Voluntary Guidelines for States
Development and Implementation of a
School Environmental Health Program
   ,
                   K M
                      1
 &EPA
   United States
   Environmental Protection
   Agency

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     Acknowledgments
       The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Children's Health Protection
     wishes to acknowledge those who were instrumental in the development of these voluntary
     guidelines for states on developing and implementing a school environmental health
     program. Particular recognition goes to the Federal Steering Committee (the Department of
     Education, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Agency for Toxic Substances
     and Disease Registry, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Defense, the Bureau
     of Indian Education, and the White House Council on Environmental Quality), established
     as directed by the Energy Independence and Security Act, and EPA's Program and Regional
     Offices for their direction, expertise, and support. Sincere appreciation also goes to the states
     of Colorado, Connecticut, Kentucky, Minnesota,  New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Washington,
     and Wisconsin for providing insight and perspective on their existing school-related
     environmental health programs, as well as their permission to include case studies that
     highlight their programs in the guidelines.
       Most importantly, EPA would like to acknowledge the stakeholders, state officials, school
     officials and staff, parents, and interest groups for their continued interest and invaluable
     input to EPA throughout the process of developing these voluntary guidelines.
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Acronyms and  Abbreviations
AGC        Academy for Global
            Citizenship
CCHS       Colorado Coalition for
            Healthy Schools
CDC        Centers for Disease Control
            and Prevention
CHPS       Collaborative for High
            Performance Schools
CSIERT      Connecticut School Indoor
            Environment Resource Team
EPA         Environmental Protection
            Agency
GEE         Green Education Foundation
HAP        Hazardous air pollutant
HAZMAT    Hazardous material
HealthySEAT Healthy Schools
            Environments Assessment
            Tool
HVAC       Heating, ventilation, and air
            conditioning
IAQ         Indoor air quality
IgCC        International Green
            Construction Code
IPM         Integrated pest management
KEEPS       Kentucky Energy Efficiency
            Program for Schools
KGHS       Kentucky Green and Healthy
            Schools
LEED        Leadership in Energy and
            Environmental Design
LHJ         Local health jurisdiction
MCCSC      Monroe County Community
            School Corporation
NEED       National Energy Education
            Development project
NGO


NIOSH



PCB
PEHSU


PWS
RIDE



RRP Rule


SAVES


SchEH&S



SDS
SMP


TEAMS
TIMES
VOC
Non- governmental
organization
National Institute for
Occupational Safety and
Health
Polychlorinated Biphenyl
Pediatric Environmental
Health Specialty Unit
Public water system
Rhode Island Department of
Elementary and Secondary
Education
Renovation, Repair and
Painting Rule
School Advanced Ventilation
Engineering Software
(Washington) School
Environmental Health and
Safety Program
Safety Data Sheets
Sustainability management
plan
(Carrollton-Farmer's Branch
Independent School District,
Texas) Tools for Schools,
Energy, Asbestos, Moisture
Management, Safety and
Security
(Carrollton-Farmer's Branch
Independent School District,
Texas) Tools for Schools,
Integrated Pest Management,
Moisture Management,
Energy, Safety and Security
Volatile organic compound
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     Executive Summary
       The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed these voluntary
     guidelines3 to assist states in establishing and implementing environmental health programs
     for K-12 schools in accordance with the Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007.
     In carrying out this statutory mandate,  EPA, along with its federal partners, developed
     these guidelines to help statesb establish the infrastructure needed to support schools in
     implementing school environmental health programs. The practices recommended within
     these guidelines can also be applied, with appropriate adaptation, to a wide range of school-
     related institutions, including child care and early learning centers.
       Protecting children's health and advancing environmental justice are critically important
     goals for EPA, as reflected in EPA's strategic plan.1 A child's developing organ systems are
     often highly sensitive to environmental stressors, and children are frequently more heavily
     exposed to toxic substances in the environment than are adults.2 Children in minority,
     low-income, and other underserved populations, as well as children with disabilities, can
     experience higher exposures to multiple environmental contaminants where they live, learn,
     and play and might be placed at a disproportionate risk for associated health effects.3
       School environments play an important role in the health and academic success of
     children. Children spend 90% of their time indoors and much of that time is spent in school.
     Unhealthy school environments can affect children's health, attendance, concentration,
     and performance, as well as lead to expensive, time-consuming cleanup and remediation
     activities.4 To foster children's health and academic achievement, healthy school
     environments must be addressed and integrated within the education system.
       States can play a critical leadership role in promoting healthy school environments
     for children. These guidelines build on the foundation established by well-documented
     strategies and existing federal programs, such as EPA's Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Tools for
     Schools program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Coordinated School
     Health strategy, and provide examples of best practices from existing state environmental
     health programs for schools. These voluntary guidelines recommend five basic elements and
     six steps that states can take to build or enhance a sustainable state environmental health
     program for schools.
       To complement the guidelines, EPA has developed a model K-12 school environmental
     health program as a resource that states can customize and share with schools and school
     districts to help them establish or enhance their individual school environmental health
     programs. The model program, included as Appendix A to this document, reflects and builds
     on EPA's Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Tools for Schools program framework  and identifies five
     broad components of environmental health issues that schools need to address to ensure
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     Six Recommended Steps that States Can Take to Build or Enhance a
     Sustainable State Environmental Health Program for Schools
       STEP1
      STEP 2
Assess Existing Resources and Infrastructure Identify a lead office within
a state agency that can work with other agencies and assess existing
state initiatives and any existing laws, policies, or regulations that address
healthy school environments.
Determine Capacity Determine the capacity of each state agency to
contribute to an effective state environmental health program for schools.
      STEP 3
Develop a Plan Develop an initial plan to establish a new, or enhance
an existing, state environmental health program for schools based on
available resources.
      STEP 4
Implement the Program Work with the lead office or steering committee
to ensure the state program is implemented effectively.
      STEPS
Evaluate the Program Evaluate the state program's goals, activities, and
milestones to determine whether they need to be revised or expanded to
improve the program.
      STEP 6
Sustain the Program Utilize the results of state program evaluations to
determine the return on investment, make adjustments to the program
where needed, and communicate successes.
     healthy school environments for children and staff. The components are presented in a tiered
     approach that recommends actions for schools that do not have an environmental health
     program, as well as actions schools can take to enhance an existing program. The steps
     outlined in the model program are consistent with many of the priority actions identified as
     criteria for the U.S. Department of Education Green Ribbon Schools recognition award.
       Three additional appendices contain information and resources that complement these
     guidelines and the model program. Appendix B presents case studies that highlight states
     with effective school environmental health programs, including best practices and lessons
     learned. Appendix C contains a comprehensive listing of websites, tools, and resources that
     states, schools, and school districts can consult when developing and implementing state
     and local school environmental health programs. Appendix D contains a list of frequently
     asked questions that address issues such as the purpose, content, audience, and scope of the
     guidelines.
IV
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         These guidelines are voluntary and are not intended to replace, amend, or negate policies,
      statutes, regulations, activities, or guidance related to existing school environmental health
      programs. By following the recommendations in these guidelines, states can help promote
      safe and healthy school environments for children and school staff.


      Endnotes

        1.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). EPA strategic plan. Retrieved 2012, from U.S. Environmental
           Protection Agency: www.epa.gov/planandbudget/strategicplan.html.

        2.  American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Environmental Health. (2003). Developmental toxicity: Special
           considerations based on age and developmental state. In Etzel, R., & S. Balk (Eds.), Pediatric Environmental Health
           (Second ed., pp. 9-36). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Environmental Health.

        3.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2003). America's children and the environment: Measures of
           contaminants, body burdens, and illnesses. February. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 240-R-03-001.
           http://yosemite.epa.gov/ochp/ochpweb.nsf/content/ACEreport3_19final.htm/$File/ACEreport2_21final.pdf.

        4.  Buchanan, B. (2007). Sick buildings, sick students: Poor air quality and other environmental irritants can lead to
           health concerns for your students and staff. American School Board Journal, 48-50.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM

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     Table of Contents
     Acknowledgments	i
     Acronyms and Abbreviations	ii
     Executive Summary	iii
     About the Guidelines	1
        EPA's Role in Promoting K-12 School
        Environmental Health Programs for States	1
         What is an Effective State Environmental Health Program for Schools?	1
         The Importance of Environmental Health in K-12 Schools	2
         Costs and Benefits of a State Environmental Health Program for Schools	4
     The Role of States in Fostering Environmental Health Programs in K-12 Schools	6
        Basic Elements of a State  Environmental Health Program for Schools	7
     Developing a Successful State Environmental Health Program for Schools	9
        Overview: Six Steps for Establishing a State Environmental
        Health Program for Schools	9
     Step 1: Assess Existing Resources and Infrastructure	10
        Leadership and Coordination	10
        Steering Committee and Program Partners	10
        Subject Matter Experts	11
        Existing Initiatives	13
        State Laws  and Policies	13
     Step 2: Determine Capacity	18
     Step 3: Develop a Plan	19
        Establish Goals and Priorities of the State Program Plan	19
        Emergency Management	21
        Program Implementation	22
        Public Communication and Outreach	23
        Staff Training and Education	23
        Measures to Assess Progress	24
VI
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     Step 4: Implement the Program	25
     Step 5: Evaluate the Program	27
     Step 6: Sustain the Program	29
     Tools and Resources to Assist States with
     Environmental Health Programs for Schools	31
     IAQ Tools for Schools At-a-Glance	33
       EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools Framework
       fora K-12 School Environmental Health Program	33
     Implementing Coordinated School Health	35
       How States Can Implement a Coordinated School Health Strategy	35
       How Schools and School Districts Can Implement a
       Coordinated School Health Strategy	36
     Endnotes	37

     Appendix A: Model K-12 School Environmental Health Program	A-1
     Appendix B: State Case Studies	B-1
     Appendix C: Additional Information and Resources	C-1
     Appendix D: Frequently Asked Questions	D-1

     Figures
     Six Recommended Steps that States Can Take to Build or Enhance
     a Sustainable State Environmental Health Program for Schools	iv, 9
     Map of State School Environmental  Health Statutes	16
     State School Environmental Health  Statutes...                                    ...16
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     About  the  Guidelines
     EPA's Role in Promoting K-12 School
     Environmental Health  Programs for States
     The Energy Independence and Security
     Act of 2007 amended the Toxic Substances
     Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq., by adding
     a requirement for the U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency (EPA), in consultation
     with relevant federal agencies, to
     develop voluntary guidelines to assist
     states in establishing and implementing
     environmental health programs for K-12
     schools. Healthy school environments
     play an important role in the health and
     academic success of children.  Exposure
     to environmental hazards in schools can
     negatively impact the health of children and
     school staff.1 Unhealthy school environments
     can also affect attendance,  concentration,
     and performance, as well as lead to
     expensive, time-consuming cleanup and
     remediation activities.1
     Protecting children's health and advancing
     environmental justice are critically
     important goals for EPA, as reflected in
     EPA's strategic plan.2 A child's developing
     organ systems are often more  sensitive to
     environmental stressors, and children are
     frequently more heavily exposed to toxic
     substances in the environment than are
     adults.3 Children in minority, low-income,
     and other underserved populations, as well
     as children with disabilities, can experience
     higher exposures to multiple environmental
     contaminants where they live, learn, and play
     and might be placed at a disproportionate
     risk for associated health effects.4
     EPA has a host of programs and an
     extensive list of resources to help states
     assist schools and school districts in
creating comprehensive, sustainable
strategies that promote healthy learning
places for students. EPA's Indoor Air Quality
(IAQ) Tools for Schools Program, ENERGY
STAR for K-12 School Districts, Integrated
Pest Management (IPM) for Schools, School
Flag Program, and SunWise are just some
of the EPA programs and resources that are
included in these guidelines.

What is an Effective State
Environmental Health Program
for Schools?
An effective state environmental
health program for schools is a holistic,
comprehensive, and actionable strategy
that integrates preventive measures and
addresses environmental health issues
by fostering well-maintained school
buildings and grounds. Sustainable school
environmental health programs promote
school environments that are conducive to
learning and protect the health of children
and staff. These programs have the added
benefits of reducing school absenteeism,
enhancing student performance, and
ultimately, saving money for schools and
school districts.5 Existing, successful school
environmental health programs have been
strongly supported and sustained through
the development and implementation of
state policies and regulations that promote
awareness and participation by teachers,
school staff, and students.
These guidelines are designed to help states
address environmental health challenges in
K-12 schools by:
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 * Outlining steps that states can take
   to establish, promote, and sustain
   successful and affordable school
   environmental health programs.
   Assisting states in providing schools and
   school districts with technical tools and
   resources, including a comprehensive
   model school environmental health
   program, to help schools implement
   practical, cost-effective environmental
   health solutions.
 • Sharing best practices and highlighting
   case studies of successful, cost-effective
   state environmental health programs
   for schools that can be implemented by
   other states.

The Importance of
Environmental Health
in K-12 Schools
On any given day in America, more than
50 million public school students spend a
significant portion of their day in school
buildings.6 When the school environment
is unhealthy, children can be exposed
to allergens, pollutants, chemicals, and
classroom conditions (e.g., poor ventilation,
lighting, acoustics, and temperature control)
that might cause their health, attendance,
and academic performance to suffer.c-7In
    Examples of Symptoms
    Caused  by  Poor  Indoor
    Environmental Health:1
       Respiratory irritation
       Sore throats
    * Drowsiness
    •*• Headaches
    •*• Asthma attacks
    it Inability to concentrate
a 2005 survey conducted by the National
Center for Educational Statistics, 43% of
public school principals reported that a
variety of environmental factors (e.g.,
indoor air quality, ventilation, and day
lighting) interfered with the delivery of
instruction in permanent school buildings.8
Furthermore, a 2011 report issued by the
Institute of Medicine suggests climate
change might worsen existing indoor
environmental problems and introduce
new ones.9

        Vulnerability of Children to
        Contaminants in Their
        Environment
Children are often more heavily exposed
to toxic substances in the environment
than adults because they spend more
time on the ground and engage in more
hand-to-mouth behavior. Children also
breathe more air, drink more water, and
eat more food per pound of body weight
than adults.3 A child's respiratory, immune,
nervous, reproductive, and skeletal systems
continue to develop throughout childhood.
Exposures to environmental contaminants
that occur early in life can cause adverse
health impacts in children that can
have implications well into adulthood.10
Furthermore, some children with disabilities
face unique challenges that might make
them particularly vulnerable to the effects of
an unhealthy school environment.
When addressing children's environmental
health in schools, it is important to note
that poor indoor environments can affect a
child's health. Dirt, allergens, chemicals, and
other contaminants can trigger or further
aggravate allergies and illnesses, such as
asthma. Asthma is a great health concern
for children, and is the leading cause of
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          Environmental Justice and Children's  Health in Schools
          When addressing children's environmental health in schools, it is important to note that
          significant disparities exist in the prevalence of chronic health outcomes in children.3'11 For
          example, although the prevalence of asthma in American children has been reported to
          be slightly less than 10% as a whole, in 2009, the prevalence of asthma among African-
          American children living below the poverty line was approximately 18%, or twice the
          national average.11 Numerous asthma triggers can be present in school environments,
          ranging from mold to constituents in cleaning  products and pesticides. A variety of
          chronic health outcomes are of potential concern among children in schools and these
          issues can result in disparate impacts in a broad diversity of populations, including
          children with disabilities.
          Healthy school environments are a key step in reducing asthma disparities. The
          Coordinated Federal Action Plan to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Asthma Disparities, released
          in May 2012 by the President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks
          to Children, promotes reducing the burden caused  by asthma on children in minority and
          low-income communities, including reducing exposures to asthma triggers in the school
          environment.
          In addition, the quality of the school environment is often tied to income. Per capita
          school expenditures can vary greatly according to community resources, especially
          because many school districts rely on  local property taxes for funding.12 In 1999, a
          federal survey of school facilities in a representative sample of 903 public elementary
          and secondary schools13 found that 20% of schools had a building in less than adequate
          repair, 43% had at least one infrastructure deficiency (e.g., heating, indoor air quality),
          and approximately 10% were seriously overcrowded (greater than 125% capacity). Not
          surprisingly, predominantly low-income schools suffered a disproportionate burden of
          inadequate school facilities.12
     children's absence from school.14 Children
     who have uncontrolled asthma have more
     disturbed sleep, have been shown to perform
     worse on concentration and memory
     tests, and tend to have more psychological
     problems.15 Asthma can have significant
     impacts on a variety of children's health
     outcomes and classroom performance.16
     Impact on Student Performance
     Poor indoor environments have been
     associated with a variety of health
     symptoms and a decline in student
     performance in reasoning, typing,
     and math.17 Several studies have found
     that health, attendance, and academic
performance improve with increased
maintenance of school facilities.16'18 For
instance, one study found that schools
in better physical condition report
improved academic performance while
schools with fewer janitorial personnel
and higher maintenance backlogs report
poorer academic performance.19 Other
studies demonstrate that improved
indoor air quality increases productivity
and performance of mental tasks (e.g.,
concentration and recall) in both adults
and children.47 Growing evidence also
suggests that improving outdoor air
ventilation rates can improve student and
teacher performance, increase test scores,
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM

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and reduce airborne transmission of
infection.20'21'22'23'24 In one study, children
in classrooms with higher outdoor air
ventilation rates scored 14 to 15% higher
on standardized tests than children
in classrooms with lower outdoor air
ventilation rates.25
A state environmental health program for
schools can play a critical role in setting
the expectation for schools to  provide an
environment that protects children's health
and maximizes student performance.

School Legal Requirements
Although these guidelines are voluntary, it is
important to note that schools are obligated
to comply with relevant environmental
regulations, and environmental compliance
is an integral part of a state environmental
health program for schools. EPA Region
2's Environmental Compliance and Best
Management Practices: Guidance Manual
for K-12 Schools serves as a helpful reminder
of key environmental requirements. It is
important to note that this document does
not address state or local requirements
that could apply and, in some  cases, be
more stringent. Other organizations that
provide resources to help K-12 schools with
compliance include the National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health's Safety
Checklist for Schools and the Environmental
Law Institute's Indoor Environments and
Green Buildings Policy Resource Center.
Additionally, the Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act of 1997 and section 504 of
the Rehabilitation Act of 1973,  Subpart D,
require public elementary and secondary
school recipients of federal funding to
provide an appropriate public  education
d For a summary of the impact of indoor environmental quality
  on work and school performance, as well as other indooi air
  quality research findings, see the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
  Scientific Findings Resource Bank established as a cooperative
  venture between EPA an ~J thซ Lawrence Berkeley National
  Laboratory: Accessible at.; ittp://www,iaqscience.lbl.gov/
  performance-summary .html.
    SNAPSHOT:
    School Buildings and
    Student  Performance
    A 2008 study of 95 New York City
    public schools found that students
    attended fewer days on average and
    had lower grades in English, language
    arts, and math when enrolled in
    school  facilities that were in poor
    condition.26
to qualified students with disabilities,
which include those with respiratory
physical impairments. The provisions of an
appropriate education must be designed
to meet the individual educational needs
of disabled persons as adequately as the
needs of nondisabled persons. Properly
addressing indoor environmental quality
can help schools adhere to the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act and improve
student and staff performance.

          Costs and Benefits of a
          State Environmental
          Health Program
          for Schools
Although schools and school districts
face many financial challenges, modest
investments in improving school
environments and implementing practical
preventive strategies can yield significant
benefits and cost savings. Benefits of state
environmental health programs for schools
can be seen in decreased absenteeism
among children and teachers,7'27 stronger
academic performance,9'28'29 and
higher scores on standardized tests.30
Small investments to address critical
environmental issues in schools can
save schools money by avoiding costly
cleanups and remediation related to
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     poor indoor air quality, mold and mildew
     damage, mismanaged chemicals, and
     pest infestation. By implementing school
     environmental health programs, states can
     help schools significantly improve their
     environments, where children spend more
     time than any other place outside of their
     homes.
     There are measurable costs for not
     promoting healthy school environments.
     The costs imposed by environmentally
     attributable diseases, such as asthma,
     on children, families, and schools are
     immense.31 According to the Centers for
     Disease  Control and Prevention (CDC), the
     annual economic cost of asthma, including
     direct medical costs from hospital stays and
     indirect  costs (e.g., lost school and work
     days), amounts to more than $56 billion
     annually.33 For states, a large percentage
     of these  costs can be attributed to health
     care expenditures, lost school days, and
     lost productivity (e.g., parents having to
     stay home to care for a sick child). Given
     the amount of time that children spend
     in school every day, high-quality school
     environments are critically important for
     ensuring that children are healthy and able
     to perform in the classroom.
It is also important to focus on healthy
school environments when conducting
other upgrades to schools, such as energy
efficiency improvements (e.g., changes
to the building envelope, ventilation
systems, lighting, and climate control).
When done properly, many energy
efficiency upgrades can yield significant
cost savings and environmental benefits,
and can also help improve the quality of a
school's indoor environment, protecting,
and even enhancing, indoor air quality
without sacrificing energy performance.
If certain energy upgrades are not done
correctly, however, they might adversely
impact indoor air quality and cause other
health concerns for children and staff.
For example, increased energy efficiency
in building construction, in some cases,
has resulted in tighter building shells and
reduced ventilation rates. EPA's Energy
Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality in Schools
working paper describes how to enhance
energy efficiency while protecting indoor
air quality. For additional guidance on
indoor air quality, consult EPA's IAQ Tools
for Schools Action Kit.
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     The Role  of  States in  Fostering  Environmental
     Health Programs  in  K-12  Schools
     States can play a variety of critical roles
     in promoting and ensuring that schools
     implement effective, comprehensive,
     and sustainable environmental health
     programs. For example, state agencies
     have participated in the development and
     implementation of policies and regulations
     for schools that encourage adoption of
     environmental health best practices and
     ensure healthier, productive environments
     for children and staff. Successful
     implementation of these best practices
     for healthy school environments can help
     reduce children and staff absenteeism,
     improve student performance, and
     prevent unnecessary costs associated with
     unhealthy school environments.5
These voluntary guidelines present best
practices and lessons learned from existing
state programs in an effort to encourage
states, schools, and school districts to adopt
health-promoting practices in schools.
Colorado, Connecticut, Kentucky, New
Hampshire, Washington, Wisconsin, and
numerous other states have already done
significant work in the area of school
environmental health. They have promoted
implementation of effective integrated
pest management6 practices, indoor air
                      n effective and
                      ch to pest management
  that uses cunert comprehensive information on the life
  cycles of pests and their interactions with the environment, in
  combination with available pest control methods, to manage
  pests economically, and with the least possible risk to people,
  property, and thซ environment.
         Promoting Environmental  Health in Tribal Schools
         American Indian and Alaska Native people have long experienced health disparities when
         compared with other Americans.33 American Indians and Alaska Natives born today
         have a life expectancy that is more than 5 years less than the U.S. all races population.33
         The continuing health disparities of American Indians and Alaska Natives point to the
         importance of ensuring that tribal children have safe places to live, learn, and play. Tribal
         councils and different tribal agencies, including tribal departments of health, environment,
         and education will likely have complementary knowledge, expertise, and skills that can
         be helpful in ensuring that a community, tribal, or Bureau of Indian Education school
         located in Indian Country (i.e., all lands within the boundaries of an Indian reservation,
         including fee land) or on other tribal lands provides a healthy learning environment for
         tribal children. In cases where tribal members attend schools outside of Indian Country,
         tribes are encouraged to coordinate with state and local governments to ensure that tribal
         children have the opportunity to learn in a healthy school.33 Tribes currently promote
         healthy school environments by:
            Assisting schools with the removal and proper disposal of hazardous chemicals;
         it Working to ensure drinking water standards are met at schools;
            Conducting outdoor classroom programs for students; and
         •*• Using culturally based education to implement healthy practices at schools.
         Visit EPA Region 8's Clean, Green, and Healthy Tribal Schools website for more information.
6
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     quality programs, healthy energy efficiency
     policies, and other environmental health-
     related regulations in schools. Case studies
     from these programs, and others, are
     highlighted throughout these guidelines and
     in Appendix B to demonstrate best practices
     that states can follow when establishing state
     environmental health programs for schools.

              Basic Elements of a State
              Environmental Health
              Program for Schools
     A state environmental health program for
     schools is characterized by key state agencies
     (e.g., departments of health, education, energy,
     and environment) working together along
     with stakeholders to develop and implement
     comprehensive policies, best practices, and
     standards to help schools and school districts
     address environmental health issues in school
     facilities. Leadership from a state program
     can provide schools and school districts with
     the consistent guidance, resources, tools,
     and information they need to create healthy
     school environments for children and staff that
     promote high student achievement.
     Effective state environmental health
     programs for schools incorporate the
     following basic elements.
     Policies and Standards - Several effective
     state environmental health programs for
     schools have been built on a foundation of
     state policies and standards that support,
     promote, or require schools and school
     districts to implement practices that
     promote environmental health. States are
     encouraged to identify and implement
     existing policies and standards that can help
     establish a robust school environmental
     health program, and to consider whether
     there are additional opportunities to protect
     children's health through the development
     of additional statewide policies or standards
     for healthy schools.
    STATE HIGHLIGHT:

    Wisconsin Green  and
    Healthy Schools
    In 2002, the Wisconsin Department
    of Natural Resources adopted
    a model that integrated many
    existing school environmental health
    and safety programs as a way to
    streamline its work with schools. The
    result was a web-based certification
    program available to all Wisconsin
    K-12 schools designed to directly
    support schools in their quest for a
    healthy, safe, and environmentally
    friendly learning environment.
    In 2003, the Wisconsin Department
    of Natural Resources rolled out
    their Green Schools program. A
    year later, the agency partnered
    with the Wisconsin Department
    of Public Instruction to create
    the Wisconsin Green and Healthy
    Schools Program. In the absence
    of school environmental health
    legislation/policies at the state level,
    this voluntary, school-paced program
    promotes environmental health
    in schools throughout the state in
    a comprehensive and accessible
    manner. As of 2012, there are 140
    Wisconsin schools participating in
    the program.
    For more information, visit  the
    Wisconsin Green and Healthy
    Schools Program website.
Guidance and Technical Assistance
- Effective state environmental health
programs for schools provide guidance,
technical assistance, and tools to help
schools and school districts take actions to
protect environmental health in their school
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                                                              7

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     facilities. States should ensure that schools
     are aware of available resources in a way
     that is comprehensive, user-friendly, and
     accessible to all schools and school districts.
     Resources - States should identify training
     opportunities, educational and promotional
     materials (e.g., fact sheets and brochures),
     financial assistance, incentives, and other
     resources that are available to promote
     healthy school environments for schools
     and school districts. States are encouraged
     to review existing resources to identify gaps
     that could have an impact on the success
     of the program. EPA's Healthy School
     Environments website provides a wealth
     of information and tools that can serve as
     resources for state environmental health
     programs for schools.
     Communication and Outreach - States
     should establish methods for disseminating
     information to school districts to
     communicate and gather feedback
     concerning school environmental health
     initiatives. It is also important to reach out
     to potential partners such as colleges and
     universities, foundations, state associations
     and non-profit organizations, and other
     stakeholders that can provide technical
     assistance and resources to schools and
     school districts.
     Emergency Management  - An effective
     state emergency management program
     or plan focuses on the prevention of
     environmental health emergencies (e.g.,
     chemical spills, mold and mildew damage,
     and accidental exposure to contaminants)
     that could place children and staff at risk.
     States should have emergency protocols,
     procedures, and points of contact in place
     that are accessible to schools, school
     districts,  and the general public. In the
     event of an emergency, states should
     provide guidance and recommendations to
     schools and school districts throughout the
     emergency situation.
STATE  HIGHLIGHT:

Rhode  Island
In 2007, Rhode Island passed a set
of school construction regulations
that require all schools receiving
construction funding to implement an
indoor air quality management plan
and use the Northeast Collaborative
for High Performance Schools
protocol, which has a strong focus
on indoor air quality. Schools are
also required to form green teams
comprised  of school personnel to
oversee program implementation and
environmental education efforts.
The Rhode Island Department of
Primary and Secondary Education
(RIDE)  has developed a multi-
stakeholder, community approach
to implement and sustain its school
environmental health efforts. RIDE
has teamed up with the Rhode Island
Department of Health, the National
Energy Education Development
project, non-profit organizations,
universities, and private sector
businesses to create outreach
materials and provide training.
With such a broad coalition of
stakeholders, RIDE has helped plan
an annual sustainable schools summit.
The summit promotes healthy
learning environments and provides
resources to integrate sustainability
practices into school curriculum and
culture.
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     Developing  a  Successful State
     Environmental  Health  Program for Schools
     Overview: Six Steps for Establishing a State Environmental
     Health Program for Schools

     Before a state develops or enhances an environmental health program for schools, it
     is necessary to assess existing efforts, develop a plan, and build an infrastructure that
     will support and sustain the program. Communication with program participants and
     stakeholders is critical when establishing a state environmental health program for
     schools. States should develop a communication process, for every step of the program,
     to continuously incorporate feedback and identify opportunities to enhance the program.
     The figure and discussion that follow provide an overview of six steps that states can take to
     establish a successful environmental health program for schools.

     Six Recommended Steps that States Can Take to Build or Enhance a
     Sustainable State Environmental Health Program for Schools
      STEP1
Assess Existing Resources and Infrastructure Identify a lead office within
a state agency that can work with other agencies and assess existing state
initiatives and any existing laws, policies, or regulations that address healthy
school environments.
      STEP 2
Determine Capacity Determine the capacity of each state agency to
contribute to an effective state environmental health program for schools.
      STEP 3
Develop a Plan Develop an initial plan to establish a new, or enhance an
existing, state environmental health program for schools based on available
resources.
      STEP 4
Implement the Program Work with the lead office or steering committee to
ensure the state program is implemented effectively.
                    Evaluate the Program Evaluate the state program's goals, activities, and
                    milestones to determine whether they need to be revised or expanded to
                    improve the program.

     ___^_^_^_  Sustain the Program Utilize the results of state program evaluations to
     •Sfll           determine the return on investment, make adjustments to the program
                    where needed, and communicate successes.
                                                     I
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM

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         STEP1
issess Existing Resources and Infrastructure
lentify a lead office within a state agency that can work
/ith other agencies and assess existing state initiatives
nd any existing laws, policies, or regulations that address
ealthy school environments.
     Existing state healthy schools initiatives
     can serve as a foundation for establishing
     or improving a state environmental health
     program for schools. By identifying a lead
     office to coordinate and, where feasible,
     expand on existing initiatives, states can
     begin to build the infrastructure necessary
     to maintain a successful program. The
     overall infrastructure for the program
     will vary based on the agencies involved,
     available resources, and existing policies.

     Leadership and Coordination
     Several state agencies are likely to be
     central to a state environmental health
     program for schools, including the
     departments of education, public health,
     environment, and agriculture. Ideally, an
     office in one of these agencies will take the
     lead role in managing the overall program
     (e.g., Washington's lead agency is the state
     Department of Health and Connecticut's
     lead agency is the state Department of
     Public Health). The lead office should be
     responsible for coordinating across state
     agencies with authorities, programs,
     policies, guidelines, and standards
     affecting school environmental health.
     The lead office might already be doing
     work in an area that can easily be expanded
     to include school environmental health,
     or might be an office that has resources
     (e.g., time, personnel, funds, or subject
     matter expertise) available to commit
     to the program. In some cases, non-
     governmental organizations (NGOs)
     have acted as conveners of school
     environmental health activities. One
     example is the Maryland Association of
                Environmental and Outdoor Education.
                When initiating the program, the lead office
                should consider reaching out to other
                states with existing programs to share ideas
                on potential approaches and strategies
                for establishing a school environmental
                health program. At a minimum, the lead
                office should meet with relevant agencies
                and departments within the state to better
                understand, identify, and maintain points
                of contact for existing environmental health
                initiatives and resources.

                Steering Committee and
                Program Partners
                Many state and local agencies that provide
                public health, education, and environmental
                services (e.g., energy, commerce, and local
                county health departments) will likely have
                staff with complementary knowledge,
                expertise, and skills that can be helpful in
                developing or enhancing various aspects of
                a school environmental health program. To
                ensure better coordination on cross-cutting
                issues and initiatives, the lead office should
                work with these agencies to establish an
                interagency team or steering committee.
                The steering committee will work to set the
                direction, scope, and priorities of the  program.
                The following list provides examples of the
                many types of participants who could serve
                on or work with the steering committee to
                establish an effective state environmental
                health program for schools:
                  State legislators and local administrative
                  officials (e.g., county executives, council
                  members, and mayors);
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                               VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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        Local education authorities (e.g.,
        superintendents, chief academic officers,
        school board members, and school
        business officials);
        School administrators and staff (e.g.,
        school administration, nurses, educators,
        and facility managers);
        Community members (e.g., parents,
        students, concerned citizens, local
        college/university outreach partners, and
        commercial businesses contracted by
        school districts);
        School organizations and associations
        (e.g., school health councils, education
        associations, nurse associations, parent-
        teacher organizations, and labor/teachers
        unions); and
        Non - profit/non - governmental
        organizations (e.g., buildings and grounds
        associations and asthma coalitions).
     The roles of the steering committee
     members and participants should be
     well established prior to developing or
     enhancing a state environmental health
     program for schools. For  instance, one
     agency might take responsibility for
     consulting with school districts and
     providing technical assistance, while
     another agency might take responsibility
     for responding to emergency incidents
     or forming a response team. A program
     might be strengthened by memoranda of
     understanding between the lead agency and
     other participating agencies to help outline
     the roles and responsibilities of each agency
     in every aspect of the program.

     Subject Matter Experts
     School environmental health can be a
     complex topic to address. States might
     need to reach out to various subject
     matter experts for technical information
     and additional guidance throughout the
     development of the program. For example,
    New York State's
    Guiding Principles
    for  Improving the
    Environmental Quality
    of Schools
    In December 1994, the New York
    State Board of Regents adopted a
    set of guiding principles concerning
    environmental quality in schools:34
    •*• Every child has a right to an
      environmentally safe and healthy
      learning environment that is clean
      and in good repair.
      Every child, parent, and school
      employee has a "right to know"
      about environmental health
      issues and hazards in their school
      environment.
    *• School officials and appropriate
      public agencies should be held
      accountable for environmentally
      safe and healthy school facilities.
    •*• Schools should serve as role
      models for environmentally
      responsible behavior.
    •*• Federal, state, local, and private
      sector entities should work
      together to ensure that resources
      are used effectively and efficiently
      to address environmental  health
      and safety concerns.
when determining the proper protocol
for addressing specific environmental
emergencies, it might be beneficial
to consult with experts such as an
industrial hygienist for information about
environmental testing for mold, or to
contact a hazardous material (HAZMAT)
specialist to learn more about chemical
contamination and clean-up.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                                                            11

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     Others outside of state agencies, such as
     Cooperative Extension System Offices,
     might also be able to provide expertise on
     promoting healthy school environments.
     The Cooperative Extension System is a
     nationwide educational network funded
     by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
     to provide research-based information.
     Cooperative Extension System offices can
     provide locally relevant information on
     environmental issues including, but not
     limited to, radon, mold, and integrated
     pest management.
     Another resource available to state
     environmental health programs for
     schools is Pediatric Environmental Health
     Specialty Units (PEHSUs), which provide
     consultation and recommendations
     on children's environmental health
     issues. PEHSUs are academically based,
     typically at university medical centers,
     and are located across the United
     States, Canada, and Mexico. PEHSUs
     form a respected network of experts in
     children's environmental health that is
     capable of responding to requests for
     information throughout North America
     and can offer advice on prevention,
     diagnosis, management, and treatment of
     environmentally related health effects in
     children. In addition, the PEHSU network
     can be helpful in interpreting reports
     or testing results from on-site school
     environmental health investigations
     and in providing risk communication to
     school stakeholders. PEHSUs work with
     schools and health care professionals,
     parents, community groups, and others
     to provide information on protecting
     children from environmental hazards.
     States can leverage PEHSUs as a resource for
     medical information on health symptoms
     and advice on environmental conditions
     that affect children's health at schools. The
     PEHSU network can work in an advisory
    STATE HIGHLIGHT:

    Minnesota State Laws
    Minnesota's school environmental
    health program resulted from a
    change to the Minnesota Department
    of Education Statute (Minn. Stat.
    123B.57) requiring all schools
    applying for health and safety
    funding to develop an indoor air
    quality management plan. Since then,
    more than 90% of Minnesota's school
    districts have implemented an indoor
    air quality program.
    Minnesota has also adopted several
    other school-specific laws, including
    a mercury instrument ban and a
    school bus anti-idling law. School
    environmental health efforts are
    coordinated by the Minnesota
    Department of Health, in cooperation
    with the Minnesota Department
    of Education and the Minnesota
    Pollution Control Agency.
    Learn more about Minnesota's
    school environmental health
    initiatives and programs.
capacity to assist school districts with
specific problems that they might encounter
where local resources are not available.
Although PEHSUs can be contacted on an
as-needed basis for advice on interpretation
and messaging regarding specific exposure
concerns, they can also be valuable in
providing education and directing the lead
office and steering committee members
toward helpful resources in the planning
stages of new programs.
States and steering committees can also
consult staff in EPA's Regional offices
regarding information and technical
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                                                                VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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     assistance in such areas as children's
     health, indoor air quality, integrated pest
     management, chemical management,
     asbestos, lead, and radon. EPA Regional
     Office contacts are available on EPA's website.

