United States
Environmental Protection
                        EPA-841-F-10-004 I August 2010 I http://www.epa.gov
Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure


 Executive Summary	1
      Background	1
      Case Studies	4
 1. Common Drivers and Regulatory Framework	7
      CSO and MS4 Requirements                                                                  ... 7
      Asset Management	9
      Flood Control...                                                                             ...9
      Larger Sustainability Goals	10
 2. Menu of Local Green Infrastructure Policies	13
      Stormwater Regulations	13
      Review and Revise Local Codes	17
      Demonstration and Pilot Projects	18
      Capital and Transportation Projects	19
      Education and Outreach	20
      Stormwater Fees	21
      Stormwater Fee Discounts 	22
      Other Incentives	23
 3. Policy Implementation: Barriers, Lessons Learned and Realities of Each Policy	25
      Overview	25
      First Step Policies....                                                                        ....26
      Second Step Policies	27
      Third Step Policies...                                                                        .... 29
 4. Conclusion	31
      Integrating Policies	31
      Setting Priorities	31
      Long-Term Planning and Investment	32
 Case Study: Alachua County, Florida	35
 Case Study: Chicago, Illinois	37
 Case Study: Emeryville, California	41
 Case Study: Lenexa, Kansas	43

Case Study: Olympia, Washington	47
Case Study: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania	49
Case Study: Portland, Oregon	53
Case Study: San Jose, California	57
Case Study: Santa Monica, California	59
Case Study: Seattle, Washington	61
Case Study: Stafford  County, Virginia	65
Case Study: Wilsonville, Oregon	67
Acknowledgements	69
   Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

This report presents the common trends in how 12 local
governments developed and implemented stormwater policies
to support green infrastructure. The local policies examined
in this paper include interagency cooperation, enforcement
and management issues and integration with state and federal
regulations. While a strong motivation for these policies and
programs is innovation in stormwater management, many
communities are moving past the era of single objective
spending and investing in runoff reduction and stormwater
management strategies that have multiple benefits. Green
infrastructure approaches have a range of benefits for the
social, environmental and economic conditions of a commu-
nity (see Table 1). Not only do these case studies include
success stories for building a comprehensive green infrastruc-
ture program, but they also provide insight into the barriers
and failures these communities experienced while trying to
create a stormwater management system that includes more
green infrastructure approaches.

The following chapters provide descriptions of the most
common and influential green infrastructure policies, a brief
background on how each approach works and examples from
relevant case studies about results, barriers and processes for
implementation. Many of the policies work in tandem and fit
within a context of several other green infrastructure poli-
cies and programs. The greenest cities in terms of stormwater
management use a wide range of policies and a number of
approaches that focus on both public and private properties.
This report originally focused on local stormwater regulations
alone, but further investigation revealed that the real presence
of green infrastructure in a community was due to many other
programs and policies that can be adopted by a wide range
of communities.

Many communities in the United States, ranging in size.
population and geographic location, are looking for ways
to assure that the quality of their rivers, streams, lakes and
estuaries is protected from the impacts of development and
urbanization. This case study report describes a dozen cities
and counties that are using green infrastructure approaches
to reduce imperviousness and preserve natural open space
throughout a watershed and at the neighborhood scale, as
well as adding green infrastructure practices at the site level.
Not all of the communities in this study are using green
infrastructure at all three scales, but they are mixing and
matching a common set of policies and programs to protect
water resources and add value to their communities at the
same time.

Traditional development practices cover large areas of the
ground with impervious surfaces such as roads, driveways
and buildings. Once such development occurs, rainwater
cannot infiltrate into the ground, but rather runs offsite at
levels that are much higher than would naturally occur. The
collective force of such rainwater scours  streams, erodes
stream banks and thereby causes large quantities of sediment
                                                                                          Executive Summary

and other entrained pollutants to enter waterbodies each time
it rains.

In addition to the problems caused by stormwater and
nonpoint source runoff, many older cities (including many
of the largest cities in the United States), have combined
sewage and stormwater pipes which periodically and in some

Table 1: Green Infrastructure Benefits by Type
•  Increase carbon sequestration
•  Improve air quality
•  Additional recreational space
•  Efficient land use
•  Improve human health
•  Flood protection
•  Drinking water source protection
•  Replenish groundwater
•  Improve watershed  health
•  Protect  or restore wildlife habitat
•  Reduce sewer overflow events
•  Restore impaired waters
•  Meet regulatory requirements for
   receiving waters
•  Reduce hard infrastructure con-
   struction costs
•  Maintain aging infrastructure
•  Increase land values
•  Encourage economic development
•  Reduce energy consumption
   and costs
•  Increase life cycle cost savings
   Establish urban greenways
   Provide pedestrian and
   bicycle access
   Create attractive streetscapes and
   rooftops that enhance livability and
   urban green space
   Educate the public about their role
   in stormwater management
   Urban heat island mitigation
cases frequently overflow due to precipitation events. In the
late 20th century, most cities that attempted to reduce sewer
overflows did so by separating combined sewers, expanding
treatment capacity or storage within the sewer system, or by
replacing broken or decaying pipes. However, these practices
can be enormously expensive and take decades to implement.
Moreover, piped stormwater and combined sewer overflows
(CSOs) may also, in some cases, have the adverse effects of
upsetting the hydrological balance by moving water out of the
watershed, thus bypassing local streams and ground water.
Many of these events also have adverse impacts and costs on
source water for municipal drinking water utilities.

Green infrastructure is a comprehensive approach to water
quality protection defined by a range of natural and built
systems that can occur at the regional, community and site
scales. Linkages between sites  and between practices within
one site ensure that  stormwater is slowed, infiltrated where
possible and managed with consideration for natural hydro-
logic processes. Comprehensive stormwater management with
green infrastructure must consider:

 • How to protect and preserve existing natural resources.

 • Where to direct development in the community, and

 • How to develop  on individual sites.

At the larger regional or watershed scale, green infrastructure
is the interconnected network of preserved or restored natural
lands and waters that provide essential environmental func-
tions. Large-scale green infrastructure may include habitat
corridors and water resource protection. At the community
and neighborhood scale, green infrastructure incorporates
planning and design approaches such as compact, mixed-use
development, parking reduction strategies and urban forestry
that reduces impervious surfaces and creates walkable.
attractive communities. At the  site scale, green infrastructure
mimics natural systems by absorbing stormwater back into the
ground (infiltration), using trees and other natural vegetation
to convert it to water vapor (evapotranspiration) and using
rain barrels or cisterns to capture and reuse stormwater. These
natural processes manage stormwater runoff in a way that
maintains or restores the site's  natural hydrology. Site-level
green infrastructure is also referred to as low-impact devel-
opment or LID, and can include rain gardens, porous pave-
ments, green roofs,  infiltration  planters, trees and tree boxes
          Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

Figure /.- Communities across the United States from (clockwise from top left) Olympia, Philadelphia, Seattle and Lenexa, are using a range of policies to
add new green infrastructure.
and rainwater harvesting for non-potable uses such as toilet
flushing and landscape irrigation. For more information on
specific green infrastructure practices and how they function,
visit http://www.epa.gov/greeninfrastructure.

These processes represent a new approach to stormwater
management that is not only sustainable and environmentally
friendly, but cost-effective as well. Municipalities are real-
izing that green infrastructure can be a solution to the many
and increasing water-related challenges facing municipali-
ties,  including flood control, combined sewer overflows,
Clean Water Act requirements and basic asset management
of publicly owned treatment works. Communities need new
solutions and strategies to ensure that they can continue to
grow while maintaining and improving their water resources.

This report is meant to serve as a policy guide for municipali-
ties that understand the value of green infrastructure and hope
to create local policies and programs to allow, require and
encourage green infrastructure where appropriate. Although
this report originally focused on municipalities with innova-
tive stormwater regulations, it quickly expanded to examine
the range of policy types that result in green infrastructure
throughout a community (see Figure 1). The paper includes
three main chapters that are intended to provide the most
valuable lessons learned from the 12 case studies about
how to implement a local green infrastructure program. The
first chapter, Common Drivers and Regulatory Framework,
explains what motivates the case study communities to set
up local green infrastructure policies and programs. The
second chapter presents a Menu of Local Green Infrastructure
Policies. This menu describes the nine policy types common
to most or all of the municipalities in the case study, including
examples about how the policies have been implemented.
The next chapter, Policy Implementation, provides guid-
ance on how the policies can complement one another, how
to overcome barriers and how to  adapt different policies to
local needs and priorities. Finally, 12 two-page case studies
                                                                                                Executive Summary

provide specific information about each municipality and
the green infrastructure program as it was developed in the
local context.

The 12 cases analyzed in this study represent a broad cross-
section of the country in terms of hydrologic regime, popula-
tion and demographics, government structure and geographic
and political climate. But there are common trends in how
local governments developed and  implemented new storm-
water policies, including interagency cooperation, enforce-
ment and management issues and  overlap with state and
federal regulations. While a strong motivation for these poli-
cies and programs is innovation in stormwater management.
many communities are moving past the era of single objective
spending and investing in strategies that have multiple bene-
fits. Green infrastructure approaches have a range of benefits
for the social, environmental and economic conditions of a
community (see Table 1). These cases include success stories
for building a comprehensive green infrastructure program.
but they also provide insight into the barriers and failures
experienced while trying to create a stormwater management
system that includes more green infrastructure approaches.
     12 Green Infrastructure
     Case Studies
     • Alachua County, Florida
     • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
     • Portland, Oregon
     • Seattle, Washington
     • San Jose, California
     • Santa Monica, California
     • Stafford County, Virginia
     • Wilsonville, Oregon
     • Olympia, Washington
     • Chicago, Illinois
     • Emeryville, California
     • Lenexa, Kansas
    Common  Policies Used  in  12 Green
    Infrastructure Cases:
    • Stormwater Regulation
    • Review and Revise Local  Codes
    • Demonstration and Pilot Projects
    • Capital and Transportation Projects
    • Education and Outreach
    • Stormwater Fees
    • Stormwater Fee Discounts
    • Other Incentives
The most common trend in successful case studies is the pres-
ence of many different policies and programs. Communities
such as Chicago, Illinois, Alachua County in Florida.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Lenexa, Kansas, not only
passed a new stormwater ordinance for new development;
they also devised new funding systems for capital projects.
provided incentives for redevelopment and retrofit projects
and developed public education and outreach programs. Many
of the successes came within the context of larger "green
plans" and other comprehensive plans that supported or were
supported by green infrastructure policies. In addition, water-
shed planning for larger jurisdictions and sewershed plans for
urban communities helped decision makers prioritize, monitor
and validate public investments for green infrastructure.

A total of eight common policies and programs appeared
throughout the selected cases and are presented above as
a menu of policy options that other jurisdictions should
consider when looking for ways to add more green infrastruc-
ture in their own communities. Because these policies were
implemented in diverse situations and communities, they are
applicable for a range of local contexts.  Not every community
will be able to use all eight policy approaches, but most can
choose some combination of the  policies in the menu based
on their existing programs and level of expertise.

Table 2 lists the 12 communities  and which of the common
policies they used.  The policies are organized into two catego-
ries: public sector policies and private sector policies. The
         Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

public sector policies and programs can be set up internally
by government agencies. Private sector policies are those that
apply to private development and private property owners.
including commercial and residential properties.

The following chapters include descriptions of the most
common and influential green infrastructure policies, a brief
background on how each approach works and examples from
relevant cases about results, barriers and processes for imple-
mentation. No single policy or program will be a panacea for
the challenge of how to integrate green infrastructure into the
local landscape. Many of the policies work in tandem and fit
within a context of several other complementary policies and
programs. The greenest cities in terms of stormwater manage-
ment use a wide range of policies and a number of approaches
that focus on both public and private sectors.
Table 2: Case Studies and Common Policy Approaches
Alachua County, FL
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
Seattle, WA
San Jose, CA
Santa Monica, CA
Stafford County, VA
Wilsonville, OR
Olympia, WA
Chicago, IL
Emeryville, CA
Lenexa, KS







Local code


Education &














                                                                                            Executive Summary


Green infrastructure policies can achieve multiple municipal
goals at the same time as meeting Federal Clean Water
Act requirements, making them useful and efficient policy
options for local decision makers. The communities in these
case studies are not motivated to build green infrastructure
programs by Federal regulations alone. Although they may
identify overlaps with Clean Water Act requirements, these
local governments are making investments in green infra-
structure because of many other community, economic and
environmental benefits.
    Local Agencies Can Use Green
    Infrastructure to Achieve Goals:
    •  Planning
    •  Transportation
    •  Economic Development
    •  Housing
    •  Parks and Recreation
    •  Water
    •  Health and Human Services
    •  Public Works
Green infrastructure is associated with a variety of environ-
mental, economic and human health benefits, many of which
go hand-in-hand. Green infrastructure benefits are included in
Table 1 of the Introduction. Most municipalities in this case
study report provide examples of how green infrastructure can
meet overlapping goals and achieve widespread political and
public support that translates into more sustainable programs
and policies. This chapter outlines the multiple benefits of
green infrastructure and explains the ways that communities
are using them as motivation for their local green infrastruc-
ture policies and programs.

CSO and MS4 Requirements
Federal Clean Water Act requirements,  such as the Combined
Sewer Overflow (CSO) Control Policy and National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program.
must ultimately be implemented at the local level. Many
municipalities see major inconsistencies between EPA guid-
ance for using green infrastructure to manage wet weather
flows and enforcement of requirements that call for more
conventional practices. Cities argue that EPA is promoting
innovative solutions without changing the standards and
measures for complying with water quality standards.

Furthermore, local governments find it difficult to confi-
dently reallocate funds for green infrastructure projects
without better guidance and more confidence that the regu-
latory standards will eventually  support their investments.
Investments in publicly owned treatment works are largely
compliance driven, which provides little freedom for local
                                                                 1—Common Drivers and Regulatory Framework

policy makers to implement watershed-based or decentralized
green infrastructure solutions that may not yet have the data
necessary to demonstrate performance and receive regulatory
credit (both because of the amount of time needed for these
practices to show long-term performance, as well as limita-
tions in common data collection methods). Through the Green
Infrastructure Action Strategy, EPA and its partners seek to
address research gaps, develop protocols to quantify benefits
and collect more empirical data. Ideally, this effort will
provide more regulatory predictability  and support for explicit
inclusion of green infrastructure into permits, enforcement
orders and long-term control plans (LTCPs).1

Older cities are looking for solutions to their CSO problems
that are affordable and meet the requirements of EPA's CSO
Control Policy. A few cities, such as Philadelphia, have
found effective means for meeting these compliance needs
and altering LTCPs to include green infrastructure.2 EPA's
Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) is
currently working on guidance for implementing green infra-
structure as part of a LTCP.3

NPDES  regulations require development and implementation
of a municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) program
to address post-construction runoff from newly developed and
redeveloped areas. Some cities, such as Lenexa, Kansas,4 and
San Jose, California,5 are incorporating green infrastructure
Figure 2: Lake Lenexa in Kansas is part of 240 acres purchased by the
City of Lenexa to protect open space and natural resources, serve as a
public park and educational area, and provide large-scale green infra-
structure for NPDES permit compliance.

into local stormwater codes as part of NPDES requirements
(see Figure 2). Updated state permits are starting to more
directly address the links between imperviousness, runoff and
water quality, from the larger land use scales down to specific
site designs. EPA is now developing guidance for state permit
writers that will expand the requirements for using green
infrastructure to meet MS4 permit requirements.6 As state
permits incorporate more explicit language about using green
infrastructure, more municipalities will start to adopt local
programs knowing they can receive regulatory credit towards
NPDES permit requirements.
1  See EPA's Green Infrastructure Web site for "Regulatory Integration" guidance
and examples of LTCPs and NPDES permit language for states and municipalities:
2  Philadelphia Water Department's CSO Long Term Control Plan Update: http://
3  One of the potential issues that may arise in the use of green infrastructure in
treatment of wastewater flows is the development of performance expectations and
determination of compliance. Work is ongoing on tools to quantify performance of
different types of controls. The Office of Water and EPA New England work refer-
enced above may be of use.
In wet weather enforcement actions, a growing number of Supplemental Environ-
mental Projects (SEPs) have involved the use of green infrastructure techniques to
mitigate environmental damage. To date, green infrastructure SEPs have been used
in settlements with the following municipalities:
  • The Board of Water and Sewer Commissioners of the City of Mobile, Alabama
  • The Board of County Commissioners of Hamilton, Ohio and the City of
  • The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority and the District of Columbia
  • The Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission, Maryland
  • Sanitation District No.l of Northern Kentucky
  • Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government, Kentucky
4  Lenexa, Kansas's Rain to Recreation  policies: http://www.raintorecreation.org/
6  San Jose, California's urban runoff regulations: http://www.sanjoseca.gov/
EPA recognizes that increased coordination among National
Program offices, Regional EPA offices and OECA would
be beneficial and help avoid inconsistent policies, permits,
enforcement orders and LTCPs. Although EPA recognizes the
inconsistencies between innovative local policies and national
Clean Water Act requirements, the current state of the regula-
tory environment may continue, at least in the short term, to
make it difficult for cities to count their investments toward
green infrastructure as meeting Federal stormwater and CSO
requirements. However, EPA recently announced plans to
initiate national rulemaking to establish a program to reduce
stormwater discharges from new development and redevelop-
ment and make other regulatory improvements to strengthen
its stormwater program.7 The municipalities in this case study
6 http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/gi_memo_enforce.pdf
7 More information on Proposed National Rulemaking to Strengthen the Stormwater
Program: http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/rulemaking.cfm

          Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

report have found opportunities to combine multiple program
objectives, but many have made separate allocations of staff
time and funding to move forward green infrastructure strate-
gies without regulatory support or credit.

Asset Management
City and county governments have limited financial resources
to allocate to the many competing demands under local
control. Municipalities are responsible for implementing and
enforcing expensive Clean Water Act requirements, while
also trying to pay for a large number of other programs, both
environmental and non-environmental. EPA estimated in the
2004 Clean Watersheds Needs Survey that nationwide capital
investments for controlling stormwater and wastewater pollu-
tion over a 20-year period will be $202.5 billion, including
$54.8 billion for combined sewer overflow corrections and $9
billion for stormwater management. With decreased funding
from the Federal government to pay for operations and main-
tenance of existing public stormwater systems as well as costs
associated with implementing LTCPs, local governments and
citizens must identify and select the most cost-effective solu-
tions to meet regulatory requirements.

In light of these predicted costs for stormwater, wastewater
and combined sewer systems, using green infrastructure as
a form of asset management is a major driver behind the
shift towards establishing a hybrid system of gray, piped
infrastructure and green, vegetated infrastructure. By using
Figure 3: Euclid Park in Santa Monica, California, includes a depressed
area with storage underneath, doubling as a public amenity and storm-
water structure.
green infrastructure to divert flow from sewer systems,
gray infrastructure costs can be reduced, i.e. operations and
maintenance costs can be decreased and future systems can
be smaller.

Cities such as Philadelphia are passing green infrastructure
policies as a means for better managing existing infrastructure
assets and avoiding future operations and maintenance costs.
The Philadelphia Water Department estimates that its new
stormwater standard, which requires properties to retain the
first inch on site, has reduced CSO inputs by a quarter billion
gallons, thereby saving the City $170 million. These savings
are derived from the fact that one square mile of impervious
cover has been redeveloped under Philadelphia's updated
stormwater regulations, and the cost of storing that same
volume of stormwater in a CSO tank or tunnel comes to $170
million in capital, not including operations and maintenance
costs. After two years of effectively enforced stormwater
regulations, the City now estimates that two square miles
are using green infrastructure, saving about $340 million
in capital.

