideally, those changes were at least
             partially anticipated,  and your  site was designed  to withstand or adapt to their effects.   If
             something unanticipated  happens,  such  as a substantial reduction  of the water source  or
             conversion of what had been an adjacent park area to development, you will need  to reevaluate
             how your wetland site fits into the changed  landscape, and whether the goals or management of
             the site will need to change. The overall goal of long-term management is a wetland that provides
             a maximum amount of wetland function and value within the context of the landscape and that
             requires a minimum amount of intervention  by humans.

             Finally, a plan for long-term management is needed to identify who will  be responsible for the site
             and  what kinds of activities should or should not occur there.  The responsible party may be you,
             the  landowner, or  some combination of people. One approach  to long-term management of a
             wetland site is to establish a stewardship  program.   Local schools,  scout groups, or citizen
             conservation groups may be willing to "adopt" the site and  provide the kind of observation, care
             taking, and even remedial action that would  be difficult for one person to provide.  The kinds of
             activities you need to think about are recreational (do you  want to  allow hikers, campers, bird-

       watchers, or hunters on the property?) and possibly commercial (does the landowner want to allow
       grazing or tree-cutting on the property?).  The answers to these questions should be included in a
       long-term management plan.

       Long-term legal protection of a wetland site is also an important consideration.  Do you want to
       take steps to  ensure the wetland will  be permanently protected?  One way might be to  place a
       deed restriction on the site or establish a conservation easement.  These arrangements  should
       effectively restrict harmful activities that might otherwise jeopardize achieving  the goals of the
       wetland project.  When needed, the acquisition and protection of water rights should be secured.
       One of the best ways to secure long-term  protection is to donate or sell the land to a local, state,
       or federal natural resource agency or a non-profit organization such as a land trust.
                                                             Wetlands provide important habitat for
                                                             many fish, such as this sunfish, NOAA
                                                      LONG-TERM   MANAGEMEN

               PUTTING     IT    ALL
               Words to the Wise
hile restoration, creation, or enhancement projects can be complex and
time-consuming, most people find their projects are very rewarding. As
you undertake a project, keep in mind the following points:
                          Be patient.  Restoration, creation, and enhancement are processes, not a products. There
                          is no cookbook for this creative activity.
                          Talk to many people. There are many elements and phases to wetland projects and many
                          different views on how to accomplish them.  Talk to a range of people to collect  as much
                          information as possible and to get different perspectives on the process.
                          Be flexible.  Your ideas and goals may be clear at the outset, but for many reasons it may
                          be best to change some, add some, and throw others out. As you go through  the process, be
                          flexible but keep your goals in mind.
                          Take your time.  Try not to rush the process.  Get the technical help you  need.   Get the
                          permits required.  Develop a community support base, if necessary.
                          Plan well.  A well-considered and thorough plan will guide you through  the project as
                          directly as possible.   A good plan will result in reasonable, measurable, and ecologically
                          beneficial goals. A good plan will help you get money and help.
                          Let reference sites  be your guide.   Reference sites  are  valuable models  of what
                          ecological conditions are achievable.
                          Use low impact implementation methods. Use soft engineering and passive  methods
                          whenever possible.  Consider the impact  the project construction will  have and minimize
                          those impacts.
                          Monitor and manage your site.  The work does not end after the plants and structures
                          are installed.  All wetland projects must include monitoring to see if goals are being met and
                          to direct the long-term management of the site.
                          Do your best to recover as much of the wetland system as possible. Restore, create,
                          or enhance your site to the greatest  ecological  functioning possible so that they  are self-
                          sustaining for the long-term.
               PART   8:   PUTTING   IT   ALL   TOGETHER

      A Wetland Restomtion/Creation/Enfiancement Checklist
       Use this checklist to help guide you through the wetland project process.
            Talk to local wetland experts. Visit local wetland restoration, creation, or enhancement sites as well
            as relatively unaltered wetlands.
            Ask  about getting  help through  programs  that support wetland  projects  with  cost-sharing  and
            technical assistance.
            Get  to know the local landscape and watershed characteristics.
            Give first priority to restoring degraded wetlands.
            Set  goals.  Pick a site that is most appropriate for achieving your goals.
            Plan your entire project before you  start.  Include monitoring  and  long-term management in your
            Clarify your goals with specific objectives.  Quantify the objectives with measurable target criteria.
            Use  adaptive management to refine your goals and implementation plan.
            Identify techniques for achieving your objectives.
            Develop written protocols or construction documents.
            Discuss your plans with local regulators, wetland experts, and adjacent landowners.
            Implement your plans.  Have someone who understands the project on  the site whenever work  is
            Perform an "as-built" assessment after site work is completed.
            Involve local volunteer  organizations in  the project's  implementation,  monitoring,  and long-term
            Publicize your project.
            Develop  a  written  monitoring   plan.
            Monitor your project's development.  Apply
            the  results to adaptive management of your
            Send monitoring results to  local  wetland
            experts and discuss  the results with them.
            Develop a long-term management and
            stewardship plan.
            Investigate protecting the site in
                    An Alaska seagrass bed, prime habitat
                       for wetland-dependent fish, USFWS

AN      INTRODUCTION      AND     USER'S      GUIDE      TO
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Jay O'Brien
                  PART   8:    PUTTING   IT   ALL   TOGETHER

Appendix  R-I:  bibliography
       Below is a list of sources of information on wetlands and wetland restoration. It is not a comprehensive
       list, just a way to introduce you to the wealth of information available.


        Jl^   http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/literatr/wetresto/wetresto.htm  -  A searchable  wetland
             restoration bibliography with over 3,000 entries, developed by the Northern Prairie Science Center
             and the Midcontinent Ecological Science Center.

        A   http://www.wetlands.agro.nl/wetl_publications.html - A 1996 compilation  of over  1,000 wetland
             restoration  and  creation literature references is available  for  download  from  Wetlands
             International and the Association of State Wetland Managers.

        ^Ilife   http://www.nwrc.gov/library_catalog.html- National Wetlands  Research Center's Library (11,000

       Knutsen, G.A., and  Euliss,  N.H., Jr., 2001, Wetland restoration in the  Prairie  Pothole  region of
       North America: a literature review: U.S. Geological  Survey,  Biological Resources Division,  Biological
       Science Report USGS/BRD/BSR--2001-0006, 54 p.

       Pinit, T.P. and RJ.  Bellmer. 2000. Habitat Restoration - Monitoring Toward Success: a Selective Annotated
       Bibliography.  NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-42. Silver Spring, MD. 21  pp.

       Erwin, K.L.  1996. A Bibliography of Wetland Creation and Restoration Literature.  The Association of
       State Wetland Managers, Berne, New York.

       Azous, A. and R. Horner, eds.  2000. Wetlands and Urbanization. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida.

       Berger, J.J.  1987.  Restoring the Earth. Anchor Press, New York, New York.

       Berger, JJ.  1990.  Environmental Restoration.  Island Press, Covelo, California.

       Boylan,  K.D. and D.R. MacLean.  1997.  Linking Species  Loss with Wetlands Loss.  National Wetlands
       Newsletter. Vol. 19, No. 6, Environmental Law Institute, Washington, D.C.
                                                              RESOURCE   APPENDIX

AN      INTRODUCTION      AND      USER'S      GUIDE     TO
                   Bradshaw, A.D. 1987. The reclamation of derelict land and the ecology of ecosystems.  Pages 53-74 in W. R.
                   Jordan, M. E. Gilpin, and J. D. Aber, editors.  Restoration Ecology.  Cambridge University Press, New York,
                   New York.

                   Brinson,  M.M.  1993.   A Hydrogeomorphic Classification for Wetlands.  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
                   Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA. Technical Report WRP-DE-4.

                   Cairns, J., ed. 1995.  Rehabilitating Damaged Ecosystems. Lewis Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

                   Cowardin, L. M., V.  Carter, F.  C. Golet, and  E. T. LaRoe.  1979.  Classification of Wetlands and  Deepwater
                   Habitats  of the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., USA. FWS/OBS-79/31.

                   Hammer, D.A. 1992. Creating Freshwater Wetlands. Lewis Publishers, Ann  Arbor, Michigan.

                   Jordan, W.R. Ill, M.E. Gilpin, and J.D. Aber,  eds.  1987.  Restoration Ecology:  Ecological Restoration as a
                   Technique for Basic  Research. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York.

                   Kentula, M.E. 1996.  Wetland restoration and creation, p.  87-92.  In The National Water Summary on Wetland
                   Resources.  J.D. Fretwell, J.S. Williams, and PJ. Redman, compilers. Water-Supply Paper  2425.  U.S. Geological
                   Survey, Washington, D.C.

                   Kusler, J.A. and M.E. Kentula.  1990. Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. Island Press,
                   Washington, D.C.

                   MacDonald, K. B.  and F. Weinmann, eds. 1997.  Wetland and Riparian Restoration: Taking a Broader View
                   (contributed papers and selected  abstracts).  Society for Ecological Restoration International Conference,
                   September 14-16, 1995. Seattle, Washington.

                   Mitsch, WJ. and J.G. Gosselink.  1999.  Wetlands (third edition). John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, New

                   National  Research Council. 1992. Restoration of Aquatic  Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy.
                   National  Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

                   National  Research Council.  1995. Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries.   National  Research Council.
                   National  Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

                   Niering, W.A. 1984.  Wetlands.  The Audubon Society Nature  Guides. Alfred A. Knopf,  New York,  New York.

                   Schneller-McDonald, K., Ischinger,  L.S., and G.T. Auble. 1990.  Wetland Creation and Restoration: Description
                   and Summary of the Literature.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 90(3).

                   Tiner, R.W., Jr. 1984.  Wetlands of the United States: Current Status and Recent Trends.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife
                   Service, National Wetlands Inventory, Washington,  DC.

                   Tiner, R.W., Jr.  1985.  Wetlands of New Jersey. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory,
                   Newton Corner,  Massachusetts.

                   Thayer, G.W., ed. 1992. Restoring the Nation's Marine Environment.  Maryland Sea Grant College, College Park,

                   USEPA, 2000. Principles for the Ecological Restoration of Aquatic Resources. EPA841-F-00-003.  Office of
                   Water (4501 F), United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. 4pp.
                 RESOURCE   APPENDIX


       Admiral, A.N.J.M. Morris, T.C. Brooks, J.W. Olson, M.V. Miller.  1997.  Illinois Wetland Restoration and Creation
       Guide. Illinois Natural History Survey, Special Publication 19. Champaign, Illinois.

       Allen, J.A., Keeland, B.D.,  Clewell, A., H. Kennedy.   1999.  Guide to Bottomland  Hardwood  Restoration. U.S.
       Geological Survey.

       Denbow,  T.J.,  D.KIements, D.W. Rothman, E.W. Garbisch, C.C. Bartoldus,  Ml. Kraus, D.R. Maclean, and G.A.
       Thunhorst.  1996.  Guidelines for Development of Wetland Replacement Areas. National Cooperative Highway
       Research Program Report 379.  National  Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

       Ducks Unlimited, Arkansas Game £t Fish Commission, and the Cooperative  Extension Service of Mississippi
       State University. 1993. Waterfowl  Habitat Management Handbook for the Lower Mississippi River Valley.

       Eckles, S.D., Barnard, I, Dawson, F., Goodger, I, Kimidy, K., Lynn, A., Perry, 1, Reisinger, K., Rhodes, C., and R.
       Zepp.  1994.  Mitigation  Technical  Guidance for Chesapeake Bay Wetlands. U.S. EPA Region  3, Annapolis,

       Federal  Interagency Stream Restoration Working  Group.   1998.   Stream Corridor Restoration:  Principles,
       Processes, and Practices,  http://www.usda.gov/stream_restoration/newgra.html.

       Garbisch, E.W. The Do's and Don'ts of Wetland  Planning.  Environmental Concern's Wetland Journal, volume
       10, number 4.

       Gersib, R. 1997.  Restoring Wetlands  at a River Basin  Scale:  A Guide  for Washington's  Puget  Sound.
       Washington State Department of Ecology Publication no. 97-99, Seattle, Washington.