     Existing Initiatives
     When establishing or enhancing a state
     environmental health program for schools,
     it is important to identify and assess
     existing state healthy schools initiatives
     such as indoor air quality, integrated pest
     management, green cleaning, anti-idling,
     or chemical management efforts. The
     strengths and opportunities presented
     by existing school environmental health
     initiatives can serve as the starting point
     for an overall state program and can help
     determine where to focus initial efforts. In
     addition to assessing existing initiatives,
     the  state emergency management plan
     should also be reviewed to ensure proper
     procedures are in place in the event  of an
     environmental emergency (e.g., a chemical
     spill, mold and mildew damage, or an
     accidental exposure to contaminants).
     As states move toward developing a  plan
     for a new or enhanced state environmental
     health program for schools, this assessment
     can serve as a baseline and help identify
     potential gaps that need to be addressed.

     State Laws and Policies
     The foundation of many effective state
     environmental health programs for
     schools is state laws and policies that
     ensure all school districts, including those
     serving children with disabilities and low-
     income and minority communities,  take
     steps toward improving environmental
     conditions in schools by establishing a
     benchmark or standard to which all schools
     must comply. The lead office should identify
     any existing laws, regulations, or policies
     that can help support a state environmental
     health program for schools. The lead
office is encouraged to conduct a review
of the environmental health-related laws,
regulations, and policies that are currently
in place. The review should assess how the
laws, regulations, and policies are being
implemented or enforced within the state to
help identify gaps and outdated policies that
no longer serve the state's environmental
health goals and objectives. This will
also help determine ways that existing
authorities can be utilized to improve
implementation of the state program. The
Environmental Law Institute maintains
a database, including an assessment of
impact or effectiveness, of state laws
and policies covering a variety of school
environmental health issues. The lead office
should work with the steering committee to
consider how existing regulations, policies,
and legislation can be used to support,
influence, or affect school facility decisions.
The process of reviewing state laws,
policies, and regulations should be an on-
going effort. The steering committee can
help ensure that the state program remains
relevant,  effective, and sustainable by
building on existing laws and addressing
any gaps identified in the review process.
The work of the steering committee can
be facilitated by reviewing regulations
and policies to promote healthy school
environments that have been put in place
by other states. For example,  Connecticut
has established several school health
laws and policies, including anti-idling
and diesel emission reduction laws; a
green cleaning mandate for schools;
a pesticides-in-schools law; and a law
requiring new schools to be constructed
to high-performance* standards (i.e.,
energy-efficient, well-ventilated, and
good indoor air quality). Existing laws
like these and Connecticut's Indoor Air
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                                                           13

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     Quality law, as well as state education
     and labor laws, can serve as examples
     and might help other states identify
     opportunities to strengthen their own
     state environmental health program for
     schools. Laws, policies, and regulations
     that support a state environmental health
     program for schools might:
        Promote the establishment of local
        school environmental management
        systems that consider student and staff
        health and safety in all practices related
        to design, construction, renovation,
        operations, and maintenance of school
        buildings and grounds.
      • Establish specific criteria to ensure
        that school facility, health, and safety
        inspections help prevent common
        environmental health issues found
        in school facilities (i.e., mold and
  moisture, exposure to chemicals and
  contaminants, poor indoor air quality,
  pests, and pesticide exposure).
  Recommend that new and renovated
  school facilities be designed and
  built to ensure a sustainable, healthy
  environment that also conserves energy
  and saves money.
  Ensure that environmental factors are
  considered in school siting decisions
  as recommended in EPA's School Siting
  Guidelines.
• Provide additional support to schools that
  are identified as most in need of critical
  infrastructure repair or maintenance.
• Promote healthy energy-efficient
  products and practices.
• Encourage environmentally safe
  purchasing policies for school districts.

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                                                                VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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     Examples of State  Policy and Guidance
     for School Environmental Health
     A comprehensive state environmental health program for schools should include policies that
     address key environmental health issues, including green cleaning, chemical management, indoor air
     quality, and integrated pest management. States might also choose to go farther and adopt policies
     that address school construction and energy conservation and efficiency.
     This textbox provides an overview of environmental health policies states have developed that could
     have an impact on school environments. Links to examples of state policy for each environmental
     health topic are given to provide a starting point for states looking for more information.

     Green Cleaning
     When considering a green cleaning policy for your state, the following elements should be included:
        The product categories to be covered by the policy;
       • The definition of environmentally preferable products, often referring to third-party certifications;
        A process for stakeholder  engagement in developing the policy;
     * A process for reviewing and updating the policy; and
     * A set of guidelines for outreach and training.
     As of March 2012,10 states (e.g., Illinois, Missouri, and New York) and the District of Columbia have
     passed effective state green cleaning policies.

     Chemical Management
     States can provide information and establish policies to help schools properly manage chemicals,
     as well as establish protocols for preventing, addressing, and responding to chemical incidents in
     schools. States with chemical management policies and guidance include Colorado, Maryland, and
     Nebraska.

     Indoor Air Quality
     When considering an indoor air quality policy for your state, the following elements should be
     included:
        Minimum requirements for school  facility conditions that protect the health and safety of children
        and staff;
        Oversight measures to ensure the policy's requirements are met; and
     * Capacity building measures that enable state agencies to provide resources to assist schools,
        school districts, and local communities in complying with the policy.
     As of March 2012, 33 states (e.g., Connecticut, Indiana, New Jersey, and Texas) had some type of
     state regulation regarding indoor air quality in schools.

     Integrated  Pest Management
     State integrated pest management policies can help schools and school districts prevent pests and
     reduce pesticide exposure. An effective state integrated pest management policy should include:
        A recommendation for adopting an integrated pest management program;
        Guidelines on when and where pesticides can be applied;
        Signage requirements for pesticide application;
        Required written notification prior to the application of pesticides; and
        Buffer zones around school facilities where pesticides cannot be sprayed.
     Existing state integrated pest management programs (e.g., California, Florida, Pennsylvania, and
     Texas) are good resources for states to use as guidance in  developing standards and policies for
     integrated pest management in schools.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM                       15

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    State School Environmental Health  Statutes
    At-A-Glance
               Map of State School Environmental Health Statutes
                                                   9 to 12 policies*
                                                   5 to 8 policies
                                                   1 to 4 policies
                                                   No school environmental health policies
                                                 *No state currently has statutes in nine or more categories
                                                 Source National Confyi-enc-:-! of Srate Legislators
I        Children's
        environmental
        health
    AL
    AK
    AS
    AZ
    AR
    CA
    CO
    CT
    DE
    DC
    FL
    GA
    HI
    ID
    IL
                   State School Environmental Health Statutes
                            Lead
                            poisoning
                            and
           Carbon  Green   Indoor  hazard                        Tools for
Asbestos  Asthma  monoxide cleaning  air    reduction Mercury  Pesticides Radon  Smoking Schools
                                                           continued on next page
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                                      VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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    State School Environmental Health  Statutes
    At-A-Glance, continued
        Children's
        environmental
    State  health
     IA

     KS

     KY

     LA

     ME

     MD

     MA

     Ml

     MN

     MS

     MO

     MT

     NE

     NV

     NH

     NJ

     NM

     NY

     NC

     ND

     OH

     OK

     OR

     PA

     PR

     Rl

     SC

     SD

     TN

     TX

     UT

     VT

     VI
                            Lead
                            poisoning
                            and
            Carbon   Green   Indoor hazard                          Tools for
Asbestos  Asthma  monoxide  cleaning  air   reduction Mercury  Pesticides Radon  Smoking  Schools
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                               17

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        STEP 2
•etermine Capacity
•etermine the capacity of each state agency to contribute to an
ffective state environmental health program for schools.
     Once existing or potential support has been
     identified through an assessment of state
     initiatives, laws, and policies, the next step
     is to determine the capacity of each state
     agency to contribute to an environmental
     health program for schools.
     The capacity of state agencies to contribute
     to an environmental health program
     for schools depends on having both
     the authorization and the resources
     (e.g., time, personnel, funds, or subject
     matter expertise) needed to support the
     program. No two states are alike in how
     they prioritize, prevent, and address
     environmental health issues in schools.
     Thus, it is important for states to determine
     which agencies are authorized or funded
     to cover environmental health- and
     education-related concerns. The lead office,
     working with the steering committee,
     should determine how each state agency
     might be able to contribute to a coordinated
     environmental health program for schools
     based on the state's priorities or most
     immediate needs. The areas that will likely
     benefit from interagency support include:
       Communicating regulations, policies,
       standards, and recommendations to
       prevent environmental health threats in
       schools;
       Developing tools for monitoring local
       school district practices to track the
       progress and challenges of providing
       healthy and safe indoor environments.
       For example, RIDE encourages schools to
       use the Northeast Collaborative for High
       Performance Schools high-performance
       scorecard to evaluate the success of their
       school health programs.
                 • Engaging with state school-based
                   organizations (e.g., parent-teacher
                   organizations and teachers' unions) to
                   disseminate information and encourage
                   them to communicate with their
                   constituents;
                 • Coordinating existing resources and tools
                   that can support the state program. For
                   example:
                   •  Technical assistance for school
                      districts;
                   •  Potential funding for school districts
                      to implement the program; and
                   •  Training, certification, and
                      continuing education programs for
                      teachers, administrators, nurses,
                      facility managers, custodians, other
                      school staff, and community leaders.
                   Developing an emergency management
                   plan that outlines protocols, procedures,
                   and points of contact that can be used
                   in the event of an environmental health
                   emergency (e.g., a chemical spill, mold
                   and mildew damage, or an accidental
                   exposure to contaminants).
                Establishing an effective infrastructure to
                provide ongoing support is an essential
                step in ensuring that a state environmental
                health program for schools will be successful.
                States should ensure that effective lines of
                communication, management support,
                adequate resources, and a coordination
                group or points of contact for existing
                initiatives are in place to manage the basic
                elements of the state program. States can
                strengthen partnerships with school districts,
                parents, and communities by establishing
                accountability procedures for the program
                and being transparent about the limitations
                of available resources.
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                                                                VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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        STEP
 evelop a Plan
)evelop an initial plan to establish a new, or enhance an existing,
tate environmental health program for schools based on
vailable resources.
     Once a lead office has been established,
     the existing resources and infrastructure
     have been identified, and the capacity
     of each state agency to contribute to
     an environmental health program for
     schools has been assessed, the state
     should use this information to develop a
     plan for establishing a new, or enhancing
     an existing, state environmental health
     program for schools.
     The goals and objectives of the state program
     plan should address how the environmental
     health program for schools will work to
     protect the health of children and staff. When
     setting program priorities, states should
     first ensure that schools and school districts
     understand and adhere to local, state, and
     federal environmental health laws and
     regulations. States can then focus on ways to
     help school districts address school facilities
     with the greatest needs, or those with
     immediate health issues and concerns (e.g.,
     extensive water damage or mismanaged
     chemicals). State program plans should
     give special consideration to ways that
     assistance can be provided to schools that
     serve students with disabilities and to school
     districts in underserved or low-income
     areas. Schools serving these communities
     often face the most challenging school
     environmental health issues.35 School
     districts with funding limitations might
     need additional resources and information
     to address environmental health concerns.
     These school districts also could need
     additional assistance with identifying
     issues and solutions that are inexpensive
     to implement and can have an immediate
     positive impact on the school environment.
                States should reach out to potential partners
                such as colleges and universities, state
                associations and organizations, and other
                stakeholders that can provide technical
                assistance and resources to schools and
                school districts in these areas.

                Establish Goals and Priorities
                of the State Program  Plan
                It is critical for states to develop goals in the
                early planning stages of an environmental
                health program for schools to provide focus
                and a basis for measuring progress. Using the
                information gathered from the initial program
                assessment and capacity determination, states
                can set goals that are clear and measureable,
                and can be reasonably accomplished within
                a specified timeframe. Goal-setting provides
                a tangible roadmap for the state program as it
                progresses. Thus, states are encouraged to set
                short-term, intermediate, and long-term goals.
                It is imperative that all individuals involved in
                the state program understand the program
                goals. Examples of general goals include:
                   Develop an environmental management
                   system that school districts across the
                   state can adopt to improve the health of
                   children and school staff.
                   Promote the importance of
                   environmental health in  schools and
                   help school districts identify those
                   schools that could benefit most from an
                   enhanced focus on environmental health
                   (e.g., schools with critical maintenance
                   and repair needs, high absentee rates
                   or above average rates of asthmatic
                   children, children from low-income or
                   underserved communities, and children
                   with disabilities).
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                           19

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        Ensure that resources (e.g., tools, training,
        and information) are accessible to help
        school districts implement local school
        environmental health programs.
        Ensure that procedures, protocols,
        resources, and points of contact are
        established to manage environmental
        health emergencies.
        Establish policies, guidance, and best
        practices at the state level that address
        key environmental health issues,
        including:
        • Green cleaning,
        • Chemical management,
        • Indoor air quality,
        ซ Integrated pest management,
• Construction and renovation, and
• Classroom comfort (e.g., ventilation,
  acoustics, lighting, and temperature
  control).
Identify options for smart materials
selection (i.e., products that have
less effect on human health and the
environment than equivalent, competing
products) when building new or
renovating existing school facilities, and
the use of healthier, less toxic products in
all school facilities.
Provide tools, such as those
included in the model K-12 school
environmental health program (found
in Appendix A), that can be adopted
by schools  and school districts to
         STATE HIGHLIGHT:

         Colorado Connections for Healthy Schools
         Colorado Connections for Healthy Schools (CCHS) began in 2003 as part of the CDC's
         Coordinated School Health strategy. CCHS's mission is to provide a framework to help
         build Colorado's infrastructure for coordinated school health. Core CCHS partners include:
            Colorado Department of Education;
            Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment;
         * Colorado Legacy Foundation;
         ir Colorado Health Foundation;
            Center for Research Strategy;
         *• Creative Media Solutions; and
         * RMC Health.
         Through grant funding from the Colorado Legacy Foundation and the Colorado Health
         Foundation, CCHS acknowledges the achievements of schools that scored highest on
         the Healthy School  Champion Scorecard, a self-assessment tool that evaluates a school's
         performance on the eight components of Coordinated School Health. In the first year, more
         than 100 Colorado schools submitted scorecards and the top 15 schools received mini-grants.
         In 2012, Colorado Connections for Healthy Schools became the Colorado Coalition
         for Healthy Schools to reflect the program's evolution into a statewide coalition that
         addresses school health more broadly and comprehensively.
         Learn more about the Colorado Coalition for Healthy Schools.
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                                                                  VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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       facilitate implementation of their own
       environmental health programs.
       Develop state learning standards for
       incorporating environmental health
       instruction into the student curricula.
     To support program goals, a state
     program plan should include metrics. The
     metrics should be specific to the goals,
     resources, and needs of each state. The
     States of Connecticut and Rhode Island
     provide two examples of metrics that
     have been developed for existing school
     environmental health initiatives that also
     can be used as metrics for other state
     programs.
       The State of Connecticut collects data
       from school districts on health statistics
       that can be influenced by school
       environments (e.g., asthma-related data
       and reductions in absenteeism).
       The State of Rhode Island tracks the
       number of school districts that are
       participating in a component of the
       state program (e.g., EPA's IAQ Tools for
       Schools) or that have implemented the
       overall state program.

     Emergency Management
     Schools and school districts need to
     know the appropriate procedures and
     points of contact when faced with an
     environmental emergency. States can
     assist in these emergency situations by
     ensuring that schools and school districts
     are included in, and are  aware of, the state
     emergency management plan. Emergency
     management planning can help ensure that
     states, schools, school districts, parents, and
     local communities are equipped to respond
     properly to environmental emergencies
     in schools. If one does not already exist,
     states are urged to develop an emergency
     management plan prior to implementing
     the environmental health program for
     schools. Basic emergency management and
preparedness at the state level involves:
   Maintaining a consistent and up-to-
   date emergency preparedness guide and
   occupant emergency action plan;
 • District-wide emergency preparedness
   training on topics such as safety drills,
   emergency evacuation, chemical spills
   and contamination, shelter-in-place,
   bomb threats, poison control, natural
   disasters, and fire;
 • Addressing the unique needs of children
   with disabilities;
   Identifying reliable consultation
   service(s) with industrial hygienists,
   physicians, HAZMAT teams, and PEHSUs;
   Ensuring points of contact for reporting
   potential environmental health
   concerns are identified and available to
   stakeholders and local communities;
   Establishing a reporting and
   investigation process for addressing
   incident reports;
   Conducting periodic assessments of
   new and emerging hazards relevant to
   schools; and
 * Providing frequent guidance and
   recommendations to schools and school
   districts throughout the emergency
   situation.
States are encouraged to provide an
emergency preparedness guide as a general
safety directive to which schools and school
districts can refer for various emergencies
as part of the emergency management plan.
States also should consider including an
occupant emergency action plan outlining
protocols and procedures that can be used
or adapted by schools and school districts to
reflect specific information (e.g., individual
school building structures, fire department
regulations, school chemical inventories,
and procedures for assisting children with
disabilities). At a minimum, states should set
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
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     up a process that schools, school districts,
     parents, and local communities can follow
     to report environmental emergencies and
     incidents.

     Program Implementation
     Developing a strategy for implementing
     a state environmental health program for
     schools is a key component of the program
     plan. Methods for implementation will
     vary across states and will be driven by
     each state's needs and available resources.
The lead office can work with the program
participants or the steering committee to
develop an implementation strategy that:
   Outlines the goals of the program;
 * Identifies the activities to be completed
   for each goal;
 • Defines a timeline for taking action
   toward each program goal;
   Lists the resources and funding needed
   to implement the program;
          STATE HIGHLIGHT:

          Washington  School  Environmental Health
          and Safety Program
          The School Environmental Health and Safety (SchEH&S) Program in Washington's
          Department of Health is guided by state school environmental health policies. In 1955,
          Washington passed the State Board of Health Rule for Primary and Secondary Schools,
          which established minimum environmental health and safety standards for education
          facilities (e.g., siting, lighting, ventilation, noise, heating, and safety). In the mid-1990s,
          the Washington State Department of Health and the Office of the Superintendent of
          Public Instruction brought together a range of school stakeholders to develop one set of
          guidelines on health and safety rules and best practices for K-12 schools: the Health and
          Safety Guide for K-12 Schools in Washington (2000, 2003, 2012).
          The Department of Health SchEH&S Program places a strong emphasis on technical
          assistance, training, and  education. The program works with federal, state, and local
          partners to provide technical assistance to local health jurisdictions and school staff (e.g.,
          risk managers, maintenance and operations staff, custodians, nurses, and  administrators)
          on environmental health and safety issues. For example, the Department of Health, the
          King County Local Hazardous Waste Management Program, state agencies, Educational
          Service Districts, Washington State University, and EPA provide technical  assistance and
          training on integrated pest management, safe chemical management, and lab safety in
          schools. Other key partners include the Washington State Coordinated School Health
          Program and the Pacific Northwest Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit.
          The Department of Health SchEH&S Program promotes school environmental health and
          safety through presentations to, and participation in, various school and public health
          trainings and committee work. The program holds an annual fall workshop that brings
          local health jurisdictions and school staff together to network and  receive information
          on school  environmental health and safety. Newsletters, listservs, and the Department of
          Health SchEH&S website are additional tools used to reach target audiences.
          Learn more about Washington's School Environmental Health and  Safety  Program.
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        Incorporates a communication plan
        outlining how information and resources
        will be disseminated to school districts
        and program participants;
        Identifies training needed to implement
        the program;
        Defines milestones and measurement
        criteria to guide and assess program
        progress;
        Establishes a process for tracking the
        milestones and measurement criteria
        that will be used to guide and assess
        program progress;
        Ensures compliance with all federal,
        state, and local environmental laws and
        regulations; and
        Enforces existing policies, sets school
        standards, modifies  school inspection
        criteria, or adds school environmental
        health responsibilities to position
        descriptions to institutionalize and
        sustain the program.
     As part of the implementation strategy,
     states can consider customizing the model
     K-12 school environmental health program
     (found in Appendix A) to reflect their
     priorities. Customized information can
     include specific policies and standards for
     environmental health issues; emergency
     management protocols, procedures, and
     points of contact; and local resources that
     can assist schools and school districts
     in developing and sustaining their own
     environmental health programs and
     activities. The customized model program
     can be disseminated to schools and school
     districts by states as part of an outreach
     campaign to generate interest and
     participation in the state program.

     Public Communication and
     Outreach
     Regular, effective, and transparent
     communication is vital to the state
     program's success. In addition to school
districts and program participants,
parents and local communities need to
understand school environmental health
issues and how the state program will help
protect children and school staff. Prior to
implementing an environmental health
program for schools, states are encouraged
to develop a communication strategy that
outlines how program information will
be shared with schools,  school districts,
parents, and local communities. States
should consider using practical and creative
outreach methods to increase program
support including websites, social media,
newsletters, articles, and listservs. To keep
the public engaged in the program, states
can center communication efforts on key
topics such as:
   The priorities, goals, and benefits of the
   program;
   How the program will address
   underserved communities or
   populations, or those that might
   be disproportionately impacted by
   environmental risks (e.g., low-income
   and minority populations and children
   with disabilities);
 • Which schools and school districts are
   taking action toward implementing
   environmental health programs;
 • Assessments of school conditions;
   Interventions concerning school
   environmental health issues; and
   Points of contact for additional
   information and to report concerns.
States should identify key messages and
opportunities to keep the public engaged
and informed of actions that are being taken
within the state to create healthy school
environments for children and school staff.

Staff Training and Education
Providing training and education
opportunities to state program participants
as part of the program implementation
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
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     is crucial for future success. Training
     can be provided by the state, members
     of the steering committee, a trainer with
     expertise in school environmental health,
     a partnership between governmental
     organizations and NGOs, or successful
     peer trainers. Trainers should be able to
     speak from experience and communicate
     effectively with the audience. In addition
     to having the expertise to address
     environmental health issues in schools, the
     PEHSU network can serve as a resource
     in identifying existing evidence-based
     curricula or presentations to assist with
     the training process. Training topics could
     include:
      • Children's environmental health and
        safety in schools,
        The basic elements of the state program,
      • Plans for implementing the state
        program,
        Best practices and lessons learned from
        existing state environmental health
        programs for schools, and
        The policies or standards currently in
        place that support the state program.
     Educational  material and information
     might include:
        An overview of children's environmental
        health issues;
        Actions that schools and school
        districts can take to ensure that school
        environments are healthy;
        Resources available to schools and
        school districts like EPA's IAQ School
        Champions and EPA's IAQ National
        Schools Network, which help schools
        and school districts learn more about the
        strategies, challenges, and commitments
        of others to protect children and school
        staff on a peer-to-peer basis;
        Protocols, procedures, and points
        of contact for environmental health
        emergencies;
   Existing training, certification,
   continuing education, and other learning
   opportunities for program participants;
 • Outreach tools and approaches (e.g.,
   public television, events, word-of-mouth
   campaigns, peer-to-peer collaboration,
   and social networking) to increase
   awareness of the state program; and
   Feedback, success stories, and
   lessons learned.

Measures to Assess Progress
Having measures to assess progress can
help sustain state environmental health
programs for schools. When planning and
coordinating the program, it is important for
states to recognize early program success.
Communicating milestones such as
identifying the top priorities for the program
and developing an emergency management
plan can keep interest and enthusiasm high.
Once the program has been implemented,
immediate successes like increased
participation, new partnerships, and
incremental steps that schools or school
districts take to adopt the program can
be used to help measure progress. Data
obtained by conducting site visits, regular
reporting, and other methods can help
benchmark efforts and outcomes across
school districts within a state. Some baseline
data might already exist (e.g., absenteeism
rates and energy use). The steering
committee can help establish a mechanism
and timeline for tracking progress, and
can determine whether the measurement
plans need to be vetted by a human subjects
research review process (e.g., a state
institutional review board). States can use
this information to make key decisions and
to identify strengths, weaknesses, and gaps
in the overall program.
After considering and applying these initial
steps, states might wish to consider piloting
the program among selected schools or
school districts before implementing the
program more broadly.
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               VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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       STEP  4
 mplement the Program
Work with the lead office or steering committee to ensure the
state program is implemented effectively.
     Implementation will depend greatly on
     the state program's goals, priorities, and
     resources. For example, the Wisconsin
     Green and Healthy Schools Program worked
     with individual schools to complete a three-
     step certification process, and the New
     Hampshire Partners for Healthy Schools
     Program leveraged partnerships with state
     agencies and non-profit organizations to
     provide free assessment training, technical
     assistance, and mentoring to address
     environmental needs identified by schools.
     State program implementation might
     incorporate  a variety of strategies such
     as broadly announcing the program
     and making basic information readily
     available to school districts and the general
     public (e.g., existing resources, tools,
     and points of contact for the program).
     In cases where states are expanding
     existing environmental health programs
     for schools, implementation can involve
     sharing information about the new
     aspects of the program or providing
     a centralized source of information
     pertinent to  school environmental health.
     Effective communication and outreach
     are instrumental in getting schools,
     school districts, parents, school staff, and
     students engaged to support and sustain
     school environmental health programs.
     Communication and outreach to parents,
     students, and the general public can include
     information such as:
       The state program's goals;
       Pertinent federal, state, and local laws
       and regulations;
       Tools and resources available to help
                     STEPS 4-6:
                     Implementing and
                     Sustaining a Successful
                     Environmental Health
                     Program for Schools
                     Steps 4-6 outline actions that states
                     can take to implement and sustain a
                     state environmental health program
                     for schools.
                   support or participate in the state program;
                 • Methods for providing feedback on the
                   state program (e.g., for administrators,
                   teachers, students, and parents);
                 • Points of contact for additional
                   information and technical assistance; and
                   Recognition of successful school districts
                   or school initiatives and those schools
                   and school districts making incremental
                   changes.
                 The lead office or the steering committee
                 can also reach out to individuals and
                 organizations, such as public health
                 professionals, parent-teacher organizations,
                 schools of public health, and colleges and
                 universities to partner with them in support
                 of school districts and their efforts to create
                 healthy school environments. An excellent
                 example of successfully implementing a
                 state environmental health program for
                 schools can be found in Connecticut's Tools
                 for Schools program.
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                                                          25

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          STATE  HIGHLIGHT:
          Connecticut Tools for Schools Program
          In 1999, representatives from the Connecticut Department of Public Health, EPA Region
          1, and the Connecticut Council for Occupational Safety and Health began meeting to
          develop a comprehensive and  coordinated statewide strategy to promote EPA's IAQ
          Tools for Schools Action Kit and program as a viable, proactive intervention to address
          indoor air quality problems in Connecticut schools. Connecticut's work has led to the
          development of a statewide, multiagency consortium, the Connecticut School Indoor
          Environment Resource Team (CSIERT). Since its inception, CSIERT has expanded
          Connecticut's program to address a variety of environmental health issues.
          By implementing the EPA IAQ Tools for Schools program, the state of Connecticut
          has helped address indoor air quality issues in more than 800 schools. School districts
          throughout the state have benefitted from implementing this component of a K-12 school
          environmental health program through:

          Improved Health Outcomes within Connecticut School Districts
          *•  An 11% reduction in the number of visits to school nurses. (North Haven)
             A decline of 21.2% in asthma incidents in 1 year. (Hartford)
          it  Absenteeism cut by more than half. (Hamden)
             A decrease of 48% in the number of reported cases of respiratory-related  illnesses.
             (North Haven)
          it  Number of asthma-related health office visits decreased from 463 to 82 over 4 years.
             (Chester)

          Cost Savings for Connecticut School Districts
             Decreased indoor air quality related workers compensation claims. The average decrease
             was 3.6 claims. The severity of claims decreased 87%, for a total savings of $56,705.
             Decreased energy costs with well-maintained buildings and equipment.

          Positive Public Relations
          •*•  Positive feedback from teachers' unions.
          it  Positive media coverage.
             Improved faculty and school staff morale.
          •*•  Increased community trust.
          Visit the Connecticut Tools for Schools website for more information.
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        STEPS
valuate the Program
valuate the state  program's goals, activities, and milestones
i determine whether they need to be revised or expanded to
iprove the program.
     An important part of implementing the
     state environmental health program for
     schools is evaluating progress made
     toward adopting the state program, as
     well as the program's goals, activities, and
     milestones, to determine whether they
     need to be revised or expanded to improve
     the program. Ideally, school districts and
     other stakeholders should take part in
     the evaluation. Evaluations should be
     conducted on a regular basis and might
     include:
       Assessing progress toward meeting the
       short-term, intermediate, and long-term
       goals as established in Step 3;
       Revisiting and updating the program
       priorities, as needed;
       Reviewing the effectiveness of relevant
       state environmental health policies;
      • Identifying any new funding sources;
       Analyzing how well the strategies for
       each goal have worked in practice;
       Identifying any success factors and best
       practices;
       Recognizing any obstacles or challenges
       encountered when implementing the
       program;
       Identifying areas of the program that
       need improvement or refinement (e.g.,
       the emergency management plan or
       communication  and outreach strategy);
       Assessing the training opportunities and
       resources that states provide to program
       participants and  school districts;
                  Assessing each school district's progress
                  toward implementing environmental
                  health programs in schools; and
                  Reviewing the membership of the
                  steering committee or program
                  participants, as necessary.
                States should identify and acknowledge
                schools and school districts that are making
                incremental changes to create healthier
                learning environments, and encourage
                those that are addressing environmental
                health issues to evaluate their progress
                on a regular basis. The CDC's School
                Health Profiles (Profiles) is a useful tool
                for assessing existing health policies and
                practices in schools.  Profiles is a system
                of surveys conducted every 2 years by
                many state education and health agencies
                among middle and high school principals
                and lead health education teachers. States
                can administer Profiles to monitor what
                proportion of schools in their jurisdiction
                have school improvement plans that include
                healthy school environment objectives;
                have a school health council, committee,
                or team; have tobacco-free school policies;
                and have attempted to minimize asthma
                triggers in the school environment.
                EPA's Healthy School Environments
                Assessment Tool (HealthySEATv2) is another
                useful tool that states can encourage school
                districts to use to measure progress in
                individual schools. HealthySEATv2 is a fully
                customizable software program designed to
                help school districts evaluate and manage
                all of their environmental, safety, and health
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                                                          27

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     issues and can help standardize reporting
     among different school districts within a state.
     States should collaborate with schools and
     school districts to share successes and
     lessons learned. States should establish
     mechanisms (e.g., newsletters, an
     annual meeting, participating in existing
     school board meetings,  conference calls,
     and webinars) that allow schools and
school districts to share their program
evaluations, discuss the results, and provide
recommendations to other schools for
improvement, if needed. States can also
encourage school districts with successful
environmental health programs to mentor
other school districts in best practices for
developing and implementing sustainable
program strategies.
          Examples of States and School Districts
          Adopting HealthySEAT
            The Ohio Department of Health has posted a customized version of HealthySEAT
            on the Ohio Department of Health website to help school districts and local health
            departments conduct annual inspections of school buildings and grounds to identify
            health and safety concerns.
            The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services has developed a version of
            HealthySEAT with specific information customized for New Hampshire. New Hampshire
            HealthySEAT is designed to  be used as a starting point for New Hampshire school
            districts to further customize HealthySEAT for use in their own districts. The project is
            a partnership of the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, the New
            Hampshire Department of Health and Human Services, the New Hampshire Department
            of Education, health departments in the cities of Manchester and Nashua, and the New
            Hampshire Partnership for High Performance Schools.
            The Mississippi Department  of Environmental Quality received an EPA Indoor
            Environments grant award of $28,900 to integrate the environmental health and safety
            requirements and best practices from Mississippi's Education,  Environmental and
            Health Programs into HealthySEAT. The grant also included piloting HealthySEAT with
            the Cleveland School District and incorporating lessons learned and successes realized
            into a training program to be conducted for other school districts.
            In conjunction with their indoor air  quality walkthrough and incident reports, Katy
            Independent School District in Texas is using HealthySEAT to record their indoor air
            quality assessments and develop an indoor air quality profile for each school and
            facility. HealthySEAT is helping Katy document each school's unique environmental
            health issues so they can be resolved in a timely and cost-effective manner.
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        STEP  6
 ustain the Program
itilize the results of state program evaluations to determine the
 ;turn on investment, make adjustments to the program where
eeded, and communicate successes.
     The results of the state program evaluations
     should be used to make adjustments, as
     needed, to enhance and sustain a successful
     state environmental health program for
     schools. States can use the results of the
     program evaluation to:
       Demonstrate a return on investment;
      • Update program training;
       Revise existing policies and procedures;
       Develop policies and procedures for
       additional environmental health issues;
       Revise program goals and strategies;
       Implement activities in new priority
       areas;
       Communicate successful approaches
       from state, school, or school district
       programs; and
       Identify and engage new steering
       committee members, partners, and
       champions to help promote, support, and
       provide additional resources for the state
       program.
     Sustaining a successful state environmental
     health program for schools requires
     demonstrated management support and
     a consistent commitment over time.
     States should continue to engage steering
     committee members to offer insights on
     emerging environmental health issues, and
     develop policies and programs that further
     support the program's goals. States should
     also keep schools and school districts
     informed about updates to the program, as
     well as new policies, tools, and resources
     that become available.
                    U.S. Department of
                    Education Green
                    Ribbon Schools
                    Recognition Award
                    The U.S. Department of Education
                    Green Ribbon Schools Recognition
                    Award recognizes schools that
                    save energy, reduce costs, feature
                    environmentally sustainable learning
                    spaces, protect health, foster
                    wellness, and offer environmental
                    education to boost academic
                    achievement and community
                    engagement. States can nominate
                    schools where staff, students,
                    officials, and communities have
                    worked together to produce energy-
                    efficient,  sustainable, and healthy
                    school environments. Seventy-
                    eight schools from 29 states and
                    Washington DC were recognized  for
                    the 2011-2012 inaugural year of Green
                    Ribbon Schools.
                    State environmental health
                    programs for schools can help
                    schools meet Green Ribbon Schools
                    award requirements, and states
                    should encourage schools and
                    school districts to participate.
                Another way states can sustain successful
                programs is through public-private
                partnerships. By partnering with businesses,
                colleges and universities, and trade
                associations, states can obtain needed
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                         29

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     expertise and resources to maintain and
     enhance school environmental health
     programs. States also can encourage
     participation in, and improvement of,
     environmental health activities across
     school districts by offering recognition or
     incentives, such as:
        Recognizing and sharing successful
        school district efforts;
        Nominating schools for national or
        state awards (e.g., the U.S. Department
        of Education Green Ribbon Schools
        Recognition Award, Florida's Governor
        Serve to Preserve Green Schools Award,
        and Texas's Green Ribbon Schools
        Award);
        Creating a state recognition program if
        one does not exist;
        Creating new non-financial incentives; or
        Collaborating with independent or non-
        profit organizations to provide financial
        incentives.
Above all, states should share successes
with members of the community.
Communicating progress and success
is necessary to maintain support for a
state environmental health program for
schools. Newsletters, listservs, and the
Governor's State of the State report are just
some methods for sharing successes. The
lead office should keep documentation
and good records of program progress to
facilitate communication. Examples of such
documentation include:
   Case studies of schools and school
   districts that have adopted a school
   environmental health program,
   Yearly progress reports,
   Performance measures,
   Absenteeism information, and
   Expenditures and other budgetary data.
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               VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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     Tools and Resources  to Assist States with
     Environmental  Health  Programs  for Schools
     Several tools and resources are available
     to assist states with implementing and
     sustaining an environmental health
     program for schools. Many of these tools
     and resources are included in Appendix
     C: Additional Information and Resources.
     Two well-established resources are EPA's
     IAQ Tools for Schools program and the
     CDC's Coordinated School Health strategy,
     summarized in the text below and in the
     figures that follow. The IAQ Tools for
     Schools Framework for Effective School
     IAQ Management has become the standard
     for schools that are looking to initiate
     proactive indoor air quality practices (see
     IAQ Tools for Schools At-a-Glance). In
     2006, 51% of U.S. schools had an indoor air
     quality management program and among
     those schools, 85% based their program
     on EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools program.36
     These schools are significantly more
     likely to be addressing key environmental
     health risks (e.g., mold and moisture, pests,
     and mismanaged chemicals) compared
     to schools without an indoor air quality
     management program. School districts
     already implementing IAQ Tools for
     Schools, and districts just beginning to
     think about developing a comprehensive
     environmental health program, will find the
     IAQ Tools for Schools platform an effective
     model on which to build.
     Ideally, a school's efforts to promote a
     healthy environment should be part of
     a Coordinated School Health strategy.
     A Coordinated School Health strategy
     is an approach to improving the health
     and well-being of all students so they
     can fully participate and be successful
     in school. The process involves bringing
     together school  administrators, teachers,
other school staff, students, families, and
community members to assess health
needs; set priorities; and plan, implement,
and evaluate all health-related activities (see
"Energy Independence and Security Act
of 2007").37 A Coordinated School Health
strategy integrates health promotion efforts
across eight interrelated components that
already exist to some extent in most schools,
including:
  Health education;
 • Physical education;
  Health services;
  Nutrition services;
  Counseling, psychological, and social
  services;
  Healthy and safe school environments;
 * Staff wellness; and
  Family and community involvement.