Lenexa, Kansas, compared three alternative stormwater
management approaches and found that on-site detention
with green infrastructure costs about 25 percent less than the
old approach of retrofitting and reactive solutions.8 Portland,
Oregon, uses infiltration practices to keep millions of gallons
of stormwater out of the "Big  Pipe" it is constructing. Not
only does this reduce current costs for conveyance and treat-
ment, but it will help ensure that the Big Pipe will be able to
handle increased inputs as the City develops over time. All
three communities consider green infrastructure to be a smart
investment of public funds to complement and extend the life
of gray infrastructure projects as well. Many communities are
starting to employ green infrastructure solutions as a more
effective and cost efficient solution for meeting the multiple
demands on publicly  owned treatment works and stormwater
management systems.

Flood Control
Costs and concerns associated with more frequent flood
events have driven many communities to pass green infra-
structure legislation as a way to mitigate future flooding
and better manage runoff from existing development.
                                                               Lenexa's cost savings: http://www.ci.lenexa.ks.us/Stormwater/lessexpensive.html
                                                                           1—Common Drivers and Regulatory Framework

Communities such as Lenexa, Kansas, and Stafford County,
Virginia, were hard hit by major floods in 1998 and again
in 2004. Both use green infrastructure approaches, such as
rain gardens, street swales and other retention methods to
provide additional flood protection during peak events. Both
communities had public support for these newer natural
systems because of the inability of traditional systems to
provide adequate flood protection. Larger and older commu-
nities, including Chicago and Philadelphia, assume cost
savings associated with green infrastructure for flood control
and prevention. Chicago's Green Alley Program was started
in large part as a response to homeowner complaints about
flooding in alleys and adjacent basements.
Figure 4: The Buffalo Bayou Promenade in Houston, Texas, retrofitted a
formerly impervious area and restored this major drainage way as green
infrastructure. The Bayou now has improved floodwater conveyance, in
addition to providing other community and environmental benefits. Photo
courtesy of Tom Fox, http://www.asla.org/2009awards/104.html.
Municipalities of all sizes are concerned about flooding
issues related to human safety, property damage and major
public costs, especially in light of recent flooding in the
Midwest and Gulf Coast regions. Flood damage in the United
States averages over $6 billion annually, not including
Hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Wilma.9 These costs can be
mitigated through the use of watershed and neighborhood
scale green infrastructure planning to protect stream buffers
and natural lands adjacent to water bodies that are known
to flood during large storm events. Some localities, such
as Charlotte-Mecklenburg County in North Carolina and
Portland, Oregon, have established land acquisition programs
                                                       to purchase and protect land in floodplains to provide more
                                                       predictable flood control.10 The Milwaukee Metropolitan
                                                       Sewer District's Greenseams program protects existing open
                                                       space and develops it as green infrastructure with natural
                                                       flood storage.11 The Milwaukee Conservation Plan reports
                                                       potential cost savings of this green infrastructure approach as
                                                       compared with conventional flood control alternatives.12 More
                                                       and more local governments are anticipating future flood risks
                                                       and establishing interconnected systems of functional land-
                                                       scapes to protect floodplains and prevent flood damage.

                                                       Larger Sustainability Goals
                                                       Although Federal and State regulations are part of the
                                                       impetus driving municipal green infrastructure programs,
                                                       many of the communities surveyed have larger sustainability
                                                       plans and efforts that are supported by and provide  support
                                                       to green infrastructure policies. San Jose's  Green Vision,13
                                                       Philadelphia's Sustainability Initiatives14 or Mayor Daley's
                                                       goal to make Chicago the most environmentally friendly city
                                                       in the world are all examples of efforts that transcend compli-
                                                       ance of the Clean Water Act. Green infrastructure policies can
                                                       be used to achieve both water-related goals and a host of other
                                                       community, economic and environmental benefits.

                                                       Municipalities with the most well-established green infra-
                                                       structure programs have identified synergies in mission
                                                       statements across agencies, from departments of transporta-
                                                       tion and public works to environmental agencies. Planning
                                                       departments can use green infrastructure to promote more
                                                       efficient land use and change local codes to ensure that
                                                       projects have both environmental and economic benefits.
                                                       Economic development agencies can use green infra-
                                                       structure to improve neighborhoods and increase property
                                                       values. In "shrinking cities" with population losses, such as
9 Association of State Floodplain Managers white paper on No Adverse Impact:
http://www.floods.org/NoAdverselmpa ct/NAI_White_Paper.pdf
                                                       10 Charlotte-Mecklenburg Floodplain Buyout Program: http://charmeck.org/
                                                       Portland's Johnson Creek Land Acquisition Partnership: http://www.portlandonline.
                                                       11 Milwaukee's Greenseams program: http://v3.mmsd.com/Greenseams.aspx
                                                       12 Milwaukee's Three Watershed Conservation Plan: http://www.epa.gov/nps/
                                                       13 San Jose's Green Vision: http://www.sanjoseca.gov/mayor/goals/environment/
                                                       14 Philadelphia's Sustainability Initiatives: http://www.phila.gov/green/
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

Philadelphia15 and Buffalo,16 vacant properties can be used
for green infrastructure projects, either as permanent func-
tional landscapes or interim land uses to encourage economic
development. Local transportation departments can use
green infrastructure in street and transportation right-of-way
improvements. Typical practices include bump-outs, streets
trees for improving pedestrian environments, sidewalk
planters and even narrowing street widths.17 Parks and recre-
ation departments can also get involved in supporting green
infrastructure, especially at the larger scale, by connecting
    From  Buffalo's Right  Sizing Program:
    "Given shrinking populations, Buffalo's
    own land bank will likely contain a specific
    element addressing 'green infrastructure,'
    whereby a large percentage of vacant prop-
    erties will be transformed into open space,
    trails, community gardens, and parks. A
    green infrastructure initiative could cre-
    ate value in the habitable properties that
    remain,  and attract investors and residents
    back to these neighborhoods devastated
    by decay."
greenways and corridors for habitat improvement and natural
resource protection.18

The addition of green infrastructure as a basic community
amenity is a strong driver as well. Several of the case studies
in this report, including Philadelphia, Emeryville, Lenexa and
Santa Monica, explicitly list quality of life improvements as
a major priority of their local green infrastructure policies.
while other cities see them as ancillary benefits. If commu-
nities can identify and ensure designs that provide multiple
overlapping benefits, green infrastructure policies can be a
solution to the increasing challenges facing cities, counties
and metropolitan regions.
16 Green Plan Philadelphia: http://www.greenplanphiladelphia.com/
16 Buffalo's Right Sizing, Green Infrastructure and Neighborhood Reinvestment
Plans (pages 14-15)
17 See Portland's Green Streets Program Cross-Bureau Team Report for an example
on how to effectively identify agency overlaps: https://www.sustainableportland.org/
18 "How Cities Use Parks for Green Infrastructure," By Dr. Mark A. Benedict
and Edward T. McMahon, American Planning Association City Parks Forum
Briefing Paper, November 2003. http://www.greeninfrastructure.net/sites/
                                                                            1—Common Drivers and Regulatory Framework


This chapter contains descriptions of the major policy
approaches that are common to the majority of municipali-
ties in this case study, including examples of how the policies
have been applied. The next chapter contains guidance on
how the policies should be implemented and adapted to fit
local needs.

Stormwater Regulations
New Stormwater regulations, whether for new projects or
redevelopments, are the single common denominator for all
12 case studies. Each municipality requires new and rede-
velopment projects to use green infrastructure, if possible,
to manage Stormwater runoff before leaving the site. EPA's
NPDES permit requirements are often the primary driver for
these local Stormwater codes. However, specific local goals
are reflected in the variable types of requirements for on-site
management. As seen in Table 3, many of the communities,
such as Olympia, Washington, and Lenexa, Kansas, require
developers to manage a specific volume of Stormwater created
by impervious surfaces. At the same time, other municipali-
ties such as Alachua County, Florida, and Chicago, Illinois,
require minimization of site disturbances and overall reduc-
tion of impervious surfaces.

Although the case  study communities show that innovation
in local Stormwater codes can lead to better water quality
outcomes, Stormwater regulations cannot address a commu-
nity's water quality problems alone. Stormwater regulations
generally only impact properties seeking new permits, which
does not account for most land use types or for properties
Figure 5: All developers in Emeryville, California, must comply
with the City's "Stormwater Guidelines for Green, Dense
Redevelopment," which requires green infrastructure, such as
this stacked parking lot, throughout a project's planning and
Figure 6: Santa Monica, California's Stormwater code
focuses on protection of beach resources and allows for
treatment and release of runoff.
                                                                    2—Menu of Local Green Infrastructure Policies

grandfathered in under older and less environmentally protec-
tive requirements (although some cities do choose to leverage
political will in favor of regulating existing properties).
Philadelphia predicts that only 20 percent of its lands will be
managed through land-based controls in the form of storm-
water management regulations, and that 20 percent is affected
only after the new regulations have been in place for 20 years
(see Figure 7). Vacant properties, public lands, streets and
waterfront areas will all need to be addressed through other
policy approaches.

Stormwater regulations alone cannot address larger land use
patterns and development practices.  Stafford County, Virginia,
has a stringent new Stormwater code requiring infiltration and
filtration practices but lacks larger land use planning poli-
cies to direct growth and encourage higher-density develop-
ments.19 A large percentage of county land is being converted
into parking lots and other impervious surfaces. Although
95 percent of new commercial sites in Stafford County are
now managing Stormwater on site through bioinfiltration,
the overall rate of land conversion to impervious surfaces is
very high.
2 000


eline 10% 20% 30% t
Percent of Imperv
Figure 8: Watershed scale green infrastructure plan for Lenexa, Kansas.
                                                      Figure 7: Philadelphia found that Stormwater regulations alone would only
                                                      reach 20 percent of the impervious surfaces in the City.  The City uses a
                                                      range of policy types, including public land projects and incentivas.
                                                      To fully protect water resources, communities need to
                                                      employ a wide range of land use strategies, based on local
                                                      factors, including building a range of development densi-
                                                      ties, incorporating adequate open space, preserving critical
                                                      ecological and buffer areas and minimizing land disturbance.
                                                      Lenexa, Kansas, has a comprehensive plan for protecting and
                                                                                      creating large-scale green
                                                                                      infrastructure within the
                                                                                      City's jurisdiction.  The City
                                                                                      directs development away
                                                                                      from sensitive natural lands
                                                                                      and then purchases land in
                                                                                      priority areas to provide
                                                                                      flood mitigation, stream
                                                                                      protection, water quality
                                                                                      improvements and  recre-
                                                                                      ational amenities.20 The map
                                                                                      in Figure 8 shows the many
                                                                                      functional green spaces that
                                                                                      also serve as public parks
                                                     	    and trails for recreation and
                                                                                      education. Municipalities
                                                      must also ensure that local land use policies support higher
                                                      densities, compact development and a mix of uses, which
                                                      are methods to better protect water quality—especially at the
                                                      watershed level. Consuming less land means creating less
                                                      impervious cover in the watershed.
19 Stafford County's Stormwater management program: http://co.stafford.va.us/
                                                      20 Lenexa's Rain to Recreation Program policies: http://www.raintorecreation.org/
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

Table 3: Local Stormwater Requirements

Alachua County, FL
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
Seattle, WA
San Jose, CA
Santa Monica, CA
Stafford County, VA
Wilsonville, OR
Olympia, WA
Chicago, IL
Emeryville, CA
Lenexa, KS

Post-Development to Meet
Pre-Development Conditions



Volume-based Performance Standard




Process-based or Menu Approach



21 Alachua County, FL Stormwater Ordinance:

22 Philadelphia Stormwater Regulation: http://www.phillyriverinfo.org/Programs/

23 Portland, OR: http://www.portlandonline.com/shared/cfm/image.cfm?id=93075
& http://www.portlandonline.com/bes/index.cfm?c=35122

24 Seattle, WA: http://www.seattle.gov/dclu/codes/dr/DR2009-17.pdf

26 San Jose, CA: http://www.sanjoseca.gov/planning/stormwater/Policy_6-29_
Memo_Revisions. pdf

26 Santa Monica, CA: http://www.smgov.net/uploadedFiles/Departments/
OSE/Categories/Urban_Runoff/UR_Worksheet.pdf & http://www.smgov.net/
27 Stafford County, VA: http://www.municode.com/resources/gateway.
asp?sid=46&pid=11500 (see Chapter 21.5-2)

28 Wilsonville, OR: http://www.ci.wilsonville.or.us/lndex.aspx?page=91 (see Public
Works Standard, Section 3) & http://ci.Wilsonville.or.us/lndex.aspx?page=662

29 Olympia, WA: http://olympiawa.gov/city-utilities/storm-and-surface-water/

30 Chicago, IL: http://egov.cityofchicago.org/webportal/COCWebPortal/
COC_EDITORIAL/StormwaterMa nagementOrdinancel206.pdf

31 Emeryville, CA: http://www.ci.emeryville.ca.us/index.aspx?nid=335

32 Lenexa, KS: http://www.ci.lenexa.ks.us/LenexaCode/viewXRef.asp?lndex=2927
                                                                                              2—Menu of Local Green Infrastructure Policies

Table 4: Local Stormwater Requirements
Portland, OR
Seattle, WA
Olympia, WA
Santa Monica, CA
San Jose, CA
Emeryville, CA
Lenexa, KS
Chicago, IL
Alachua County, FL
Philadelphia, PA
Stafford County, VA
Wilsonville, OR
Stormwater Regulation
Mandatory hierarchy for on-site infiltration or other practices to the maximum extent practicable (MEP).
All projects > 2000SF new and replaced impervious surfaces are required to compost amend all disturbed
pervious areas, and implement green Stormwater infrastructure practices to the maximum extent feasible
(MEF). For areas with >10,000 SF impervious flow control performance based thresholds must also be
demonstrated; For majority of Seattle creeks drainage basins site must achieve predeveloped pasture condi-
tion for peak and duration up to the 2-year flood frequency; For CSO and capacity constrained systems
peak control target for 2 year and 25 year flood frequency events must be demonstrated. Additional require-
ments to protect wetlands to maintain hydroperiod.
Control 91 percent of runoff volume infiltrated through on-site controls for quality; post-development flow to
meet predevelopment rates for quantity.
0.75-inch reduction of urban runoff from all impermeable surfaces through infiltration or treatment
and release.
Control either 85 percent of 24-hour storm runoff event (using volume treatment control measures (TCMs))
or 10 percent of the 50-year peak flow rate (using flow TCMs), but must use landscape-based treatment
and trees to MEP.
Site design and source control measures, maximize pervious surfaces, and treatment using landscap-
ing. Post-construction quality must meet pre-construction standards, to MEP. Reporting on the amount of
impervious surface created/replaced.
Manage 1.37 inches of water quality volume using LID treatment train approach; pay into system for quan-
tity (used to fund regional projects). Natural channels preserved to MEP.
Manage 0.5 inch runoff from all impervious surfaces or reduce imperviousness by 15 percent.
Limit the proportion of the area of Stormwater facilities to total site area through reduction of impervious
surfaces via vertical construction and use of alternative parking surfaces (to MEP); Stormwater management
facilities must use site contours and minimize disturbance to existing natural features (to MEF). Anti-degra-
dation requirements for water quality.
Four areas of focus and associated requirements: channel protection (control one year storm), flood protec-
tion (post-development conditions must be equal to pre-development), water quality (infiltrate/manage first
1 inch from all directly connected impervious surfaces), and site design requirements to reduce impervious-
ness. Redevelopments may be exempt from channel and flood protection.
LID practices must be used to MEP to meet quality and quantity requirements.
Provide on-site detention and water quality facilities; post-development runoff rates must not exceed pre-
development rates; Revising standards now based on pilot neighborhood project using green infrastructure.
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

Review and  Revise Local Codes
Seven of the municipalities studied conducted a thorough
review of associated development codes and ordinances to
assess consistency with a new or revised stormwater regula-
tion. These cities and counties are finding that a review of
other local ordinances is necessary to remove barriers and
ensure coordination across all development codes for better
water quality outcomes. Local policies, such as landscaping
and parking requirements or street design criteria, should
complement stormwater standards and make it easier for
developers to simultaneously meet multiple requirements. At
the same time, if other local policies are written to support
water quality goals, they can independently reduce and better
manage stormwater runoff.

A comprehensive review process  will require interagency
coordination and cooperation to both identify and address
the potential inconsistencies between different policies and
regulatory mechanisms. EPA's Water Quality Scorecard was
developed to help local governments identify opportunities to
remove barriers, and revise and create codes, ordinances and
incentives for improved water quality protection. It guides
municipal staff through a review of relevant local codes and
ordinances, across multiple municipal departments and at
the three scales within the jurisdiction of a local government
(municipality, neighborhood and site),33 to ensure that these
codes work together to protect water quality goals. The Water
Quality Scorecard can be found at http://www.epa.gov/

A process  of review and coordination, not just for codes, but
for interaction among the various departments involved in
development permitting, should be done early if not before
the new stormwater regulations go into effect. The building
and development community may be more willing and able
to implement a new stormwater requirement if the process
for understanding and installing new practices is transparent.
straightforward and in concert with the many other require-
ments they must meet.

A thorough policy audit can help municipal staff, stormwater
managers, planners and other stakeholders better understand
where the opportunities and barriers may exist in a municipal-
ity's land development regulations, building codes, permit-
ting processes and more. Local regulations that should be
reviewed may be controlled and enforced by a number of
different local government agencies, including parks and
recreation, public works, planning, environmental protection.
utilities and transportation.

Chicago's Department of Environment initiated a Green
Urban Design process to look at discontinuity of ordinances
across eight city agencies and then developed a framework
plan to align all development ordinances.34 One point of
discontinuity was with a landscape ordinance requiring
prescriptive placement of vegetation rather than prioritizing
practices by ecological function, which contradicted the new
performance-based stormwater requirements.

Philadelphia has established a Developer Services
Committee to streamline its development review process.35
This partnership effort resulted in a simplified process for
permit review, inspection and approval. The success of the
new stormwater regulations is contingent upon the fact that
the Philadelphia Water Department requires projects to get
   Philadelphia  Developer Services
   •  Fire Department
   •  City Planning Commission
   •  Philadelphia Industrial Development
   •  Department of Licenses & Inspection
   •  Department of Public Property
   •  Managing Director's Office
   •  Streets Department
   •  Water Department
   •  PECO Energy
   •  Philadelphia Gas Works
33 While the watershed scale is the best scale at which to look regionally at water
quality protection strategies, it can be difficult to align policies, incentives and regu-
lations across political boundaries. So for purposes of implementation, the largest
scale the scorecard uses is the municipality.
34 Chicago Codes for Green Urban Design: http://www.cityofchicago.org/content/
36 Philadelphia Developer Services Committee: http://www.phila.gov/commerce/
comm/lvL2/m bat_dev. htm
                                                                           2—Menu of Local Green Infrastructure Policies

concept approval for water, sewer and stormwater before
zoning permits are considered.

Several cities have found that successful integration of green
infrastructure systems into new development projects required
early site design considerations. Placing stormwater plan
approval earlier in the development review process helps to
ensure better green infrastructure outcomes inbuilt projects.

Demonstration and Pilot  Projects
Demonstration and pilot projects are a common way for
communities to introduce green infrastructure into a range of
programs and local agency policies. Small projects in loca-
tions with fewer physical and political complications provide
important testing grounds for the partnerships so often needed
for successful development of these programs. Furthermore,
pilot projects allow relevant agencies and staff to figure out
the logistics of implementing green infrastructure practices,
from design, construction and maintenance to basic permitting
protocols. A period of trial and error allows for the develop-
ment and refinement of a better policy or program.