       Galatowitsch, S.M. and A.G. van der Valk. 1994. Restoring Prairie Wetlands: An Ecological Approach. Iowa
       State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

       Hollevoet, R.,  Gregoire, T, and B. Vose.  1992.  Income  alternatives for farmers and  ranchers.  North  Dakota
       State University Extension Service, Fargo, North Dakota.

       Marble, A.D.  1990.  A Guide to Wetland  Functional Design. Federal Highway Administration Report Number
       FHWA-IP-90-010, McLean, Virginia.

       Matthews, G.A. 1994.  Technology and Success  in Restoration, Creation, and Enhancement of Spartina
       alterniflora Marshes in the United States, Vols  1 and 2. National Oceanic  and Atmospheric Administration,
       Coastal Ocean Office, Silver Spring, Maryland.

       Middleton, B.  1999. Wetland Restoration, Flood Pulsing, and Disturbance  Dynamics.  John Wiley and Sons,
       Inc.  New York, New York.

       Stevens, M. and R. Vanbianchi.  1993.  Restoring Wetlands in Washington: A guidebook for
       wetland restoration, planning and  implementation.  Washington State Department of  Ecology, Publication

       The Nature Conservancy, 1998. Restoration Procedures for Public Lands in Florida.  Prepared for the  Florida
       Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, Florida.

       U.S.  Department  of Agriculture. 1998.  Natural  Resources Conservation  Service's  Conservation Practice
       Standards - "Wetland Restoration", "Wetland  Enhancement", "Wetland Creation", and "Wetland Wildlife
       Habitat Management" http://www.ncg.nrcs.usda.gov/nhcp_2.html.

                                                               RESOURCE    APPENDIX        KK

AN      INTRODUCTION     AND      USER'S     GUIDE      TO
                   U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency.  1992.   Restoring and Creating Wetlands: a Planning Guide for the
                   Central States Region: Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska.  U.S. EPA Region 7,  Kansas City, Kansas.

                   U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency.  1994.  A Citizen's Guide to Wetland  Restoration: Approaches to
                   Restoring Vegetation Communities and Wildlife Habitat Structure in Freshwater Wetland Systems. U.S. EPA
                   Region 10, Seattle, Washington.

                   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  1994.  Mitigation Technical Guidance for Chesapeake Bay Wetlands.
                   U.S.  EPA Region 3, Chesapeake Bay  Restoration  Program,  Living  Resources  Subcommittee,  Annapolis,

                   Wenzel, T.A.  1992.  Minnesota Wetland Restoration Guide. Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources,
                   Minneapolis, Minnesota.

                   Yozzo,  D., J. litre, and  J. Sexton, 1996. Planning and  Evaluating Restoration of Aquatic Habitats from an
                   Ecological Perspective.  IWR Report 96-EL-4.  Institute for Water Resources, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
                   Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

                   Zedler,  J.B.  2000. Handbook for  Restoring Tidal Wetlands.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

                   Zedler,  J.B.   1996.   Tidal Wetland Restoration: A  Scientific Perspective  and  Southern  California  Focus.
                   California Sea  Grant Program, La  Jolla, California.

                   Adamus, P.R.  1996. Bioindicators for Assessing Ecological Integrity of Prairie Wetlands.  EPA/600/R-96/082.
                   U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency,  National  Health  and Environmental  Effects Research Laboratory,
                   Western Ecological Division, Corvallis, Oregon.

                   Anderson, J.R., Hardy,  E.E., Roach, J.T., and R.E. Witmer.   1976.  A Land  Use and Land Cover Classification
                   System for Use with Remote  Sensor Data.  U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, Professional
                   Paper 964. Washington D.C.

                   Bartoldus, C.C.  1999.  A Comprehensive Review of Wetland Assessment Procedures: A Guide for Wetland
                   Practitioners. Environmental Concern Inc., St. Michaels, Maryland.

                   Breaux, A. and F. Serefiddin.  2001. Validity of performance criteria and a tentative model for regulatory use
                   in compensatory wetland mitigation permitting. Env. Man. 24(3):327-336.

                   Brinson, M.M.   1993.   A Hydrogeomorphic  Classification  for Wetlands.   U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
                   Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA.  Technical Report WRP-DE-4.

                   Firehock,  K., Graff, L,  Middleton, J.V.,  Starinchak, K.D., and C. Williams. 1998.  Handbook for  Wetlands
                   Conservation and Sustainability.  Izaak Walton League of America,  Gaithersburg, Maryland.

                   Horner, R.R. and K.J. Raedeke.  1989.  Guide for Wetland Mitigation  Projects Monitoring.  Report Number WA-
                   RD 195.1.  Washington State Department of Transportation,  Seattle, WA.

                   Karr, J.R. and E.W. Chu. 1998.  Restoring  Life  in Running Waters: Better Biological Monitoring.

                   Kentula, M.E., Brooks,  R.P., Gwin, S.E., Holland, C.C., Sherman, A.D., and J.C. Sifneos.  1992.  An Approach to
                   Improving Decision Making in Wetland Restoration and Creation.  Island Press, Washington, DC.
                  RESOURCE   APPENDIX

       Kusler, J.A, D.E. Willard, and H.C. Hull, Jr.,  eds.  1995.  Wetlands and  Watershed Management:  Science
       Applications and Public Policy,  A Collection of Papers from a National Symposium and Several  Workshops.
       Association of State Wetland Managers, Berne, New York.

       Leibowitz, S.G., B. Abbruzzese, P.R. Adamus, LE. Hughes, J.T. Irish. 1992.  A Synoptic Approach to Cumulative
       Impact Assessment.  EPA/600/R-92/167.   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Environmental  Research
       Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon.

       Pacific Estuarine Research  Laboratory.  1990.  A manual for assessing restored and natural coastal wetlands
       with examples from southern California.  Report Number T-CSGCP-021. California Sea Grant Program, La
       Jolla, California.

       Pennsylvania State  University College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension.  1996.  Managing Your
       Restored  Wetland.

       Plafkin, J.L, M.T. Barbour, K.D. Proter, S.K. Gross and R.M. Hughes. 1989.  Rapid Bioassessment protocols for
       Use in Streams and Rivers: Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish.  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency,
       Washington DC.  Report Number EPA/444/4-89-001.

       Rubey, J. and S. O'Connor.  1996. Exploring Wetland Stewardship - a reference guide for assisting Washington
       landowners. Washington State Department  of Ecology publication #96-120.

       Smith, R.D., A Ammann, C. Bartoldus, and M.M. Brinson.  1995. An Approach for Assessing Wetland Functions
       Using Hydrogeomorphic Classification,  Reference Wetlands,  and Functional  Indicators.  Technical  Report
       WRP-DE-9. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

       U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1996.  Planning Aquatic  Ecosystem Restoration Monitoring Programs.   IWR
       Report 96-R-23, http://www.wrsc.usace.army.mil/iwr/currpt.htm.

       U.S. Department of Commerce,  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries
       Service. 1998.  Goal Setting and Success Criteria  for Coastal Habitat Restoration  (compilation of papers and
       abstracts).  Office of Habitat Conservation, Silver Spring  Maryland.

       U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency.  1998. Wetland Bioassessment Fact Sheets. EPA 843-F-98-001. U.S.
       Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.

       U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1980.  Habitat Evaluation Procedures. ESM  102. U.S. Department of the Interior,
       Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Ecological Services, Washington D.C.
       Yozzo,  D., J. litre,  and J. Sexton.  1996. Planning and Evaluating Restoration of Aquatic Habitats from  an
       Ecological Perspective.  IWR Report 96-EL-4.  Institute  for Water Resources, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
       Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

       The Volunteer Monitor (A monthly newsletter on monitoring topics, including wetlands.
       Free subscriptions available by contacting
                  River Network
                  The Volunteer Monitor Newsletter
                  520 SW 6th Ave, Suite 1130
                  Portland, OR 97204-1535
       also available at http://www.epa.gov/volunteer/info.html)

                                                               RESOURCE    APPENDIX        KK

AN      INTRODUCTION      AND      USER'S     GUIDE      TO

                   Federal  Interagency Stream  Restoration Working Group.  1998.  Stream  Corridor Restoration: Principles,
                   Processes, and Practices,  http://www.usda.gov/stream_restoration/newgra.html.

                   Petts, G. and P. Calow, eds.  1996. River Restoration.  Blackwell Science, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

                   Riley, Ann.  1998. Restoring  Streams in Cities. Island Press, Covelo, California.

                   Tidal Marshes
                   Eckles,  S.D., Barnard, I, Dawson,  F, Goodger, I, Kimidy, K., Lynn, A., Perry, J., Reisinger, K., Rhodes, C., and R.
                   Zepp.   1994.  Mitigation Technical  guidance for Chesapeake Bay Wetlands.  U.S. EPA Region 3, Annapolis,

                   Josselyn, M. and J. Buchholz.  1984. Marsh Restoration in San Francisco Bay. A Guide to Design and Planning.
                   Technical Report #3, Tiburon Center for Environmental Studies, San Francisco State University, San Francisco,

                   Matthews, G.A.   1994.   Technology and success in restoration, creation, and enhancement  of Spartina
                   alterniflora marshes in the United States, vols 1 and 2.  National Oceanic and Atmospheric  Administration,
                   Coastal  Ocean Office, Silver Spring, Maryland.

                   Pacific  Estuarine Research Laboratory.  1990. A Manual for Assessing Restored and Natural Coastal Wetlands
                   with Examples from Southern California.  Report Number T-CSGCP-021. California Sea  Grant  Program,  La
                   Jolla, California.

                   Zedler, J.B.  2000. Handbook for  Restoring Tidal Wetlands.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

                   Zedler,  J.B. 1996.   Tidal Wetland  Restoration:  A Scientific Perspective  and  Southern  California  Focus.
                   California Sea Grant Program, La  Jolla, California.

                   Seagrass Beds
                   Fonseca M.S., J.W. Kenworthy, and G.W. Thayer.   1999.  Guidelines for the  Conservation and Restoration  of
                   Seagrasses in the U.S. and Adjacent  Waters. NOAA Coastal  Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No. 12.
                   Coastal  Ocean Office, Silver Spring, MD. 222 pp.

                   Inland  Wetlands
                   Admiraal, A.N., J.M. Morris, T.C. Brooks, J.W. Olson, M.V. Miller. 1997. Illinois Wetland Restoration and Creation
                   Guide.  Illinois Natural History Survey - Special Publication 19. Champaign,  Illinois.

                   Allen, J.A., Keeland,  B.D., Clewell, A., Kennedy, H.  1999.  Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration. U.S.
                   Geological Survey.

                   Galatowitsch, S.M. and A.G. van der  Valk.  1994.  Restoring Prairie Wetlands: An Ecological Approach. Iowa
                   State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

                   Stevens,  M.  and  R.  Vanbianchi.   1993.    Restoring wetlands  in  Washington: a  guidebook for  wetland
                   restoration, planning, and implementation.   Washington State Department of Ecology publication #93-17.

                   Wenzel, T.A.   1992.  Minnesota Wetland Restoration Guide.  Minnesota Board of Water and  Soil Resources,
                   Minneapolis, Minnesota.
                  RESOURCE   APPENDIX

       Wetlands and Wildlife Habitat
       Payne, N.  1992. Techniques for Wildlife Habitat Management of Wetlands.  McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, New

       U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency.  1994.  A Citizen's Guide to Wetland Restoration: Approaches to
       Restoring Vegetation  Communities and Wildlife Habitat Structure in Freshwater Wetland Systems. U.S. EPA
       Region 10, Seattle, Washington.

       Constructed Treatment Wetlands
       U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency. 2000.   Guiding principles for  constructed treatment  wetlands:
       providing water quality and wildlife habitats.  EPA 843-B-00-003, U.S.EPA, Washington D.C.
Appendix  R-II:  Federal Financial Assistance
       Below is a list of some federal sources of money that may be applicable to wetland restoration projects.  Be
       sure to contact your state environmental agencies for other sources of funding and check with some of the
       organizations listed in Appendix III for possible nonprofit assistance.


       Clean Water Act State Revolving Fund
       Purpose:       Provides grant funds to states to help them establish state revolving fund (SRF)  programs.
                     States, in  turn,  offer  loans  and  other types of financial  assistance from  their SRFs to
                     municipalities, individuals, and others for high-priority water quality activities.