States that have adopted a Coordinated
School Health strategy for use in their
schools are encouraged to use these
guidelines to help schools and school
districts improve their environmental health
programs. As one of the major components
of a Coordinated School Health strategy,
initial steps to promote healthy school
environments (e.g., adopting tobacco-
free policies or implementing policies to
address environmental asthma  triggers)
are often the starting point for schools and
school districts to implement a broader,
coordinated approach to student and staff
health. For more information, visit CDC's
website on Coordinated School Health.
As an additional resource for states,
EPA has developed a model K-12 school
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                        31

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     environmental health program, presented
     in Appendix A of this document, which
     can be adapted by states to reflect state
     environmental health goals and resources.
     The model program focuses on five broad
     components of environmental health issues
     that schools should address to ensure
     that school environments are healthy and
     promote high achievement by children and
     school staff. These five components are:
       Practice Effective Cleaning and
       Maintenance,
       Prevent Mold and Moisture,
       Reduce Chemical and Environmental
       Contaminant Hazards,
       Ensure Good Ventilation,  and
       Prevent Pests and Reduce Pesticide
       Exposure.
     In addition to these components, the EPA
     model program covers topics including
     new construction and renovation projects;
     enhancing classroom comfort (e.g., lighting,
     acoustics, ventilation, and temperature
     control); becoming more energy- and
     water-efficient; faculty and staff training;
and student curricula. States are encouraged
to customize the EPA model program
to reflect their school environmental
health policies, emergency management
procedures, and local resources to help
schools and school districts best address
their school environmental health needs.

Summary
Effective state environmental health
programs for schools promote safe, clean,
and well-maintained school buildings
and grounds; create environments that
are conducive to learning; and protect
the health of children and school staff.
The practices recommended in these
voluntary guidelines have been successfully
implemented by states, and can be applied,
with appropriate adaptation, to a wide range
of school-related institutions, including
child care and early learning centers. EPA
will work with federal, state, and local
partners to  support implementation of
these guidelines and share best practices to
ensure healthy learning environments for
the nation's children.
32
               VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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     IAQ  Tools for Schools At-A-Glance
     EPA's  IAQ Tools for Schools Framework
     for a K-12 School Environmental Health Program

     IAQ Tools for Schools is a flexible, comprehensive resource for environmental health in school
     buildings. The IAQ Tools for Schools approach provides strategies and a robust suite of tools to help
     schools identify, correct, and prevent a wide range of environmental health and safety risks, and to
     put in place a sustainable system to institutionalize a successful program at the school or school
     district level. The framework provides a common language to describe the drivers of IAQ program
     success; detailed guidance on the proven strategies, organizational approaches, and leadership
     styles that are fundamental to program effectiveness; and a clear vision of the pathway to school
     IAQ excellence. Its highly flexible and adaptable structure allows any school or school district,
     regardless of location, size, budget, or condition, to use the framework to launch, reinvigorate,  and
     sustain an effective indoor air quality management program.
          The Framework for Effective School IAQ Management:
                                 SIX KEY DRIVERS
                                Organize     Communicate
                                                           COMMUNICATE
                                     Cleaning & Maintenance
                                     Materials Selection
                                     Source Control
                                                      Assess
         ACT
         • Edu
                                               Plan
                                                                  ASSESS
                                                                  • Walk the Grounds
                                                                  • Listen to Occupants
                                                                  • Use Technology
PLAN
• Prioritize Actk
• Put Goals in Vi
• Start Small
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                         33

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       IAQ Tools for Schools At-A-Glance, continued
      The core elements of the IAQ Tools for Schools Framework are the Key Drivers and the Technical
      Solutions. The Key Drivers are the essential functions of effective and enduring indoor air quality
      management programs: Organize, Communicate, Assess, Plan, Act, and Evaluate. The Technical Solutions
      define the most common issues that schools need to address to effectively manage indoor air quality
      risks: Quality HVAC, Control of Moisture and Mold, Integrated Pest Management, Effective Cleaning and
      Maintenance, Smart Materials Selection, and Aggressive Source Control.
      Learn more about the  IAQ Tools for Schools Framework, tools, and resources.

              The Framework for  Effective School IAQ Management:
                                    SIX TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS
   Quality HVAC —
   • Inspect HVAC systems regularly
   • Establish a maintenance plan
   • Change filters regularly and ensure condensate pans are draining
   • Provide outdoor air ventilation according to ASHRAE Standard or local code
   • Clean air supply diffusers, return registers, and outside air intakes
   • Keep unit ventilators clear of books, papers and other items
   Control of Moisture/Mold —
   • Conduct routine moisture inspections
   • Establish mold prevention and remediation plan
   • Maintain indoor humidity levels between 30% and 60%
   • Address moisture problems promptly
   • Dry wet areas within 24-48 hours

"^ Strong Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
   • Inspect and monitor for pests
   • Establish an IPM plan
   • Use spot treatments and baits
   • Communicate with occupants prior to pesticide use
   • Mark indoor and outdoor areas treated with pesticides

   Effective Cleaning & Maintenance
   • Conduct routine inspections of school environment
   • Develop a preventable maintenance plan
   • Train cleaning/maintenance staff on protocols
   • Ensure materials safety data sheets (MSDS) are available to staff
   • Clean and remove dust with damp cloth
   • Vacuum using high-efficiency filters
                                                                             * HVAC
                                                                                Moisture/Mold
                                                                                IPM
                                                                                Cleaning & Maintenance
                                                                                Materials Selection
                                                                                Source Control
                                                          Smart Materials Selection
                                                          • Maintain products inventory
                                                          • Develop low-emitting products
                                                            purchasing and use policies
                                                          • Use only formaldehyde-free materials
                                                          • Use only low toxicity and low-emitting
                                                            paint
                                                          • Select products based on product
                                                            rating systems
                                                          * Use least toxic cleaners possible (only
                                                            those approved by the district)
Aggressive Source Control
• Conduct regular building walkthrough
  inspections
• Test for radon: mitigate if necessary
• Implement a hazardous materials plan (use,
  label, storage and disposal)
• Establish a school chemical management
  and inventory plan
• Implement Smoke Free policies
• Establish an anti-idling school bus policy
• Use walk-off mats at building entrances
• Conduct pollutant-releasing activities when
  school is unoccupied
34
                                                                           VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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     Implementing  Coordinated School  Health
     How States Can Implement a
     Coordinated School  Health Strategy
     Monitor and assess the effectiveness of school
     health policies and programs in promoting
     healthy behaviors and reducing risky ones (e.g.,
     CDC's School Health Profiles survey).
     Build an infrastructure within the lead agency
     that supports personnel and organizational
     involvement, authorization and funding,
     technical assistance and resources, and
     communication.
     Build partnerships among state level
     government agencies and NGOs to coordinate
     efforts and maximize resources (e.g., establish a
     state school health coordinating council).
     Establish policies to help schools implement
     and coordinate their school health efforts (e.g.,
     provide model policies to local school districts
     and develop curriculum standards to guide
     instruction and content).
     Establish a technical assistance and resource
     plan to support school districts in their
     Coordinated School Health efforts (e.g.,  establish
     criteria to help school districts develop,  assess,
and select health curricula; identify resources
for developing school health policies and for
assessing and planning school health programs;
and identify national standards and guidelines
for Coordinated School Health components and
disseminate to school districts).
Communicate the roles and benefits of a
Coordinated School Health strategy to key
audiences.
Develop a professional development plan
for school officials and others responsible for
implementing a  Coordinated School Health
strategy and school health initiatives.
Establish a system for evaluation to improve
state and local school health policies and
programs (e.g., develop procedures for
measuring program goals, objectives,
and implementation plans to assess the
development and implementation of health-
related education policies).
For more information, visit CDC's website on
Coordinated School Health.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                          35

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     Implementing Coordinated School  Health,  continued
     How Schools and School  Districts Can Implement a
     Coordinated School  Health Strategy
     Secure and maintain administrative support
     and commitment. School administrators can
     provide support by incorporating health in
     the school's or school district's vision and
     mission statements; appointing someone to
     oversee school health; allocating resources; and
     communicating the importance of wellness to
     students, school staff, and parents.
     Establish a school health council or team.
     District school health councils include
     at least one representative from each
     Coordinated School Health component, and
     school administrators, parents, students, and
     community representatives involved in the
     health and well-being of students. School health
     teams include a site administrator, an identified
     school health leader, teachers and other staff
     representing the Coordinated School Health
     components, parents, students, and community
     representatives (when appropriate).
     Identify a school health coordinator. The school
     health coordinator helps maintain active school
     health councils; facilitates health programming;
     organizes activities addressing the Coordinated
     School Health components; and facilitates
     actions to achieve a successful, coordinated
     school health system (e.g., policies, programs,
     activities, and resources).
     Develop a plan. The plan should present a
     strategy for achieving health promotion goals
     and fit into a school's overall  improvement plan
     to link health with learning outcomes.
Implement multiple strategies through multiple
components. Each Coordinated School Health
component employs a unique set of strategies,
including classroom instruction, policies and
procedures, environmental change, health,
counseling and nutrition services, parent and
community involvement, and social support. No
single strategy or single component, however,
will achieve all the desired health outcomes
for all students. Implementing all components
is necessary so every strategy can be used to
address health behaviors and improve student
learning.
Focus on students. The focus of a Coordinated
School Health strategy should be  on meeting
the education and health needs of students,
and providing opportunities for students to be
meaningfully  involved in the school and the
community.
Address priority health-enhancing and health-
risk behaviors. Schools can implement policies
and programs to help students avoid or reduce
health-risk behaviors that contribute to the
leading causes of death and disability among
young people as well as among adults.
Provide professional development for
staff. Professional development provides
opportunities for school employees to identify
areas for improvement, learn about and use
proven practices, solve problems, develop skills,
and reflect on and practice new strategies.
For more information, visit CDC's  website on
Coordinated School Health.
36
                VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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       Endnotes
        1.  Buchanan, B. (2007). Sick buildings, sick students:
           Poor air quality and other environmental irritants
           can lead to health concerns for your students
           and staff. American School Board Journal, June,
           48-50.

        2.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2010).
           EPA strategic plan. Retrieved 2012, from U.S.
           Environmental Protection Agency: www.epa.gov/
           planandbudget/strategicplan.html.

        3.  American Academy of Pediatrics Council on
           Environmental Health. (2003). Developmental
           toxicity: Special considerations based on age and
           developmental state. In Etzel, R., & S. Balk (Eds.),
           Pediatric Environmental Health (Second ed., pp.
           9-36). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy
           of Pediatrics Council on Environmental Health.

        4.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2003).
           America's children and the environment:
           Measures of contaminants, body burdens, and
           illnesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental
           Protection Agency. EPA/240/R-03/001. February.
           http://yosemite.epa.gov/ochp/ochpweb.
           nsf/content/ACEreport3_19final.htm/$File/
           ACEreport2_21final.pdf.

        5.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2012).
           Indoor air quality tools for schools: High
           performance schools. April 5. Retrieved 2012,
           from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:
           http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schooldesign/
           highperformance.html.

        6.  U.S. Department of Education, National Center
           for Education Statistics. (2010). Fast facts.
           Retrieved May 12,  2011, from National Center for
           Education Statistics: http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/
           display.asp?id=372.

        7.  National Research Council. (2006). Green schools:
           Attributes for health and learning. Washington,
           DC: The National Academies Press.  192 pages.

        8.  U.S. Department of Education, National Center
           for Education Statistics. (2007). Public school
           principals report on their school  facilities: Fall
           2005. Washington, DC: National Center for
           Education Statistics. NCES 2007-007. January.
           http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/2007007.pdf.
9.  National Research Council. (2011). Climate change,
   the indoor environment, and health. Washington,
   DC: The National Academies Press. 286 pages.

10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2007).
   A decade of children's environmental health
   research: Highlights from EPA's science to
   achieve results program. Washington, DC:
   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
   EPA/600/S-07/038. December, http://epa.gov/
   ncer/publications/research_results_synthesis/
   ceh_report_508.pdf.

11. Akinbami, L, Moorman, J., & Liu, X. (2011).
   Asthma prevalence, health care use, and
   mortality: United States, 2005-2009. National
   Health Statistic Reports, 32,1-14.

12. Evans, G., & Kantrowitz, E. (2002). Socioeconomic
   status and health: The potential role of
   environmental risk exposure. Annual Review of
   Public Health, 23, 303-331.

13. U.S. Department of Education. National Center for
   Education Statistics. (2000). Condition of America's
   public school facilities: 1999. Washington, DC:
   National Center for Education Statistics.

14. Akinbami, L.J. (2006). The state of childhood
   asthma, United States, 1980-2005. Advance Data
   from Vital and Health Statistics 381,1-24.

15. Stores, G., Ellis, A.J., Wiggs, L., Crawford, C., &
   Thomson, A. (1998). Sleep and psychological
   disturbance in nocturnal asthma. Archives of
   Disease in Childhood, 78 (5): 413-419.

16. Chugh, I.M.,Khanna, P., & Shah, A. (2006). Nocturnal
   symptoms and sleep disturbances in clinically stable
   asthmatic children. Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy
   and Immunology, 24 (2-3): 135-42.

17. Schneider, M. (2002). Public school facilities
   and teaching: Washington, DC and Chicago.
   Washington, DC: 21st Century School Fund.
   http://www.21csf.org/csf-home/Documents/
   Teacher_Survey/SCHOOL_FACS_AND_
   TEACHING.pdf.

18. Earthman, G., Cash, C., & Van Berkum, D. (1995).
   Student achievement and behavior and school
   building condition. Journal of School Business
   Management, 8 (3):  26-37.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                   37

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         19. Branham, D. (2004). The wise man builds his house
            upon the rock: The effects of inadequate school
            building infrastructure on student attendance. Social
            Science Quarterly, 85 (5), 1112-1128.

         20. Myhryold, A., Olsen, E., & Lauridsen, O.
            (1996). Indoor environment in schools -
            Pupils health and performance in regard to
            CO2 concentrations. Presentation at the 7th
            International Conference on Indoor Air Quality
            and Climate. Nagoya, Japan.

         21. Mendell, M. (1993). Non-specific symptoms
            in office workers: A review and summary of
            the epidemiologic literature. Indoor Air, 3 (4),
            227-236.

         22. Seppanen, O., Fisk, W.J., & Mendell, M.J..
            (1999). Association of ventilation rates and CO2
            concentrations with health and other responses
            in commercial and institutional buildings. Indoor
            Ail, 9 (4), 226-252.

         23. Apte, M., Fisk, W., & Daisey, J. (2000). Associations
            between indoor CO2 concentrations and sick
            building syndrome symptoms in U.S. office
            buildings: An analysis of the 1994-1996 BASE
            study data. Indoor Air, 10 (4), 246-257.

         24. Shendell, D., Prill, R, Fisk, W., Apte, M., Blake,
            D., & Faulkner, D. (2004). Associations between
            classroom CO2 concentrations and student
            attendance in Washington and Idaho. Indoor Air,
            14 (5), 331-341.

         25. Shaughnessy, R., Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U.,
            Nevalainen, A., & Moschandreas, D. (2006). A
            preliminary study on  the association between
            ventilation rates in classrooms and student
            performance.  Indoor Air, 16 (6), 465-468.

         26. Duran-Narucki, V (2008). School building
            condition, school attendance, and academic
            achievement in New York City public schools:
            A mediation model. Journal of Environmental
            Psychology, 28,  278-286.

         27. Ohlund, L, & Ericsson, K. (1994). Elementary
            school achievement and absence due to illness.
            Journal of Genetic Psychology, 155 (4), 409-421.

         28. Stolz, A., Knickelbein, A., & Coburn, S. (2008).
            Linking coordinated school health to student
            success. Presentation at the Annual Conference
            of the National Association of School Nurses,
            Albuquerque, NM.
29. Vinciullo, F. (2008). The relationship between
   multi-component school health programs and
   school achievement. Presentation at the Annual
   Conference of the National Association of School
   Nurses, Albuquerque, NM,

30. National Clearinghouse for Education Facilities.
   (2010). Green schools as high performance
   learning facilities. Washington, DC: National
   Institute of Building Sciences.  September, http://
   www.ncef.org/pubs/greenschools.pdf.

31. Landrigan, P., Schechter, C., Lipton, J., Fahs, M.,
   & Schwartz, J. (2002). Environmental pollutants
   and disease in American children: Estimates of
   morbidity, mortality, and costs for lead poisoning,
   asthma,  cancer, and developmental disabilities.
   Environmental Health Perspectives, 110 (7), 721-728.

32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
   (2011}. Asthma in the U.S. May. Retrieved February
   13, 2012, from Vital Signs: http://www.cdc.gov/
   vitalsigns/Asthma.

33. U.S. Department of Health and  Human Services.
   (2011). IHS Fact Sheets. January. Retrieved 2012,
   from Indian Health Services: http://www.ihs.gov/
   PublicAffairs/IHSBrochure/Disparities.asp.

34. Regents Advisory Committee on Environmental
   Quality  in Schools. (1995). Guiding Principles for
   Improving the Environmental Quality of Schools.
   Retrieved 2012, from New York State Board of
   Regents: http://www.pl2.nysed.gov/facplan/
   policy/environmental_quality_schools.html.

35. Neal, D.E. (2008). Healthy schools: A major
   front in  the fight for environmental justice.
   Environmental Law, 38 (2), 473-494.

36. Everett Jones, S., Axelrad, R., & Wattigney, W.A.
   (2007). Healthy and safe school environment, part
   II, physical school environment: Results from the
   school health policies and programs study 2006.
   Journal  of School Health, 77 (8), 544-556.

37. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
   (2011). School health programs: Improving the
   health of our nation's youth—At a glance 2011.
   March 21. Retrieved 2012, from Chronic Disease
   Prevention and Health Promotion: http://www.
   cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/
   AAG/dash.htm.
38
                 VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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 Appendix A |  Model K-12 School
 Environmental Health Program
                   Recommended Activities to Promote Healthy
                   Environments in Schools and School Districts
  '"Mini.
.-=111

         .

 Voluntary Guidelines for States
 Development and Implementation of a
 School Environmental Health Program

-------
     Table of Contents
     What Is a School Environmental Health Program?	A-2
     Getting Started: Tips for Successful Program Development and Implementation	A-5
     How to Use the Model Program	A-10
     Five Key Components of a School Environmental Health Program	A-12
       Component 1: Practice Effective Cleaning and Maintenance	A-13
       Component 2: Prevent Mold and Moisture	A-18
       Component 3: Reduce Chemical and Environmental Contaminant Hazards	A-21
       Component 4: Ensure Good Ventilation	A-32
       Component 5: Prevent Pests and Reduce Pesticide Exposure	A-36
     Additional Opportunities for Promoting Environmental Health in School Facilities	A-41
       New Construction and Renovation Products	A-42
       Enhancing Classroom Comfort	A-50
       Energy and Water Efficiency	A-53
     Additional Actions to Promote Environmentally Friendly School Facilities	A-58
       Faculty and Staff Training	A-59
       Student Curricula	A-61
     Endnotes...                                                               ..A-64
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                                                    A-1

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     What is  a School  Environmental Health
     Program?
     A school environmental health program is
     a holistic, comprehensive, and actionable
     strategy that integrates preventive measures
     and addresses environmental health
     issues by fostering well-maintained school
     buildings and grounds. Sustainable school
     environmental health programs promote
     environments that are conducive to learning
     and protect the health of building occupants.
     In addition to improving the school's
     physical environment and minimizing
     potential health risks, school environmental
     health programs help local communities,
     schools, and school districts make healthy,
     safe, and cost-effective choices that
     address each school's environmental health
     priorities. Some of the benefits to schools
     and school districts include:
       Improvements in children's health;
      • Decreased rates of absenteeism for
       children and teachers;
      * Stronger student academic performance
       and participation in the classroom;
       Greater teacher retention and job
       satisfaction; and
       Cost savings through energy and
       water conservation and efficiency, and
       improved facility maintenance.
     States are encouraged to utilize their
     existing laws, regulations, and policies—in
     conjunction with the information provided
     in this model—to provide schools with a
     customized resource to help create healthy
     school environments for children and
     staff. Although no single program model
     must be followed in establishing a school
     environmental health program, the U.S.
     Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)
     Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Tools for Schools
program framework and technical solutions
have been widely adopted by schools and
school districts over the past 15 years. In
fact, the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention's (CDC) 2006 School Health
Policies and Programs Study estimated that
more than half of all schools have an indoor
air quality program in place and more than
85% base their program on the IAQ Tools for
Schools model.
For the tens of thousands of schools familiar
with the IAQ Tools for Schools framework
and technical solutions, IAQ Tools for
Schools is a logical platform from which
many school environmental health issues
can be tackled. EPA encourages states,
schools, and school districts to use the IAQ
    More Information on
    the Importance of
    Environmental  Health
    in K-12 Schools
    The book Safe and Healthy School
    Environments explores the school
    environment using the methods and
    perspectives of environmental health
    science. Although environmental
    health has long been understood to
    be an important factor in workplaces,
    homes, and communities, this book
    addresses the same basic concerns
    in schools. The editors are physicians
    and educators trained in pediatrics,
    occupational and environmental
    medicine, and medical toxicology, and
    the authors are experts in their fields,
    in the United States and abroad.
A-2
               VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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           The Framework for Effective School  IAQ Management:
                                   SIX KEY DRIVERS
           ORGANIZE
            Develop Systematic Approach
            Identify Existing Assets
            Design Standard 'Operating
           EVALUATE
           • Solicit Feedback
                                 Organize     Communicate
            COMMUNICATE
            • Share Your Goals
                           Evaluate
                                    Act

                                                       Assess
                                                 Plan
            PLAN
            • Prioritize Actions
            • Put Goals in Writing
            • Start Smal
            • Work in Stages
            • Plan for the Future
     Tools for Schools framework and the model
     program that follows to identify actions and
     resources that might be of use to schools
     for building or further strengthening their
     school environmental health programs.
     The following model program provides
     guidance for schools and school districts
     that are beginning to develop, or are
     strengthening, a school environmental
     health program, including the key steps
     for implementing a program and practical
     actions that schools can take to address a
     wide range of environmental issues. The
     model program groups these  environmental
     issues into five broad components:
       Practice Effective Cleaning and
       Maintenance,
       Prevent Mold and Moisture,
       Reduce Chemical and Environmental
       Contaminant Hazards,
       Ensure Good Ventilation, and
       Prevent Pests and Reduce Pesticide Use.
The model program also includes
examples of how schools have approached
environmental health issues and links
to other valuable resources to help
schools develop comprehensive school
environmental health programs.
School environmental health programs
should be dynamic and need to evolve as
schools and school districts identify new
priorities, set new goals,  and balance existing
resources. This model program can be
modified to meet the changing needs of
a school or school district, and should be
updated to reflect a school or school district's
current priorities, goals, and resources.

The Important Role of State Policy
in School Environmental Health
Programs
State policy development and
implementation plays a critical role in
promoting healthy school environments.
A number of states have regulations,
policies, and guidance that address key
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                                                         A-3

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     environmental health issues in schools,
     including green cleaning, chemical
     management, indoor air quality, and
     integrated pest management. The existing
     policies, regulations, and guidance can
     help schools and school districts take the
     necessary steps to improve environmental
     conditions in schools by establishing a
     benchmark or standard to which all schools
     should or must comply.
     This model program is intended to be a
     resource for states to provide to schools
     and school districts to help them address
     environmental health issues. States are
encouraged to customize the model
program to reflect existing regulations,
policies, and guidance that promote
school environmental health; emergency
management protocols, procedures,
and points of contact; and existing
resources that can help schools and
school districts develop and sustain their
own environmental health programs and
activities. States are also encouraged to
use the model program as a resource for
considering new regulations, policies,
and guidance that might be helpful in
promoting healthy school environments.
A-4
               VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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     Getting  Started:  Tips for Successful  Program
     Development and Implementation
     Effective school environmental health
     programs are built through collaboration
     among all members of the school
     community. A successful and well-
     coordinated school environmental health
     program is characterized by school
     administrators, teachers, staff, facility
     managers, and students who view health
     protection and promotion as an essential
     part of meeting the school's mission. The
     most successful school environmental
     health programs will use an ongoing
     process to develop, implement, and
     evaluate policies, procedures, and practices
     that strive for continuous improvement.
     Before a school develops its environmental
     health program, it will need to build
     an infrastructure that will support and
     sustain the program. The following
     steps are essential for a school or school
     district preparing to implement a school
     environmental health program.

     Secure Leadership Support
     The first step to implementing a school
     environmental health program should be
     securing support from senior leadership of
     the school or school district (e.g., district
     superintendent, school principal, or  school
     board). School administrators can support
     the program in many ways, including:
       Incorporating environmental health in
       the school's or school district's vision and
       mission statements;
       Allocating resources specifically for
       program policies, procedures, and
       practices; and
       Communicating the goals of the program
       to the school community.
Establish a District or School
Environmental Health Team or
Committee
More than 70% of school districts and
more than one-third of schools have a
school health council, team, or committee
that offers guidance on the development
of policies or coordinated health
activities. To promote a healthy school
environment, schools and school districts
are encouraged to work with an existing
council, team, or committee to form an
environmental health team or committee
that can help develop and implement a
school environmental health program,
and serve as a resource for parents and
the surrounding community. Members
should include administrators, teachers,
school nurses or other health services
staff, and facility managers. At least
one person on the team or committee
should have experience in emergency
management. The environmental health
team or committee would also benefit
from including students, parents, the
state or local coordinated school health
representative, and community agencies
and organizations (e.g., local health
jurisdictions and colleges and universities).
Team or committee members should
understand their roles in promoting
healthy school environments and be
able to communicate this information
when questions or concerns about the
school environment are raised. The
team or committee should develop a
communication plan that emphasizes
timely and transparent communication
with the public and within the school and
school district to sustain support from
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     school administrators, school staff, parents,
     and other community members for
     environmental health activities.

     Identify Priorities and Goals
     Identifying areas of greatest concern/
     interest for each school and developing a
     list of priorities are important tasks for the
     environmental health team or committee.
     Setting priorities will depend on several
     factors:
        Urgency of the environmental health
        issues present at the school;
        Impact/benefit of addressing the issue;
        Ability to make significant progress
        within a set timeframe;
        Resource constraints; and
      • Stakeholder support.
     The environmental health priorities
     identified by the environmental health
     team or committee can be used as a guide
     to develop a list of program goals that are
     clear, measureable, and can be reasonably
     accomplished within a specified timeframe.
     Examples of general goals include:
 • Improve indoor air quality by adopting
   EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools program;
   Reduce classroom chemical hazards
   by removing dangerous chemicals,
   adopting green chemistry curricula,
   and purchasing only the amounts of
   chemicals needed;
   Ensure safe drinking water by testing
   for lead at all drinking water taps and
   taking mitigation steps when lead
   concentrations exceed recommended
   health-based benchmarks;
   Reduce unnecessary idling by adopting
   an anti-idling policy for school buses,
   passenger vehicles, and delivery trucks; and
   Reduce pest problems and exposure to
   pesticides by adopting integrated pest
   management practices.
It is imperative that all individuals involved
in the school environmental health program
understand the program goals.

Develop an Action Plan
School or school district priorities and
goals should be captured in an action plan
         SCHOOL HIGHLIGHT:

         New Hampshire and New York Schools
         New Hampshire: At the school district level, a diverse committee of key decision-makers,
         school staff, parents, and local community supporters can be instrumental in sustaining a
         successful school environmental health program, and foster increased coordination and
         collaboration on common goals. All schools participating in New Hampshire's Partners for
         Healthy Schools program form a committee comprising key school staff (e.g., principals,
         teachers, nurses, and facilities managers). This committee is in charge of developing work
         plans for their school and encouraging buy-in at the school level.
         New York: The Rebuild Schools to Uphold  Education Law of 1998 requires all school
         districts  in New York to establish a health and safety committee. Committees should
         include school administrators, staff, and parents and are responsible for addressing health
         and safety concerns in occupied school buildings.
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     that program participants can refer to on a
     regular basis. In addition to priorities and
     goals, the action plan should identify:
       The roles, responsibilities, and
       expectations for program participants;
       Methods for implementing program
       components (e.g., policies, procedures,
       practices, and regulations);
       Available resources for program
       implementation and how the resources
       will be allocated;
       A timeframe for program
       implementation; and
       Performance measures for evaluating
       program success.
     A copy of the action plan should be kept
     in a centrally located place where program
     participants can easily access it. The plan
     should be considered a "living document"
     and be updated regularly to reflect shifting
     priorities and resources; current policies,
     practices, and procedures; and changing
     roles and responsibilities.

     Provide Faculty and Staff
     Training
     Providing training opportunities to school
     or school district faculty and staff prior
     to program implementation is crucial for
     future success. Training can come from
     a partnership between governmental and
     non-governmental organizations, from
     successful peer trainers, or from a trainer
     with expertise in school environmental
     health. Trainers should be able to speak
     from experience and communicate
     effectively with the audience being trained.
     Training can be provided in conjunction
     with other mandatory or recommended
     training (e.g., Occupational Safety and
     Health Administration's 1910.1200
     Hazard Communication training or state
     equivalent). Initial training topics should be
   "An important approach to
   training maintenance staff is
   to tell them that they are "key
   players" in this effort; that
   they are public health workers
   involved in making healthy
   buildings for these students
   and staff."
                Connecticut Department
                        of Public Health
tailored to a school or school district's areas
of greatest need, and could focus on:
  The purpose of a school environmental
  health program;
  The components of the program being
  implemented at the school or school
  district;
  How the school is complying with
  federal, state, and local environmental
  laws and regulations;
 ป The benefits for students, faculty, and
  school staff; and
 ป The policies and procedures currently in
  place that support the program.
In addition to initial training, school or
school district faculty and staff should
be encouraged to pursue professional
development opportunities that relate to
school environmental health issues. Further
information on training can be found in the
Faculty and Staff Training section.

Encourage Student Involvement
The ultimate goal of a school environmental
health program is to create safe, healthy,
and productive learning environments for
children. Enabling student participation
throughout program implementation
affords students a sense of ownership and
accountability in the ultimate success of
the program, and provides an opportunity
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     for unique learning experiences. Student
     involvement can come in many forms,
     including:
       Adopting environmental health curricula
       in relevant courses (e.g., science and
       health);
       Encouraging high school seniors to
       incorporate school environmental health
       topics into senior projects;
      • Establishing an environmental/
       environmental health club or a related
       student-led group;
       Offering extra-curricular activities
       that relate to the environment and
       environmental health;
       Providing opportunities for students
       to run public service campaigns (e.g.,
   asthma awareness and idling reduction
   campaigns); and
   Offering volunteer opportunities at the
   school or in the community that promote
   environmental stewardship.
Further information on incorporating
environmental health in lessons and
classroom activities can be found in the
Student Curricula section.