Most cities pilot small-scale projects to work through poten-
tial problems with programs intended for citywide applica-
tion, such as a green streets initiative or standards for capital
projects. For instance, Seattle Public Utilities found that the
success of its Natural Drainage Systems program was due to
several pilot projects that were carefully designed, installed
and then monitored for performance before being applied
throughout the City.36

Although costs for green infrastructure projects initially may
be higher than traditional projects, often costs are lowered
after a pilot phase.37 In its first pilot year, Chicago's Green
Alley Program cost 150-200 percent more than conventional
alley retrofits, but now costs have lowered to nearly match
conventional material installation.
                                                        Olympia, Washington, provides an example of a pilot phase
                                                        that went poorly and resulted in a revised program. The City
                                                        set very strict development standards on the healthiest stream
                                                        in the jurisdiction, Green Cove Basin, but because they
                                                        did not entirely agree with or understand the requirements,
                                                        developers found loopholes in the  regulation that resulted in
                                                        poor neighborhood design and dissatisfaction on the part of
                                                        homeowners. As a result, Olympia revised its requirements
                                                        and turned more attention towards street design and on public
                                                        rights-of-way to improve runoff conditions in this salmon-
                                                        bearing watershed.38
                                                        Figure 9: Villebois is a large neighborhood development in Wilsonville,
                                                        Oregon, that incorporates decentralized stormwater management features.
                                                        Wilsonville, Oregon, conducted a similar large-scale pilot
                                                        project with the Villebois neighborhood, a 500-acre project
                                                        that is seen as a testing ground for a suite of new stormwater
                                                        regulations and larger development requirements for this
                                                        fast-growing town (see Figure 9).39 City officials also intend
                                                        to apply lessons learned in this private sector project to future
                                                        capital projects.

                                                        Whether demonstrations are meant to test new programs or to
                                                        serve as tangible evidence of the feasibility and functionality
                                                        of green infrastructure practices, they are almost always an
36 For a list of Seattle Public Utilities Natural Drainage System projects: http://www.
37 For more information on pilot projects and costs, see Center for Neighbor-
hood Technology's paper "Managing Urban Stormwater with Green Infrastructure:
Case Studies of Five U.S. Local Governments": http://www.cnt.org/repository/
                                                        33 Olympia development standards for Green Cove Basin: http://www.ci.olympia.
                                                        and-shorelines-green-cove-creek-watershed.aspx; More information on Green Cove
                                                        as a priority watershed: http://www.ci.olympia.wa.us/en/city-utilities/storm-and-
                                                        39 Villebois Village Master Plan: http://www.ci.wilsonville.or.us/lndex.
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

important first step in a community's effort to establish wide-
spread policies to support green infrastructure approaches.

Capital and  Transportation  Projects
Taken in total, surface transportation systems, including road-
ways, railways, sidewalks and alleyways, can be the greatest
contributor to total imperviousness in a given community.40
Local departments of transportation dedicate an equally large
portion of funds to repairs, maintenance and improvements
to these systems. Eight of the 12 municipalities in this study
have realized the value of leveraging these huge funding
sources by incorporating green infrastructure practices into
standard transportation projects. Green street practices include
bioswales, rain gardens and infiltration practices, street trees
and porous paving materials, many of which add value to
the public space as well as providing better environmental
performance.41 Green streets handle stormwater with vege-
tated facilities, provide water quality benefits, create attractive
streetscapes, improve safety through traffic calming, provide
pedestrian and bicycle access and serve as multi-purpose
urban greenways.

Municipalities also spend considerable amounts of money
planning and building major capital projects, from bridge-
building to road retrofits to development and redevelopment
of public buildings, parks and other facilities. Several of
the case study  communities recognized that if even a small
percentage of the total funding that goes towards these
projects is allocated for green infrastructure designs, large
impervious areas can be retrofitted in old projects and entirely
avoided in new ones. For example, the City of Seattle estab-
lished the Sustainable Infrastructure Initiative to evaluate how
it spends its more than $650 million annually on capital proj-
ects. This interdepartmental initiative will consider sustain-
able alternatives, such as green infrastructure, to typical
retrofits, repairs and new projects. Santa Monica, California,
a smaller city, also incorporates green infrastructure into all
capital projects, which is much simpler since one staff person
can review plans, conduct inspections and ensure that all
major projects include on-site stormwater mitigation features.
40 Clean Water Service's Healthy Streams Plan, 2006 documents 54.5 percent of
imperviousness due to roads, parking lots and driveways: http://www.cleanwa-
Streams%20Plan.pdf; United State Geological Survey report, "Quantifying the
Components of Impervious Surfaces," shows that in the study watersheds, roads
and parking lots alone account for 52.9 percent of impervious surfaces; For more on
this topic, see Tom Schueler's "The Importance of Imperviousness," 1994: http://
41 Find more resources on EPA's Green Streets and Highways page: http://cfpub.
Figure 10: Chicago's Green Alley program retrofits existing alleys to
include permeable pavers as seen in this residential alley. Photo courtesy
of David Leopold.

Portland's Green Streets program has a formal process to
overlay multi-bureau project plans and scheduled capital
improvement projects to identify how public and private
projects can achieve multiple community and environmental
benefits through green infrastructure.42 Chicago's Green
Alley Program (see Figure 10) is an alternative solution
to the method of retrofitting over 3,500 acres of alleyways
throughout the City.43 Low traffic volume and the lack of
existing infrastructure in Chicago's alleys provided an oppor-
tunity to replace existing asphalt and concrete with pervious
pavement to allow for infiltration instead of retrofitting with
conventional piped infrastructure.

The increased investment necessary to include green infra-
structure in these large undertakings is typically a very
small percentage of the total project costs. Costs and ease
of designing or redesigning streets depends on whether the
street is already built, what maintenance or improvements
are already planned and whether retrofits are being made to
streets, sidewalks or other types of infrastructure or utilities
42 Portland's Green Streets report, resolution and policy: http://www.portlandonline.
43 Chicago's Green Alley program and handbook: http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/
&contenTypeName=COC_EDITORIAL&com.broadvision. session. new=Yes&Failed_
                                                                                 2—Menu of Local Green Infrastructure Policies

    10,000 Rain Gardens in  metro-
    politan Kansas City is a successful
    education and outreach program
    that  engages citizens to  manage
    stormwater on site.
    "10,000 Rain Gardens is not a government

    It is a rallying cry, calling upon the creativ-
    ity of citizens, corporations, educators, and
    non-profit organizations to join with gov-
    ernment to voluntarily reduce the amount
    of stormwater runoff that pollutes our
    waterways. In the past two years, several
    hundred rain gardens as well as rain barrels
    and bioswales have been installed and are
    working to reduce runoff.

    These personal efforts combined with
    commercial-sized green solutions yield
    a powerful cumulative effect in reducing
    flooding, erosion and pollutants in our
    rivers and streams. Working together, we
    will improve water quality and make a
    difference now and for the future."

    -10,000 Rain Gardens website: http://

    For more information, go to
                                                 beneath the surface. The use of green infrastructure elements
                                                 can also decrease overall project costs.44 For example, green
                                                 infrastructure designs can be used to reduce the concrete and
                                                 asphalt needed to pave and curb streets.

                                                 Other capital projects include major public investments to
                                                 acquire lands deemed ecologically sensitive or important for
                                                 water quality protection. Some communities purchase prop-
                                                 erty to protect it from new development, while others will
                                                 construct large green infrastructure features to mitigate floods
                                                 and manage stormwater flows from nearby impervious areas.
                                                 Lenexa, Kansas's Rain to Recreation45 program spends tens
                                                 of millions of public dollars to purchase land in priority areas.
                                                 which prevents unwanted development while providing long-
                                                 term community assets. Likewise, Alachua County Forever46
                                                 is a program in Florida where the County acquires, protects
                                                 and manages environmentally significant lands and water
                                                 resources. These programs consider large-scale green infra-
                                                 structure systems that work to improve and protect overall
                                                 watershed function and minimize imperviousness throughout
                                                 a community. Capital and transportation projects can have
                                                 significant impacts at the watershed and neighborhood scales.

                                                 Education and Outreach
                                                 Education and outreach programs take advantage of built
                                                 green infrastructure projects to communicate  to the general
                                                 public the value of stormwater as a resource rather than
                                                 remove it as quickly as possible from the site or city. Using
                                                 signage, brochures and other outreach materials, municipal
                                                 agencies can build public understanding of green infrastruc-
                                                 ture approaches. Education and outreach takes many forms.
                                                 such as Portland's stormwater cycling tour47 or Chicago's
                                                 how-to guide for disconnecting a downspout or installing
                                                 a rain barrel.48 Public campaigns, events and publications
                                                 encourage citizens and property owners to take action to
                                                 reduce runoff and prevent contributions to stormwater pollu-
                                                 tion. Olympia, Washington's "Gardening with a Sound Mind"
                                                 44 Reducing Stormwater Costs through Low Impact Development (LID) Strategies
                                                 and Practices: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/costs07/
                                                 46 Lenexa, Kansas's Rain to Recreation program: http://www.raintorecreation.org/
                                                 46 Alachua County's Alachua County Forever program: http://www.alachuacounty.
                                                 47 Portland Stormwater Cycling Tour: http://www.portlandonline.com/Bes/index.
                                                 48 Chicago's How-to Guide for Managing Stormwater at Home: http://egov.cityofchi-
                                                 cago.org/webporta l/COCWebPortal/COC_ATTACH/Ma nagingStormwater_Home.pdf
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

                             I dfstonnected my
                             ivnspouts to protect
                             Portland's rivers!
       Figure 11: Examples of educational signage added
       to public and private property green infrastructure
       approaches. Images from Philadelphia (top), Portland
       (middle), and Chicago (bottom).
urges homeowners to protect the Puget Sound by planting
native species and avoiding lawn fertilizers and pesticides.49
Education programs can be directed toward individual
behavior by highlighting how runoff carries pollutants to
downstream surface waters.

Other public outreach programs validate public investments
and capital projects, whether through educational signage
or larger campaigns. Lenexa's Rain to Recreation program
includes a free speaker's bureau for schools, community
groups, residents, businesses and other professionals.50
Not only is this type of public education good governance,
it helps institutionalize green infrastructure programs for
the long-term.

The simplest method of education and outreach is adding
signage to any known green infrastructure project, whether
on public or private land (see Figure 11). By giving visible
markers for these sites along with information about what
they are and how they work to protect water quality and
improve local environments, people begin to recognize the
larger system and cumulative impact of a decentralized
system of many practices.

Stormwater Fees
Stormwater fees are used to generate a dedicated revenue
stream to address the increasing investment most commu-
nities will have to make to control both combined sewer
overflows and Stormwater runoff. Some municipalities need
additional funding for new  infrastructure required to meet
the demands  of growth and development or changing regula-
tory requirements, while older communities often need extra
revenue to repair and maintain existing storm sewer systems.
Traditionally, the costs for Stormwater management were
paid for with general funds collected through taxes, such as a
property tax,  or through a property's water bill. Stormwater
user fees are  now being used to direct the costs for Stormwater
management towards those properties that actually create the
most runoff entering the public system.

Unlike familiar water and wastewater utility fees, utility fees
for Stormwater management are a relatively new concept.
Their use arose from the recognition that managing storm-
water imparts a fiscal impact on a municipality to manage
infrastructure and provide environmental protection. An
increasingly common method for calculating a Stormwater
user fee is an impervious surface based billing system.
Because runoff from impervious areas is the primary contrib-
utor to the storm sewer system, this system is seen as a more
equitable determination for fees than some early methods of
calculating charges, such as a meter-based fee, which charges
by water consumption. For example, a parking lot may  not
use potable water on site but discharges significantly more
49 Olympia's "Gardening with a Sound Mind": http://www.ci.olympia.wa.us/en/
city-utilities/storm-a nd-surface-water/education-and-action/education-and-action-
60 Lenexa's Rain to Recreation Speaker's Bureau: http://www.raintorecreation.org/
                                                                             2—Menu of Local Green Infrastructure Policies

runoff than a residence or business of a similar size. The
stormwater fee should reflect the contribution of runoff from a
particular site.

Many communities will calculate user fees for commercial.
multi-family residential and industrial properties based on
total lot size and percentage of imperviousness.51 These rates
are measured through a Geographic Information System (GIS)
and orthographic flyover image data that accurately accounts
for the stormwater runoff inputs of these large customer
parcels. For ease of collection, the stormwater fee  is often
added to water, sewer or utility bills.  Some cities charge the
user fee as a monthly or annual tax. In San Jose, California.
for instance, the Santa Clara County Tax Collector's Office
collects the Storm Sewer Service Charge through the annual
property tax roll.

Stormwater Fee  Discounts
Stormwater fee discounts and incentives give property
owners the option of making site changes that can decrease
                                                     the amount of their on-site stormwater fee. Discounts often
                                                     encourage retrofits of existing properties and implementation
                                                     of green infrastructure in new developments. In Philadelphia.
                                                     Portland and Seattle, fee discounts and credits provide an
                                                     opportunity for property owners to reduce the amount they
                                                     pay by decreasing impervious surfaces or by using green
                                                     infrastructure techniques that reduce the amount of storm-
                                                     water runoff. In turn, public infrastructure is less burdened
                                                     when private property owners manage their own stormwater
                                                     runoff on site. Discounts also support the fee-for-service
                                                     system because property owners can reduce the amount they
                                                     pay by reducing the service received.

                                                     Before setting the credit standard or discount, whether for use
                                                     of specific green infrastructure practices or for a reduction in
                                                     impervious surfaces, municipalities should set appropriate
                                                     management goals and determine how to credit private prop-
                                                     erty owners for whatever action is being given an incentive.
                                                     Table 5  outlines a framework for setting goals and developing
                                                     mechanisms and processes for implementing fee discounts.
Table 5:  Framework for Stormwater Fee Discount  Programs
  Goal of Discount
                            Mechanism for Fee Reduction
                                                                              Process for Implementation
  Reduce Imperviousness
                            • Percent fee reduction
                            • Per-square-foot credit
                                                                              • Percent reduction in imperviousness
                                                                              • Square feet of pervious surfaces
  On-site Management
                            • Percent fee reduction
                            • Quantity/Quality credits
                                                                              • List of practices with associated credits
                                                                              • Total area (square feet) managed
On-site Management
                                      • Percent fee reduction
                                      • Performance-based quantity reduction
                                                                       •  Percent reduction in imperviousness
                                                                       •  Performance-based
                                                                       •  Total area (square feet) managed
                                                                       •  Practices based on pre-assigned
                                                                         performance values
  Use of Specific Practices
                            • Percent fee reduction
                            • One time credit
                                                                                List of practices with associated credits
61 For more information on stormwater fees, see EPA's Municipal Handbook for
Green Infrastructure, Chapter on Funding Options: http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/
greeninfrastructure/munichandbook.cfm and EPA Region 3's Fact Sheet on
Funding for Stormwater Programs: http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/region3_fact-
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

Figure 12: Oregon Convention Center saves $15,600 per year on its
stormwater bill by managing roof runoff in these rain gardens.
Municipalities using a stormwater fee discount commonly set
a maximum percentage for the discount to ensure adequate
revenue generation. This discount is primarily given for
stormwater quantity reductions and in fewer cases for pollu-
tion reduction for water quality purposes. Discounts are also
offered for impervious surface reductions, whether for total
area or by the square foot. Finally, credits can be based on the
implementation of specific practices, such as rain gardens,
green roofs or even tree canopy area. Portland, Oregon, gives
specific credits for sites with ecoroofs or trees over 15 feet tall
(see Figure 12). Credits may vary based on the type of green
infrastructure practice and the goals the municipality has for
private lands.

Other Incentives
Incentives are a creative tool local governments can use to
encourage green infrastructure practices on private property.
Incentive mechanisms allow municipalities to act beyond
the confines of regulatory authority to improve wet weather
management on properties that may not fall under updated
stormwater requirements. In these cases, incentives are geared
towards private property owners to promote retrofits of
existing sites  to include green infrastructure practices where
they do not already exist. For new development projects,
                                                         incentives can take advantage of the development processes,
                                                         such as permitting or other development codes and require-
                                                         ments, to creatively encourage green infrastructure. The four
                                                         types of local incentive mechanisms include stormwater fee
                                                         discounts, development incentives, rebates and installation
                                                         financing and awards and recognition.
    •  Fee Discount: Requires a stormwater fee
      that is based on impervious surface area.
      If property owners can reduce need for
      service by reducing impervious area, the
      municipality reduces the fee.
    •  Development Incentives:  Offered to
      developers during the process of applying
      for development permits. Includes zoning
      upgrades, expedited permitting, reduced
      stormwater requirements,  etc.
    •  Rebates & Installation  Financing: Gives
      funding, tax credits or reimbursements to
      property owners who install specific prac-
      tices. Often focused on practices needed
      in certain areas or neighborhoods.
    •  Awards & Recognition  Programs:
      Provides marketing opportunities and
      public outreach for exemplary projects.
      May include monetary awards.
Development incentives apply to private developers that take
initiative in favor of more sustainable site design and green
building practices. Incentives tied to stormwater regula-
tions encourage developers to creatively implement on-site
management practices to avoid more stringent or more
costly stormwater requirements. Chicago's Green Permit
Program reviews permits much faster for projects that meet
certain Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
                                                                      2—Menu of Local Green Infrastructure Policies

(LEED) criteria.52 Portland's Ecoroof Floor Area Ratio Bonus
increases a building's allowable area in exchange for adding
an ecoroof.53 Portland has seen over $225 million in additional
private development through this program, and has added
more than 120 ecoroofs to the City.54 In San Jose, California,
87 percent of all development projects have reduced their
total site imperviousness to less than 10,000 square feet to
stay under the threshold at which new technology-based water
quality requirements go into effect.55

Rebates and installation financing programs give money
directly to individual homeowners, other property owners
and community groups for stormwater-related projects and
can help a city or county add green infrastructure projects to
the landscape. Examples of rebates and installation financing
include paying back property owners that purchase and
install rain barrels or trees or disconnect downspouts from
combined systems. Seattle's Residential RainWise Program
gives residents rain garden and cistern incentives (see Figure
13).56 Santa Monica, California, gives $160,000 per year in
Landscape Grants to property  owners that use native land-
scaping to reduce water consumption and absorb runoff.57
Chicago's Green Roof Grants  helped this former industrial
city add over 2.5 million square feet of green roofs across the
City. The program grants $5,000 awards to residential and
small commercial buildings  that meet criteria based on loca-
tion, visibility and environmental benefit.58
                                                        Figure 13: A disconnected downspout in Seattle, Washington.