       Projects:       While traditionally used to build or improve wastewater treatment plants, loans are also used
                     increasingly  for:   agricultural, rural,  and  urban  runoff  control; wetland  and  estuary
                     improvement projects; wet weather flow control (including stormwater and sewer overflows);
                     and alternative treatment technologies.

       Assistance:    States offer loan rates that are two to four  percent below market rates.  Some states offer
                     even lower interest rates to small, economically disadvantaged communities.

       Eligibility:     Municipalities, individuals, communities, citizen groups, and non-profit organizations, though
                     each state ultimately determines eligibility.

       Address:       U.S.  EPA, Office of Wastewater  Management (4204M), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW,
                     Washington, DC 20460

       Phone:        (202) 564-0752

       Facsimile:     (202)501-2403

       E-mail:        srfinfo.group@epa.gov

       Web Site:     http://www.epa.gov/owm/cwfinance/index.htm

                                                              RESOURCE   APPEND

A  N
I   N
                    U  C   T  I   O  N
                                                  U  S
                                                            G  u  i
                                                                                                      T  O
        Five-Star Restoration Program
                      To promote community-based wetland and riparian restoration projects.



        Web Site:
The projects must have strong on-the-ground habitat restoration components that provides
long term ecological,  educational,  and/or socio-economic benefits to the people and their

Each project  would ideally involve at least five partners, who  are expected to contribute
funding, land, technical assistance, workforce support, or other  in-kind services that match
EPA's contribution which amounts to about $10,000 on the average per project.

Partners may include citizen volunteer organizations, corporations, private landowners, local
conservation  organizations, youth groups,  charitable  foundations, and other federal, state,
tribal agencies and local governments.

U.S. EPA, Wetlands Division (4502T), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460

(202) 566-1350




        Nonpoint Source Implementation Grants (319 Program)
        Purpose:      To help States, Territories, and Tribes develop and implement programs to prevent and control
                      nonpoint source pollution, such as creating constructed  wetlands to clean-up urban runoff
                      and agricultural wastes.

        Projects:      State, Territories, and  Tribes  receive grant money  (and  may  then provide funding and
                      assistance to local groups) to support a wide variety of activities, such as technical assistance,
                      financial  assistance,  technical   programs,  education,  training,  technology  transfer,
                      demonstration projects (e.g. best management practices), and monitoring specific to nonpoint
                      source implementation.

        Assistance:    Grants are first awarded to  state agencies.  Local  organizations can then apply  for grants
                      through the agencies, but they must provide 40 percent of the total project or program cost
                      as non-federal dollars.

        Eligibility:     State, local, and tribal governments, nonprofit and local organizations, etc. (check with your
                      state contact).

        Address:      U.S. EPA, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds (4503T),  1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW,
                      Washington, DC 20460

        Phone:        (202) 566-0232
        Facsimile:     (202)566-1331
        E-mail:        ow-general@epa.gov
        Web Site:     http://www.epa.gov/owow/NPS

USDA  -   Forest  Service
       Taking Wing
       Purpose:       To create and enhance partnerships in the management of wetland ecosystems for waterfowl
                     and wetland wildlife, while providing a variety of compatible recreational  opportunities on
                     National  Forest System  lands.

       Projects:       Focus towards on-the-ground wetland enhancement and  restoration, although some projects
                     include assessment and analysis  components.  Example: restoration  of  100 acres in the
                     Columbia River Scenic Area.

       Assistance:    Funds are allocated to Forest Service units through internal budget process.

       Eligibility:     Non-federal entities and individuals - projects must be on National Forest System lands or
                     provide benefits to those lands.

       Address:       Ellen Campbell, Federal Office Building, 709  West 9th Street, PO Box 21628, Juneau, AK

       Phone:        (907)586-7919
       Facsimile:     (907) 586-7877
       E-mail:        ellen.campbell@fs.fed.us
       Web Site:     http://www.fs.fed.us/biology/wildlife/takingwing/index.html

USDA  -   Farm  Service  Agency
       Conservation Reserve Program
       Purpose:       To establish long-term resource-conserving covers on eligible cropland to conserve soil, water,
                     and wildlife.

       Projects:       Voluntary program where  landowners receive rental payments or enter into a cost-share
                     restoration  agreement,  while maintaining private  ownership,  to  plant cover on  marginal

       Assistance:    Three options:  1) receive annual rental payments of up to $50,000/year; 2) receive payment of
                     up to 50% of  cost to establish cover; 3) receive payment of up to 25% of cost for wetland
                     hydrology restoration. Contracts are typically 10-15 years in length.

       Eligibility:     Individuals, states, local governments, tribes, or any other entity who owns private land for at
                     least 1 year that is: either cropland planted with a crop in 2 of the last 5 crop years or marginal
                     cropland that is enrolled in the Water Bank program or suitable to be used as a riparian buffer.
                     Also, the  land  must be  either highly credible land, a cropped wetland,  be devoted  to highly
                     beneficial environmental practices, subject to scour erosion, located in a CRP priority area, or
                     be a cropland associated with or surrounding non-cropped wetlands.

       Address:       Contact your local or state Farm Service Agency office; otherwise: Department of Agriculture,
                     Farm Service Agency, Conservation Reserve Program Specialist,  Stop 0513, Washington, D.C.

       Phone:        (202) 720-6221
       Facsimile:     n/a
       E-mail:        info@fsa.usda.gov
       Web Site:     http://www.fsa.usda.gov/pas/publications/facts/pubfacts.htm
                                                               RESOURCE    APPEND

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 USDA  -  Natural  Resources  Conservation  Service
        Conservation Technical Assistance
        Purpose:      To assist land-users, communities, units of state and local government, and  other federal
                      agencies in planning and implementing conservation systems.

        Projects:      Projects that reduce erosion, improve soil and  water quality, improve and conserve wetlands,
                      enhance fish and wildlife habitat, improve air quality, improve pasture and range condition,
                      reduce upstream flooding, and  improve woodlands

        Assistance:    Technical assistance available  to  land  users who voluntarily applying conservation and to
                      those who must comply with  local or state  laws and regulations, such as the wetland
                      (Swampbuster)  provisions of the 1985  Food Security Act and the wetlands requirements of
                      Section 404 of the Clean Water Act.

        Eligibility:     Individual landusers, communities, conservation districts, and other units of State and local
                      government and Federal agencies.

        Address:      Contact  your  local   or   state  National   Resources   Conservation  Service  office
                      (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/about/organization/regions.html); otherwise: Natural  Resources
                      Conservation Service, ATTN: Conservation  Technical Assistance National Program  Manager
                      Walley Turner, P.O. Box 2890, Washington, D.C. 20013

        Phone:        (202) 720-4527
        E-mail:        walley.turner@usda.gov
        Web Site:     http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/cta/index.html

        Emergency Watershed Protection Program
        Purpose:      To protect  lives and property  threatened  by  natural disasters such as floods,  hurricanes,
                      tornados, and wildfires.

        Projects:      Examples: Clearing debris from clogged  waterways, restoring vegetation, stabilizing  river
                      banks, restoring wetland flood  retainers.

        Assistance:    Funds cover up to 75% of costs to restore the natural function of a watershed. Another option
                      is to offer land for a floodplain easement that would permanently restore the hydrology of the
                      natural  floodplain as an alternative to traditional attempts  to restore damaged levees, lands,
                      and  structures.  Funds can cover up to 100% of the agricultural value of the  land, costs
                      associated with  environmental  measures taken, and costs  associated with establishing  the
                      easement.  A sponsor must  assist you in applying for assistance.  Sponsors can be any legal
                      subdivision of state, local, or tribal governments, including soil conservation  districts, U.S.
                      Forest Service, and watershed authorities.

        Eligibility:     Owners, managers, and users of public, private, or tribal lands if their watershed  area has been
                      damaged by a natural disaster.

        Address:      Contact  your  local   or   state  National   Resources   Conservation  Service  office
                      (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/about/organization/regions.html); otherwise: Natural  Resources
                      Conservation Service, ATTN: National  EWP Program  Leader Victor Cole, P.O.  Box 2890,
                      Washington, D.C.

        Phone:        (202) 690-4575
        E-mail:        victor.cole@usda.gov
        Web Site:     http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/ewp/index.html

       Environmental Quality Incentives Program
       Purpose:       To install or implement structural, vegetative, and management practices in priority areas.

       Projects:       Conservation  practices, such  as grassed waterways,  filter  strips,  manure  management
                     facilities,  capping  abandoned  wells,  and  other practices  important to  improving and
                     maintaining water quality  and the general health of natural resources in the area; and land
                     management  practices such as nutrient management, manure management, integrated pest
                     management, irrigation water management, and wildlife habitat management.

       Assistance:    Cost sharing  may  pay up to  75 percent of the costs of certain conservation practices.
                     Incentive payments may also be made to encourage a producer to perform  land management
                     practices for up to three years. Offers 5-10 year contracts.  Maximum  of $10,000 per person
                     per year and $50,000 for the length of the contract.

       Eligibility:     Eligibility  is  limited to persons  who are engaged in  livestock or agricultural production,
                     excluding  most  large confined livestock operations.

       Address:       Contact   your   local  or  state   National  Resources   Conservation    Service   office
                     (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/about/organization/regions.html); otherwise: Natural  Resources
                     Conservation  Service, ATTN: National EQIP Program Manager Anthony Esser, P.O. Box 2890,
                     Washington, D.C.

       Phone:        (202)720-1840
       E-mail:        anthony.esser@usda.gov
       Web Site:     http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/eqip/

       Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention
       Purpose:       Works  through  local government sponsors to help participants voluntarily plan and  install
                     watershed-based projects on private lands.

       Projects:       Projects include watershed protection, flood prevention, erosion and sediment control, water
                     supply,  water  quality, fish  and wildlife habitat enhancement,  wetlands creation and
                     restoration, and public recreation in watersheds of 250,000 or fewer acres.

       Assistance:    Provides  technical  and financial assistance.   Funds can cover 100% of flood prevention
                     construction costs, 50% of costs associated with agricultural water management,  recreation
                     and fish and wildlife, and none of the costs for  other municipal  and  industrial  water

       Eligibility:     Local or state agency, county, municipality, town  or township, soil and water conservation
                     district, flood prevention  or flood control district, tribe or tribal  organization,  or nonprofit
                     agency with authority  to carry out, maintain,  and operate watershed improvement works.

       Address:       Contact   your   local  or  state   National  Resources   Conservation    Service   office
                     (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/about/organization/regions.html); otherwise: Natural  Resources
                     Conservation  Service,  ATTN: Watershed Protection  and Flood Prevention,  P.O. Box  2890,
                     Washington, D.C.

       Phone:        (202) 720-3534
       E-mail:        bruce.julian@usda.gov
       Web Site:     http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/watershed/
                                                               RESOURCE    APPEND

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                   Wetlands Reserve Program
                   Purpose:       Protect and restore wetlands, riparian areas and buffer zones.

                   Projects:       Voluntary program where landowners may sell a conservation easement or enter into a cost-
                                 share restoration agreement, while maintaining private ownership.

                   Assistance:    Three options: 1) permanent easement - USDA purchases easement (payment will be the lesser
                                 of: the agricultural value of the land, an established payment cap,  or an  amount offered by
                                 the landowner)  and  pays 100% of restoration  costs; 2) 30-year easement - USDA pays 75%
                                 of what would be paid for permanent easement and 75% of restoration costs; 3)  restoration
                                 cost share agreement - 10-year minimum agreement to restore degraded habitat where USDA
                                 pays 75% of restoration  costs.

                   Eligibility:     Individuals, states, local governments, tribes, or any other entity who owns private land. The
                                 land must be owned for at least 1 year and be restorable and suitable for  wildlife.

                   Address:       Contact  your   local   or state   National   Resources   Conservation  Service  office
                                 (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/about/organization/regions.html);  otherwise:   Natural  Resources
                                 Conservation Service, ATTN: Wetlands Reserves Program Contact Leslie Deavers, P.O. Box 2890,
                                 Washington, D.C.

