United States       Prevention, Pesticides     EPA712-C-96-178
          Environmental Protection    and Toxic Substances     August 1996
          Agency         (7101)
&EPA    Residue Chemistry
          Test Guidelines
          OPPTS 860.1400
          Water, Fish, and
           rrigated Crops

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                           INTRODUCTION
     This guideline is one  of a  series  of test  guidelines that have been
developed by the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances,
United States Environmental  Protection Agency for use  in the testing of
pesticides and toxic substances, and the  development of test data that must
be submitted to the Agency  for review under Federal regulations.

     The Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS)
has  developed this guideline through  a process of harmonization that
blended the testing  guidance  and requirements that  existed in the Office
of Pollution Prevention and  Toxics  (OPPT) and appeared in Title  40,
Chapter I,  Subchapter R of the Code of Federal Regulations  (CFR),  the
Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) which appeared in publications of the
National Technical  Information Service (NTIS) and the guidelines pub-
lished by the Organization  for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD).

     The purpose of harmonizing these  guidelines  into a single set of
OPPTS guidelines is to minimize  variations among the testing procedures
that must be performed to meet the data  requirements of the U. S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency  under  the Toxic  Substances  Control Act  (15
U.S.C. 2601) and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
(7U.S.C. I36,etseq.).

     Final  Guideline Release: This guideline  is available from the U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402 on The Federal Bul-
letin   Board.   By  modem  dial   202-512-1387,  telnet   and   ftp:
fedbbs.access.gpo.gov    (IP     162.140.64.19),    internet:     http://
fedbbs.access.gpo.gov, or call 202-512-0132 for disks  or paper copies.
This guideline is also available electronically in ASCII and PDF (portable
document format) from the EPA  Public Access Gopher  (gopher.epa.gov)
under the heading "Environmental Test  Methods and Guidelines."

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OPPTS 860.1400 Water, fish, and irrigated crops.
     (a) Scopeó(1) Applicability. This guideline is intended to meet test-
ing  requirements   of both the  Federal  Insecticide,  Fungicide,  and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (7 U.S.C. 136, et seq.) and the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301, et seq.)

     (2) Background. The  source material used in developing this har-
monized OPPTS guideline is OPP 171-4  Results of Tests on the Amount
of Residue Remaining, Including a Description of the Analytical Methods
Used (Pesticide Assessment Guidelines,  Subdivision O: Residue Chem-
istry, EPA Report 540/9-82-023, October 1982). This OPPTS  guideline
should be used in conjunction with OPPTS 860.1000, Background.

     (b) Purpose. These  studies are used  by the Agency to determine the
levels of pesticide residues in water, fish, and irrigated crops when  prod-
ucts are applied directly to water to control aquatic pests such  as weeds
or insects (e.g. hydrilla, mosquitoes).  The data  are used in dietary risk
assessment and, in the case of fish and irrigated crops, to establish  toler-
ances for enforcement purposes.

     (c) Introduction. (1) Any use of pesticides in or near  aquatic sites
(i.e. ponds, lakes, impoundments, and fields typically  flooded and drained
as a part of normal agricultural practice, before, during, or after  treatment
with pesticides) may lead to residues in water, fish and shellfish, irrigated
crops,  and meat, milk, poultry, and eggs. Adequate  data are needed for
each of these commodities to demonstrate both the nature of the residue
and the level of residues resulting from the maximum proposed use. Be-
cause of the nature of aquatic  uses, emphasis must be placed on the use
of practical use restrictions which will be followed by the applicator.

     (2) The design of field studies to demonstrate the fate of the pesticide
in the aquatic environment must be directly related to the typical use pat-
tern and restrictions imposed on the use. In the case of fields treated either
before or after flooding, the timing, volume, and release of the flood water
as dictated by normal agricultural practice must be considered in the field
study design. As another example, use in impounded bodies which are
completely under the  control of the user may be  subject to practical label
restrictions that would  preclude livestock watering,  fishing, or  use for
drinking  or irrigation for a specified time period after treatment. On the
other hand, such restrictions would not be practical for use of a pesticide
in a river system. In this latter type of use, restrictions against  treatment
within a given distance  of irrigation or  domestic water intakes may be
practical.

     (3) In general,  separate and distinct protocols will be  required for
still waters (lakes, ponds), flowing water, irrigation conveyance  systems,
fields that  are flooded and drained, and  tidal  estuaries. The fate of the
compound must be  demonstrated with  respect to rate  of dispersion down-

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stream, degradation, volatilization, or sorption by plants or hydrosoil. Deg-
radation products in water should be identified and may need to be quan-
tified.

     (d) Water.  Residue data are  required for any water as described
above  in the various aquatic systems that either are directly or may be
inadvertently impacted by a pesticide use (i.e. pond,  field, drainage canal,
river, estuary). The data  collected must show the highest level likely to
occur in water. If a monitoring scheme is  used, it should include samples
taken prior to treatment with pesticides and then periodically to show the
gradual decline of the pesticide residues.

     (e) Fish. (1) A fish metabolism study on a  predator (e.g. bass) or
bottom feeder (e.g.  catfish) is required when fish may be exposed to the
pesticide or its degradation products. A  shellfish metabolism study is not
required. If no 14C is detected in fish  in a  static metabolism study the
following fish residue studies are not required.  Shellfish residue  studies
will still be required, however, with analysis for the parent pesticide.

     (2) The fish and shellfish residue studies may  be of various types,
depending on the aquatic  system  involved. Controlled exposure for appro-
priate time intervals may be carried out under static or dynamic conditions
in aquaria, or the specimens may be exposed in natural sites if the treated
area can be isolated, such as by  cages. Field  studies under natural condi-
tions are preferred.  Samples for analyses should reflect the fish commodity
definition under paragraph (g)(l) of this guideline. The proposal for toler-
ances in fish should be expressed on the  basis of the edible portion. For
fish, residue data are needed for both bottom  feeders  (e.g.  catfish) and
predators (e.g. bass). For  shellfish, data are needed for both molluscs  (e.g.
clams, oysters) and crustaceans  (e.g. shrimp, crabs). If use in estuarine
areas is planned,  data  on whole fish protein concentrate, and smoked,
canned, or other processed fish products are needed to determine whether
a food additive regulation is necessary.

     (f) Irrigated crops.  Experiments to show possible residues in crops
irrigated with treated water may  utilize the crop grouping scheme shown
in 40  CFR 180.41. Residue data for representative crops  in  each  crop
group  are normally required. If it has been determined that residues are
likely  to occur in water when it could  be ingested  by livestock,  animal
feeding studies must be carried out as described in OPPTS 860.1480.

     (g) References. The  following references should be consulted for ad-
ditional background material on this test guideline.

     (1) Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM). Volume I. Food and  Drug
Administration, Washington, DC. Available from  National Technical In-
formation Service, Springfield, VA 22161 (1994)

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    (2) Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM). Volume II. Food and Drug
Administration, Washington, DC.  Available from National Technical In-
formation Service, Springfield, VA 22161 (1994).

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