Promote Program Success
Communicating program success is
important for schools and school districts
to maintain, and even increase, support for
a school environmental health program.
Consider using one or more of the
following methods to promote program
progress and success:
         SCHOOL DISTRICT HIGHLIGHT:
         Carrollton-Farmer's Branch Independent School District
         in Carrollton, Texas
         In April 2002, the Carrollton-Farmer's Branch Independent School District launched the
         TEAMS (Tools for Schools, Energy, Asbestos, Moisture Management, Safety and Security)
         program as a way to address the management of environmental and safety issues district-
         wide. TEAMS assembled a comprehensive environmental and safety team, including:
         if Executive Director of Facilities
            Services/Transportation
            Director of Maintenance
            Director of Security and Operations
         * Science Coordinator
         •*• Occupational Health Nurse
 * Health Services Supervisor
 •*• Custodial Department Head
 it Athletics Director
   Construction Supervisor
   Environmental Specialist
   Nurse Manager
         In 2011, TEAMS evolved into TIMES (Tools for Schools, Energy, Asbestos, Moisture
         Management, Safety and Security), as asbestos is no longer a significant environmental
         issue in the district. TEAMS/TIMES has helped the district develop policies and
         educational tools to ensure students, faculty, school staff, and the community at large
         have a greater understanding of environmental and safety issues within the school,
         particularly in the classroom  setting.
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       Write a success story for the school
       newsletter or school newspaper.
       Give a presentation at a school board or
       parent-teacher organization meeting.
       Submit a story for print in the
       community newspaper.
       Have a booth at a community event
       highlighting the program and its
       accomplishments.
Present an award to school faculty
and staff who have contributed to the
program's success.
Apply for national and state awards (e.g.,
U.S. Department of Education Green
Ribbon Schools Recognition Award).
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     How  to  Use the Model  Program
     The following model K-12 school
     environmental health program was
     developed as a tool for schools and school
     districts to use in planning specific actions
     they can take to implement their own
     school environmental health program.
     Whether a school or school district is in
     the planning stages of implementing its
     first school environmental health program
     or has a successful program in place,
     the model program has information and
     resources to support their efforts.
     The model program consists of four
     sections:
      * Five Key Components of a School
       Environmental Health Program: This
       section discusses five key components
       of a sustainable school environmental
       health program and recommends
       actions schools and school districts
       can take to address each component
in their program. Schools can use the
environmental health priorities that
are identified in the program planning
process to determine which actions best
apply to their situation. Each component
offers three tiers of actions a school or
school district can take to build a school
environmental health program.
It is not uncommon for individual
environmental health issues to be
addressed through actions under several
of the components. Schools should
complete the actions that best align with
and address their program priorities, and
need not tackle all issues at once. Schools
and school districts often will find that
by taking actions under one component
(e.g., Practice Effective Cleaning and
Maintenance) they will also be addressing
issues relevant to other components
(e.g., Prevent Pests and Reduce Pesticide
Exposure).
         School  Environmental Compliance
         Environmental compliance is integral to school environmental health. The actions suggested
         in the model program are voluntary; however, schools must comply with all applicable
         environmental regulations. EPA Region 2's Environmental Compliance and Best Management
         Practices: Guidance Manual for K-12 Schools is a helpful tool to remind schools of their key
         environmental requirements. It is important to note that additional, and sometimes more
         stringent, state and local environmental regulations might also apply to schools.
         For additional tools to promote compliance at schools, visit EPA's Healthy School
         Environment Resources website. Also, visit the Campus Environmental Resource Center
         (Campus ERC). Campus ERC is a  library of resources that support campus environmental
         performance improvement and help visitors better understand environmental regulations.
         Although Campus ERC is designed for use by colleges and universities, K-12 schools and
         school districts might find some of its resources helpful.
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                                   ป
      :  Additional Opportunities for Promoting
        Environmental Health in School
        Facilities: This section presents general
        information that schools and school
        districts can use as they plan for and
        undertake major construction and
        renovation projects. This section
        also includes recommendations for
        improving classroom comfort (e.g.,
        lighting, acoustics, ventilation, and
        temperature control) and becoming more
        energy- and water-efficient.
        Faculty and Staff Training: This section
        presents information on training for
        faculty and school staff that addresses
        the key components of a school
environmental health program,
their roles and responsibilities in the
program, and how to make the program
sustainable. Training opportunities
should be provided in advance of
program implementation and address
all aspects of the school environmental
health program, not just the areas in
which the faculty and school staff have
expertise and experience.
Student Curricula: This section
offers creative ways to incorporate
environmental health into lesson plans
and classroom activities to engage
students in environmental health issues
and to show how these issues affect them.
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     Five Key Components of a School
     Environmental  Health Program
    This section describes the five key
    components of a school environmental
    health program; how each component
    contributes to creating healthy learning
    environments for children and staff; and
    introduces some of the actions that schools
    and school districts can take to implement a
    school environmental health program.
    The components are presented in a three-
    tiered structure to demonstrate how
    every school, even those with little or no
    additional resources, can take some actions
    to improve school environmental health,
    and ensure that children and staff have
    healthier places to learn, work, and play.

    The Five Key Components
               Tier 1 actions are fixes schools can
               make immediately, and are a good
               starting point for schools with little or no
               previous experience with environmental
               health programs.
               Tier 2 actions are essential components
               of a comprehensive school
               environmental health program.
               Tier 3 actions are provided for schools
               that have established a comprehensive
               school environmental health program
               and are looking for ways to enhance their
               pre-existing program.
          COMPONENT!
Practice Effective Cleaning and Maintenance
          COMPONENT 2
Prevent Mold and Moisture
          COMPONENTS
Reduce Chemical and Environmental
Contaminant Hazards
          COMPONENT 4
Ensure Good Ventilation
          COMPONENTS
Prevent Pests and Reduce Pesticide Exposure
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                          :omponent 1: Practice Effective
                          leaning and Maintenance
     Why Is This Important?

     School environments are healthier when
     they are kept clean and well maintained.
     Unsanitary conditions attract insects and
     vermin, and irritants and allergens found in
     dust and dirt can have a negative impact on
     student health and performance in schools.
     Indoor air pollutants and allergens related
     to poor cleaning practices contribute to
     increased respiratory and asthma symptoms
     among children and adults.1 According to
     the CDC, asthma is one of the leading causes
     of school absenteeism, resulting in nearly
     14 million missed school days annually
     nationwide.2 Regular and thorough cleaning
     and building maintenance can prevent pest
         Green Cleaning
         Green cleaning means using cleaning
         products and practices that pose
         less harm to human health and
         the environment. Green cleaning
         products have one or more of the
         following traits:
           low or no volatile organic
           compound (VOC) emissions,
           neutral pH levels,
         * no known carcinogens, and
         it are biodegradable.
         For more information on green
         cleaning in schools, see EPA's Safe
         Chemical Management  in Schools
         green cleaning fact sheet.
problems, minimize irritants and allergens,
and create healthier learning and working
environments for children and staff.
Choosing the right cleaning products and
practices is critical for maintaining a healthy
school environment and protecting the
health of children and staff. The chemicals
found in some cleaning products can cause
health problems, including eye, nose, and
throat irritation and headaches, and in some
cases can trigger asthma attacks. Using green
cleaning products and practices can help to
avoid these health effects, improve indoor air
quality, and increase the lifespan of facilities.
Maintaining the school facility is just as
important as routine cleaning to ensure a
healthy environment for children and staff.
A regular inspection program can identify
problems before they impact the school
environment and the occupants' health.
School building maintenance protocols
should address the entire building
infrastructure: the foundation, exterior
and interior walls, windows and doors, and
roofing.3

Actions Schools Can Take to
Practice Effective  Cleaning and
Maintenance

Review Existing State Policy
Many states have implemented policies
to promote healthy school environments.
Refer to and follow your state's relevant
environmental health policies and
emergency management protocols when
conducting cleaning and maintenance
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         Healthy Schools  Green Cleaning Resources
         Valuable green cleaning resources are widely available for use by schools and concerned
         stakeholders.
         Green Clean Schools is the Healthy Schools Campaign's national partnership to
         promote green cleaning in schools. The initiative brings together the cleaning
         industry, educational leaders, parents, and advocates to support schools in adopting
         environmentally friendly policies, practices, and products. The partnership provides
         important resources, tools, and success stories to help schools adopt environmentally
         friendly cleaning policies and practices. To learn more and view webinars, visit the
         Healthy Schools Campaign Green Clean Schools website.
         The Healthy Schools Network's Cleaning for Healthy Schools Toolkit provides valuable
         information on green cleaning, including background on the costs and benefits of green
         cleaning, model state green cleaning policies, links to certified green cleaning products,
         and online workshops on green cleaning practices.
     activities. (States may insert relevant
     environmental health policies and
     emergency management protocols here.)

     Tier 1: Simple  Steps Schools Can Take
     to Get Started
     The best way to launch a school
     environmental health program is to identify
     fixes and solutions that can be implemented
     immediately. Schools should start by asking
     questions like, where are the school's
     areas of greatest need and what resources
     are available to address those needs? The
     answers to these questions will help schools
     decide where to focus their initial efforts.
     Review the school's current cleaning and
     maintenance practices and verify the
     following actions are routinely taken:
      • For cleaning:
        • Schedule routine cleaning when the
         building is  unoccupied.
        • Read and follow product labels.
        • Use only the amount of product
         suggested on the label.
        • Use proper equipment to perform
         cleaning tasks.
Ensure cleaning products are
inaccessible to students.
Maintain an up-to-date inventory of all
cleaning products used.
Keep copies of Safety Data Sheets
(SDSs) for all cleaning products in an
accessible location.
Clean and remove dust from hard,
impermeable surfaces with a water-
dampened cloth.
Wipe up paint chips with a wet sponge
or rag.
Vacuum using high-efficiency
vacuums and filters (e.g., high
efficiency particulate air filters).
Ensure garbage is stored in appropriate
containers and disposed of properly at
the end of each day.
Purchase and use walk-off mats at
building entrances to reduce the
amount of dust and soil tracked into
school buildings.
Conduct thorough cleaning of
kitchens, cafeterias, and other food
use areas.
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       • Reduce clutter, such as excess paper
         or plush toys, which collect dust
         and allergens and prevent thorough
         cleaning.
       For maintenance:
       • Caulk all windows and door frames,
         and seal any joints.
       • Monitor the interior of the roof for
         water damage.
       • Inspect windows and doors for physical
         damage and improper seals.
       • Ensure all windows and doors are
         functioning properly.
       • Check weather-stripping and replace as
         needed.
       • Inspect the foundation for cracks,
         decay, and water infiltration.
       • Inspect exterior plywood for cracks,
         decay, and water damage.
       • Cut back overgrown vegetation near
         exterior walls.
       • Inspect ceilings and duct work for
         deteriorating tiles and heating,
         ventilation, and air conditioning
         (HVAC) lining, as well as loose
         insulation.
Tier 2: Key Elements for a
Comprehensive School Environmental
Health Program
Schools that have completed most of the
actions listed under Tier 1 will be prepared to
implement the key elements necessary for a
more comprehensive school environmental
health program.
   Establish a green cleaning and preventive
   maintenance plan for your school.
   • Involve teachers, administrators,
    purchasing officials, and custodians in
    designing and implementing the plan.
   • Select cleaning products with positive
    environmental attributes (i.e., low or
    no volatile organic compound (VOC)
    emissions, no potential carcinogens)
    recognized by third-party eco-
    certification programs, including EPA's
    Design for the Environment, Green Seal
    and Ecologo. Further information on
    selecting green cleaning products can
    be found in Appendix C: Additional
    Information and Resources.
   • When purchasing neutral cleaners,
    glass cleaners, bathroom cleaners, and
    disinfectants, consider products that
         SCHOOL DISTRICT HIGHLIGHT:
         Northeast  Independent School  District
         in San Antonio, Texas
         The maintenance department for the Northeast Independent School District facilities
         used the IAQ Tools for Schools Framework to centralize its custodial services and adopt
         a "Going Green" initiative. The school district's "Going Green" efforts have included
         implementing standard cleaning protocols across the district, selecting Green Seal
         certified products whenever available, and performing monthly campus inspections and
         assessments. Since adopting the initiative, the Northeast Independent School District has
         reduced chemical costs by 19% and has been recognized for their green cleaning efforts.
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         have high dilution rates, are designed
         to reduce waste, and have lower end-
         use costs.
        • Avoid using cleaning products
         containing fragrances that might
         trigger asthma symptoms, or those
         with strong odors.
        • Involve facilities and custodial staff in
         the selection and testing of cleaning
         products.
        • Educate facilities and custodial staff
         on the attributes and health benefits
         of greener products to encourage
         adoption and sustained use.
        • Incorporate green cleaning concepts
         and practices into your preventive
         maintenance plan. For example:
         • Spray cleaning cloths with product
           rather than the surface to be cleaned;
         • Use microfiber cleaning cloths and
           other tools to minimize the amount
           of cleaning products used; and
         • Purchase products as concentrates
           and dilute on site.
Train facilities and custodial staff on
cleaning practices and policies, as well as
procedures for handling a chemical spill.
Conduct an inventory of cleaning
products. Identify and properly dispose
of products that are outdated, unknown,
or not needed.
Maintain a standardized list of approved
and disapproved cleaning products at
the school district level. Such a list will
ensure all  schools in the district use the
same cleaning products and techniques
and are cleaned to the same standard.
• Prohibit  teachers and school staff from
  bringing in cleaning chemicals and
  products that have not been approved
  for district and school building use.
Annually assess and remove items that
are stored  in schools and are no longer
needed. Such items could include old
lesson plans and materials, outdated or
unneeded school supplies, and outdated
or worn electronic equipment and
furniture.
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       Use EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools Action
       Kit checklists to assist with routine school
       building inspections and maintenance.
       Schedule an annual inspection of the
       school facilities by a building professional.
       Inspect roofs at least twice a year,
       including a pre-winter inspection in
       October or November.
       Maintain accurate records of roof and
       building inspections.

     Tier 3: Enhance a School's
     Pre-Existing Program
     Schools that have taken steps to implement
     a comprehensive school environmental
     health program can build on their pre-
     existing programs by considering the
     following actions:
       Develop and record measures specific
       to the school that will demonstrate
       improvement in adopting healthier
       cleaning and maintenance practices.
       For example:
       • Number of green cleaning products
         piloted;
  • Number of training workshops held
   and number of participants;
  • Pounds of toxic chemicals avoided by
   switching to more environmentally
   friendly, less toxic cleaning products;
   and
  • Number of nurse visits due to
   symptoms associated with exposure
   to cleaning products (e.g., eye, nose,
   and throat irritation, headaches, and
   asthma attacks) a
• Consider purchasing building
  materials that easily can be cleaned and
  maintained with the same cleaning
  products used throughout the school
  building.
  Incorporate information and updates
  on healthier cleaning into newsletters,
  school announcements, and other
  outreach material.
 protocols
                      viewhc,v,d;
                                                                      *r
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     Why  Is This Important?
     The key to mold control is moisture
     control. Keeping the school environment
     dry is essential for maintaining a healthy
     school building, as well as promoting an
     environment conducive to learning and
     working. The presence of moisture within
     building structures stimulates the growth of
     molds and other biological contaminants,
     and damp schools provide a nurturing
     environment for mites, roaches, and
     rodents, which are associated with asthma,
     allergies, and other respiratory diseases.
     Moisture and mold can also damage
     building infrastructure and result in costly
     renovations. Individual school districts have
     incurred costs from $200,000 to as much
     as $13 million for remediating mold and
     mildew damage.4A6'7'8 A few hundred dollars
     of annual preventive maintenance can
     avoid the need for costly mold remediation,
     as well as the potential legal liability posed
     by the presence of mold and mildew and its
     health risk for children and staff.4
Actions Schools Can Take to
Prevent Mold and Moisture

Review Existing State Policy
Many states have implemented policies
to promote healthy school environments.
Refer to and follow your state's relevant
environmental health policies and
emergency management protocols
when conducting preventive mold and
moisture activities. (States may insert
relevant environmental health policies and
emergency management protocols here.)

Tier 1: Simple Steps Schools Can Take
to Get Started
The best way to launch a school
environmental health program is to identify
fixes and solutions that can be implemented
immediately. Schools should start by asking
questions like, where are the school's
areas of greatest need and what resources
are available to address those needs? The
         The Cost of Mold in Schools
         Willingboro High School in Willingboro, Pennsylvania spent approximately $943,692 to
         address mold found in the school. Remediation activities included air quality testing, duct
         cleaning, repairs to the HVAC system, replacement of ceiling tiles, and textbook cleaning.9
         Cecil S. Collins Elementary School in Barnegat, New Jersey spent $700,000 to pay for
         mold remediation activities, including removal and repairs.10
         Middle Township Elementary School No. 1 in New Jersey spent more than $112,400 in
         mold cleanup costs and $10,000 for air quality and surface testing.11
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     answers to these questions will help schools
     decide where to focus their initial efforts.
     Conduct an initial inspection of the school
     environment. Identify immediate actions
     that can be taken for:
       Preventing moisture/mold in schools
       • Conduct routine moisture inspections
         to ensure the school building is free of
         moisture problems, water damage, and
         visible mold on all interior surfaces.
       • Fix leaking plumbing and leaks in the
         school building and roof as soon as
         possible.
       • Watch for condensation and wet spots.
         Address sources of moisture problems
         promptly.
       • Dry wet areas within 24-48 hours.
       • Vent moisture-generating appliances
         (e.g., dryers) to the outside.
       • Ensure carpeting is not installed in
         areas with exposed plumbing.
       • Maintaining gutters, downspouts,
         scuppers, and storm drains
       • Downspouts, scuppers, and storm
         drains should be intact and properly
         connected.
       • Downspouts should drain  to the storm
         sewer or a visibly sloped grade away
         from the school building.
  • Downspouts, scuppers, and storm
    drains should have no evidence of
    stormwater overflow or obstruction.
  • Gutters, downspouts,  scuppers, and
    storm drains should be free of excessive
    debris.
  • Gutters and roofs should have no
    standing water.
  • Consult EPA's Mold Remediation in
    Schools and Commercial Buildings
    website for mold cleanup guidance and
    procedures.
Tier 2: Key Elements for a
Comprehensive School Environmental
Health Program
Schools that have completed most of the
actions listed under Tier 1 will be prepared to
implement the key elements necessary for a
more comprehensive school environmental
health program.
 * Preventing moisture/mold in schools
  • Establish a mold prevention and
    remediation plan.
  • Ensure ventilation systems are
    circulating the  indoor air properly. See
    Component 4:  Ensure Good Ventilation
    for more information.
  • Maintain indoor humidity levels
    between 30% and 60%.
         SCHOOL  DISTRICT  HIGHLIGHT:
         Broward County, Florida  Public Schools
         Prior to 2002, Broward County Public Schools did not have an integrated system to
         manage its indoor air quality. But when a building audit revealed that seven elementary
         schools had moisture problems, the district knew it needed to act quickly to protect
         the buildings and their occupants. School district officials turned to EPA's IAQ Tools for
         Schools program to address the immediate issues, and then develop a comprehensive,
         integrated approach to proactively manage indoor environments and indoor
         environmental  health.
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       • Ensure indoor pool facilities are well
         ventilated to control humidity levels.
       • Clean carpets with extraction cleaners
         to remove water and prevent mold
         growth.
       • Take steps to prevent water from
         ponding within 10 feet of the school
         building foundation (e.g., irrigation
         water spray lines should not be
         within 3 feet of the school building's
         foundation).
       • Know what steps to take in the event
         of a flood. EPA's Flood Cleanup website
         has information on cleaning up after
         a flood and how to prevent mold and
         moisture problems.
     Tier 3: Enhance a School's
     Pre-Existing Program
     Schools that have taken steps to implement
     a comprehensive school environmental
     health program can build on their pre-
     existing programs by considering the
     following actions:
Develop and record measures specific
to the school that will demonstrate
improvement in adopting effective
moisture management techniques.
Examples include:
• Reduction in the number of mold
  findings within the school facilities.
• Reduction in the number of cleaning/
  remediation events due to mold growth.
Purchase furniture and carpeting made
from mold-resistant materials when
replacing worn or damaged items.
Install vents to the outside for all areas in
the school building that use large quantities
of water (e.g., kitchens, bathrooms, locker
rooms, and pool facilities).
Integrate information on mold into the
student curricula.
Incorporate information and updates on
mold and moisture management into
newsletters, school announcements, and
other outreach material.
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                         :omponent 3: Reduce Chemical and
                          nvironmental Contaminant Hazards
     Why Is  This Important?

     Schools need to provide a safe and healthy
     learning environment for children by
     preventing exposure to chemicals and
     environmental contaminants that pose
     health risks to them and the environment.
     Children spend a significant portion of
     their time in school and might be more
     vulnerable to chemical and environmental
     contaminant hazards than adults because:
       Their bodily systems are still developing;
       They eat more, drink more, and breathe
       more in proportion to their body size
       than adults; and
       Their behaviors can significantly
       increase their exposures to chemicals
       and potentially harmful organisms.

     Chemicals and Chemical-
     containing Products
     Schools use chemicals in classrooms,
     science laboratories, art studios, vocational
     education shops, and facility maintenance.
     Many of these chemicals are toxic to
     humans, animals, and the environment
     and should be purchased, used, handled,
     and disposed of in a manner that protects
     students and school staff from accidents
     and risk of exposure. Toxic chemicals can
     cause serious health effects, including
     cancer; brain and nervous system disorders;
     organ damage (i.e., liver, kidneys, and
     lungs); irritation of the eyes, skin, nose, and
     throat; and asthma attacks.12
     For example, mercury is a known
     neurotoxicant and is used in many
     items found throughout schools, such
as thermometers, barometers, switches,
thermostats, fluorescent lamps, and
laboratory reagents. The most common
form of mercury found in schools is
elemental mercury, and exposure primarily
occurs when elemental mercury is spilled
or when a product containing elemental
mercury breaks and the mercury is exposed
to the air. Symptoms of elemental mercury
exposure include tremors, irritability,
mood swings, insomnia, muscle weakness
or atrophy, headaches, and performance
deficits on tests of cognitive function.13
Higher exposures to elemental mercury can
result in kidney effects, respiratory failure,
and death.13
Another group of chemicals of concern
for schools are polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs). PCBs are found in a variety of
building products, including fluorescent
light ballasts, which were installed in
schools built before 1979. Congress
banned the manufacturing and use of
PCBs in 1976 and EPA phased out their
use, with some exceptions, in 1979. Many
of the fluorescent light ballasts that were
installed before the ban, however, could
contain PCBs and might still be used in
schools. PCBs are highly toxic and high
levels of exposure might cause cancer and
neurodevelopmental effects in humans.
Although intact PCB-containing light
ballasts might not pose an immediate health
threat, failing or leaking fluorescent light
ballasts in schools could result in unsafe
levels of PCBs in the air children breathe
over the long-term.
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     Lead-based paint is an additional concern
     for schools, especially those built prior to
     1978. Lead exposure affects the nervous
     system and can cause a range of health
     effects, from behavioral problems and
     learning disabilities, to seizures and death.
     Lead-based paint and lead contaminated
     dust are the main sources of lead exposure
     in U.S. children. Intact lead-based paint
     might not pose a hazard, but paint that
     flakes or becomes dust could result in
     unsafe levels of this dangerous chemical in
     the school environment.

     Radon
     Radon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless
     radioactive gas that occurs naturally in
     almost all soil and rock. Radon is found in
     outdoor air and can enter schools through
     cracks or other openings in the foundation.
     Exposure to radon is the second leading
     cause of lung cancer after smoking.14
     Although there is no evidence that children
     are at greater risk of lung cancer from radon
     exposure than adults, EPA recommends that
     schools test frequently occupied rooms at or
     below ground level for radon.
    School Environmental
    Compliance
    EPA regulates many chemicals found
    in buildings, such as asbestos, lead,
    PCBs and mercury.  EPA Region 2's
    Environmental Compliance and Best
    Management Practices: Guidance
    Manual for K-12 Schools is a helpful
    tool to remind schools of their key
    environmental requirements.  It is
    important to note that additional,
    and sometimes more stringent, state
    and local environmental regulations
    might also apply to schools.
Drinking Water
Ensuring safe drinking water in schools is
important because children and staff might
consume a significant amount of their daily
water intake in schools.15 Aging, leaded
plumbing systems and leaking pipes can
lead to contamination of a school's drinking
water supply. Improperly maintained water
systems can also harm the environment
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     and have financial implications (e.g., higher
     water bills). Leaking pipes lead to water loss,
     which can promote mold growth and be
     very costly for a school to remediate.15

     Outdoor Air Pollution
     Schools should carefully consider the
     potential health threats due to outdoor air
     pollution when planning outdoor activities
     for children and when establishing school
     transportation policies.

     Diesel Emissions
     Bus and truck idling at schools can produce
     concentrated diesel exhaust emissions
     both inside and outside school buildings.
     Diesel exhaust contains fine particulate
     matter that, when inhaled, can cause
     lung damage and aggravate pre-existing
     respiratory conditions, such as asthma.16
     Diesel particulate matter has also been
     identified as a likely cause of cancer.16 The
     soot and gases emitted by diesel engines
     are associated with acute eye, throat, and
     bronchial irritation; exacerbation of asthma
     and allergies; and potential interference with
lung development in children.16 In addition
to impacting human health, diesel exhaust
also harms the environment by contributing
to smog formation and acid rain.

Ozone, Particle Pollution, and Air
Toxics
Ground level ozone and particle pollution
are the two air pollutants that pose
the greatest threat to human health in
the United States. Ozone, the primary
component of smog, can cause throat
irritation, coughing, chest tightness,
shortness of breath, and aggravated asthma
symptoms.17 Particle pollution, or particulate
matter, can embed deep within the lungs
and cause serious health problems,
especially for those with respiratory
conditions. Even healthy individuals  can
experience temporary symptoms from
exposure to particle pollution, including
irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat;
coughing; phlegm; chest tightness; and
shortness of breath.
Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), or air
toxics, are pollutants that are known  or
         SCHOOL HIGHLIGHT:

         Ballou  High School, Washington DC
         On October 2, 2003, the Washington DC Fire Department Hazmat Unit responded to an
         emergency call from Ballou High School. A student had obtained 250 milliliters (or 1 cup)
         of elemental mercury from a science laboratory and had sold some of it to other students.
         This incident led to an exhaustive mercury spill clean-up.
         Contamination did not stop at the school. Students unknowingly carried mercury on
         shoes and  clothing through the streets, onto city and school buses, and into their homes.
         Eleven homes and one common area were found to be contaminated and about 16
         families were displaced from their homes for a month.
         As a result of the mercury spill, Ballou High School was closed for 35 days and more
         than 200 homes were tested for mercury contamination.  Total cleanup costs were about
         $1,500,000.
         Learn more about proper mercury management, and the cost of mismanaging
         mercury, in schools.
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     suspected to cause cancer, respiratory
     effects, reproductive effects, and birth
     defects. The Clean Air Act lists 187 HAPs,
     33 of which EPA has identified as posing
     the greatest threat to public health and the
     environment. Of those 33,13 are mobile
     source air toxics, which are emitted from
     vehicles. Excessive idling by school buses,
     passenger vehicles, and delivery trucks can
     cause elevated levels of air toxics in and
     around the school.

     Secondhand Smoke
     Breathing secondhand smoke can be
     harmful to children's health. Children's
     exposure to secondhand smoke is
     responsible for increases in the number of
     asthma attacks and severity of symptoms in
     200,000 to 1 million children with asthma,
     and respiratory tract infections resulting
     in 7,500 to 15,000 hospitalizations each
     year.18 The developing lungs of young
     children are severely affected by exposure
     to secondhand smoke for several reasons:
     Children are still developing physically; they
     have higher breathing rates than adults;
     and they have little control over their indoor
     environments. Children receiving high doses
     of secondhand smoke are at the greatest risk
     of experiencing damaging health effects.18

     Actions Schools Can Take
     to Reduce Chemical and
     Environmental Contaminant
     Hazards

     Review Existing State  Policy
     Many states have implemented policies
     to promote healthy school environments.
     Refer to and follow your  state's relevant
     environmental health policies and
     emergency management protocols when
     performing chemical and environmental
     contaminant management activities. (States
     may insert relevant environmental health
     policies and emergency  management
     protocols here.)
Tier 1: Simple Steps Schools Can Take
to Get Started
The best way to launch a school
environmental health program is to identify
fixes and solutions that can be implemented
immediately. Schools should start by asking
questions like, where are the school's
areas of greatest need and what resources
are available to address those needs? The
answers to these questions will help schools
decide where to focus their initial efforts.

Chemicals and Chemical-containing
Products
   Conduct a chemical inventory of the
   school, or locate and review an existing
   inventory.
   • Compare the chemical inventory
    to the school district's approved
    chemicals list, if available. Chemicals
    not on the school district's list should
    be marked for removal. King County,
    Washington's School Chemical List is
    another excellent resource to identify
    appropriate chemicals to use in
    schools, as is the Consumer Product
    Safety Commission/National Institute
    for Occupational Safety and Health
    School Chemistry Laboratory Guide.
   • Update the school chemical inventory
    if it is more than a year old.
   • Ensure the school has up-to-date
    SDSs for all  chemicals and chemical
    products.
   Where applicable, perform screenings
   and inspections of chemical-containing
   equipment (e.g., PCB fluorescent lighting
   ballasts, mercury-containing items)
   to ensure the equipment is properly
   managed. Develop chemical equipment
   inventory lists, as needed.
   • Inspect the  school's fluorescent light
    ballasts for leaking PCBs.
    • Ballasts manufactured through 1979
      could contain PCBs, and ballasts
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           manufactured between 1979 and 1998
           that do not contain PCBs should be
           labeled, "No PCBs." If the light ballast
           does not contain this label, assume it
           has PCBs.
         • If a light ballast is found to be leaking
           PCBs, federal law requires the
           immediate removal and disposal of the
           light ballast and disposal of any PCB-
           contaminated materials at an EPA-
           approved facility.
         • Consult EPA's Proper Maintenance,
           Removal, and Disposal of PCB-
           Containing Fluorescent Light Ballasts
           website for more information on
           inspecting and replacing fluorescent
           light ballasts.
       • If the school was built before 1978,
         lead-based paint might be present on
         coated surfaces. If applicable, develop a
         list of rooms and areas that contain, or
         might contain, lead-based paint.
       Visually inspect chemical storage areas.
       Are the chemicals:
       • Clearly labeled?
       • In undamaged containers?
       • Outdated?
       • In a designated storeroom or cabinet
         with operable locks?
       • Stored according to chemically
         compatible families?
       • Stored on appropriate shelving
         (e.g., shelving that is stable and not
         deteriorating)?
       • Appropriate for the grade level being
         taught? For specific recommendations,
         see King  County, Washington's School
         Chemical List.
       Review the school's mercury
       inventory list.
       • If the school does not have an up-to-
         date mercury inventory,  identify and
         catalog all elemental mercury, mercury
  compounds, mercury solutions, and
  mercury-containing devices at the
  school.
• Common mercury-containing
  items found in schools include
  thermometers, barometers, switches,
  thermostats, flow meters, lighting
  (linear fluorescent and compact
  fluorescent lamps), and laboratory
  reagents.
Review the school's chemical hygiene plan.
• Does the plan have a chemical spill
  control policy?
• Does the plan include staff training
  requirements  for chemical
  management, including purchasing,
  use, storage, and addressing spills?
• Does the plan identify contact
  information for the local authorities
  responsible for managing chemical
  spills?
• If the chemical hygiene plan does not
  address one or more of these topics
  or if a chemical hygiene plan does
  not exist, take steps to develop these
  policies and procedures. Local and state
  environment and health departments
  can be good places to start.
Review the school's hazard
communication plan. The plan should
contain the following information:
• Contact information for the person
  responsible for implementing the plan;
• Procedures for acquiring, maintaining,
  and providing access to SDSs;
• An updated chemical inventory;
• Provisions for employee training; and
• Chemical labeling requirements.
Encourage teachers to use school and
art supplies that do not contain toxic
chemicals or other contaminants (e.g.,
lead), and develop a screening process or
protocol for accepting donated supplies.
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        Ensure faculty and staff are aware of
        EPA's Academic Laboratories Rule,
        specifically to increase awareness of
        hazardous waste management and
        proper chemical disposal procedures.

     Radon
        Test frequently occupied rooms at or
        below ground level for radon. Radon
        levels should be lower than EPA's action
        level of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L)
        in air. Guidance for radon testing and
        mitigation can be found in Appendix G:
        Radon of the IAQ Reference Guide in the
        IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit.

     Drinking Water
        Determine whether the school is a public
        water system (PWS). A PWS is a system
        that serves water to 25 or more of the
        same people more than 60 days per year,
        or a system that has 15 or more service
        connections. Most schools are usually
        part of a larger PWS but smaller schools
        in rural areas can be their own PWS.
        • If a school is a PWS, it must:
         • Comply with all primary drinking
           water regulations and applicable
           underground injection control
           requirements;
         • Notify students, staff, and parents
           if the system fails to meet primary
           drinking water standards;
         • Ensure that only lead-free pipes
           are used in either installation or for
           repairs; and
         • Comply with all state program
           requirements and EPA inspections.
        • If the school has its own water supply
         system, check with the system
         operator to ensure that the  system is
         in compliance with drinking water
         regulations.
      • Review the school's files for plumbing
        surveys that identify areas of high risk
  for lead sources. If these records do
  not exist, or if significant plumbing
  modifications have been made since
  the last survey, conduct a plumbing
  survey as soon as possible. For help
  conducting a plumbing survey,
  see EPA's 3Ts for Reducing Lead in
  Drinking Water manual.
  Maintain drinking water taps by routinely
  cleaning faucet aerators and disinfecting
  drinking water outlets and water
  fountains.
  Compare the school's drinking fountains
  with those identified on EPA's list of
  known lead-containing models. Make
  note of any fountains that are on EPA's
  list and take them out of service.
  Review the school's files on lead test
  results for drinking water taps. If testing
  records do not exist, or if testing has not
  been conducted within the past 5 years,
  collect and analyze samples from drinking
  water taps. EPA's Lead in Drinking Water
  website provides guidance on conducting
  lead testing in schools.
  Lead concentrations at all drinking
  water taps should be below 20 parts per
  billion (ppb) for a 250-milliliter sample.
  This concentration applies only for
  schools whose water supply is provided
  by a municipal system (i.e., a PWS). For
  schools that have their own well or water
  source, lead concentrations at 10% of
  drinking water taps must be below the
  EPA action level of 15 ppb. These schools
  must test for lead and be below the lead
  action level to comply with the National
  Primary Drinking Water Regulations.

Outdoor Air Pollution
  Review the current school bus schedules.
  Are they designed to minimize bus
  idling? If not, work with the appropriate
  personnel to revise the bus schedules
  accordingly.
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      * Identify the location of all school air
       handler intake vents. Ensure that
       intake vents are located away from
       high vehicular traffic areas (e.g., areas
       designated for student drop-off and
       pick-up) and chimneys for school
       heating systems. If intake vents cannot
       be moved, direct traffic away from the
       vent locations, relocate student drop-off
       and pick-up areas, or cone off the areas
       during high vehicular traffic times.
       Keep classroom windows closed during
       periods of high vehicular traffic (e.g.,
       before/after school and during rush hour
       if the school is located near a main street
       or highway), or on days when smog or
       pollen counts are high.
       Implement an idling reduction campaign
       at the school to eliminate unnecessary
       vehicle idling.
       Locate the school's procedures for
       responding to Air Quality Index
       advisories. If your school does not have
       procedures in place, or if the procedures
       are not up-to-date, take steps to develop
       or improve these procedures. For an
       example set of procedures, view those
       developed for the Northeast Independent
       School District in San Antonio, Texas.
       Further information can be located in
       Appendix C: Additional Information and
       Resources.

     Secondhand Smoke
       Institute a smoke-free policy for the
       school campus.

     Tier 2: Key Elements for a
     Comprehensive School Environmental
     Health Program
     Schools that have completed most of the
     actions listed under Tier 1 will be prepared to
     implement the key elements necessary for a
     more comprehensive school environmental
     health program.
Chemicals and Chemical-containing
Products
  Form a chemical management team at
  the school.
  • Team members should have direct
    involvement with or knowledge of
    chemical management at the school,
    from the purchase of chemicals to their
    ultimate disposal.
  Conduct annual chemical inventories
  to ensure all unused, unneeded, and
  unknown chemicals are identified and
  disposed of properly.
  Develop a responsible chemical
  management program for the school
  or school district to ensure chemicals
  are stored, labeled, used, and disposed
  of properly. EPA's Safe Chemical
  Management in K-12 Schools Tool Kit
  has resources to help schools and school
  districts get started.
  Institute a chemical purchasing policy at
  the school.
  • All chemicals and chemical-containing
    products should be reviewed and
    purchased through one person or a
    team responsible for vetting chemicals
    for excessively hazardous products
    (e.g., carcinogens, mutagens, and
    asthmagens).
  • Purchase no  more than a 5-year supply
    of chemicals, and do not reorder until
    necessary to  prevent accumulation.
  • Choose chemicals and chemical
    products using the safest possible
    ingredients. Consult EPA's Design for
    the Environment's list of products
    meeting their safer ingredient criteria.
  • Consult with state green procurement
    initiatives to  determine if safer, third-
    party certified chemicals and chemical
    products are  available on state
    contracts.
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         Checklist for Lead Hazards
         Pay attention to the following when inspecting for lead-based paint:
            Interior painted areas - Examine walls and interior surfaces to see if the paint is
            cracking, chipping, or peeling, and check for areas on doors or windows where painted
            surfaces rub together.
         >> Exterior painted areas - Check exterior paint, which can flake off and contaminate
            nearby soil where children might play.
            Surrounding areas - Be aware of large, nearby structures with peeling or flaking paint
            that could contaminate the soil around play areas.
            Play areas - Examine areas where children play to ensure they are dust free and clean.
            Outside, check for bare soil and test for lead.
           r Playground equipment - Check older equipment to determine whether it contains
            lead-based paint.
            Painted toys and furniture - Make sure the paint is not cracking, chipping, or peeling.
        • Prohibit teachers and school staff
         from bringing in chemicals, chemical
         products, and art supplies that
         are unauthorized or contain toxic
         ingredients.
        • Prohibit the purchase of mercury
         products.
        Ensure teachers and staff receive chemical
        management training as mandated
        under the Occupational Safety and Health
        Administration's laboratory safety standard.
        Ensure students understand proper
        chemical management. For example:
        • Have students take a laboratory safety
         test before performing experiments in
         the classroom. The test should cover
         topics such as laboratory rules and
         regulations, as well as proper handling,
         storage, and disposal of chemicals and
         chemical products, especially those that
         pose specific hazards (i.e., corrosive,
         reactive,  and flammable chemicals).
         Students that fail the test cannot work
         in the laboratory until they successfully
         pass the test.
• Establish a formal three-way contract
  between students, parents, and
  teachers/administrators that establishes
  appropriate behavior when using
  chemicals.
Conduct a chemical cleanout.
• Use the school's chemical inventory to
  identify unused, unneeded, degraded,
  and unknown chemicals.
• Remove chemicals from the school
  with the help of a qualified and
  experienced professional. EPA's Safe
  Chemical Management in Schools
  Workbook provides guidance on
  procuring professional chemical
  removal assistance.
• Ensure the following chemicals are
  removed from the art department:
  hexane- and toluene-based aerosols,
  ceramic glazes containing lead or
  cadmium, and all fluoride-based glass
  etchants.
• Remove or replace all excess,  outdated,
  and unneeded mercury-containing
  products with alternatives containing
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         no mercury. Ensure mercury is
         recycled or disposed of in accordance
         with federal, state, and local regulations.
     Radon
        Track radon test results, assessment
        data, and pending actions so that
        facility maintenance personnel can plan
        accordingly.
        Retest routinely if schools were mitigated
        to ensure radon mitigation systems are
        functioning properly.