                   Phone:        (202) 720-1067
                   E-mail:        leslie.deavers@usda.gov
                   Web Site:     http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/wrp/

                   Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program
                   Purpose:       To develop and improve fish and wildlife habitat on private lands.

                   Projects:       Participants  prepare  a  wildlife  habitat development plan  in consultation  with the local
                                 conservation district. The plan describes the landowner's goals for improving wildlife habitat,
                                 includes a list of practices and a schedule for installing them, and details the  steps necessary
                                 to maintain the habitat for the life of the agreement.

                   Assistance:    Technical assistance  and cost-share agreements  where NRCS  pays up  to 75% of cost of
                                 installing wildlife practices. Typically 5-10 year contracts.

                   Eligibility:     Must own or have control of the land and cannot have it enrolled  in other programs  with a
                                 wildlife focus, such as the Wetlands Reserve Program, or use the land for mitigation.  Other
                                 restrictions may apply.

                   Address:       Contact  your   local   or state   National   Resources   Conservation  Service  office
                                 (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/about/organization/regions.html);  otherwise:   Natural  Resources
                                 Conservation Service, ATTN: Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program Contact Martha Joseph, P.O.
                                 Box 2890, Washington, D.C.

                   Phone:        (202) 720-7157
                   E-mail:        martha.joseph@usda.gov
                   Web Site:     http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/whip/
                 RESOURCE   APPEND

DOI   -  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service

       Coastal Program
       Purpose:      To conserve healthy coastal ecosystems for the benefit offish, wildlife, and people.

       Projects:      Examples  of  protection include  use  of conservation easements and fee title  acquisition  to
                     protect relatively pristine coastal wetlands, salt marshes, prairies, dunes, bottomland hardwood
                     forests, and riparian areas.  Examples of coastal habitat restoration include: reintroduction  of
                     tidal flow to  formerly-diked mud flat and salt marsh habitat, planting  of native vegetation
                     (including submerged  aquatic grasses), control  and monitoring  of  exotic invasive  species,
                     fencing to restore riparian salmon spawning habitat, and removal or retrofit of small dams and
                     culverts to allow for passage of anadromous fish in coastal streams and estuaries.

       Assistance:    Technical  and financial assistance is available.  The program focuses exclusively on coastal
                     watersheds.  It applies an ecosystem-level approach to resolving resource problems, and targets
                     efforts for a strategic (rather than opportunistic) approach. The program is a non-regulatory,
                     pro-active program that relies on voluntary partnership building.  Partners include other federal
                     and state  agencies, local and tribal governments,  businesses, conservation organizations, and
                     private landowners.

                     Matching  grants are also awarded annually, on a  competitive basis. States that border the
                     Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, Pacific and Great Lakes are eligible to apply for  grants.  The one
                     exception  is  the  State of  Louisiana, which has  its own coastal wetlands  program.  Trust
                     Territories and Commonwealths of the United States are also eligible for grants.

       Eligibility:     The Coastal Program funds projects on private and public lands.

       Address:      Martha Naley, U.S. Fish and  Wildlife Service, Branch of Habitat Restoration, Room 400, 4401  N.
                     Fairfax  Blvd,   Arlington,  VA  22203. National, regional,   and  state  contacts  are  listed  at

       Phone:        (703) 358-2201
       Facsimile:     (703) 358-2232
       E-mail:        martha_naley@fws.gov
       Web Site:     http://www.fws.gov/cep/cepcode.html

       Jobs in  the Woods Watershed Restoration Program
       Purpose:      Provides funding to support watershed  restoration  projects in timber-dependent communities
                     within the range of the northern spotted owl  through the Northwest Forest Plan  (NWFP). The
                     NWFP was created to  offset impacts of economic losses  to communities in CA, OR and WA,
                     resulting from reductions in timber harvest.

       Projects:      Program  funds are to support watershed  restoration  projects, including: instream habitat
                     restoration, fish passage improvements, fish screen installation, riparian  and  wetland habitat
                     restoration, and upland forest restoration, on non-federal lands, while employing workers from
                     timber dependent communities to conduct project work. Projects are focused on implementing
                     habitat improvements to benefit federally listed, proposed  or candidate species, under the ESA.

       Assistance:    The Service provides the grants and assists applicants with obtaining permits and complying
                     with federal  laws, including the  ESA, NEPA,  NHPA, and  the  Clean  Water Act. Most funded
                     projects involve grants of under $100,000.

       Eligibility:     Projects must  occur  on non-federal  lands.   Non-profit  organizations,  individuals, private
                     businesses, Native American tribes and state and local governments are eligible.

                                                               RESOURCE   APPEND

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        Address:       Paula Golightly, Jobs in the Woods Coordinator, Arcata Fish and Wildlife Office, 1655 Heindon
                       Road, Arcata, CA 95521

        Phone:         (707) 822-7201
        Facsimile:      (707)822-8136
        Web Site:      http://www.ccfwo.r1.fws.gov/jitw/

        North American Wetlands Conservation Act Grant Program
        Purpose:       To promote long-term conservation of North American wetland ecosystems and the wildlife
                       that depend on them.

        Projects:       For  on-the-ground  wetland and wetland-associated acquisition,  creation,  enhancement,
                       and/or restoration.

        Assistance:     Regular Grant Program (over $50k) and Small Grant Program ($50k or less)

        Eligibility:      Must form public-private sector partnerships and match grant funds 1:1 with U.S. non-Federal

        Address:       Department of Interior, U.S. Fish  and Wildlife Service, Division of Bird Habitat Conservation,
                       4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 110, Arlington, VA 22203 (Attn: specify which grant program you
                       are interested in)
        Phone:         (703)358-1784
        Facsimile:      (703)358-2282
        Web Site:      http://northamerican.fws.gov/NAWCA/grants.htm

        Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program
        Purpose:       To conserve, protect, and enhance fish and wildlife and their habitats

        Projects:       Examples of voluntary habitat restoration: restoring wetland hydrology, planting native trees
                       and  shrubs, planting native grasslands, installing fencing and  off-stream livestock watering
                       facilities,  removal of exotic plants and  animals, prescribed burning, reconstruction  of in-
                       stream aquatic habitat.

        Assistance:     Financial and technical assistance available.  The landowner may perform the restoration and
                       be reimbursed directly for some or all of his or her expenses, the Service may hire a contractor
                       to complete the  work, or the Service may complete the work itself.  While not a  program
                       requirement, a dollar-for-dollar cost share is sought on a project-by-project basis.  In some
                       states where the program is very popular,  however, a 50:50 cost share is required. Partners for
                       Fish  and Wildlife funds are not used to  purchase or lease real property interest or to make
                       rental or other incentive payments to landowners. Minimum 10-year contract.

        Eligibility:      Although  the  primary partners are private  landowners, anyone  interested in  restoring and
                       protecting wildlife habitat on private or tribal lands can get involved in the Partners for Fish
                       and  Wildlife Program, including other federal, state and local agencies, private organizations,
                       corporations, and educational institutions.

        Address:       Contact your state  office for assistance.   National,  regional and state contacts are listed at
                       http://partners.fws.gov under "contact list";  U.S.  Fish and Wildlife Service,  Branch of Habitat
                       Restoration, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA 22203
        Phone:         (703) 358-2201
        Facsimile:      (703) 358-2232
        Web Site:      http://partners.fws.gov/

NOAA   -   National   Marine  Fisheries  Service
       NOAA Community-based Restoration Program
       Purpose:       To restore marine fish habitat by fostering partnerships with local communities

       Projects:       Community-based restoration efforts that benefit marine fish habitat (including coastal
                     wetlands and anadromous fish streams)

       Assistance:    Small grants available - should be developed in partnership with local National Marine
                     Fisheries Service office

       Eligibility:     non-profits, state and local agencies, tribes

       Address:       National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Habitat Conservation, Restoration Division,
                     1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910.

       Phone:        (301)713-0174
       Facsimile:     (301)713-0184
       E-mail:        robin.bruckner@noaa.gov or alison.ward@noaa.gov
       Web  Site:     http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/habitat/restoration/community/

CORPS-Civil  Works  Directorate
       Planning Assistance to States Program, Section 22 of the Water Resources Development Act
       Purpose:       To allow the Corps of Engineers to perform technical studies for management of water
                     and related land resources to help states and Indian tribes deal with their water
                     resources problems. The program is limited to a maximum of $500,000 per state or tribe
                     in any year.

       Projects:       Typical  activities studied  under  this  Program  are  flood  damage reduction, water
                     resources development, water supply,  water  conservation,  water  quality, erosion,
                     wetlands evaluation, and navigation.

       Assistance:    This is not a grant program.  The local  sponsor of the study shares in the cost of the

       Eligibility:     Studies are initiated based on requests to the appropriate Corps of Engineers District
                     office by the local sponsor. Example: In  Louisiana, Section 22 funds were used to cost-
                     share in a study  to  plan and  design a hiking/biking/recreation trail  compatible with
                     existing  levee  systems and  other floodplain improvements.  The  local  sponsor then
                     implemented the  trail design using non-Federal funding sources.

       Address:       Contact  your  local  district   office  of   the    Army  Corps  of   Engineers

       Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material, Section 204 of the Water Resources Development Act

       Purpose:       To allow the Secretary of the Army to carry out projects for the protection, restoration,
                     and creation  of  aquatic  and ecologically  related habitats, including  wetlands,  in
                     connection with dredging for construction, operation,  or maintenance by the Secretary
                     of an authorized navigation project.
                                                              RESOURCE   APPEND

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                         Projects:       Work must be for the protection, restoration and creation of aquatic and ecologically
                                       related habitat, including wetlands.  Examples include: placement in subsiding wetlands
                                       to re-establish necessary elevations for vegetation, additions to offshore islands to re-
                                       establish submerged  areas and  nesting  habitat, filling  deep  holes  to  re-establish

                         Assistance:    This  is not a grant program. A local sponsor, a governmental entity, must partner with
                                       the Corps.  The non-federal share is 25% of the costs in excess of the costs necessary
                                       to carry out the dredging for the authorized  navigation project.

                         Eligibility:     Studies  are  initiated based on request to the appropriate Corps of Engineers District
                                       office by the local sponsor.

                         Example:      Battery  Island Bird Habitat Preservation, Cape Fear River, North Carolina. Battery Island
                                       is owned by the State of North Carolina and administered by the North Carolina  Division
                                       of Parks and Recreation.  The Ecosystem Restoration Project will protect 10 acres of
                                       upland nesting habitat for colonial waterbirds from further erosion. The project will also
                                       restore 5.5 acres of valuable colonial waterbird nesting habitat by placement of dredged
                                       material obtained from periodic dredging of the adjacent Wilmington Harbor navigation

                         Address:       Contact  your   local   district  office   of   the   Army   Corps   of   Engineers

                         Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration, Section 206 of the Water Resources Development Act
                         Purpose:       To allow the Corps to carry out aquatic ecosystem restoration projects that will improve
                                       the quality of the environment, are in the public interest and are cost-effective.

                         Projects:       Work has to be  related  to aquatic  restoration.  Examples  include  reforestation  of
                                       bottomland  hardwoods, modification of stream  channels  to stabilize  channels,  while
                                       introducing  complexity  and fish habitat, riparian re-vegetation, improvement of fish
                                       passage, which  may  include dam  removal,  re-establishing  submerged vegetation,
                                       restoration of reclaimed land, restoration of  wetlands.

                         Assistance:    A non-federal  sponsor, a  public  entity, must partner with the Corps.  The non-Federal
                                       share is  35% of the total project cost, including study phase cost.   The non-Federal
                                       sponsor  is  also responsible  for  100%  of  the  operation,  maintenance, repair and
                                       rehabilitation cost.

                         Eligibility:     Studies  are  initiated based on request to the appropriate Corps of Engineers District
                                       office by the local sponsor.