                                                        Overall, these incentive programs provide awards and savings
                                                        to developers and individuals who take extra steps to add
                                                        environmental benefits with greener stormwater management
                                                        practices. For a list of all known incentive programs from
                                                        around the country, go to the Incentives Chapter within EPA's
                                                        Green Infrastructure Municipal Handbook, at http://cfpub.
62 Chicago's Green Permit Program: http://egov.cityofchicago.org/webportal/
COCWebPortal/COC_EDITORIAL/PermitFee WaiversGreenPermitProgram_l.pdf
63 Portland's Floor Area Ratio Bonus: http://www.portlandonline.com/shared/cfm/
image.cfm?id=53363 (pages 510-32); or see http://www.portlandonline.com/bps/
M Portland BES presentation November 2007: http://www.portlandonline.com/Bes/
index.cfm?a=172761&c=46084 (slide 24)
66 87 percent figure based on 300 plans submitted per year with 35-40 reported
to the Regional Water Quality Control Board for passing the 10,000 square foot
66 Seattle's RainWise Program: https://rainwise.seattle.gov/systems/water
67 Santa Monica Sustainable Landscape Grant Program: http://www.smgov.net/
Departments/OS E/Categories/Landscape/grant_gardens/Sustainable_Landscape_
58 Chicago's Green Roof and Cool Roof Grants Program: http://www.cityofchicago.
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

A fully developed municipal program that supports green
infrastructure at every scale, including the watershed, neigh-
borhood and site levels, is not created all at once or through a
single policy or initiative. Many of the municipalities in this
study found that incremental policy adoption and iterative
processes led to a fuller and more widespread adoption of
green infrastructure approaches. Some policies are easier than
others to implement, either because they require less funding.
or because they can be incorporated into existing programs or
undertaken by supportive municipal offices or agencies. Other
policies may be more difficult because of known and unex-
pected barriers, including:

 • Funding

 • Lack of political support/leadership

 • Resistance to change

 • Coordination of multiple stakeholders and partners

 • Legislative action

 • Conflicting regulations

 • Need for technical information and training

 • Nascent market
                                                         • Misunderstanding about land use issues

                                                         • Cost concerns59

                                                        These items are barriers in the sense that they can add signifi-
                                                        cant time and effort to the process of implementing green
                                                        infrastructure practices on the ground.

                                                        Clearing up misconceptions about green infrastructure may
                                                        take time and energy, but buy-in from key stakeholders is
                                                        important for successful policy implementation. Establishing
                                                        sustainable funding for green infrastructure is another difficult
                                                        step, but is undoubtedly the cornerstone of long-term and
                                                        sustainable programs. Lack of political support is another
                                                        good example of a significant barrier that, if overcome, can
                                                        help a program flourish. However, personnel may not be
                                                        able to easily turn the tide of political resistance, and might
                                                        better invest time and energy in some of the simpler poli-
                                                        cies that can jump-start a program and provide support for
                                                        future program expansion. This section describes three steps
                                                        58 Godwin, D.C., Chan, S.A., Burris, F.A. Barriers and Opportunities for Low Impact
                                                        Development: Case Studies from Three Oregon Communities, www.nacaa.com/

                                                        An Economic Rationale for Integrated Stormwater Management: A Resource for
                                                        Urban and Rural Land Development in BC. Small Towns Initiative, Landscape
                                                        Architecture Program, University of British Columbia, http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/epd/

                                                        Oregon Environmental Council. Stormwater Solutions: Turning Oregon's Rain Back
                                                        into a Resource, Chapter 4: Barriers to Overcome, http://www.oeconline.org/our-
                                                   3—Policy Implementation: Barriers, Lessons Learned and Realities of Each Policy

for implementing policies, starting with those that can more
quickly and easily result in build-out of green infrastructure.

This three-step approach is based primarily on research
within these case studies and is meant to be informative for
municipalities trying to prioritize time and resources to launch
green infrastructure programs. All of the policies listed are
important, but can be initiated in a way that will be simpler.
cheaper and faster for getting green infrastructure practices in
the ground.
    First Step
    •  Stormwater Regulation
    •  Code Review
    Second Step
    •  Demonstrations and Pilots
    •  Education and Outreach
    •  Incentives
    Third Step
    •  Capital and Transportation Projects
    •  Stormwater Fee
    •  Fee Discount
First  Step Policies
Every community that is committed to green infrastructure
should secure a sustainable local funding source, revise local
Stormwater regulations to require the use of green infrastruc-
ture practices on site and review local codes and ordinances to
ensure support of water quality goals.

Securing a sustainable source of funding must be the first step
for any municipality trying to set up a comprehensive storm-
water program. Municipalities that rely entirely on outside
funds in the form of grants and loans will find it difficult to
develop many of the other policies and programs. Establishing
a Stormwater fee is included as a third step because of the
                                                   time it may take to properly develop an equitable fee system.
                                                   complete the public comment period and fully implement a
                                                   new Stormwater fee throughout a jurisdiction. However, local
                                                   funding, whether from Stormwater fees or other sources, is
                                                   a critical element of all other green infrastructure policies
                                                   and programs.60

                                                   Stormwater Regulation
                                                   All of the municipalities in this case study report have created
                                                   a new or improved local Stormwater ordinance  requiring
                                                   the use of green infrastructure practices to meet quantita-
                                                   tive management standards. Revising or creating a local
                                                   Stormwater regulation that explicitly encourages or mandates
                                                   green infrastructure should be a standard step in the process
                                                   of setting up a comprehensive green infrastructure program.
                                                   Table 4 in the previous chapter lists each case study and its
                                                   specific type of Stormwater regulation. Whether the storm-
                                                   water regulation is performance-based or prescriptive (by
                                                   requiring the use of particular green infrastructure practices).
                                                   communities must write Stormwater codes with definitive
                                                   language supporting or requiring the use of practices that
                                                   infiltrate, reuse and/or evapotranspire runoff, depending on
                                                   local rainfall data, soil types and other conditions.

                                                   Code Review
                                                   Local code review must be an early step in the process of
                                                   truly integrating green infrastructure into all municipal
                                                   programs, from planning to public works. Local policies.
                                                   such as landscaping and parking requirements or street design
                                                   criteria, should complement strong Stormwater  standards
                                                   and make it easier for developers to simultaneously meet
                                                   multiple requirements.

                                                   The various regulations, processes and other policies that
                                                   should be reviewed may be under the control of a number
                                                   of different local government agencies, including parks and
                                                   recreation, public works, planning, environmental protection.
                                                   utilities and transportation. This review process will require
                                                   interagency coordination and cooperation to both identify
                                                   and address the potential inconsistencies between different
                                                   policies. A comprehensive interagency review may be more
                                                   of an undertaking in a large city with many departments
                                                   with large staffs that do not regularly communicate or think
                                                   50 For more information on setting up funding for green infrastructure programs,
                                                   see EPA's Municipal Handbook at http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/greeninfrastructure/
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

about stormwater management. For a smaller jurisdiction.
this process may be simpler because fewer departments are
involved and internal processes may be easier to change.

EPA has developed a Water Quality Scorecard that provides
guidance for communities about how to review all local
codes and ordinances, at the municipal, neighborhood and
site scales, to ensure that they are mutually supportive of
water quality goals. This policy tool can help municipal staff.
stormwater managers, planners and other stakeholders better
understand where the opportunities and barriers may exist in
a municipality's land development regulations and other ordi-
nances from building codes to tree preservation requirements.
The Water Quality Scorecard can be found at http://cf pub.

Second Step Policies
Demonstration and pilot programs and education and
outreach programs can set the stage and provide support
for larger undertakings, such as instituting a stormwater
utility or incorporating green infrastructure in public project
design standards.

Demonstration Projects
Demonstration projects are the starting block for almost every
one of the communities in this case study. Built projects
provide legitimacy  to green infrastructure practices that can
be challenging to establish simply through research findings.
models and examples from other locations. Program staff
can easily build internal partnerships to identify locations
appropriate for demonstration projects or opportunities to set
up pilot programs. Three examples of successful pilot and
demonstration programs include:

           PHILADELPHIA: Philadelphia prioritizes
           demonstration projects on public property based
           on priority  CSO outfalls and their drainage areas.
  The Water Department has mapped the City by sewershed.
  which has supported the process of identifying areas in
  greatest need of CSO reductions. Demonstration projects
  are monitored, ideally both before and after green infra-
  structure improvements, to measure performance and
  CSO reductions.
  Streets helped gain acceptance for Natural Drainage
  Systems within the Seattle Department of Transportation
  (SDOT). Monitoring since 2001 on the original 2nd Avenue
  pilot street shows a 99 percent reduction in stormwater
  volumes flowing off site.61 Now SDOT includes swales
  with any new sidewalk and otherwise reviews each major
  roadway project on a case-by-case basis for inclusion of
  green infrastructure.

            CHICAGO: Chicago's Green Alley Program
           began as a pilot program in which the Chicago
           Department of Transportation (CDOT) allowed
  the program to run as a one year pilot phase to retrofit a
  small number of alleys with permeable materials. This pilot
  year allowed CDOT to develop specifications for mixing
  and installing permeable alley surface material, which has
  in effect created a new market for manufacturers and
  installers. Now the Works Progress Administration and
  other agencies are using these materials and processes to
  make permeable parking lanes, and CDOT now retrofits all
  alleys in the City with permeable materials.

Education and Outreach Programs
Education and outreach are common programs in many  of
the cases because they are relatively easy and inexpensive to
implement while building necessary public understanding and
support for other green infrastructure policies. Municipalities
should develop education programs not only for the general
public, but also for residential and commercial property
owners and internal municipal staff that might be working on
green infrastructure projects.

Public  outreach can include placing municipal-sponsored
signs on any known green infrastructure projects, including
private properties. This brings visibility to the range of green
infrastructure projects in a community and should provide
simple, straightforward information about how infiltration.
reuse and evapotranspiration work to manage runoff on  site.
Signage is especially valuable for manifesting the cumulative
impact of various practices.  If people recognize that a home
rain garden works in tandem with a neighboring business's
green roof, the larger decentralized effort to reduce and
manage runoff on site becomes clear.
            SEATTLE: Seattle Public Utilities has used
            demonstration projects to achieve exponential
            change. Seattle Street Edge Alternatives or SEA
51 http://www.seattle.gov/util/About_SPU/Drainage_&_Sewer_System/GreenStorm-
                                                  3—Policy Implementation: Barriers, Lessons Learned and Realities of Each Policy

More involved education and outreach programs include
trainings and workshops offered to important stakeholder
groups such as developers, contractors and municipal mainte-
nance staff and property managers. Classes and seminars that
educate the people designing, building and maintaining green
infrastructure practices help to build local markets, dispel
misconceptions about various practices and train contractors
and staff about how green infrastructure systems function.

Decisions to establish education programs are generally
less controversial than most other policy options and can
be made at the staff or program level. The distribution of
materials such as simple explanatory brochures or even more
complicated design guides62 can lead to better understanding
by everyone from homeowners to municipal property
managers and contractors, which leads to better performance
and hopefully greater adoption of green infrastructure prac-
tices. Furthermore, education programs create public and
political support as people begin to recognize, discuss and
inquire about projects.

Incentive mechanisms can be easy to implement and afford
local decision makers the flexibility and creativity to tailor
programs to specific priorities or to particular geographic
           Green Factor Scorin
                      SEATTLE -greenfactor
             > Maximizes plantings In rghts-ol-way
             * Rewards layering ol pianl material
             » Rewards tree preservation
             > Rewards larger species of Irees
             i Rewards iow water use
             i Rewnrdstood cultivation
             > Provides flexibility lor developer lo meet the code
    Bonus .0.1: Drought-tolerant or native plantt, rainwater harvesting, feature* visible to the public, and load cultivation.
Figure 14: Seattle's Green Factor requires 30 percent parcel vegetation in business districts. Property owners can use various practices to reach the 30
percent threshold, with bonuses for rainwater harvesting, drought tolerant plants, tree preservation, green roofs and more. Image from the City of Seattle.
                                                                   62 To see examples of education and outreach materials from these case studies
                                                                   and more, go to www.epa.gov/greeninfrastructure.
          Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

areas in a community. Incentives are voluntary, which creates
less resistance from stakeholder groups and allows policy
makers to test or pilot programs that may one day develop
into mandates or requirements. Seattle's Green Factor is
limited to downtown business districts, both because of the
economic development potential of improved green space
there, and also because it allows the City a defined area to
pilot this new program before applying it to other areas and
zoning types in Seattle (see Figure 14).63

Incentives can be very effective when tied to regulatory
programs or to a stormwater fee. Offering property owners
a way to decrease regulatory impacts or stormwater fees can
serve as effective motivation to decrease on-site impervi-
ousness or add specified green infrastructure practices for
managing runoff. However, municipalities should lead by
example and incorporate green infrastructure design standards
into public works projects at the same time as introducing
incentives for the private sector.

Third Step Policies
Capital and Transportation Projects
Municipal governments can create and preserve large areas
of green infrastructure by integrating green infrastructure into
major capital projects and transportation projects. This may
come in the form of design standards for capital and transpor-
tation projects, by purchasing sensitive natural areas, or by
changing ingrained processes for implementing major public
works projects. When local governments lead by example.
they send a clear message that the municipality is dedicated
to a new form of stormwater management and a new way of
approaching development. Furthermore, public projects allow
internal city or county staff a chance to learn about green
infrastructure, including construction and installation, how to
review plans and alter designs and how to operate and main-
tain the variety of practices that infiltrate, reuse and evapo-
transpire stormwater. Including green infrastructure in capital
and transportation projects is very important for creating a
long-term green infrastructure program.

However, changing well-established bureaucratic processes.
both for political decision making and for implementation
of public works plans, can be both slow and difficult. While
incorporating green infrastructure into these projects can
53 Seattle Green Factor: http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/Permits/GreenFactor/Overview/
retrofit or create large land areas with green infrastructure.
these projects may need to come as a lower priority for
municipalities hoping to see more immediate impacts.

Stormwater Fee
Municipalities that are serious about setting up effective green
infrastructure programs must secure sustainable funding.
Stormwater fees can be easier to establish than a local tax
because a fee is a charge that municipalities have the authority
to leverage for the services they provide, if they have the
appropriate enabling legislation. However, a new or revised
stormwater fee requires data collection and financing studies
to ensure revenue generation and evaluate equity issues.
These processes can take time and money, but are necessary
elements for developing fair and functional stormwater fees.
Furthermore, although stormwater fees do not require direct
public approval, they do need political support.

The District of Columbia recently embarked on an effort
to increase stormwater fees to meet its EPA MS4 permit
requirements. Like some other municipalities, the District
of Columbia previously  charged for stormwater based on
potable water use and is planning to shift to an impervious
surface billing system that more accurately reflects the
service of managing stormwater runoff created by a site's
impervious surfaces. The process has been neither quick nor
easy. The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority
is the entity that bills residents on the District Department of
Environment's behalf. This outside coordination has slowed
the process, along with concerns about collecting adequate
revenues, how to fairly and accurately calculate the charge.
how to provide discount programs for low-income resi-
dents and even how to represent the charge on bills. Despite
political and stakeholder support for the new  fee system, the
District is still waiting to fully implement its new stormwater
fee. The District of Columbia provides just one example that
the process can be complicated and cumbersome, but impor-
tant for cities that want to increase revenues and more accu-
rately and equitably charge property owners for stormwater
management costs.

Fee Discount
Stormwater fee discounts are intricately tied to the storm-
water fee and often share the same delays and complications.
Municipalities want high participation rates in any discount
program in order to see green infrastructure retrofits, but
there are simultaneous concerns about meeting revenue goals.
                                                   3—Policy Implementation: Barriers, Lessons Learned and Realities of Each Policy

Extensive revenue generation studies can prove difficult to
undertake without hiring consultants. Also, significant stake-
holder engagement is necessary to the success of an incen-
tive program that will likely impact large-scale development
projects and existing commercial and industrial properties.

Portland, Oregon, provides insight into setting up a discount
program that takes these concerns into account. The City
anticipated the highest level of participation in the first year of
its discount program and increased stormwater rates by nearly
20 percent in the first year to make  sure they met revenue
goals. Although participation rates were only one-third of
what the City estimated, they maintained revenue increases
and invested excess funds in capital improvements and water-
shed restoration projects. City staff said in retrospect they
would have piloted the discount program in targeted parts
of the City to see how it was received by property  owners to
better estimate participation. A pilot program also would have
allowed the City to more easily fix flaws in the program that
were much harder to address with a larger citywide program.

Before setting fee discounts, municipalities should first deter-
mine the stormwater management goals they wish to achieve
(e.g., reduce impervious cover, increase infiltration, increase
green roofs). Once these management goals are defined, offi-
cials must then decide how to credit private property owners
for the action(s). Some cities give a percent discount for level
of performance, primarily for stormwater quantity reduc-
tion and in fewer cases for pollution reduction. Discounts are
also offered for impervious surface reductions, whether for
total area or by the square foot. Finally, credits can be based
on particular practices, such as rain gardens, green roofs or
even tree canopy. This overall process should be thoughtfully
developed with input from ratepayers and should build in
opportunities for responsive change based on feedback.
          Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

Integrating Policies
The municipalities in this study illustrate the success of
setting up an integrated program that weaves together
multiple goals and engages various local agencies. Instead
of limiting the scope of stormwater efforts to the regulatory
framework outlined in the Clean Water Act, the most innova-
tive municipalities—those with extensive build-out of green
infrastructure—use a range of regulatory and non-regulatory
mechanisms. Local leadership has helped create programs that
move beyond stormwater regulations and take advantage of
policies and programs that protect large scale green infrastruc-
ture, retrofit existing impervious sites and establish new areas
to include green infrastructure practices.

While land use regulations can address many properties
and land use types, other approaches such as demonstration
projects, incentives, grants and outreach programs increase
the amount of green infrastructure through retrofits, stream
restoration, watershed projects and changing public percep-
tion of stormwater and the infrastructure needed to minimize
and manage it. These cities and counties did not always create
a clear plan that led to all intended results; many have devel-
oped programs over time, filling out gaps with new policies
and refining existing policies as they go along. It was also
critical that these communities had the initiative to take some
first steps and continue to learn as they went along.
Setting Priorities
Whether a community's water-related concerns are primarily
with improving water quality, reducing water quantity.
restoring natural hydrology, or all of the above, local policy
makers need to define local goals and then create policies or
programs aimed at these priorities.

Municipalities should also strategize about how to gain
benefits where they are most needed and target programs
for specific properties and land use types or geographically
defined areas. For example, some communities will prioritize
combined sewer areas or neighborhoods with the highest
percentage of impervious surfaces. Other municipalities may
direct policies at specific land uses, like parking lots or vacant
properties that combine to form a large block of impervious
surface types. Others still may put an emphasis on adding
surface vegetation to neighborhoods with less access to
public green space. Local priorities, needs and availability of
resources should determine the mix of policies most appro-
priate to achieve these goals.

Innovative communities in this study, and those beyond
the ones listed here, are setting green infrastructure priori-
ties based on achieving multiple objectives and choosing
approaches that will drive progress in various sectors. For
example, cities should consider the non-water benefits of
green infrastructure for energy conservation, greenhouse gas
emission reductions, public health, community livability.
resource recovery (phosphorus and biosolids), reduced
infrastructure construction, operation and maintenance costs

and more. Some communities, metropolitan areas and even
multi-state regions are starting to link together the site-level
and municipal performance of green infrastructure systems to
larger regional performance and benefits. For example, Open
Space Seattle 2100 is a project that integrates urban plan-
ning with watershed planning, uses existing data to calculate
long-term future scenarios and outlines a range of benefits
from connected green infrastructure systems (see Figure 16).64
Similarly, Philadelphia's Triple Bottom Line study assesses
green infrastructure options for CSO control over 40 years
and determines citywide, total present value benefits to range
from about $1.9 billion (2009 USD) under the 25 percent
green infrastructure option to more than $4.5 billion under
the 100 percent green infrastructure option  (see Figure 15).
Ongoing work and future development may help establish
metrics and methodologies for determining the benefits of
integrated approaches to resource management and commu-
nity design and planning.
Figure 15: Citywide net benefits for green infrastructure options. Courtesy of Philadelphia Water Department.
                                                      Long-Term Planning and  Investment
                                                      Communities that take the long-term view invest in hybrid
                                                      green and gray systems that provide more community and
                                                      environmental benefits while maintaining existing invest-
                                                      ments. A systematic approach, often initiated by mapping
                                                      existing needs and assets, will help to define long-term goals
                                                      and timelines for achieving them. Moving beyond short-term
                                                      projects is especially important for investing in vegetated
                                                      systems that require time to grow and show performance for
                                                      managing stormwater runoff. At the larger neighborhood and
                                                      watershed scale, building out different parts of a community
                                                      with green infrastructure will require time to show cumu-
                                                      lative benefits as these areas link together and work as a
                                                      whole system.