     Drinking Water
        Test the school's drinking water for
        contaminants. Testing requirements
        and timing will differ depending on
        the number of people being served
        and where the school gets its water
        (groundwater vs.  surface water).
        • If testing shows that contaminants
         have entered the system and their
         levels are above the regulatory
         minimum, the school will need to
         take action. For more information on
         contaminants and taking action, refer
         to EPA's website on current drinking
         water regulations.
        • Schools should have a plan for
         providing drinking water to students if
         testing uncovers contaminants in the
         school's drinking water supply.
        If the school's drinking water lead
        concentrations exceed EPA's action level,
        take steps to develop a plan to reduce
        lead levels at all taps that do not meet the
        20 ppb (municipal system)/15 ppb (well)
        standard. Plans might include:
        • Testing for lead on a regular basis;
        • Instituting a flushing program;
        • Clearing debris from outlet screens and
         aerators on a routine basis;
        • Replacing pipes, solder, and fixtures  if
         they are known to be sources of lead;
         and
  Drinking Water in
  Schools and Childcare
  Facilities
  EPA is responsible for ensuring
  the safety of the nation's drinking
  water in public water supplies. EPA
  estimates that approximately 10,000
  schools and child care facilities
  maintain  their own water supply and
  are regulated under the Safe Drinking
  Water Act. In addition, approximately
  90,000 public elementary and
  secondary schools19 and an estimated
  500,000 licensed child care facilities
  in the nation20 are not regulated
  under the Safe Water Drinking
  Act and might or might not be
  conducting voluntary drinking water
  quality testing. Whether your facility
  is a regulated or non-regulated
  school or child care center, you can
  find information about drinking water
  quality on EPA's Drinking Water in
  Schools and Child Care Facilities
  website.
• Disabling taps to prevent water
  consumption from that tap.
  Schools should implement identified
  actions in the lead reduction plan
  according to priority and resources
  available. Further information to assist
  plan development and implementation
  can be found on EPA's Guidance and
  Tools for Drinking Water in Schools
  and Child Care Facilities website.
Develop a plan for, and conduct routine
maintenance of, the school's drinking
water infrastructure.
• If the school acquires its drinking water
  from its own well, conduct source
  water  assessments and identify any
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         surrounding activities or sources that
         might have an adverse effect on water
         quality.
       • Inspect water pipes for leaks and
         corrosion. Leaking or corroded pipes
         can introduce contaminants into the
         drinking water system and contribute
         significantly to water loss and mold
         growth.
       Replace drinking fountains identified
       on EPA's list of known lead-containing
       models with fountains that do not
       contain lead.
       A school might or might not be
       connected to a public wastewater system.
       Schools with their own wastewater
       management system (e.g., septic system)
       will need to inspect and pump their
       system regularly to prevent back-ups
       into the school. See EPA's website on
       Wastewater Management for guidance
       and more information.

     Outdoor Air Pollution
      • Implement an anti-idling policy for
       school buses, passenger vehicles, and
       delivery trucks, and post signs stating all
       vehicles are prohibited from idling on
       school premises.

     Secondhand Smoke
      • Implement a smoking education
       program for students that covers the
       social and physiological consequences
       of tobacco use,  information about social
       influences (e.g., peers, parents, and
       media), and training on how to manage
       peer pressure to smoke.

     Tier 3: Enhance a School's
     Pre-Existing Program
     Schools that have taken steps to implement
     a comprehensive school environmental
     health program can build on their pre-
     existing program(s) by considering the
     following:
Chemicals and Chemical-containing
Products
   Implement green curricula in the classroom.
   EPA's Safe Chemical Management in
   Schools Workbook includes a section
   on putting together and starting a green
   curriculum in the classroom.

Radon
   Schedule re-testing following all major
   renovations, and consider how HVAC
   modifications or upgrades might affect
   radon intrusion.

Drinking Water
   Develop and record measures specific
   to the school that will demonstrate
   improvement in drinking water quality.
   Involve students in drinking water testing.
   A teacher or facility manager should
   ensure testing is completed according
   to established procedures to obtain
   meaningful results.  This activity can be
   integrated into science and mathematics
   courses, as well as senior projects.
    The Reduction of Lead
    in Drinking Water Act
    In January 2011, the Reduction of
    Lead in Drinking Water Act was
    passed to reduce the amount of
    lead allowed in "lead-free" plumbing
    materials from 8% to 0.25%. The new
    standard is modeled after a California
    law that went into effect on January
    1, 2010. The Reduction of Lead in
    Drinking Water Act will become fully
    effective in January 2014, but some
    manufacturers are already making
    products according to the new
    standard. When replacing plumbing
    fixtures, make sure new fixtures are
    in line with the new definition of
    lead-free and are NSF International
    certified to reduce lead.
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     Outdoor Air Pollution
        Have students observe vehicle idling
        behavior before and after implementing
        an anti-idling policy. Have students
        calculate exhaust emissions generated
        before and after an anti-idling policy
        is implemented using widely available
        web-based calculators.
      * If funding allows, retrofit your current
        school bus fleet with improved emission
        control technologies, or replace older
        school buses with newer, more fuel-
        efficient, and less-polluting buses. Visit
EPA's National Clean Diesel Campaign
website for more information.
Participate in the School Flag Program
to help the school and its surrounding
community know the daily air quality
conditions. Schools in the flag program
raise a brightly colored flag each day that
corresponds to the air quality forecast.
Based on the color of the flag (green,
yellow, orange, or red), teachers and
coaches can modify outdoor activities
when the air quality is unhealthy.

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     Why  Is This Important?
     Indoor air pollution has been demonstrated
     to have an adverse impact on public
     health. Poor indoor air quality can cause
     short- and long-term health problems such
     as coughing, eye irritation, headaches,
     asthma episodes, allergic reactions, and
     in rare cases, life-threatening conditions
     such as respiratory distress. Improperly
     managed ventilation and filtration systems
     can contribute to airborne mold, infectious
     diseases, and carbon monoxide poisoning.
     Poor indoor air quality can also impact the
     comfort and health of children and staff,
     which can in turn affect concentration,
     attendance, and classroom performance.
     Good indoor air quality can help ensure a
     healthier and higher performance learning
     environment for students and school staff,
     and proper maintenance of ventilation
     and filtration equipment plays a big role
     in the quality of the indoor air. Adequate
     ventilation with outdoor air is a key
     component for good indoor air quality in
     schools and classrooms, and can contribute
     to mitigating the effects of radon and vapor
     intrusion. Furthermore, well-maintained
     air filtration systems capture and remove
     airborne particles that can be asthma
     triggers, allergens, and infectious or toxic to
     humans.
     Indoor air can be two to five times more
     polluted than outdoor air and large populations
     of children might be more susceptible
     to indoor pollutants than the general
     population. The high occupant densities of
     schools and classrooms makes it particularly
     important for building designers to incorporate
ventilation systems that provide adequate
outdoor air (in compliance with the industry's
ventilation standard, American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning
Engineers (ASHRAE) 62.1-2010, control
moisture, and minimize energy costs.

Actions Schools Can Take to
Ensure Good Ventilation

Review Existing State Policy
Many states have implemented policies
to promote healthy school environments.
Refer to and follow your state's relevant
environmental health policies and
emergency management protocols when
conducting ventilation and filtration
maintenance activities. (States may insert
relevant environmental health policies and
emergency management protocols here.)

Tier 1: Simple Steps Schools Can Take
to Get Started
The best way to launch a school
environmental health program is to identify
fixes and solutions that can be implemented
immediately. Schools should start by asking
questions like, where are the school's
areas of greatest need and what resources
are available  to address those needs? The
answers to these questions will help schools
decide where to focus their initial efforts.
Having a balanced HVAC system is crucial
for regulating temperature and providing
adequate ventilation. Conduct an initial
inspection of the school's HVAC system
and ensure the following actions are
routinely taken:
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        Ensure the school building has a
        functioning ventilation system. The
        absence of ventilation can adversely
        impact classroom performance and
        overall occupant health.
        Inspect the maintenance room for
        unsanitary conditions, leaks, and spills.
        Ensure the room is free of trash, chemical
        products, and supplies.
        Establish and implement a regular
        schedule for inspecting and changing
        filters.
        Ensure condensate pans are clean,
        unobstructed, and draining properly.
        Establish and implement a regular
        cleaning schedule for air supply diffusers,
        return registers, and outside air intakes.
        Check ground-level and roof intakes for
        pollutant sources (e.g., dumpsters, bus-
  idling areas, plumbing vents, and kitchen
  exhaust fans).
  Ensure that ducts and the interior of air-
  handling units or unit ventilators are clean.
• Keep unit ventilators clear of books,
  papers, and other items.
  Ensure HVAC system settings fit
  the actual schedule of building use
  (including night and weekend use).
  Educate teachers and school staff on the
  importance of keeping the HVAC system
  on to ensure classrooms are properly
  ventilated.
  Use EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools program
  resources to identify, correct, and prevent
  indoor air quality problems.  The IAQ
  Tools for Schools Action Kit has been
  implemented in thousands of schools
  across the country.
         SCHOOL HIGHLIGHT:

         Fairgrounds Junior High School in Nashua,
         New Hampshire
         Fairgrounds Junior High School in Nashua, New Hampshire underwent renovations
         between 1996 and 1997 to correct indoor air quality problems identified by the local
         health department. In May 1997, teachers came forward with indoor air quality-related
         complaints. To correct these problems, school facilities staff adjusted the energy
         management system shortly before school closed for the summer. When the school
         reopened in early September, however, complaints about temperature, discomfort,
         and odors resurfaced, along with complaints of dizziness and tingling sensations in the
         extremities.
         School officials became concerned that broader indoor air quality problems existed and
         decided to pilot EPA's  IAQ Tools for Schools program at Fairgrounds Junior High School.
         The school principal and two teachers presented the program at a staff meeting and
         recruited  volunteers to form an indoor air quality team. The team distributed a health
         survey to teachers and staff at a faculty meeting and requested information on health
         problems experienced during work hours.
         The IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit, the health survey, and formal investigations helped
         the team  to identify and resolve the problems. Since Fairgrounds Junior High School
         implemented the program in 1997, several more schools in the Nashua School District
         have adopted the IAQ  Tools for Schools program.
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     Tier 2: Key Elements for a
     Comprehensive School Environmental
     Health Program
     Schools that have completed most of the
     actions listed under Tier 1 will be prepared to
     implement the key elements necessary for a
     more comprehensive school environmental
     health program.
        Continue to perform regular HVAC
        system inspections.
        Establish a HVAC maintenance plan.
Install high efficiency filters, if not
already in use.
Take steps to ensure all rooms in the
school building are ventilated.
Ensure that air intakes are located
away from high vehicular traffic areas,
plumbing and exhaust stacks, and
chimneys for the school's heating system.
Install carbon monoxide detectors
near combustion sources (e.g., boilers,
stoves, hot water heaters, and vocational
         SCHOOL DISTRICT HIGHLIGHT:
         Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District in Charlotte,
         North Carolina
         Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools adopted EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools program after
         parental concerns about mold in the schools led to elevated community concern. The
         district created a new position, Manager of Environmental Health and Safety, and hired
         an indoor air quality expert with experience in indoor environmental health. Using a team
         approach, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools partnered with the University of Tulsa to plan a
         district-wide assessment program for all 150+ school facilities. The district implemented a
         two-track system for continuous assessment that includes a 24-hour  response protocol to
         address occupant indoor air quality concerns and routine monthly building walkthroughs.
         Training is conducted for school staff using components of the IAQ Tools for Schools
         Action Kit.
         Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools has experienced real results from implementing an indoor
         air quality program:
            By emphasizing indoor air quality fundamentals in the summer energy management
            program, the district has seen a 54% decrease in mold work orders.
            One hundred percent of indoor air quality complaints  are investigated within 24 hours.
            Early identification and prompt response to indoor air quality concerns have
            reduced response costs from hundreds of thousands of dollars to less than $10,000
            in many cases.
            School faculty and staff are more aware of indoor air quality,  and a new
            commitment of fiscal resources has been made to address indoor air  quality issues
            across the school district.
         Learn more about Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools'  indoor air quality  program and their
         environmental stewardship initiative.
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       education shops) to monitor carbon
       monoxide levels.
       Ensure outdoor air ventilation meets
       or exceeds the industry's ventilation
       standard (ASHRAE 62.1-2010 Ventilation
       for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality) or local
       code.

     Tier 3: Enhance a School's
     Pre-Existing Program
     Schools that have taken steps to implement
     a comprehensive school environmental
     health program can build on their pre-
     existing program(s) by considering the
     following:
      ~ Apply new air ventilation, cleaning, and
       filtration technologies, as resources
       allow (e.g., MERV 13 air filters and gas
       filtration media).
       Apply the ASHRAE 62.1-2010 IAQ
       Procedure. The IAQ Procedure is a
       performance-based design approach in
       which a building and its ventilation system
       are designed to maintain contaminant
       concentrations at specified levels.
       The use of air cleaning devices, other
       than particle filtration employed in the
       HVAC system, is generally not required
       if appropriate attention to controlling
       and managing sources of pollution
       and providing adequate ventilation are
       addressed in the design process. For
       additional information on air cleaning
       devices see:
   School Advanced
   Ventilation Engineering
   Software
   EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools School
   Advanced Ventilation Engineering
   Software (SAVES) package can
   help school designers assess the
   potential financial payback and
   indoor humidity control benefits of
   energy recovery ventilation systems
   for school applications.
   Learn more on EPA's IAQ Tools for
   Schools  SAVES website.
  • Residential Air Cleaners: A Summary of
   Available Information
  • Ozone Generators that Are Sold
   as Air Cleaners: An Assessment of
   Effectiveness and Health Consequences
• Develop and record measures specific
  to the school that will demonstrate
  improvement in HVAC system
  performance.
  Engage students in classroom activities and
  projects that focus on indoor air quality
  Incorporate information and updates on
  indoor air quality into newsletters, school
  announcements, and other  outreach
  material.
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                          omponent 5:  Prevent Pests
                         md  Reduce Pesticide Exposure
     Why Is This Important?

     Droppings or body parts from cockroaches,
     rodents, and other pests can trigger asthma
     and can cause allergic reactions. Pests also
     can transmit infectious diseases. Pesticides
     contain chemicals that can be toxic to
     humans and the environment and pose
     a risk to human health, especially when
     people do not follow directions on product
     labels or if they use products irresponsibly
     (e.g., using pesticides when they are
     not needed, using pesticides for other
     than their intended use, or not following
     recommended application rates). Children
     can be especially vulnerable to pesticides
     because their internal organs are still
     developing and maturing.
     Integrated pest management is an effective
     and environmentally sensitive approach
     to pest management that uses current,
     comprehensive information on the life
     cycles of pests and their interactions with
     the environment, in combination with
     available pest control methods, to manage
     pests economically, and with the least
     possible risk to people, property, and the
     environment. Integrated pest management
     is a safer and sometimes less costly option
     for effective pest management in schools.
     Integrated pest management practices can
     effectively control pests in schools while
     reducing pesticide use by 70-90%.21 A school
     integrated pest management program uses
     common sense strategies to monitor and
     exclude pests while also reducing sources of
     food, water, and shelter for pests in school
     buildings and grounds. An integrated pest
management program should focus on
prevention of pest problems first, and take
advantage of all pest management strategies,
including the judicious and careful use of
pesticides, when necessary. EPA's Integrated
Pest Management (IPM) in Schools website
and other state school integrated pest
management program websites (e.g.,
California, Florida, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
Texas, and Washington) are good resources
for schools and school districts to use
in developing a school integrated pest
management program.

Actions Schools Can Take
to Prevent Pests and Reduce
Pesticide Exposure

Review Existing State Policy
Many states have implemented policies
to promote healthy school environments.
Refer to and follow your state's relevant
environmental health policies and
emergency management protocols when
conducting integrated pest management
activities. (States may insert relevant
environmental health policies and
emergency management protocols here.)

Tier 1: Simple Steps Schools Can Take
to Get Started
The best way to launch a school
environmental health program is to identify
fixes and solutions that can be implemented
immediately. Schools should start by asking
questions like, where are the school's
areas of greatest need and what resources
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     are available to address those needs? The
     answers to these questions will help schools
     decide where to focus their initial efforts.
     Conduct an initial inspection of the school
     to identify potential pest problems. Identify
     immediate actions that can be taken for:
      • Entryways
        • Keep doors shut when not in use.
        • Place weather stripping on doors.
        • Caulk and seal openings in walls.
        • Install or repair screens.
        • Install air curtains.
        • Keep vegetation, shrubs, and wood
         mulch at least 1 foot away from the
         school building.
        Classrooms and Offices
        • Immediately place garbage in a trash
         can with a lid that closes securely, and
         remove trash daily from the school
         building.
        • Allow food and beverages only in
         designated areas and store food in
         airtight containers.
        • Clean all food crumbs or spilled liquids
         immediately.
        • Wash dishes promptly after using them.
        • Keep counters, sinks, tables, and floors
         clean and clear of clutter and moisture.
        • Remove piles of boxes, newspapers, and
         other potential hiding places for pests.
        • Keep rooms as dry as possible by
         removing standing water  and water-
         damaged or wet materials.
        • Frequently vacuum carpeted areas.
        Food Preparation and Serving Areas
        • Store food and waste in containers that
         are inaccessible to pests.
        • Place screens on vents, windows, and
         floor drains to prevent pests from using
         unscreened ducts or vents as pathways.
  • Reduce the availability of food and
    water: remove food debris; clean all
    food crumbs or spilled liquids right
    away; fix dripping faucets and leaks;
    and dry out wet areas.
  • Clean food preparation equipment after
    use and remove grease accumulation
    from vents, ovens, and stoves.
  • Use caulk or paint to seal cracks and
    crevices.
  Rooms and Areas with Extensive
  Plumbing
  • Repair leaks and correct other
    plumbing problems to deny pests
    access to water.
  • Clean floor drains, strainers, and grates.
  • Seal pipe chases.
  • Keep plumbing areas dry.
  • Store paper products or cardboard boxes
    away from moist areas and direct contact
    with the floor or the walls.
 * Maintenance Areas
  • Ensure mops and buckets are clean,
    dry, and stored appropriately.
  • Allow eating only in designated areas.
  • Immediately place garbage in a trash
    can with a lid that closes securely, and
    remove trash daily.
  • Keep areas clean and as dry as possible.
Tier 2: Key Elements for a
Comprehensive School Environmental
Health Program
Schools that have completed most of the
actions listed under Tier 1 will be prepared to
implement the key  elements necessary for a
more comprehensive school environmental
health program.
  Establish a school integrated pest
  management program. Key steps for
  implementing a  successful integrated
  pest management program include:
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
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        • Developing an official integrated pest
         management policy statement. This
         statement acts as a guide in developing
         a specific integrated pest management
         program and should cover pest
         identification, pesticide applications,
         and notification requirements
         (e.g., when and who to notify of
         pesticide application). Integrated pest
         management policy statements should
         be kept in a commonly accessible
         location. For an example of an
         integrated pest management policy,
         view the Los Angeles School District's
         Integrated Pest Management policy.
        • Designating pest management roles and
         responsibilities. Education and training
         in integrated pest management practices
         should be provided.
        • Setting specific pest management
         objectives for the school.
        • Requiring regular site inspections and
         trapping to determine the types and
         infestation levels of pests.
        • Setting action thresholds, or levels of pest
         populations/environmental conditions
         that require remedial action.
        • Monitoring pests and recording
         information in a pest sighting log. This
         log can be used to identify whether
         pests have exceeded pre-determined
         levels before applying pesticides.
        • Keeping written records of all aspects of
         the integrated pest management program
         (e.g., pest population and distribution,
         recommendations for future prevention,
         and complete information on treatment
         actions taken).
        • Evaluating the integrated pest
         management program to determine
         the success of the pest management
         strategies employed.
* Once all integrated pest management
  strategies have been exhausted to control
  pests, use baits and traps before making a
  broad pesticide application.

  Follow these guidelines before applying
  pesticides:
  • Use pesticides that present the least risk
   of exposure.
  • Choose caulk and crevice pesticide
   applications, bait stations, or targeted
   spraying.
  • Carefully follow instructions on the label
   and use only the amount suggested.
  • Store all pesticides in a secure area of
   the building.
  ป Do not use outdoor sprays and
   chemicals indoors.
  • Dispose of leftover pesticides and
   pesticide containers properly.
  • Do not transfer pesticides to other
   containers.
  • Do not spray during school hours,
   except in emergencies.
  When pest management services are
  necessary, the school should either
  contract with an integrated pest
  management certified professional or
  ensure that the facility management
  staff are licensed, trained, and able to
  implement integrated pest management
  practices as their state requires.
  Do not allow experimental, phased
  out, or conditional-use pesticides and
  pesticide products to be used in school
  buildings and on school grounds. Do not
  allow teachers and school staff to bring
  pesticide products from home.
  Maintain records on pest management
  activities, including pesticide application
  date(s), location(s), and rate(s); copies of
  pesticide labels;  SDSs; and notifications
  issued.
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     Tier 3: Enhance a School's
     Pre-Existing Program
     Schools that have taken steps to implement
     a comprehensive school environmental
     health program can build on their pre-
     existing program by considering the
     following:
       Expand the school's integrated pest
       management program to address
       outdoor areas including playgrounds,
       parking lots, athletic fields, loading docks,
       and trash dumpsters.
Develop and record measures specific
to the school that will demonstrate
improvement in pest management
practices.
Incorporate awareness of integrated
pest management principles into the
students' curricula.
Incorporate integrated pest management
information and updates into
newsletters, school announcements, and
other outreach material.
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     EPA Grantees Support  School  Integrated Pest Management
     Since 1996, EPA has invested more than $3.2 million in extramural resources to support over 40
     demonstration, outreach, and educational projects on school integrated pest management. This
     investment has yielded many successes, beginning with the Monroe Model for school integrated
     pest management. In the mid-1990s, the Monroe County Community School Corporation (MCCSC)
     developed a school integrated pest management program. Like most school districts, MCCSC
     used scheduled, monthly pesticide sprayings to control  pests. A 1994 Indiana University study of
     MCCSC's pest management practices led to a pilot integrated pest management program at three
     MCCSC elementary schools. The multi-step program relied on communication,  partnership, and
     sound pest management. It aimed to control pests effectively, reduce or eliminate pesticides used
     in schools, educate staff and students about pests in their schools, and demonstrate the integrated
     pest management concept. The success of their pilot program led MCCSC—using two $30,000
     EPA grants—to expand the program district-wide. With  the integrated pest management program,
     now known as the Monroe Model, in place, MCCSC has experienced a 90% reduction in pesticide
     use, pest problems, and pest control costs. Money saved from reduced pesticide use enabled
     MCCSC to hire a district-wide pest management coordinator. MCCSC's work has become a model
     not only for Indiana school districts, but for the nation's many schools seeking  to adopt integrated
     pest management programs. Since 2007, the Monroe Model has positively impacted over 1 million
     children nationwide as it has been adopted by  other school districts. Much of the work being done
     in state coalitions and through the National School Integrated Pest Management Working Group
     stems from the Monroe Model.
     Learn more about the Monroe School Integrated Pest Management Model.
     In 2011, EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs made available a Request for Applications for the School
     Integrated Pest Management Grants that would support projects that promote the adoption of
     verifiable integrated pest management practices in the nation's K-12 public schools. The projects
     that were selected will further EPA's mission through research, development, monitoring, public
     education, training, demonstrations, or studies of the adoption of verifiable integrated pest
     management by K-12 public schools that identify and  reduce the risks associated with pesticide use.
     The following grantees were awarded funds to further promote school integrated pest management
     adoption:
     University of Florida: A School Integrated Pest Management Consortium Reaching One
     Million Children
     Improving Kids Environment,  Inc. (Indiana): Midwest United States Consortium - Expanding
     Verifiable Integrated Pest Management in Public Schools
     Colorado State University: The Rocky Mountain Consortium - Expanding Verifiable School
     Integrated Pest Management in Public Schools
     Washington State University:  The Pacific Northwest School Integrated Pest Management
     Consortium - Expanding Verifiable School Integrated Pest Management in Public Schools
     New Orleans Mosquito and Termite Control Board: Implementing a Verifiable School Integrated
     Pest Management Program in the Orleans Parish School System - A Collaborative Effort
     Cooperative Educational Services Agency 10: Expanding School Integrated Pest Management in
     Wisconsin Using the Cooperative Educational Services Agency Model
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     Additional  Opportunities for Promoting
     Environmental Health  in  School  Facilities
     Sustainable school environmental health
     programs are important for maintaining
     safe, healthy, and long-lasting school
     facilities. Careful planning is necessary to
     ensure that building upgrades contribute
     to the health and comfort of the building
     occupants. Routine maintenance and well-
     designed upgrades and improvements can
     extend the life of a school building, improve
     the health of the learning environment, and
     generate cost savings through increased
     energy and resource efficiency.
     This section presents general information
     that schools can use as they plan for
     and undertake major construction
     and renovation projects, as well as
     recommendations for improving classroom
     comfort (e.g., lighting, acoustics, ventilation,
     and temperature control) and becoming
     more energy- and water-efficient. For
     more specific guidelines and standards,
     refer to guidance and rating systems
     specifically developed for school design and
     construction, including:
       EPA's Voluntary School Siting Guidelines
     • ENERGY STARฎ for K-12 School Districts
       IAQ Design Tools for Schools
       U.S. Green Building Council - Center for
       Green Schools
     •  Collaborative for High Performance
       Schools (CHPS)
High Performance
Schools and Children's
Health
High performance schools are
facilities that improve the learning
environment while saving energy,
resources, and money. High
performance is not limited to
energy and water conservation
and efficiency. It requires taking
a "whole-building" approach to
design and considers the effects of
healthy indoor environments on the
building's occupants.
High performance design can have a
positive effect on health and comfort,
and design strategies such as day
lighting have been shown to enhance
student learning. Good design
also produces more comfortable
environments with proper lighting,
air temperature, humidity, and noise
levels. This reduces distractions  and
creates environments where students
can see clearly, hear accurately,  and
not feel too warm or too cold.
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     New construction and renovation projects
     are good opportunities for schools and
     school districts to improve the health of
     the school environment, address areas
     of concern identified under the five key
     components of the model program, improve
     classroom comfort, and become more
     energy- and water-efficient. Incorporating
     high-performance elements in school
     buildings can result in lower operating
     and maintenance costs and reduced
     energy bills, and if properly planned and
     implemented, can contribute to healthy
     school environments. By adopting high
     performance practices, schools and school
     districts can lower their operating costs
     by up to 30%.22 Existing schools can save
     25% of operating costs by implementing
     some basic efficiency measures, occupant
     education, and engagement programs.23
     The following practices and actions should
     be considered during the design and
     planning phases for construction projects
     and building renovations:
        When building or renovating a school,
        considering the location of the school
        and the needs of the surrounding
        community is important.
        • EPA's Voluntary School Siting
         Guidelines can help local school
         districts and their communities
         evaluate environmental factors to
         make the best possible school siting
         decisions.
        • EPA's Smart Growth and Schools
         website provides information and
         resources for applying smart growth
         principles to educational facility
         planning.
  Funding New
  Construction and
  Renovation Projects
  Many schools are concerned about
  the costs involved in undertaking new
  construction and renovation projects.
  The EPA Healthy School Environment
  Resources Financing website
  provides links to cost/benefit studies
  and financial resources that can help
  schools pay for improvements to
  their infrastructure.
Indoor air quality is a critical aspect
to consider when designing and
maintaining school facilities. IAQ
Design Tools for Schools provides
detailed guidance and links to additional
resources to help design healthy new
schools, as well as repair, renovate, and
maintain existing facilities.
Require the development and use of an
indoor air quality management plan.
The purpose of the management plan is
to prevent residual problems with indoor
air quality in the completed building and
protect workers on the site from undue
health risks during construction. The
plan should  identify specific measures
to address:
• Problem substances, including:
  construction dust, chemical fumes, off-
  gassing materials, and moisture. The
  plan should ensure that these problems
  are not introduced during construction,
  or, if they must be, eliminates or
  reduces their impact.
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        ซ Areas of planning, including: product
         substitutions and materials storage,
         safe installation, proper sequencing,
         regular monitoring, and safe and
         thorough cleanup.
        Schedule construction and renovation
        activities while school is out of session
        and all occupants are off premises,
        or ensure that building occupants
        are temporarily relocated to prevent
        exposure to harmful chemicals, dust, or
        particulates. Contractors should follow
        the EPA Renovation, Repair, and Painting
        (RRP) Rule's occupant protection
        provisions, which include complying
        with all information distribution
        requirements under the RRP Rule and
        posting signs that clearly define the
        work area and warn occupants and
        other persons not involved in renovation
        activities to remain outside the work
        area. Another resource is the Sheet
        Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors'
        National Association's Indoor Air Quality
        Guidelines for Occupied Buildings Under
        Construction, which provides guidance
        on maintaining good indoor air quality
        in occupied buildings undergoing
        construction or renovation.
        Be familiar with procedures used by
        contractors for protecting occupants
        at each stage of the construction/
        renovation process (e.g., isolating and
        ventilating the work area), and any other
        safety precautions that will be taken.
        Have contractors demonstrate that they
        have received all appropriate training and
        can produce all necessary certifications
        before work begins.
        Carefully select the materials and
        products (e.g., flooring/carpeting, wall/
        ceiling materials, paints and coatings,
        adhesives and sealants, and engineered
        wood products) to be used in the school's
construction and renovation projects.
From an indoor air quality perspective,
choose products that:
• Contain low-toxicity, water-based
  formulations;
• Release no or low VOC emissions;
• Emit little or no odor;
• Contain no heavy metals;
• Are formaldehyde free;
 Greening America's
 Schools: Costs  and
 Benefits
 In October 2006, Gregory Kats
 published a report that  documents
 the financial costs and benefits
 of green schools compared to
 conventional schools. Among the
 findings discussed, the report
 highlights several health and learning
 benefits of green schools, including:24
    A review of 17 separate studies all
    showed positive health impacts
    from improved indoor air quality,
    ranging from  13.5% to 87%.
    A review of 17 studies from the
    mid-1930s to  1997 found that good
    lighting improved student test
    scores and achievement in the
    classroom.
    An analysis of two school districts
    in Illinois found student attendance
    rose by 5% after incorporating
    indoor air quality improvements.
    A study of the costs and benefits
    of green schools for  Washington
    state estimated a 15% reduction in
    absenteeism and a 5% increase in
    test scores.
 Read the full report.
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        • Are easy to clean and maintain; and
        • Are not susceptible to moisture damage
         that can foster mold growth.
        For more information on materials
        selection and controlling contaminants,
        see the IAQ Design Tools for Schools
        Controlling Pollutants and Sources
        website.
        Indoor air quality is affected not
        only by the materials that are used
        in construction and renovation, but
        also by the order in which they are
        installed. Certain materials and finishes
        (e.g., composite wood products,
        adhesives, sealants, finishes, and
        gypsum board) off-gas potential indoor
        contaminants for a short duration after
         School  Renovation
         and Repair
         Renovation is a major cause of poor
         indoor air quality in schools and
         often is conducted while the building
         is occupied. When planning and
         conducting renovations and repairs
         in schools, four potential causes
         of indoor air quality problems are
         important to remember:
         *• Demolition that releases toxic
            materials (e.g., lead, asbestos, or
            mold).
            Construction dust and fumes.
            Designs  that interfere with
            ventilation.
            Off-gassing from new building
            materials and products.
         To learn more about protecting
         occupants from renovation
         pollutants, visit the IAQ Tools for
         Schools Renovation and Repair
         website.
they are manufactured or installed.
The contaminants off-gassed by
these materials can be absorbed by
"fuzzy" or "fleecy" materials as well as
finishes (e.g., carpet, insulation, and
fabric wall coverings) that are woven,
fibrous, or porous in nature. As a result,
these finishing materials can become
repositories, or "sinks," for substances
that can be released much later or that
promote subsequent mold growth.
When possible, allow potential off-
gassing materials to dry before finishing
materials are installed.
Be aware of potential health effects and
safe handling procedures for chemicals
and products being used or installed in
the school by contractors. SDSs and other
product literature are good resources.
Include entry mat systems in the design
of the school building.
• Entry mat systems are critical in
  trapping soil, pollutants, and moisture
  that otherwise  would spread into  and
  throughout the building, as well as in
  reducing the cost to properly maintain
  the building.
• The International Sanitary Supply
  Association reports that most of the
  dirt within a  building is tracked in by
  shoes, and that 85% of this dirt can be
  removed if entry mats are properly
  designed and maintained.
Install precipitation controls to keep
school buildings dry.
• Prevent rain  and snow from causing
  moisture problems in school buildings:
  • Install sloped roofs to reduce the risk
   of moisture damage over the life of
   the building;
  • Landscape around school buildings
   to create ground slopes to carry water
   away from the building;
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          Snapshot of Benefits
          from Green Retrofits25
          A Deloitte and Lockwood poll of
          organizations that have undergone
          green (i.e., environmentally
          preferred) retrofitting projects
          reports that in addition to reducing
          costs, schools report a greater ability
          to attract and retain staff,26 which
          is an important factor in improving
          school performance.1 In the same
          poll, green (i.e., environmentally
          preferred) retrofits were reported
          to improve health, productivity, and
          attendance.1
          • Ensure exterior entries have sufficient
           overhang to prevent rain or snow
           from collecting at the building's
           entrance, or being blown into the
           building; and
          • Prevent air intakes from collecting
           precipitation.
        • During construction, keep building
          materials dry, especially those with
          moisture absorbing properties (e.g.,
          wood, insulation, paper, and fabric)
          to prevent the growth of mold and
          bacteria. If moisture is present, mold
          will grow on virtually any material.
        • Wet materials need to be allowed to dry
          as much as possible.
          ฐ Cover dry materials with plastic to
           prevent rain damage, and
          • If resting on the ground, use spacers
           to allow air to circulate between the
           ground and the materials.
        Implement dust controls during new
        construction and renovation activities.
        Common renovation activities like
        sanding, cutting, and demolition can
        create dust and paint chips that contain
   contaminants, such as lead, that can be
   harmful to the health of children and
   school staff. EPA's RRP Rule requires that
   firms performing renovation, repair,
   and painting projects that disturb lead-
   based paint in pre-1978 homes and child
   occupied facilities13 (including schools
   that serve children 6 years of age and
   younger) be certified by EPA and use
   certified renovators who are trained to
   follow lead-safe work practices. Firms
   can become certified by submitting a
   completed application and fee to EPA
   or an authorized state, as appropriate.
   Individuals can become certified
   renovators by taking an eight hour
   training course from an EPA-approved
   training provider. For more information,
   visit EPA's Lead RRP website.
   Incorporate simple design features
   that can reduce the likelihood of pest
   problems.
   •  Eliminate potential places around the
     exterior of the school building where
     pests can hide or build nests.
     • Keep foundation walls free from open
      cracks.
     • Ensure glazing materials are free of
      cracks and holes.
   •  Ensure doors, windows, and other
     outside openings have tightly fitted
     screens of at least 16 mesh per inch.
   •  Ensure basement windows have rodent
     shields, storm windows, or other
     barriers.
   •  Ensure ventilation openings are
     covered with material such as
     perforated sheet metal plates, cast iron
     grills, or wire mesh.
                     defined asth
b "Child occupied facilitie
  regulailyby children, undei the age :: 5, on at lea
  different days within any week provide*: that eac
  lasts at least 5 horns, the combined weekly visits I
  hours, and the combined annual visits last at leas'
  This may include, but is not limited to child care ',
  preschools, and kindeigarten classrooms. (Regulc
  Definition of Child Occupied facilities - 40 C.F.R.
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       • Clear the under-floor space of all
         vegetation, organic material, and
         construction materials.
       • Provide minimum mechanical methods
         for preventing the entry of rodents into
         school buildings, including:
         • Covering foundation wall vents with
           metal grills or plates;
         • Sealing openings in the foundation
           and exterior walls created for pipes,
           cables, and conduits;
         • Covering windows located within
           two feet of ground level with wire
           screens; and
         • Ensuring minimum clearance
           between doors and door jambs.
       • Ensure all joints, seams, penetrations,
         openings, and other sources of air
         leakage throughout the building
         envelope are caulked, gasketed,
         weather-stripped, wrapped, or
         otherwise sealed.
       • Take steps to ensure the building is
         termite resistant, such as installing floor
         framing made of naturally durable or
         preservative treated wood.27
       EPA's ENERGY STAR program offers
       Energy Design Guidance for new
       construction projects.
       • The guidance is a set of suggested
         actions for building owners and design
         professionals to establish energy
         efficiency goals and ensure that
         energy is addressed at all levels of a
         construction project.
       • EPA encourages using these best
         practices for energy design as part of
         the overall design, construction, and
         operations process to translate design
         intent into buildings that perform and
         earn the ENERGY STAR.
       Use the ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade
 "Communities across the
 country have recognized
 the benefits of energy-wise
 design. In Montpelier, Vermont,
 for example, more than 300
 volunteers from the community
 supplied  labor to construct two
 new classrooms with natural
 day lighting, good ventilation,
 and energy-efficient design
 to create a positive learning
 environment."28
 Manual to plan and implement building
 upgrades by following the five building
 upgrade stages: retro-commissioning,
 lighting, supplemental load reductions,
 air distribution systems, and heating and
 cooling systems. Chapter 10 focuses on
 issues specific to K-12 schools.
 Design teams should use ENERGY STAR
 Target Finder to set energy targets and
 receive an EPA energy performance score
 for projects during the design process.
 Energy targets account for how activities,
 people, and systems will affect energy
 use and enables the design team to make
 decisions that support the function and
 optimal energy efficiency of the school
 buildings. Projects that earn a score of 75
 or higher are eligible for Designed to Earn
 the ENERGY STAR certification.
:- Use the Federal High Performance
 Sustainable Buildings Checklist, located
 in ENERGY STAR'S measurement and
 tracking tool Portfolio Manager, to assess
 the sustainability of an existing school
 building. The checklist was developed for
 federal agencies to assess their existing
 buildings against the Guiding Principles
 for Sustainable Buildings:
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       • Employ integrated assessment,
         operation, and management principles;
       • Optimize energy performance;
       • Protect and conserve water;
       • Enhance indoor environmental
         quality;  and
       • Reduce  environmental impact of
         materials.
       The Department of Energy has
       developed the National Best Practices
       Manual for Building High Performance
       Schools, a resource for architects and
       engineers who are responsible for
       designing or retrofitting schools, and
       for the project managers who work for
       the design teams. The manual provides
       information on school design, building
       systems (e.g., lighting and electrical,
       mechanical and ventilation), day
       lighting, and resource-efficient building
       materials, among other topics.
       The International Code Council developed
       the International Green Construction
       Code (IgCC) to establish minimum
       green requirements for new and existing
       buildings. IgCC is the first model code
       to include sustainability measures for
       the entire construction project and its
       site, from design to certification, and
       is expected to make buildings more
       efficient. School design teams can use
       IgCC as a guide for incorporating more
       high performance elements into new and
       existing school buildings.
       Incorporate water-efficient products into
       building design and renovation plans.
       EPA's WaterSense program makes finding
       and selecting water-efficient products
       easy and ensures consumer confidence
       in those products with a label backed
       by third-party, independent testing
       and certification.  Products bearing the
       WaterSense label:
  • Perform as well or better than their
   less-efficient counterparts;
  • Are 20% more water-efficient than
   average products in that category; and
  • Provide measurable water savings
   results.
• Many local water utility programs offer
  rebates for water-efficient products. For a
  list of rebates,  please visit the WaterSense
  Rebate Finder website.
  When replacing drinking water fixtures,
  make sure the new equipment is NSF
  International Certified "lead-free."
• Consider seeking third-party certification
  for incorporating high-performance
  design features.  Three recognized
  programs that emphasize building
  for high-performance and better
  environmental health are Leadership
  in Energy and Environmental Design
  (LEED) for Schools, CHPS, and Green
  Globes.
  • LEED for Schools is intended for use
   in the design and construction phases
   of school building, and encourages
   project teams to use an integrated
   design approach from start to finish.
   Using this integrated approach, LEED
   promotes improved practices in:
   • Site selection and  development;
   • Water and energy use;
   • Environmentally preferred materials,
     finishes, and furnishings;
   • Waste stream management;
   • Indoor air quality and occupant
     comfort; and
   • Innovation in sustainable design and
     construction.
   To become LEED certified, projects
   must meet all prerequisites and earn
   a minimum number of points in the
   six areas listed above. The number of
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         points earned determines the level of
         LEED certification the project receives.
        • CHPS has developed a rating system
         specifically for schools. CHPS Criteria
         for high-performance schools cover
         seven topics under three categories:
         • Strategy
            - Integration
         • Design
            - Indoor environmental quality
            - Energy
            - Water
            - Site
            - Materials and waste management
         • Performance
            - Operations and maintenance
         CHPS Criteria are available for
         California, Colorado, Hawaii,
         Massachusetts, New York, the Northeast
         (New Hampshire, Rhode Island,
         Connecticut, Maine, and Vermont),
         Texas, Virginia, and Washington.
         Schools in these states can choose from
         two programs: CHPS Verified and CHPS
         Designed.
         • CHPS Verified provides an
           independent review of projects in
           California, Colorado, Connecticut,
           Hawaii, Massachusetts, Texas, and
           Virginia using the CHPS Criteria
           to assess their high-performance
           status. Projects that meet minimum
           certification  receive a CHPS plaque.
            - CHPS PreFab provides an
             independent review and
             precertification of modular,
             relocatable, and prefabricated
             classroom modules. Schools can
             use CHPS PreFab in conjunction
             with CHPS Verified.
        • CHPS Designed is a self-certification
         process for projects in California,
Hawaii, New York, Texas, Virginia,
Washington, and the Northeast. CHPS
Designed projects receive a certificate
and use of the CHPS Designed logo.
CHPS has several resources available
to assist in planning, designing,
operating, commissioning, or
maintaining school facilities.
• The CHPS High Performance
  School Best Practices Manual is a
  six-volume set of best practices that
  cover planning, design, maintenance
  and operations, commissioning,
  prefabricated classrooms, and the
  CHPS Criteria.
• The CHPS Operations Report Card
  benchmarks the current performance
  of existing schools, provides a
  report card of results, and makes
  suggestions for improvement in
  seven categories: energy efficiency,
  thermal comfort, visual comfort,
  indoor air quality, waste reduction,
  water conservation, and acoustics.
• The CHPS High Performance
  Products Database allows schools
  and school districts to search for
  products that meet CHPS and other
  green building criteria (e.g., low-
  emitting materials, recycled content,
  and Forest Stewardship Council
  Certified wood products), and deliver
  environmental and health benefits to
  school building occupants
Green Globes is a Web-based program
offered by the Green Building Initiative
that includes green building guidance
and third-party certification for
commercial buildings, including
schools. The Green Globes program
includes:
• A comprehensive environmental
  assessment protocol (areas of
  assessment include: energy, water,
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           resources, emissions, indoor
           environment, project management,
           and site);
         • Software tools that speed and simplify
           online assessment;
         • Best practices guidance for green
           construction and operations;
         • Third-party assessors with green
           building expertise (e.g., green
           building design, engineering,
           construction, and facility
           operations); and
         • A rating/certification system.
     New and existing buildings must achieve
     35% of 1000 total points in a preliminary
     self-evaluation to be eligible to seek a
     Green Globes certification and rating for
     their environmental sustainability and
     achievements.
The National Clearinghouse for
Educational Facilities and the American
Clearinghouse on Educational Facilities
can provide information and resources
for schools undertaking construction and
renovation projects.
• The National Clearinghouse for
  Educational Facilities provides
  information on designing, building,
  and maintaining safe, healthy, and
  high-performing schools. Its database
  contains 167 school facilities topics.
• The American Clearinghouse on
  Educational Facilities provides
  information, training, and assistance to
  schools on issues related to educational
  facility planning, design, financing,
  construction,  improvement, operation,
  and maintenance.
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     Proper design, maintenance, and operation
     of lighting systems, ventilation systems,
     thermal control systems, and acoustics
     have a significant impact on school
     building performance and occupant
     comfort. Environmental distractions (e.g.,
     poor lighting, glare, poorly controlled
     temperature and humidity, and excessive
     ambient noise or poor acoustics) can affect
     the health, attention, and performance of
     students, faculty, and school staff. Existing
     schools, schools undergoing renovation,
and new schools can be enhanced by
including design elements that maximize
comfort and safety and enable building
users to focus on education.