                         Example:      At the Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area, 6 miles southeast of LaGrande, Oregon, the State of
                                       Oregon  teamed with  the Corps  to restore  the meandering  pattern  and  riparian
                                       vegetation  of  an approximately 4,000-foot section  of Ladd  Creek and  a 2,000-foot
                                       section of Barney Creek. This project enhances habitat for resident rainbow trout as well
                                       as the steelhead trout, which is listed under  the Endangered Species Act for protection
                                       in the entire Snake River Basin.
                         Address:       Contact  your   local   district  office   of   the   Army   Corps   of   Engineers
                  RESOURCE    APPEND

       Project Modifications for Improvement of the Environment




Section  1135 of the Water resources Development Act of  1986, as amended, authorizes a
program  of modifications to water resources projects constructed  by the Corps for the
improvement of the environment.

Work has to be related to an Corps water resources development project.

A non-federal sponsor, a public entity or non-governmental organization,  must partner with
the Corps. The non-Federal share is 25% of the total project cost.  The non-Federal sponsor is
also responsible for 100% of the operation, maintenance, repair and rehabilitation cost.

Studies are initiated based on request to the appropriate Corps of Engineers District office by
the local sponsor.
Contact   your    local   district    office   of
the   Army   Corps   of   Engineers
       Flood Mitigation and Riverine Restoration (Challenge 21)
       Purpose:       Section 212 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1999  authorizes a program  to
                     implement projects that reduce flood hazards and restore the natural functions and values of

       Projects:       Projects must significantly reduce potential flood damage as well as improve the quality of the
                     environment.  Nonstructural approaches are emphasized.

       Assistance:    A non-federal sponsor, a  public entity, must partner with the Corps. The non-Federal share is
                     35% of the total project  cost, and 50% of the study phase cost.

       Eligibility:     Studies are initiated based on request to the  appropriate Corps of Engineers District office  by
                     the local sponsor.

       Address:       Contact   your    local    district   office    of   the  Army    Corps   of   Engineers

Other   Funding  Source  Documents:
       "Catalog  of Federal Domestic Assistance".   Published  biannually by  General   Services  Administration.
       http://aspe.os.dhhs.gov/cfda, (202) 708-5126.

       "Catalog  of Federal Funding  Sources for Watershed Protection,  2nd Edition"  (1999).  EPA's Watershed
       Academy, Office of Water, Publication No. EPA 841-B-99-003.
       http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/watershed/wacademy/fund.html, National Center for Environmental Publications
       and Information (NCEPI), (800) 490-9198.

       "Environmental Grantmaking Foundations". Published annually by Resources for  Global Sustainability, Inc.
       http://www.environmentalgrants.com (800) 724-1857

       "Exploring  Wetlands Stewardship—A Reference  Guide for Assisting  Washington Landowners"  (1996).
       Washington State Department of Ecology Publication No. 96-120.
       http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/96120.html, (360) 407-7472

       "Financing  Clean Water Action Plan Activities"  (1998),  EPA Clean  Water Act  State Revolving Fund Branch,
       Office of Water, http://www.epa.gov/owm/cwfinance/index.htm, (202) 564-0752.

       "Funding for Habitat Restoration Projects" Citizen's Guide: A Compendium of Current Federal Programs with
       Fiscal Year  1996-1998 Funding Levels".  Restore America's Estuaries.

                                                              RESOURCE    APPEND

           "A  Guidebook  of  Financial  Tools"  (1997).    Environmental  Finance  Center  Network  and  the
           Environmental  Financial Advisory Board,  http://www.epa.gov/efinpage/guidebk/guindex.htm or  e-mail:

           "Landowners Guide to Voluntary  Wetland Programs in Arkansas".  Arkansas  Game and Fish Commission.
           http://www.agfc.com/hunting/waterfowl_section/wetland_info.html (501) 223-6300.

           "Landowning Colorado Style",  Colorado Association of Conservation Districts, (303) 232-6242.

           "Living  with  Michigan's  Wetlands:  A Landowner's Guide".  Tip   of  the  Mitt  Watershed  Council,
           http://www.watershedcouncil.org/book.htm (231) 347-1181

           "Ohio Wetlands". National Audubon Society's Ohio Office, (614) 224-3303.

           "Options for Wetland Conservation: A Guide for California Landowners". California Coastal Conservancy. Order
           at   http://www.coastalconservancy.ca.gov/Publications/pubs.htm   or   (510)   286-1015.   View   at

           "The Oregon Wetlands Conservation Guide: Voluntary Wetlands Stewardship Options for Oregon's Private
           Landowners" (1995). Oregon  Wetlands Conservation  Alliance. Contact Oregon  Department of Agriculture,
           Natural Resources Division at  (503) 986-4700.

           "Private Landowner's Wetlands Assistance Guide: Voluntary Options for Wetlands Stewardship in Maryland"
           (1992). Contact EPA Region III at (215)  814-5000.

           "A State and Local Government Guide to Environmental Program Funding Alternatives" (1994).  EPA document
           #EPA 841-K-94-001, Office of Water.

           "Wetland  and Riparian Stewardship in Pennsylvania: A Guide to Voluntary Options for  Landowners, Local
           Governments and Organizations" (1997). Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay. Contact the Bureau of Watershed
           Conservation, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection,
           http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/watermgt/WC/Subjects/NonPoint.htm (717) 236-8825.

           "Wetlands Assistance Guide for Landowners (in Texas)".  Texas Parks and Wildlife.
           http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/conserve/wetlands/wetintro.htm or (512) 389-4328.

Appendix R-III:  Organizations, We6 Sites, and Training Opportunities
       Below is a list of sources of assistance and information on wetland restoration.  It is not a comprehensive list,
       but is a good introduction to what is available.
Nonprofit Organizations:
       Association of State Floodplain Managers

       Association of State Wetland Managers

       Ducks Unlimited, Inc.

       Environmental Law Institute

       Estuarine Research Federation

       Izaak Walton League of America

       Native American Fish and Wildlife Society

       Soil and Water Conservation Society

       Society for Ecological  Restoration

       Society of Wetland Scientists

       Terrene Institute

       Water Environment Federation
2809 Fish Hatchery Road, Suite 204, Madison, Wl 53713
(608)274-0123 • http://www.floods.org/

PO Box 269, Berne, NY 12023-9746
(518)872-1804 • http://www.aswm.org/

One Waterfowl Way, Memphis, Tennessee, USA 38120
1(800)45DUCKS  •  http://www.ducks.org/

1616 P St., NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036
(202)939-3800 • http://www.eli.org/,

PO Box 510, Port Republic, MD 20676
410-586-0997 •  http://www.erf.org/,

707 Conservation Lane, Gaithersburg, MD 20878
(800)IKE-LINE (453-5463) •  http://www.iwla.org/

750 Burbank Street,  Broomfield, CO 80020
(303)466-1725  •  http://www.nafws.org/

945 SW Ankeny Road, Ankeny, Iowa 50021-9764
(515)289-2331  • http://www.swcs.org,

1955 W. Grant Rd., #150, Tuscon, AZ 85745
(520) 622-5485, http://www.ser.org/

1313 Dolley Madison Boulevard, Suite 402
McLean, VA 22101,
(703)790-1745 • http://www.sws.org/

http://www.terrene.org/ cbahler@erols.com

601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1994 USA,
1(800)666-0206  •  http://www.wef.org/,

                                                           RESOURCE   APPEND

A   N
                                                                                                            T  o
           Federal  Agency Web  Sites-.
                  Army Corps of Engineers

                  Bureau of Reclamation

                  Bureau of Land Management

                  Council on Environmental Quality

                  Department of Agriculture

                  Environmental Protection Agency's Office
                  of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds

                  Farm Service Agency

                  Fish and Wildlife Service

                  Forest Service

                  Geological Survey

                  National Oceanic and Atmospheric
                  National Marine Fisheries Service

                  National Park Service

                  Natural Resources Conservation Service

                  Office of Surface Mining

                  State Department's  Bureau of Oceans
                  and International Environmental and
                  Scientific Affairs
                                                    INTERNET ADDRESS





                                                    http ://www.epa.gov/owow/









           Other Web  Sites-.
                  Better Wetlands: More Than a Dozen Ideas
                  to Improve Restored Wetlands for Wildlife
                  and Personal Enjoyment
                  (U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service)

                  Do Created Wetlands Replace the Wetlands
                  that are Destroyed? (U.S. Geological Survey)

                  Evaluation of Restored Wetlands in the
                  Prairie Pothole Region
                                                    INTERNET ADDRESS
                                                    enhance/wetla nds_enhance_intro.htm I
                 RESOURCE   APPEND

       Monitoring Water Quality Web Page:
       Resources for Volunteer Monitors (USEPA)

       Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles,
       Practices, and  Processes (Interagency)

       Volunteer Estuary Monitoring (USEPA)

http://www.usda. gov/stream_restoration/

       Wetland Bioassessment Fact Sheets (USEPA)     http://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/wqual/bio_fact/
       Wetland Creation and Restoration:
       The Status of the Science (USEPA, 1990)

       Wetland Research: Restoring the Balance

       WES Environmental Laboratory -
       Wetlands (US Army Corps of Engineers)
Available from Island Press
http://www.islandpress.org (800) 828-1302

http://www.ramsar.org/wurcjibra ry_research.htm I
Training Opportunities-.

       The following are training opportunities offered by nonprofit, government, and academic organizations.  There
       are also many private firms not listed here that have wetland training courses available.
    Certified professional in erosion and sediment
    control (CPESC) - Certification training
    Desert Research Institute - Courses available
    Interagency training opportunities and
    non-government training partners -
    Internet training list (hot links to  natural
    resources training web pages)

    Izaak Walton League's Save Our Streams
    program  training workshops - Short workshops
    (volunteer wetlands and  streams monitoring,
    quality assurance, restoration)
David Ward
796 Old Linville Rd., Marion, NC 28752
Phone: (828) 756-4484
Fax: (828) 756-7344
http://www.swcs.org/f_orgl inks_cpesc.htm,

N. Nevada Sci. Center 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno,
NV89512 (775) 673-7300
S. Nevada Sci.  Center 755 E. Flamingo Rd.,
Las Vegas, NV 89119 (702) 895-0400

Bureau of Land Management National Training
Center, 9828 N 31st Ave, Phoenix, AZ 85051, USA,
(602) 906-5579  http://www.ntc.blm.gov/partner/
Save Our Streams, Izaak Walton League of America,
707 Conservation Lane, Gaithersburg, MD 20878,
USA, (301)548-0150, (800)IKE-LINE (453-5463)

                                                             RESOURCE   APPEND

A  N
I   N
                    U   C  T  I   O   N
    U  S
G   u  i
                                                                                                    T   O
     Mid-Atlantic interagency wetland training -
     Free courses (delineation, plants, soils,

     Society for Ecological Restoration - Restoration
     Training Workshops
     Society of Wetland Scientists Wetland-related
     academic programs and training courses
     Society of Wetland Scientists professional
     certification program
     U.S. Department of Agriculture (Natural
     Resources Conservation Service) training
     workshops on water quality monitoring - Free
     U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National
     Conservation Training Center (NCTC)
     Watershed training opportunities through
     The Watershed Academy - Free
     Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute (delineation
     training and biogeochemistry

     WETLAND program short courses at Ohio State
     University (wastewater treatment, delineation,
     U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
     Proponent-Sponsored Engineer Corps
     Training (PROSPECT)  courses on wetlands
     and restoration
 (215) 814-2718,  spagnolo.ralph@epa.gov
 1955 W. Grant Rd., #150
 Tuscon, AZ 85745 USA, (520) 622-5485,
 http://www.ser.org/, info@ser.org

 Society of Wetland Scientists Business Office, 1313
 Dolley Madison Boulevard, Suite 402,
 McLean, VA 22101, USA, 703-790-1745
 For academic programs -
 For training courses -
 http://www.sws.org/training/,  SWS@Burklnc.com

 SWS Professional Certification Program,
 P.O. Box 7060, Lawrence, Kansas 66044
 800-627-0629 or 785-843-1235,
 fax: 785-843-1274, http://www.wetlandcert.org,

 Bruce Newton, National Water and Climate Center,
 USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, 101
 SW Maine Street, Suite 1600,  Portland, OR
 97204-3224, USA,  (503)414-3055,

 NCTC, Rt 1, Box  166, Shepherdstown,  WV 25443
 (304)876-7472,   http://training.fws.gov/,
Watershed Academy, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and
Watersheds, USEPA (4503T), 1200 Pennsylvania
Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20460, 202-566-1155

Louisiana  State University
225-578-8810,  http://www.leeric.lsu.edu
Wetlands Program c/o William J. Mitsch, The Ohio
State University, School of Natural Resources, 2021
Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210, (614)292-9774,
http://swamp.ag.ohio-state.edu/,  mitsch.1 @osu.edu


APPENDIX  T-I:   What  Makes a Wetland Unique?
                       Ithough they are varied in type and location, wetlands possess several  ecological
                       characteristics that distinguish them from upland or aquatic habitats.  Wetlands are
                       characterized by unique hydrologic, soil (substrate), and biotic conditions that set
                       them apart from other systems.  Each of these characteristics is described in detail
       below to provide you with a basic understanding of the ecological elements that wetland restoration,
       enhancement, or creation projects seek to establish.