                                                      Municipalities should approach the development of a green
                                                      infrastructure program as an iterative process with many
                                                      incremental steps. There are a number of policy options
                                                                                 available with a range of
                                                                                 necessary inputs, including
                                                                                 funding, staffing, time, public
                                                                                 participation and support
                                                                                 from politicians, stakeholder
                                                                                 groups and even upstream or
                                                                                 downstream jurisdictions. In
                                                                                 light of the many potential
                                                                                 barriers, municipalities should
                                                                                 seek to build programs that
                                                                                 are flexible and multifaceted.
                                                                                 Flexible programs will be able
                                                                                 to respond to changing political
                                                                                 climates, public perceptions
                                                                                 and new information about
                                                                                 the performance and design of
                                                                                 green infrastructure systems.
                                                                                 By using a diverse set of poli-
                                                                                 cies across all three scales.
                                                                                 from the watershed to the
                                                                                 neighborhood and site, commu-
                                                                                 nities can fully integrate green
                                                                                 infrastructure into the fabric of
                                                                                 the built environment.
Increased recreational opportunities

Improved aesthetics/property value

Reduction in heat stress mortality

Water quality/aquatic habitat enhancement

Wetland services

Social costs avoided by green collar jobs

Air quality improvements from trees

Energy Savings

Reduced damage from S02 and NOX emissions

Reduced damage from C02 emissions
54 Open Space Seattle 2100: Designing Seattle's Green Network for the next
century: http://open2100.org
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

               The Mouth of theiDuwamish
                                     The Hearllof IWe Duwamish

       proposed transportation
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           tr»«t»a COM*

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Strategies and implementation

• Percent of Stale Sales Tax applied to lidding regional
  transportation corridors
• Increase incentives for Transfer of Development Rights and
  Conservation Easements to increase designated habitat
• Develop citywide financial incentives to encourage
  implementation of Green Energy Technology and Sustainable
  Development (i e wind, micrahydro. solar green roofs)
• Public Purchase of waterfront and greenbe't parcels to create
  continuous terrestrial and waterfront habitat corridors
• Use Real  Estate Excise Tax to develop public open space
  amenities (i e parks  green streets, rain gardens and green
• Develop transportation networks that facilitate industrial
  devetopmant in nun critical (i e non-waterfront) habrtat areas
Figure 16: Open Space Seattle 2100 bases urban planning on watershed units and integrates transportation,
water infrastructure, habitat areas and community amenities. Map courtesy ofhttp://open2100.org


      CjASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
Home to the City of Gainesville and the University of Florida,
Alachua County is located in the flat Central Highlands
region of north-central Florida. Water is a remarkably visible
and important resource for Alachua County. Ample rainfall
throughout the year provides water to more than 20 creeks
and streams that flow into sinkholes, lakes, marshes and the
Santa Fe River. These waterbodies serve as habitat to diverse
biota, provide a variety of recreational opportunities, and
stimulate economic activity by drawing tourists and residents
alike. Some of this surface water also recharges the Floridan
aquifer, a vast groundwater reservoir that supplies 90 percent
of Florida's drinking water and all of Alachua County's
drinking water.

Alachua County is largely rural outside of Gainesville and
the University of Florida, and population growth is placing
increasing pressure on the County's land and water resources.
To preserve these fragile natural resources, Alachua has
developed a set of regulatory, land acquisition, and informa-
tion strategies promoting green infrastructure. Alachua takes
a systems approach to green infrastructure, recognizing the
interconnections between land, water, habitat and quality of
life. The County has drawn broad support for green infra-
structure activities by identifying the multiple benefits beyond
Stormwater management. The County's governance structure
promotes collaboration, performance management, and public
involvement.  This open and responsive structure allows
the program to adapt to residents' priorities and promotes
continued support.

Alachua's green infrastructure program was developed largely
in response to development pressures associated with its
growing population. Existing development has generated
a host of impacts to surface waters, habitat, and recreation,
including flooding, stream channel erosion, and poor water
quality. Because the County's surface waters are hydrologi-
cally connected to its groundwater supply, degraded surface
waters could also affect the County's drinking water. As the
County's population and development continues to increase,
county managers recognize the need to protect the land and
water resources for future generations.
Figure 1: Madem is a neighborhood development on 40 acres that
achieves decentralized Stormwater management and protects mature
trees. The developer, Green Trust LLC, saved $40,000 on Stormwater by
using existing forested basins instead of building new retention ponds.

Regulatory Strategies
Adopted in 2005 and 2006, Alachua's Comprehensive Plan
and Land Development Code include a comprehensive set of
regulations promoting green infrastructure at multiple scales.
A series of development requirements promote green infra-
structure at the site and neighborhood scales. While devel-
opments of 25 units or more are  required to cluster units to
preserve at least 50 percent of open space, all developments
are required to preserve significant natural areas and trees.
Developers must maintain 75 foot buffers along streams, 50
                                                                                     Case Study—Alachua County, FL

percent of "strategic ecosystems" as identified by the County,
and 20 percent of existing tree canopy. To reduce impervious
cover, the Land Development Code reduces the minimum
pavement width standard to 18-22 feet for residential roads,
and allows shared parking and pervious materials for spill-
overs or parking lanes.

The Comprehensive Plan and Land Development Code also
include a set of regulations requiring a comprehensive  storm-
water management program. To improve the performance of
the County's stormwater management system, the County
is required to maintain an inventory of stormwater manage-
ment practices,  track maintenance requirements, and schedule
maintenance activities in the Capital Improvements Program.
The Plan and Code also address funding and administration.
The County is required to pursue  a dedicated revenue source
for its stormwater management program, and the Public
Works  Department is charged with administering the program.

Land Acquisition  Strategies
Alachua's land acquisition strategies  complement its regula-
tory strategies by expanding the County's regional-scale green
infrastructure. Alachua's land acquisition strategies enjoy
broad support from citizens and landowners. In November
2000, voters overwhelmingly approved the use of $29 million
collected through a property tax to create a dedicated fund for
land acquisition. The fund, called Alachua County Forever,
uses voluntary acquisition tools including sales, donations and
dedications of interests in land to  conserve open spaces nomi-
nated by the public. Voters reaffirmed their commitment to
land conservation in 2008 with the passage of the Wild Spaces
Public Places referendum. This referendum established a one-
half cent sales tax for two years to fund land conservation and
recreational improvements.

Information Strategies
Alachua's information strategies include indicators tracking,
information sharing, education  and outreach, civic engage-
ment, and intergovernmental coordination. By tracking and
sharing the success of its regulatory and land acquisition
strategies, Alachua promotes confidence in its programs,
increases citizen engagement, and assures long-term support
of its resource protection efforts.
                                                    Alachua's development records, built environment, and
                                                    open space network attest to the success of its policies. From
                                                    April 2006 to September 2009, developments reviewed and
                                                    approved by the County protected 31 percent of open space,
                                                    67 percent of the tree canopy, 27 percent of upland habitat, 59
                                                    percent of strategic ecosystems, and 100 percent of wetlands.

                                                    Alachua's Madera subdivision (see Figure 1) provides an
                                                    illustrative example of the site- and neighborhood-scale green
                                                    infrastructure practices the County's development regula-
                                                    tions can promote. In designing site plans to preserve existing
                                                    vegetation, the developer not only retained mature trees, but
                                                    reduced soil compaction. Infiltration was further promoted by
                                                    native landscaping, narrower streets, and depressed bioreten-
                                                    tion areas in each cul-de-sac.

                                                    On a regional scale, Alachua's land acquisition program has
                                                    protected an impressive network of open space in the 10 years
                                                    since its conception. Alachua County Forever has protected
                                                    over 18,000 acres of land worth over $81  million. Today,
                                                    Alachua has nature preserves in every quadrant of the County,
                                                    90 percent of which are open to the public. These include
                                                    large, connected properties as well as urban green space.

                                                    Alachua County offers an instructive example for other rural
                                                    counties experiencing steady urbanization. By taking action
                                                    early to preserve its land and water resources, Alachua has
                                                    assured continued access to open space, clean water, and
                                                    diverse ecosystems for generations to come.
                                                             Figure 2: Depot Pond is a former brownfield site that was cleared of
                                                             contaminated soil and converted into a functional wetland for managing
                                                             runoff from nearby downtown.
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

      C^ASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
A vibrant city on the shores of Lake Michigan, Chicago is one
of the nation's innovators in green infrastructure. Chicago's
3 million residents are served by a vast system of water and
wastewater infrastructure that includes more than 100 square
miles of impervious cover, thousands of miles of water and
sewer pipes, a 28-mile canal that reverses the course of the
Chicago River, and nearly 100 miles of Stormwater storage
tunnels. Chicago leaders and residents are creating an inte-
grated system of gray and green infrastructure to better serve
their environmental, social and economic objectives. In addi-
tion, Chicago's green infrastructure program is one  element
of a comprehensive environmental agenda addressing green
building, transportation, energy and resource management.

Drivers:  Aging  Infrastructure, Urban  Heat
Islands,  and the Triple Bottom  Line
Like many cities that installed sewage collection systems
before the 1930s, Chicago has a single piping system to trans-
port both sewage and Stormwater runoff. When large storms
overwhelm the capacity of Chicago's wastewater treatment
plants, untreated waste and Stormwater is discharged into the
Chicago River, degrading water quality in the Des Plaines
River and Lake Michigan. Though Chicago has invested
billions of dollars in a "deep tunnel"  system to expand
capacity during flood events, the City is supplementing
this gray infrastructure approach with green infrastructure.
Completion of the deep tunnels is not anticipated until 2019.
and climate change may overwhelm its capacity.  To create a
more robust system, Chicago is promoting landscape-based.
green infrastructure approaches that infiltrate, evapotranspire
or harvest rainwater before it enters the sewer system.

Green infrastructure is also viewed as a cost-effective
approach to the extreme summer heat exacerbated by the
urban heat island effect. Urban heat islands are caused by
the high density of impervious cover in urban areas, which
tend to absorb more heat in the day and radiate more heat
at night. With 58 percent of its urban area occupied by
impervious cover,  Chicago experiences a particularly severe
urban heat island effect. Green roofs and the urban tree
canopy are known to significantly reduce temperatures in
urban environments.

The final driver of green infrastructure in Chicago is the
City's efforts to advance its triple-bottom-line. Chicago's
mayor and other city leaders have consistently maintained
that a healthy environment is both consistent with and
critical to a robust economy and a richer quality of life. In
the comprehensive Water Agenda released in 2003, and
Environmental Action Agendas released in 2005 and 2006.
Chicago's leaders have reaffirmed their belief that environ-
mental initiatives can help the City stretch taxpayer funds.
help residents save money on energy costs, make the City a
great place to live, and contribute to increased property values
for Chicago homeowners.

Stormwater Management Ordinance
The Chicago policy that most directly promotes green infra-
structure is the  recently adopted Stormwater Management
Ordinance. As of January 1, 2008, any new development or
redevelopment that disturbs 15,000 square feet or more or
creates a parking lot of 7,500 square feet or more must detain
at least the first half inch of rain on site. Alternatively, the
development may reduce the prior imperviousness of the site
by 15 percent.

Green Streets Program
In 1989, Mayor Richard Daley announced a Green Streets
initiative to expand the city's tree canopy. By increasing
public and private  tree plantings and improving mainte-
nance and public education, Mayor Daley hoped to increase

the urban canopy by half a million trees by 1992. Though
progress was slower than hoped, by 2006, more than 583,000
trees had been planted, raising the proportion of the City
shaded by trees to 14.6 percent. These trees not only had the
intended effect of improving quality of life and air quality,
but also reduced runoff volumes through interception
and evapotranspiration.

Green Roof Program
Chicago offers incentives for building green roofs
through its Green Roof Grant Program and Green Roof
Improvement Fund. In 2005, 2006 and 2007, the  Green
Roof Grant Program awarded grants of $5,000 to 72 green
roof projects on residential or small commercial build-
ings. In 2007, the Chicago  City Council allocated $500,000
to the Green Roof Improvement Fund, and authorized the
Department of Planning and Development to award grants of
up to $100,000 to green roof projects within the City's Central
Loop District. Though neither grant program is active in the
present economic environment, the City hopes to resume
these programs once the  City's budget recovers.

Green Alley  Program
The City of Chicago has an estimated 1,900 miles of public
alleys paved with 3,500 acres of impervious cover. The Green
Alley Program began in 2006 as a series of pilot projects
conducted by the Chicago Department of Transportation
(CDOT) to test a variety of permeable paving materials to
reduce flooding in alleys and increase infiltration of runoff.
By the end of 2009, the program became permanent, and
CDOT had installed more than 100 green alley designs
throughout the City. To share its experience with  sustainable
infrastructure practices, the City published the Green Alley
Handbook,' which describes best management practices
implemented by the program and presents examples from
pilot projects.
                                                    Figure /.- Chicago's Green Alley Program retrofits existing alleyways to
                                                    include permeable pavers like these to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Photo
                                                    courtesy of David Leopold.
                                                    Sustainable Streetscapes Program
                                                    Through the Sustainable Streetscapes Program, CDOT
                                                    integrates green stormwater infrastructure into street improve-
                                                    ment projects throughout the City and tests novel storm-
                                                    water management techniques. Notable projects include the
                                                    realignment and grade separation project at 130th Street and
                                                    Torrence Avenue, the realignment of U.S. Route 41 through
                                                    the USX Southworks site, and the pilot project planned for
                                                    Cermak Road. The 130th Street and Torrence Avenue project
                                                    near the Calumet River will redirect the roadway runoff to
                                                    discharge into a new treatment pond and vegetated swale
                                                    rather than directly into  the river. Similarly, the realignment of
                                                    U.S. Route 41 will include permeable pavement, infiltration
                                                    pipes, and other treatment structures to reduce the volume
                                                    and pollutant loads of runoff into Lake Michigan and the
                                                    combined sewer system. Other sustainable streetscape proj-
                                                    ects completed by CDOT have included permeable pavers,
                                                    rain gardens, a permeable plaza, and permeable asphalt
                                                    parking lanes.
1 Chicago's Green Alley Handbook: http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

Figure 2: This Chicago building features a green roof, permeable
pavers and bioswales, which meet Chicago's stormwater management
Less visible, but perhaps more impressive, are the changes
in the way the City and the development community do
business. As the City constructs pilot projects to demon-
strate green infrastructure practices, developers and associ-
ated design, construction and manufacturing industries are
becoming more familiar with green infrastructure materials
and practices. This familiarity together with the City's various
financial incentives has increased the cost-competitiveness of
some green infrastructure practices and expanded their adop-
tion among the development community. By integrating green
infrastructure into a broader environmental agenda, leading by
example, and pursuing an incentive-based approach, Chicago
is gradually moving towards more sustainable development
and a more robust triple-bottom-line.
Green  Permit Program
Established in 2005, the Department of Buildings' Green
Permit Program offers owners and developers an innovative
incentive to build green. Qualifying projects may benefit
from an expedited permitting process and lower permit-
ting fees. Projects qualifying for Tier I benefits will receive
permits in less than 30 business days. Since earlier construc-
tion starts generally lead to earlier sales and reduced interest
on construction loans, this time savings can translate into
significant financial savings. Projects qualifying for the
more demanding Tier II benefits may also receive a direct
financial benefit in the form of reduced permitting fees of up
to $25,000.

Chicago's comprehensive green infrastructure program results
in highly visible changes in the City's landscape. As of 2010,
nearly 600,000 trees had been added to the  City's tree canopy,
and more than 4 million square feet of green roofs had been
installed on 300 buildings. Pilot projects throughout the  City
are also demonstrating how green infrastructure practices can
be integrated into alleys, streets and buildings. These projects
not only reduce runoff, but reduce the urban heat island effect,
improve air quality, and enhance the pedestrian environment.
Data collected from City Hall's green roof indicate that the
roof not only reduces stormwater runoff by 50 percent, but
significantly reduces energy use and saves the City approxi-
mately $5,500 annually on heating and cooling expenses.


      CjASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
As Emeryville, California, transitions from a declining indus-
trial city to a vibrant, mixed-use urban center, city managers
are promoting environmental and economic sustainability
through an innovative set of green infrastructure poli-
cies. Emeryville is a former industrial hub located between
Oakland and Berkeley on the San Francisco Bay. Industry
left the City in the 1960s, and Emeryville struggled with its
legacy of contaminated properties until the 1990s, when an
aggressive brownfields redevelopment program was initi-
ated. The brownfields program met with great success and
attracted thousands of new residents to the 1.2 square mile
City, but initial efforts neglected the environmental and social
impacts of redevelopment. Emphasizing the "capping" of
contaminated soils with parking lots and pavement, initial
redevelopment efforts created a largely impervious landscape
that impaired water quality, pedestrian access, and quality of
life. In 2004, Emeryville received a smart growth grant from
EPA to develop sustainable solutions to brownfield redevelop-
ment, and produced a comprehensive set of stormwater poli-
cies and guidelines adapted to Emeryville's unique context.
Recognizing both the multiple benefits of green infrastructure
and the limited supply of developable land, these policies
promote the integration of site-scale green infrastructure prac-
tices throughout the built environment. Emeryville's experi-
ence with green infrastructure illustrates the versatility of the
green infrastructure approach, and offers valuable lessons
to other cities interested in redevelopment that is both dense
and green.

Drivers: Regulation and  Limited
Developable  Land
Emeryville's approach to stormwater management was
shaped largely by regulatory requirements associated with the
Clean Water Act, and by  the City's limited supply of develop-
able land.  Beginning August 15, 2006, the National Pollutant
Figure /.- High-density housing with green infrastructure features is neces-
sary in Emeryville to take advantage of the mere 1.2 square miles of
developable land in this city.
Discharge Elimination System stormwater permit issued to
Emeryville by the San Francisco Regional Water Quality
Control Board required all projects creating 10,000 square
feet or more of impervious cover to include post-construction
stormwater controls on  site. Given the limited supply of
developable land in Emeryville and the associated lack of
green and pedestrian friendly spaces, city managers chose
to address these requirements by expanding the City's green
infrastructure network.

Emeryville requires new developments to manage stormwater
with green infrastructure and provides detailed design guide-
lines tailored to the City's unique context. In 2007, Emeryville
introduced a comprehensive set of green infrastructure provi-
sions into its Municipal Code. These provisions promote and
require the integration of green infrastructure into stormwater
management systems by: 1) minimizing impervious area, and
2) including vegetative  stormwater controls. Emeryville's
                                                                                        Case Study—Emeryville, CA

green infrastructure provisions address the entire life span of
stormwater treatment systems—from design to maintenance
and inspection. Design provisions require all developers to
comply with the City's "Stormwater Guidelines for Green,
Dense Redevelopment,"1 and permitting provisions require
developers of lots 10,000 square feet or larger to enter into
an operations and maintenance agreement. This system of
requirements, guidelines, and permits requires developers to
address the design and maintenance of green infrastructure
throughout the project's planning and operation.