Get Started
Conduct a walk-through of the school
building to identify areas or rooms in
greatest need for improvement. Specific
building elements to look for include:
   Inefficient lighting (e.g., too dim or too
   much glare);
         SCHOOL DISTRICT HIGHLIGHT:

         Albemarle County Public Schools
         in Albemarle County, Virginia
         Albemarle County Public Schools has implemented several energy efficiency measures,
         including district-wide lighting upgrades. Over the past 5 years, 26 schools and two
         other facilities in the district have undergone lighting retrofits. These comprehensive
         upgrades, which had payback periods of 2 to 3 years, focused on replacing T12 lamps
         with T5s and T8s and on installing occupancy sensors. Not every school received a
         whole-building retrofit: To keep costs down, the district's internal electricians performed
         the lighting retrofits for only a few rooms where appropriate. Whole-building retrofits
         were contracted out and funded from the Capital Improvement Projects account in
         the district's annual operating budget. Through these efforts, Albemarle County Public
         Schools not only cut its long-term energy costs, but also cost-effectively improved the
         safety of  students, faculty, and staff members by replacing and properly disposing of old
         PCB ballasts.
         Albemarle County Public Schools is committed to school environmental health beyond
         energy efficiency. The district hired an Environmental Compliance Manager in 2004 to
         investigate, document, and follow up on indoor air quality concerns and issues, and to
         develop an environmental management system. A chemical hygiene plan was established
         to standardize safety procedures, guidelines, and practices for all district classrooms,
         labs, and  chemical storage areas, and to provide information and training to teachers and
         school staff concerning specific chemical hazards and safe work practices.
         Visit the Albemarle County Public Schools Environmental Management website for
         more information.
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        Poor acoustics and noise control
        features; and
        Poor and inefficient temperature control.
     Although resources might not be available
     to address every issue encountered on the
     walk-through, simple actions can be taken
     to realize immediate improvements:
      * Inspect ventilation systems to ensure they
        can provide a constant supply of air29
        Inform teachers of trouble spots
        throughout the school building and
        encourage them to be flexible, and plan
        lessons and activities accordingly (e.g.,
        use a classroom with poor acoustics for a
        study hall, not a music room).
        Wash windows and skylights frequently
        to maintain adequate day lighting.30
        Educate teachers, staff, and students
        on steps they can take to use building
        systems properly, such as:
        • Using lighting systems appropriately;
        • Keeping ventilation intakes clear;
        • Keeping windows closed when the
         HVAC system is on;
        • Removing obstructions from around
         heating and cooling equipment; and
        • Managing the HVAC system, in terms
    of temperature control, humidity,
    and ventilation.

Take Action
As resources allow, adopt high performance
design elements in classrooms and
throughout the school building, beginning
with specific rooms and areas identified in
the school walk-through.
Examples include:
 • Install or upgrade to acoustical ceiling
   tiles, lined duct work, and HVAC systems
   with appropriately placed vents.29
   Locate information on the school
   building's acoustics and find out if
   the acoustical quality meets Standard
   12.60, "Acoustical Performance Criteria,
   Design Requirements, and Guidelines
   for Schools," of the American National
   Standards Institute. Part 1 of the standard
   applies to classrooms in permanent
   school buildings, and Part 2 of the
   standard applies to relocatable classrooms
   and modular learning  spaces.
   Design lighting systems based on task,
   school room configuration, building
   layout, and surface finishes.1
   Install new or upgrade  existing lighting
   fixtures. Lighting upgrades can improve
         SCHOOL HIGHLIGHT:

         The Academy for Global Citizenship in Chicago, Illinois
         The Academy for Global Citizenship (AGC) is a public charter school in Chicago, Illinois
         that emphasizes sustainability and environmental stewardship. AGC has developed
         a Sustainability Handbook for Schools to help teachers, administrators, parents, and
         community members take steps toward incorporating environmental sustainability in
         their schools. The handbook offers strategies for several different environmental topics,
         including energy efficiency, waste reduction, and water conservation. Each topic features
         specific activities and action that schools and school districts can take, as well as success
         stories, environmental health benefits, and additional resources.
         Learn more about AGC and download a copy of the Sustainability Handbook for Schools.
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        the school's energy efficiency, and
        removing old lighting fixtures might help
        keep the school free from contaminants,
        including PCBs. To learn more see Proper
        Maintenance, Removal, and Disposal of
        PCB-Containing Ruorescent Light Ballasts:
        A Guide for School Administrators and
        Maintenance Personnel.
        Install easy-to-operate lighting controls
        and manual blinds or other window
        treatments to control excessive sunlight or
        glare.
      • Use paint with a matte finish to reduce
        excessive glare.
        Inspect heating and cooling equipment
        quarterly and change filters per
        maintenance schedule.30
        Adopt EPA's SunWise program for school
        use and to inform school infrastructure
        enhancements (e.g., sun-safe policies
        and shade structures).

     Beyond the Basics
     High performance schools go beyond the
     basic elements of providing good acoustics,
     thermal control, adequate ventilation,
     and optimal day lighting. Consider
     implementing the following activities and
     practices:
        To determine how high performance
        building upgrades are impacting
        the school, consider developing and
        recording measures that will demonstrate
        improvements toward becoming a high
        performance school.
      •* Integrate lessons on high performance
        design elements into the student
        curricula. Visit the U.S. Green Building
        Council's Center for Green Schools
        website for more information.
Benefits of  Day
Lighting in Schools
"Studies show that students perform
better with natural light. In addition
to educational benefits, day lighting
offers significant energy and money
savings. The school is not paying
for electricity for artificial lights. The
school also does not need to pay for
cooling as a result of the heat from
the lights. All these dollars saved can
be directed toward the teachers and
students—where the money should
be going."
—Michael Nicklas, President, Co-founder, Design
Principal at Innovative Design in Raleigh, North
Carolina, and Lead Architect for Northern
Guilford Middle School
For more information, see the
Department of Energy EnergySmart
School  Case Study for Northern
Guilford Middle School.
Classrooms with the most day
lighting had a 20% faster learning
rate in math and a 26% faster learning
rate in reading during one school
year when compared to classrooms
with the least amount of day lighting.
For more information, see Windows
and Classrooms: A Study of Student
Performance and the Indoor
Environment.
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     States spend more on energy than any
     other school-related expense, aside from
     personnel. Existing schools can achieve
     higher performance by targeting energy
     efficiency in school operations and
     maintenance and can typically reduce
     energy bills by 5% to 20% even without
     significant capital investment.22'31 School
     districts can use the savings from lower
     energy bills to pay for building upgrades
     that enhance the health and quality of the
     students' learning environment. ENERGY
     STAR provides a wealth of resources for
K-12 school districts interested in reducing
their utility bills, improving their energy
performance, receiving recognition, and
improving the learning environment.
ENERGY STAR certified schools use 35% less
energy than typical buildings and emit 35%
less carbon dioxide.22
Schools and school districts performing
building upgrades should ensure that the
upgrades make their facilities more energy-
efficient and healthier at the same time.
When done properly, many energy efficiency
upgrades can improve the quality of a
         SCHOOL DISTRICT HIGHLIGHT:

         Lakota School District in Butler County, Ohio
         In an effort to upgrade its school building systems to improve the learning and teaching
         environment, the Lakota School District entered into a three-phase multimillion dollar
         facilities upgrade project with the Trane Corporation that will save the school district
         $667,000 in annual energy costs and more than $260,000 in annual operating costs. As
         a result of energy-efficient facilities upgrades, Lakota schools will receive an additional
         $382,000 in rebates from the utility company, Duke Energy.
         Some of the projects include:
          t Mechanical and control system improvements in 9 schools.
         * Plumbing retrofits in 13 buildings.
            Lighting upgrades in all schools.
         Phase One results have already exceeded savings projections by 15%, equal to $35,000
         in savings over the original projections. Overall energy and operating cost savings are
         expected to be $927,000 per year. Mike Taylor, Lakota Schools Superintendent, said, "It's
         great in these tight budgetary times that we are able to improve the teaching and learning
         environment while generating energy and operational savings. Because we are able to pay
         for the improvements through these savings, we can focus our capital budget on other
         needs in the district."
         Learn more about Lakota School District's facilities upgrade project.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
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     school's indoor environment, protecting—
     even enhancing—indoor air quality without
     sacrificing energy performance. If certain
     energy upgrades are not done correctly,
     however, they might adversely impact indoor
     air quality and cause other health concerns
     for children and staff. For example, increased
     energy efficiency in building construction, in
     some cases, has resulted in tighter building
     shells and reduced ventilation rates. EPA's
     Energy Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality
     in Schools working paper describes how to
     enhance energy efficiency while protecting
     indoor air quality.
     Another way schools and school districts
     can save money and conserve resources is
     to become more water-efficient. Schools use
     a tremendous amount of water every day in
     a variety of applications, including:
       Heating and cooling systems,
      • Restrooms,
       Drinking water fountains,
       Locker rooms,
       Cafeterias,
      • Laboratories and classrooms, and
       Outdoor playing fields and lawns.
     EPA's WaterSense program provides
     resources to help schools make more
     water-efficient choices. WaterSense-
     labeled products increase public awareness
     concerning products that are independently
     certified to provide water efficiency without
     sacrificing performance. By adopting
     and promoting water-efficient products,
     services, and practices, schools and school
     districts can greatly reduce annual water
     and energy costs, and help reduce the stress
     on natural resources.

     Get Started
     Conduct a walk-through of the school
     building to identify areas or rooms where
     energy or water efficiency upgrades
can be made. Although resources might
not be available to address every issue
encountered on the walk-through, simple
actions can be taken to realize immediate
improvements:
   Understand the school district's policy/
   program goals regarding energy and
   water efficiency.
   • Interview school personnel responsible
    for energy and water use.
   • Check the partner list on ENERGY
    STAR'S K-12 School Districts website
    to determine if the school/school
    district is a partner in the ENERGY
    STAR program. If not, take steps to
    become an ENERGY STAR partner and
    demonstrate the school's commitment
    to energy efficiency.
   Determine the school's energy and water
   use baseline using ENERGY STAR'S
   measurement and tracking tool, Portfolio
   Manager. Schools also can receive an
   ENERGY STAR energy-performance
   score (on a 1-100  scale) that ranks their
   energy performance relative to similar
   buildings nationwide.
   Inspect the school's plumbing system
   regularly. Immediately repair plumbing
   problems encountered during
   inspections.
   Perform periodic  leak audits to
   determine if leaks are occurring when
   water is not being consumed. Turn off
   all water-consuming appliances, take
   a baseline water meter reading, avoid
   water usage for two hours, and take
   a second water meter reading. If the
   two readings differ, a leak is occurring.
   Immediately repair any leaks identified
   during the leak audit.
   Landscape the school grounds using
   plants with low-water needs, and water
   only when necessary (preferably during
   cooler times of the day).
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       Use a broom to clean walkways,
       driveways, and entrances rather than
       hosing off or using a blower to clean
       these areas.
       Operate and maintain all building
       systems (e.g., chillers, cooling towers,
       boilers, plumbing fixtures, and cafeteria
       equipment) as efficiently as possible.
      • Educate teachers, staff, and students on
       best practices for saving energy and water
       such as:
       • Turn off lights and electronics when
         they are not being used.
       • Keep vents clear.
       • Do not leave doors open to the outside
         longer than necessary.
       • Conserve water usage in restrooms and
         locker rooms by reducing excessive
         water consumption during hand
         washing and showers.

     Take Action
     As resources allow, adopt energy- and
     water-efficient technologies and practices
     throughout the school building, beginning
     with specific rooms and areas identified in
     the school walk-through. Examples include:
Use Portfolio Manager to track energy
and water use, set goals, and measure
progress. This tool allows a school to:
• Track multiple energy and water meters
  for each facility;
• Rate building energy performance
  against similar buildings nationwide;
• Track greenhouse gas emissions;
ซ Set investment priorities; and
• Earn the ENERGY STAR. Schools
  earning an ENERGY STAR energy
  performance score of 75 or higher
  using Portfolio Manager might qualify
  for ENERGY STAR certification.
Develop an energy management plan
using ENERGY STAR Guidelines for
Energy Management. These guidelines
can help schools and school districts
improve their energy, environmental,
and financial performance.
Develop a plan to replace pre-1979
fluorescent lighting to reap significant
energy benefits and remove PCB-
containing lighting ballasts from the
school building. To learn more about
PCBs in lighting fixtures, see Proper
Maintenance, Removal, and  Disposal
         SCHOOL DISTRICT HIGHLIGHT:
         Manitou Springs School District 14 in Manitou Springs,
         Colorado
         The Manitou Springs School District in Manitou Springs, Colorado developed a
         sustainability management plan (SMP) through a grant provided by the Colorado
         Governor's Energy Office. The 30 page plan defines what a SMP is, the school district's
         mission and vision for sustainability, the SMP's goals and priorities, and the SMP's steps for
         implementation. Manitou Springs's SMP is a useful model for schools and school districts
         looking to develop a sustainability plan, and can serve as a foundation for addressing
         environmental health activities.
         Download a copy of Manitou Springs School District's Sustainability Management Plan.
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        of PCB-Containing Fluorescent
        Light Ballasts: A Guide for School
        Administrators and Maintenance
        Personnel.
        Establish a summer and evening
        energy policy that minimizes the use of
        electricity and other forms of energy. The
        policy should:
        • Identify which rooms/areas of the
         school building will be occupied and
         limit the use of lights and electricity
         accordingly.
        • Establish appropriate temperature
         controls when the school building is
         not occupied.
        • Establish procedures for ensuring
         windows and doors are closed when
         appropriate.
      • Develop a procurement policy that
        favors the purchase of ENERGY STAR
        qualified products (e.g., kitchen and
        office equipment, computers, and water
        heaters) and WaterSense labeled products
        (e.g., showerheads, toilets, and sink
        faucets).
        Consider launching an energy efficiency
        competition to get students, faculty,
        and staff excited about a new energy
        management program, or to enhance
        an existing program. Refer to ENERGY
        STAR'S Guide to Energy Efficiency
        Competitions for Buildings & Plants for
        guidance on planning and launching a
        competition, as well as case studies and
        best practices from recent competitions.
        Utilize the Low Carbon IT Campaign,
        which promotes low-power "sleep"
        settings on computers and provides:
        • Free technical expertise on how to best
         activate the settings on the school's
         network;
  • An estimate of the school's savings; and
  • An official certificate of recognition
    from EPA acknowledging the school's
    efforts.
  Maximize the performance efficiency of
  equipment by maintaining an appliance
  servicing schedule.
  Replace older equipment (e.g.,
  dishwashers and washing machines)
  with energy-saving devices.
  Install water-saving devices wherever
  possible:
  • Water aerators and automatic shut off
    devices on faucets.
  • High-efficiency showerheads and
    timer shut-off devices to reduce water
    use during showers.
  • Sensors for outdoor sprinklers and
    irrigation systems to water grounds only
    when needed.
  Maximize natural vegetative cover on
  school grounds and maintain playing
  fields with drought-tolerant grasses.

Beyond the Basics
High performance schools go beyond
conserving water and energy in their daily
operations and maintenance. Consider
implementing the following activities and
practices:
  Develop and record measures specific
  to the school that will demonstrate
  improvements in energy and water
  efficiency. Examples include:
  • Cost savings on electric, water, and gas
    invoices.
  • Cost savings in purchasing paper
    products, light bulbs, and maintenance
    services for office equipment and other
    electronics.
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        ป Cost savings through reduced water
         use by installing more water-efficient
         equipment.
        Develop energy and water use lesson plans
        and familiarize students with best practices
        for saving energy and water. Lessons can
        be applied in science, math, environmental
        science, and other courses.
        Consider investing in solar panels, green
        roofs, or rain barrels. These options not
        only contribute to energy and water
  efficiency, but can be integrated into
  classroom curricula as well.
* Install water filling stations to encourage
  students to fill their own water bottles
  and reduce the use of plastic water
  bottles in schools.
  Include information and updates
  on energy and water efficiency in
  newsletters, school announcements, and
  other outreach material.
          Kentucky Energy  Efficiency Program for Schools
          The Kentucky Energy Efficiency Program for Schools (KEEPS) was the brainchild of the
          Kentucky Department of Energy, and began as a pilot program in 2006 with six school
          districts. In 2008, Kentucky House Bill 2 (section 16) required that  all school districts
          participate in KEEPS by January 2010. Under the mandate, schools are required to adopt
          a school board-approved energy policy and submit a copy of their energy management
          policy to the state. The KEEPS program follows the Guidelines of Energy Management, the
          seven-step framework developed by ENERGY  STAR.
          KEEPS's energy efficiency efforts promote not just energy savings, but improved
          environmental health. Properly maintained HVAC systems ensure consistent temperatures
          for comfort and controlled humidity levels that mitigate moisture and mold growth.
          Functioning ventilation systems ensure students have an adequate supply of fresh air, and
          lighting retrofits can enhance the quality of classroom lighting and remove potentially
          harmful chemicals (e.g., PCBs) from the school building.
          Since the mandate, all 174 school districts in Kentucky have adopted a school board-
          approved energy policy. The State of Kentucky was later recognized by EPA as an
          ENERGY STAR Partner of the Year for program implementation.
          "We learned that initially you can have lots of savings due to facilities modifications,
          etc., and utility bill analysis (huge savings of 100,000s of dollars). However, to have long
          term year-to-year sustainable results, you have to have behavior modification, good
          maintenance practices, and culture change."—KEEPS
          Learn more about KEEPS.
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    Additional  Actions to Promote
    Environmentally  Friendly School Facilities
    Many high performing schools address the three Rs in their environmental health
    programming: reduce, reuse, and recycle. Consider implementing the following activities
    and practices:

      Provide recycling bins for plastic; office paper, newspaper and cardboard; aluminum and
      tin; and glass.
      Establish practices to minimize food waste from cafeteria food production.
      Implement a procurement policy that emphasizes purchasing school supplies and
      equipment made with recycled content (e.g., paper products, engine oil, and paints).
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                           acuity and  Staff Training
     A successful school environmental health
     program relies on the active participation of all
     persons involved. From school administrators
     and teachers, to nurses and maintenance
     personnel, all faculty and staff have a role in
     protecting the school's environmental health.
     As such, training is an effective way to ensure
     that faculty and staff understand their roles
     and how they contribute to the success and
     sustainability of the program.

     Training opportunities should be provided
     to faculty and staff in advance of program
     implementation and should address all
     aspects of the school environmental health
     program, not just those areas that relate
     directly to the faculty and staff members'
     primary responsibilities. An integrated
     training curriculum should educate
     trainees on:

        Children's environmental health and
        safety in schools;
        The purpose of a school environmental
        health program;
        The components of the program;
        The benefits for students, faculty, and
        staff;
        Behavior change in the classroom
        (e.g., prohibiting cleaning products
        from home or using unauthorized and
        possibly toxic art materials); and
        The policies and procedures currently in
        place that support the program.
     Refresher training should be offered
     annually to  provide updates and reinforce
     the program's goals. Tying training
     opportunities to continuing education units
for certification can be an incentive for
faculty and staff to participate.

The section below describes specific issues
and topics that training activities should
address for each of the five key components
of a school environmental health program.
Additional information and training material
can be found on the following websites:

 • Safe Chemical Management in Schools
  IAQ Tools for Schools Program
  Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in
  Schools
  ENERGY STAR for K-12 School Districts
  Green Schools Alliance0
  Classroom Earthd

Practice Effective Cleaning and
Maintenance
  Roles and responsibilities of program
  participants (including teachers, the
  health program coordinator, staff,
  maintenance personnel, and any other
  persons involved with implementation).
 • Policies and procedures for effective
  cleaning and building maintenance.
  • Purchasing and using less toxic
    cleaners, art supplies, and other
    materials
  • Resources for school cleaning and
    maintenance practices
  Potential environmental health risks
  (e.g., allergens and irritants).
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     Prevent Mold and Moisture
        Roles and responsibilities of program
        participants (including teachers, the
        health program coordinator, staff,
        maintenance personnel, and any other
        persons involved with implementation).
        Policies and procedures for preventing
        moisture and mold.
        • Mold remediation in schools.
        Potential environmental health risks (e.g.,
        molds).

     Reduce Chemical and Environmental
     Contaminant Hazards
        Roles and responsibilities of program
        participants (including teachers, the
        health program coordinator, staff,
        maintenance personnel, and any other
        persons involved with implementation).
        State and local purchasing, use, storage,
        and disposal guidelines.
        Chemical management, hazards, safety
        practices, and other requirements for
        handling chemicals.
        The school's hazard communication
        plan and familiarizing faculty and staff
        with the school's emergency policies,
        procedures, and points  of contact.
      • Purchasing and using less toxic lab
        chemicals, art supplies,  and other
        materials.
        Recognizing and treating injuries
        resulting from chemical exposures or
        accidents.
      * How to properly use chemical safety and
        personal protection equipment.
  How to read an SDS and where to locate
  SDSs in the school building.

Ensure Good Ventilation
 • Roles and responsibilities of program
  participants (including teachers, the
  health program coordinator, staff,
  maintenance personnel, and any other
  persons involved with implementation).
  The benefits of good indoor air quality.
  Policies and procedures for maintaining
  HVAC  systems, and ensuring that
  maintenance staff have the tools needed
  to keep the HVAC system in good
  condition.
  • HVAC systems.
 • Awareness of indoor asthma triggers.
  Guidance for building indoor air quality.

Prevent  Pests and Reduce Pesticide
Exposure
  Roles and responsibilities of program
  participants (including teachers, the
  health program coordinator, staff,
  maintenance personnel, and any other
  persons involved with implementation).
  Policies and procedures for effective
  pesticide use.
  Pesticides: topical and chemical fact
  sheets.
 * Educating faculty and staff about
  integrated pest management in schools.
  The risks of pesticide exposure.
  Guidance on integrated pest
  management strategies and practices.
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                         Student Curricula
     In addition to faculty and staff, students
     should understand the variety of
     environmental health issues encountered
     in schools and how they can contribute to
     sustaining a school environmental health
     program. Student involvement will enhance
     their knowledge of the environmental
     health issues that affect them,  and will
     give them a sense of ownership and
     accountability in the ultimate success of the
     program.
     Environmental health projects can easily be
     incorporated into appropriate lesson plans (e.g.,
     science and health) that meet state learning
     standards. Teachers should receive approval
     from the school district, district curriculum and
     academic directors, and the school principal,
     as appropriate, for their new curricula before
     introducing it in the classroom, and should
     consider pilot testing the curricula before
     launching on a wider scale.
     In addition to adopting environmental
     health curricula, schools should encourage
     students to explore environmental health
     topics for science fair projects, engage in
     extracurricular activities that relate to the
     environment or environmental health,
     and participate in volunteer opportunities
     that promote environmental stewardship.
     Additional information and course material
     can be found on the following websites:
       Safe Chemical Management in Schools
       IAQ Tools for Schools Program
       Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in
       Schools
 • ENERGY STAR for K-12 School Districts
  USGBC LEED for Schools
 • Green Education Foundation6
  Green Schools Alliance*
  National Environmental Education
  Foundation3
  Classroom Earthh

Practice Effective Cleaning and
Maintenance

Grades K-5
  Discuss with students the source of dust
  and allergens, and brainstorm ways
  to minimize dust and allergens in the
  classroom.

Grades 6-8
 * Identify common household products
  (e.g., baking soda and vegetable oil)
  that can be mixed into green cleaning
  solutions, and have students work with
  science teachers to test appropriate
  recipes for homemade cleaning products.
  Research safer alternatives to common
  household cleaning products.

Grades 9-12
  Have students conduct an informal
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       inventory of cleaning products in
       their homes (with an adult present, if
       necessary). Identify any hazardous/
       toxic substances listed on the labels and
       discuss why they pose a risk to human or
       environmental health.
      • Encourage students to conduct research
       and science projects on dust and allergens
       and their impacts on human health.

     Prevent Mold and Moisture

     Grades K-5
      • Discuss the link between moisture and
       mold, and brainstorm ways to prevent
       mold growth at school and at home.

     Grades 6-8
       Observe the growth of different kinds of
       food molds.
       Have students research the health effects
       of mold, how to recognize various types of
       molds, and ways to mitigate mold growth.

     Grades 9-12
       Arrange for students to accompany
       facility/maintenance staff on a walk-
       through of the school to identify areas
       where mold and moisture are common.
       Grow molds on different types of surfaces
       and identify the best ways to mitigate
       mold growth for each surface.
       Encourage students to conduct research
       and science projects on moisture and mold.

     Reduce Chemical and
     Environmental Contaminant
     Hazards

     Grades K-5
       Design a game to help students recognize
       symbols and words that identify products
       containing hazardous substances.
       Brainstorm how chemical safety can
       prevent pollution at home.
       Introduce the concept of the water cycle
       and how different types of contaminants
       can be introduced at each stage.
    Green Education
    Foundation
    The Green Education Foundation
    (GEF) is a non-profit organization
    committed to creating a sustainable
    future through education. GEF
    provides curricula and resources to
    K-12 students and teachers worldwide
    with the goal of challenging youth to
    think holistically and critically about
    global environmental, social, and
    economic concerns and solutions.
    GEF couples standards-based
    curricula with active participation,
    acknowledging that children learn
    best through hands-on activities that
    enhance their critical thinking skills.
  Participate in EPA's National Radon
  Poster Contest or hold a school-wide
  radon poster contest.