Hydrology  and  Water  Quality

       Wetland  hydrology generally exists when an area is wet enough to result in soils that are anaerobic
       (depleted  of oxygen)  and support hydrophytic vegetation  (plants that are adapted to  anaerobic,
       waterlogged environments). The  hydrological regime is typically the primary factor driving the rest of
       the elements of the system.

       Wetland  hydrology may exist at sites that are obviously flooded or at sites that are never flooded but
       have soils that are saturated near  the surface. A site's hydrologic characteristics are the most important
       factors in determining  what kind of wetland will exist and what functions it will perform. The  hydrologic
       characteristics of a wetland are commonly described in terms of water depths over time, flow patterns,
       and duration  and frequency of flooding or saturation.  Some systems, such as streams,  have very
       dynamic  hydrological  regimes that can  be difficult to re-create.  Other wetlands, such as permanent
       ponds or bogs, have hydrological  conditions that are more static.

       The presence of water on a site  can be measured and illustrated with a hydrograph.  A hydrograph
       indicates the level of water or the depth of soil saturation over the year.  The figure below  shows the
       water signatures for a  typical tidal marsh and a  prairie pothole. Wetland water levels usually fluctuate
       based on seasonal  precipitation,  temperature, and evaporation.  Hydrographs for wetlands in  coastal
       areas will be heavily influenced by tidal cycles.  Inland  wetland hydrographs,  such as those for prairie
       potholes, may show the strong influence of rain and/or ground  water.
                                                       Hydrographs of a  tidal  marsh (top)  and prairie
                                                       pothole (bottom), after Mitsch and Gosselink, 1999
                                                              TECHNICAL   APPEND

              Many wetlands are dynamic and fluctuate in size during the year and between years.  These natural
              fluctations are the wetland's disturbance regime and this regime needs to be included in the design for
              your wetland site. Sites  may flood on  regular 2,  10,  or 50  year  cycles and  cause significant, but
              predictable changes in wetland size and shape.  Extreme events, such as hurricanes, may  have less
              predictable effects.

              If wetland  hydrology  can be established at  your  site,  there is a  good chance that other wetland
              characteristics will develop over time.  When a wetland project does not develop as planned, or does
              not develop into a wetland at all, it is most often because the hydrologic characteristics of the site are
              not what they need to be to achieve the goals. The  first step in trouble-shooting wetland projects is to
              check the hydrologic characteristics of the site.

              For many sites, establishing the proper hydrology requires the services of a hydrologist who will assess
              current conditions on your site, evaluate the local disturbance regime, and determine what changes are
              necessary to achieve the hydrological regime typical of the wetland you wish to establish.

              Water contains a number of dissolved  and  suspended  materials including nutrients (e.g.,  nitrogen,
              phosphorus, dissolved carbon),  contaminants (e.g., pesticides,  petroleum  hydrocarbons), and other
              constituents  (e.g.,  dissolved  oxygen,  salts,  metals, suspended sediments).   Some  chemicals (e.g.,
              nutrients) can be either beneficial or toxic, depending on how much is present.  Water quality usually
              refers to how "healthy" the water is for humans, animals and plants. An aquatic area with "good" water
              quality has the water  chemistry typical of the ecosystem and region, including the levels of dissolved
              oxygen,  contaminants, and other constituents (nutrients, suspended sediments) that result in healthy
              populations of native plants and animals.

              Because wetland types vary, good water quality varies from one wetland type to another. For example,
              significant amounts of suspended  sediments are typical of good conditions for some tidal  marshes
              because, as sediments settle out, they  help to build up the marsh surface, which allows the growth of
              marsh vegetation.  Conversely, too much suspended sediment  in coastal waters can be harmful to
              seagrass beds because it reduces the amount of light penetrating the water to the plants. If you suspect
              that the water quality might be a problem, you will need to compare the water condition  at your site
              with those at reference wetlands, i.e.,  sites in your  region that are relatively undisturbed examples of
              your wetland type. This work will almost always  require the expertise of a water quality specialist.

       Wetland  Soils  and  their  Qualities

              Wetland soils or substrates are hydric soils, meaning they are waterlogged for all or  part of the year
              which results in anaerobic conditions.  In hydric  soils, water fills the air spaces between soil  particles
              and forces the oxygen out causing soils to become anaerobic (depleted in oxygen) in the zones closest
              to  the surface.  Waterlogged, anaerobic conditions are very hostile to terrestrial plants and these
              conditions will quickly kill most upland species. As a result, wetlands are dominated by plants that are
              specifically adapted to these tough,  waterlogged,  anaerobic  soil conditions.   When soils lose their
              oxygen,  they change significantly in structure and chemistry which also influences the plant and animal
              species able to survive there.

              Wetland soils come in two major types—organic  and mineral.  Organic soils are made up primarily of
              plant  material, either  decomposed  (the soil  is then called "muck") or undecomposed  (called  "peat").
              Mineral  soils are composed primarily  of  non-plant  material  such  as  quartz, biotite, or  calcite.
              Depending on the size of the soil grains, mineral soils are generally described  (from largest grain size to
              smallest) as sand, silt, and clay.  Sandy wetland soils are the most permeable, allowing water to move

       easily between the wetland and the groundwater, depending on the depth of the  water table.  Less
       permeable clayey soils are more likely to maintain water in the wetland even if the water table is low.
       Some sites have "hard pan" layers underneath them, impermeable layers of clay or rock, essential to the
       ecology of the wetland. These hard subsurface layers may allow water to stay ponded for much longer
       than would occur otherwise, resulting in unique ecosystems, such as "vernal pool" habitats.

       Many wetland soils, especially organic soils such as peat, are characterized by relatively high amounts
       of organic carbon  and nutrients, which drive the significant biological productivity of wetlands.  The
       organic material provides energy  for soil microbes to  recycle nutrients  and to convert nitrogen to
       organic forms that encourage  plant  growth.  Of  course, not  all soils are  naturally high  in  organic
       material or nutrients.  As with other wetland elements, soil characteristics vary with the system  and the
       region.  Reference sites can provide data on typical soil conditions of the  region. Soil  scientists can
       identify hydric soils by their color and structure.  Often organic, anaerobic soils are dark grey to nearly
       black.  In more mineral soils, the chemistry of hydric soils affects minerals such as iron and manganese
       causing distinctive color variations.

       In addition to small scale soil qualities, two large scale features of substrates are critical to restoration
       projects: 1) soil  or substrate elevation in relationship to water levels, and 2) networks of channels to
       move water in  and out.  These features are shaped by water and their relationship to water levels is
       critical.   Incorrect elevations  and topographies are some  of the most  common  reasons  wetland
       restoration projects fail to achieve their goals.

       Soil maps produced by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service are a  good place to start for
       local soil information. Soil maps are produced for each county and provide information on the presence
       of hydric soils, the permeability of these soils, and their  suitability as wetland habitat. However, some
       county maps are decades old, and most do not contain enough detail to locate small hydric "inclusions"
       in non-hydric soils (or vice-versa).  You may need to have a professional soil scientist examine the  soils
       at the project site, particularly if the site has been altered, to determine whether the existing soil  is
       hydric.  Determining  proper soil elevations  and  topography, if they have been altered,  is the job of
       hydrologists or wetland experts who deal with sediments and their transport.

Wet la nd  Plants

       Wetland plants, or hydrophytic plants, are specifically adapted to waterlogged, anaerobic conditions.
       Some wetland plants grow exclusively in wetlands and are called "obligate" wetland species; others are
       "facultative"  species as they may be found in both wetlands and drier areas.  There are many types and
       categories of wetland plants, including emergent plants  (such as rushes), submerged  plants (eel grass),
       and floating plants (such as duckweed).  Wetland plants also include trees (like swamp oak), shrubs (like
       bayberry), moss, and many other types.  The wetland's water source (fresh,  saline (salty), or brackish)
       will affect the composition of the wetland plant community, as will  the amount and duration of water
       in the wetland.

       Plant species also can be regionally and locally specific: the dominant native plant in Atlantic coast tidal
       systems is smooth cordgrass (Spartina alternaflora) whereas the dominant native plant in  central Pacific
       coast salt marshes is Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa).  Some wetlands may be degraded because  they
       contain non-native species, that is, plants from other regions.  These non-natives may be invasive and
       displace more typical wetland plants. Sometimes non-native species can completely replace the natural
       wetland plant community, which alters the ecological functioning of the site.  Purple loosestrife,  reed
       canary grass, and common reed are examples of non-native invasive wetland plants.  Atlantic cordgrass
       becomes an invasive, exotic species when it occurs along the Pacific coast, outside its native range.

                                                               TECHNICAL   APPEND

              The spread of non-native species is a huge ecological problem  in the U.S.  The U.S. Fish  and Wildlife
              Service estimates that approximately 4600 acres per day in public natural areas are lost to non-native
              plants and animals. For many restoration and enhancement projects, significant effort is devoted to
              removing the invaders so that the native species can re-establish.

              Nutrient, turbidity, and salinity levels are key parameters determining the composition of wetland plant
              community.  Another critical element is the relationship of water levels to substrate elevation.  If water
              is too deep, emergent and sub-emergent vegetation will  not establish.  If the substrate elevation is too
              high, then what you may get  is an  upland.  In some habitats, such as vernal pools,  microtopographic
              changes must be re-created to establish  the very sensitive endemic species that occur there.

       Wetland   Animals

              Wetlands are inhabited by creatures large and small: water fleas  and  alligators; shrews and bears;
              minnows and salmon; wrens and herons.  Because wetlands exist where land and water meet, they are
              often used by animals from both wet and dry environments. Many species depend on wetlands for all
              or part of their lives.  For example, the salt marsh  harvest mouse lives its entire life in the  tidal  salt
              marshes around the San Francisco Bay.  It is so  well adapted to this habitat that it has developed special
              kidney functions that  allow it to eat salt marsh vegetation  and survive the ingestion of sea water.
              Wetlands are very important in maintaining biodiversity; they are used by approximately 80 percent of
              the wildlife species listed as endangered  or threatened under the Endangered Species Act.

              Some of the smallest wetland animals are invertebrates (animals without backbones) such as beetles,
              water fleas, crayfish, dragonflies, snails, and clams. Invertebrates are an important food source for other
              animals, both as adults and in their egg and larval forms.  Amphibians and, to a lesser extent, reptiles,
              are very strongly tied to wetlands because many frogs, snakes, turtles, and salamanders need both water
              and drier environments to complete their life cycles. Fish  are not found in all wetlands, but  wherever
              there is  permanent water fish are likely  to occur. Even  wetlands with only seasonal flooding may be
              temporary habitat for fish from adjacent  permanent  water. Many fish spawn in wetlands, and  wetlands
              are particularly valuable as nursery  areas where young fish can  hide from hungry predators until  they
              are big enough or fast enough to survive in open water.

              Birds are some of the best-known inhabitants  of wetlands.  Ducks, in particular,  are valuable to people
              who enjoy hunting or birding.  However, wetlands are also important to shorebirds (plovers, sandpipers)
              that feed in mudflats, wading birds (herons, egrets, bitterns) that feed in shallow water, songbirds (red-
              winged blackbirds,  rails, marsh wrens) that perch on or  nest in  tall  grasses or shrubs, and other birds
              such as terns and  hawks that are  all common inhabitants of wetlands.   Finally, mammals such as
              beavers, raccoons, shrews, mice, moose, and  bear are common  residents of wetlands, although their
              tracks are usually seen more often than the animals themselves.