Emeryville's high water table, dense development patterns,
and compacted or contaminated soils pose significant chal-
lenges to green infrastructure. Infiltration opportunities
are often limited, and infiltration in contaminated soils
could pose a risk to groundwater. To promote the installa-
tion of green infrastructure systems adapted to the City's
unique constraints, Emeryville developed and published the
"Stormwater Guidelines for Green, Dense Redevelopment."
These guidelines offer developers a range of green infra-
structure alternatives grouped into two general strategies:
innovative parking solutions to reduce runoff and innovative
stormwater controls to manage and treat runoff. The inte-
grated parking strategies included in the guidelines reduce
runoff by reducing the number of parking spaces required by
the community. These strategies include pricing strategies,
transportation demand measures, and parking information and
guidance systems.

The innovative stormwater controls include methods to
infiltrate, evapotranspire and/or harvest and use stormwater,
while adapting to space constraints and preserving ground-
water quality. These controls take many forms—from green
roofs to permeable pavements—but all follow a few general
principles. First, many of the stormwater controls consist of
plantings or landscaped areas designed to serve as compo-
nents of the  stormwater treatment system, rather than orna-
ments. Second, all stormwater controls may be integrated
into the urban mosaic of a dense city. Finally, all stormwater
controls that infiltrate stormwater include under-drains
connected to the sewer system to reduce the risk of ground-
water contamination. The guidelines also include a numeric
sizing methodology to aid developers in sizing green infra-
structure facilities.
                                                     Though Emeryville's green infrastructure policies are
                                                     relatively new, implementation has proceeded smoothly,
                                                     and at least 10 projects have incorporated the guidelines
                                                     so far. These projects include the GlasHaus development,
                                                     which planted vegetation on a podium level to capture and
                                                     treat stormwater, and Green City Lofts, a 62-unit develop-
                                                     ment that reuses stormwater for irrigation on site. Developer
                                                     resistance is low, and experience to date has demonstrated
                                                     that additional costs may be minimal. If stormwater treatment
                                                     measures are addressed early in the planning process, the
                                                     project can easily integrate space requirements and may even
                                                     achieve operational savings.

                                                     Green infrastructure offers many benefits aside from storm-
                                                     water treatment. The integration of green infrastructure into
                                                     streets, parking lots, landscapes and buildings can create
                                                     more pedestrian friendly spaces, calm traffic, improve air
                                                     quality, reduce the urban heat island effect, create habitat, and
                                                     improve  energy efficiency. As permeable pavements, native
                                                     plantings, and other green infrastructure practices become
                                                     standard features of new construction, Emeryville expects its
                                                     green infrastructure system to enhance urban livability and
                                                     sustain its economic renewal.
                                                     Figure 2: Multi-level or stacked parking behind a business further reduces
                                                     imperviousness and complies with Emeryville's "Stormwater Guidelines
                                                     for Green, Dense Redevelopment."
1 Emeryville's Stormwater Guidelines for Green, Dense Redevelopment: http://www.
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

      CjASE  STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
Lenexa, Kansas, is a growing suburb in metropolitan Kansas
City that faces increasing pressure from the impacts of new
development, including more homes, roads and other imper-
vious surfaces that create more runoff.  In an effort to protect
local water quality, as well as prevent flooding and improve
the quality of life for residents, Lenexa's comprehensive plan,
Vision 2020, initiated Rain to Recreation, an innovative and
integrated watershed protection program.

Rain to Recreation outlines a number of policies and programs
to protect land from future development and introduce new
green infrastructure practices that limit imperviousness and
manage runoff on site. Since the program began in 2000,
it has grown to include both regulatory and non-regulatory
approaches as well as major capital projects and land acqui-
sitions. From protection of priority natural resource areas
in the watershed, to creation  of riparian greenways through
application of the stream setback ordinance, down to requiring
low-impact development practices on site, Lenexa is investing
in green infrastructure at all three scales, including the water-
shed, neighborhood and site levels.

Regulatory Changes
In 2001, as part of the larger  comprehensive plan, Lenexa
established an integrated Stormwater and Watershed
Management Master Plan that focuses  on correcting existing
problems in developed areas, building  new facilities to
minimize runoff and protecting undeveloped lands. In 2004,
Lenexa increased its requirements in favor of Stormwater
management practices that infiltrate, reuse and evapotrans-
pirate runoff by passing a Stormwater ordinance and design
manual to comply with its new National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II permit.1

Lenexa's updated post-construction Stormwater ordinance
applies to both new and redevelopment projects and priori-
tizes water quality by assigning rankings for different storm-
water management practices based on their value for water
quality performance. Developers are thinking creatively about
how to meet the new standards, selecting low-impact devel-
opment practices that are both functional and aesthetically
pleasing for residents and tenants.  These natural and func-
tional green infrastructure designs complement neighborhood
revitalization plans and gain multiple benefits for the environ-
ment and community.
Figure 1: A constructed 1st order intermittent stream in a
neighborhood development slows and infiltrates Stormwater
runoff, while adding aesthetic value for residents. Plant
selection and landscape transition plantings were carefully
considered for acceptance.
                                                              1 To access Lenexa's Phase I
                     NPDES Permit, goto http://www.raintorecreation.org/
                                                                                           Case Study—Lenexa, KS

                                                                                     ua  r.  *
Figure 2: Lenexa's Parks and Trails Plan outlines existing and future projects to protect and preserve open space, especially right around streams (shown
in green as protected by the setback ordinance) and sensitive sub-watersheds.
Land Acquisition  and Restoration  Projects        Creative Funding
Lenexa is not just motivated by water quality improvements,
but is also driven to use green infrastructure practices and
plans to address flood concerns, stream erosion and quality of
life improvements for local citizens. Water quality and water
quantity are addressed through different policy mechanisms.
While the new stormwater ordinance deals directly with water
quality, water quantity is being minimized through large-scale
projects that the City builds on its own.

The City purchases land in priority areas to provide flood
mitigation, stream protection, water quality improvement
and recreational amenities. For example, Lake of the Prairie
and Mize Lake are two projects that restore and stabilize
damaged sections of streams, create new wetland areas and
include plans to construct large recreational and educational
amenities. The largest project in Lenexa is a $26 million
project called Lake Lenexa, which includes a 35-acre lake at
the center of a nearly 350-acre public park. The comprehen-
sive design for Lake Lenexa includes wetlands, rain gardens,
stream restorations, trails and boardwalks, recreational space
and art and education areas. The City bought the property to
protect the land from potential development and to enhance
existing natural resources.
                                                    Lenexa uses creative and long-term funding for these major
                                                    land purchases and projects, as well as for the day-to-day
                                                    staffing and management of the Rain to Recreation program.
                                                    In 2000, Lenexa taxpayers voted for a ballot to add a 1/8 cent
                                                    sales tax to support building stormwater facilities that repair
                                                    existing infrastructure problems and protect against future
                                                    flooding events. In addition, Lenexa established a stormwater
                                                    utility to provide sustainable funding for its new programs.
                                                    The stormwater utility charge is based on the amount of
                                                    runoff surface on each parcel of land. Each property is
                                                    charged $5.50 (in 2008) per equivalent dwelling unit (EDU),
                                                    which is measured at 2,750 square feet, or about the average
                                                    runoff surface area of a house with a driveway. Commercial
                                                    and non-residential properties are charged based upon amount
                                                    of stormwater runoff generated and rates are calculated by
                                                    dividing total runoff surface area by the number of square feet
                                                    in an EDU (2,750) to more closely charge these larger proper-
                                                    ties by runoff contributions to the public system.

                                                    In 2004, the Lenexa City Council adopted the Systems
                                                    Development Charge to require new developments to pay a
                                                    one-time fee at the time of the building permit as a means
                                                    for recovering costs for capital improvement activities. This
                                                    charge works like a fee-in-lieu mechanism where developers
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

are paying the City to manage water quantity that is created
by the addition of new impervious surfaces.

Continued grants from state and federal sources, such as
Clean Water Act Section 319 Nonpoint Source funding
for park construction and Surface Transportation Project
funding for roadway projects, have assisted with capital and
demonstration projects like Lake Lenexa. Other sources of
funding also support Lenexa's stormwater program, including
Johnson County Stormwater Management Advisory Council
funding supported by a 1/10 cent sales tax and basic permit-
ting fees charged to developers. Together, these funding
sources ensure long-term watershed protection through the
continued creation, operation and maintenance of green
infrastructure practices.

Overall, Lenexa wields strong local control to require
more rain gardens, bioswales and other forms of green
infrastructure in private development projects. At the same
time, through the Rain to Recreation program, the  City
invests heavily in large land preservation and restoration
projects that provide key neighborhood and watershed
scale green infrastructure.
                                                                                           Case Study—Lenexa, KS


      CjASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
Olympia, Washington, is the capital city of the State of
Washington and is located on the Puget Sound, a sensitive
estuary in the Pacific Ocean. Olympia's Storm and Surface
Water Utility works alongside other city departments, such
as Planning and Zoning, and Parks, Arts, and Recreation, and
businesses and residents, to promote best available science
and local innovation that can help enhance water quality,
prevent flooding and protect aquatic ecosystems.

Olympia's Storm and Surface Water Plan aims to protect and
improve water quality, maintain and prevent further degrada-
tion of aquatic habitat and minimize flooding. Olympia is part
of the Western Washington Phase II Municipal Stormwater
Permit, which requires five counties and 81 cities to manage
Stormwater before it discharges to surface and groundwater.
In addition to regulatory drivers, the citizens and decision
makers in Olympia hope to protect salmon populations and
aquatic habitat for many species, which are harmed in already
degraded urban waterways and threatened in still healthy parts
of the watershed.

Olympia's Storm and Surface Water Plan supports better
watershed protection and runoff reduction through a variety of
policy and funding mechanisms.

On-site Stormwater Requirements
Olympia's Stormwater regulations require that developments
infiltrate 91 percent of runoff through on-site management.
The City works with developers to offset the addition of
new impervious surfaces through effective green infrastruc-
ture practices. For example, Figure 1 shows a green roof at
Figure 1: A green roof at Evergreen College was built to offset the addition
of new impervious surfaces from new parking spaces.
Evergreen State University that helped offset new parking
spaces on campus.

Environmental Planning and Policy Development
The utility and other city departments are working together
to promote better understanding of green infrastructure
approaches and to incorporate performance measures and
evaluation tools into new policies and programs.

Capital Facilities
The City is developing new Stormwater management and
restoration projects on public lands around important streams
and waterways. Projects include land acquisition, conservation
easements and other ecosystem protections and improvements.

Development Review
The utility, along with the Community Planning and
Development Department, continue to update local develop-
ment codes to ensure compliance with Stormwater manage-
ment and water quality requirements, as well as encourage
                                                                                        Case Study—Olympia, WA

innovation in the development community. The City is trying
to reach out to the development community to promote better
site planning, soil and slope protection and inclusion of green
infrastructure practices that reduce impervious surfaces and
infiltrate runoff.

Code Enforcement and Technical Assistance
The City monitors and evaluates stormwater practices on
private properties, as well as provides direct assistance
to homeowners and commercial sites to help them more
effectively introduce green infrastructure practices that
are cost effective.

Storm and Surface  Water Utility
Olympia's stormwater rate structure secures annual revenues
used for basic system maintenance, expansion and rebuilding
of infrastructure to meet state and federal regulations and
improve water quality and protect aquatic habitat.

Permeable Streets and Sidewalks
The City of Olympia began using permeable pavement in
1999 and continues to develop new projects and retrofit
existing surfaces to  reduce runoff through infiltration. Cost
and benefit evaluations, maintenance information and tech-
nical specifications developed through early demonstration
projects have helped the City continue to use permeable mate-
rials on trails, sidewalks, streets and bike lanes.

In 2005, the City developed a memorandum describing the
rationale for using pervious concrete in the construction of
city-funded sidewalks, based on a study showing that it is
more cost-effective  to construct and maintain pervious side-
walks to meet stormwater storage and treatment requirements
than to construct and maintain traditional sidewalks.1 The
study considered both construction and maintenance costs and
found that traditional sidewalks totaled $101 per square yard
while pervious sidewalks cost only $54 per square yard.
                                                     Figure 2: A medical center in Olympia, Washington, manages runoff from
                                                     the roof and other impervious areas through small swales and permeable
                                                     Olympia continues to evaluate and refine the various poli-
                                                     cies and programs that support better land use and on-site
                                                     stormwater management practices. The City employs a
                                                     range of policies for new developments that add impervious
                                                     surfaces and for existing sites that can be retrofitted to better
                                                     manage runoff on site. Past experience with green infrastruc-
                                                     ture helped the City secure Recovery Act State Revolving
                                                     Funds in 2009 to develop 10 acres of city-owned park land
                                                     with green infrastructure. The project will provide enhanced
                                                     treatment for 840 acre-feet of runoff per year through a water
                                                     quality treatment wetland, bio-retention ponds, a 5,000 square
                                                     foot rain garden, a new parking lot with porous pavement
                                                     and water harvesting and re-use for irrigation. These  large
                                                     scale projects complement requirements for private property
                                                     owners to better manage runoff on site to protect the  Puget
                                                     Sound and other priority streams in and around Olympia.
1 Memorandum on Traditional versus Pervious Concrete Sidewalks Construction
and Maintenance Cost: http://olympiawa.gOV/~/media/Files/PublicWorks/PDFs/
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

      C^ASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
Philadelphia has a sewer collection system that is 60 percent
combined sewer and 40 percent municipal separate storm
sewer system (MS4) and is working to improve Stormwater
management through restoration and demonstration efforts.
regulations and incentives for the private sector and a revised
Stormwater billing system. Green infrastructure is an effective
approach for Philadelphia, which recognizes the links between
land use and water quality and the overlapping economic.
environmental and community benefits that can be gained
through green infrastructure.

Philadelphia is in the process of completing watershed-
wide plans for each stream system in the City, working with
neighboring municipalities through watershed partnerships.
However, the City also outlines regulatory areas by sewer-
sheds and drainage areas. This allows the City to prioritize and
justify new green infrastructure projects based on intended
outcomes and for meeting the conditions of their National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System and combined sewer
overflow (CSO) requirements.

Philadelphia is trying to institutionalize green infrastructure as
standard practice in all development projects  as well as capital
improvement projects undertaken by city agencies. Citywide
policies, such as Green Plan Philadelphia, the Green Roof Tax
Credit and the Green Streets program support the widespread
creation and preservation of functional green spaces on both
publicly and privately owned land. From sewershed demon-
strations to Stormwater fee discount programs, more and more
opportunities exist for landscape architects to be a central
part of the planning and design of private and public projects
throughout Philadelphia.
Drivers: Asset Management and Smart
The Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) emphasizes the
role that green infrastructure can play in extending the service
of existing Stormwater infrastructure. The City expects to
save money on the cost of maintaining pipe networks and
treatment plants by removing flow from these systems. PWD
plans to increasingly invest in decentralized green infrastruc-
ture that minimizes runoff where possible and otherwise
manages it at the source. In addition, PWD implements green
infrastructure as an acceptable method for meeting Clean
Water Act goals.  Currently, green infrastructure implemen-
tation is in the demonstration phase, in which projects are
designed and monitored.

Although permit compliance prioritizes green infrastructure
performance for aquatic habitat health and water quality, a
core goal of creating more green roofs, rain gardens and street
swales is to improve the quality of life for residents and visi-
tors by retrofitting dense urban areas and restoring the state
of waterways that have long been destroyed by heavy flows.
trash and other impacts of urban runoff. A green infrastruc-
ture approach allows Philadelphia to integrate goals for
land, water, community and infrastructure, making it a smart
investment with multiple benefits.

Impervious-Based Billing
The Stormwater billing system is being revised in Philadelphia
to create a more equitable fee structure by using a parcel-
based system that more closely reflects the costs for managing
Stormwater from each property. Rates will be set by deter-
mining the amount of a property's impervious cover and
thereby the amount of runoff a property will generate. As a
result, 80 percent of the City's new Stormwater fee is based
                                                                                      Case Study—Philadelphia, PA

upon a property's impervious area, with the remaining 20
percent based upon the property's gross area. In this way,
stormwater fees will reach non-metered customers such as
vacant lots, parking lots and utility right-of-ways that account
for significant impervious space (and stormwater runoff)
within the City.

Philadelphia offers a stormwater fee discount up to 100
percent of the impervious area charge, gross area charge or
both for customers who reduce impervious cover using green
infrastructure practices, including rain gardens, infiltration
trenches, porous pavements, vegetated swales and green
roofs. If a property is retrofitted with any of these features, the
PWD will re-calculate that property's stormwater fee based
on the 80/20 impervious/gross area formula.

By creating simple financial incentives for developers to
reduce site imperviousness, the City is getting the develop-
ment community to build green infrastructure projects that
will help achieve citywide goals for watershed improvements,
flood mitigation and community amenities.
Figure 1: Philadelphia's new impervious-based fee encourages retrofits of
large impervious sites, such as the Wissahickon Charter School (above),
which now intercepts all parking lot runoff with rain gardens.
                                                    Revised Stormwater Regulations
                                                    One of the key features of Philadelphia's updated storm-
                                                    water regulations is that they encourage urban infill through
                                                    exemptions for redevelopment projects. Focusing devel-
                                                    opments in vacant or infill areas helps to reduce the total
                                                    imperviousness throughout the region. Additionally, on-site
                                                    stormwater management with vegetated systems will provide
                                                    a range of benefits beyond just water quality improvements.
                                                    Implemented in January 2006, these new regulations apply
                                                    to all developments resulting in earth disturbance of 15,000
                                                    square feet or more.  Redevelopment projects may be exempt
                                                    from Channel Protection and Flood Control Requirements if
                                                    they can reduce directly connected impervious area by at least
                                                    20 percent. In effect, most developers now build on infill lots
                                                    instead of undeveloped, natural areas. Most redevelopment
                                                    projects reach the 20 percent reduction by any of the approved
                                                    methods that count as "Disconnecting Your Impervious Area,"
                                                    such as disconnecting downspouts, pavement disconnection,
                                                    tree canopy increase, impervious cover decrease, green roofs
                                                    and porous pavements.

                                                    The success of the new stormwater regulations are contin-
                                                    gent upon the fact that PWD requires projects to get concept
                                                    approval for water, sewer and stormwater before zoning
                                                    permits are considered. This early requirement for stormwater
                                                    design approval results in better decentralized stormwater
                                                    management systems that work with the natural hydrology of
                                                    the site.

                                                    In 2006-2007, the first year of the new stormwater regu-
                                                    lations, the City saw over one square mile built out with
                                                    low-impact development features. These practices, when fully
                                                    built out, will manage most one-inch storms, reducing CSO
                                                    inputs by 25 billion gallons, which PWD estimates will save
                                                    the City $170 million. The success of this program has helped
                                                    create political and public support for integrating green infra-
                                                    structure throughout the City.