Grades 6-8
 • Educate students on the proper handling,
  storage, and disposal of chemicals and
  chemical products.
 * Have students pick a chemical/
  contaminant and research its history, use,
  and impact on human health and the
  environment.
  Create chemical safety bulletin boards,
  posters, or other displays.
 • Encourage students to test or monitor the
  water quality at different taps throughout
  the school building.

Grades 9-12
  Familiarize students with chemical safety
  equipment, procedures, and SDSs.
  Encourage students to conduct research
  projects on the health impacts associated
  with exposure to environmental
  contaminants.
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       Educate students on the importance of
       testing for lead in drinking water and
       incorporate appropriate lead testing
       methods into laboratory curricula.
       Incorporate simple toxicology lessons
       into science or health classes to help
       students make safer product choices.

     Ensure Good  Ventilation

     Grades K-5
       Create ABC books using indoor air
       quality vocabulary words.
       Create dioramas to demonstrate
       mechanical air flow.
       Identify and discuss the causes of indoor
       air pollution.

     Grades 6-8
       Define the concept of the indoor
       environment and list properties of the
       indoor environment.
       Design inventions that will prevent or fix
       indoor environment problems.
       Create indoor environment or indoor air
       quality bulletin boards or other displays.

     Grades 9-12
       Solve problems using the IAQ Tools
       for Schools Action Kit Problem Solving
       Wheel.
       Invite a member of the facility/maintenance
       staff to talk with students about how an
       HVAC system works. Arrange for students
       to accompany facility/maintenance staff on
       a building walk-through to gain hands-on
       experience.
       Conduct a heating and cooling audit for
       the school.
       Encourage students to conduct research
       and science projects on HVAC systems
       and good ventilation.
       The National Education Association
       Health Information Network has created
       a series of hands-on, interactive lesson
  plans geared toward grades K-12. All
  lesson plans are tied to state education
  standards and can be integrated into a
  school district's curriculum.

Prevent  Pests and Reduce
Pesticide Exposure

Grades K-5
 * Identify and categorize different types of
  pests.
  Incorporate activity books on integrated
  pest management into the curricula.
  Incorporate educational activities about
  pests and pest control.

Grades 6-8
  Define the concepts of integrated pest
  management, and discuss the different
  ways integrated pest management can be
  applied in school and at home.
  Inspect the school for evidence of pests
  or areas where pests might thrive and
  suggest solutions to fix and prevent pest
  problems.
 • Have students research the history
  of pesticides and learn how to read a
  pesticide label.

Grades 9-12
  Have students research school integrated
  pest management programs and develop
  an integrated pest management program
  for their school.
  Approach facility/maintenance staff
  about conducting a pest monitoring
  project.
 • Encourage students to conduct research
  and science projects on integrated pest
  management and pesticides.
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       Endnotes
        1.  National Research Council. (2006). Green schools:
           Attributes for health and learning. Washington,
           DC: The National Academies Press. 192 pages.

        2.  Akinbami, L.J. (2006). The state of childhood
           asthma, United States, 1980-2005. Advance Data
           from Vital and Health Statistics 381,1-24.

        3.  Collaborative for High Performance Schools.
           (2006). Maintenance & operations of high
           performance schools. Retrieved 2011, from
           Collaborative for High Performance Schools:
           http://www.chps.net/dev/Drupal/node/39.

        4.  National Institute for Occupational Safety and
           Health. (2003). NIOSH health hazard evaluation
           report: Hilton Head Elementary School, Hilton
           Head Island, South Carolina. By N. Sahakian,
           Choe, K, White, S., & Jones, R. Cincinatti, OH:
           U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
           Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
           National Institute for Occupational Safety
           and Health. NIOSH HETA 2003-0039-2914.
           September, http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/
           reports/pdfs/2003-0039-2914.pdf.

        5.  Scheel C., Rosing, W., &  Farone, A. (2001). Possible
           sources of sick building syndrome in a Tennessee
           middle school. Archives of Environmental Health:
           An InternationalJournal, 56 (5), 413-417.

        6.  National Institute for Occupational Safety and
           Health. (2010). Health hazard evaluation report:
           Comparison of mold exposures, work-related
           symptoms, and visual contrast sensitivity
           between employees at a severely water-damaged
           school and employees at a school without
           significant water damage. By Thomas G., Burton,
           N.C., Mueller, C., & Page, E. New Orleans, LA:
           U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
           Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
           National Institute for Occupational Safety and
           Health. September. NIOSH HETA No. 2005-0135-
           3116. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/reports/
           pdfs/2005-0135-3116.pdf.

        7.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2003).
           IAQ tools for schools program: Benefits of
           improving air quality in  the school environment.
           Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection
   Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Indoor
   Environments Division. EPA402-K-02-005.
   October, http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/pdfs/
   publications/tf sprogram_brochure.pdf.

8.  Velez and Broward County Grand Jury. (2002).
   Interim Report of the 2002 Fall Term Grand Jury
   on School Board Construction. April 23. Retrieved
   June 2012, from: http://www.saol7.state.fl.us/
   GrandJury2002.html.

9.  Krebs, R. (2011). Costs rising for Willingboro
   high school mold remediation. November 30.
   Burlington County Times.

10. Brashear, G. (2011). Collins school mold clean
   up costs hit $700,000. December 21. Barnegat-
   Manahawkin Patch.

11. Davis, A. (2012). Mold cleanup at middle
   elementary school costs over $112,400. January 6.
   http://www.ShoreNewsToday.com.

12. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2007).
   A decade of children's environmental health
   research: Highlights from EPA's science to
   achieve results program. Washington, DC:
   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
   EPA/600/S-07/038. December. http://www.
   epa.gov/ncer/publications/research_results_
   synthesis/ceh_report_508.pdf.

13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2012).
   Mercury. July. Retrieved July 2012, from U.S.
   Envionmental Protection Agency: http://www.
   epa. gov/hg/index. html.

14. World Health Organization. (2009). Radon -WHO
   handbook on indoor radon - a public health
   perspective. Retrieved 2012, from World Health
   Organization: http://www.who.int/ionizing_
   radiation/env/radon/en/indexl.html.

15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2012).
   Drinking water in schools and child care
   facilities. March. Retrieved April 2012, from U.S.
   Environmental Protection Agency:  http://www.
   epa.gov/infrastructure/drinkingwater/schools/
   index.cfm.
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        16. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2012).
           National clean diesel program. March. Retrieved
           April 2012, from U.S. Environmental Protection
           Agency:  http://www.epa.gov/cleandiesel/
           basicinfo.htm.

        17. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2012).
           Transportation and air quality. Retrieved 2012,
           from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:
           http://www.epa.gov/cleandiesel/documents/air-
           pollution-excerpt-454r09002.pdf.

        18. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2011).
           Smoke-free homes. November. Retrieved 2012,
           from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:
           http://www.epa.gov/smokefree.

        19. U.S. Department of Education. National Center
           for Educational Statistics. (2001-2002). Common
           Core of Data. Public Elementary/Secondary
           School Universe Survey, http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/
           pubschuniv.asp.

        20. National Child Care Association sponsored study.
           (2002). The National Economic Impacts of the
           Child Care Sector. M.Cubed. Fall 2002.
           http://www.government.cce.cornell.edu/doc/
           pdf/UnitedStates.pdf.

        21. Green, T.A.,  & Gouge, D.H. (2011). School
           IPM 2015: A strategic plan for integrated pest
           management in schools in the United States.
           Version 2.0. 309 pp. Retrieved 2012, from: http://
           www.ipmcenters.org/pmsp/pdf/USschoolsPMSP.
           pdf.

        22. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (n.d.).
           ENERGY STAR forK-12 school districts. Retrieved
           May 16, 2010, from ENERGY STAR: http://www.
           energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=kl2_schools.
           bus_schoolsk!2.

        23. U.S. Green Building Council, (n.d.). Welcome to
           the center for green schools at the U.S. Green
           Building Council. Retrieved 2011, from the Center
           for Green Schools K-12 Education: http://www.
           centerforgreenschools.org/home.aspx.

        24. Kats, G. (2006). Greening America's schools: Costs
           and benefits. A Capital E Report http://www.
           usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=2908.
25. Deloitte and Charles Lockwood. (2008). The
   dollars and sense of green retrofits. Deloitte
   Development LLC. October. http://www.
   capitalmarketspartnership.com/UserFiles/
   Admin%20The%20Dollars%20and%20Sense%20
   of%20Green%20Retrofits%20by%20DeLoitte.pdf.

26. U.S. Green Building Council, (n.d.). Green schools
   increase teacher retention. Retrieved 2011, from
   the Center for Green Schools K-12 Education:
   http://www.centerforgreenschools.org/better-
   for-teaching.aspx.

27. The Alliance for Healthy Homes (n.d.). Pest-free.
   Retrieved 2011, from the Alliance for Healthy
   Homes: http://www.afhh.org/pol/pol_housing_
   codes_pest-free.htm.

28. U.S. Department of Energy. (2002). Myths
   about Energy in Schools, U.S. Department of
   Energy, Office of Building Technology, State
   and Community Programs, Office of Energy
   Efficiency and Renewable Energy. DOE/GO-
   102002-1525. February, http://www.nrel.gov/
   docs/fy02osti/31607.pdf.

29. U.S. Green Building Council, (n.d.). What makes
   a school green? Retrieved 2011, from the Center
   for Green Schools K-12 Education: http://www.
   centerforgreenschools.org/green-school-
   interactive.aspx.

30. Collaborative for High Performance Schools.
   (2004). Best practices manual. Retrieved 2011,
   from the Collaborative for High Performance
   Schools: http://www.chps.net/dev/Drupal/
   node/288.

31. U.S. Department of Energy. (2010). Federal
   energy management program operations and
   maintenance best practices guide. Release 3.0.
   Richland, WA: U.S. Department of Energy. PNNL-
   19634. August, http://wwwl.eere.energy.gov/
   femp/pdfs/omguide_complete.pdf.
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Appendix B
State Case Studies

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     Colorado  Case Study
     Colorado Coalition for Healthy Schools (CCHS):
     Coalition and Coordination Group Success
     Background
     Colorado Connections for Healthy Schools
     (CCHS) began as a result of funding
     received in 2003 from the Centers for
     Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for a
     Coordinated School Health initiative. CCHS
     was first established to provide professional
     development to schools and their partners
     to help implement Coordinated School
     Health efforts in Colorado's schools.
     Effective 2012, Colorado Connections for
     Healthy Schools became the Colorado
     Coalition for Healthy Schools to reflect
     the program's evolution into a statewide
     coalition that addresses school health more
     broadly and comprehensively.

     The Program
     The Coordinated School Health strategy
     promoted by CCHS is an approach that
     Colorado schools are encouraged to adopt.
     Grant support is offered to participating
     schools, and schools with successful
     implementation efforts are encouraged to
     act as champions and promote the strategy
     to other schools within their district. As of
     February 2012, over 300 schools participate,
     including those in rural, mountain, and
     metropolitan communities.
     CCHS can be defined through a five-tier
     structure:
       CCHS Membership (800 members) is
       responsible for identifying and aligning
       goals and resources for professional
       development, data, funding, and
       communication.
  The CDC's Coordinated School
  Health strategy is recommended as
  a way to improve students' health
  and learning in our nation's schools.
  Coordinated School Health consists
  of eight components:
  1.  Health education
  2. Health services
  3. Counseling
  4. Nutrition services and education
  5. Physical education and activity
  6. Family and community
    involvement
  7. Staff wellness
  8. Healthy school environments
The Interagency School Health Team
has grown from content experts
leveraging resources, coordinating
activities, and sharing information to
become a steering committee for CCHS.
The Management Team provides
implementation oversight of the CDC
grant initiative, including monitoring the
School Level Impact Measures that are
measured using the School Health Profiles
school level policy and activity survey.
School District Health Coordinators (in
districts where Coordinated School Health
is implemented) promote the strategy at
the district level, provide oversight, and
are a resource for implementation to
school level health teams.
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       School Health Teams plan, coordinate,
       and monitor school-based health goals
       that were developed to meet students'
       health needs in their respective schools.
     In addition, local school health champions
     and interested community partners play a
     significant role in educating others about
     CCHS by highlighting the connection
     between student academic achievement
     and health.
     Several resources are available to assist
     schools and school districts using
     Coordinated School Health supported by
     CCHS. Colorado's Roadmap to Healthy
     Schools provides information to schools
     and school districts on forming school
     health teams, adopting school health plans,
     and institutionalizing Coordinated School
     Health. The Healthy School Champions
     Scorecard, an online recognition tool, is
     often used as an additional method to inform
     a school's health assessment. The scorecard
     was developed by core members of CCHS
     and allows schools and school districts to
     formally rate just how healthy their schools
     are for students, teachers, and staff.

     Program Highlights
       By institutionalizing a statewide
       infrastructure for school health, with
       foundation support leveraging the
       funding from the CDC initiative, CCHS
       has evolved into a grassroots driven
       multi-purpose school health coalition.
       The Healthy School Champions
       Scorecard has successfully encouraged
       schools to showcase their efforts to
       meet healthy schools criteria. In the first
       year, over 100 schools completed the
       scorecard to find out their healthy school
       rating, and the top 15 schools were
       formally recognized and received grant
       recognition awards ranging from $1,000
       to $5,000. This recognition has become
       an annual event sponsored by state
       foundations.
    CCHS is championed by a core group
    of partners including:
       Colorado Department of
       Education;
    •*• Colorado Department of Public
       Health and the Environment;
    •* Colorado Legacy Foundation;
    •* Colorado Health Foundation;
     ,  Center for Research Strategy;
    *  Creative Media Solutions; and
    * RMC Health.
 • Partnerships, stakeholder involvement,
   and interagency collaboration are
   key components of CCHS and have
   facilitated the incorporation of the
   healthy school framework in over 300
   schools throughout the state.

Lessons Learned
   Building a variety of relationships that
   include influential decision-makers (e.g.,
   school board members) can facilitate
   formation of a coalition like CCHS that
   ensures support of school health efforts
   in the state.
   Branding your work and developing a
   messaging/marketing plan is important,
   as well as enlisting the talents and
   interest of key stakeholders to promote
   the program.
   It is necessary to listen to and keep the
   end user (e.g., the schools and students)
   involved in the process as much as
   possible.

More Information
Colorado Department of Education website:
www.cde.state.co.us/
Colorado Coalition for Healthy Schools
Schools (CCHS) website:
www.healthyschoolchampions.org/
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     Connecticut  Case  Study
     Connecticut Tools for Schools Program
     Background
     Connecticut's Tools for Schools program
     was created to address the numerous calls
     the Connecticut Department of Public
     Health was receiving on indoor air quality
     issues, as well as several illness situations
     that had arisen in schools throughout the
     state. The Connecticut Department of Public
     Health worked with the U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency (EPA) Region 1 to develop
     a statewide Tools for Schools indoor air
     quality program. After school districts
     requested implementation assistance, the
     Connecticut Department of Public Health
     organized a resource team that evolved into a
     multi-agency consortium known as CSIERT
     (Connecticut School Indoor Environment
     Resource Team). Currently, this team
     includes 24 agencies and organizations.

     The Program
     Connecticut's Tools for Schools program
     promotes alow-cost, problem-solving,
     team-based approach to improving indoor
     air quality in schools. After committing to
     the program, participating schools must
     establish a  Tools for Schools building team,
     including an administrator, school nurse,
     head custodian, and a parent. The building
     team receives 5 hours of training on school
     indoor air quality and how to conduct a
     walk-through investigation, and develops
     a plan for getting started. Once a walk-
     through has been conducted, the team
     prioritizes a list of action steps and identifies
     a timeline for completion. Connecticut state
     law requires all public schools to have an
     indoor air program.
    Some of the 24 CSIERT agencies and
    organizations include:
    * Connecticut Association of Boards
      of Education
    •* Connecticut Education
      Association
    * Connecticut Association of School
      Business Officials
    •*• Connecticut Department of
      Education
      Connecticut Department of
      Energy and Environmental
      Protection
      Connecticut Department of Public
      Health
      Connecticut Parent Teacher
      Association
      Connecticut School Building and
      Grounds Association
    * Connecticut School Nurses
      Association
Connecticut's Tools for Schools program
has expanded since its inception to address
a variety of environmental health issues.
Its growth has been driven by the passage
of school health laws and mandates by
the state, including: anti-idling and diesel
emission reduction laws; a green cleaning
mandate for schools; a pesticides-in-
schools law; and a law requiring new
schools be constructed  to high performance
(energy-efficient) standards. As of July
2011, Connecticut school districts must
implement a green cleaning program.
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     CSIERT's training and outreach efforts,
     tailored to Connecticut schools' needs
     and state environmental health policies,
     play a critical role in Connecticut's Tools
     for Schools program. CSIERT's flagship
     training program is a 2part, five hour
     implementation workshop for school  staff
     and parents that covers indoor air quality
     health issues, how the Tools for Schools
     program works, conducting site walk-
     throughs, prioritizing indoor air quality
     problems, and communication. A custodian
     training workshop and a refresher training
     workshop are also available. All training
     opportunities are free, conducted at the
     school district level, and administered
     based on how mature a district's program
     is (e.g., new or existing program). Although
     the focus of training is indoor air quality,
     CSIERT has added modules that address
     green cleaning, pest management, and
     diesel emission reduction strategies. CSIERT
     also provides ongoing consultation with
     school building teams to set priorities and
     answer technical questions; offers a train-
     the-trainer curriculum; gives presentations
     to school systems; and conducts workshops
     at statewide conferences. An on-going
     evaluation program measures the impact on
     schools that implement Connecticut's Tools
     for Schools program.

     Program Highlights
     As of January 2012:
       CSIERT has implemented its school
       environmental health program in more
       than 150 school districts across the state.
      • CSIERT has conducted refresher training
       for 374 schools in 64 school districts.
      • CSIERT has provided training for
       custodians in 607 schools in 53 school
       districts.
       CSIERT has conducted over 690 training
       workshops for school building teams and
       custodians.
       Over 7880 school staff, parents, and
       others have been trained.
 * CSIERT has made presentations to more
   than 155 Connecticut school systems.
   Four full-day workshops have been
   conducted using the train-the-trainer
   curriculum.
   Connecticut Department of Public
   Health and CSIERT have published a
   paper about the program, "A Statewide
   Multiagency Intervention Model for
   Empowering Schools to Improve Indoor
   Air Quality." The paper appeared in the
   September 2011 issue of the Journal of
   Environmental Health.

Lessons Learned
   The key to success with the CSIERT
   consortium model is maintaining regular
   communication between stakeholder
   organizations and their members about
   implementing and improving the
   program.
 • Sell the program to school districts.
   Give a buy-in presentation to the
   superintendent and executive staff
   to obtain support before moving
   forward with training or program
   implementation.
   A key part of Connecticut's program
   strategy is emphasizing a team-based
   model. CSIERT encourages schools to
   have active five- to six-person teams,
   including one parent, to mobilize staff and
   implement the program. School districts
   are also encouraged to develop a district-
   wide indoor air quality management plan
   and structure that can be integrated into
   existing district efforts, such as a district
   health and safety committee.

More Information
Connecticut Department of Public Health's
School Environment site: www.ct.gov/dph/
schools

Connecticut Tools for Schools Program
website: www.csiert.tfsiaq.com/index.html
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     Kentucky Case Study
     Kentucky Green and Healthy Schools (KGHS)
     Background
     Kentucky Green and Healthy Schools (KGHS)
     began in 2007 as a joint project between the
     Kentucky Environmental Education Council
     and the Kentucky Department of Education.
     The voluntary program encourages
     students and teachers to evaluate the built
     and natural environment, with an emphasis
     on conservation, waste reduction, and
     environmental health.

     The Program
     KGHS is a student-centered program
     that encourages students and teachers to
     implement projects to improve the health,
     safety, and sustainability of their school.
     Schools are responsible for their own
     coordination and usually a "lead teacher"
     assumes responsibility for the school's
     program. KGHS program activities are
     completed either after school or as part
     of a classroom curriculum. In addition to
     student-teacher collaboration, maintenance
     staff and janitors are often involved,
     especially with projects concerning energy,
     waste management, and green spaces.
     KGHS offers nine categories for potential
     projects:
       Energy,
      • Green spaces,
       Hazardous chemicals,
       Health and safety,
       Indoor air quality,
       Instructional leadership,
       Solid waste,
       Transportation, and
       Water quality.
Each of the nine categories has a
corresponding list of approximately
20 questions concerning how the school
handles each particular issue. The students'
answers to these questions help them
decide what areas in the school need
improvement. Students submit their
proposed projects on the KGHS website and
the KGHS office provides tools and support
for students and teachers as they implement
their projects. KGHS also offers awards to
students (e.g., plaques, flags) as an incentive
to complete their projects.
Conducting outreach to, and
communicating with, teachers has been
the most effective way of marketing the
program. KGHS attends various teacher
conferences and publishes a newsletter with
updates and information on the program.
KGHS offers professional development
opportunities to train teachers, and can tailor
the training by content area, grade level,
or specific category if they know what the
school is interested in. In addition to teacher
training, KGHS requires schools new to the
program to complete a 30 minute website
training and sign a pledge form.

Lessons Learned
   Educate and find ways to involve
   students in environmental health issues
   encountered at their schools.
   Identify your target  audiences and tailor
   outreach and training to their  specific
   needs.

More Information
Kentucky Green and Healthy Schools
(KGHS) Program website:
www.greenschools.ky.gov
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     Kentucky  Case  Study
     Kentucky Energy Efficiency Program for Schools (KEEPS)
     Background
     The Kentucky Energy Efficiency Program
     for Schools (KEEPS) was launched in 2006 as
     a pilot program to test the idea of providing
     on-site energy efficiency technical
     assistance to school districts and higher
     education institutions. The pilot program
     was funded by the Kentucky Department
     for Energy Development and Independence
     and administered by the Kentucky Pollution
     Prevention Center at the University of
     Louisville J.B. Speed School of Engineering.
     Active pilot participants realized substantial
     cost savings through improved energy
     performance.

     The Program
     In April 2008, Kentucky Revised Statute
     160.325 was signed into law as an unfunded
     mandate requiring all 174 Kentucky public
     school district boards of education to enroll
     in KEEPS by January 2010. The statute also
     required Kentucky public school boards of
     education to report data on annual energy
     usage, costs, and energy saving measures
     to the Kentucky Pollution Prevention Center
     through KEEPS by December 1 of each
     year beginning in 2011. School districts
     submit this information to KEEPS using a
     KEEPS Energy Management Report, which
     considers 62 energy performance factors,
     including energy consumption, cost,
     behavior changes, number of ENERGY STAR
     appliances, and current contracts for energy
     efficiency, among others. A summary
     of this data is compiled on an annual
     basis into a KEEPS Status Report, which
     is published each January and submitted
     to the Legislative Research Commission
    KEEPS partners with the following
    organizations:

      KGHS

    * Kentucky National Energy
      Education Development (NEED)
      Project

    •*• Kentucky School Boards
      Association

    •*• Kentucky School Plant
      Management Association
    KEEPS follows the seven-step
    framework outlined in ENERGY
    STAR'S Guidelines for Energy
    Management:
    Step 1: Make the commitment
    Step 2: Assess performance
    Step 3: Set goals
    Step 4: Create an action plan
    Step 5: Implement the plan
    Step 6: Evaluate progress
    Step 7: Recognize achievements
and the Kentucky Department for Energy
Development and Independence.
KEEPS is marketed as a fiscal program
that saves school districts money. The
program provides one-on-one meetings,
workshops, and site visits designed to
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     help school districts recognize energy
     efficiency opportunities and potential
     financial savings. This approach has proven
     successful even in coal-producing counties
     where environmental issues, particularly
     energy efficiency, can be sensitive subjects.
     The team of KEEPS regional coordinators,
     engineers, and energy managers leverage
     ENERGY STAR'S seven-step Guidelines for
     Energy Management as the structure for
     delivering program services and helping
     school districts establish their energy
     management programs.
     KEEPS developed a series of 26 self-guided,
     online Energy Management Toolkits, which
     include of 229 free downloadable toolkit
     resources, to provide guidance for school
     district energy teams to progress through
     the seven-step process at their own pace.
     Several of these resources were beta-tested
     by school district energy managers and
     energy teams.
     KEEPS engineers and energy managers
     provide on-site energy efficiency
     assessments and utility bill analyses
     of school district facilities and provide
     training to district energy managers so they
     can conduct their own assessments and
     analyses.
     The KEEPS Awards and Recognition
     Program acknowledges the success of
     school district energy management
     programs that reach milestones through
     the seven-step ENERGY STAR energy
     management framework. The progressive
     awards—Stewardship, Champion, and
     Leadership—are based on documented
     achievements that illustrate the progress of
     the energy programs.
     KEEPS communications and outreach
     efforts include the following:
        The KEEPS website (www.kppc.org/
        KEEPS) serves as the primary mechanism
        to deploy information about services and
        resources available, including toolkits,
        recorded webinars, and publications.
    Since the mandate, all 174 Kentucky
    school districts have enrolled in
    KEEPS and adopted school-board
    approved energy policies. Of the 174
    districts:
    •*•  166 have been actively involved in
       KEEPS leadership meetings
    *  163 established energy
       performance tracking standards
    •*•  133 established cross-functional
       energy teams that meet regularly
       124 developed communication
       plans to raise awareness about
       district-wide energy-saving
       initiatives
       85 identified energy performance
       goals
       62 implemented energy
       management action plans
    *  47 have  earned KEEPS energy
       management awards
  The KEEPS Moving Forward monthly
  e-newsletter includes a "Kudos and
  Newsmakers" section that highlights
  success stories.
  KEEPS-sponsored training, workshops,
  and events offer peer-to-peer networking
  and mentoring opportunities that allow
  school districts to share ideas and offer
  guidance on implementing best energy
  management practices.

Program Highlights
  In 2009, fewer than 10 Kentucky school
  districts were ENERGY STAR partners.
  That number has since grown to 127—an
  eleven-fold increase in participation.
  Kentucky has the highest percentage of
  K-12 ENERGY STAR partners (73%) in the
  country.
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       Of the 1,400 K-12 schools in Kentucky,
       KEEPS has performed more than 190 on-
       site energy assessments and identified
       a total potential reduction in energy
       consumption of 212,781 million Btu per
       year representing avoided energy costs
       of $3,306,000.

     Lessons Learned
       Establish a common message for your
       program and clearly define the program
       benefits and resources to school districts.
      * Maintain frequent contact with school
       districts to provide program updates,
       technical assistance, and other
       information of benefit.
       Provide training to all program staff with
       the same goals in mind.
       Use feedback from participants in
       pilot projects or schools and school
   districts with successful programs. Their
   successes and lessons learned will help
   your program evolve and improve.
   School districts that are made aware
   of the energy and cost savings of
   other districts realized through energy
   management program implementation
   are likely to follow suit.
   To achieve long-term sustainable results,
   school districts must embrace behavioral
   changes that promote best energy
   management practices  in day-to-day
   operations.

More Information
Kentucky Energy Efficiency Program for
Schools (KEEPS) website: www.kppc.org/
KEEPS
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     Minnesota  Case Study
     Minnesota: Model Indoor Air Quality Program for Schools
     Background
     In 1997, a change was made to Minnesota
     Statute 123B.57 requiring all schools
     applying for health and safety funding to
     develop a health and safety program that
     includes an indoor air quality management
     plan. The Minnesota Department of Health
     recommended schools use EPA's Indoor Air
     Quality (IAQ) Tools for Schools program as a
     basis for developing their indoor air quality
     plans.  The 2011 Legislative Session amended
     Minnesota Statute 123B.57 to require school
     boards adopt a health and safety policy
     that includes provisions for implementing
     a health and safety program that complies
     with health, safety, and environmental
     regulations and best practices, including
     indoor air quality management.

     The Program
     Minnesota's indoor air quality best practices
     include having an indoor air quality
     coordinator and completing three IAQ Tools
     for Schools checklists (i.e., walk-through,
     ventilation, and maintenance) every year.
     Each school district is responsible for
     identifying what indoor air quality issues
     need to be addressed within the district,
     and must have an indoor air quality plan
     approved every year by its school board.
     The Minnesota Department of Health
     does not dictate what additional policies
     school districts must follow, but focuses
     on providing education and technical
     assistance for ventilation problems, mold
and moisture, cleaning products, radon, and
building maintenance, to name a few. The
Minnesota Department of Health also offers
complete indoor air quality coordinator
trainings every year.
From 2000 to 2006, the Minnesota
Department of Health received a grant
from EPA Region 5 to fund evaluation
efforts. Each year, the agency completed
a yearly survey of every school district in
the state asking specifically about each
school's indoor air quality program and its
progress. The Minnesota Department of
Health used the data to track how many
schools were engaging in various indoor
air quality projects. In addition, the agency
completed 20 on-site reviews at randomly
selected districts to determine whether they
were developing and implementing indoor
air quality plans according to the state's
best practices. The Minnesota Department
of Health also investigated the impact of
implementing an indoor air quality program.
The agency measured  allergens and CO2 (a
surrogate for ventilation rates) and surveyed
school staff about their perceptions of the
school's indoor air quality both before the
program and one year after the program
was implemented. The agency reported
measurable changes in the schools studied.
Details regarding the Minnesota Department
of Health's evaluation efforts can be found
in published reports (e.g., Tranter et al,
2009 in the Journal of Occupational and
Environmental Hygiene Vol. 6).
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     Program Highlights
       Since 1997, more than 90% of Minnesota's
       school districts have adopted an indoor
       air quality program. Minnesota has also
       established several other school-specific
       laws, including a mercury instrument
       ban and a school bus anti-idling law.

     Lessons Learned
      • Every school is unique. Meet with school
       officials to find out what issues they need
       help addressing.
       Work with state agencies and the private
       sector. Each has unique expertise to
       contribute toward an indoor air quality
       (or environmental health) program.
       Statewide training is key to successful
       program implementation.
    Minnesota's indoor air quality
    program and school environmental
    health efforts are coordinated by
    the Minnesota Department of Health
    in cooperation with the Minnesota
    Department of Education, Minnesota
    Department of Agriculture, and the
    Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.
More Information
Minnesota Department of Health Indoor
Air Quality in Schools website: www.health.
state.mn.us/divs/eh/indoorair/schools/
index.html
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     New Hampshire  Case Study
     New Hampshire  Partners for Healthy Schools
     Background
     In 2007, the New Hampshire Department
     of Education partnered with the New
     Hampshire Department of Health and
     Human Services, the New Hampshire
     Department of Environmental Services, the
     New Hampshire Coalition for Occupational
     Safety and Health, and Breathe New
     Hampshire to launch a Healthy Schools
     Pilot Project to help schools address indoor
     air quality issues. The partnership provided
     technical assistance to two schools to help
     implement environmental health programs
     based on EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools
     program.

     The Program
     New Hampshire's school environmental
     health program builds on the successes
     and lessons learned from the pilot
     projects conducted in 2007. Each fall,
     the program begins work with a new set
     of schools, identified through the New
     Hampshire Department of Education,  in
     need of assistance with environmental
     health issues. Participating schools
     form a committee made up of key staff
     (e.g., principals, teachers, nurses, and
     facilities managers) that is in charge of
     developing work plans for their school and
     encouraging buy-in at the school level.
     The partnership provides free assessment,
     training, technical assistance, and
     mentoring to address environmental needs
     identified by the schools.
     Outreach and marketing has played a key
     role in expanding and improving New
     Hampshire's program. In the beginning,
the partnership had to aggressively market
the program so schools understood how
the program worked. The partners attended
conferences and hosted workshops and
trainings to attract interest and encourage
participation. Through their outreach and
marketing campaign the partnership has
also gained new partners, including the
New Hampshire Department of Agriculture
and insurance providers. These new
partners have enabled the program to
expand its reach to address new areas of
environmental health, including integrated
pest management, clutter, and general
safety issues.
New Hampshire's school environmental
health program has also benefited from
the passage of new state laws. Program
partners and one of the pilot schools'
principals testified at legislative hearings
for two proposed bills requiring school
boards to develop a policy to address  air
quality issues in schools. Both bills passed in
2010 and now all New Hampshire schools
are required by law to complete an annual
environmental health and safety checklist.

Program Highlights
 * Of the 474 schools in New Hampshire,
   over 160 have turned in the
   environmental health and safety
   checklist for 2011.

Lessons Learned
 ป Seek professional opinions on school
   environments to better understand the
   environmental health issues you want to
   address.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
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       Develop a work plan and review it
       yearly. Taking the time to think critically
       about your work will help when
       communicating about the program and
       its benefits.
       Consistently communicate with your
       partners. Continuous communication
       and collaboration will help keep partners
       engaged and moving forward with the
       program.
   Gaining buy-in and support from school
   administrators (e.g., superintendent and
   principal) is a critical step for working
   effectively with schools and school
   districts.

More Information
New Hampshire Health School
Environments Program website: www.
nhhealthyschoolenvironments.org/index.
html
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     Rhode  Island  Case  Study
     Rhode Island:  Financing Without Funding
     Background
     Rhode Island has passed several laws that
     address environmental health in schools:
       In 1964, the Rhode Island Department of
       Health and the Rhode Island Department
       of Elementary and Secondary Education
       (RIDE) collaborated on legislation entitled
       Rules and Regulations for School Health
       Programs. The legislation prescribes
       minimum requirements to maintain safe
       and healthy schools in Rhode Island, and
       contains statutory requirements relating
       to environmental health issues including
       asbestos, pesticide use, and lead. The law
       has been amended several times, most
       recently in January 2009.
      • In 2007, Rhode Island passed a set
       of school construction regulations
       that require all schools receiving
       construction funding to implement an
       indoor air quality management plan.
       These regulations also require the use
       of the Northeast Collaborative for High
       Performance Schools protocol, which has
       a strong focus on indoor air quality.
       Rhode Island General Law ง16-21-7
       requires all Rhode Island schools have
       a school health program that adheres
       to the All school health programs must
       be approved by the Commissioner of
       Elementary and Secondary Education
       and the Director of Health.
The Program
Rhode Island began its school health
program in 2007 in response to the school
construction regulations that were passed.
The program is modeled after EPA's IAQ
Tools for Schools program and places an
emphasis on indoor air quality. Rhode Island
uses the Northeast Collaborative for High
Performance Schools protocol to address
environmental health in school construction
and design. The protocol identifies 18 indoor
environmental quality prerequisites
that address issues such as ventilation,
chemical management, and integrated pest
management. Rhode Island encourages
schools to use the National Collaborative
for High Performance Schools operations
manual and report card to implement and
evaluate their school health programs.
In addition, schools are required to form
green teams comprised of school personnel
to oversee program implementation and
environmental education efforts.
Rhode Island's school health program
operates without support from grant
funding. As a result, RIDE has developed a
multi-stakeholder, community approach to
implement and sustain the program without
formal funding. RIDE has teamed up with
the Rhode Island Department of Health, the
NEED project, non-profit organizations,
universities, and private sector businesses
to create outreach materials and provide
training. For example:
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
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      • NEED works with Rhode Island schools
       to develop place-based energy programs.
      • Several non-profits, including the
       Apeiron Institute and Small Feet, provide
       direct support to the schools' green
       teams.
      ป The University of Rhode Island Energy
       Fellows program helps school districts
       complete ENERGY STAR'S Portfolio
       Manager.
       RIDE has hired interns to develop a
       variety of outreach and educational
       materials to help schools and school
       districts implement their school health
       programs.
       With a broad coalition of stakeholders,
       RIDE has helped plan an annual
       sustainable schools summit to promote
       healthy learning environments and
       to provide resources to integrate
       sustainability practices into school
       curriculum and culture.
     RIDE is committed to sustaining Rhode
     Island's school health program through
     on-going communication efforts. The
     agency holds workshops and forums for
     school districts and meets with districts on
     a daily basis to discuss program progress
     and relevant concerns. RIDE is also heavily
     involved in school renovation work and
     construction discussions.