              While the  ecological  requirements for  animals  vary  with the  species,   here  are  a  few general
              requirements of major taxa using wetlands:

              ^  Invertebrates process nutrients and organic matter and are important for supporting  much of the
                   wetland  food chain.  Invertebrate species  are numerous and  live  in a range of ecological
                   conditions.  In  general,  like  most  aquatic animals,  most  invertebrates   need  well-oxygenated
                   water.  Temperature levels and  food sources  are essential to support invertebrate  diversity. A
                   reliable source of water, a  diversity of typical  plant species, and buffers around the  wetland  will
                   support invertebrates by filtering out pollutants, moderating temperature, providing a variety of
                   habitats, and providing food sources.

            Amphibians and  reptiles (herptiles)  require a range of habitats during  their lifecycles.  Plant
            structural diversity, such as brush, leaf litter, and small dense stands of grass or reeds, can give
            these species cover, foraging and nesting habitat. Larger debris like logs are attractive for basking.
            Areas of sandy soil with a warm, southern  exposure encourage  turtle  reproduction.  Deep water
            areas will support species  that overwinter by burrowing in mud.  Shallow water (usually  with
            vegetation)  is important for hiding egg masses and protecting tadpoles from predators.  Gradual
            slopes from the  wetland to the upland help animals move easily  between  habitats. Habitat
            requirements vary by species and  restorations should be designed with the needs of local herptile
            species in mind.

            Fish need both shallow water to protect eggs and young fish, and deeper water for adults.  Fish
            may move in and out of wetlands as water depths fluctuate. Some wetlands support no fish or
            only small fish because the wetland is shallow or temporary. Temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO),
            and salinity  levels  are  parameters that will  determine   the  species  present.   Shade,
            streambed/wetland structure, and food sources  (such as invertebrates)  will also determine the
            species richness.  Trees for shade and large debris for hiding  can be very beneficial.  Some fish can
            provide insect control in the wetland. However, others, such as bottom-feeding fish can destroy
            submerged plant  communities and thereby  reduce light levels by stirring up sediment.
       •jllfe-  Birds occupy a variety of habitats in and around wetlands and are important indicators of wetland
            functioning. Breeding or migratory waterfowl and shorebirds will be present in wetlands that offer
            adequate cover and food sources.  Rare species can be  indicators of specific habitat conditions.
            For example, clapper  rail populations in west coast tidal salt marshes, are indicators of mature,
            healthy Pacific cordgrass marshes.  A wide range of bird species, including wrens, sparrows, and
            yellowthroats, live  and nest in wetlands or  where the  wetlands interface with  the upland.
            Adjacent uplands, especially grass, willow,  and tree dominated zones, are important as high tide
            refuges for wetland birds and  offer  millions  of migratory birds places to stop and  forage.  In
            developing wetland  enhancement  activities to attract particular species, carefully weigh the
            potential effects on other species that use the wetland. Restorationists have also found that some
            birds can be very destructive to newly installed plants;  geese, for example, are able to denude
            acres of newly planted stems in one night and they can  be one of the biggest challenges to new
            wetland restoration sites.

       ^Ife  Mammals generally need adjacent uplands or upland islands for escape during high-water periods.
            Therefore, undisturbed upland buffers and corridors connecting adjacent habitats are critical  to
            these taxa.  Nest boxes may attract bats, which can  provide insect control in the wetlands.
            Muskrats can help to  control vegetation, but can also "eat-out" the vegetation and be a nuisance
            with burrowing activities.  Beavers, a keystone species of wetlands throughout North America,
            can aid wetland restoration by creating the very water control structures that are needed to keep
            water in a wetland, but they  also can redesign your site by creating dams where you didn't plan
            for them.

       The conversion of wetland  vegetation to non-native plants alters the habitat for native animals and
       results in the loss of species from local wetlands. In addition,  non-native animals are  as big a problem
       as non-native plants.  Non-native animals are causing losses of wetland communities and biodiversity
       (see box on next page).
                                                               TECHNICAL   APPEND


A   N
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                              U  C  T  I   O  N
U  S
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              Nutria,  Non~native Nightmare
                   Nutria are large (8-18 Ib) beaver-like rodents native to South America.  Accidentally introduced into
                   Maryland's eastern shore marshes in the 1940's, nutria have been implicated in the loss of emergent
              brackish marsh.

              First noticeable in the 1950s, marsh loss along the Blackwater River in Dorchester County, Maryland, has
              accelerated at an alarming rate as nutria populations have grown. What was once continuous marshland
              now appears as fragmented remnants.

              Nutria forage directly  on the vegetation  root mat and cut the marsh into finer and finer fragments.
              Erosion by tidal  and wave action lowers the  unvegetated marsh  bottom and prevents plants from

              A recent study found that within the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge alone, over 6 square miles of
              marsh have been lost to open water since 1938. Over 50 percent of the remaining marsh has significant
              damage and may likely be lost in the  near future.
                       Animal communities vary with wetland type and region, but in general, healthy wetlands are rich in
                       wildlife and very productive. For example, approximately three-quarters of the Nation's commercially
                       harvested fish and shellfish depend on estuaries, of which wetlands are an integral part. According to
                       some estimates, the annual production associated with estuarine wetlands accounts  for more than
                       $100 billion dollars in sales of fish and shellfish and provides one and a half million jobs.

                       Each wetland has its own distinctive animal community. Relatively undisturbed wetlands in your region
                       will give you an idea of what you can expect to inhabit your wetland, as long as your wetland project
                       results in typical wetland  hydrology and native plant communities.  If you are interested in attracting
                       a particular animal or animals to your wetland, a wetland biologist or ecologist may be able to help you
                       pick specific plants or take other actions designed to accomplish that goal.
                APPENDIX T-II:  Activities  Used to Restore or Change Wetland Characteristics
                 Typical  Activities Used  to  Restore  or  Change  Hydrology:

                        ^Ilife Try to  reverse  the actions  that  caused  the loss  or  alteration  of a wetland's hydrologic
                            characteristics.  Some measures include:
                                  *  Remove dams or other water control structures
                                  *  Fill or  plug ditches or drains
                                  *  Remove fill that has elevated the land surface

                        A Bring additional water to the  site if the current water supply is inadequate.  Methods include:
                                  *  Dig channels to bring water to additional areas
                                  *  Pumping water in from other sites
                                  *  Installing  pipes to bring in water

                        A Control water levels by installing water control structures.  Some structures  include:
                                  *  Open culverts
                                  *  Culverts with manual or automatic gates
                                  *  Weirs
                                  *  Check dams
                TECHNICAL   APPENDIX

        iUtt  Use the lowest maintenance water control structures possible. Seek structures that allow flexibility in
            use and are able to withstand extreme hydrological and climatic (e.g. winter ice) events

        jfe  Reinstate proper substrate to water level elevations.  Some methods include:
                  *   If the substrate elevation is too low, allow natural sedimentation to build up the elevation
                      a passive method).
                  *   If the substrate elevation is too low, import appropriate sediment/soils (an active method).
                      Soils may come from upland sites, dredged sites (dredged material), or other wetlands.
                  *   If the substrate elevation is too high, excavate to the required level.
                  *   Shape and contour your site to re-establish the right relationship between the hydrology of
                      the site and its topography.

        ^fe  If the primary water source is tidal  or  groundwater, you  may  need very  precise grading because
            deviations of only inches can alter the habitat for plants.

Typical  Approaches  to   Improving  Water  Quality:

        •jllfe-  If contaminants  are  found  in the water  at the restoration site,  check uses  and  inputs upstream or
            adjacent to the site for  sewer outflows,  other outfall pipes, ditches draining industrial  or agricultural
            areas, landfills, or areas  where junk and trash has been illegally dumped.

        iUtt  If you find  a  potential source of pollution contact  local authorities for help to determine whether it is
            the source  of the contaminants and whether it can be cleaned up. Never attempt a clean-up yourself
            unless you know exactly  what you are  removing and you  own the  property or have the owner's
            permission. If a site contains contaminants in amounts that are toxic to wildlife or humans, have the
            toxic  materials removed  or remediated by professionals.

        ^Ife  If the source  of the pollution can't be removed, lessen its impact by:
                  *   Implementing "Best Management Practices" (BMPs) to  reduce pollution from stormwater
                      runoff from developed areas adjacent to the site. BMPs include activities such as  labeling
                      storm  drains,  installing settling basins, etc.
                  *   Planting vegetated upland buffers to reduce the amount of contaminants, excess nutrients,
                      or  sediment coming into your site from adjacent or upstream areas.
                  *   Selecting plant species that can tolerate the existing conditions.
                  *   Routing the water through  pools or other structures constructed to allow excess nutrients,
                      sediments, or  contaminants to settle out or become absorbed or converted to a less harmful
                      form by natural processes.
                  *   Educating neighbors about pollutant effects on wetlands and asking them to reduce their use
                      of  fertilizers and pesticides."

Typical  Activities for  Restoring or  Changing Soils/Substrates:

        ^  If soils are degraded  or  are lacking nutrients, organic matter or other soil component (often the case
            when wetlands are created from excavated uplands):
                  *   Do nothing, and see what plants grow at the site.
                  *   Amend the soil with materials designed to address the soil nutrient deficiency. There  are scores
                      of  amendment approaches. Talk to a specialist to determine the best  one for the problems.
                  *   Cover  the site with wetland soils salvaged from wetlands that are being  destroyed.

        ^fe  If you need to raise the elevation of compacted or  eroded sites:
                  *   Let natural sedimentation build up the elevation, if the process is fast enough.
                  *   Use dredged materials to build  up the elevation.
                                                              TECHNICAL   APPEND


              Provide controls  against erosion and sedimentation during construction  in or near the wetland  or
              aquatic areas.  Common erosion prevention techniques include:
                   *   wheat  straw (which is longer, thus more stable, than grass/hay straw)
                   *   mulch  or bales
                   *   fiber blankets
                   *   cover vegetation (temporary plantings or seeding)
                   *   plastic sediment fences with hay bales (be sure they are ultimately removed and do not
                       remain on site or wash downstream).

              Once construction is completed, you may want to delay flooding the site until the exposed soils have
              been stabilized with vegetation.

              Protect site against long-term erosion. Many methods exist to achieve this goal.
 Typical  Activities  for Establishing  a Healthy Wetland Plant  Community:

         iiik:  To establish native species for the target habitat type, after establishing hydrology and soil conditions:
                   *   Wait a season or two and see what comes in naturally (assuming wetland hydrology has been
                   *   Plant wetland vegetation, using local plants or seeds from local nurseries and  seed
                       distributors (see USDA's  Plant Materials Program for sources of seeds and plants at
                       "http://Plant-Materials.nrcs.usda.gov/").  If you are using seeds, ask for a germination test
                       result before you buy.
                   *   Salvage plants that would otherwise have been destroyed from local land development, road
                       building, or logging operations, and plant them at your site.

         ^llfc  Follow plant lifecycle needs, including:
                   *   Plant early in the species' growing season.
                   *   Control water, if possible, to help vegetation become established.
                   *   Provide irrigation until young  plants are established.

         ^  Control erosion, add nutrients,  and establish  cover  quickly with a fast-growing "cover  species" while
             slower-growing plants become established. Use a leguminous species to  boost soil nitrogen,  if needed.
             Never use an invasive or competitive native or non-native species.

         ^Nfei  Remove non-native species.  The wide range of methods falls into three categories:
                   *   Mechanical-pull by hand, use a pulaski or weed wrench, use a blade or backhoe, burn,  graze, etc.
                   *   Chemical-use a pre-emergent or a herbicide for emergent plants.
                   *   Biological-use a biocontrol  species, host-specific to the non-native exotic plant.

         4life  Protect new plants from herbivores. Many methods exist, depending on the  herbivore, including:
                   *   Fencing the planted area.
                   *   Putting wire cages around planted seeds,  roots, and shoots.
                   *   Put seedlings in plastic tubes, which also  keep in water.
                   *   Put up perching posts to attract birds of prey that feed on animals, such as gophers, which
                       feed heavily on new plants.