                                                    However, Philadelphia is not relying on stormwater regula-
                                                    tions alone to create more green projects. As the figure below
                                                    shows, stormwater regulations only result in 20 percent of
                                                    the total land served by land-based controls, and that 20
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

percent is only reached after
the regulations have been in
place for 20 years. In effect.
Philadelphia's program
includes policies and projects
that also address public lands.
streets, vacant properties and
waterfront separation. From
financial incentives and assis-
tance for retrofits to internal
policies for increased use of
green infrastructure prac-
tices, Philadelphia is using a
range of regulatory and non-
regulatory approaches to make
economic, environmental and
community improvements
with green infrastructure.
Baseline   10%
20%     30%    40%    50%    60%    70%

  Percent of Impervious Area served by Land Based Controls
90%    100%
                                 Figure 2: Philadelphia's approach to converting different land use types to include green infrastructure for
                                 managing stormwater. Graph courtesy of Philadelphia Water Department.
                                                                                            Case Study—Philadelphia, PA


      CjASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
Portland, Oregon, is often cited as the prime example for
green stormwater management, and with good reason.
Portland has one of the most mature and comprehensive green
infrastructure programs in the country, with multiple overlap-
ping policies and programs that have seen several iterations
over time to become as well established and successful as
they are today. The City has taken the initiative, and to some
degree, the risk, necessary to implement a citywide program.
In addition to substantial combined sewer overflow (CSO)
tunnel costs (total costs to sewer ratepayers is estimated at
$1.4 billion), Portland is investing in green infrastructure,
in part to offset costs for major gray infrastructure. The City
considers its $9 million investment in green infrastructure to
save ratepayers $224 million in CSO costs, such as in main-
tenance and repair costs. But on top of the direct stormwater
benefits, Portland sees a number of additional benefits whether
for Coho salmon and Steelhead trout or for residents in
neighborhoods with Green Streets and Watershed Stewardship
Grant projects. The array of policies listed  above attest to the
fact that Portland considers stormwater a resource to highlight
rather than a problem to quickly remove.

Build Out and  Practices  Used
Technologies as varied as planters, rain gardens, swales,
porous paving, rainwater harvesting,  green streets and discon-
nected downspouts are found in abundance and with good
representation throughout Portland. These practices are found
in a range of settings, including parking lots,  apartment build-
ings, schools, private businesses, government offices and
in public spaces like parks and riverside esplanades. Again,
the multiplicity of policies, from requiring on-site manage-
ment for public and private development to incentive-based
programs for homeowners and developers, has resulted in
innovation in design and function.
Figure 1: Tanner Springs Park in Portland, Oregon, features
a 5,300 square foot pond fed by rainwater captured from the
entire park.
Portland's Downspout Disconnection Program targets
homes and small businesses in the combined sewer areas
and provides a great opportunity for public education about
stormwater and CSOs. This is in addition to the direct benefit
of having 56,000 properties with disconnected downspouts,
resulting in 1.2 billion gallons of stormwater kept out of the
combined sewer system since 1994. Portland's Clean River
Rewards, or stormwater charge discount program, has seen
over 35,000 participants, including both residential and
commercial property owners. These discounts have resulted
in $4 million in retroactive credits for properties with low-
impact development (LID) already in place at the program's
inception and another $1.5 million in discounted fees for
newly participating properties.
                                                                                         Case Study—Portland, OR

Portland effectively blends regulations with incentives. Where
local codes and ordinances can make a difference, they are
employed. But for existing properties or for more immediate
results, other programs have been created, including grants,
incentives and discounts.

Requiring Green Infrastructure
Portland's current Stormwater Management Code and Manual
outline the requirements that apply to all projects within the
City of Portland, whether public or private. All projects devel-
oping or redeveloping over 500 square feet of impervious
surface, or existing properties proposing new Stormwater
discharges off-site, are required to comply with pollution
reduction and flow control requirements. Projects of any size
must meet the Destination/Disposal Requirement, which
includes a hierarchical system designed to "mimic predevel-
oped hydrologic conditions by requiring on-site infiltration
wherever practicable:"

 1.  On-site infiltration with a surface infiltration facility.

 2.  On-site infiltration with a public infiltration sump system,
    private drywell or soakage trench.
Figure 2: Portland's first Green Streets project at NE 35th and
Siskiyou features curb cuts, bump outs and swales.
                                                     3.  Off-site flow to drainageway, river or storm-only
                                                        pipe system.

                                                     4.  Off-site flow to a combined sewer pipe system.

                                                    Green  Streets
                                                    Portland's Green Streets Program is a cross-bureau policy
                                                    adopted by the City Council in 2007 to "incorporate the use
                                                    of green street facilities in public and private development" to
                                                    achieve a range of benefits:

                                                     • Handles Stormwater on site through use of vegetated

                                                     • Provides water quality benefits and replenishes ground-
                                                       water (if an infiltration facility).

                                                     • Creates attractive streetscapes that enhance neighborhood
                                                       livability by enhancing the pedestrian environment and
                                                       introducing park-like elements into neighborhoods.

                                                     • Meets broader community goals by providing pedestrian
                                                       and, where appropriate, bicycle access.

                                                     • Serves as an urban greenway segment that connects neigh-
                                                       borhoods, parks, recreation facilities, schools, main streets
                                                       and wildlife habitats.

                                                    Green Streets are a citywide priority that formalizes the
                                                    process to "overlay multi-bureau project plans and scheduled
                                                    Capital Improvement Program (CIP) projects" to identify how
                                                    LID can be incorporated into plans for new streets and retro-
                                                    fits. By locating the overlap of goals and beneficial outcomes
                                                    of vegetated Stormwater systems in the right-of-way, Green
                                                    Streets have been institutionalized into citywide policies
                                                    and funding.

                                                    Tours, Signage and Public Outreach
                                                    Portland Bureau of Environmental Services has several pre-
                                                    designed walking and cycling tours that encourage residents
                                                    and tourists to explore the range of ecoroofs, Stormwater
                                                    projects and green streets locations in the City. The signage
                                                    and descriptions that accompany these facilities engage the
                                                    public to be more aware and knowledgeable about the role of
                                                    Stormwater in the urban setting. They also provide demonstra-
                                                    tions for practitioners and professionals in landscape architec-
                                                    ture, engineering and other relevant fields.
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

Floor Area  Bonus for Roof Gardens
and  Ecoroofs
The Floor Area Bonus for Roof Gardens and Ecoroofs
increases a building's allowable area in exchange for adding
an ecoroof. This incentive program has produced an estimated
$225 million in additional private development at 11  partici-
pating sites. The program has stimulated ecoroof develop-
ments and added to the more than 120 ecoroofs in the City.
This kind of local development incentive stimulates LID
designs and practices while also encouraging further  market
development for green infrastructure.

Community Watershed Stewardship  Grants
Community Watershed Stewardship Grants provide technical
assistance and financial support and foster partnerships for
community-initiated projects to improve watershed health.
Projects have included ecoroofs, parking lot swales, habitat
restoration and downspout disconnects. Between 1995 and
2005, the program awarded 108 grants in all subwatersheds
around the City, engaging more than 27,000 citizens. This
widespread community engagement and on-the-ground neigh-
borhood improvements foster a larger support network for
green infrastructure policies while also resulting in context-
sensitive solutions that are both instigated and maintained by
local stakeholders.

Clean  River Rewards
Clean River Rewards discount stormwater user fees up to 100
percent of the on-site stormwater management services and
up to 35 percent of the total stormwater bill. Fee reductions
are calculated based on the extent and effectiveness of prac-
tices to limit flow rate, pollution and disposal. Participation
is expected to reach 110,000 of the 176,000 ratepayers in
Portland. Since October 2006, 14,000 registrations have
been processed.

Monitoring and learning from demonstration projects was a
key element in the early stages of implementing new poli-
cies for managing stormwater with vegetated systems. This
iterative process of addressing the requirements for municipal
separate storm sewer systems and combined sewer systems.
while also demonstrating LID approaches, helped Portland to
establish one of the most mature and functional hybrid storm-
water systems in the United States.

The learning curve for practitioners, including local engi-
neers and developers as well as internal city staff such as
permit reviewers and inspectors, can slow the process of
transitioning from a purely piped system to a hybrid system
that includes natural drainage elements. However, as Tom
Liptan from BBS has stated, the winning formula throughout
the initial stages of creating new policies was to identify
partners and start with small projects that can then evolve
into official policy.
                                                                                      Case Study—Portland, OR


      C^ASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
Located south of the San Francisco Bay in the Silicon
Valley, San Jose is the third largest city in California and the
tenth largest city in the United States. Once a small farming
community, San Jose experienced rapid automobile-oriented
development from the 1950s-1970s, growing to a population
of about 1 million today. San Jose's approach to stormwater
management and green infrastructure is driven largely by
Federal and State regulations. To comply with the require-
ments of the Municipal Regional Stormwater Permit issued
by California to the City of San Jose and its neighbors, San
Jose has developed a comprehensive stormwater program.
including early integration of stormwater planning into the
development process, quantitative performance standards, and
the promotion of vegetation and infiltration-based stormwater
controls. San Jose's stormwater program is also unique in its
integration with smart growth objectives. As San Jose pursues
more compact, transit-oriented development, it has adapted
its stormwater program to accommodate and promote smart
growth projects.

Regulatory Drivers
The California Regional Water Quality Control Boards
(RWQCBs) develop and administer stormwater permits for
municipalities in California. The stormwater permit issued
by the San Francisco RWQCB to San Jose and 77 of its
neighbors is particularly progressive in addressing the source
of water quality impairments. The Municipal Regional
Stormwater Permit supplements qualitative requirements with
quantitative performance standards, which assures devel-
opment that is protective of water quality, while allowing
developers significant flexibility. In San Jose, all new devel-
opment or redevelopment projects that create 10,000 square
feet or more of impervious surface are required to comply
with a set of low impact development (LID) requirements.
supplemented by more quantitative numeric sizing criteria.
The volume-based standard requires the stormwater controls
to capture either the 85th percentile 24-hour storm event, or
80 percent of the volume of annual runoff; the flow-based
standard requires stormwater controls to treat a certain flow
rate. These standards apply to both building and road projects.
requiring the management of runoff generated throughout the
built environment.

Site Design, Source Control, and Treatment
San Jose has built upon the framework provided by Federal
and State regulations by adopting policies that require early
integration of stormwater planning into the development
process, and promotes vegetation and infiltration-based
approaches to stormwater management. Recognizing that
much of a project's impact on runoff rates and volumes is
determined by site design and grading plans, the City of
San Jose developed an Urban Runoff Management Policy
that requires developers to demonstrate compliance with
performance standards early in the planning process. Before
development applications are accepted, all new development
or redevelopment projects that meet the impervious surface
thresholds defined in the Municipal Regional Stormwater
Permit must submit a Stormwater Control Plan. Stormwater
Control  Plans must illustrate how the project will integrate
site design, source control measures, and treatment control
measures to comply with appropriate performance standards.
The San Jose Department of Planning reviews development
applications before granting permits, and inspects approved
projects during construction to verify compliance.

Developers are encouraged to minimize impervious surface
to reduce the generation of stormwater runoff, and to treat
any runoff generated with vegetative swales, biofilters or
other landscape-based infiltration features. These measures
are recommended not only because of their environmental
                                                                                       Case Study—San Jose, CA

performance, but also because they are cost-effective and
require limited maintenance. The Urban Runoff Management
Policy also includes a unique provision to promote tree
planting. The policy indicates that new trees planted within
30 feet of impervious surfaces can receive credit as post-
construction treatment control measures.

Integration with Smart Growth
The City of San Jose views its green infrastructure and smart
growth objectives as complementary. Smart growth policies
can advance the water quality objectives of green infrastruc-
ture by directing development toward existing buildings and
infrastructure and preserving undeveloped land. Similarly,
green infrastructure policies can advance the community revi-
talization objectives of smart growth by increasing the urban
tree canopy and vegetation and creating more livable commu-
nities.  To accommodate the higher density of impervious
surfaces in smart growth projects, San Jose provides credit for
smart growth projects towards its Urban Runoff Management
requirements. At the discretion of city staff, smart growth
projects that can treat runoff on site may be designated "water
quality benefit projects," and are not required to contribute to
regional or off-site treatment.
                                                    Developers have responded to San Jose's Urban Runoff
                                                    Management requirements with a variety of innovative
                                                    stormwater management techniques. Perhaps the most effec-
                                                    tive element of San Jose's stormwater management policy is
                                                    the 10,000 square foot threshold for new development and
                                                    redevelopment. Because projects that create less than 10,000
                                                    square feet of impervious surface are exempt from the Urban
                                                    Runoff Management requirements,  developers are finding
                                                    creative ways to reduce impervious surface, including: narrow
                                                    streets, shared driveways, vegetated swales and pervious
                                                    pavement. Planning staff generally review over 300 plans
                                                    per year, and around 90 percent of these projects are able to
                                                    reduce their total imperviousness below the 10,000 square
                                                    foot threshold.

                                                    San Jose's stormwater policies are also promoting the expan-
                                                    sion of urban green space. Many projects apply for the tree
                                                    credit, which includes planting new trees and expanding the
                                                    urban tree canopy. This range of incentives helps to ensure
                                                    that as San Jose increases density in already developed areas,
                                                    these neighborhoods are gaining the benefit of green infra-
                                                    structure practices.
Figure 1: Guadalupe River Park in San Jose, California, features green
infrastructure systems alongside dense downtown redevelopment. Photo
courtesy of Michael Patrick via Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
michaelpatrick/ 2408259482/.
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

      CjASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
The City of Santa Monica, California, is located on the
Santa Monica Bay and is surrounded on the other three
sides by the City of Los Angeles. Water quality is central
to Santa Monica's economy and community because of its
beachfront location. With a population of around 87,000
and just over 8 square miles of land, Santa Monica is a very
high density city that must manage Stormwater runoff from
impervious surfaces, as well as dry-weather runoff from car
washing, overwatering of landscapes, and other non-wet
weather events.

Santa Monica uses various forms of green infrastructure to
manage both dry-weather and wet-weather runoff, including
pervious pavements, water-wise landscaping, and rainwater
harvesting. Santa Monica uses regulations, incentives and
public education campaigns to integrate green infrastructure
into streets, parks and private properties. Santa Monica's
green infrastructure efforts are supported by the Sustainable
City Plan,  which provides a framework for the use of storm-
water management practices that both limit potable water use
and manages runoff on site.

Drivers: Beach and Water Quality Protection
As a beach community, Santa Monica more than doubles its
population each day as tourists and workers enter the City.
Urban runoff is the largest contributor of pollutants entering
the beach and nearby waters, and threatens the economic
viability and community amenities of this beach-side commu-
nity. The City's Office of Sustainability and the Environment
states that, "a cleaner bay means a healthier marine ecosystem
and improved quality of life for residents, and increases Santa
Monica's appeal to visitors and businesses."1
Figure 1: This commercial site includes parking lot swales to bioinfiltrate
impervious surface runoff.
In response to regulatory responsibilities, such as EPA's
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System and Total
Maximum Daily Loads for trash and bacteria, Santa Monica
adopted a Watershed Management Plan in 2006 to protect and
improve the water quality of Santa Monica Bay. The plan lays
out the following priorities to balance urban land use with
ecosystem function:
1.  Reduce urban runoff pollution
2.  Reduce urban flooding
3.  Increase water conservation
4.  Increase recreational opportunities and open space
5.  Increase wildlife and marine habitat.

Green Infrastructure Policies
Santa Monica meets these watershed management goals with
a Stormwater management ordinance, Stormwater fee, rebate
program and capital improvement projects.
1 http://www.smgov.net/departments/ose/categories/urbanRunoff.aspx
                                                                                    Case Study—Santa Monica, CA

Storm water Management Ordinance
Santa Monica's stormwater ordinance provides water quality
guidelines for existing properties and new construction sites
to reduce the  level of pollutants leaving the site. It requires
all newly developed or retrofitted parcels to manage the first
0.75" of runoff from impermeable surfaces, which accounts
for approximately 80 percent of storm events annually.

The City provides waivers for impracticability based on
space constraints, soil type or groundwater contamination
concerns, but requires developers to pay an appropriate
mitigation fee. This in-lieu fee is then used to fund larger
city projects to retrofit streets, parks and other sites to better
manage urban runoff.

Stormwater Fees
Santa Monica has two stormwater parcel fees, the Stormwater
User Fee and the Clean Beaches & Ocean Parcel Tax, that are
used to implement the watershed management program and
that support compliance with Federal and State Clean Water
Act regulations. The fees are paid annually by all property
owners and are assessed through property taxes. In 2009 and
2010, the fees together generated around $3.9 million a year.

Rebate Program
Santa Monica offers four rebates for private property owners
to encourage  rainwater harvesting.

1. The Rain Gutter Downspout Redirect Rebate provides up
   to $40 per qualified downspout that redirects downspout
   runoff to permeable and/or landscaped surfaces. All down-
   spouts on  a given property can qualify for the $40 rebate,
   which is meant to cover both labor and material costs.
2. The Rain Barrel Rebate provides property owners $100
   per barrel  with a capacity of up to 199 gallons and covers
   costs for design, labor and materials.
3. The Small Cistern Rebate offers up to $250 per cistern
   with a capacity of 200 to 499 gallons and covers costs for
   design, labor and materials.
4. The Large Cistern Rebate offers up to $500 per cistern
   with a capacity of more than 500 gallons and covers costs
   for design, labor and materials.
                                                    Figure 2: Santa Monica offers rebates for water harvesting and reuse to
                                                    help reduce the amount of polluted urban runoff that reaches the beach.

                                                    Capital Improvement Projects and Streets
                                                    Santa Monica's Watershed Management Plan explicitly calls
                                                    for interagency partnerships on capital improvement projects
                                                    undertaken by the Planning and Community Development
                                                    Department, the Open Space Management Division and the
                                                    Housing and Redevelopment Division. Because Santa Monica
                                                    is a relatively small city, incorporating green infrastructure
                                                    into all capital improvement projects is as simple as working
                                                    with the urban runoff manager who can review plans, make
                                                    recommendations and later conduct inspections. The City has
                                                    retrofitted several existing streets and parking lots to include
                                                    porous pavement and bioinfiltration areas, such as Bicknell
                                                    Avenue. This project reduced the overall street width by 16
                                                    feet and retrofitted the parking lane with pervious pavers to
                                                    infiltrate runoff from the street. The redesign also calls for
                                                    12-foot wide biofilter swales on either side of the street to
                                                    further manage roadway runoff.
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

      CjASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
The City of Seattle, located on the Puget Sound in
Washington State, boasts many successful green infrastruc-
ture projects and policies, many of which started out as pilot
programs and grew to have a much broader application and
impact. Seattle's approach includes several internal policies
to require green infrastructure in public property standards,
such as for street designs and capital project plans. At the
same time, Seattle leverages its control of local codes and
development policies to encourage and require green infra-
structure on private property.

Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) is the local agency responsible
for meeting National Pollution Discharge Elimination System
permit requirements and it coordinates the City's Natural
Drainage System (NDS) approach, which supports the use
of green infrastructure at the site level and in terms of larger
development planning and design.

SPU has made strategic decisions about using demonstra-
tion projects, such as the original 2nd Avenue Street Edge
Alternatives (SEA) Street or the Seattle Green Factor,1 to
introduce new policies or methods for implementing green
infrastructure. Many of the lessons learned from these earlier
and easier projects are now being transferred to the rest of the
City, including more challenging and highly urbanized areas.

Drivers:  Sensitive Water Bodies
and Community Assets
In Seattle, as with most communities around the Puget Sound,
the primary motivation for new Stormwater management
methods lies in protecting aquatic biota and creek channels
as well as improving overall water quality. Coho salmon
still thrive in many creeks of the Pacific Northwest, but their
future health is at risk and has become a high priority for both
residents and regulators. SPU takes a demand management
approach by investing public resources in areas of the City
with the most sensitive sub-basins and creeks, using practices
that infiltrate Stormwater runoff into soils, which treats water
for pollutants and recharges waterbodies slowly through
groundwater recharge.
Figure 1: Seattle Green Factor requires landscaping features with storm-
water management benefits.
Seattle also chooses to use green infrastructure systems, often
in the public right-of-way, in areas where surface vegetation
not only manages Stormwater but also adds visible commu-
nity amenities. The Seattle Green Factor was originally
developed for commercial cores and requires that property
owners achieve 30 percent parcel vegetation using a defined
set of weighted practices including green roofs, permeable
paving and green walls that are highly visible. This weighted
system reflects Seattle's emphasis on a range of benefits for
the environment and for the community.
1 Seattle Green Factor: http://www.seattle.gov/dpd/Permits/GreenFactor/Overview/
                                                                                          Case Study—Seattle, WA

Stormwater Code
                                                       Rainwise Incentive Program
In the past five years, SPU has revised the City's
Comprehensive Drainage Plan to address flooding and water
quality needs through green infrastructure source controls and
to establish a long-term schedule of both capital improve-
ment and operating programs. The City of Seattle's existing
Stormwater, Grading and Drainage Control Code provides
guidance for flow control and water quality treatment using
green infrastructure practices.