     Program Highlights
       As of January 2012, ten school districts
       have committed to implementing Rhode
       Island's school health program.

     Lessons Learned
       The broad-based support made possible
       through community collaboration has
       enabled RIDE program staff to do a lot
       with little or no budget.
    Members of a school green team
    can include:
    •*• School administrators
    * Teachers
    * School facilities staff
    * School nurses
       Students
    •*• Parents
    *• Community-based health
       professionals
    •*• Business representatives
   Be willing to learn from stakeholders
   and collaborating organizations.
   Their networks can lead to additional
   organizations and programs that are
   willing to contribute.
   Provide venues and methods for
   communicating with stakeholders and
   the community (i.e., forums, meetings,
   and listservs).
   Use a "green team" concept to bring
   together relevant school staff and
   community members to create a sense
   of ownership and ensure a sustainable
   program.

More Information
Rhode Island Department of Elementary
and Secondary Education (RIDE)—Funding
School Construction: www.ride.ri.gov/
Finance/Funding/construction/default.aspx
Rhode Island's Coordinated School Health
Program (CSHP): http://www.ride.ri.gov/
HighSchoolReform/CSH/default.aspx
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     Washington Case Study
     Washington School Environmental Health and Safety
     Program (SchEH&S)
     Background
     The State of Washington pioneered school
     environmental health and safety, adopting
     the State Board of Health Rule for Primary
     and Secondary Schools in 1955. This rule
     established minimum environmental
     health and safety standards for education
     facilities (e.g., siting, lighting, ventilation,
     noise, heating, and safety), and requires
     local health jurisdictions (LHJs) to review
     and approve plans for new and remodeled
     schools and conduct pre-opening
     inspections. LHJs also were required to
     inspect schools annually until 1971 when
     the rule was amended to require "periodic"
     inspections. Now the frequency of
     inspections depends on local resources.
     In the mid-1990s, the Washington State
     Department of Health and the Office of
     the Superintendent of Public Instruction
     brought together LHJs, state and federal
     agencies, school associations, school
     administrators, nurses, risk managers,
     and facility maintenance and operations
     staff from school districts across the state
     to develop one set of guidelines on health
     and safety rules and best practices for
     K-12 schools: the Health and Safety Guide
     for K-12 Schools in Washington (2000,
     2003, 2012). At the same time, tighter
     school construction and lower ventilation
     rates, in addition to construction issues
     around the state, raised concerns about
     mold problems and indoor air quality. The
     Washington Department of Health worked
     with its partners to obtain EPA IAQ Tools
     for Schools grants; conduct indoor air
     quality and mold trainings for school and
     LHJ staff; and produce the School IAQ Best
Management Practices Manual (1995, 2003)
and Responding to IAQ Concerns in our
School (2005).

The Program
Washington's Department of Health School
Environmental Health and Safety (SchEH&S)
Program activities revolve around three
key themes: (1) partnerships; (2) technical
assistance and training; and (3) workshops
and outreach.
/
    Washington Department of Health
    School Environmental Health and
    Safety partners include:
    •*  Council of Educational Facilities
       Planners International
    *  Northwest Pediatric Environmental
       Health Specialty Unit
    *  Office of the Superintendent of
       Public Instruction
    it  Washington Association of
       Maintenance and Operations
       Administrators
    *  Washington Association of School
       Administrators
    *  Washington Association of School
       Business Officials
    it  Washington Education Association
    *  Washington State Parent Teachers
       Association
    *  Washington State School
       Directors' Association
       Washington State University
       Extension and Energy Programs
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
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     Partnerships
     The Department of Health SchEH&S
     Program has fostered partnerships with
     state and federal agencies, school-centered
     organizations, and risk managers. It
     participates on key committees such
     as the Office of the Superintendent of
     Public Instruction's School Facilities
     Technical Advisory Committee and School
     Safety Center Advisory Committee. The
     program also provides liaisons between
     state agency workgroups and schools.
     One such collaboration involves working
     with the Urban Pest Education Strategy
     Team to provide resources and training
     on integrated pest management. Another
     successful collaboration is with the Office
     of the Superintendent of Public Instruction
     and school groups on the Washington
     Sustainable Schools program, which includes
     promoting voluntary guidelines for school
     construction that address energy efficiency,
     environmental sustainability, water use,
     natural day lighting, and indoor air quality.

     Technical Assistance and Training
     The Department of Health SchEH&S
     Program provides technical assistance
     to LHJs and school staff (e.g., risk
     managers,  maintenance and operations,
     custodians, nurses, and administrators) on
     environmental health and safety issues.
     The program works with school nurses and
     custodians to implement best practices
     for infection control in schools, including
     proper hand washing, cleaning, and
     disinfecting. The program supports and
     promotes King County's Local Hazardous
     Waste Management Rehab the Lab Program,
     as well as other efforts made by state
     agencies and Educational Service Districts
     to provide technical assistance and training
     on safe chemical management, lab safety,
     and chemical cleanouts in schools. The
     Department of Health SchEH&S Program
     also provides interpretation and technical
     support on the State Board of Health school
     rule and the Health and Safety Guide forK-12
     Schools in Washington guidance.
Workshops and Outreach
The Department of Health SchEH&S
Program promotes school environmental
health and safety through presentations
to, and participation in, various school and
public health associations. The program
holds annual fall workshops around the
state that bring LHJs and school staff
together to network and receive information
on school environmental health and
safety. The program is a partner in the
Washington State CDC funded Coordinated
School Health Program, another means
of disseminating environmental health
information to schools. Newsletters,
listservs, and the Department of Health
SchEH&S website are also used as outreach
tools to reach target audiences.

Program Highlights
 • Through education and training, schools
   have become more knowledgeable
   concerning ventilation and indoor air
   quality. As a result, there has not been a
   major school shut down for some time.

Lessons Learned
   Work with and develop partnerships with
   a variety of agencies and organizations
   to enhance program implementation and
   reach schools more effectively.
   Provide training and outreach to
   schools empowers them to deal with
   environmental health issues before they
   have a negative impact on the school
   environment.
   Use a variety of ways to disseminate
   environmental health information to
   schools, school districts, and school groups
   to ensure you reach all target audiences.

More Information
Washington Department of Health
School Environmental Health and
Safety website: www.doh.wa.gov/
CommunityandEnvironment/Schools/
EnvironmentalHealth.aspx
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     Wisconsin  Case  Study
     Wisconsin Green and Healthy Schools
     Background
     In 2002, the Wisconsin Department of
     Natural Resources adopted a model that
     integrated many of its existing school
     environmental health and safety programs
     as a way to streamline its work with schools.
     The result was a voluntary, web-based
     certification program designed to directly
     support all Wisconsin K-12 schools striving
     for healthy, safe, and environmentally
     friendly learning environments.

     The Program
     The Wisconsin Department of Natural
     Resources launched its Green Schools
     program in 2003, and in 2004 teamed
     up with the Wisconsin Department of
     Public Instruction to create the Wisconsin
     Green and Healthy Schools program.
     School participants complete a three
     step certification process covering
     areas including: waste and recycling,
     energy, water, facilities, healthy lifestyle,
     transportation, indoor air quality, chemical
     management, integrated pest management,
     and community involvement. As part of
     the certification process,  schools conduct
     comprehensive environmental audits of
     their facilities and practices, and identify
     actions the school can take to become
     greener and healthier. Once a school
     has fulfilled the  minimum criteria of the
     program and has made improvements to
     areas identified  in the audit, the school can
     apply to become a Wisconsin Green and
     Healthy School. Schools can continue to
     improve by participating in the Reaching
     Higher step, which entails completing
     assessments and taking actions in topic
     areas not addressed in the original Green
     and Healthy Schools application.
The Wisconsin Green and Healthy Schools
program offers a series of workshops to assist
school staff, teachers, and administrators
with adopting the program in their schools.
The workshops provide an in-depth
introduction to the program, connect area
resources (e.g., businesses, non-profits, and
local government) with schools, and help
individual schools develop a plan for making
their school green and healthy. The program
also promotes school participation through
its website and newsletters, highlighting the
flexibility and self-pacing of the program and
some of the program's benefits (e.g., energy
and money savings and improved student
learning and health).

Program Highlights
  The Wisconsin Green and Healthy
  Schools program has 140 participating
  schools. Of those, 32 have completed
  all three steps of the program and 4 are
  participating in the Reaching Higher step.

Lessons Learned
  The partnership between the Wisconsin
  Department of Natural Resources and
  the Wisconsin Department of Public
  Instruction brings credibility to the
  program and makes schools more willing
  to participate.
 • Integrating many schools programs into
  one overarching program is appealing to
  schools with limited funding and resources.
  Promote the benefits of program
  involvement. Emphasizing cost and energy
  savings is important in a tight economy.

More Information
Wisconsin Green and Healthy
Schools program website: dnr.wi.gov/
greenandhealthyschools
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                       B-17

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Appendix C
Additional Information
and Resources

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     Additional Information and Resources
     EPA Children's Health
     Protection and Programs

     EPA Region 8's Clean, Green, and Healthy
     Tribal Schools website
     EPA's Children's Environmental Health and
     Disease Prevention Research Centers (with
     the National Institute of Environmental
     Health Sciences) website
     EPA's Children's Health Protection website
     EPA's Healthy School Environments website
     EPA's Healthy School Environment
     Resources website
     EPA's Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) National
     Schools Network website
     EPA's Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) School
     Champions website
     EPA's Regional Office Contacts

     K-12 School Compliance,
     Policies, and Standards

     Energy Independence & Security Act of
     2007
     EPA Region 2's Environmental Compliance
     and Best Management Practices: Guidance
     Manual for K-12 Schools
National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health's (NIOSH) Safety Checklist
Program for Schools
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration's Principal Emergency
Response and Preparedness Requirements
and Guidance
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 section 504,
subpart D: Preschool, Elementary, and
Secondary Education
Beyond Pesticides' State and Local School
Pesticide Policies
Campus Environmental Resource Center
(Campus ERG) is a library of resources
that support campus environmental
performance improvement and help
visitors better understand environmental
regulations. Although Campus ERG
is designed for use by colleges and
universities, K-12 school districts might find
some of its resources helpful.
Environmental Law Institute website
Environmental Law Institute's Green
Cleaning in Schools: Developments in State
Policy website
Environmental Law Institute's Indoor
Environments and Green Buildings Policy
Resource Center
         Disclaimer for External Websites
         Any NON-FEDERAL websites or Web links included in this document are provided for
         informational purposes only. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does
         not endorse any of these entities or their services. In addition, EPA does not guarantee
         that any linked, external websites referenced in this document comply with section 508
         (accessibility requirements) of the Rehabilitation Act.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                       C-1

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     Environmental Law Institute's School
     Indoor Air Quality: State Policy Strategies
     for Maintaining Healthy Learning
     Environments (available for download)
     The National Association of State Boards
     of Education State School Healthy Policy
     Database is a comprehensive set of laws
     and policies from the 50 states on more
     than 40 school health topics.  The policies
     in the database are organized into six broad
     categories: curriculum and instruction,
     staff, health promoting environment,
     student services, accommodation, and
     coordination/implementation.
     National Conference of State  Legislatures'
     Environmental Health Legislation and
     Statutes Databases

     Assessment Tools

     EPA's Healthy School Environments
     Assessment Tool (HealthySEATv2)
     Centers for Disease Control and
     Prevention's (CDC) School Health Profiles
     Rhode Island's Northeast Collaborative
     for High Performance Schools High
     Performance Scorecard

     National or State Awards
     Programs

     U.S. Department of Education Green Ribbon
     Schools Recognition Award
     Florida's Governor Serve to Preserve Green
     Schools Award
     Texas's Green Ribbon Schools Program
             Practice Effective
             Cleaning and
             Maintenance
     EPA's Design for the Environment
     program helps consumers, businesses, and
     institutional buyers identify cleaning and
other products that perform well, are cost
effective, and are safer for the environment.
A list of products that meet Design for the
Environment's stringent criteria for health
and environmental safety can be found on
the Design for the Environment Product
Web page.
EPA's Design for the Environment website
EPA's Environmentally Preferable
Purchasing Program: Cleaning
EPA's Greening Your Purchase of Cleaning
Products: A Guide for Federal Purchasers
EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit
EPA's Safe Chemical Management in
Schools Green Cleaning Fact Sheet
CDC/NIOSH's Prevention of Occupational
Asthma website
California Department of Public Health's
Cleaning for Asthma Safe Schools Project
Illinois Green Cleaning Legislation's Public
Act 095-0084
Missouri's Green Cleaning Guidelines and
Specifications for Schools
New York's Green Cleaning Program website
New York's Green Cleaning Program
Approved Green Cleaning Products List
The Collaborative for High Performance
Schools (CHPS) Best Practices Manual for
Maintenance and Operations: available for
download on the CHPS website.
Healthy Schools Campaign Green Clean
Schools website
Healthy Schools Network's Cleaning for
Healthy Schools Toolkit
National Clearinghouse for Educational
Facilities' Resource List for School Cleaning
and Maintenance Practices
U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership
in Energy and Environmental Design
for Existing Buildings: Operations and
Maintenance addresses whole-building
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                                                               VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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     cleaning and maintenance issues (including
     chemical use) and exterior maintenance
     programs.
     Green Seal is a non-profit organization
     that develops life-cycle based sustainability
     standards for products, services, and
     companies and offers third-party
     certification for those that meet the criteria
     in the standard.
     Ecologo was founded in Canada in 1988
     and is a North American environmental
     standard and certification mark. Ecologo's
     standards address multiple environmental
     attributes throughout the life cycle of a
     product or  service, and have been verified
     by a third-party auditor.
             Prevent Mold
             and Moisture
     EPA's Flood Cleanup website
     EPA's Molds and Moisture website
     EPA's Mold Remediation in Schools and
     Commercial Buildings website
     CDC's Mold website
     University of Connecticut Health Center's
     Guidance for Clinicians on the Recognition
     and Management of Health Effects Related
     to Mold Exposure and Moisture Indoors
             Reduce Chemical and
             Environmental
             Contaminant Hazards
     EPA's fact sheet: Lead in Drinking Water
     Coolers
     EPA's Guidance on Assessing Outdoor Air
     Near Schools
     EPA's Guidance on Testing Schools and
     Child Care Facilities for Lead in the Drinking
     Water
     EPA Region 8's Hazardous Waste
     Management for School Laboratories and
     Classrooms
EPA Region 8's Idle Free Schools Toolkit
EPA Region 8's Pollution Prevention
Measures for Safer School Laboratories
EPA's 3Ts for Reducing Lead in Drinking
Water manual
EPA's Academic Laboratories Rule
EPA's Asbestos in Schools website
EPA's Clean School Bus USA website
EPA's Community Action for a Renewed
Environment Program
EPA's Current Drinking Water
Regulations website
EPA's Design for the Environment Labeled
Products and Partners
EPA's Drinking Water in Schools and Child
Care Facilities website
EPA's Environmentally Preferable
Purchasing Program
EPA's Guidance and Tools for Drinking
Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities
EPA's Hazardous Waste website
EPA's IAQ Reference Guide
Appendix G: Radon
EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit
EPA's Lead website
EPA's List of Drinking Water Contaminants
and their Maximum Contaminant Levels
EPA's Mercury website
EPA's Mercury in Schools Case Studies
EPA's National Clean Diesel
Campaign website
EPA's National Idle-Reduction
Campaign website
EPA's National Primary Drinking Water
Regulations website
EPA's Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
website
EPA's PCB in Caulk Schools Fact Sheet
EPA's Proper Maintenance, Removal, and
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                                                        C-3

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     Disposal of PCB-Containing Fluorescent
     Light Ballasts: A Guide for School
     Administrators and Maintenance Personnel
     EPA's Radon website
     EPA's Radon in Schools website
     EPA's Reduce Exposure to Environmental
     Tobacco Smoke website
     EPA's Safe Chemical Management in
     Schools website
     EPA's Safe Chemical Management in
     Schools Workbook: Building Successful
     Programs to Address Chemical Risks in
     Schools
     EPA's Smoke-Free Homes website
     EPA's Toolkit for Safe Chemical
     Management in K-12 Schools
     EPA's Wastewater Management website
     AIRNow's Air Quality Index website
     AIRNow's School Flag Program
     Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
     Registry's ToxFAQs website
     Consumer Product Safety Commission/
     NIOSH's School Chemistry Laboratory
     Guide
     NIOSH's Hazardous Waste Self-Inspection
     Checklist for Schools
     Occupational Safety and Health
     Administration's Occupational Exposure to
     Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard
     Colorado regulations for inventory
     of laboratory chemicals: RULES AND
     REGULATIONS GOVERNING SCHOOLS IN
     THE STATE OF COLORADO 6 CCR 1010-6
     King County, Washington's Local Hazardous
     Waste Management Program Resources for
     Schools
     King County, Washington's Local Hazardous
     Waste Management Program School
     Chemical List
King County, Washington's Rehab the Lab
Less Toxic Chemistry Labs
Maryland's Science Safety Manual
Chemicals: Managing, Handling, and
Disposing
Nebraska's Department of Environmental
Quality School Chemicals and Disposal
Guidance
San Antonio, Texas's Northeast Independent
School District Air Quality Health Alert
Program
Washington D.C.'s Ballou High School
Mercury Spill Case Study
        Ensure Good
        Ventilation
EPA's Guidance for Indoor Air Quality in
Large Buildings
EPA's Asthma Webpage: Asthma Triggers
EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools website
EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit
EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools: Benefits of
Good Indoor Air Quality
EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools: Case Studies
EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools: Framework for
Effective Indoor Air Quality Management
EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools: Heating,
Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems
EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools: School
Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software
EPA's Ozone Generators that Are Sold as Air
Cleaners website
EPA's Residential Air Cleaners: A Summary
of Available Information website
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools' Indoor
Air Quality Program and Environmental
Stewardship Initiative
Connecticut's Indoor Air Quality Law
Connecticut's Tools for Schools Program
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                                                              VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES FOR STATES

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     Indiana's Department of Health School
     Indoor Air Quality Policy
     Lakota School District's Facilities Upgrade
     Case Study
     New Jersey's Public Employee Occupational
     Safety and Health Indoor Air Quality
     Standard
     Texas's Voluntary Indoor Air Quality
     Guidelines for Government Buildings
     (including public schools)
     American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
     and Air Conditioning Engineers' Standard
     62.1-2010: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor
     Air Quality
     Asthma and Allergy Foundation of
     America's State Honor Roll of Asthma and
     Allergy School Policies
     National Education Association Health
     Information Network's: K-12 Indoor Air
     Quality Lesson Plans

             Prevent Pests and Reduce
             Pesticide Exposure
     EPA's Integrated  Pest Management (IPM) in
     Schools website
     EPA's Pesticides A Backyard Activity Book
     for Kids on Integrated Pest Management
     website
     EPA's Pesticides Children are at Greater Risk
     from Pesticide Exposure website
     EPA's Pesticides Information for Kids,
     Students, and Teachers website
     EPA's Pesticides Topical and Chemical Fact
     Sheets website
     California's School  Integrated Pest
     Management website
     Florida's School Integrated Pest
     Management website
     Los Angeles Unified School District's
     Integrated Pest Management Policy
Monroe County, Indiana's School Integrated
Pest Management Model
New Jersey's School Integrated Pest
Management website
North Carolina's School Integrated Pest
Management website
Pennsylvania's School Integrated Pest
Management website
Texas A&M's School Integrated Pest
Management website
Washington State University's School
Integrated Pest Management website

         New Construction
         and Renovation
EPA's Healthy School Environment
Resources: Financing
EPA's IAQ Design Tools for Schools website
EPA's IAQ Design Tools for Schools:
Controlling Pollutants and Sources
EPA's IAQ Design Tools for Schools: High
Performance Schools
EPA's IAQ Tools for Schools Renovation and
Repair website
EPA's Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting
website
EPA's Lead Safe Certification Program
EPA's Renovation, Repair, and Painting Rule
EPA's Smart Growth and Schools
EPA's Voluntary School Siting Guidelines
EPA's WaterSense website
EPA's WaterSense Label
EPA's WaterSense Labeled Products
EPA's WaterSense Rebate Finder
EPA's ENERGY STAR for K-12  School
Districts website
EPA's ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual
EPA's ENERGY STAR Designed to Earn the
ENERGY STAR
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     EPA's ENERGY STAR Energy Design
     Guidance
     EPA's ENERGY STAR Federal High
     Performance Sustainable Buildings
     Checklist
     EPA's ENERGY STAR Target Finder
     U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy
     Management Program: Guidance for
     Sustainable Design
     U.S. Department of Energy's National
     Best Practices Manual for Building High
     Performance Schools
     U.S. Green Building Council's Center for
     Green Schools
     U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership
     in Energy and Environmental Design for
     Schools
     Collaborative for High Performance Schools
     (CHPS) website
     Collaborative for High Performance Schools'
     CHPS Designed
     Collaborative for High Performance Schools'
     CHPS Operations Report Card
     Collaborative for High Performance Schools'
     CHPS Verified
     Collaborative for High Performance Schools'
     CHPS Verified for Prefabricated Classrooms
     Collaborative for High Performance Schools'
     High Performance Products Database
     Collaborative for High Performance Schools'
     High Performance School Best Practices
     Manual
     Green Building Initiative website
     Green Building Initiative's Green Globes
     Program
     International Code Council website
     International Code Council's International
     Green Construction Code
The Alliance for Healthy Homes' Provisions
found in model codes that address pest
prevention and control
American Clearinghouse on Educational
Facilities website
National Clearinghouse for Educational
Facilities website
National Green Schools Coalition
National Center for Educational Statistics'
Facilities Information Management: A Guide
for State and Local Education Agencies
National Center for Educational Statistics'
Forum Guide to Facilities Information
Management: A Resource for State and
Local Education Agencies
NSF International's Low Lead Plumbing
Products Guide
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Contractors' National Association's IAQ
Guidelines for Occupied Buildings Under
Construction
         Enhancing Classroom
         Comfort
EPA's Proper Maintenance, Removal, and
Disposal of PCB- Containing Fluorescent
Light Ballasts: A Guide for School
Administrators and Maintenance Personnel
EPA's SunWise Program website
Department of Energy EnergySmart Schools
Case Study's Northern Guilford Middle
School, Greensboro, North Carolina
U.S. Green Building Council's Center for
Green Schools What Makes a School Green?
Virginia's Albemarle County Public Schools
website
Standard 12.60, "Acoustical Performance
Criteria, Design Requirements, and
Guidelines for Schools," of the American
National Standards Institute Part 1:
Permanent Schools
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     Standard 12.60, "Acoustical Performance
     Criteria, Design Requirements, and
     Guidelines for Schools," of the American
     National Standards Institute Part 2:
     Relocatable Classrooms
     Windows and Classrooms: A Study of
     Student Performance and the Indoor
     Environment, California Energy
     Commission, Heschong Mahone Group, Inc.
     October 2003

             Energy and
             Water Efficiency

     EPA Region 1's Solar Power website
     EPA Region 3's Rain Barrels website
     EPA's Green Roofs website
     EPA's Proper Maintenance, Removal, and
     Disposal of PCB-Containing Fluorescent
     Light Ballasts: A Guide for School
     Administrators and Maintenance Personnel
     EPA's WaterSense website
     EPA's WaterSense Educational Materials
     EPA's WaterSense Kids website
     The ENERGY STAR information for
     purchasing and procurement is designed
     to assist procurement officials in smart
     purchasing decisions.  Read about how
     the United States Air Force implemented
     ENERGY STAR purchasing and other
     measures to save $15 million annually.
     Review other case studies and the key
     benefits of purchasing ENERGY STAR-
     qualified products.
     Energy Efficiency and  Indoor Air Quality
     in Schools: A joint EPA working paper
     from ENERGY STAR and Indoor Air Quality
     (September 2003)
     EPA's ENERGY STAR for K-12 School
     Districts website
     EPA's ENERGY STAR Guidelines for Energy
     Management
EPA's ENERGY STAR Guide to Energy
Efficiency Competitions for Buildings & Plants
EPA's ENERGY STAR Kids Webpage
EPA's ENERGY STAR Low Carbon IT
Campaign
EPA's ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager: An
Overview
Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency
and Renewable Energy K-12 Lesson Plans
and Activities
Department of Energy's EnergySmart
Schools Guide to Operating and
Maintaining EnergySmart Schools
Colorado's Manitou Springs School District
Sustainability Management Plan
Kentucky's Energy Efficiency Program for
Schools
Newtown, Pennsylvania's Council Rock
School District Case Study
Alliance for Water Efficiency's Promoting
the Efficient and Sustainable Use of Water/
Schools K-12 Introduction
The International Facility Management
Association Sustainability website contains
resources and information for facility
management professionals on energy and
water conservation, indoor environmental
quality, purchasing, and waste/recycling.
               Training and
               Curricula
EPA's ENERGY STAR program provides no-
cost training on a variety of topics related
to energy efficiency in buildings, including
K-12  schools. Visit energystar.webex.com
to view the continuously updated list and
schedule of upcoming trainings.
Classroom Earth is an online resource
designed to help high school teachers
include environmental content in their
daily lesson plans. Its resource library
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
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     offers websites, videos, and sample lesson
     plans. The website also features grants and
     funding opportunities, success stories, and
     professional development opportunities.
     The Green Education Foundation provides
     curriculum and resources for K-12 students
     and teachers.
     The National Environmental Education
     Foundation is a complementary
     organization to EPA, extending its ability
     to foster environmental knowledge across
     all segments of the American public. The
     foundation's programs offer opportunities
     to incorporate environmental health lessons
     into student curricula.
     The National Energy Education
     Development project provides resources
     to educate teachers and students on
     the science of energy, renewable and
     nonrenewable sources of energy,
     electricity, transportation, and efficiency
     and conservation, among other topics. The
     National Energy Education Development's
     website offers curriculum guides and
     resources for teachers, as well as activities
     and information for students.

     Other Resources

     EPA's Food Waste website
     CDC's Coordinated School Health website
     CDC's 2006 School Health Policies and
     Programs Study overview
     NIOSH's Health Hazard Evaluation Program
     Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units
     The President's Task Force on Environmental
     Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children's
     Coordinated Federal Action Plan to Reduce
     Racial and Ethnic Asthma Disparities
United States Department of Agriculture
Cooperative Extension Offices are good
resources for educational materials.
Chicago, Illinois's Academy for Global
Citizenship website
Chicago, Illinois's Academy for Global
Citizenship: Sustainability Handbook for
Schools
Colorado's Coalition for Healthy
Schools website
Colorado Springs, Colorado School District
11 ENERGY STAR Case Study
Illinois Department of Public Health's
Healthy Schools for Healthy Learning
website
Kentucky's Green and Healthy Schools
website
Maryland's Association of Environmental
and Outdoor Education
Minnesota Department of Health's School
Related Initiatives and Programs
Minnesota's Statute 123B.57 Capital
Expenditure; Health and Safety
New Hampshire's Partners for Healthy
Schools website
Rhode Island's Department of Elementary
and Secondary Education website
Washington's School Environmental Health
and Safety website
Wisconsin's Green and Healthy Schools
Program
The Green Schools Alliance is a non-profit
organization created by schools for schools to
address environmental and climate challenges
through the implementation of sustainable,
energy-smart solutions. The Green Schools
Alliance offers programs and resources to help
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     schools set goals, measure progress, share best
     practices, and inspire change. The alliance's
     website features a Web page for students that
     offers ways to take action on environmental
     issues facing their schools.
     The Healthy Schools Campaign has
     developed an Action and Resource
     Guide for Healthy Schools. While the
     guide is intended for Illinois schools, the
     information within can help schools in
     other states address environmental health
     issues.
     Kats, G. (2006). Greening America's
     schools: Costs and benefits. A Capital E
     Report http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.
     aspx?DocumentID=2908.
National Research Council. (2011). Climate
change, the indoor environment, and health.
Washington, DC: The National Academies
Press. 286 pages.
National Research Council. (2006). Green
schools: Attributes for health and learning.
Washington, DC: The National Academies
Press. 192 pages.
Frumkin, H., Geller, R.J., Rubin, I.L., &
Nodvin, J.T. (Eds). (2006). Safe and Healthy
School Environments. New York: Oxford
University Press. 480 pages.
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
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Appendix D
Frequently Asked Questions

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     Frequently Asked  Questions
     Why is the U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency (EPA) developing
     school environmental health
     program guidelines?
     The Energy Independence and Security
     Act of 2007, signed into law in December
     2007, amended the Toxic Substances
     Control Act, 15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq., by adding
     a requirement for EPA, in consultation
     with relevant federal agencies, to develop
     voluntary guidelines to help states establish
     and implement environmental health
     programs in K-12 schools.
     Protecting children's health and advancing
     environmental justice are critically
     important goals for EPA, as reflected in
     EPA's strategic plan.1 A child's developing
     organ systems are often more sensitive to
     environmental stressors, and children are
     frequently more heavily exposed to toxic
     substances in the environment than adults2
     Children in minority, low-income, and
     other underserved populations, as well as
     children with disabilities, might experience
     higher exposures to multiple environmental
     contaminants where they live, learn, and play
     and could be placed at a disproportionate risk
     for associated health effects.3

     What is the difference between these
     guidelines and the School Siting
     Guidelines?
     The School Siting Guidelines present
     recommendations for evaluating the
     environmental and public health risks and
     benefits of potential school locations that
     might be considered during the school
     siting process. The School Siting Guidelines
     take into account:
1.  The special vulnerabilities of children
   to hazardous substances or pollution
   exposure in any case where the
   potential for contamination at a
   potential school site exists,
2.  The modes of transportation available
   to students and staff,
3.  The efficient use of energy, and
4.  The potential use of a school at the site
   as an emergency shelter.
The Voluntary Guidelines for States:
Development and Implementation of a
School Environmental Health Program are
intended to assist states in establishing and
implementing school environmental health
programs. These guidelines contain a model
K-12 school environmental health program
that takes into account, with respect to
school facilities:
   Indoor air quality problems resulting
   from inadequate ventilation; mold
   and other allergens; chemicals and
   pesticides commonly found in schools;
   contaminants such as radon and diesel
   exhaust that could enter schools from
   outside; and specific hazards like
   elemental mercury, lead paint, and
   polychlorinated biphenyls;
   Drinking water issues;
   Safety hazards related to improperly
   stored or managed chemicals;
   Natural day lighting;
   Acoustics; and
DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM
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       Other issues relating to the health,
       comfort, productivity, and performance
       of building occupants.
     Both guidelines are voluntary and
     are intended as resources for states,
     communities, school districts, schools,
     and school stakeholders in their efforts
     to improve the environmental health and
     conditions of school facilities and to protect
     the health of children and school staff.

     What do the guidelines cover?
     These guidelines recommend six steps
     that states can take to build or enhance a
     sustainable school environmental health
     program and provide extensive resources
     for states to share with schools and school
     districts to promote healthy learning
     environments for children and staff. The
     guidelines:
       Provide states with guidance for
       developing and implementing effective
       policies for school environmental
       health programs;
      • Summarize the cost savings and health
       benefits associated with adopting a school
       environmental health program; and
      • Provide links to numerous resources
       to help states establish, implement,
       and sustain comprehensive state
       environmental health programs for
       schools.

     Do the guidelines establish
     benchmarks to assess the progress
     of schools toward adopting
     environmental health programs?
     No, the guidelines outline general actions
     that states can take to implement and
     sustain a state environmental health
     program for schools. Every  state is unique
     and will encounter different environmental
health issues, types and levels of resources,
and decision-making structures. Specific
benchmarks will vary for each state
based on the agencies involved, available
resources, and existing policies.

Why are issues such as near-
roadway pollution, traffic flow on
school grounds, vapor intrusion,
nutrition and food handling, or
chemicals in building structures not
covered in the guidelines?
The guidelines focus primarily on
the indoor environment and address
environmental health impacts with
respect to school facilities as outlined by
the Energy Independence and Security
Act of 2007. Information on steps that
schools and school districts can take to
address additional  children's health risks
can be found on EPA's Healthy School
Environments website.

How can the guidelines help schools
and school districts that  have already
adopted EPA's Indoor Air Quality
(IAQ) Tools for School Program or a
Coordinated School Health strategy?
These guidelines build on the foundation
established by well-documented strategies
and existing federal programs, such as EPA's
IAQ Tools for Schools program and the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Coordinated School Health strategy,
and provide examples of best practices
from existing state environmental health
programs for schools. Schools and school
districts already implementing the IAQ
Tools for Schools program or a Coordinated
School Health strategy can use these
guidelines to build on this foundation to
expand their current  environmental health
activities.
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     How do the guidelines relate to
     other federal programs like the U.S.
     Department of Education Green
     Ribbon Schools recognition award?
     EPA developed the guidelines in
     consultation with multiple federal
     departments and agencies including the
     Department of Education, the Centers
     for Disease Control and Prevention, the
     Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
     Registry, the Department of Agriculture,
     the Department of Defense, the Bureau of
     Indian Education, and the White House
     Council on Environmental  Quality.
     The activities in these guidelines are
     consistent with the goals outlined in
     the resource efficiency, healthy school
     environment, and environmental
     curriculum pillars of the U.S. Department
     of Education Green Ribbon Schools
     recognition award.

     EPA stresses life stages as related
     to environmental health  risks. Why
     don't the guidelines differentiate
     between exposures to kindergarten
     students vs. high school students?
     Although environmental exposures and health
     risks can vary among children at different
     life stages, all children deserve a healthy
     environment in which to leam and play.
     By following the recommendations in the
     guidelines, states can help provide a safe and
     healthy school environment for all children.

     Do the guidelines apply to preschool
     facilities, day care centers, and other
     child care facilities/learning centers?
     The guidelines are primarily intended to be
     used as a resource for states in establishing
environmental health programs for
schools. The practices recommended in the
guidelines can be applied, with appropriate
adaptation, to a wide range of school-
related institutions, including child care
and early learning centers. EPA believes
the recommendations in the guidelines
represent a set of best practices for a wide
range of settings where children spend time.

Are these guidelines relevant or
applicable to schools owned or
operated by federal agencies?
For example, do the voluntary guidelines
have relevance or applicability to schools
for children in Indian Country owned
or operated by the U.S. Department of
Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs/Bureau
of Indian Education or stateside schools
owned or operated by the U.S. Department
of Defense for children of military
personnel?
Yes. The guidelines provide relevant
recommendations for managing and
operating federally owned or operated
schools in an environmentally healthy
manner.

Will EPA offer any funding for states
to implement the guidelines?
In 2012, EPA made available to states  a
limited funding opportunity to support
implementation of healthy schools
programs as outlined in the guidelines.
Although future funding opportunities are
uncertain, these guidelines demonstrate
how every state can take steps to improve
the school environment, and ensure  that
children and staff have healthy places to
learn, work, and play.
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      Endnotes
        1.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2010).
           EPA strategic plan. Retrieved 2012, from U.S.
           Environmental Protection Agency: www.epa.gov/
           planandbudget/strategicplan.html.

        2.  American Academy of Pediatrics Council on
           Environmental Health. (2003). Developmental
           toxicity: Special considerations based on age and
           developmental state. In Etzel, R., & S. Balk  (Eds.),
           Pediatric Environmental Health (Second ed., pp.
           9-36). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy
           of Pediatrics Council on Environmental Health.
3.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2003).
   America's children and the environment:
   Measures of contaminants, body burdens,
   and illnesses. U.S. Environmental Protection
   Agency. EPA240-R-03-001. February.
   http://yosemite.epa.gov/ochp/ochpweb.
   nsf/content/ACEreport3_19final.htm/$File/
   ACEreport2_21final.pdf.
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United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection (1107A)
EPA-100-K-12-007
www.epa.gov/schools
October 2012
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