Typical  Activities  for Establishing  a  Healthy Wetland Animal Community:

       ^Ife  Plant upland species around the wetland to enhance the habitat diversity and act as a buffer.  Help with
             choosing species for wildlife cover and food, erosion control, etc. can be found on the Plant Materials
             Program website  at  "Plant-Materials.nrcs.usda.gov/",  the National Plant Data  Center website at
             "npdc.usda.gov/npdc/", and the Center for Plant Conservation website at "www.mobot.org/CPC/".

       ^Ife  Create a variety of habitats - different water depths, different vegetation types - to  appeal to a variety
             of animals.

       ^Ilk  Tailor nesting and foraging  habitats to particular native species,  especially rare  species,  based on
             information from wildlife specialists and reference  wetlands. Typical structures include:
                  *   Nest boxes  or nesting  platforms,
                  *   Perches,
                  *   Logs and brush,
                  *   Islands,
                  *   Specific food sources.

       ^Wfe:  Create a variety of gentle slopes of 3:1  to 20:1 (3:1 means three feet of length for every one foot of
             rise) similar to those in the reference wetlands.

       ^  Establish connections to  other  habitats  (e.g..channels connecting  to  larger water bodies, forested
             corridors connecting to wildlife refuges) unless those areas contain invasive species or other  threats.
                                                              TECHNICAL   APPEND


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  APPENDIX T-III:  Wetland  Parameters and Monitoring  Methods


   Wetland Type

   Drainage area

   Surrounding land use

   Wetland area


use existing map or create map
with property boundaries, scale,
north arrow, county, state, and

classify existing (if appropriate)
and intended type(s) (Cowardin
efa/., 1979)

identify USGS hydrologic unit
from  state maps  or  state
watershed unit

estimate %  surrounding land
use and  photograph major
types w/in 1,000 feet of site
(Anderson efa/., 1976)

determine wetland boundary
and use basic survey techniques
to create a map of the site
measure slope at intervals along
a transect

survey elevations every foot or
meter on transects traversing
the wetland
   Water depth
   Flow patterns
   Flow rates
   Indirect observations
above ground: use staff gauge,
below ground: use shallow well
or 2-3"  slotted  PVC  pipe
direct observation to indicate
major pathways and channels
on map
measure inflow or outflow (if
present) with flumes or weirs,
measure  interior flow with
current meters

record  observations of high-
water marks, drift lines, etc.
classify actual type(s)
estimate % surrounding land
use and photograph major types
w/in 1,000 feet of site (Anderson
etal. 1976)
above ground: use staff gauge,
below ground: use shallow well
or 2-3  slotted PVC pipe and
read on site
direct observation to indicate
major pathways and channels
on map
estimate flow based on rates
typical  for  the  area  and
estimated wetland size
record  observations of  high-
water marks, drift  lines, etc.
classify actual type(s)
map using GIS and appropriate
base  maps

estimate % surrounding land
use and photograph major
types w/in 1,000 feet of site
(Anderson ef  a/.,  1976)

delineate wetland boundary
and   use  basic   survey
techniques to create a map of
the site

survey elevations
                             survey elevations every foot or
                             meter on transects traversing
                             the wetland
above ground: use automatic
water  level  gauge, below
ground: use shallow well or 2-
3"  slotted  PVC  pipe  with
automatic recorder

regular direct observation or
aerial photography to indicate
major pathways/channels on

measure inflow or outflow (if
present) with flumes or weirs,
measure  interior flow with
current meters


  Soil depth

  Soil color

  Soil texture

  Organic matter

       dig to compacted soil or at least   dig to compacted soil or at least
       18 inches, observe changes in   18 inches, observe changes in
       soil  color  and  structure   soil color and structure
       use  Munsell  color chart to
       determine color of matrix (the
       dominant color)  and  any
       mottles or streaks
       use soil  texture triangle to
       classify based on feel (Horner
       and Raedeke, 1989)

       lab analysis for percent organic
       matter in top layer; include soil
       moisture  measurement

       survey  base elevations of
       completed project
  Species diversity





       identify species, document
       planting locations

       estimate coverage to 10%, map
       plant communities
       count plants and determine %
       of plants alive
use soil  texture triangle to
classify based on feel (Horner
and Raedeke, 1989)
read changes in sediment depth
from a staff gauge
identify common species and
note number of unidentified

estimate coverage to 10%, map
plant communities
take soil core to at least 18
inches deep and have soil
expert analyze the soil horizons
and their composition

use Munsell color chart to
determine color of matrix (the
dominant color) and any
mottles or streaks

take a soil core to soils lab for
particle size  analysis  of the
different soil horizons

lab analysis for percent organic
matter in top layer; include soil
moisture  measurement

survey   topography  or
bathymetry on a yearly basis;
or, take sediment cores on a
yearly basis for analysis by soils
identify all species, native and
collect  plot  data  along
transects, calculate coverage,
map  plant  communities
visually determine % of plants   count plants and determine %
alive                         of plants alive
                                    measure heights of particular
                                    plants on  a  regular  basis
                                    count stems and branching of
                                    particular plants on a regular

                                    of particular plants, determine
                                    the number  blooming  and
                                    setting seed each year
                             measure heights of randomly
                             chosen  plants  for  a  valid
                             statistical comparison

                             count stems and branching of
                             randomly chosen plants for a
                             valid statistical comparison

                             determine percentage of
                             randomly  chosen  plants
                             blooming  and setting seed
                             each year; count new seedlings
                             in  randomly  chosen  plots

                                                                  TECHNICAL    APPEND

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record direct and  indirect
observations of wildlife, fish,
and invertebrates

Use   Habitat  Evaluation
Procedures (FWS 1980) or
comparable   method  for
selected species

use trapping  or point count
methods  as  required  to
determine  diversity  and
abundance of indicator species
   Habitat evaluations
   Species diversity and
   Species survivorship

   Breeding success
   Rare species
   Water samples
   (pH, salinity, nutrients,
   pollutants, heavy metals,
   Sediment levels
when construction is over,
measure appropriate attributes
based on project targets using
field kits, meters, or lab analysis
use field meters or lab analysis
record  direct and indirect
observations of wildlife, fish, and
count bird  species and their
abundances on a regular (at
least quarterly) basis; ask local
Audubon chapter for any data
                             record any species breeding on
                             site  and  number of young
on a regular basis, measure
appropriate attributes based on
project targets using field kits
and/or field meters
observe clarity and/or use a
secchi disk
use  Habitat  Evaluation
Procedures (FWS 1980) or
comparable   method  for
selected species

use trapping,  point count or
other quantitative method as
required to determine diversity
and abundance of indicator spp

mark  and  recapture  study

use point counts, surveys, or
other protocols to determine
percent of population breeding
and numbers  of  young

conduct studies  as legally
permitted by the jurisdictional
wildlife or  resource agency
on a set schedule designed to
show seasonal differences,
measure appropriate attributes
based on project target using
field meters or lab analysis

use field meters or lab analysis

Appendix T-IV:  Definitions of Categories of Wetlands* Conservation Activities
      Q Establishment - the manipulation of the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics present to
       develop a wetland on an uplandb or deepwaterc site that did not previously exist.  Establishment results
       in a  gain in wetland acres.

      Q Restoration - the manipulation of the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of a site with
       the goal of returning natural/historic functions to a former or degraded wetland.  For the purpose of
       tracking net gains in wetland acres, restoration is divided into:

               Re-establishment - the manipulation of the physical, chemical,  or biological  characteristics
               of a site with the  goal of returning  natural/historic functions  to former wetlandd.   Re-
               establishment results in rebuilding a former wetland and results in a gain in wetland acres.

               Rehabilitation - the manipulation of the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of a
               site  with the goal of repairing natural/historic functions of degraded wetlande.  Rehabilitation
               results in a gain in wetland function but does not result in a gain in wetland acres.

      @ Enhancement - the manipulation of the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of a wetland
       (undisturbed  or degraded)  site to heighten, intensify, or improve specific function(s) or to  change the
       growth stage or composition of the vegetation present. Enhancement is undertaken for a purpose such
       as water quality improvement, flood water retention or wildlife  habitat.   Enhancement  results in  a
       change in wetland function(s), and can lead to a decline in other wetland functions, but does not result
       in a  gain  in  wetland acres.   This term includes  activities commonly  associated  with the  terms
       enhancement, management, manipulation, directed alteration.

      Q Protection/Maintenance - the removal of a threat to,  or preventing decline of, wetland conditions
       by an action  in or near a  wetland.  Includes purchase of  land or easements, repairing water control
       structures or  fences, or structural protection such as repairing a barrier island.  This term also includes
       activities commonly associated with the term preservation.  Protection/Maintenance does not result in
       a gain of wetland acres or function.
Current  Condition  of  Land,  Prior  to  Wetland Conservation  Activity

       a Wetlands (non-agricultural lands): The COE (Federal Register 1982) and the EPA (Federal Register
       1980) jointly define wetlands as: Those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water
       at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a
       prevalence of vegetation  typically adapted for life in  saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally
       include swamps, marshes,  bogs, and similar areas.

       Wetlands (agricultural lands): 1985  Food  Security Act.  Wetland is defined as  land  that; 1. has a
       predominance of hydric soils and 2. is inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency
       and duration  sufficient to support, and  under  normal circumstances  does support, a prevalence of
       hydrophytic vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. "Normal circumstances"
       refers to the soil and hydrologic conditions that are normally present,  without regard  to whether the
       vegetation has been removed.  All three wetland criteria,  hydric soils,  hydrophytic vegetation, and
       wetland hydrology, normally must be met for an area to be identified as wetland.
                                                          TECHNICAL   APPEND

                Wetlands (non-jurisdictional wetlands): Conservation activities conducted on all wetlands that
                meet the national standard for classifying wetlands ("Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater
                Habitats of the United States"), will be reported even if they are not considered to be regulatory
                wetlands.  The regulatory jurisdictional nature of a wetland  is not relevant to its status for these
                accounting activities.

                b   Uplands: Uplands are  neither deepwater habitats nor wetlands.  They are seldom or never
                inundated, or if frequently inundated, they have  saturated soils for only brief periods during the
                growing season, and, if vegetated,  they normally support  a  prevalence of vegetation typically
                adapted for  life only in aerobic soil conditions.

                c   Deepwater Habitat:  Deepwater  habitats  are  permanently flooded lands lying below the
                deepwater boundary of wetlands. The boundary between wetland and deepwater habitat  in tidal
                areas is the  elevation  of the extreme low water of spring tides. The boundary  between wetlands
                and the deepwater habitats of lakes and rivers lies at a depth of 2 meters (6.6 feet) below low
                water. If emergents, shrubs, or trees grow beyond this depth at any time, their  deepwater edge is
                the boundary.

                d   Former Wetland:  An area that once was a wetland but it has been modified to the point it no
                longer has the hydrologic characteristics of a wetland.  The area is  considered to be  upland.
                Formerly vegetated shallow coastal open water areas are also considered to be  "former wetlands"
                because when they were converted from wetland marshes  to open water areas, this conversion
                was considered to be  a loss of wetland acreage both by the Fish  and Wildlife Service's wetlands
                Status and Trends and Natural Resources Conservation Service's National Resources Inventory.

                Former wetlands include by definition  Prior Converted Croplands (PC) and, by determination, other
                areas that no longer meet the jurisdictional criteria for wetlands.

                        Prior converted wetland (PC): Wetlands that before December 23, 1985, were drained,
                        dredged, filled, leveled, or otherwise manipulated for the purpose of, or to have the effect
                        of,  making the production of an agricultural commodity possible. (National Food Security
                        Act Manual)

                e  Degraded Wetland: A  wetland with one or more functions reduced,  impaired, or damaged due
                to human activity. When  determining whether or not a wetland  is  degraded, consider: physical
                alteration, including the conversion  of a wetland  from one system (e.g., estuarine or marine) to a
                different system; chemical contamination; and  biological  alteration,  including the significant
                presence of  non-indigenous invasive species.

The printing of this document was made possible by:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service,
      Office of Habitat Conservation
            Habitat Protection Division
            Habitat Restoration Division
Environmental Protection Agency
      Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds
             Wetlands Division