In the past, Seattle has enjoyed support from the development
community because State requirements were so strict that they
wanted cheaper ways to meet standards and found that green
infrastructure offered cost savings, often through avoided
gray infrastructure investments. However, Washington State's
Ecology Department has recently updated the state NPDES
permit to require the use of practices that manage Stormwater
on site and limit on-site imperviousness.

1) Redevelopment
Seattle is in the process of revising and updating the
Stormwater Codes and Manuals that address new and redevel-
opments. This update coincides with the new NPDES Phase I
permit and requirement by the Washington State Department
of Ecology to comply with their statewide manual for
developers. The new code will require an analysis of green
infrastructure as a first evaluation in site design for all new
and redevelopment plans. A fee-in-lieu policy is incorporated
into this code revision that will allow developers to pay a
fee in place of using detention vaults for flow control. The
fee amount is determined through the normal cost evaluation
methods for sizing vaults. SPU intends to use income from
these fees for specific basin restoration or for salmon-bearing
creeks, as well as for incorporating green infrastructure prac-
tices into major capital improvement programs.

With assistance from the consulting firm Herrera, SPU has
identified key steps to creating new policies and materials for
the following areas of Stormwater management responsibility:

 • Source Control Manual

 • Stormwater, Grading and Drainage Control Code

 • Flow Control Manual
                                                     •  NPDES Phase I imposed by Ecology such as flow control
                                                       requirements for small site developments and accompa-
                                                       nying flow control technical manual.

                                                    The High Point redevelopment provides guidelines for
                                                    future construction of publicly- and privately-funded homes
                                                    that encourage sustainable design approaches. Using a
                                                    performance-based approach, the design meets the needs
                                                    of the client and infrastructure stakeholders, and serves an
                                                    ecological  function. Most importantly, the High Point model
                                                    challenges beliefs that dense urban design and ecological
                                                    performance are mutually exclusive. The City Stormwater
                                                    code and the High Point redevelopment project confirm
                                                    Seattle's environmental commitment for sustainable develop-
                                                    ment to maintain a high quality of life.

                                                    2)  Roads
                                                    Recognizing the contribution that streets make to overall
                                                    imperviousness, the City of Seattle focuses considerable staff
                                                    and resources to its NDS Program. The central goals of an
                                                    NDS as an innovative approach to street design are to protect
                                                    aquatic organisms, protect creek channels and improve water
                                                    quality by slowing the flow and reducing the volume of
                                                    Stormwater runoff. By retrofitting and redeveloping public
                                                    rights-of-way to mimic predevelopment hydrologic processes.
                                                    projects like SEA Streets and High Point collect runoff from
                                                    nearby streets, roofs and other impervious surfaces to store
                                                    and treat it through vegetated systems.

                                                    3)  Retrofits
                                                    RAINWISE INCENTIVES PROGRAM
                                                    Much of Seattle's land area is privately-owned properties
                                                    that contribute to water quality, flow control and convey-
                                                    ance issues. Runoff from residences  and businesses results
                                                    in degraded watersheds or flooding problems downstream.
                                                    where SPU invests in capital project solutions. The Rainwise
                                                    Incentive Program is a customer stewardship program to
                                                    encourage  private property owners to manage Stormwater
                                                    flows on site.2 Through educational materials and low cost
                                                    incentives, such as guides, workshops and discounted utility
                                                              RainWise Incentive Program: https://rainwise.seattle.gov/systems/water
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

costs, SPU hopes to see customers using on-site management
techniques, as listed below, to protect both public infrastruc-
ture and the environment:

 • Rainwater cistern

 • Downspout disconnect

 • Rain garden

 • Rock-filled trench

 • Porous pavement

 • Trees

 • Compost and mulch.

SPU is also investing in a Roadside Raingarden project and
providing residential incentives for rain gardens and cisterns
in the Ballard neighborhood.3

4) Capital Improvement Program (CIP) Projects
The City of Seattle makes a clear connection between the
use of green infrastructure for stormwater management and
overall asset and demand management for all SPU sewer
and drainage systems. Most major capital projects within
the City, even managed by other agencies, include consid-
eration for incorporating low-impact development (LID)
and thereby gaining the multiple benefits afforded to SPU's
assets, regional environmental quality and quality of life for
Seattle residents.

SPU's specific asset management approach enables the utility
to meet agreed-upon customer and environmental service
levels at the lowest cost, considering full life-cycle costs, by
investing in maintaining and replacing its multi-billion dollar
infrastructure. Although conventional methods for managing
stormwater can be readily calculated for costs, benefits and
risks, natural drainage designs with vegetation are still being
considered to relieve traditional systems, despite less predict-
ability for cost-benefit analyses.

An example of LID in CIP projects is the Alaska Way
Viaduct Project. The Viaduct is an elevated highway retrofit
along the waterfront in downtown Seattle. The Washington
Department of Transportation (WDOT) is responsible
for a new plan to replace the existing highway structure.
Despite no current plans for the Viaduct's retrofit, the Seattle
Department of Planning and Development (DPD) will be
working with WDOT to include low-impact development
features as part of this multi-billion dollar capital improve-
ment project. Another major project is the 520 Floating
Bridge over Lake Washington, which costs more than $ 1
billion. Demand Management, which is a component of
Asset Management approach, incorporates LID into all
these other CIP Projects. Rick Johnson with Seattle DPD is
currently working on a document to package how LID can
be incorporated into all these bigger projects.

As stated on SPU's Web site, "NDS cost about 10 to 20
percent less than traditional street redevelopment with curb.
gutter, catch basins, asphalt, and sidewalks," in large part
because SPU was improving "chip and seal" streets that
lacked underground infrastructure. For more developed parts
of town within the combined sewer area, total costs are not
as predictable.

NDS projects include SEA Streets, the Broadview Green Grid
Project, 110th Cascade Project, Pinehurst Green Grid Project
and High Point Project in West Seattle. The great achieve-
ment of these projects was finding a way to implement LID
into street rights-of-way and reduce overall imperviousness of
roadways. Most of these projects are located in the northern
neighborhoods of Seattle, which is much less dense than
downtown portions of the City.

The next phase of demonstration and monitoring will be an
extensive project to minimize downtown parking spaces and
test the application of green infrastructure  in an ultra-urban
setting with a combination of green roofs,  right-of-way appli-
cation and methods to treat and release stormwater.
3 Ballard Roadside Raingardens: http://www.seattle.gov/util/About_SPU/
                                                                                          Case Study—Seattle, WA


      CjASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
Stafford County, Virginia, is located in the Metropolitan
Washington DC Region and has experienced an estimated 30
percent population increase from 2000 to 2007. This fast-
growing County faces the challenge of new residential and
commercial development that creates additional runoff from
roads, parking lots and rooftops. The Stafford County Public
Works Department is responsible for complying with National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits.
The NPDES first introduced on-site green infrastructure, or
low-impact development practices, as an option for meeting
Stormwater requirements on new developments. After success
and experience implementing green infrastructure through
voluntary measures, Stafford County then included green
infrastructure practices, to the maximum extent practicable,
on all new developments. Stafford County does not have
complete jurisdiction over local subdivision ordinances
or street right-of-way design standards, and is therefore
limited in the types of impervious surfaces they can impact
through code and ordinance updates. The County focuses
instead on areas where it does have authority, such as adding
green infrastructure on County-owned land and reaching
out to existing property owners and developers to educate
them on green infrastructure practices for meeting local
Stormwater requirements.

Stafford County's  efforts to incorporate green infrastructure
county wide are motivated by a mix of flooding concerns and
water quality protection needs. The County is responsible
for protecting residential and business properties from flood
damage. Past flood events have led to a greater concern with
standing water, high water in ditches and on roads and other
negative impacts from large amounts of Stormwater runoff.
This greater awareness of the role and impact of Stormwater
in a community have helped Stafford County build support
for a Stormwater management and overall drainage system
that encourages the use of natural systems.

In addition, Stafford County's Stormwater program is
responsible for complying with the Virginia Stormwater
Management Regulations and must also meet the require-
ments of the County's Phase II NPDES permit. The Virginia
Department of Conservation and Recreation controls how
Stormwater is managed on state and federal property, but
allows localities, including counties, the option to establish
a locally-appropriate Stormwater management program for
private properties. Although streets and other land uses can
contribute large amounts of impervious surfaces, the state
controls subdivision ordinances, as well as street runoff and
road width requirements. As a result, the County largely
focuses on encouraging and requiring private property owners
to use natural drainage systems to minimize impervious
surfaces and manage runoff.
Figure 1: Bioretention areas, like the one in this parking lot, are commonly
used in Stafford County to meet local Stormwater requirements.
                                                                                    Case Study—Stafford County, VA

While many communities similar to Stafford County have
only recommended or allowed the use of green infrastructure
practices, such as bioretention and permeable pavements, in
2003, Stafford County began requiring on-site approaches
that are supported by local development ordinances, manage-
ment agreements, design and construction guidelines and
public outreach and education material. This full set of policy
approaches has enabled the County to ensure greater imple-
mentation and compliance with the stormwater code.

Stafford County worked with multiple stakeholders in
developing its ordinances.  County staff worked with a
local conservation nonprofit, Friends of Rappahannock, to
hold a roundtable on better site design, which resulted in a
committee to update the stormwater code. The committee
included several state agency representatives, including staff
from the Virginia Department of Transportation, local devel-
opers, and representatives from Friends of the Rappahannock.
This process resulted in a new stormwater ordinance and
a design manual that was approved by the County Council
in 2003, and included requirements for using low-impact
development on private lots, relaxed regulations for curbs and
gutters in all new subdivisions and an allowance for low-
impact development practices to meet county landscaping
requirements. In addition, stormwater management concept
plans are now required to be approved much earlier in the
larger plan and design process. These actions combine to form
a comprehensive set of rules and guidance that private devel-
opers and landowners can use to incorporate natural systems
to reduce runoff and manage stormwater on site.

The County has found that almost 95 percent of developers
are using bioretention, including rain gardens, as the primary
method of on-site management to meet the stormwater
requirements. The widespread use of a single practice may
be due to the  fact that bioretention design is perceived to be
easier to technically justify as meeting impervious surface
management  requirements than other methods. In addition, it
                                                    Figure 2: A rain garden in Stafford County, Virginia, limits runoff that
                                                    leaves the site and enters nearby streams.
                                                    has become the commonly accepted method, and might offer
                                                    greater assurance of plan approval for developers.

                                                    Homeowners in Stafford County are also retrofitting existing
                                                    yards with rain gardens. Many houses in Stafford have
                                                    one to three lots and can more easily design and imple-
                                                    ment rain gardens to manage runoff from roofs, driveways
                                                    and sidewalks.

                                                    In 2004, Stafford County retrofitted the Stafford County
                                                    Administration Center parking lot to include bioretention
                                                    to manage impervious surface runoff. The retrofit added
                                                    water quality treatment measures and provided an important
                                                    publicly-funded demonstration for developers and citizens.
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure

      CjASE STUDIES: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater -with Green Infrastructure
Wilsonville, Oregon, is located along the Willamette River
at the southern edge of the Portland metropolitan area. The
population of Wilsonville is around 17,000 and has experi-
enced rapid growth in the last 10 years. Most of the City of
Wilsonville lies within the Portland Metro Urban Growth
Boundary,1 which limits development on farm and forest land
and supports efficient use of land, infrastructure and services
within existing urban areas.

Wilsonville's land use and stormwater management poli-
cies work together to balance increased density of land use
with natural resource protection. The City initiated its green
infrastructure efforts by working with private development
projects to test the construction and performance of green
infrastructure practices, along with the feasibility of requiring
and enforcing on-site management  practices like permeable
pavers, ecoroofs and bioswales. Wilsonville built on initial
lessons and now incorporates green infrastructure approaches
into capital projects and a range of  other codes and ordinances
that apply to new development projects.

Wilsonville's green infrastructure planning and projects came
in the context of Portland Metro's long-standing support and
outreach about the value of open space preservation, smart
growth and green streets for balancing environmental and
community development goals. Wilsonville was also moti-
vated largely by  a need to update and revise the outdated
comprehensive plan, including future urban expansion and
stormwater system needs. Furthermore, financial analyses
on the costs of new stormwater infrastructure, as well as on
meeting state and federal Clean Water Act requirements, set
the stage for improved management approaches that would
provide multiple benefits across city departments and to the
general public.

Green infrastructure projects are prioritized in Wilsonville's
Stormwater Master Plan because they can provide multiple
benefits for pollutant treatment, flow control, groundwater
recharge and landscaping for aesthetic improvements. Local
capital investments emphasize projects to restore streams and
protect or enhance wetlands and buffer areas. Other capital
projects within the Master Plan focus on retrofitting existing
impervious surfaces such as streets and parking lots to include
vegetated practices that infiltrate runoff on site.
1  Portland Metro Council: http://www.metro-region.org/
Figure 1: The City of Wilsonville worked with developers to monitor the
performance of new green infrastructure techniques, like this planter box,
before establishing development standards for on-site management.

Pilot Project
When the City began plans in the 1990s to redevelop a nearly
500-acre property into a mixed-use village center called
Villebois, city staff recognized that the codes and infrastruc-
ture plans created for this large site could be a testing ground
                                                                                         Case Study—Wilsonville, OR

for future development code changes that apply citywide.
Before the City finalized design requirements for the full
development, the pre-project phase required the developer
to monitor, test and analyze the effectiveness of site-scale
green infrastructure, including porous pavement, bioreten-
tion cells and ecoroofs. This testing period also allowed city
staff to figure out how well new stormwater management
requirements could be integrated with existing city and state
development codes. The pilot process resulted in updated
stormwater requirements that emphasized decentralized
management and that integrated well with transportation,
natural resources and parks and open space plans.

Natural Resource Protection
In 2010, the City adopted an updated Comprehensive Plan
that outlines measures to protect natural areas and introduce
new green infrastructure elements on development and retrofit
sites. The 2010 Plan explicitly prioritizes the need to limit
the negative impacts new developments might have on local
water quality. The Plan emphasizes measures that improve
ground water infiltration, add habitat value and provide other
benefits to community aesthetics:

 • Natural drainage systems,  including streams and creeks,
   must be preserved as open space to serve as primary
   elements in the overall urban drainage system. This
   includes protection against burying current natural
   drainage systems into underground culverts or pipes.

 • Streams, swales and other open drainage systems can be
   used to meet landscaping and open space requirements for
   new developments.

 • Existing underground drainage ways must be restored or
   day lighted to surface streams.

 • Site  development plans must preserve or improve native
   vegetation in identified riparian zones and landslide-prone
   areas to mitigate runoff.

 • Restoration of vegetation,  including the removal of inva-
   sive plants, may also be required depending on the type,
   scale and location of development.
                                                    Figure 2: Decentralized stormwater management features, such as this
                                                    bioretention area in the Villebois project, collect runoff from rooftops, side-
                                                    walks, and yards for infiltration into the ground below.

                                                    Capital Projects
                                                    System development charges and user fees are collected to
                                                    implement the Stormwater Master Plan, which identifies
                                                    key capital improvement projects that improve stormwater
                                                    quality and control the volume of runoff. Wilsonville requires
                                                    developers to pay a stormwater system development fee
                                                    before being issued a building permit. The revenues from
                                                    this development charge are used to implement large-scale
                                                    capital projects, such as stream restorations or green street
                                                    curb extensions. These capital investments support the overall
                                                    natural drainage throughout the community.

                                                    Wilsonville protects functional open space at the community
                                                    scale and introduces new green infrastructure at the smaller
                                                    site scale. The City directs development charge revenues
                                                    toward capital improvement projects that protect healthy
                                                    waterways and restore degraded streams. At the  same time,
                                                    Wilsonville created development requirements, with the
                                                    private sector as a  key partner, which resulted in regulations
                                                    that are achievable, transparent and effective at comple-
                                                    menting large scale protections with site-level runoff mitiga-
                                                    tion and management.
Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure


This is a project of the Nonpoint Source Program within EPA's Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds. Abby Hall is the
principal author.

Case Study Interviewees:
 1.  Denise Andrews, Seattle Public Utilities, Seattle, Washington
 2.  Janet Attanan, Department of Transportation, Chicago, Illinois
 3.  Michael Beezhold, Department of Public Works, Lenexa, Kansas
 4.  Jill Bicknell, EOA, Inc., Oakland, California
 5.  Joyce Coffee, Department of Environment, Chicago, Illinois
 6.  Chris Crockett, Philadelphia Water Department, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
 7.  Joanne Dahme, Philadelphia Water Department, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
 8.  Ignacio Dayritt, Redevelopment Agency, Emeryville, California
 9.  Craig Doberstein, Herrera Environmental Consultants, Seattle, Washington
 10. Linda Dobson, Bureau of Environmental Services, Portland, Oregon
 11. Dionne Early, City of San Jose, California
 12. Barry Fitz, Department of Public Works, Stafford County, Virginia
 13. Andy Haub, Public Works Department, Olympia, Washington
 14. Stephen Hofstetter, Environmental Protection Department, Alachua County, Florida
 15. Steven Hubble, Department of Public Works, Stafford County, Virginia
 16. Tom Jacobs, Mid-America Regional Council, Kansas City, Missouri
 17. Rick Johnson, Seattle Public Utilities, Seattle, Washington
 18. Diana Keena, Planning Division, Emeryville, California
 19. David Leopold, Department of Transportation, Chicago, Illinois
 20. Lisa Libby, Planning an d Sustainability Director, Office of Mayor Sam Adams, Portland, Oregon
 21. Dick Lilly, Seattle Public Utilities, Seattle,  Washington
 22. Tom Liptan, Bureau of Environmental Services, Portion d, Oregon
 23. Peter Mulvaney, Department of Water Management, Chicago, Illinois
 24. Howard Neukrug, Philadelphia Water Department, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
 25. Kerry Rappold, Natural Resources Program, Wilsonville, Oregon
 26. Peter Schultze-Allen, Environmental Services, Emeryville, California
 27. Neal Shapiro, City of Santa Monica, California
 28. Dan Vizzini, Bureau of Environmental Services, Portion d, Oregon
 1.  Nancy Arazan, U.S. EPA  Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds
 2.  Paula Estornell, U.S. EPA Region 3 Brownfields and Land Revitalization
 3.  Robert Goo, U.S. EPA Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds
 4.  Jamal Kadri, U.S. EPA  Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds
 5.  Chris Kloss, Low Impact Development Center
 6.  Jennifer Molloy,  U.S. EPA Office of Wastewater Management

7.   Kol Peterson, U.S. EPA Office of Air and Radiation
8.   Nancy Stoner, Natural Resources Defense Council(NRDC) Clean Water Project
9.   Tracy Tackett, Seattle Public Utilities
10. Dov Weitman, U.S. EPA Office of Wetlands,  Oceans and Watersheds
11. Clark Wilson, U.S. EPA Development, Community and Environment Division
        Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure